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Sample records for pulp interstitial fluid

  1. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  2. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema. PMID:18056984

  3. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  4. Granular Materials Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, M. L.; Brennen, C. E.; Campbell, C. S.

    2002-11-01

    In 1954, R.A. Bagnold published his seminal findings on the rheological properties of liquid-solid flows. We recently completed an extensive reevaluation of Bagnold's work, and our analysis and simulations indicate that the rheological measurements of Bagnold were affected significantly by secondary flows within the experimental apparatus. The concentric cylinder rheometer was designed by Bagnold to measure simultaneously the shear and normal forces for a wide range for solid concentrations, fluid viscosities and shear rates. As presented by Bagnold, the shear and normal forces depended linearly on the shear rate in the 'macroviscous' regime. As the grain-to-grain interactions increased in the 'grain inertia' regime, the stresses depended on the square of the shear rate and were independent of the fluid viscosity. These results, however, appear to be dictated by the design of the experimental facility. In Bagnold's experiments, the height (h) of the rheometer was relatively short compared to the spacing (t) between the rotating outer and stationary inner cylinder (h/t=4.6). Since the top and bottom end plates rotated with the outer cylinder, the flow contained two axisymmetric counter-rotating cells in which flow moved outward along the end plates and inward at the midheight of the annulus. These cells contribute significantly to the measured torque, and obscured any accurate measurements of the shear or normal stresses. Before doing the reevaluation of Bagnold's work, our research objective was to examine the effects of the interstitial fluid for flows in which the densities of the two phases were different. After reevaluating Bagnold's work, we redesigned our experimental facility to minimize secondary flow effects. Like Bagnold's facility, we use a concentric cylinder rheometer with a rotating outer wall. The inner cylinder also is able to rotate slightly but will also be restrained by flexible supports; the torque is measured from the deformation of the

  5. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. PMID:19420292

  6. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  7. Extracellular fluid movement in the pulp; the pulp/dentin permeability barrier.

    PubMed

    Bishop, M A

    1992-01-01

    Fluid movement in the pulp depends largely upon the physiology of the blood vessels; normally there is a net efflux of fluid and proteins from the capillaries into the extracellular environment. Most pulp capillaries lie close to the odontoblast layer and in order to see whether fluid can pass between the odontoblasts into the predentin we have perfused the vessels of molar tooth germs in anesthetized piglets with the electron dense tracer lanthanum. The results show that the tracer permeates the capillaries but encounters a barrier to permeability at the apical (predentinal) ends of the odontoblasts. The completeness of the barrier to the tracer lanthanum is discussed together with structural evidence of tight junctions between odontoblasts in both pigs and humans and the presence of collagen fibers through the tight junctional zone. It is concluded that there is little or no evidence that pulp fluid is normally confluent with predentin. An advantage of this arrangement may be that by maintaining an enclosed microenvironment it permits regulation of the orderly process of matrix deposition and mineralization of predentin to dentin. In order to maintain constant vascular and extracellular fluid pressures the capillary efflux has to be balanced by fluid removal; recent work in cats has shown that lymphatic vessels are available to transport fluid out of the pulp. In this paper the differences in the intrapulpal distribution of these vessels have been extrapolated to human teeth in an attempt to explain certain variations in the symptoms and progress of pulpal inflammatory conditions. PMID:1508889

  8. Phenomenological model of interstitial fluid pressure in a solid tumor.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Brown, S L; Ewing, J R; Schlesinger, M

    2011-08-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) has the potential to predict tumor response to nonsurgical cancer treatments, including radiation therapy. At present the only quantitative measures available are of limited use, since they are invasive and yield only point measurements. We present the mathematical framework for a quantitative, noninvasive measure of TIFP. The model describes the distribution of interstitial fluid pressure in three distinct tumor regions: vascularized tumor rim, central tumor region, and normal tissue. A relationship between the TIFP and the fluid flow velocity at the periphery of a tumor is presented. This model suggests that a measure of fluid flow rate from a tumor into normal tissue reflects TIFP. We demonstrate that the acquisition of serial images of a tumor after the injection of a contrast agent can provide a noninvasive and potentially quantitative measure of TIFP.

  9. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-01

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value.

  10. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue.

  11. Characterization of the Tumor Secretome from Tumor Interstitial Fluid (TIF).

    PubMed

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) surrounds and perfuses bodily tumorigenic tissues and cells, and can accumulate by-products of tumors and stromal cells in a relatively local space. Interstitial fluid offers several important advantages for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery, especially for cancer. Here, we describe the most currently accepted method for recovering TIF from tumor and nonmalignant tissues that was initially performed using breast cancer tissue. TIF recovery is achieved by passive extraction of fluid from small, surgically dissected tissue specimens in phosphate-buffered saline. We also present protocols for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of snap-frozen and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor sections and for proteomic profiling of TIF and matched tumor samples by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to enable comparative analysis of tumor secretome and paired tumor tissue. PMID:27665563

  12. Tumor Interstitial Fluid Formation, Characterization, and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Marek; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase representing the tissue microenvironment. In the present review, we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of solid tumors, the tumor interstitial fluid (TIF), i.e., the fluid bathing the tumor and stroma cells, also including immune cells. This is a component of the internal milieu of a solid tumor that has attracted regained attention. Access to this space may provide important insight into tumor development and therapy response. TIF is formed by transcapillary filtration, and since this fluid is not readily available we discuss available techniques for TIF isolation, results from subsequent characterization and implications of recent findings with respect to fluid filtration and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. There appear to be local gradients in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma that may provide new understanding of tumor biology. The development of sensitive proteomic technologies has made TIF a valuable source for tumor specific proteins and biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally in high concentrations in tumors and may eventually be found diluted in the plasma. Access to TIF that reliably reflects the local tumor microenvironment enables identification of substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease. PMID:26075182

  13. Tumor Interstitial Fluid Formation, Characterization, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Marek; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The interstitium, situated between the blood and lymph vessels and the cells, consists of a solid or matrix phase and a fluid phase representing the tissue microenvironment. In the present review, we focus on the interstitial fluid phase of solid tumors, the tumor interstitial fluid (TIF), i.e., the fluid bathing the tumor and stroma cells, also including immune cells. This is a component of the internal milieu of a solid tumor that has attracted regained attention. Access to this space may provide important insight into tumor development and therapy response. TIF is formed by transcapillary filtration, and since this fluid is not readily available we discuss available techniques for TIF isolation, results from subsequent characterization and implications of recent findings with respect to fluid filtration and uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. There appear to be local gradients in signaling substances from neoplastic tissue to plasma that may provide new understanding of tumor biology. The development of sensitive proteomic technologies has made TIF a valuable source for tumor specific proteins and biomarker candidates. Potential biomarkers will appear locally in high concentrations in tumors and may eventually be found diluted in the plasma. Access to TIF that reliably reflects the local tumor microenvironment enables identification of substances that can be used in early detection and monitoring of disease. PMID:26075182

  14. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  15. Estimation of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure (TIFP) Noninvasively

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long Jian; Brown, Stephen L.; Ewing, James R.; Ala, Brigitte D.; Schneider, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP), is a physiological parameter with demonstrated predictive value for a tumor’s aggressiveness, drug delivery, as well as response to treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite its utility, measurement of TIFP has been limited by the need for invasive procedures. In this work, the theoretical basis for approaching the absolute value of TIFP and the experimental method for noninvasively measuring TIFP are presented. Given specific boundary and continuity conditions, we convert theoretical variables into measurable variables by applying MRI technology. The work shows that TIFP in the central region of the tumor can be estimated by an analysis of the variation of tissue fluid motion in the tumor rim and surrounding tissue. It is determined from three noninvasive measurable parameters: i) an estimate of the velocity of the tumor interstitial fluid at the tumor surface, which is maximal, ii) a measurement of the distance from the tumor surface to where the tumor exudates are absorbed (or normalized), and iii) an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the interstitium through which the tumor exudate travels. We experimentally show that the fluid flow within the tumor rim is not uniform, even for a round shaped tumor, and demonstrate the procedures for the noninvasive measurement of TIFP. PMID:27467886

  16. Estimation of Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure (TIFP) Noninvasively.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long Jian; Brown, Stephen L; Ewing, James R; Ala, Brigitte D; Schneider, Kenneth M; Schlesinger, Mordechay

    2016-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP), is a physiological parameter with demonstrated predictive value for a tumor's aggressiveness, drug delivery, as well as response to treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Despite its utility, measurement of TIFP has been limited by the need for invasive procedures. In this work, the theoretical basis for approaching the absolute value of TIFP and the experimental method for noninvasively measuring TIFP are presented. Given specific boundary and continuity conditions, we convert theoretical variables into measurable variables by applying MRI technology. The work shows that TIFP in the central region of the tumor can be estimated by an analysis of the variation of tissue fluid motion in the tumor rim and surrounding tissue. It is determined from three noninvasive measurable parameters: i) an estimate of the velocity of the tumor interstitial fluid at the tumor surface, which is maximal, ii) a measurement of the distance from the tumor surface to where the tumor exudates are absorbed (or normalized), and iii) an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the interstitium through which the tumor exudate travels. We experimentally show that the fluid flow within the tumor rim is not uniform, even for a round shaped tumor, and demonstrate the procedures for the noninvasive measurement of TIFP. PMID:27467886

  17. Probe for Sampling of Interstitial Fluid From Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus characterized as both a membrane probe and a bone ultrafiltration probe has been developed to enable in vivo sampling of interstitial fluid in bone. The probe makes it possible to measure the concentration of calcium and other constituents of the fluid that may be relevant to bone physiology. The probe could be especially helpful in experimental studies of microgravitational bone loss and of terrestrial bone-loss disease states, including osteoporosis. The probe can be implanted in the bone tissue of a living animal and can be used to extract samples of the interstitial bone fluid from time to time during a long-term study. The probe includes three 12-cm-long polyacrylonitrile fibers configured in a loop form and attached to polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.025 in. (0.64 mm), outside diameter 0.040 in. (1 mm)]; the attachment is made by use of a 1-cm-long connecting piece of polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.035 0.003 in. (0.89 0.08 mm), outside diameter 0.060 0.003 in. (1.52 0.08 mm)]. At the distal end, a 2-cm-long piece of polyurethane tubing of the same inner and outer diameters serves as a connector to a hub. A 1-cm long piece of expanded poly (tetrafluoroethylene) tubing over the joint between the fibers and the connecting tubing serves as a tissue-in-growth site.

  18. An investigation of dentinal fluid flow in dental pulp during food mastication: simulation of fluid-structure interaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuo-Chih; Chuang, Shu-Fen; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Chang, Chih-Han

    2014-06-01

    This study uses fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation to investigate the relationship between the dentinal fluid flow in the dental pulp of a tooth and the elastic modulus of masticated food particles and to investigate the effects of chewing rate on fluid flow in the dental pulp. Three-dimensional simulation models of a premolar tooth (enamel, dentine, pulp, periodontal ligament, cortical bone, and cancellous bone) and food particle were created. Food particles with elastic modulus of 2,000 and 10,000 MPa were used, respectively. The external displacement loading (5 μm) was gradually directed to the food particle surface for 1 and 0.1 s, respectively, to simulate the chewing of food particles. The displacement and stress on tooth structure and fluid flow in the dental pulp were selected as evaluation indices. The results show that masticating food with a high elastic modulus results in high stress and deformation in the tooth structure, causing faster dentinal fluid flow in the pulp in comparison with that obtained with soft food. In addition, fast chewing of hard food particles can induce faster fluid flow in the pulp, which may result in dental pain. FSI analysis is shown to be a useful tool for investigating dental biomechanics during food mastication. FSI simulation can be used to predict intrapulpal fluid flow in dental pulp; this information may provide the clinician with important concept in dental biomechanics during food mastication.

  19. A review of recent advances in the assessment of bone porosity, permeability, and interstitial fluid flow

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luis; Fritton, Susannah P.; Gailani, Gaffar; Benalla, Mohammed; Cowin, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution reviews recent research performed to assess the porosity and permeability of bone tissue with the objective of understanding interstitial fluid movement. Bone tissue mechanotransduction is considered to occur due to the passage of interstitial pore fluid adjacent to dendritic cell structures in the lacunar-canalicular porosity. The movement of interstitial fluid is also necessary for the nutrition of osteocytes. This review will focus on four topics related to improved assessment of bone interstitial fluid flow. First, the advantages and limitations of imaging technologies to visualize bone porosities and architecture at several length scales are summarized. Second, recent efforts to measure the vascular porosity and lacunar-canalicular microarchitecture are discussed. Third, studies associated with the measurement and estimation of the fluid pressure and permeability in the vascular and lacunar-canalicular domains are summarized. Fourth, the development of recent models to represent the interchange of fluids between the bone porosities is described. PMID:23174418

  20. Assessment of the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue of healthy adults using ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Ueda-Iuchi, Terumi; Ohno, Naoki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Dai, Misako; Okuwa, Mayumi; Nakatani, Toshio; Sanada, Hiromi; Sugama, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Lymphoedema involves swelling, especially in the subcutaneous tissues. For lymphoedema management to be successful, it is necessary to remove the interstitial fluid. Subcutaneous echogenicity may be associated with interstitial fluid, but echogenicity is not an indicator for the evaluation of management because we do not directly compare echogenicity with the interstitial fluid. We aimed to identify an outcome indicator for the evaluation of interstitial fluid using ultrasonography. We assessed the correlation between echogenicity and transverse relaxation rate (R2) on magnetic resonance imaging. Methods: This was an observational study. Healthy adults with leg swelling after activity for >8 h were recruited. The legs of 13 women were evaluated using ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and measurements of the limb circumference before and after an intervention to reduce the swelling. Results: Echogenicity in the oedema group was greater than that of the controls. Echogenicity decreased with reductions in oedema. The range of the strongest correlations with the changes in R2 occurred at echogenicity values of 48–144 (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: r = −0.63 and p < 0.01). Thus, it was possible to evaluate the interstitial fluid using echogenicity. Conclusion: The outcome indicators for the evaluation of interstitial fluid using ultrasonography were echogenicities in the range of 48–144, and these values were valid for assessing the interstitial fluid in the subcutaneous tissue. PMID:27092255

  1. Role of interstitial fluid pressurization in TMJ lubrication.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B K; Bonnevie, E D; Park, M; Zhou, Y; Wang, L; Burris, D L; Lu, X L

    2015-01-01

    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the disc and condylar cartilage function as load-bearing, shock-absorbing, and friction-reducing materials. The ultrastructure of the TMJ disc and cartilage is different from that of hyaline cartilage in other diarthrodial joints, and little is known about their lubrication mechanisms. In this study, we performed micro-tribometry testing on the TMJ disc and condylar cartilage to obtain their region- and direction-dependent friction properties. Frictional tests with a migrating contact area were performed on 8 adult porcine TMJs at 5 different regions (anterior, posterior, central, medial, and lateral) in 2 orthogonal directions (anterior-posterior and medial-lateral). Some significant regional differences were detected, and the lateral-medial direction showed higher friction than the anterior-posterior direction on both tissues. The mean friction coefficient of condylar cartilage against steel was 0.027, but the disc, at 0.074, displayed a significantly higher friction coefficient. The 2 tissues also exhibited different frictional dependencies on sliding speed and normal loading force. Whereas the friction of condylar cartilage decreased with increased sliding speed and was independent of the magnitude of normal force, friction of the disc showed no dependence on sliding speed but decreased as normal force increased. Further analysis of the Péclet number and frictional coefficients suggested that condylar cartilage relies on interstitial fluid pressurization to a greater extent than the corresponding contact area of the TMJ disc.

  2. Interstitial Fluid Pressure Correlates Clinicopathological Factors of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koga, Takamasa; Shibata, Hidekatsu; Ikeda, Koei; Shiraishi, Kenji; Suzuki, Makoto; Iyama, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Solid tumors show increased interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), which correlates to a number of pathophysiological features of tumors. There have been no reports on the usefulness of measuring IFP in lung cancer. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between IFP and the clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer. Methods: IFP was measured prospectively in 215 patients with 219 lesions showing solid or part-solid appearance. Four patients with double lung cancer were excluded from the analysis, resulting in 211 patients with lung cancer being analyzed for the correlation between IFP and computed tomography (CT) appearance, size, Tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax), histological type, tumor grade, pleural and vessel invasion, Ki-67 index, and recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: The mean IFP was 8.5 mmHg; IFP was significantly correlated with the tumor size, SUVmax, TNM, vessel and pleural invasion, and Ki-67 index. Low IFP was associated with a better RFS compared to high IFP. Multivariate analysis did not select IFP as independent prognostic factor. In subgroup analysis of patients with adenocarcinoma, IFP was selected as independent one. Conclusions: IFP correlates clinicopathological factors of lung cancer. IFP might be used as a prognostic factor for lung cancer. PMID:25641031

  3. Angiopoietin-4 Inhibits Angiogenesis and Reduces Interstitial Fluid Pressure1

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Nanna; Hansen, Anker J; Lund, Eva L; Kristjansen, Paul E G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Angiopoietins (Ang) are involved in the remodeling, maturation, and stabilization of the vascular network. Ang-4 was discovered more recently; thus, its effect on angiogenesis and its interplay with other angiogenic factors have not been equivocally established. The role of Ang-4 in angiogenesis was tested in Matrigel chambers implanted into the subcutaneous space of nude mice. Ang-4 inhibited the angiogenic response of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and GLC19 tumor cells. In Matrigel chambers with Ang-4-transfected cells, the mean response was significantly lower than that of mock cells. Subcutaneous tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) was significantly lower in Ang-4-transfected GLC19 tumors than in mock-transfected tumors. IFP reduction in Ang-4-transfected tumors was comparable to the reduction seen after bevacizumab treatment. In vitro, we examined the effect of recombinant Ang-4 on endothelial cell migration in Boyden chambers. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration induced by bFGF and VEGF was inhibited by Ang-4 to control levels. In conclusion, we show that rhAng-4, as well as transfection with Ang-4, inhibits angiogenesis induced by GLC19 tumor cells and that Ang-4 expression reduces elevated tumor IFP. In addition, we demonstrate that rhAng-4 inhibits HUVEC migration and growth factor-induced angiogenesis. PMID:16790085

  4. Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in TMJ Lubrication

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, B.K.; Bonnevie, E.D.; Park, M.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, L.; Burris, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the disc and condylar cartilage function as load-bearing, shock-absorbing, and friction-reducing materials. The ultrastructure of the TMJ disc and cartilage is different from that of hyaline cartilage in other diarthrodial joints, and little is known about their lubrication mechanisms. In this study, we performed micro-tribometry testing on the TMJ disc and condylar cartilage to obtain their region- and direction-dependent friction properties. Frictional tests with a migrating contact area were performed on 8 adult porcine TMJs at 5 different regions (anterior, posterior, central, medial, and lateral) in 2 orthogonal directions (anterior-posterior and medial-lateral). Some significant regional differences were detected, and the lateral-medial direction showed higher friction than the anterior-posterior direction on both tissues. The mean friction coefficient of condylar cartilage against steel was 0.027, but the disc, at 0.074, displayed a significantly higher friction coefficient. The 2 tissues also exhibited different frictional dependencies on sliding speed and normal loading force. Whereas the friction of condylar cartilage decreased with increased sliding speed and was independent of the magnitude of normal force, friction of the disc showed no dependence on sliding speed but decreased as normal force increased. Further analysis of the Péclet number and frictional coefficients suggested that condylar cartilage relies on interstitial fluid pressurization to a greater extent than the corresponding contact area of the TMJ disc. PMID:25297115

  5. Lactate and glucose concentrations in brain interstitial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum during experimental pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Romero, L; Täuber, M G; Fournier, M A; Tureen, J H

    1992-09-01

    Metabolic abnormalities during bacterial meningitis include hypoglycorrhachia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate accumulation. The mechanisms by which these alterations occur within the central nervous system (CNS) are still incompletely delineated. To determine the evolution of these changes and establish the locus of abnormal metabolism during meningitis, glucose and lactate concentrations in brain interstitial fluid, CSF, and serum were measured simultaneously and sequentially during experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits. Interstitial fluid samples were obtained from the frontal cortex and hippocampus by using in situ brain microdialysis, and serum and CSF were directly sampled. There was an increase of CSF lactate concentration, accompanied by increased local production of lactate in the brain, and a decrease of CSF-to-serum glucose ratio that was paralleled by a decrease in cortical glucose concentration. Brain microdialysate lactate concentration was not affected by either systemic lactic acidosis or artificially elevated CSF lactate concentration. These data support the hypothesis that the brain is a locus for anaerobic glycolysis during meningitis, resulting in increased lactate production and perhaps contributing to decreased tissue glucose concentration.

  6. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones.

  7. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira

    2016-07-01

    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones. PMID:27049045

  8. Mathematical model of the effect of interstitial fluid pressure on angiogenic behavior in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Colin; Kohandel, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the concentrations of proangiogenic and antiangiogenic growth factors, and their resulting balance/imbalance, in host and tumor tissue. In addition to production, diffusion, and degradation of these angiogenic growth factors (AGFs), we include interstitial convection to study the locally destabilizing effects of interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) on the activity of these factors. The molecular sizes of representative AGFs and the outward flow of interstitial fluid in tumors suggest that convection is a significant mode of transport for these molecules. The results of our modeling approach suggest that changes in the physiological parameters that determine interstitial fluid pressure have as profound an impact on tumor angiogenesis as those parameters controlling production, diffusion, and degradation of AGFs. This model has predictive potential for determining the angiogenic behavior of solid tumors and the effects of cytotoxic and antiangiogenic therapies on tumor angiogenesis.

  9. Osmoregulation and interstitial fluid pressure changes in humans during water immersion

    SciTech Connect

    Khosla, S.S.; Dubois, A.B.

    1981-09-01

    The mechanisms of the observed fluid shifts and intracellular osmoregulatory changes accompanying diuresis upon water immersion in man are investigated. Urinary and plasma electrolyte concentrations, plasma amino acid concentrations and interstitial fluid pressures were measured in subjects before, during and after immersion in 34 C water up to their necks for 1 hour. In experiments where vasopressin was administered prior to immersion, urinary sodium, potassium and osmolal clearances are found to increase significantly during immersion, accompanied by decreases in hematocrit, plasma sodium, chloride and potassium concentrations, osmolality and proteins and increases in total plasma CO2 content, threonine, proline, methionine and alanine, plasma volume and red blood cell volume. In experiments without vasopressin injection, interstitial fluid pressure is observed to decrease on the average by up to 2.10 cm H2O during immersion. It is concluded that hyposmotic fluid is mobilized into the blood from interstitial and other extravascular spaces, probably including intracellular volumes, during immersion.

  10. Interstitial Pressure in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Is Dominated by a Gel-Fluid Phase.

    PubMed

    DuFort, Christopher C; DelGiorno, Kathleen E; Carlson, Markus A; Osgood, Ryan J; Zhao, Chunmei; Huang, Zhongdong; Thompson, Curtis B; Connor, Robert J; Thanos, Christopher D; Scott Brockenbrough, J; Provenzano, Paolo P; Frost, Gregory I; Michael Shepard, H; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2016-05-10

    Elevated interstitial fluid pressure can present a substantial barrier to drug delivery in solid tumors. This is particularly true of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, a highly lethal disease characterized by a robust fibroinflammatory response, widespread vascular collapse, and hypoperfusion that together serve as primary mechanisms of treatment resistance. Free-fluid pressures, however, are relatively low in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cannot account for the vascular collapse. Indeed, we have shown that the overexpression and deposition in the interstitium of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HA) is principally responsible for generating pressures that can reach 100 mmHg through the creation of a large gel-fluid phase. By interrogating a variety of tissues, tumor types, and experimental model systems, we show that an HA-dependent fluid phase contributes substantially to pressures in many solid tumors and has been largely unappreciated heretofore. We investigated the relative contributions of both freely mobile fluid and gel fluid to interstitial fluid pressure by performing simultaneous, real-time fluid-pressure measurements with both the classical wick-in-needle method (to estimate free-fluid pressure) and a piezoelectric pressure catheter transducer (which is capable of capturing pressures associated with either phase). We demonstrate further that systemic treatment with pegylated recombinant hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) depletes interstitial HA and eliminates the gel-fluid phase. This significantly reduces interstitial pressures and leaves primarily free fluid behind, relieving the barrier to drug delivery. These findings argue that quantifying the contributions of free- and gel-fluid phases to hydraulically transmitted pressures in a given cancer will be essential to designing the most appropriate and effective strategies to overcome this important and frequently underestimated resistance mechanism. PMID:27166818

  11. Effect of fluid friction on interstitial fluid flow coupled with blood flow through solid tumor microvascular network.

    PubMed

    Sefidgar, Mostafa; Soltani, M; Raahemifar, Kaamran; Bazmara, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    A solid tumor is investigated as porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multiscale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. The mathematical method involves processes such as blood flow through vessels and solute and fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model predicts.

  12. Fibroblast alignment under interstitial fluid flow using a novel 3-D tissue culture model.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chee Ping; Swartz, Melody A

    2003-05-01

    Interstitial flow is an important component of the microcirculation and interstitial environment, yet its effects on cell organization and tissue architecture are poorly understood, in part due to the lack of in vitro models. To examine the effects of interstitial flow on cell morphology and matrix remodeling, we developed a tissue culture model that physically supports soft tissue cultures and allows microscopic visualization of cells within the three-dimensional matrix. In addition, pressure-flow relationships can be continuously monitored to evaluate the bulk hydraulic resistance as an indicator of changes in the overall matrix integrity. We observed that cells such as human dermal fibroblasts aligned perpendicular to the direction of interstitial flow. In contrast, fibroblasts in static three-dimensional controls remained randomly oriented, whereas cells subjected to fluid shear as a two-dimensional monolayer regressed. Also, the dynamic measurements of hydraulic conductivity suggest reorganization toward a steady state. These primary findings help establish the importance of interstitial flow on the biology of tissue organization and interstitial fluid balance. PMID:12531726

  13. Dynamics of Interstitial Fluid Pressure in Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels in Microfluidic Devices.

    PubMed

    Tien, Joe; Li, Le; Ozsun, Ozgur; Ekinci, Kamil L

    2015-09-01

    In order to understand how interstitial fluid pressure and flow affect cell behavior, many studies use microfluidic approaches to apply externally controlled pressures to the boundary of a cell-containing gel. It is generally assumed that the resulting interstitial pressure distribution quickly reaches a steady-state, but this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and computationally that the interstitial fluid pressure within an extracellular matrix gel in a microfluidic device can, in some cases, react with a long time delay to external loading. Remarkably, the source of this delay is the slight (∼100 nm in the cases examined here) distension of the walls of the device under pressure. Finite-element models show that the dynamics of interstitial pressure can be described as an instantaneous jump, followed by axial and transverse diffusion, until the steady pressure distribution is reached. The dynamics follow scaling laws that enable estimation of a gel's poroelastic constants from time-resolved measurements of interstitial fluid pressure.

  14. Fibronectin in human bronchopulmonary lavage fluid. Elevation in patients with interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rennard, S I; Crystal, R G

    1982-01-01

    Fibronectin is a major adhesive and opsonic glycoprotein found in plasma and tissues. Because this molecule appears to mediate a number of interactions between cells and extracellular matrix, and because the interstitial lung disease are characterized by marked derangements of the pulmonary extracellular matrix, we evaluated fibronectin in the lower respiratory tract in patients with these disorders. Fibronectin could be detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of normals (11/11), as well as those with noninterstitial lung diseases (18/18), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (21/21), sarcoidosis (20/20), and other interstitial lung diseases (22/22). Compared with normal and those with noninterstitial lung disease, the levels in bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with interstitial disease were significantly higher (P less than 0.01), all comparisons). This was true only for bronchoalveolar lavage fibronectin; plasma levels were similar in all study groups (P greater than 0.2, all comparisons). The lavage fluid fibronectin was intact antigenically and retained collagen binding capability, although in some cases of interstitial disease, the presence of lower molecular weight fragments suggested some degradation. Thus, fibronectin is a normal constituent of the epithelial fluid of the lower respiratory tract and is present in increased amounts in a significant number of individuals with interstitial lung disease. Images PMID:7054232

  15. Numerical simulation of the tumor interstitial fluid transport: Consideration of drug delivery mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Mohammad Charjouei; Deyranlou, Amin; Sharifi, Alireza; Niazmand, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    The interstitial fluid transport plays an important role in terms of its effect on the delivery of therapeutic agents to the cancerous organs. In this study, a comprehensive numerical simulation of the interstitial fluid transport establishing 3D models of tumor and normal tissue is accomplished. Different shapes of solid tumors and their surrounding normal tissues are selected, by employing the porous media model and incorporating Darcy's model and Starling's law. Besides, effects of the tumor radius, normal tissue size, tissue hydraulic conductivity and necrotic core are investigated on the interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and interstitial fluid velocity (IFV). Generally, results suggest that the configurations of the tumor and surrounding normal tissue affect IFP and IFV distributions inside the interstitium, which are much more pronounced for various configuration of the tumor. Furthermore, findings demonstrate that larger tumors are more prone for producing elevated IFP comparing with the smaller ones and impress both IFP and IFV dramatically. Nevertheless, normal tissue size has less impact on IFP and IFV, until its volume ratio to the tumor remains greater than unity; conversely, for the values lower than unity the variations become more significant. Finally, existence of necrotic core and its location in the tumor interstitium alters IFP and IFV patterns and increases IFV, considerably.

  16. Experimental verification of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization in cartilage lubrication.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Kopacz, Monika; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2004-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to measure the friction coefficient simultaneously with the interstitial fluid load support in bovine articular cartilage, while sliding against glass under a constant load. Ten visually normal 6-mm-diameter cartilage plugs harvested from the humeral head of four bovine shoulder joints (ages 2-4 months) were tested in a custom friction device under reciprocating linear motion (range of translation +/-2 mm; sliding velocity 1 mm/s), subjected to a 4.5 N constant load. The frictional coefficient was found to increase with time from a minimum value of mu min=0.010+/-0.007 (mean+/-SD) to a maximum value of 0.243+/-0.044 over a duration ranging from 920 to 19,870 s (median: 4,560 s). The corresponding interstitial fluid load support decreased from a maximum of 88.8+/-3.8% to 8.7+/-8.6%. A linear correlation was observed between the frictional coefficient and interstitial fluid load support (r2=0.96+/-0.03). These results support the hypothesis that the temporal variation of the frictional coefficient correlates negatively with the interstitial fluid load support and that consequently interstitial fluid load support is a primary mechanism regulating the frictional response in articular cartilage. Fitting the experimental data to a previously proposed biphasic boundary lubrication model for cartilage yielded an equilibrium friction coefficient of mu eq=0.284+/-0.044. The fraction of the apparent contact area over which the solid cartilage matrix was in contact with the glass slide was predicted at phi s=1.7+/-6.3%, significantly smaller than the solid volume fraction of the tissue, phi s=13.8+/-1.8%. The model predictions suggest that mixed lubrication prevailed at the contact interface under the loading conditions employed in this study.

  17. Role for Lower Extremity Interstitial Fluid Volume Changes in the Development of Orthostasis after Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Summers, Richard L.; Martin, David S.; Meck, Janice V.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Reentry orthostasis after exposure to the conditions of spaceflight is a persistent problem among astronauts. In a previous study, a computer model systems analysis was used to examine the physiologic mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this analysis, it was determined that an augmented capacitance of lower extremity veins due to a fluid volume contracture of the surrounding interstitial spaces during spaceflight results in an increase in sequestered blood volume upon standing and appears to be the initiating mechanism responsible for reentry orthostasis. In this study, we attempt to validate the central premise of this hypothesis using a ground-based spaceflight analog. 10 healthy subjects were placed at bed rest in a 6 head down tilt position for 60 days of bed rest. The impact of adaptations in interstitial fluid volume and venous capacitance in the lower extremities were then observed during a standard tilt test protocol performed before and after the confinement period. The interstitial thickness superficial to the calcaneous immediately below the lateral malleolus was measured using ultrasound with a 17-5 MHz linear array transducer. Measurements of the changes in anterior tibial vein diameter during tilt were obtained by similar methods. The measurements were taken while the subjects were supine and then during upright tilt (80') for thirty minutes, or until the subject had signs of presyncope. Additional measurements of the superficial left tibia interstitial thickness and stroke volume by standard echocardiographic methods were also recorded. In addition, calf compliance was measured over a pressure range of 10-60 mmHg, using plethysmography, in a subset of these subjects (n = 5). There was a average of 6% diminution in the size of the lower extremity interstitial space as compared to measurements acquired prior to bed rest. This contracture of the interstitial space coincided with a subsequent relative increase in the percentage change in tibial

  18. Numerical simulation of blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumor microcirculation based on tumor-induced angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gaiping; Wu, Jie; Xu, Shixiong; Collins, M. W.; Long, Quan; König, Carola S.; Jiang, Yuping; Wang, Jian; Padhani, A. R.

    2007-10-01

    A coupled intravascular transvascular interstitial fluid flow model is developed to study the distributions of blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumor microcirculation based on a tumor-induced microvascular network. This is generated from a 2D nine-point discrete mathematical model of tumor angiogenesis and contains two parent vessels. Blood flow through the microvascular network and interstitial fluid flow in tumor tissues are performed by the extended Poiseuille’s law and Darcy’s law, respectively, transvascular flow is described by Starling’s law; effects of the vascular permeability and the interstitial hydraulic conductivity are also considered. The simulation results predict the heterogeneous blood supply, interstitial hypertension and low convection on the inside of the tumor, which are consistent with physiological observed facts. These results may provide beneficial information for anti-angiogenesis treatment of tumor and further clinical research.

  19. Effect of praseodymium(III) on zinc(II) species in human interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Wang, Jinping; Lu, Xin; Yang, Kuiyue; Niu, Chunji

    2005-11-01

    A multiphase model of metal ion species in human interstitial fluid was constructed under physiological conditions. The effect of Pr(III) on Zn(II) species was studied. At the normal conditions, Zn(II) species mainly distribute in [Zn(HSA)], [Zn(IgG)], and [Zn(Cys)(2)H](+). With the Pr(III) level increased, the apparent competition of Pr(III) for ligands lead to the redistribution of Zn(II) species.

  20. Interstitial fluid flow in tendons or ligaments: a porous medium finite element simulation.

    PubMed

    Butler, S L; Kohles, S S; Thielke, R J; Chen, C; Vanderby, R

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe interstitial fluid flow in axisymmetric soft connective tissue (ligaments or tendons) when they are loaded in tension. Soft hydrated tissue was modelled as a porous medium (using Darcy's Law), and the finite element method was used to solve the resulting equations governing fluid flow. A commercially available computer program (FiDAP) was used to create an axisymmetric model of a biomechanically tested rat ligament. The unknown variables at element nodes were pressure and velocity of the interstitial fluid (Newtonian and incompressible). The effect of variations in fluid viscosity and permeability of the solid matrix was parametrically explored. A transient loading state mimicking a rat ligament mechanical experiment was used in all simulations. The magnitude and distribution of pressure, stream lines, shear (stress) rate, vorticity and velocity showed regular patterns consistent with extension flow. Parametric changes of permeability and viscosity strongly affected fluid flow behaviour. When the radial permeability was 1000 times less than the axial permeability, shear rate and vorticity increased (approximately 5-fold). These effects (especially shear stress and pressure) suggested a strong interaction with the solid matrix. Computed levels of fluid flow suggested a possible load transduction mechanism for cells in the tissue.

  1. A batch fabricated capacitive pressure sensor with an integrated Guyton capsule for interstitial fluid pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Teimour; Fogle, Benjamin; Ziaie, Babak

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and test of a batch fabricated capacitive pressure sensor with an integrated Guyton capsule for interstitial fluid pressure measurement. The sensor is composed of 12 µm thick single crystalline silicon membrane and a 3 µm gap, hermetically sealed through silicon-glass anodic bonding. A novel batch scale method for creating electrical feed-throughs inside the sealed capacitor chamber is developed. The Guyton capsule consists of an array of 10 µm diameter access holes etched onto a silicon back-plate separated from the silicon sensing membrane by a gap of 5 µm. The presence of the Guyton capsule (i.e. plates with access holes plus the gap separating them from the sensing membrane) allows for the ingress of interstitial fluid inside the 5 µm gap following the implantation, thus, providing an accurate measurement of interstitial fluid pressure. The fabricated sensor is 3 × 2 × 0.42 mm3 in dimensions and has a maximum sensitivity of 10 fF mmHg-1.

  2. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Derek M.; Martin, Luke G.; Papich, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined) exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL), and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL) for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL) for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations, with over 900

  3. Coupling between elastic strain and interstitial fluid flow: ramifications for poroelastic imaging.

    PubMed

    Leiderman, Ricardo; Barbone, Paul E; Oberai, Assad A; Bamber, Jeffrey C

    2006-12-21

    We study the effects of interstitial fluid flow and interstitial fluid drainage on the spatio-temporal response of soft tissue strain. The motivation stems from the ability to measure in vivo strain distributions in soft tissue via elastography, and the desire to explore the possibility of using such techniques to investigate soft tissue fluid flow. Our study is based upon a mathematical model for soft tissue mechanics from the literature. It is a simple generalization of biphasic theory that includes coupling between the fluid and solid phases of the soft tissue, and crucially, fluid exchange between the interstitium and the local microvasculature. We solve the mathematical equations in two dimensions by the finite element method (FEM). The finite element implementation is validated against an exact analytical solution that is derived in the appendix. Realistic input tissue properties from the literature are used in conjunction with FEM modelling to conduct several computational experiments. The results of these lead to the following conclusions: (i) different hypothetical flow mechanisms lead to different patterns of strain relaxation with time; (ii) representative tissue properties show fluid drainage into the local microvasculature to be the dominant flow-related stress/strain relaxation mechanism; (iii) the relaxation time of strain in solid tumours due to drainage into the microvasculature is on the order of 5-10 s; (iv) under realistic applied pressure magnitudes, the magnitude of the strain relaxation can be as high as approximately 0.4% strain (4000 microstrains), which is well within the range of strains measurable by elastography.

  4. Interstitial fluid pressure in soft tissue as a result of an externally applied contact pressure.

    PubMed

    Darling, A L; Yalavarthy, P K; Doyley, M M; Dehghani, H; Pogue, B W

    2007-07-21

    Manipulation of interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has a clinical potential when used in conjunction with near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of breast cancer. In order to better interpret how the applied pressure alters the vascular space and interstitial water volumes in breast tissue, a study on tissue-mimicking, gelatin phantoms was carried out to mimic the translation of external force into internal pressures. A complete set of three-dimensional (3D) pressure maps were obtained for the interior volumes of phantoms as an external force of 10 mmHg was applied, using mixtures of elastic moduli 19 and 33 kPa to simulate adipose and fibroglandular values of breast tissue. Corresponding linear elastic finite element analysis (FEA) cases were formulated. Shear stress, nonlinear mechanical properties, gravity and tissue geometry were all observed to contribute to internal pressure distribution, with surface shear stresses increasing internal pressures near the surface to greater than twice the applied external pressure. Average pressures by depth were predicted by the linear elastic FEA models. FEA models were run for cases mimicking a 93 kPa tumor inclusion within regions of adipose, fibroglandular tissue, and a composite of the two tissue types to illustrate the localized high fluid pressures caused by a tumor when an external force is applied. The conclusion was that external contact forces can generate potentially clinically useful fluid pressure magnitudes in regions of sharp effective elastic modulus gradients, such as tumor boundaries. PMID:17664598

  5. Interstitial fluid pressure in soft tissue as a result of an externally applied contact pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, A. L.; Yalavarthy, P. K.; Doyley, M. M.; Dehghani, H.; Pogue, B. W.

    2007-07-01

    Manipulation of interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has a clinical potential when used in conjunction with near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of breast cancer. In order to better interpret how the applied pressure alters the vascular space and interstitial water volumes in breast tissue, a study on tissue-mimicking, gelatin phantoms was carried out to mimic the translation of external force into internal pressures. A complete set of three-dimensional (3D) pressure maps were obtained for the interior volumes of phantoms as an external force of 10 mmHg was applied, using mixtures of elastic moduli 19 and 33 kPa to simulate adipose and fibroglandular values of breast tissue. Corresponding linear elastic finite element analysis (FEA) cases were formulated. Shear stress, nonlinear mechanical properties, gravity and tissue geometry were all observed to contribute to internal pressure distribution, with surface shear stresses increasing internal pressures near the surface to greater than twice the applied external pressure. Average pressures by depth were predicted by the linear elastic FEA models. FEA models were run for cases mimicking a 93 kPa tumor inclusion within regions of adipose, fibroglandular tissue, and a composite of the two tissue types to illustrate the localized high fluid pressures caused by a tumor when an external force is applied. The conclusion was that external contact forces can generate potentially clinically useful fluid pressure magnitudes in regions of sharp effective elastic modulus gradients, such as tumor boundaries.

  6. Interstitial fluid flow and drug delivery in vascularized tumors: a computational model.

    PubMed

    Welter, Michael; Rieger, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the human cells and provides them with nutrients and a way of waste removal. It is generally believed that elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is partly responsible for the poor penetration and distribution of therapeutic agents in solid tumors, but the complex interplay of extravasation, permeabilities, vascular heterogeneities and diffusive and convective drug transport remains poorly understood. Here we consider-with the help of a theoretical model-the tumor IFP, interstitial fluid flow (IFF) and its impact upon drug delivery within tumor depending on biophysical determinants such as vessel network morphology, permeabilities and diffusive vs. convective transport. We developed a vascular tumor growth model, including vessel co-option, regression, and angiogenesis, that we extend here by the interstitium (represented by a porous medium obeying Darcy's law) and sources (vessels) and sinks (lymphatics) for IFF. With it we compute the spatial variation of the IFP and IFF and determine its correlation with the vascular network morphology and physiological parameters like vessel wall permeability, tissue conductivity, distribution of lymphatics etc. We find that an increased vascular wall conductivity together with a reduction of lymph function leads to increased tumor IFP, but also that the latter does not necessarily imply a decreased extravasation rate: Generally the IF flow rate is positively correlated with the various conductivities in the system. The IFF field is then used to determine the drug distribution after an injection via a convection diffusion reaction equation for intra- and extracellular concentrations with parameters guided by experimental data for the drug Doxorubicin. We observe that the interplay of convective and diffusive drug transport can lead to quite unexpected effects in the presence of a heterogeneous, compartmentalized vasculature. Finally we discuss various

  7. Interstitial Fluid Flow and Drug Delivery in Vascularized Tumors: A Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Welter, Michael; Rieger, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the human cells and provides them with nutrients and a way of waste removal. It is generally believed that elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is partly responsible for the poor penetration and distribution of therapeutic agents in solid tumors, but the complex interplay of extravasation, permeabilities, vascular heterogeneities and diffusive and convective drug transport remains poorly understood. Here we consider–with the help of a theoretical model–the tumor IFP, interstitial fluid flow (IFF) and its impact upon drug delivery within tumor depending on biophysical determinants such as vessel network morphology, permeabilities and diffusive vs. convective transport. We developed a vascular tumor growth model, including vessel co-option, regression, and angiogenesis, that we extend here by the interstitium (represented by a porous medium obeying Darcy's law) and sources (vessels) and sinks (lymphatics) for IFF. With it we compute the spatial variation of the IFP and IFF and determine its correlation with the vascular network morphology and physiological parameters like vessel wall permeability, tissue conductivity, distribution of lymphatics etc. We find that an increased vascular wall conductivity together with a reduction of lymph function leads to increased tumor IFP, but also that the latter does not necessarily imply a decreased extravasation rate: Generally the IF flow rate is positively correlated with the various conductivities in the system. The IFF field is then used to determine the drug distribution after an injection via a convection diffusion reaction equation for intra- and extracellular concentrations with parameters guided by experimental data for the drug Doxorubicin. We observe that the interplay of convective and diffusive drug transport can lead to quite unexpected effects in the presence of a heterogeneous, compartmentalized vasculature. Finally we discuss various

  8. Three-dimensional cell culture model for measuring the effects of interstitial fluid flow on tumor cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Tchafa, Alimatou M; Shah, Arpit D; Wang, Shafei; Duong, Melissa T; Shieh, Adrian C

    2012-07-25

    The growth and progression of most solid tumors depend on the initial transformation of the cancer cells and their response to stroma-associated signaling in the tumor microenvironment (1). Previously, research on the tumor microenvironment has focused primarily on tumor-stromal interactions (1-2). However, the tumor microenvironment also includes a variety of biophysical forces, whose effects remain poorly understood. These forces are biomechanical consequences of tumor growth that lead to changes in gene expression, cell division, differentiation and invasion(3). Matrix density (4), stiffness (5-6), and structure (6-7), interstitial fluid pressure (8), and interstitial fluid flow (8) are all altered during cancer progression. Interstitial fluid flow in particular is higher in tumors compared to normal tissues (8-10). The estimated interstitial fluid flow velocities were measured and found to be in the range of 0.1-3 μm s(-1), depending on tumor size and differentiation (9, 11). This is due to elevated interstitial fluid pressure caused by tumor-induced angiogenesis and increased vascular permeability (12). Interstitial fluid flow has been shown to increase invasion of cancer cells (13-14), vascular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (15). This invasion may be due to autologous chemotactic gradients created around cells in 3-D (16) or increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression (15), chemokine secretion and cell adhesion molecule expression (17). However, the mechanism by which cells sense fluid flow is not well understood. In addition to altering tumor cell behavior, interstitial fluid flow modulates the activity of other cells in the tumor microenvironment. It is associated with (a) driving differentiation of fibroblasts into tumor-promoting myofibroblasts (18), (b) transporting of antigens and other soluble factors to lymph nodes (19), and (c) modulating lymphatic endothelial cell morphogenesis (20). The technique presented here imposes interstitial

  9. Modulation of the interstitial fluid pressure by high intensity focused ultrasound as a way to alter local fluid and solute movement: insights from a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Sassaroli, E; O'Neill, B E

    2014-11-21

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operated in thermal mode has been reported to reduce interstitial fluid pressure and improve the penetration of large macromolecules and nanoparticles in tumor and normal tissue. Little is understood about how the interstitial fluid pressure and velocity as well as the interstitial macromolecule transport are affected by HIFU exposure. A mathematical model is presented here which sheds light on the initial biophysical changes brought about HIFU. Our continuum model treats tissue as an effective poro-elastic material that reacts to elevated temperatures with a rapid drop in interstitial elastic modulus. Using parameters from the literature, the model is extrapolated to derive information on the effect in tumors, and to predict its impact on the convective and diffusive transport of macromolecular drugs. The model is first solved using an analytical approximation with step-wise changes at each boundary, and then solved numerically starting from a Gaussian beam approximation of the ultrasound treatment. Our results indicate that HIFU causes a rapid drop in interstitial fluid pressure that may be exploited to facilitate convection of macromolecules from vasculature to the exposed region. However, following a short recovery period in which the interstitial fluid pressure is normalized, transport returns to normal and the advantages disappear over time. The results indicate that this effect is strongest for the delivery of large molecules and nanoparticles that are in the circulation at the time of treatment. The model may be easily applied to more complex situations involving effects on vascular permeability and diffusion. PMID:25327766

  10. Pulp biology: progress during the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Henry O

    2003-04-01

    During the past 25 years there has been a rapid expansion in our knowledge of the dentine and pulp complex. This paper provides representative examples of important advances that researchers have made in this field. Topics to be considered include: differentiation of odontoblasts, dentine matrix proteins, extent of odontoblast processes, pulpal stem cells, apoptosis, interstitial fluid pressure in normal and inflamed pulps, class II antigen-presenting cells of the pulp, cytokines, antibodies, pulpal calcifications, tertiary dentine and pulpal inflammation associated with bacterial contamination of exposed dentine beneath restorations.

  11. Lubrication forces in dense granular flow with interstitial fluid: A simulation study with Discrete Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Oleh; Ertas, Deniz; Halsey, Thomas; Zhou, Fuping

    2007-03-01

    Using three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations, we study steady gravity-driven flows of frictional inelastic spheres of diameter d and density ρg down an incline, interacting through two-body lubrication forces in addition to granular contact forces. Scaling arguments suggest that, in 3D, these forces constitute the dominant perturbation of an interstitial fluid for small Reynolds number Re and low fluid densityρ. Two important parameters that characterize the strength of the lubrication forces are fluid viscosity and grain roughness. We observe that incline flows with lubrication forces exhibit a packing density that decreases with increasing distance from the surface. As the incline angle is increased, this results in a severely dilated basal layer that looks like ``hydroplaning'' similar to that observed in geological subaqueous debris flows. This is surprising since the model explicitly disallows any buildup of fluid pressure in the base of the flow, and suggests that hydroplaning might have other contributing factors besides this traditional explanation. The local packing density is still determined by the dimensionless strain rate I≡γ1ptd√ρg/p , where p is the average normal stress, obeying a ``dilatancy law'' similar to dry granular flows.

  12. White matter changes in dementia: role of impaired drainage of interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Weller, Roy O; Hawkes, Cheryl A; Kalaria, Raj N; Werring, David J; Carare, Roxana O

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are associated with dementia and include white matter hyperintensities (WMH; also termed leukoaraiosis) and visible perivascular spaces (PVS). We review the potential role of impaired drainage of interstitial fluid in the pathogenesis of WMH and PVS. Whereas the volume of extracellular space in the grey matter is tightly controlled, fluid accumulates and expands the extracellular spaces of the white matter in acute hydrocephalus, vasogenic edema and WMH. Although there are no conventional lymphatic vessels in the brain, there is very effective lymphatic drainage for fluid and solutes along restricted pathways in the basement membranes of cerebral capillaries and arteries in young individuals. Lymphatic drainage of the brain is impaired with age and in association with apolipoprotein E ε4, risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Deposition of proteins in the lymphatic drainage pathways in the walls of cerebral arteries with age is recognized as protein elimination failure angiopathy (PEFA), as in CAA and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). Facilitating perivascular lymphatic drainage from the aging brain may play a significant role in the prevention of CAA, WMH and Alzheimer's disease and may enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease.

  13. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease.

  14. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T.; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. PMID:26077718

  15. In vitro fermentation of cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin using fecal inoculum from cats, dogs, horses, humans, and pigs and ruminal fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Sunvold, G D; Hussein, H S; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Reinhart, G A

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of gastrointestinal tract microflora from several species on fiber fermentation characteristics in vitro. Selected fibrous substrates (cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin) were incubated for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h with ruminal fluid from cattle or feces from dogs, cats, pigs, horses, or humans. When data were pooled across all substrates and fermentation times, OM disappearance (29.4%) and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (1.09, .41, .12, and 1.61 mmol/g of OM, respectively) were lowest (P < .05), and lactate production (.23 mmol/g of OM) was greatest (P < .05) for horse fecal microflora compared with samples from the other species. The greatest (P < .05) acetate production resulted when substrates were fermented by cat fecal microflora (2.38 mmol/g of OM). The greatest (P < .05) propionate productions resulted from pig fecal and cattle ruminal microflora (.88 and .83 mmol/g of OM, respectively), and the greatest (P < .05) butyrate productions resulted from human and pig fecal microflora (.39 and .40 mmol/g of OM, respectively). Total SCFA production was greatest (P < .05) for cat fecal microflora (3.38 mmol/g of OM). When data were pooled across the species, substrate OM disappearance and SCFA production ranked from least to greatest in the following order: cellulose < beet pulp < citrus pulp < citrus pectin. The fermentability of different fibrous substrates by fecal or ruminal microflora from various species seems to be dependent not only on the fermentative activity of the microbial population but on other factors as well, perhaps lag time and rate of digesta passage.

  16. Water in hydroxyapatite nanopores: Possible implications for interstitial bone fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, T; Pham, T T; Capiez-Lernout, E; de Leeuw, N H; Naili, S

    2015-09-18

    The role of bone water in the activity of this organ is essential in structuring apatite crystals, providing pathways for nutrients and waste involved in the metabolism of bone cells and participating in bone remodelling mechanotransduction. It is commonly accepted that bone presents three levels of porosity, namely the vasculature, the lacuno-canalicular system and the voids of the collagen-apatite matrix. Due to the observation of bound state of water at the latter level, the interstitial nanoscopic flow that may exist within these pores is classically neglected. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility to obtain a fluid flow at the nanoscale. That is why a molecular dynamics based analysis of a water-hydroxyapatite system is proposed to analyze the effect of water confinement on transport properties. The main result here is that free water can be observed inside hydroxyapatite pores of a few nanometers. This result would have strong implications in the multiscale treatment of the poromechanical behaviour of bone tissue. In particular, the mechanical properties of the bone matrix may be highly controlled by nanoscopic water diffusion and the classical idea that osteocytic activity is only regulated by bone fluid flow within the lacuno-canalicular system may be discussed again. PMID:26283410

  17. Multiplexed Cytokine Detection of Interstitial Fluid Collected from Polymeric Hollow Tube Implants – A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangdan; Lennartz, Michelle R.; Loegering, Daniel J.; Stenken, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Cytokines are important cellular signaling proteins involved in inflammation, wound healing and are thought to direct the foreign body response to implanted materials. In this work, polyurethane tubes (25 mm length, 1.02 mm i.d., and 1.65 mm o.d.) were implanted into subcutaneous tissue of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The tubes served as the biomaterial and a means to collect the interstitial fluid that would be exchanged within the tube lumen and the surrounding tissue. After three and seven days, the tubes were explanted and cytokines in the fluid were quantified with a multiplexed cytokine immunoassay. Six cytokines, interleukin-1β. (IL-1β), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were simultaneously quantified. All cytokine concentrations with the exception of IL-4 and TNF-α ranged between low pg/mL to mid ng/mL levels. Neither TNF-α nor IL-4 was detected from any sample. These results illustrate the potential of using the tube materials combined with bead-based immunoassays as a direct method for in vivo collection of multiple cytokines in low microliter sample volumes for fixed day biomaterial implant studies. PMID:18519165

  18. Hyaluronan content in experimental carcinoma is not correlated to interstitial fluid pressure.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Annica; Salnikov, Alexei; Lammerts, Ellen; Roswall, Pernilla; Sundberg, Christian; Heldin, Paraskevi; Rubin, Kristofer; Heldin, Nils-Erik

    2003-06-13

    Mechanism(s) for generation of the high tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) that is characteristic of carcinoma is not known. We investigated the role of hyaluronan, the major water-binding polysaccharide of the extracellular matrix, for the generation of a high TIFP. A human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (KAT-4) xenografted to athymic mice and a syngeneic rat colon carcinoma (PROb) were used. Neither KAT-4 nor PROb cells produced hyaluronan (HA) in culture, however, both cell lines produced factors that stimulated HA-synthesis by cultured fibroblasts. Modulating hyaluronan levels by transfection of PROb carcinoma cells with hyaluronan synthase-2 revealed no correlation between hyaluronan content and TIFP. Furthermore, lowering of TIFP by treating KAT-4 tumors with a specific inhibitor of TGF-beta 1 and -beta 3 did not change the concentration of hyaluronan in the tumors. In summary, our results suggest that a modulation of hyaluronan content is not a major pathogenetic mechanism for the generation of the characteristically high TIFP in malignant carcinomas.

  19. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin in Dermal Interstitial Fluid Using Dissolving Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yukako; Inagaki, Yuto; Kobuchi, Shinji; Takada, Kanji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To design an alternative painless method for vancomycin (VCM) monitoring by withdrawing interstitial fluid (ISF) the skin using dissolving microneedles (DMNs) and possibly replace the conventional clinical blood sampling method. Methods: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital. Vancomycin at 5 mg/mL in saline was intravenously administered via the jugular vein. ISF was collected from a formed pore at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 min after the DMNs was removed from the skin. In addition, 0.3 mL blood samples were collected from the left femoral vein. Results: The correlation between the plasma and ISF VCM concentrations was significantly strong (r = 0.676, p < 0.05). Microscopic observation of the skin after application of the DMNs demonstrated their safety as a device for sampling ISF. Conclusion: A novel monitoring method for VCM was developed to painlessly determine concentrations in the ISF as opposed to blood sampling. PMID:27076783

  20. Interstitial Fluid Pressure and Vascularity of Intradermal and Intramuscular Human Tumor Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliksrud, Kristine; Galappathi, Kanthi; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: High interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumors has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis. Mechanisms underlying the intertumor heterogeneity in IFP were investigated in this study. Methods and Materials: A-07 melanoma xenografts were transplanted intradermally or intramuscularly in BALB/c nu/nu mice. IFP was measured in the center of the tumors with a Millar catheter. Tumor blood perfusion and extracellular volume fraction were assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The necrotic fraction, vascular density, and vessel diameters of the tumors were determined by image analysis of histological preparations. Results: Significant intertumor heterogeneity in IFP, blood perfusion, and microvascular morphology was observed whether the tumors were transplanted intradermally or intramuscularly. High IFP was mainly a consequence of high resistance to blood flow caused by low vessel diameters in either transplantation site. IFP decreased with increasing blood perfusion in intradermal tumors and increased with increasing blood perfusion in intramuscular tumors, mainly because the morphology of the tumor microvasculature differed systematically between the two tumor models. Conclusion: The potential of DCE-MRI as a noninvasive method for assessing the IFP of tumors may be limited because any relationship between IFP and blood perfusion may differ with the tumor growth site.

  1. Imidazoles suppress rat testosterone secretion and testicular interstitial fluid formation In vivo.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1998-08-01

    The aim of these studies was to examine the effects of imidazoles on testosterone secretion and testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) formation through measurement of serum LH, serum testosterone, TIF testosterone, and TIF volumes. Imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, 4-methylimidazole (4-MI), and ketoconazole, an oral imidazole antifungal agent, caused dose-dependent decreases in testosterone secretion and TIF formation. Imidazole, 2-methylimidazole, and 4-MI decreased LH secretion. 4-MI decreased testosterone secretion 1-6 h after injection, increased testosterone at 8-16 h, decreased LH secretion at 4 h, decreased TIF volumes at 1-8 h, and slightly increased TIF volumes at 24 h. 4-MI blocked the stimulatory effects of hCG on testosterone secretion and prevented an expected increase in LH secretion after the 4-MI-induced decrease in testosterone secretion. 4-MI also reversed the effects of three other stimulants of testosterone secretion that presumably act through three different testicular regulatory systems: N-methyl-D,L-aspartate, an excitatory amino acid; NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor; and naltrexone, an opioid antagonist. These results support the hypothesis that imidazoles inhibit testicular function and male reproductive function through inhibition of testosterone secretion, TIF formation, and LH secretion regulatory systems. PMID:9687292

  2. Proton relaxation times and interstitial fluid pressure in human melanoma xenografts.

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, H.; Tufto, I.; Skretting, A.; Rofstad, E. K.

    1997-01-01

    The interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and the proton spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation times (T1 and T2) of some experimental tumours have been shown to be related to tumour water content. These observations have led to the hypothesis that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be a clinically useful non-invasive method for assessment of tumour IFP. The purpose of the work reported here was to examine the general validity of this hypothesis. R-18 human melanoma xenografts grown intradermally in Balb/c nu/nu mice were used as the tumour model system. Median T1 and T2 were determined by spin-echo MRI using a 1.5-T clinical whole-body tomograph. IFP was measured using the wick-in-needle technique. No correlation was found between tumour IFP and fractional tumour water content. Moreover, there was no correlation between median T1 or T2 and IFP, suggesting that proton T1 and T2 values determined by MRI cannot be used clinically to assess tumour IFP and thereby to predict the uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. PMID:9010023

  3. Tumor interstitial fluid pressure as an early-response marker for anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Stephane; Allegrini, Peter R; Becquet, Mike M; McSheehy, Paul Mj

    2009-09-01

    Solid tumors have a raised interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) due to high vessel permeability, low lymphatic drainage, poor perfusion, and high cell density around the blood vessels. To investigate tumor IFP as an early-response biomarker, we have tested the effect of seven anticancer chemotherapeutics including cytotoxics and targeted cytostatics in 13 experimental tumor models. IFP was recorded with the wick-in-needle method. Models were either ectopic or orthotopic and included mouse and rat syngeneic as well as human xenografts in nude mice. The mean basal IFP was between 4.4 and 15.2mm Hg; IFP was lowest in human tumor xenografts and highest in rat syngeneic models. Where measured, basal IFP correlated positively with relative tumor blood volume (rTBV) determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Most chemotherapeutics sooner (2 or 3 days) or later (6 or 7 days) lowered tumor IFP significantly, and the cytotoxic patupilone caused the greatest decrease in IFP. In rat mammary orthotopic BN472 tumors, significant drug-induced decreases in IFP and rTBV correlated positively with each other for both patupilone and the cytostatic vatalanib. In the two orthotopic models studied, early decreases in IFP were significantly (P < or = .005) correlated with late changes in tumor volume. Thus, drug-induced decreases in tumor IFP are an early marker of response to therapy, which could aid clinical development. PMID:19724681

  4. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Chen, Limin; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2013-12-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin-borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations.

  5. Quantification of Lacunar–Canalicular Interstitial Fluid Flow Through Computational Modeling of Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ronald Y.; Frangos, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal adaptation to mechanical loading has been widely hypothesized to involve the stimulation of osteocytes by interstitial fluid flow (IFF). However, direct investigation of this hypothesis has been difficult due in large part to the inability to directly measure IFF velocities within the lacunar–canalicular system. Measurements of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) within individual lacunae could be used to quantify lacunar–canalicular IFF when combined with mathematical modeling. In this study, we used a computational transport model to characterize the relationship between flow frequency (0.5–10 Hz), peak flow velocity (0–300 μm/s), tracer diffusion coefficient (100–300 μm2/s), and transport enhancement (i.e., (k/k0) − 1, where k and k0 are the transport rates in the presence/absence of flow) during lacunar FRAP investigations. We show that this relationship is well described by a simple power law with frequency-dependent coefficients, and is relatively insensitive to variations in lacunar geometry. Using this power law relationship, we estimated peak IFF velocities in hindlimb mice subjected to intramedullary pressurization using values of k and k0 previously obtained from ex vivo lacunar FRAP investigations. Together, our findings suggest that skeletal adaptation in hindlimb suspended mice subjected to dynamic intramedullary pressure occurred in the presence of IFF at levels associated with physiological loading. PMID:21076644

  6. Numerical Modeling of Interstitial Fluid Flow Coupled with Blood Flow through a Remodeled Solid Tumor Microvascular Network.

    PubMed

    Soltani, M; Chen, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor's surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy's law for tissue, and simplified Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling's law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model.

  7. Increased WD-repeat containing protein 1 in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas shown by comparative proteomic analysis of malignant and healthy gynecological tissue.

    PubMed

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian cancer employing multiple fractioning and high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, and asked whether specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates or therapeutic targets could be identified. High throughput proteomics was conducted on immunodepleted and fractioned interstitial fluid from pooled samples of ovarian carcinomas, using endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue as controls. Differential analysis revealed the up-regulation of extracellular proteasomes in tumor interstitial fluid compared to the healthy control. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared with control tissues were identified. Detection of proteasome 20S related proteins in TIF compared to IF from healthy tissue indicates that the 20S proteasome can have a role in the tumor microenvironment. Six selected proteins, CEACAM5, FREM2, MUC5AC, TFF3, PYCARD and WDR1, were independently validated in individual tumor lysates from ovarian carcinomas by multiple reaction monitoring initiated detection and sequence analysis, Western blot and/or selected reaction monitoring. Quantification of specific proteins revealed substantial heterogeneity between individual samples. Nevertheless, WD repeat-containing protein 1 was confirmed as being significantly overexpressed in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared to healthy ovarian tissue by Orbitrap analysis of individual native interstitial fluid from ovarian and endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue. We suggest that this protein should be explored as a therapeutic target in ovarian carcinomas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

  8. Mechanism and Physiologic Significance of the Suppression of Cholesterol Esterification in Human Interstitial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Norman E.; Olszewski, Waldemar L.; Miller, Irina P.; Nanjee, Mahmud N.

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol esterification in high density lipoproteins (HDLs) by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) promotes unesterified cholesterol (UC) transfer from red cell membranes to plasma in vitro. However, it does not explain the transfer of UC from most peripheral cells to interstitial fluid in vivo, as HDLs in afferent peripheral lymph are enriched in UC. Having already reported that the endogenous cholesterol esterification rate (ECER) in lymph is only 5% of that in plasma, we have now explored the underlying mechanism. In peripheral lymph from 20 healthy men, LCAT concentration, LCAT activity (assayed using an optimized substrate), and LCAT specific activity averaged, respectively, 11.8, 10.3, and 84.9% of plasma values. When recombinant human LCAT was added to lymph, the increments in enzyme activity were similar to those when LCAT was added to plasma. Addition of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI), fatty acid-free albumin, Intralipid, or the d < 1.006 g/ml plasma fraction had no effect on ECER. During incubation of lymph plus plasma, the ECER was similar to that observed with buffer plus plasma. When lymph was added to heat-inactivated plasma, the ECER was 11-fold greater than with lymph plus buffer. Addition of discoidal proteoliposomes of apo AI and phosphatidycholine (PC) to lymph increased ECER 10-fold, while addition of apo AI/PC/UC disks did so by only six-fold. We conclude that the low ECER in lymph is due to a property of the HDLs, seemingly substrate inhibition of LCAT by excess cell-derived UC. This is reversed when lymph enters plasma, consequent upon redistribution of UC from lymph HDLs to plasma lipoproteins. PMID:27471469

  9. Lipoprotein remodeling generates lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I particles in human interstitial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Waldemar L.; Hattori, Hiroaki; Miller, Irina P.; Kujiraoka, Takeshi; Oka, Tomoichiro; Iwasaki, Tadao; Nanjee, M. Nazeem

    2013-01-01

    Although much is known about the remodeling of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in blood, there is no information on that in interstitial fluid, where it might have a major impact on the transport of cholesterol from cells. We incubated plasma and afferent (prenodal) peripheral lymph from 10 healthy men at 37°C in vitro and followed the changes in HDL subclasses by nondenaturing two-dimensional crossed immunoelectrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography. In plasma, there was always initially a net conversion of small pre-β-HDLs to cholesteryl ester (CE)-rich α-HDLs. By contrast, in lymph, there was only net production of pre-β-HDLs from α-HDLs. Endogenous cholesterol esterification rate, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration, CE transfer activity, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) concentration, and phospholipid transfer activity in lymph averaged 5.0, 10.4, 8.2, 25.0, and 82.0% of those in plasma, respectively (all P < 0.02). Lymph PLTP concentration, but not phospholipid transfer activity, was positively correlated with that in plasma (r = +0.63, P = 0.05). Mean PLTP-specific activity was 3.5-fold greater in lymph, reflecting a greater proportion of the high-activity form of PLTP. These findings suggest that cholesterol esterification rate and PLTP specific activity are differentially regulated in the two matrices in accordance with the requirements of reverse cholesterol transport, generating lipid-poor pre-β-HDLs in the extracellular matrix for cholesterol uptake from neighboring cells and converting pre-β-HDLs to α-HDLs in plasma for the delivery of cell-derived CEs to the liver. PMID:23233540

  10. Mechanism and Physiologic Significance of the Suppression of Cholesterol Esterification in Human Interstitial Fluid.

    PubMed

    Miller, Norman E; Olszewski, Waldemar L; Miller, Irina P; Nanjee, Mahmud N

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol esterification in high density lipoproteins (HDLs) by lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) promotes unesterified cholesterol (UC) transfer from red cell membranes to plasma in vitro. However, it does not explain the transfer of UC from most peripheral cells to interstitial fluid in vivo, as HDLs in afferent peripheral lymph are enriched in UC. Having already reported that the endogenous cholesterol esterification rate (ECER) in lymph is only 5% of that in plasma, we have now explored the underlying mechanism. In peripheral lymph from 20 healthy men, LCAT concentration, LCAT activity (assayed using an optimized substrate), and LCAT specific activity averaged, respectively, 11.8, 10.3, and 84.9% of plasma values. When recombinant human LCAT was added to lymph, the increments in enzyme activity were similar to those when LCAT was added to plasma. Addition of apolipoprotein AI (apo AI), fatty acid-free albumin, Intralipid, or the d < 1.006 g/ml plasma fraction had no effect on ECER. During incubation of lymph plus plasma, the ECER was similar to that observed with buffer plus plasma. When lymph was added to heat-inactivated plasma, the ECER was 11-fold greater than with lymph plus buffer. Addition of discoidal proteoliposomes of apo AI and phosphatidycholine (PC) to lymph increased ECER 10-fold, while addition of apo AI/PC/UC disks did so by only six-fold. We conclude that the low ECER in lymph is due to a property of the HDLs, seemingly substrate inhibition of LCAT by excess cell-derived UC. This is reversed when lymph enters plasma, consequent upon redistribution of UC from lymph HDLs to plasma lipoproteins. PMID:27471469

  11. Estimating rat renal medullary interstitial oncotic pressures and the driving force for fluid uptake into ascending vasa recta

    PubMed Central

    MacPhee, P J

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the potential contribution of medullary interstitial oncotic pressure to the net balance of forces influencing fluid movement through the walls of the ascending vasa recta (AVR) in the exposed papillae of 2-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats.Using a capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) assay, hyaluronan (HA) concentrations were measured in fresh tissue slices from the renal papilla. HA content per wet weight of tissue decreased from tip to base of the papilla, but as a function of cell-free interstitial space (IS) HA concentration was relatively constant at 1.6 μg HA per mg IS up to 1600–1800 μm from the tip. Thereafter the concentration fell rapidly to near zero levels.The volume of the IS was determined using a transmission electron micrographic study of the papilla in age-matched rats. Total interstitial volume (i.e. IS + IC, the interstitial cell volume), as a function of total tissue volume, decreased only slightly between 0 and 1800 μm (i.e. from about 40 to 35%). IS and IC were found to be reciprocally related with IS decreasing from 21.8 to 10.2%, while IC increased from 18.3 to 25.2% over the 1800 μm.Total interstitial oncotic pressures were estimated as the sum of the oncotic pressure due to HA alone plus the oncotic pressure of albumin (A) in an HA matrix. Taking into account reflection coefficients to HA and A, there was an effective oncotic pressure (Eπ) of between 3.46 and 6.0 cmH2O on the interstitial side of the AVR. Under free flow conditions an Eπ in this range is sufficient to result in a net inward driving force of between 5.4 and 9.3 cmH2O, sufficient to account for current estimates of water reabsorption by the AVR.HA concentrations in the papilla increased over the first 3 weeks of life from 0.313 ±0.09 μg (mg wet weight of slice)−1 (mean ± s.e.m.) at 1 week to 0.563 ±0.06 at 3 weeks of age (P > 0.01), in parallel with an age-dependent increase in mean urine osmolarity. It is suggested that the increasing

  12. Research into the Physiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid Reaches a New Horizon: Intimate Exchange between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid May Contribute to Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; SATO, Osamu; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; HAYASHI, Naokazu; TAKIZAWA, Ken; ATSUMI, Hideki; SORIMACHI, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. The functions of CSF include: (1) buoyancy of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; (2) volume adjustment in the cranial cavity; (3) nutrient transport; (4) protein or peptide transport; (5) brain volume regulation through osmoregulation; (6) buffering effect against external forces; (7) signal transduction; (8) drug transport; (9) immune system control; (10) elimination of metabolites and unnecessary substances; and finally (11) cooling of heat generated by neural activity. For CSF to fully mediate these functions, fluid-like movement in the ventricles and subarachnoid space is necessary. Furthermore, the relationship between the behaviors of CSF and interstitial fluid in the brain and spinal cord is important. In this review, we will present classical studies on CSF circulation from its discovery over 2,000 years ago, and will subsequently introduce functions that were recently discovered such as CSF production and absorption, water molecule movement in the interstitial space, exchange between interstitial fluid and CSF, and drainage of CSF and interstitial fluid into both the venous and the lymphatic systems. Finally, we will summarize future challenges in research. This review includes articles published up to February 2016. PMID:27245177

  13. Research into the Physiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid Reaches a New Horizon: Intimate Exchange between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid May Contribute to Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Matsumae, Mitsunori; Sato, Osamu; Hirayama, Akihiro; Hayashi, Naokazu; Takizawa, Ken; Atsumi, Hideki; Sorimachi, Takatoshi

    2016-07-15

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. The functions of CSF include: (1) buoyancy of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; (2) volume adjustment in the cranial cavity; (3) nutrient transport; (4) protein or peptide transport; (5) brain volume regulation through osmoregulation; (6) buffering effect against external forces; (7) signal transduction; (8) drug transport; (9) immune system control; (10) elimination of metabolites and unnecessary substances; and finally (11) cooling of heat generated by neural activity. For CSF to fully mediate these functions, fluid-like movement in the ventricles and subarachnoid space is necessary. Furthermore, the relationship between the behaviors of CSF and interstitial fluid in the brain and spinal cord is important. In this review, we will present classical studies on CSF circulation from its discovery over 2,000 years ago, and will subsequently introduce functions that were recently discovered such as CSF production and absorption, water molecule movement in the interstitial space, exchange between interstitial fluid and CSF, and drainage of CSF and interstitial fluid into both the venous and the lymphatic systems. Finally, we will summarize future challenges in research. This review includes articles published up to February 2016. PMID:27245177

  14. Overview of Methods for Overcoming Hindrance to Drug Delivery to Tumors, with Special Attention to Tumor Interstitial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Baronzio, Gianfranco; Parmar, Gurdev; Baronzio, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Every drug used to treat cancer (chemotherapeutics, immunological, monoclonal antibodies, nanoparticles, radionuclides) must reach the targeted cells through the tumor environment at adequate concentrations, in order to exert their cell-killing effects. For any of these agents to reach the goal cells, they must overcome a number of impediments created by the tumor microenvironment (TME), beginning with tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP), and a multifactorial increase in composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). A primary modifier of TME is hypoxia, which increases the production of growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor. These growth factors released by both tumor cells and bone marrow recruited myeloid cells form abnormal vasculature characterized by vessels that are tortuous and more permeable. Increased leakiness combined with increased inflammatory byproducts accumulates fluid within the tumor mass (tumor interstitial fluid), ultimately creating an increased pressure (TIFP). Fibroblasts are also up-regulated by the TME, and deposit fibers that further augment the density of the ECM, thus, further worsening the TIFP. Increased TIFP with the ECM are the major obstacles to adequate drug delivery. By decreasing TIFP and ECM density, we can expect an associated rise in drug concentration within the tumor itself. In this overview, we will describe all the methods (drugs, nutraceuticals, and physical methods of treatment) able to lower TIFP and to modify ECM used for increasing drug concentration within the tumor tissue. PMID:26258072

  15. Characterization of Breast Cancer Interstitial Fluids by TmT Labeling, LTQ-Orbitrap Velos Mass Spectrometry and Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cinzia, Raso; Carlo, Cosentino; Marco, Gaspari; Natalia, Malara; Xuemei, Han; Daniel, McClatchy; Kyu, Park Sung; Maria, Renne; Nuria, Vadalà; Ubaldo, Prati; Giovanni, Cuda; Vincenzo, Mollace; Francesco, Amato; Yates, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is currently considered as the end point of numerous genomic and epigenomic mutations and as the result of the interaction of transformed cells within the stromal microenvironment. The present work focuses on breast cancer, one of the most common malignancies affecting the female population in industrialized countries. In this study we perform a proteomic analysis of bioptic samples from human breast cancer, namely interstitial fluids and primary cells, normal vs disease tissues, using Tandem mass Tags (TmT) quantitative mass spectrometry combined with the MudPIT technique. To the best of our knowledge this work, with over 1700 proteins identified, represents the most comprehensive characterization of the breast cancer interstitial fluid proteome to date. Network analysis was used to identify functionally active networks in the breast cancer associated samples. From the list of differentially expressed genes we have retrieved the associated functional interaction networks. Many different signaling pathways were found activated, strongly linked to invasion, metastasis development, proliferation and with a significant cross-talking rate. This pilot study presents evidence that the proposed quantitative proteomic approach can be applied to discriminate between normal and tumoral samples and for the discovery of yet unknown carcinogenesis mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22563702

  16. Role of Microvascular Tone and Extracellular Matrix Contraction in the Regulation of Interstitial Fluid: Implications for Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain; Henrion, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiology of aortic dissection is poorly understood, and its risk is resistant to medical treatment. Most studies have focused on a proposed pathogenic role of transforming growth factor-β in Marfan disease and related thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections. However, clinical testing of this concept using angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to block transforming growth factor-β signaling fell short of promise. Genetic mutations that predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections affect components of the extracellular matrix and proteins involved in cellular force generation. Thus, a role for dysfunctional mechanosensing in abnormal aortic wall remodeling is emerging. However, how abnormal mechanosensing leads to aortic dissection remains a mystery. Here, we review current knowledge about the regulation of interstitial fluid dynamics and myogenic tone and propose that alteration in contractile force reduces vascular tone in the microcirculation (here, aortic vasa vasorum) and leads to elevations of blood flow, transmural pressure, and fluid flux into the surrounding aortic media. Furthermore, reduced contractile force in medial smooth muscle cells coupled with alteration of structural components of the extracellular matrix limits extracellular matrix contraction, further promoting the formation of intramural edema, a critical step in the initiation of aortic dissection. The concept is supported by several pathophysiological and clinical observations. A direct implication of this concept is that drugs that lower blood pressure and limit interstitial fluid accumulation while preserving or increasing microvascular tone would limit the risk of dissection. In contrast, drugs that substantially lower microvascular tone would be ineffective or may accelerate the disease and precipitate aortic dissection. PMID:27444198

  17. Interstitial nephritis

    MedlinePlus

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis; Nephritis - interstitial; Acute interstitial (allergic) nephritis ... Interstitial nephritis may be temporary ( acute ), or it may be long-lasting ( chronic ) and get worse over ...

  18. Interstitial fluid chemistry of sediments underlying the North Atlantic gyre and the influence of subsurface fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebis, Wiebke; McManus, James; Ferdelman, Timothy; Schmidt-Schierhorn, Friederike; Bach, Wolfgang; Muratli, Jesse; Edwards, Katrina J.; Villinger, Heinrich

    2012-03-01

    The western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a region underlying the oligotrophic waters of the central Atlantic. The seafloor along portions of this ridge is characterized by sediment-filled depressions, which are surrounded by steep basaltic outcrops. We present pore fluid and sediment solid-phase chemical data from fourteen gravity cores from "North Pond", a sediment pond where previous drilling work indicated directed flow of seawater within the basement. Sediment lithology is broadly characterized as a nannofossil pelagic sediment containing varying amounts of clay, foraminifers, and Mn-micronodules and typically contains less than 0.3% organic carbon and ~ 70% calcium carbonate. Consistent with its location within an oligotrophic ocean gyre, oxygen and nitrate penetrated deeply into the sediment package. However there is significant spatial variability in the pore fluid nitrate and oxygen profiles, with oxygen generally lower and nitrate higher toward the center of the basin as compared to the edges. In addition, oxygen increased with sediment depth at a number of sites toward the edges of the pond, where sediment cover was thinnest. We interpret these oxygen distributions to indicate that there is upward diffusion of dissolved oxygen from the underlying basaltic basement fluid and the sediment package, and this process appears to be regionally pervasive. Pore fluid molybdenum generally decreases with depth and exhibits spatial variability similar to dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Molybdenum is likely being taken up at depth via adsorption onto manganese oxides, as these sediments are rich in manganese (~ 300-3000 ppm Mn) and molybdenum (~ 2-14 ppm Mo). The strong geographical variations in pore fluid chemistry coupled with the co-variation between molybdenum and oxygen, two species that we would not necessarily expect to be coupled, suggest that diffusion of dissolved constituents into the sediment package from below plays an important role in determining

  19. Absence of lymphatic vessels in human dental pulp: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Renato; Secciani, Ilaria; Sozio, Francesca; Rossi, Antonella; Weber, Elisabetta; Lorenzini, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Few and controversial data are available in the literature regarding the presence of lymphatic vessels in the human dental pulp. The present study was designed to examine morphologically the existence of a lymph drainage system in human dental pulp. Human dental pulp and skin sections were immunohistochemically stained with specific antibodies for lymphatic endothelium (D2-40, LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3], and Prox-1), with the pan-endothelial markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor (vWF), and with the blood-specific marker CD34. Several blood vessels were identified in human pulps and skin. Lymphatic vessels were found in all human skin samples but in none of the pulps examined. Western blotting performed on human dermis and on pulps treated with collagenase (to remove odontoblasts) confirmed these results. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that vessels which, by light microscopy, appeared to be initial lymphatic vessels had no anchoring filaments or discontinuous basement membrane, both of which are typical ultrastructural characteristics of lymphatic vessels. These results suggest that under normal conditions human dental pulp does not contain true lymphatic vessels. The various theories about dental pulp interstitial fluid circulation should be revised accordingly.

  20. Interstitial fluid pressure as an alternate regulator of angiogenesis independent of hypoxia driven HIF-1α in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Aung, Khin Zarchi; Pereira, Barry P; Tan, Pamela H S; Han, Hwan-Chour; Nathan, Saminathan S

    2012-12-01

    We previously showed that interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) may be an alternate regulator of angiogenesis in solid tumors. Given the accepted link between hypoxia-induced factor and angiogenesis this study investigated the effect of IFP on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human osteosarcoma xenografts in SCID mice and in different hypoxic environments. Tumors were grown either at heterotopic (flank) or orthotopic (medullary canal of the proximal tibia) sites in the host animal. Microfluidic probes determined pH, O(2)-saturation, IFP, and peripheral blood flow perfusion continuously. We assessed tumor growth in the orthotopic site (n = 15) by softex radiographs weekly, 3D microCT, histological evaluation, and for molecular responses. An increased cytoplasmic immunohistostaining of cells for HIF-1α (p = 0.03) and VEGF-A (p = 0.004) on the outer periphery was noted compared to the tumor center, with VEGFR2 uniformly stained throughout. This paralleled a raised state of interstitial hypertension (p = 0.007) in the tumor center relative to the peripheral surface but was inconsistent with a state of hypoxia (p = 0.03) in the tumor center. In vitro culture of human osteosarcoma cell lines (HOS, U2OS) and a human osteoblast control at 0- and 20-mmHg of hydrostatic pressure revealed suppression of HIF-1α (p = 0.02) and VEGF-A (p = 0.02) gene expression when IFP was raised, while the effect on VEGFR1 was equivocal. This study proposes an alternative regulatory angiogenic pathway via the influence of IFP on cancer cell function. The identification of a mechanistic cellular link to the physical parameter becomes an important tool to evaluate cancer cell growth within solid tumors.

  1. A Method for Measuring the Volume of Transdermally Extracted Interstitial Fluid by a Three-Electrode Skin Resistance Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dachao; Wang, Ridong; Yu, Haixia; Li, Guoqing; Sun, Yue; Liang, Wenshuai; Xu, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to accurately measure the volume of transdermally extracted interstitial fluid (ISF), which is important for improving blood glucose prediction accuracy. Skin resistance, which is a good indicator of skin permeability, can be used to determine the volume of extracted ISF. However, it is a challenge to realize in vivo longitudinal skin resistance measurements of microareas. In this study, a three-electrode sensor was presented for measuring single-point skin resistance in vivo, and a method for determining the volume of transdermally extracted ISF using this sensor was proposed. Skin resistance was measured under static and dynamic conditions. The correlation between the skin resistance and the permeation rate of transdermally extracted ISF was proven. The volume of transdermally extracted ISF was determined using skin resistance. Factors affecting the volume prediction accuracy of transdermally extracted ISF were discussed. This method is expected to improve the accuracy of blood glucose prediction, and is of great significance for the clinical application of minimally invasive blood glucose measurement. PMID:24759111

  2. Scanning Acoustic Microscopy-A Novel Noninvasive Method to Determine Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure in a Xenograft Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Matthias; Pflanzer, Ralph; Habib, Anowarul; Shelke, Amit; Bereiter-Hahn, Jürgen; Bernd, August; Kaufmann, Roland; Sader, Robert; Kippenberger, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) is a prominent feature of solid tumors and hampers the transmigration of therapeutic macromolecules, for example, large monoclonal antibodies, from tumor-supplying vessels into the tumor interstitium. TIFP values of up to 40 mm Hg have been measured in experimental solid tumors using two conventional invasive techniques: the wick-in-needle and the micropuncture technique. We propose a novel noninvasive method of determining TIFP via ultrasonic investigation with scanning acoustic microscopy at 30-MHz frequency. In our experimental setup, we observed for the impedance fluctuations in the outer tumor hull of A431-vulva carcinoma-derived tumor xenograft mice. The gain dependence of signal strength was quantified, and the relaxation of tissue was calibrated with simultaneous hydrostatic pressure measurements. Signal patterns from the acoustical images were translated into TIFP curves, and a putative saturation effect was found for tumor pressures larger than 3 mm Hg. This is the first noninvasive approach to determine TIFP values in tumors. This technique can provide a potentially promising noninvasive assessment of TIFP and, therefore, can be used to determine the TIFP before treatment approach as well to measure therapeutic efficacy highlighted by lowered TFP values. PMID:27267834

  3. Self-powered microneedle-based biosensors for pain-free high-accuracy measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Strambini, L M; Longo, A; Scarano, S; Prescimone, T; Palchetti, I; Minunni, M; Giannessi, D; Barillaro, G

    2015-04-15

    In this work a novel self-powered microneedle-based transdermal biosensor for pain-free high-accuracy real-time measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid (ISF) is reported. The proposed transdermal biosensor makes use of an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles that are about one order of magnitude both smaller (borehole down to 4µm) and more densely-packed (up to 1×10(6)needles/cm(2)) than state-of-the-art microneedles used for biosensing so far. This allows self-powered (i.e. pump-free) uptake of ISF to be carried out with high efficacy and reliability in a few seconds (uptake rate up to 1µl/s) by exploiting capillarity in the microneedles. By coupling the microneedles operating under capillary-action with an enzymatic glucose biosensor integrated on the back-side of the needle-chip, glucose measurements are performed with high accuracy (±20% of the actual glucose level for 96% of measures) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 8.56%) in real-time (30s) over the range 0-630mg/dl, thus significantly improving microneedle-based biosensor performance with respect to the state-of-the-art.

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p < 0.05) and 288 down-regulated proteins (ratio ≤ -1.3, p < 0.05) in tumor TIF were identified. Interestingly, proteins in S100 family were found remarkably up-regulated in tumor TIF. One dramatically up-regulated protein S100A9 (ratio = 19) was further validated by ELISA in sera from liver cirrhosis (LC, HCC high risk population) and HCC patients (n = 47 for each group). The level of this protein was significantly elevated in HCC sera compared with LC (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve of this protein to distinguish HCC from LC was 0.83, with sensitivity of 91% (higher than AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  5. Effect of microvascular distribution and its density on interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumors: A computational model.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, M; Chen, P

    2015-09-01

    Solid tumors with different microvascular densities (MVD) have been shown to have different outcomes in clinical studies. Other studies have demonstrated the significant correlation between high MVD, elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and metastasis in cancers. Elevated IFP in solid tumors prevents drug macromolecules reaching most cancerous cells. To overcome this barrier, antiangiogenesis drugs can reduce MVD within the tumor and lower IFP. A quantitative approach is essential to compute how much reduction in MVD is required for a specific tumor to reach a desired amount of IFP for drug delivery purposes. Here we provide a computational framework to investigate how IFP is affected by the tumor size, the MVD, and location of vessels within the tumor. A general physiologically relevant tumor type with a heterogenous vascular structure surrounded by normal tissue is utilized. Then the continuity equation, Darcy's law, and Starling's equation are applied in the continuum mechanics model, which can calculate IFP for different cases of solid tumors. High MVD causes IFP elevation in solid tumors, and IFP distribution correlates with microvascular distribution within tumor tissue. However, for tumors with constant MVD but different microvascular structures, the average values of IFP were found to be the same. Moreover, for a constant MVD and vascular distribution, an increase in tumor size leads to increased IFP.

  6. A needle-free technique for interstitial fluid sample acquisition using a lorentz-force actuated jet injector.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jean H; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-08-10

    We present a novel method of quickly acquiring dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) samples using a Lorentz-force actuated needle-free jet injector. The feasibility of the method is first demonstrated on post-mortem porcine tissue. The jet injector is used to first inject a small volume of physiological saline to breach the skin, and the back-drivability of the actuator is utilized to create negative pressure in the ampoule and collect ISF. The effect of the injection and extraction parameters on sample dilution and extracted volumes is investigated. A simple finite element model is developed to demonstrate why this acquisition method results in faster extractions than conventional sampling methods. Using this method, we are able to collect a sample that contains up to 3.5% ISF in 3.1s from post-mortem skin. The trends revealed from experimentation on post-mortem skin are then used to identify the parameters for a live animal study. The feasibility of the acquisition process is successfully demonstrated using live rats; the process is revealed to extract samples that have been diluted by a factor of 111-125.

  7. Self-powered microneedle-based biosensors for pain-free high-accuracy measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Strambini, L M; Longo, A; Scarano, S; Prescimone, T; Palchetti, I; Minunni, M; Giannessi, D; Barillaro, G

    2015-04-15

    In this work a novel self-powered microneedle-based transdermal biosensor for pain-free high-accuracy real-time measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid (ISF) is reported. The proposed transdermal biosensor makes use of an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles that are about one order of magnitude both smaller (borehole down to 4µm) and more densely-packed (up to 1×10(6)needles/cm(2)) than state-of-the-art microneedles used for biosensing so far. This allows self-powered (i.e. pump-free) uptake of ISF to be carried out with high efficacy and reliability in a few seconds (uptake rate up to 1µl/s) by exploiting capillarity in the microneedles. By coupling the microneedles operating under capillary-action with an enzymatic glucose biosensor integrated on the back-side of the needle-chip, glucose measurements are performed with high accuracy (±20% of the actual glucose level for 96% of measures) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 8.56%) in real-time (30s) over the range 0-630mg/dl, thus significantly improving microneedle-based biosensor performance with respect to the state-of-the-art. PMID:25601169

  8. Subharmonic aided pressure estimation for monitoring interstitial fluid pressure in tumours -in vitro and in vivo proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsdottir, V G; Dave, J K; Eisenbrey, J R; Machado, P; Zhao, H; Liu, J B; Merton, D A; Forsberg, F

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) to noninvasively estimate interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) was studied. In vitro, radiofrequency signals, from 0.2 ml/l of Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA) were acquired within a water-tank with a Sonix RP ultrasound scanner (Ultrasonix, Richmond, BC, Canada; fT/R=6.7/3.35 MHz and fT/R =10/5 MHz) and the subharmonic amplitudes of the signals were compared over 0–50 mmHg. In vivo, five swine with naturally occurring melanomas were studied. Subharmonic signals were acquired from tumours and surrounding tissue during infusion of Definity and compared to needle-based pressure measurements. Both in vitro and in vivo, an inverse linear relationship between hydrostatic pressure and subharmonic amplitude was observed with r2=0.63–0.95; p<0.05, maximum amplitude drop 11.36 dB at 10 MHz and −8 dB, and r2 as high as 0.97; p<0.02 (10 MHz and −4/−8 dB most promising), respectively, indicating that SHAPE may be useful in monitoring IFP. PMID:24856899

  9. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p < 0.05) and 288 down-regulated proteins (ratio ≤ −1.3, p < 0.05) in tumor TIF were identified. Interestingly, proteins in S100 family were found remarkably up-regulated in tumor TIF. One dramatically up-regulated protein S100A9 (ratio = 19) was further validated by ELISA in sera from liver cirrhosis (LC, HCC high risk population) and HCC patients (n = 47 for each group). The level of this protein was significantly elevated in HCC sera compared with LC (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve of this protein to distinguish HCC from LC was 0.83, with sensitivity of 91% (higher than AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  10. High Interstitial Fluid Pressure Is Associated with Tumor-Line Specific Vascular Abnormalities in Human Melanoma Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Trude G.; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Leinaas, Marit N.; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is highly elevated in many solid tumors. High IFP has been associated with low radiocurability and high metastatic frequency in human melanoma xenografts and with poor survival after radiation therapy in cervical cancer patients. Abnormalities in tumor vascular networks have been identified as an important cause of elevated tumor IFP. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between tumor IFP and the functional and morphological properties of tumor vascular networks. Materials and Methods A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP human melanomas growing in dorsal window chambers in BALB/c nu/nu mice were used as preclinical tumor models. Functional and morphological parameters of the vascular network were assessed from first-pass imaging movies and vascular maps recorded after intravenous bolus injection of 155-kDa tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. IFP was measured in the center of the tumors using a Millar catheter. Angiogenic profiles of A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP cells were obtained with a quantitative PCR array. Results High IFP was associated with low growth rate and low vascular density in A-07-GFP tumors, and with high growth rate and high vascular density in R-18-GFP tumors. A-07-GFP tumors showed chaotic and highly disorganized vascular networks, while R-18-GFP tumors showed more organized vascular networks with supplying arterioles in the tumor center and draining venules in the tumor periphery. Furthermore, A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP cells differed substantially in angiogenic profiles. A-07-GFP tumors with high IFP showed high geometric resistance to blood flow due to high vessel tortuosity. R-18-GFP tumors with high IFP showed high geometric resistance to blood flow due to a large number of narrow tumor capillaries. Conclusions High IFP in A-07-GFP and R-18-GFP human melanoma xenografts was primarily a consequence of high blood flow resistance caused by tumor-line specific vascular abnormalities. PMID

  11. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways.

  12. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A study of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals and comparison to patients with other chronic interstitial lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Piantadosi, C.A.; Bell, D.Y.

    1986-09-01

    We studied the asbestos body (AB) content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, 31 patients with sarcoidosis and 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The cellular lavage pellet was digested in sodium hypochlorite and filtered onto Nuclepore filters for AB quantification by light microscopy. ABs were found in 15 of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals, 9 of 31 sarcoidosis cases and 2 of 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ABs per million cells recovered or per milliliter of recovered lavage fluid in the asbestos-exposed group as compared to the other categories of chronic interstitial lung disease. The highest levels occurred in patients with asbestosis. Large numbers of asbestos bodies in the lavage fluid (greater than 1 AB/10(6) cells) were indicative of considerable occupational asbestos exposure, whereas occasional bodies were a nonspecific finding.

  13. Comparison of Interstitial Fluid pH, PCO2, PO2 with Venous Blood Values During Repetitive Handgrip Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, Ronald Donald; Soller, Babs R.; Shear, Michael; Walz, Matthias; Landry, Michelle; Heard, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a small, fiber optic sensor to measure pH, PCO2 and PO2 from forearm muscle interstitial fluid (IF) during handgrip dynamometry. PURPOSE: Compare pH, PCO2 and PO2 values obtained from venous blood with those from the IF of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) during three levels of exercise intensity. METHODS: Six subjects (5M/1F), average age 29+/-5 yrs, participated in the study. A venous catheter was placed in the retrograde direction in the antecubital space and a fiber optic sensor (Paratrend, Diametrics Medical, Inc.) was placed through a 22 G catheter into the FDS muscle under ultrasound guidance. After a 45 min rest period, subjects performed three 5-min bouts of repetitive handgrip exercise (2s contraction/1 s relaxation) at attempted levels of 15%, 30% and 45% of maximal voluntary contraction. The order of the exercise bouts was random with the second and third bouts started after blood lactate had returned to baseline. Venous blood was sampled every minute during exercise and analyzed with an I-Stat CG-4+ cartridge, while IF fiber optic sensor measurements were obtained every 2 s. Change from pre-exercise baseline to end of exercise was computed for pH, PCO2 and PO2. Blood and IF values were compared with a paired t-test. RESULTS: Baseline values for pH, PCO2 and PO2 were 7.37+/-0.02, 46+/-4 mm Hg, and 36+/-6 mm Hg respectively in blood and 7.39+/-0.02, 44+/-6 mm Hg, and 35+/-14 mm Hg in IF. Average changes over all exercise levels are noted in the Table below. For each parameter the exercise-induced change was at least twice as great in IF as in blood. In blood and IF, pH and PCO2 increases were directly related to exercise intensity. Change in venous PO2 was unrelated to exercise intensity, while IF PO2 decreased with increases in exercise intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of IF pH, PCO2 and PO2 is more sensitive to exercise intensity than measurement of the same parameters in venous blood and provides continuous

  14. Skeletal Adaptation to Intramedullary Pressure-Induced Interstitial Fluid Flow Is Enhanced in Mice Subjected to Targeted Osteocyte Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ronald Y.; Meays, Diana R.; Meilan, Alexander S.; Jones, Jeremiah; Miramontes, Rosa; Kardos, Natalie; Yeh, Jiunn-Chern; Frangos, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is a potent regulatory signal in bone. During mechanical loading, IFF is generated through two distinct mechanisms that result in spatially distinct flow profiles: poroelastic interactions within the lacunar-canalicular system, and intramedullary pressurization. While the former generates IFF primarily within the lacunar-canalicular network, the latter generates significant flow at the endosteal surface as well as within the tissue. This gives rise to the intriguing possibility that loading-induced IFF may differentially activate osteocytes or surface-residing cells depending on the generating mechanism, and that sensation of IFF generated via intramedullary pressurization may be mediated by a non-osteocytic bone cell population. To begin to explore this possibility, we used the Dmp1-HBEGF inducible osteocyte ablation mouse model and a microfluidic system for modulating intramedullary pressure (ImP) to assess whether structural adaptation to ImP-driven IFF is altered by partial osteocyte depletion. Canalicular convective velocities during pressurization were estimated through the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and computational modeling. Following osteocyte ablation, transgenic mice exhibited severe losses in bone structure and altered responses to hindlimb suspension in a compartment-specific manner. In pressure-loaded limbs, transgenic mice displayed similar or significantly enhanced structural adaptation to Imp-driven IFF, particularly in the trabecular compartment, despite up to ∼50% of trabecular lacunae being uninhabited following ablation. Interestingly, regression analysis revealed relative gains in bone structure in pressure-loaded limbs were correlated with reductions in bone structure in unpressurized control limbs, suggesting that adaptation to ImP-driven IFF was potentiated by increases in osteoclastic activity and/or reductions in osteoblastic activity incurred independently of pressure loading

  15. Effects of Perivitelline Fluid Obtained from Horseshoe Crab on The Proliferation and Genotoxicity of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Marahaini; Mohd Ali, Khadijah; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Azlina, Ahmad; Omar, Nor Shamsuria; Chatterji, Anil; Mokhtar, Khairani Idah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Perivitelline fluid (PVF) of the horseshoe crab embryo has been reported to possess an important role during embryogenesis by promoting cell proliferation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of PVF on the proliferation, chromosome aberration (CA) and mutagenicity of the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Materials and Methods This is an in vitro experimental study. PVF samples were collected from horseshoe crabs from beaches in Malaysia and the crude extract was prepared. DPSCs were treated with different concentrations of PVF crude extract in an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (cytotoxicity test). We choose two inhibitory concentrations (IC50 and IC25) and two PVF concentrations which produced more cell viability compared to a negative control (100%) for further tests. Quantitative analysis of the proliferation activity of PVF was studied using the AlamarBlue®assay for 10 days. Population doubling times (PDTs) of the treatment groups were calculated from this assay. Genotoxicity was evaluated based on the CA and Ames tests. Statistical analysis was carried out using independent t test to calculate significant differences in the PDT and mitotic indices in the CA test between the treatment and negative control groups. Significant differences in the data were P<0.05. Results A total of four PVF concentrations retrieved from the MTT assay were 26.887 mg/ml (IC50), 14.093 mg/ml (IC25), 0.278 mg/ml (102% cell viability) and 0.019 mg/ml (102.5% cell viability). According to the AlamarBlue®assay, these PVF groups produced comparable proliferation activities compared to the negative (untreated) control. PDTs between PVF groups and the negative control were insignificantly different (P>0.05). No significant aberrations in chromosomes were observed in the PVF groups and the Ames test on the PVF showed the absence of significant positive results. Conclusion PVF from horseshoe crabs produced insignificant proliferative

  16. Pretreatment with VEGF(R)-inhibitors reduces interstitial fluid pressure, increases intraperitoneal chemotherapy drug penetration, and impedes tumor growth in a mouse colorectal carcinomatosis model

    PubMed Central

    Gremonprez, Félix; Descamps, Benedicte; Izmer, Andrei; Vanhove, Christian; Vanhaecke, Frank; De Wever, Olivier; Ceelen, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) is currently the standard treatment for selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. However, especially after incomplete cytoreduction, disease progression is common and this is likely due to limited tissue penetration and efficacy of intraperitoneal cytotoxic drugs. Tumor microenvironment-targeting drugs, such as VEGF(R) and PDGFR inhibitors, can lower the heightened interstitial fluid pressure in tumors, a barrier to drug delivery. Here, we investigated whether tumor microenvironment-targeting drugs enhance the effectiveness of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. A mouse xenograft model with two large peritoneal implants of colorectal cancer cells was developed to study drug distribution and tumor physiology during intraperitoneal Oxaliplatin perfusion. Mice were treated for six days with either Placebo, Imatinib (anti-PDGFR, daily), Bevacizumab (anti-VEGF, twice) or Pazopanib (anti-PDGFR, -VEGFR; daily) followed by intraperitoneal oxaliplatin chemotherapy. Bevacizumab and Pazopanib significantly lowered interstitial fluid pressure, increased Oxaliplatin penetration (assessed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and delayed tumor growth of peritoneal implants (assessed by MRI). Our findings suggest that VEGF(R)-inhibition may improve the efficacy of IPC, particularly for patients for whom a complete cytoreduction might not be feasible. PMID:26375674

  17. Interstitial fluid flow within bone canaliculi and electro-chemo-mechanical features of the canalicular milieu: a multi-parametric sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Vittorio; Kaiser, Joanna; Naili, Salah; Lemaire, Thibault

    2013-06-01

    Canalicular fluid flow is acknowledged to play a major role in bone functioning, allowing bone cells' metabolism and activity and providing an efficient way for cell-to-cell communication. Bone canaliculi are small canals running through the bone solid matrix, hosting osteocyte's dendrites, and saturated by an interstitial fluid rich in ions. Because of the small size of these canals (few hundred nanometers in diameter), fluid flow is coupled with electrochemical phenomena. In our previous works, we developed a multi-scale model accounting for coupled hydraulic and chemical transport in the canalicular network. Unfortunately, most of the physical and geometrical information required by the model is hardly accessible by nowadays experimental techniques. The goal of this study was to numerically assess the influence of the physical and material parameters involved in the canalicular fluid flow. The focus was set on the electro-chemo-mechanical features of the canalicular milieu, hopefully covering any in vivo scenario. Two main results were obtained. First, the most relevant parameters affecting the canalicular fluid flow were identified and their effects quantified. Second, these findings were given a larger scope to cover also scenarios not considered in this study. Therefore, this study gives insight into the potential interactions between electrochemistry and mechanics in bone and provides the rational for further theoretical and experimental investigations.

  18. Glutathione peroxidase 3 localizes to the epithelial lining fluid and the extracellular matrix in interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Andrea C.; Schiller, Herbert B.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Sterclova, Martina; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Hennen, Elisabeth; Hatz, Rudolf; Behr, Jürgen; Vašáková, Martina; Mann, Matthias; Eickelberg, Oliver; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant antioxidant activity and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) are hallmarks of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). It is known that oxidative stress alters the ECM, but extracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms in ILD are incompletely understood. Here, we extracted abundance and detergent solubility of extracellular antioxidant enzymes from a proteomic dataset of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice and assessed regulation and distribution of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) in murine and human lung fibrosis. Superoxide dismutase 3 (Sod3), Gpx3, and Gpx activity were increased in mouse BALF during bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. In lung tissue homogenates, Gpx3, but not Sod3, was upregulated and detergent solubility profiling indicated that Gpx3 associated with ECM proteins. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Gpx3 was expressed by bronchial epithelial cells and interstitial fibroblasts and localized to the basement membrane and interstitial ECM in lung tissue. As to human ILD samples, BALF of some patients contained high levels of GPX3, and GPX3 was upregulated in lung homogenates from IPF patients. GPX3 expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts was downregulated by TNF-α, but more variably regulated by TGF-β1 and menadione. In conclusion, the antioxidant enzyme GPX3 localizes to lung ECM and is variably upregulated in ILD. PMID:27435875

  19. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of human interstitial fluid in vitro and in vivo using FT-IR spectroscopy and pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCL): Establishing a new approach to non invasive glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleitez, Miguel; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Hermann; Mäntele, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid, i.e. the liquid present in the outermost layer of living cells of the skin between the Stratum corneum and the Stratum spinosum, was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by infrared spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade infrared lasers with photoacoustic detection. IR spectra of simulated interstitial fluid samples and of real samples from volunteers in the 850-1800 cm -1 range revealed that the major components of interstitial fluid are albumin and glucose within the physiological range, with only traces of sodium lactate if at all. The IR absorbance of glucose in interstitial fluid in vivo was probed in healthy volunteers using a setup with quantum cascade lasers and photoacoustic detection previously described [11]. A variation of blood glucose between approx. 80 mg/dl and 250 mg/dl in the volunteers was obtained using the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGT). At two IR wavelengths, 1054 cm -1 and 1084 cm -1, a reasonable correlation between the photoacoustic signal from the skin and the blood glucose value as determined by conventional glucose test sticks using blood from the finger tip was obtained. The infrared photoacoustic glucose signal (PAGS) may serve as the key for a non-invasive glucose measurement, since the glucose content in interstitial fluid closely follows blood glucose in the time course and in the level (a delay of some minutes and a level of approx. 80-90% of the glucose level in blood). Interstitial fluid is present in skin layers at a depth of only 15-50 μm and is thus within the reach of mid-IR energy in an absorbance measurement. A non-invasive glucose measurement for diabetes patients based on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and photoacoustic detection could replace the conventional measurement using enzymatic test stripes and a drop of blood from the finger tip, thus reducing pain and being a cost-efficient alternative for millions of diabetes patients.

  20. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of human interstitial fluid in vitro and in vivo using FT-IR spectroscopy and pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCL): Establishing a new approach to non invasive glucose measurement.

    PubMed

    Pleitez, Miguel; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Hermann; Mäntele, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid, i.e. the liquid present in the outermost layer of living cells of the skin between the Stratum corneum and the Stratum spinosum, was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by infrared spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade infrared lasers with photoacoustic detection. IR spectra of simulated interstitial fluid samples and of real samples from volunteers in the 850-1800cm(-1) range revealed that the major components of interstitial fluid are albumin and glucose within the physiological range, with only traces of sodium lactate if at all. The IR absorbance of glucose in interstitial fluid in vivo was probed in healthy volunteers using a setup with quantum cascade lasers and photoacoustic detection previously described. A variation of blood glucose between approx. 80mg/dl and 250mg/dl in the volunteers was obtained using the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGT). At two IR wavelengths, 1054cm(-1) and 1084cm(-1), a reasonable correlation between the photoacoustic signal from the skin and the blood glucose value as determined by conventional glucose test sticks using blood from the finger tip was obtained. The infrared photoacoustic glucose signal (PAGS) may serve as the key for a non-invasive glucose measurement, since the glucose content in interstitial fluid closely follows blood glucose in the time course and in the level (a delay of some minutes and a level of approx. 80-90% of the glucose level in blood). Interstitial fluid is present in skin layers at a depth of only 15-50μm and is thus within the reach of mid-IR energy in an absorbance measurement. A non-invasive glucose measurement for diabetes patients based on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and photoacoustic detection could replace the conventional measurement using enzymatic test stripes and a drop of blood from the finger tip, thus reducing pain and being a cost-efficient alternative for millions of diabetes patients.

  1. Investigation of utility of cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration as a surrogate for interstitial fluid concentration using microdialysis coupled with cisternal cerebrospinal fluid sampling in wild-type and Mdr1a(-/-) rats.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Yoko; Nozaki, Yoshitane; Takenaka, Osamu; Watari, Ryuji; Kusano, Kazutomi; Yoshimura, Tsutomu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    In drug discovery, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drug concentration (CCSF) has been used as a surrogate for the interstitial fluid (ISF) concentration (CISF). However, the CCSF-to-CISF gradient suggested for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates in rodents causes uncertainty in CISF estimations and subsequent pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses. To evaluate the utility of CCSF as a surrogate for CISF, this study directly compared the CCSF with the CISF of 12 compounds, including P-gp substrates, under steady-state conditions in wild-type and Mdr1a(-/-) rats using microdialysis coupled with cisternal CSF sampling. In wild-type rats, the ISF-to-unbound plasma (Kp,uu,ISF) and CSF-to-unbound plasma (Kp,uu,CSF) concentration ratios of the P-gp substrates, except for metoclopramide, were lower than those of the non-P-gp substrates, and the Kp,uu,CSF values were within or close to 3-fold of the Kp,uu,ISF values for all the compounds examined. The Kp,uu,CSF values of the selected P-gp substrates increased in Mdr1a(-/-) rats with a similar magnitude to the Kp,uu,ISF values, resulting in the Kp,uu,CSF-to-Kp,uu,ISF ratios being unchanged. These results suggested that P-gp-mediated active efflux at the blood-brain barrier is a major determinant not only for CISF, but also for CCSF, and that CCSF can be used as a surrogate for CISF even for P-gp substrates in rats.

  2. Numerical simulation of osteocyte cell in response to directional mechanical loadings and mechanotransduction analysis: Considering lacunar-canalicular interstitial fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh; Ghalichi, Farzan

    2016-09-01

    The osteocyte cell is a bone cell that also functions as a bone mechanosensor. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of an osteocyte cell under different mechanical loading conditions was used to obtain a better understanding of osteocyte cell behavior under different physiological conditions. In the current study, both fluid and solid parts of osteocyte cell were considered in order to allow for more accurate results. Five different loading conditions have been applied to the osteocyte cell, and consequently the different interstitial fluid flow velocities and shear stresses have been investigated. Furthermore, using a mathematical model, the change in the stimulus function value with shear stress and NO enzyme was revealed. This work suggests that changes in osteocyte morphology and direction of loadings affect cell stimulation. It was found that cell is mostly stimulated and expanded in the direction experiencing the most shear stress. Finally, the amount of cell stimulation was shown quantitatively and there was strong dependency between stimulus function, shear stress, calcium, and NO concentration.

  3. Numerical simulation of osteocyte cell in response to directional mechanical loadings and mechanotransduction analysis: Considering lacunar-canalicular interstitial fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh; Ghalichi, Farzan

    2016-09-01

    The osteocyte cell is a bone cell that also functions as a bone mechanosensor. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of an osteocyte cell under different mechanical loading conditions was used to obtain a better understanding of osteocyte cell behavior under different physiological conditions. In the current study, both fluid and solid parts of osteocyte cell were considered in order to allow for more accurate results. Five different loading conditions have been applied to the osteocyte cell, and consequently the different interstitial fluid flow velocities and shear stresses have been investigated. Furthermore, using a mathematical model, the change in the stimulus function value with shear stress and NO enzyme was revealed. This work suggests that changes in osteocyte morphology and direction of loadings affect cell stimulation. It was found that cell is mostly stimulated and expanded in the direction experiencing the most shear stress. Finally, the amount of cell stimulation was shown quantitatively and there was strong dependency between stimulus function, shear stress, calcium, and NO concentration. PMID:27393805

  4. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... cornea. This condition is often caused by infections. Syphilis is the most common cause of interstitial keratitis, ... Tuberculosis In the United States, most cases of syphilis are recognized and treated before this eye condition ...

  5. Determination of (2)H-enrichment of rat brain interstitial fluid and rat plasma by headspace-gas-chromatography - quadrupole-mass-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Anita; Altendorfer-Kroath, Thomas; Kollmann, Denise; Birngruber, Thomas; Sinner, Frank; Raml, Reingard; Magnes, Christoph

    2016-09-15

    (2)H2O as nonradioactive, stable marker substance is commonly used in preclinical and clinical studies and the precise determination of (2)H2O concentration in biological samples is crucial. However, aside from isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), only a very limited number of methods to accurately measure the (2)H2O concentration in biological samples are routinely established until now. In this study, we present a straightforward method to accurately measure (2)H-enrichment of rat brain interstitial fluid (ISF) and rat plasma to determine the relative recovery of a cerebral open flow microperfusion (cOFM) probe, using headspace-gas-chromatography - quadrupole-mass-spectrometry. This method is based on basic-catalyzed hydrogen/deuterium exchange in acetone and detects the (2)H-labelled acetone directly by the headspace GC-MS. Small sample volumes and limited number of preparation steps make this method highly competitive. It has been fully validated. (2)H enriched to 8800 ppm in plasma showed an accuracy of 98.9% and %Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) of 3.1 with n = 18 over three days and with two operators. Similar performance was obtained for cerebral ISF enriched to 1100 ppm (accuracy: 96.5%, %RSD: 3.1). With this highly reproducible method we demonstrated the successful employment of (2)H2O as performance marker for a cOFM probe.

  6. Plasma and interstitial fluid pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, its metabolite ciprofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after oral administration and a constant rate intravenous infusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bidgood, T L; Papich, M G

    2005-08-01

    Enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin were administered to six healthy dogs in separate crossover experiments as a single oral dose (5 mg/kg) and as a constant rate IV infusion (1.24 and 0.12 mg/h.kg, respectively) following a loading dose (4.47 and 2 mg/kg, respectively) to achieve a steady-state concentration of approximately 1 microg/mL for 8 h. Interstitial fluid (ISF) was collected with an in vivo ultrafiltration device at the same time period as plasma to measure protein unbound drug concentrations at the tissue site and assess the dynamics of drug distribution. Plasma and ISF were analyzed for enrofloxacin, its active metabolite ciprofloxacin, and for marbofloxacin by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lipophilicity and protein binding of enrofloxacin were higher than for marbofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Compared to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin had a longer half-life, higher Cmax, and larger AUC(0-infinity) in plasma and ISF after oral administration. Establishing steady state allowed an assessment of the dynamics of drug concentrations between plasma and ISF. The ISF and plasma-unbound concentrations were similar during the steady-state period despite differences in lipophilicity and pharmacokinetic parameters of the drugs.

  7. Interstitial Fluid Glucose Is Not Just a Shifted-in-Time but a Distorted Mirror of Blood Glucose: Insight from an In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be “delayed” with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. Methods: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way. In particular, we consider BG concentration measured after meal and exercise in 12 healthy volunteers, whereas ISF glucose is simulated using a well-accepted model of blood–ISF glucose kinetics, which permits calculation of the equilibration time, a parameter characterizing the system. Two metrics are defined: blood and ISF glucose difference at each time point and time to reach the same glucose value in blood and ISF. Results: The simulation performed and the two metrics show that the relationship between blood–ISF glucose profiles is more complex than a pure shift in time and that the pattern depends on both equilibration time and BG. Conclusions: In this in silico study, we have illustrated, with simple case studies, the meaning of the of ISF glucose with respect to BG. Understanding that ISF glucose is not just a shifted-in-time version but a distorted mirror of BG is important for a correct use of continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes management. PMID:27253751

  8. Amyloid-β Peptides and Tau Protein as Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal and Interstitial Fluid Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Experimental and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P.; Marklund, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors frequently suffer from life-long deficits in cognitive functions and a reduced quality of life. Axonal injury, observed in many severe TBI patients, results in accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Post-injury enzymatic cleavage of APP can generate amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, a hallmark finding in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). At autopsy, brains of AD and a subset of TBI victims display some similarities including accumulation of Aβ peptides and neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Most epidemiological evidence suggests a link between TBI and AD, implying that TBI has neurodegenerative sequelae. Aβ peptides and tau may be used as biomarkers in interstitial fluid (ISF) using cerebral microdialysis and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following clinical TBI. In the present review, the available clinical and experimental literature on Aβ peptides and tau as potential biomarkers following TBI is comprehensively analyzed. Elevated CSF and ISF tau protein levels have been observed following severe TBI and suggested to correlate with clinical outcome. Although Aβ peptides are produced by normal neuronal metabolism, high levels of long and/or fibrillary Aβ peptides may be neurotoxic. Increased CSF and/or ISF Aβ levels post-injury may be related to neuronal activity and/or the presence of axonal injury. The heterogeneity of animal models, clinical cohorts, analytical techniques, and the complexity of TBI in the available studies make the clinical value of tau and Aβ as biomarkers uncertain at present. Additionally, the link between early post-injury changes in tau and Aβ peptides and the future risk of developing AD remains unclear. Future studies using methods such as rapid biomarker sampling combined with enhanced analytical techniques and/or novel pharmacological tools could provide additional information on the importance of Aβ peptides and tau protein in both the acute pathophysiology and long

  9. Interstitial Fluid Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Murine Mammary Gland and Cancer and Human Breast Tissue and Cancer Determined by Novel Methods.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yamada, Akimitsu; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Allegood, Jeremy C; Tsuchida, Junko; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Huang, Wei-Ching; Terracina, Krista P; Adams, Barbara J; Rashid, Omar M; Milstien, Sheldon; Wakai, Toshifumi; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-06-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a determining factor for cancer biology and progression. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), produced by sphingosine kinases (SphKs), is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates processes important for cancer progression. Despite its critical roles, the levels of S1P in interstitial fluid (IF), an important component of the tumor microenvironment, have never previously been measured due to a lack of efficient methods for collecting and quantifying IF. The purpose of this study is to clarify the levels of S1P in the IF from murine mammary glands and its tumors utilizing our novel methods. We developed an improved centrifugation method to collect IF. Sphingolipids in IF, blood, and tissue samples were measured by mass spectrometry. In mice with a deletion of SphK1, but not SphK2, levels of S1P in IF from the mammary glands were greatly attenuated. Levels of S1P in IF from mammary tumors were reduced when tumor growth was suppressed by oral administration of FTY720/fingolimod. Importantly, sphingosine, dihydro-sphingosine, and S1P levels, but not dihydro-S1P, were significantly higher in human breast tumor tissue IF than in the normal breast tissue IF. To our knowledge, this is the first reported S1P IF measurement in murine normal mammary glands and mammary tumors, as well as in human patients with breast cancer. S1P tumor IF measurement illuminates new aspects of the role of S1P in the tumor microenvironment.

  10. Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells with a Renal Progenitor Phenotype Inhibit Interstitial Fibrosis in Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira Arcolino, Fanny; Carlon, Marianne Sylvia; Beckmann, Diego Vilibaldo; Pippi, Ney Luis; Luhers Graça, Dominguita; Levtchenko, Elena; Deprest, Jan; Toelen, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid (hAFSCs) are a promising source for cellular therapy, especially for renal disorders, as a subpopulation is derived from the fetal urinary tract. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if hAFSCs with a renal progenitor phenotype demonstrate a nephroprotective effect in acute ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model and prevent late stage fibrosis. Methods A total of 45 male 12-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups;: rats subjected to I/R injury and treated with Chang Medium, rats subjected to I/R injury and treated with hAFSCs and sham-operated animals. In the first part of this study, hAFSCs that highly expressed CD24, CD117, SIX2 and PAX2 were isolated and characterized. In the second part, renal I/R injury was induced in male rats and cellular treatment was performed 6 hours later via arterial injection. Functional and histological analyses were performed 24 hours, 48 hours and 2 months after treatment using serum creatinine, urine protein to creatinine ratio, inflammatory and regeneration markers and histomorphometric analysis of the kidney. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey’s test for multiple comparisons or by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn. Statistical significance level was defined as p <0.05. Results hAFSCs treatment resulted in significantly reduced serum creatinine level at 24 hours, less tubular necrosis, less hyaline cast formation, higher proliferation index, less inflammatory cell infiltration and less myofibroblasts at 48h. The treated group had less fibrosis and proteinuria at 2 months after injury. Conclusion hAFSCs contain a renal progenitor cell subpopulation that has a nephroprotective effect when delivered intra-arterially in rats with renal I/R injury, and reduces interstitial fibrosis on long term follow-up. PMID:26295710

  11. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on sleep and brain interstitial fluid amyloid-β in an APP transgenic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fan; Zhang, Tony J.; Mahan, Thomas E.; Jiang, Hong; Holtzman, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impairment of cognitive function, extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss. There is substantial evidence that the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD and that Aβ aggregation is a concentration dependent process. Recently, it was found that Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) are regulated by the sleep-wake cycle in both humans and mice; ISF Aβ is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep. Intracerebroventricular infusion of orexin increased wakefulness and ISF Aβ levels, and chronic sleep deprivation significantly increased Aβ plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APP) mice. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a well-documented sleep regulatory substance which promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep. GHRHRlit/lit mice that lack functional GHRH receptor have shorter sleep duration and longer wakefulness during light periods. The current study was undertaken to determine whether manipulating sleep by interfering with GHRH signaling affects brain ISF Aβ levels in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (PS1APP) transgenic mice that overexpress mutant forms of APP and PSEN1 that cause autosomal dominant AD. We found that intraperitoneal injection of GHRH at dark onset increased sleep and decreased ISF Aβ and that delivery of a GHRH antagonist via reverse-microdialysis suppressed sleep and increased ISF Aβ. The diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ in PS1APP/GHRHRlit/lit mice was significantly smaller than that in PS1APP/GHRHRlit/+ mice. However despite decreased sleep in GHRHR deficient mice, this was not associated with an increase in Aβ accumulation later in life. One of several possibilities for the finding is the fact that GHRHR deficient mice have GHRH-dependent but sleep-independent factors which protect against Aβ deposition. PMID:25218899

  12. Influence of sustained low-efficiency diafiltration (SLED-f) on interstitial fluid concentrations of fluconazole in a critically ill patient: Use of microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication in critically ill patients, and hybrid techniques including sustained low-efficiency dialysis/diafiltration (SLED-f) are being increasingly utilised in intensive care units. Most fungal infections occur in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of tissues and successful treatment of a fungal infection relies on the ability of an antifungal agent to achieve adequate concentrations at the site of infection. Tissue distribution of antimicrobials is impaired in critically ill patients owing to a variety of disease-related physiological changes, e.g. sepsis. Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent used to treat Candida spp. infections in critically ill patients. The implications for ISF concentrations of enhanced elimination during renal replacement therapy have not yet been reported for fluconazole. The aim of this single-patient case report was to describe the influence of SLED-f on subcutaneous (SC) ISF concentrations of fluconazole and the implications for achieving pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets. Serial blood and ISF samples were collected at pre- and post-filter ports within the SLED-f circuit and subcutaneously inserted microdialysis probe, respectively. Fluconazole concentrations were measured using a validated chromatography method. The SC ISF-to-plasma partition coefficient of fluconazole in this patient was 0.91, indicating rapid equilibrium. SC ISF fluconazole concentrations consistently decreased after initiating SLED-f. The majority of the fluconazole was eliminated from the SC ISF as a result of redistribution. Considering the extensive tissue re-distribution of fluconazole and observed elimination from tissue compartments, higher doses may be required to treat deep-seated fungal infections.

  13. Impaired Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of High-Density Lipoprotein Isolated From Interstitial Fluid in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Dikkers, Arne; Parini, Paolo; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Objective— Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism of which is incompletely understood. Their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma have been reported to have impaired cholesterol efflux capacity. However, the efflux capacity of HDL from interstitial fluid (IF), the starting point for reverse cholesterol transport, has not been studied. We here investigated the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from IF and plasma from T2D patients and healthy controls. Approach and Results— HDL was isolated from IF and peripheral plasma from 35 T2D patients and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cholesterol efflux to HDL was determined in vitro, normalized for HDL cholesterol, using cholesterol-loaded macrophages. Efflux capacity of plasma HDL was 10% lower in T2D patients than in healthy controls, in line with previous observations. This difference was much more pronounced for HDL from IF, where efflux capacity was reduced by 28% in T2D. Somewhat surprisingly, the efflux capacity of HDL from IF was lower than that of plasma HDL, by 15% and 32% in controls and T2D patients, respectively. Conclusion— These data demonstrate that (1) HDL from IF has a lower cholesterol efflux capacity than plasma HDL and (2) the efflux capacity of HDL from IF is severely impaired in T2D when compared with controls. Because IF comprises the compartment where reverse cholesterol transport is initiated, the marked reduction in cholesterol efflux capacity of IF-HDL from T2D patients may play an important role for their increased risk to develop atherosclerosis. PMID:27034474

  14. Influence of cartilage interstitial fluid on the mRNA levels of matrix proteins, cytokines, metalloproteases and their inhibitors in synovial membrane.

    PubMed

    Hyc, Anna; Moskalewski, Stanislaw; Osiecka-Iwan, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Articular cartilage and the synovial membrane both ensure the smooth action of synovial joints; however, the influence of chondrocytes on synovial metabolism remains unclear. The secretory activity of chondrocytes is usually studied in cell cultures and may differ from that in intact cartilage. According to McCutchen's theory of 'weeping' joint lubrication, loading of the articular cartilage during motion squeezes the fluid with lubricating properties from the cartilage. The purpose of the study was to obtain cartilage interstitial fluid (CIF) from intact cartilage and to evaluate its influence on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells. CIF was rinsed out from the cartilage of newborn rats at a pressure of three bar. The chondrocytes survived rinsing and grew in culture. Cytokines in CIF were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The influence of CIF and CIF-like cocktail (all cytokines found in CIF) on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells was studied after a 4 h-incubation, by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pair test or by the Mann‑Whitney U test. CIF contained basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)‑1, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), macrophage (M)-colony-stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte (G)-CSF and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). CIF stimulated the expression of hyaluronan synthase (HAS)1 and 2, lubricin, collagen I, versican, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)2 and 3, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 1-3, interleukin (IL)-6 and TGFβ1, and decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1β. Incubation of the synovial membrane with CIF-like cocktail partially imitated the effects of CIF. Analysis of CIF composition may help to characterize the secretory activity of chondrocytes in their natural environment under various physiological and

  15. Interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, A J; Winearls, C G; Dunnill, M S

    1981-01-01

    The clinical and pathological findings are reviewed in ten cases where renal biopsy showed abnormalities predominantly within the interstitium. In six the nephritis was considered to be drug-induced; in two the aetiology was slightly obscure but the most likely diagnosis was considered to be sarcoidosis. Of the remaining two cases one was chronic pyelonephritis and the other polyarteritis nodosa. The diagnosis and pathogenesis of the renal lesions are discussed and attention is drawn to the importance of distinguishing primary interstitial changes from those found in association with glomerular disease. Images PMID:7251904

  16. Interstitial brines in playa sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Rettig, S.L.

    1969-01-01

    Study of several closed drainages in the Great Basin has shown that the interstitial solutions of shallow, fine-grained playa deposits store a large quantity of dissolved solids and are often more concentrated than associated lakes and ponds, except in peripheral zones of stream or ground-water inflow. These interstitial fluids, when compared with local runoff, impoundments, or spring waters, commonly have a distinctive ionic composition which sometimes cannot be explained by either simple mixing of surface and subsurface inflow or by evaporative concentration. At Abert Lake, Oregon, the interstitial solute concentrations increased with depth to values as much as five times greater than the lake, except where springs indicate significant ground-water input. Where Na+, Cl, and CO2 species constitute more than 90% of the solutes, Na+ Cl- ratios in the lake water are lower than in interstitial solutions of bottom cores and higher than in playa fluids. At the same time, Na+ K+ ratios are highest in the fluids of lake bottom muds and lowest in playa interstitials. In deeper playa profiles, interstitial Na+ Cl- tended to decrease with depth (5 ft. maximum). In the Abert Lake area, as in other parts of the western Great Basin, Na+ Cl- ratios are indicative of total CO2 in solution and the effects of organic decay in surficial sediments. These ratios, coupled with data on silica and bulk density, show that higher PCO2 accompanying decay promotes silicate dissolution and hydrogen ion exchange, stripping alkalis from sediment which had preferentially adsorbed K+ when entering the lake. On subsequent loss of pore fluid in the playa regime, silica initially released to solution in the lake environment is readsorbed on dissolution products. ?? 1969.

  17. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  18. Interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Davies, M F

    1998-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a multifactorial syndrome with symptoms of pelvic or perineal pain, urinary frequency and urgency. The etiologies are unknown, but several theories have been proposed. Diagnosis is often delayed because most of the conventional evaluation is normal. Pelvic examination is normal except for bladder tenderness. Urodynamics are normal except for increased bladder sensitivity and low capacity. Urinalysis, urine culture and office cystoscopy are also normal. The diagnostic test is cystoscopy under anesthesia with bladder distension. Small submucosal hemorrhages (glomerulations) or ulcers appear after distension. Many empiric treatments have been proposed for IC. None is universally effective, and so treatments are tried sequentially until good symptom relief is achieved. Bladder distension gives excellent (but transient) relief in some patients, especially those with severe bladder inflammation (who also tend to be older). A variety of oral, intravesical and adjunctive treatments are also described.

  19. Interstitial Cystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or she may also ask you to keep track of how much fluid you drink, how often your urinate and how much urine you pass. Your doctor will rule out other diseases such as urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, endometriosis, kidney stones, sexually ...

  20. [Interstitial pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Brasch, F

    2006-03-01

    Interstitial pneumonia is a rare disease, posing a diagnostic challenge to pneumologists, pediatricians, radiologists and pathologists. Only by the combined efforts of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) has has been possible to standardize the formerly different European and Northern American nomenclature of interstitial lung diseases (alveolitis versus interstitial pneumonia) in adults and to clearly and unambiguously define the diagnostic criteria. The ATS/ERS classification of 2002 comprises seven entities: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), lymphocyte interstitial pneumonia (LIP), and acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). Using the ATS/ERS classification of interstitial pulmonary diseases in premature infants, infants and children is problematic, since UIP, RB-ILD and AIP do not occur at this age. Although infants with severe respiratory insufficiency may sometimes show morphological features similar to DIP or NSIP, this entity should rather be classified as chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) because of differences in etiology, pathogenesis and prognostic outcome.

  1. Paper Pulp Panoply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marque, Margo E.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating paper-pulp bowls is designed to acquaint students with the beginning vocabulary and finger dexterity needed to sculpt clay. Describes the process of making paper-pulp bowls and identifies important vocabulary words. Provides directions for making paper bowl forms and lists the materials. (CMK)

  2. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  3. Acute interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bouros, D; Nicholson, A C; Polychronopoulos, V; du Bois, R M

    2000-02-01

    The term "acute interstitial pneumonia" (AIP) describes an idiopathic clinicopathological condition, characterized clinically by an interstitial lung disease causing rapid onset of respiratory failure, which is distinguishable from the other more chronic forms of interstitial pneumonia. It is synonymous with Hamman-Rich syndrome, occurring in patients without pre-existing lung disease. The histopathological findings are those of diffuse alveolar damage. AIP radiologically and physiologically resembles acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is considered to represent the small subset of patients with idiopathic ARDS. It is frequently confused with other clinical entities characterized by rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia, especially secondary acute interstitial pneumonia, acute exacerbations and accelerated forms of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis . Furthermore, many authors use the above terms, both erroneously and interchangeably. It has a grave prognosis with >70% mortality in 3 months, despite mechanical ventilation. This review aims to clarify the relative clinical and pathological issues and terminology.

  4. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - ...

  5. Morphometry of interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    De Heer, E; Sijpkens, Y W; Verkade, M; den Dulk, M; Langers, A; Schutrups, J; Bruijn, J A; van Es, L A

    2000-01-01

    Several clinical studies have confirmed that histomorphometric changes in the tubulointerstitial compartment contain the best correlating parameters to predict the development of progressive renal insufficiency. The process of interstitial fibrosis is accompanied by an influx of inflammatory cells, up-regulation of fibrogenic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta and basic fibroblast growth factor, transient down-modulation of their antagonists, generation and proliferation of myofibroblasts, and, finally, by accumulation of interstitial collagens and proteoglycans. A careful morphometric analysis of interstitial fibrosis requires sensitive parameters through which the severity can be quantified and by which the progression into renal insufficiency can be predicted. We have addressed these issues by morphometric analysis of both human biopsies and by refining existing experimental models in the rat. Morphometric analysis was performed using a Zeiss microscope equipped with a full colour 3CCD camera and KS-400 image analysis software from Zeiss-Kontron. For studies with human material, biopsies were examined from patients with various renal diseases including patients with chronic allotransplant dysfunction. The development of interstitial fibrosis was correlated with clinical parameters. In experimental models, we analysed the interstitial composition and eventual glomerular alterations in rats with bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced protein overload nephropathy and with human IgG-induced chronic serum sickness nephritis. Finally, we adapted and refined the model of ureter obstruction-induced interstitial fibrosis in the rat. For this purpose, custom-made titanium clips (S&T, Neuhaus, Switzerland) were implanted around the ureter in the abdomen of rats to obstruct the ureter without causing necrosis. The clips were removed at various time points after obstruction of the ureter (1-14 days). The subsequent remodelling of the interstitium was studied

  6. Organic Geochemistry of Sediments, Interstitial Fluids and Light Volatile Hydrocarbon Gases from Giza and North Alex Mud Volcanoes, Western Nile Deep-Sea Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzzo, Marianne; Elvert, Marcus; Heuer, Verena; Schmidt, Mark; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Scholz, Florian; Reitz, Anja; Hensen, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The West Nile Delta Project is a multi-disciplinary research project lead at IFM-GEOMAR (Kiel, Germany) and funded by RWE-DEA (Hamburg, Germany). It aims at investigating the sources and transport mechanisms of fluids and hydrocarbon gases seeping at two mud volcanoes (MVs) of the western Nile Deep-Sea Fan: North Alex and Giza MVs, and at the long-term monitoring of the seepage activity at these sites [1,2]. A comparative study of the organic geochemistry of sediments, gases and fluids was carried out in order to constrain (i) the sources of fluids, mud and gases erupted at these cold seeps, and (ii) the microbial hydrocarbon-oxidation processes associated with the extrusion of mud and gases. The molecular and stable isotope composition of light volatile hydrocarbon gases stripped from pore fluids reveal a clear thermogenic origin at the less active Giza MV and at the active centre of N. Alex MV. However, they probably originate from different sources, as shown by the distinct 13C-CH4 values of ~ -45‰ and -37‰VPDB at North Alex and Giza MVs, respectively, while 2H-CH4 values are similar (~ -228‰VSMOW). Away from the centre at North Alex MV the gases have variable compositions and are mainly produced by Archaea microbes. The microbial production of CH4 is probably sustained by the high content of the mud breccia sediments in labile organic matter. Indeed Total Organic Carbon content values are high (~ 1 and 2%weight) in MV sediments from both sites as well as at the reference site away from Giza MV, suggesting a main shallow (Plio-Pleistocene) sedimentary source. Consistently, the sedimentary lipids contain high amounts of compounds typically issued from terrestrial plants such as -amyrin and nC26:0 to nC30:0 fatty acids & alkenols. The hypothesis that labile terrestrial organic matter sustains intense microbial activity in the mud volcano sediments is supported by the extreme enrichment of pore fluids in a suite of Volatile Fatty Acids, in particular

  7. Lowering of tumoral interstitial fluid pressure by prostaglandin E(1) is paralleled by an increased uptake of (51)Cr-EDTA.

    PubMed

    Rubin, K; Sjöquist, M; Gustafsson, A M; Isaksson, B; Salvessen, G; Reed, R K

    2000-06-01

    High intra-tumoral fluid pressure (TP(IF)) may impair uptake of anticancer drugs into tumors, contributing to poor efficiency in treatment of carcinomas. Here, we demonstrate that lowering of TP(IF) parallels increased transport of (51)Cr-EDTA (m.w. 341) into tumor interstitium. Introduction of 15 microg prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) -methyl ester into the s.c. tissue surrounding transplanted rat colonic (PROb) carcinomas or chemically-induced rat mammary carcinomas, lowered TP(IF) by 30%. Transcapillary transport into the interstitium of PROb tumors quantified by microdialysis increased by 39.6% after PGE(1) treatment 40 min prior to administration of (51)Cr-EDTA (n=6; p<0.05) compared to vehicle (n=10). In mammary tumors, PGE(1) increased transport into the tumors by 86.9% over controls (n=16; p<0.05). Both tumors had well developed stroma containing collagen and hyaluronan. Our data demonstrate that adjuvant treatment with PGE(1) lowers TP(IF), and enhances transport into the tumors. This principle may be of value as adjuvant therapy in treatment of solid malignancies with currently used anticancer drugs.

  8. Structure-brain exposure relationships in rat and human using a novel data set of unbound drug concentrations in brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Fridén, Markus; Winiwarter, Susanne; Jerndal, Gunilla; Bengtsson, Ola; Wan, Hong; Bredberg, Ulf; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Antonsson, Madeleine

    2009-10-22

    New experimental methodologies were applied to measure the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (K(p,uu,brain)) and the unbound CSF-to-plasma concentration ratio (K(p,uu,CSF)) in rats for 43 structurally diverse drugs. The relationship between chemical structure and K(p,uu,brain) was dominated by hydrogen bonding. Contrary to popular understanding based on the total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (logBB), lipophilicity was not a determinant of unbound brain exposure. Although changing the number of hydrogen bond acceptors is a useful design strategy for optimizing K(p,uu,brain), future improvement of in silico prediction models is dependent on the accommodation of active drug transport. The structure-brain exposure relationships found in the rat also hold for humans, since the rank order of the drugs was similar for human and rat K(p,uu,CSF). This cross-species comparison was supported by K(p,uu,CSF) being within 3-fold of K(p,uu,brain) in the rat for 33 of 39 drugs. It was, however, also observed that K(p,uu,CSF) overpredicts K(p,uu,brain) for highly effluxed drugs, indicating lower efflux capacity of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier compared to the blood-brain barrier.

  9. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  10. Noninvasive NIR monitoring of interstitial ethanol concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Vanslyke, Stephen J.; Way, Jeff F.

    2009-02-01

    A practical limitation encountered in alcohol research is the relatively small number of body compartments (e.g. blood, liver, tissue) that can be directly interrogated. In this work, an NIR spectroscopic device was investigated that provided a direct measurement of alcohol concentration in skin tissue (interstitial fluid). This work is intended to characterize the relationship of forearm interstitial fluid alcohol concentration relative to capillary blood using a first order kinetic model. Concurrent blood and tissue alcohol concentrations were collected on 101 test subjects while consuming alcohol. Estimates of the first order kinetic rate constant were calculated for each of the subjects. It is hoped that this characterization will lead to further improvements in optical based alcohol monitors for impairment detection.

  11. Karyomegalic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Isnard, Pierre; Rabant, Marion; Labaye, Jacques; Antignac, Corinne; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Zaidan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of hereditary chronic interstitial nephritis, described for the first time over 40 years ago. A 36-year-old woman, of Turkish origin, presented with chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure. She had a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections but no familial history of nephropathy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory tests showed serum creatinine at 2.3 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 26 mL/min/1.73m2, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase at 3 and 1.5 times the upper normal limit. Urinalysis showed 0.8 g/day of nonselective proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and aseptic leukocyturia. Immunological tests and tests for human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses were negative. Complement level and serum proteins electrophoresis were normal. Analysis of the renal biopsy showed severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Numerous tubular cells had nuclear enlargement with irregular outlines, hyperchromatic aspect, and prominent nucleoli. These findings were highly suggestive of karyomegalic interstitial nephritis, which was further confirmed by exome sequencing of FAN1 gene showing an identified homozygous frameshift mutation due to a one-base-pair deletion in exon 12 (c.2616delA). The present case illustrates a rare but severe cause of hereditary interstitial nephritis, sometimes accompanied by subtle extrarenal manifestations. Identification of mutations in FAN1 gene underscores recent insights linking inadequate DNA repair and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. PMID:27196444

  12. Lymphangiogenesis and Lesion Heterogeneity in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases. Particular interest has been given to the interstitial lung diseases. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are characterized by heterogeneity in pathologic changes and lesions, as typified by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia. In IIPs, lymphangiogenesis is likely to have different types of localized functions within each disorder, corresponding to the heterogeneity of lesions in terms of inflammation and fibrosis. These functions include inhibitory absorption of interstitial fluid and small molecules and maturation of fibrosis by excessive interstitial fluid drainage, caused by an unbalanced relationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and induction of fibrogenesis via CCL21 and CCR7 signals. Better understanding for regional functions of lymphangiogenesis might provide new treatment strategies tailored to lesion heterogeneity in these complicated diseases. PMID:26823655

  13. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  14. [Interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Carughi, Stefano; De Cata, Angelo; Giuliani, Antonio; Masciale, Nunzia; La Viola, Marco; Puzzolante, Felice; Balzanelli, Mario

    2003-05-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are an heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases characterized by an anatomical distortion of peripheral airways and interstitium, determined by a first stage of alveolitis and a following stage of fibrosis. Natural history of several ILD is characterized by slow and progressive destruction of alveolar-capillary functional units, often with respiratory failure and death. For their smoldering evolution and not specificity of symptoms (exertional dyspnea and cough) ILD may remain not diagnosed and not treated for a long time.

  15. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  16. Interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear.

  17. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  18. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  19. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or... current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b)...

  20. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  1. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP.

  2. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process. PMID:27514593

  3. Effect of Interstitial Media on Segregation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-Xian; Li, Liang-Sheng; Wen, Ping-Ping; Shi, Qing-Fan; Zheng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Vertically vibrated segregation behaviors of binary granular mixtures with different interstitial media are experimentally investigated. To study the role of interstitial media on the segregation, two types of interstitial fluids are adopted and the resulting phase diagrams are compared. The water-immersed granular mixture exhibits two kinds of complete segregation behaviors: Brazil nut effect and sandwich patterns, at least the latter is absent in the same air-immersed mixture. Additionally, the segregation extent is improved remarkably for the water-immersed mixture. The experimental observation further confirms that the effect of interstitial media on the relative motion of grains is one of the predominant mechanisms for granular segregation.

  4. Accelerated coffee pulp composting.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, G; Olguín, E J; Mercado, G

    1999-02-01

    The effect of two abundant, easily available and very low-cost agro-industrial organic residues, i.e., filter cake from the sugar industry and poultry litter, on the composting stabilization time of coffee pulp and on the quality of the produced compost, was evaluated. Piles of one cubic meter were built and monitored within the facilities of a coffee processing plant in the Coatepec region of the State of Veracruz, Mexico. Manual aeration was carried out once a week. A longer thermophilic period (28 days) and a much lower C/N ratio (in the range of 6.9-9.1) were observed in the piles containing the amendments, as compared to the control pile containing only coffee pulp (14 days and a C/N ratio of 14.4, respectively). The maximum assimilation rate of the reducing sugars was 1.6 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.5 to 5.3%) during the first two weeks when accelerators were present in the proportion of 20% filter cake plus 20% poultry litter, while they accumulated at a rate of 1.2 g kg-1 d-1 (from 7.4 to 9.13%) during the same period in the control pile. The best combination of amendments was 30% filter cake with 20% poultry litter, resulting in a final nitrogen content as high as 4.81%. The second best combination was 20% filter cake with 10% poultry litter, resulting in a compost which also contained a high level of total nitrogen (4.54%). It was concluded that the use of these two residues enhanced the composting process of coffee pulp, promoting a shorter stabilization period and yielding a higher quality of compost.

  5. Subclinical Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Tracy J.; Hunninghake, Gary M.

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of high-resolution computed tomography in clinical and research settings has increased the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) in asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals. We reported that in smokers, ILA were present in about 1 of every 12 high-resolution computed tomographic scans; however, the long-term significance of these subclinical changes remains unclear. Studies in families affected with pulmonary fibrosis, smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients with inflammatory lung disease have shown that asymptomatic and undiagnosed individuals with ILA have reductions in lung volume, functional limitations, increased pulmonary symptoms, histopathologic changes, and molecular profiles similar to those observed in patients with clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). These findings suggest that, in select at-risk populations, ILA may represent early stages of pulmonary fibrosis or subclinical ILD. The growing interest surrounding this topic is motivated by our poor understanding of the inciting events and natural history of ILD, coupled with a lack of effective therapies. In this perspective, we outline past and current research focused on validating radiologic, physiological, and molecular methods to detect subclinical ILD. We discuss the limitations of the available cross-sectional studies and the need for future longitudinal studies to determine the prognostic and therapeutic implications of subclinical ILD in populations at risk of developing clinically significant ILD. PMID:22366047

  6. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Michel; Njeh, Akram; Uzunoglu, Emel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically. PMID:26538825

  7. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  8. Blood and Interstitial flow in the hierarchical pore space architecture of bone tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cowin, Stephen C.; Cardoso, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There are two main types of fluid in bone tissue, blood and interstitial fluid. The chemical composition of these fluids varies with time and location in bone. Blood arrives through the arterial system containing oxygen and other nutrients and the blood components depart via the venous system containing less oxygen and reduced nutrition. Within the bone, as within other tissues, substances pass from the blood through the arterial walls into the interstitial fluid. The movement of the interstitial fluid carries these substances to the cells within the bone and, at the same time, carries off the waste materials from the cells. Bone tissue would not live without these fluid movements. The development of a model for poroelastic materials with hierarchical pore space architecture for the description of blood flow and interstitial fluid flow in living bone tissue is reviewed. The model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity and the lacunar-canalicular porosity in bone tissue due to cyclic mechanical loading and blood pressure. These results are basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells. PMID:25666410

  9. THE PRESSURE AND INTERSTITIAL RESISTANCE PREVAILING IN THE NORMAL AND EDEMATOUS SKIN OF ANIMALS AND MAN

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, Philip D.

    1946-01-01

    Means have been described for the study of pressure conditions in normal and pathological skin of living human beings and mice. The true pressure in normal skin cannot be measured directly by any of the means hitherto described, because there is insufficient free fluid to make manometric determinations. However, for practical purposes, the intracutaneous pressure has been approximately estimated by introducing into skin exceedingly small amounts of a relatively unabsorbable fluid, a mixture of Locke's solution and a vital dye, and then finding the least pressure required to overcome the resistance of the skin to the passage of this fluid through it at the lowest rate measurable with accuracy by the apparatus at hand. In the present paper measurements of this pressure have been termed the interstitial resistance. In normal skin the interstitial pressure, as estimated by measurements of the interstitial resistance, is low, slightly less, on the average, than 1.7 cm. of water in the skin of the mouse, and less than 3.1 cm. of water in human skin. It remains unchanged in states of active hyperemia. In edematous skin the interstitial pressure can be directly measured by determination of the edema fluid pressure. It has been compared with determinations of the interstitial resistance and found to be only 0.5 cm. of water lower in both the mouse and man. Under the conditions of our experiments, in skin rendered slowly edematous by the introduction of irritant chemicals or their topical application, little rise in pressure took place. On the other hand, in rapidly forming edema of the skin the edema fluid pressure and the intradermal interstitial resistance rose and became great enough to hinder materially the further escape of fluid from the blood vessels. The edema fluid pressure rose in proportion to the rapidity with which the edema formed. When a rapidly formed edema subsided, the edema fluid pressure and interstitial resistance fell, but if inflammation and

  10. Sphere based fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  11. Pulmonary interstitial compliance and microvascular filtration coefficient.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H S

    1980-08-01

    Static and dynamic properties governing the fluid movement into the pulmonary interstitium were examined in isolated canine lobes. The system was driven by altering intravascular presure (Piv) when the lobe was isogravimetric (change in weight (W) = 0) and allowing the lobe to become isogravimetric again. By making use of an analogy to charging a capacitor across a resistor, calculation of the filtration coefficient for transvascular fluid movement (KF) and determination of the pressure-volume relationship of the pulmonary interstitial space (Pis-Vis), with a minimum of untested assumptions, was possible. KF was found to be the same for fluid moving out of or into the intravascular space, and when the relationship between Piv and alveolar pressure (PAlv) was constant, KF was independent of transpulmonary pressure (PL). When PAlv exceeded Piv, changes in Piv did not influence KF, suggesting no significant change in either surface area available for fluid transudation or vascular permeability. The Pis-Vis curve for increasing values of Vis and Pis is best described by an exponential relationhip and is independent of PL. However, the Pis-Vis curve with decreasing values of Vis and Pis is dependent on PL.

  12. [THE VITAL PULP THERAPY IN PERMANENT TEETH].

    PubMed

    Makowiecki, Piotr; Trusewicz, Matylda; Tyszler, Lukasz; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2014-01-01

    The vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to preserve vital, healthy pulp tissue. This therapy's foundation is the elimination of bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. The treatment option depends on the cause and extent of mineralised tooth tissue destruction. The outcome of such treatment is determined by accurate assessment of the pulp's status and the dentist's ability to predict the success of the therapy. The aim of this review is to facilitate the dentist in making a proper decision referring to vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth, and to provide an overview of new approaches in such treatment.

  13. Macrophage polarization in interstitial lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mierzejewski, Michał; Osińska, Iwona; Domagała-Kulawik, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The role of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) examination in differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD) was established. Currently, functional polarization into M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) subpopulations is emphasized. The aim of our study was to compare the proportion of M1 and M2 in BALf of patients with different ILD. BALf samples were collected from 75 ILD patients: sarcoidosis (SA, 36), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP, 10), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, 8), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, 6) and other ILD (15). Phenotyping was performed by immunocytochemistry with anti-CD40 and CD163 antibodies (for M1 and M2, respectively). For both, CD40 and CD163, three populations of cells have been specified: small cells with strong (+++), large cells with weak (+) and cells with no (–) reaction. Due to lack of statistically significant differences between patients with HP, NSIP and IPF, they were classified into a common group and compared to the group of patients with sarcoidosis. The median proportion of macrophage population was as follows: for CD40: 61%, 35%, 2% in patients with SA and 49%, 47%, 3% in patients with other ILD and for CD163: 55%, 35%, 5% in SA and 53%, 43%, 1% in ILD patients, respectively. We found a significantly higher proportion of M1 in SA when compared with other ILD. Our study showed no evidence of defined polarization of alveolar macrophages in different types of interstitial lung diseases. However, we emphasized the role of CD40 positive cells in sarcoidosis and the role of CD163 positive cells in fibrotic diffuse lung diseases. PMID:27536201

  14. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production.

  15. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production. PMID:25439866

  16. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  17. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  18. Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP. However, recent reports indicate the areas of concern that may require further evaluation. Here, we describe the histopathologic features of the updated IIPs and their rare histologic patterns and also point out some of the issues to be considered in this context. PMID:26949346

  19. Equine testicular interstitial cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gelberg, H B; McEntee, K

    1987-05-01

    Interstitial cell tumors from nine stallions were described. In all but one horse the tumors were found in undescended testes. Five animals had bilateral tumors. Two animals showed increased aggression. Tumors contained two cell types. The first type were large distinctly bordered eosinophilic cells interpreted to be hyperplastic and hypertrophic interstitial cells. They blended with pleomorphic often spindloid neoplastic cells which had fibrillar, vacuolated cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. This latter cell population was arranged in nodules or broad sheets as endocrine-like packets or interweaving fascicles. Biologic behavior of the neoplasms could not be ascertained from histologic examination. PMID:2885961

  20. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Sara R; Castelino, Flavia V

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a heterogeneous disease of unknown etiology with limited effective therapies. It is characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis and is clinically manifested by multiorgan involvement. Interstitial lung disease is a common complication of systemic sclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of interstitial lung disease hinges on careful clinical evaluation and pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography. Effective therapeutic options are still limited. Several experimental therapies are currently in early-phase clinical trials and show promise.

  1. Interstitial nephritis. A brief review.

    PubMed Central

    Heptinstall, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common condition, which in spite of a relatively constant pathologic picture has different etiologic agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Failure to appreciate this, particularly in the chronic group, has led to considerable confusion and has been largely responsible for the overdiagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis. Although we are still largely ignorant of the causes of interstitial nephritis, it is now possible to define many of them. While experimental studies have not made spectacular contributions to our understanding, an attempt is now being made to develop appropriate models, and we hope these will enable us to still further clarify our understanding of other entities. PMID:776003

  2. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  3. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" ( ... affect are shown in the illustration below. Normal Lungs and Lung Structures Figure A shows the location ...

  4. Deinked pulp manufacturers make a midwest market

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M. ); Meade, K.

    1993-09-01

    Deinked pulp manufacturers, a burgeoning trend in recycling, are opening up the market for office waste paper in the Midwest. Great Lakes Pulp and Fibre, Inc., (Menominee, Michigan), a new paper group formed by industry veterans, is planning a major deinked pulp mill in Michigan's Upper Peninsula that will recycle large amounts of office waste paper. The mill will have the capacity to process nearly 275,000 tons per year (tpy)-673 tpd-of mixed office paper into 182,000 tpd of sheet-dried, deinked pulp. That pulp would be sold to nearby fine paper manufacturers that want to have recycled content without adding their own deinking.

  5. Indirect pulp capping: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kaplowitz, G J

    1992-01-01

    This study addresses the acceptance of the clinical practice of indirect pulp capping. State and regional dental boards and postgraduate dental education programs throughout the United States were surveyed. Results indicate that no clear consensus exists for the acceptance of this clinical procedure.

  6. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  7. Effects of dental trauma on the pulp.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1997-05-01

    Infection of the root canal system following dental trauma induces pulp and periapical disease and prevents healing of previously healthy pulp. A clinical goal in treating trauma is the maintenance of pulp vitality, and clinicians should be aware of factors that influence pulp healing. The learning objective of this article is to review the factors and techniques that influence pulp vitality and examine the influence pulp has on the healing of adjacent tissues. The potential routes for bacterial infection of the root canal system are discussed, with the clinical crown as the primary portal of entry. Uncomplicated and complicated crown fractures, as well as the crown-root and root fractures, are reviewed. Complications in pulp healing include canal obliteration, disturbed root development, apexogenesis, apexification, and the various forms of resorption. PMID:9550069

  8. Pulp reaction to vital bleaching.

    PubMed

    Fugaro, Jessica O; Nordahl, Inger; Fugaro, Orlando J; Matis, Bruce A; Mjör, Ivar A

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the histological changes in dental pulp after nightguard vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide gel. Fifteen patients between 12 and 26 years of age with caries-free first premolars scheduled for orthodontic extraction were treated with 10% Opalescence (Ultradent Products, Inc). Tooth #5 had four days of bleaching, tooth #12 was treated for two weeks, tooth #21 was bleached for two weeks followed by two weeks without treatment and tooth #28, serving as the control, was without treatment. All teeth were extracted at the same time. Immediately after extraction, 4 mm of the most apical portion of the root was sectioned off and each specimen was placed in a vial containing 10% neutral buffered formalin. The samples were prepared for histological evaluation at the Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials (NIOM) and microscopically examined independently at both NIOM and Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD). Pulp reactions were semi-quantitatively graded as none, slight, moderate and severe. Slight pulpal changes were detected in 16 of the 45 bleached teeth. Neither moderate nor severe reactions were observed. The findings indicate that the slight histological changes sometimes observed after bleaching tend to resolve within two weeks post-treatment. Statistical differences existed only between the untreated control and the four-day (p=0.0109) and two-week (p=0.0045) treatment groups. The findings from this study demonstrated that nightguard vital bleaching procedures using 10% carbamide peroxide might cause initial mild, localized pulp reactions. However, the minor histological changes observed did not affect the overall health of the pulp tissue and were reversible within two weeks post-treatment. Therefore, two weeks of treatment with 10% carbamide peroxide used for nightguard vital bleaching is considered safe for dental pulp. PMID:15279473

  9. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Laria, A; Lurati, A; Scarpellini, M

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  10. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  11. Effect of the glycocalyx layer on transmission of interstitial flow shear stress to embedded cells.

    PubMed

    Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a simple theoretical model is developed to describe the transmission of force from interstitial fluid flow to the surface of a cell covered by a proteoglycan / glycoprotein layer (glycocalyx) and embedded in an extracellular matrix. Brinkman equations are used to describe flow through the extracellular matrix and glycocalyx layers and the solid mechanical stress developed in the glycocalyx by the fluid flow loading is determined. Using reasonable values for the Darcy permeability of extracellular matrix and glycocalyx layers and interstitial flow velocity, we are able to estimate the fluid and solid shear stresses imposed on the surface of embedded vascular, cartilage and tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. The principal finding is that the surface solid stress is typically one to two orders of magnitude larger than the surface fluid stress. This indicates that interstitial flow shear stress can be sensed by the cell surface glycocalyx, supporting numerous recent observations that interstitial flow can induce mechanotransduction in embedded cells. This study may contribute to understanding of interstitial flow-related mechanobiology in embryogenesis, tumorigenesis, tissue physiology and diseases and has implications in tissue engineering.

  12. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  13. New Approaches in Vital Pulp Therapy in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain healthy pulp tissue by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. There are several different treatment options for vital pulp therapy in extensively decayed or traumatized teeth. Pulp capping or pulpotomy procedures rely upon an accurate assessment of the pulp status, and careful management of the remaining pulp tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of new approaches in vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth. PMID:24396371

  14. Time lag of glucose from intravascular to interstitial compartment in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Basu, Ananda; Dube, Simmi; Veettil, Sona; Slama, Michael; Kudva, Yogish C; Peyser, Thomas; Carter, Rickey E; Cobelli, Claudio; Basu, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The premise of effective closed-loop insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) relies on the accuracy of continuous interstitial fluid glucose sensing that represents the crucial afferent arm of such a system. An important determinant of sensor accuracy is the physiological time lag of glucose transport from the vascular to the interstitial space. The purpose of current studies was to determine the physiological time lag of glucose transport from the vascular to the abdominal subcutaneous interstitial space in T1D. Four microdialysis catheters were inserted into the abdominal subcutaneous space in 6 T1D subjects under overnight fasted conditions. Plasma glucose was maintained at 113.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl using a continuous intravenous insulin infusion. After sequential intravenous bolus administrations of glucose isotopes, timed plasma and interstitial fluid samples were collected chronologically and analyzed for tracer enrichments. We observed a median (range) time lag of tracer appearance (time to detection) into the interstitial space after intravenous bolus of 6.8 (4.8-9.8) minutes, with all participants having detectable values by 9.8 minutes. We conclude that in the overnight fasted state in T1D adults, the delay of glucose appearance from the vascular to the interstitial space is less than 10 minutes, thereby implying that this minimal physiological time lag should not be a major impediment to the development of an effective closed-loop control system for T1D.

  15. Time Lag of Glucose From Intravascular to Interstitial Compartment in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Ananda; Dube, Simmi; Veettil, Sona; Slama, Michael; Kudva, Yogish C.; Peyser, Thomas; Carter, Rickey E.; Cobelli, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective: The premise of effective closed-loop insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) relies on the accuracy of continuous interstitial fluid glucose sensing that represents the crucial afferent arm of such a system. An important determinant of sensor accuracy is the physiological time lag of glucose transport from the vascular to the interstitial space. The purpose of current studies was to determine the physiological time lag of glucose transport from the vascular to the abdominal subcutaneous interstitial space in T1D. Method: Four microdialysis catheters were inserted into the abdominal subcutaneous space in 6 T1D subjects under overnight fasted conditions. Plasma glucose was maintained at 113.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl using a continuous intravenous insulin infusion. After sequential intravenous bolus administrations of glucose isotopes, timed plasma and interstitial fluid samples were collected chronologically and analyzed for tracer enrichments. Results: We observed a median (range) time lag of tracer appearance (time to detection) into the interstitial space after intravenous bolus of 6.8 (4.8-9.8) minutes, with all participants having detectable values by 9.8 minutes. Conclusions: We conclude that in the overnight fasted state in T1D adults, the delay of glucose appearance from the vascular to the interstitial space is less than 10 minutes, thereby implying that this minimal physiological time lag should not be a major impediment to the development of an effective closed-loop control system for T1D. PMID:25305282

  16. In vivo interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrebova Eikje, Natalja

    2011-03-01

    Successful development of real-time non-invasive glucose monitoring would represent a major advancement not only in the treatment and management of patients with diabetes mellitus and carbohydrate metabolism disorders, but also for understanding in those biochemical, metabolic and (patho-)physiological processes of glucose at the molecular level in vivo. Here, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has been challenged not only for in vivo measurement of interstitial glucose levels, but also for their non-invasive molecular qualitative and quantitative comparative characterization in the skin tissue. The results, based on calculated mean values of determined 5 glucose-specific peaks in the glucose-related 1000-1160 cm-1 region, showed intra- and inter-subject differences in interstitial glucose activity levels with their changes at different times and doses of OGTT, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the introduction of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has opened up an access to the interstitial fluid space in the skin tissue for interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in vivo. Though interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring has different characteristics, it can be argued that accurate and precise measurements of interstitial glucose levels may be more important clinically.

  17. Numerical modeling of fluid flow in solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Soltani, M; Chen, P

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model of interstitial fluid flow is developed, based on the application of the governing equations for fluid flow, i.e., the conservation laws for mass and momentum, to physiological systems containing solid tumors. The discretized form of the governing equations, with appropriate boundary conditions, is developed for a predefined tumor geometry. The interstitial fluid pressure and velocity are calculated using a numerical method, element based finite volume. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a homogeneous solid tumor demonstrate that, in a uniformly perfused tumor, i.e., one with no necrotic region, because of the interstitial pressure distribution, the distribution of drug particles is non-uniform. Pressure distribution for different values of necrotic radii is examined and two new parameters, the critical tumor radius and critical necrotic radius, are defined. Simulation results show that: 1) tumor radii have a critical size. Below this size, the maximum interstitial fluid pressure is less than what is generally considered to be effective pressure (a parameter determined by vascular pressure, plasma osmotic pressure, and interstitial osmotic pressure). Above this size, the maximum interstitial fluid pressure is equal to effective pressure. As a consequence, drugs transport to the center of smaller tumors is much easier than transport to the center of a tumor whose radius is greater than the critical tumor radius; 2) there is a critical necrotic radius, below which the interstitial fluid pressure at the tumor center is at its maximum value. If the tumor radius is greater than the critical tumor radius, this maximum pressure is equal to effective pressure. Above this critical necrotic radius, the interstitial fluid pressure at the tumor center is below effective pressure. In specific ranges of these critical sizes, drug amount and therefore therapeutic effects are higher because the opposing force, interstitial fluid pressure, is low in

  18. Enzyme separation techniques for the study of growth of cells from layers of bovine dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Miller, W A; Everett, M M; Freedman, J T; Feagans, W C; Cramer, J F

    1976-08-01

    Effects of the enzymes trypsin, papain, bromelains and ficin on bovine dental pulp tissue were studied. Minced or whole pulps were subjected to each enzyme at 17 degrees, 20 degrees and 37 degrees C for set time intervals, after which aliquots of supernatant fluid were removed for cell counts and viability tests. Pooled samples were subsequently cultured as monolayers in Eagle's MEM plus 10% calf serum. The dissociation characteristics were quite distinct for each enzyme, although quite similar between minced and whole pulp. A parallel histological study was made of the residual pulp tissue. Ficin was found to be the most suitable enzyme for future studies on the growth of isolated pulp cells from various layers of the bovine pulp, due to its even rate of cell removal, and the good initial viability and subsequent growth of the separated cells in monolayer culture. Further studies on ficin may show that it is more suitable for enzymatic separation of tissues generally than the more commonly used trypsin, a major advantage being its use in media containing Ca2+ and Mg2+.

  19. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Leg 22

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Waterman, Lee S.; Sayles, Frederick L.

    1974-01-01

    Interstitial waters from Leg 22 in the Indian Ocean revealed two unique results: Site 214, on the Ninetyeast Ridge, penetrated through a 30-meter sequence of fine-grained basalt and reentered hard, silty clay containing carbonate skeletal debris. Such a basalt layer may well have been impervious and extensive enough to seal off underlying (fossil) seawater of Paleocene age. However, except for a marked increase in calcium and a slight increase in chloride, no appreciable changes in pore fluid chemistry could be confirmed. Site 217, at the northernmost end of the Ninetyeast Ridge, demonstrated record concentrations of interstitial calcium in clayey nannofossil oozes and a relatively small but significant increment in chloride with depth. Presumably, these increments signal the existence of evaporitic sediments or evaporite-influenced brines at considerably greater depth than penetrated.

  20. Caffeine reduction in coffee pulp through silage.

    PubMed

    Porres, C; Alvarez, D; Calzada, J

    1993-01-01

    Silage tests to study reductions of antiphysiological compounds (caffeine and polyphenols) of fresh coffee pulp during the anaerobic fermentation were done. A concrete silo divided in compartments, with a total capacity of 9 tons of fresh material was utilized. The silage periods ranged between 99-224 days and the following materials were ensiled: 1) coffee pulp, 2) coffee pulp with sugar cane molasses, 3) coffee pulp with a mixture of molasses and ammonia and 4) screw pressed coffee pulp with molasses. Reductions in caffeine, total polyphenols and condensed polyphenols ranged between 13-63%, 28-70% and 51-81% respectively. It was concluded that in the case of coffee pulp, silage presents and ideal method to preserve the material and partially reduce the contents of antiphysiological compounds.

  1. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we have hypothesized that replacing barley with high proportions of dried citrus pulp in a concentrate-based diet for lambs could increase the intake of unsaturated fatty acids and could reduce the rate of the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA, with a consequent improvement of the intramuscular fatty acid composition. To test this hypothesis, 26 Comisana lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 56 d were fed a barley-based concentrate diet (CON; 8 lambs) or 2 diets in which barley was replaced with 24% (CIT24; 9 lambs) or 35% (CIT35; 9 lambs) dried citrus pulp. An overall improvement of the fatty acid composition of LM from lambs fed citrus pulp-containing diets was found. The PUFA/SFA ratio was lower (P < 0.05) in the LM from lambs in the CON group compared with both the CIT24 and CIT35 groups. The thrombogenic index was lower (P < 0.05) in meat from lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with those fed the CON diet. The CIT35 diet increased the proportion of C20:5 n-3 in the LM (P < 0.05), whereas the CIT24 diet enhanced that of C22:6 -3 (P < 0.05) compared with the CON diet. Some of these results might be explained considering that feeding the CIT24 and CIT35 diets increased the intake of total fatty acids (P < 0.05) and of C18:3 n-3 (P < 0.01) compared with feeding the CON treatment. On the other hand, phenolic compounds present in citrus pulp could have inhibited the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. This is supported by the fact that regardless of the level of inclusion in the diet, citrus pulp increased the proportion of rumenic acid (P < 0.001) in LM compared with the CON diet. The plasma from lambs fed both CIT24 and CIT35 diets had a greater percentage of vaccenic acid (VA; < 0.001) compared with that from lambs fed the CON diet, and the CIT35 diet increased the proportion of rumenic acid in plasma compared with the CON treatment (P < 0.05). In the ruminal fluid, stearic acid (SA) tended to decrease, and the sum of CLA tended to increase

  2. [Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Marten, Katharina

    2007-03-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sjoerd A M E G; Christiaans, Maarten H L; Abdul-Hamid, Myrurgia A; Stifft, Frank; Damoiseaux, Jan G M C; van Paassen, Pieter

    2016-08-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis has been observed in <1% of native renal biopsies. Here, we describe two patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis in relation to Crohn's disease. Circulating helper and cytotoxic T cells were highly activated, and both cell types predominated in the interstitial infiltrate, indicating a cellular autoimmune response. After immunosuppressive treatment, renal function either improved or stabilized in both patients. In conclusion, granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a genuine extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease, the treatment of which should include immunosuppressive agents. PMID:27478596

  4. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-03-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole.

  5. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Changes are in Store for Pulping Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry are being forced by economic considerations and air pollution regulations to consider alternatives to the use of sulfur systems, be they kraft, acid or neutral sulfite. To meet environmental requirements and combat erosion of profits, modernized non-sulfur pulping methods will increasingly appear on the scene. (BT)

  7. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1673 Pulp....

  8. Interstitial and intravascular pressures in conscious dogs during head-out water immersion.

    PubMed

    Miki, K; Klocke, M R; Hong, S K; Krasney, J A

    1989-08-01

    Water immersion (WI) causes an increase in plasma volume in humans and dogs. To determine the mechanism for this fluid movement, the transmission of external water hydrostatic pressure to the interstitial and vascular compartments was studied in six conscious dogs. Systemic arterial, central venous, peripheral arterial (ulnar artery) and venous (cephalic vein), pleural, intra-abdominal, and interstitial fluid hydrostatic (by Guyton's capsule and wick catheter method) pressures and external reference water pressure were measured at three different levels of WI: 1) extremities only, 2) midchest, and 3) midcervical levels at 37 degrees C. There was a significant linear relationship between interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (X) and external water pressure (Y): (Y = 0.86X + 1.4, r = 0.93 by Guyton's capsule; Y = 0.85X + 2.4, r = 0.93 by wick catheter. However, vascular pressures did not change when dogs were immersed at the level of the extremities. These pressures increased only during WI at the midchest and midcervical levels. Therefore the pressure gradient that develops between the interstitial and intravascular compartments is probably the major reason for the transcapillary fluid shift during WI.

  9. Gas seep induced interstitial water circulation: observations and environmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, S. C. M.; Dando, P. R.; Schuster, U.; Bennis, A.; Boyle, J. D.; Chui, F. T. W.; Hatherell, T. V. J.; Niven, S. J.; Taylor, L. J.

    1995-07-01

    An interstitial water circulation, generated by gas flow through a permeable sediment, was observed at an intertidal site on the Kattegat coast of Denmark. Concentrations of methane dissolved in the interstitial water of the near-surface sediment decreased sharply only centimetres away from gas seeps venting almost pure methane (≈99% methane). Water was driven out of the sediment by the rising bubbles of gas at the seep and was replaced by an equivalent draw-down of overlying, oxygenated water into the surrounding sediment. This process steepened the chemical gradients close to the gas flow channel, with the effects progressively diminishing with increasing distance from the seep. The position of the redox potential discontinuity (RPD) moved by as much as 7 cm deeper into the sediment close to the seep: this effect was less marked, but still detectable, 50 cm away. The degree of displacement from the "normal" sediment profiles depended on the magnitude of the interstitial flow rate. The distribution of pore water pH and sulphate: sodium ratios were also dependent on the flow rate of the circulating water. The concentrations of sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphite in the interstitial water from the top 10 cm of sediment, were high at a seep, decreased to a minimum at 20-30 cm distance, then increased again at 40-50 cm distance. Laboratory experiments confirmed that gas bubbling through a fluid filled permeable matrix generated a flow, out of the sediment at the gas exit and into the sediment over the peripheral surfaces surrounding the outlet. Experimentally determined rates of dispersion, for gas flow rates of 3-20 ml min -1, for a 40 g l -1 sodium chloride solution, were 62.5 × 10 -9 to 540 × 10 -9 m 2 s -1, 40-400 times the molecular diffusion coefficient. Linear interstitial fluid velocities of 3-12 mm min -1, were recorded at 14-3 cm from the seep axis respectively, with a gas flow rate of 5 ml min -1. Two-dimensional modelling of the experimental system

  10. Is postural tremor size controlled by interstitial potassium concentration in muscle?

    PubMed Central

    Lakie, M; Hayes, N; Combes, N; Langford, N

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether factors associated with postural tremor operate by altering muscle interstitial K+. Methods: An experimental approach was used to investigate the effects of procedures designed to increase or decrease interstitial K+. Postural physiological tremor was measured by conventional means. Brief periods of ischaemic muscle activity were used to increase muscle interstitial K+. Infusion of the ß2 agonist terbutaline was used to decrease plasma (and interstitial) K+. Blood samples were taken for the determination of plasma K+. Results: Ischaemia rapidly reduced tremor size, but only when the muscle was active. The ß2 agonist produced a slow and progressive rise in tremor size that was almost exactly mirrored by a slow and progressive decrease in plasma K+. Conclusions: Ischaemic reduction of postural tremor has been attributed to effects on muscle spindles or an unexplained effect on muscle. This study showed that ischaemia did not reduce tremor size unless there was accompanying muscular activity. An accumulation of K+ in the interstitium of the ischaemic active muscle may blunt the response of the muscle and reduce its fusion frequency, so that the force output becomes less pulsatile and tremor size decreases. When a ß2 agonist is infused, the rise in tremor mirrors the resultant decrease in plasma K+. Decreased plasma K+ reduces interstitial K+ concentration and may produce greater muscular force fluctuation (more tremor). Many other factors that affect postural tremor size may exert their effect by altering plasma K+ concentration, thereby changing the concentration of K+ in the interstitial fluid. PMID:15201362

  11. [Interstitial lung diseases. The pattern is important].

    PubMed

    Fink, L

    2014-11-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a number of rare entities with an estimated incidence of 10-25 per 100,000 inhabitants but the incidence greatly increases beyond the age of 65 years. The prognosis depends on the underlying cause. The fibrotic disorders show a set of radiological and histopathological patterns that are distinct but not entirely specific. In the absence of a clear clinical picture and consistent high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, patients are advised to undergo surgical lung biopsies from two or three lung lobes (or transbronchial biopsies) to determine the histopathological pattern. The ILDs are differentiated into disorders of known causes (e.g. collagen vascular disease, drug-related), idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), granulomatous ILDs (e.g. sarcoidosis) and other forms of ILD (e.g. Langerhans' cell histiocytosis). The IIPs encompass idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), non-specific interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, cryptogen organizing pneumonia, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia and acute interstitial pneumonia. Additionally, a category of unclassified interstitial pneumonia exists. The pathologist has to recognize and address the histopathological pattern. In a multidisciplinary discussion the disorder is allocated to a clinicopathological entity and the histopathological pattern plays a major role in the classification of the entity. Recognition of the underlying pattern and the respective histopathological differential diagnoses is important as the therapy varies depending on the cause and ranges from elimination of the stimulus (if possible) to antifibrotic drug therapy up to preparation for lung transplantation.

  12. [Oral therapy of interstitial cystitis].

    PubMed

    Sievert, K D; Edenfeld, K D; Oberpenning, F; Piechota, H J

    2000-11-01

    Up to now there is no specific treatment targeting the ultimate cause of interstitial cystitis (IC), since its pathogenesis and etiology are still unknown. Most studies focussing on oral medication have not been randomized, double-blinded or placebo-controlled. Numerous case reports and intent-to-treat trials are lacking a systematic approach and do not meet evidence-based medicine criteria. Consequently there is as yet no standard oral therapy available for the treatment of IC. However, only a few oral substances have shown a potential to improve symptoms such as frequency and pain. The best results were obtained from monotherapeutic use of pentosanpolysulfate, amitriptylin and hydroxycin. The true benefit of these substances alone should be compared to analgesics and anticholinergics in the course of controlled clinical trials.

  13. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta

    2015-12-01

    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom.

  14. Interstitial cystitis--an update.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A C; Christmas, T J

    1996-12-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a rare chronic debilitating condition predominantly affecting middle-aged women. The diagnosis, made from the combination of symptoms, cystoscopic findings and bladder biopsies, is often delayed because GPs are often unaware of the condition. The precise aetiology remains obscure and it is clear that there is much research that needs to be undertaken to shed any light on the various current aetiological theories. There is a wide assortment of therapies already available and many more currently under trial. Until there is further progress in the pathogenesis of IC, it seems unlikely that non-operative treatment will consist of anything but palliation. The only potential cures currently available are cystectomy and urinary diversion or surgical replacement of the bladder by enterocystoplasty.

  15. A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  16. [Histopathological classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias].

    PubMed

    Povýsil, Ctibor

    2010-01-01

    The classification scheme of interstitial lung diseases has undergone numerous revisions. The criteria for distinguishing seven distinct subtypes of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are now well defined by consensus in the recently published ATS/ERS classification of these lung diseases. In our present review the histological patterns of the different types are described and the differential diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias is discussed. Surgical lung biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial pneumonias, and sampling from at least 2 sites is recommended. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical biopsy is the preferred method for obtaining lung tissue as this procedure offers a similar yield as an open thoracotomy The most common histological subtype of chronic interstitial lung disease is the usual interstitial pneumonia [UIP] which makes up 47-71% of cases. The key histologic features include patchy subpleural and paraseptal distribution of remodeling lung architecture with dense fibrosis, frequent honeycombing, and large fibroblastic foci. Temporal and spatial heterogeneity are the hallmarks. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia [NSIP] occurs primarily in middle-aged women who have never smoked, with more than 5-years survival rate in 80% of patients. The major feature of NSIP is a uniform interstitial thickening of alveolar septa by a fibrosing or cellular process. The cardinal histological feature in respiratory bronchiolitis and desquamative pneumonia is an excess of intraalveolar histiocytes. In both patterns, there is variable interstitial fibrosis and chronic inflammation, and a strong association with a history of smoking. Organizing pneumonia (idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia [BOOP]) is not strictly an interstitial process, because the alveoli and bronchioles are filled by intraluminal polyps of fibroblastic tissue and the expansion of the interstitium is mild. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia

  17. Vital pulp therapy-current progress of dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  18. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  19. A Diagnostic Aid To Pulp Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Allan; Lebensold, Julian M.

    1989-03-01

    Pitch deposits in the production of pulp from wood are a very significant problem in the pulp and paper industry. Conservative estimates place the annual cost at around $30 million a year. At the present time problems in this domain are handled by human experts, whose time might otherwise be available for research. Development of an expert system in this area would be expected to have several beneficial effects. Quantitatively, it will decrease down time, thus allowing for greater production, and qualitatively it will decrease the occurrence of contamination in the final pulp.

  20. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Leg 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayles, Fred L.; Manheim, Frank T.; Waterman, Lee S.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of pore fluids from reducing environments demonstrate that reduction of SO4 is accompanied by large increases in alkalinity and strong depletion of Ca and Mg. The data are compatible with a model of replacement of Fe3+ in clay lattices by Mg from the interstitial solutions and the precipitation of pyrite. Depletions of Na in the interstitial solutions are related to Mg losses by a ratio of approximately 1:3. Pore fluids from oxidizing pelagic sediments exhibit little SO4 depletion. Losses of Mg are accompanied by the addition of Ca to the pore solutions on a nearly 1:1 basis. Strong Sr enrichment is also found in these solutions. The magnitude of the Sr increase suggests that considerable carbonate recrystallization has occurred. As part of an extensive interlaboratory and analytical calibration, the effect of squeezing sediment at different temperatures has been studied in depth. Samples of a variety of lithologies have been included. Enrichment of K by as much as 24 percent and depletion of Mg and Ca by up to 7 percent occurs during warming. However, no significant effect upon Cl and SO4 could be detected. The strongest effects are seen in the minor constituents studied. On warming, Sr, Si, and B are enriched as much as 19, 40, and 60 percent, respectively. The size of the observed concentration changes varies with the mineralogy of the sediment, but is significant in all types studied, particularly with regards to Mg and K.

  1. Recent Advances in Pulp Capping Materials: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma; E., Soujanya; Nandakumar; Pratapkumar; Sambashivarao

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has shifted from the “doomed” organ concept of an exposed pulp to one of hope and recovery. The era of vital-pulp therapy has been greatly enhanced with the introduction of various pulp capping materials. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss about the various and newer pulp capping materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24596805

  2. A contact line pinning based microfluidic device for modeling intramural and interstitial flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Krupa, Oleh; Apaydin, Elif; Liou-Jiun, J. R.; Diaz-Santana, Anthony; Stroock, Abraham; Wu, Mingming

    2013-03-01

    Fluid flows critically regulate a number of important physiological processes in living systems such as vascular tissue development, immune cell and tumor cell trafficking. However, tools for creating well defined intramural (flow within a vascular tube) and interstitial (flow within a tissue) flows in a physiologically realistic, 3D setting are limited. We will present a contact line pinning based microfluidic platform that is able to create a spatially uniform interstitial flow within a cell embedded biomatrix (type I collagen); and an intramural flow within an engineered vascular tube lined with HUVECs. The created interstitial flow were characterized using a Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP), to be in the range of 1.2 - 16 μm/s. The intramural flow was measured using a particle tracking method, to be in the range of 6 - 30 μm/s. We further demonstrate that interstitial fluid flows modulate breast tumor cell (MDA-MD-231) morphology heterogeneity and plasticity. We will also discuss the influence of fluid flow on cancer cell migration. Support for this work is provided by National Health Institute R21CA138366. This work was performed in part at the Cornell NanoScale Facility and Nanobiotechnology Center.

  3. Nanocrystalline cellulose from aspen kraft pulp and its application in deinked pulp.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinghua; Gao, Yang; Qin, Menghua; Wu, Kaili; Fu, Yingjuan; Zhao, Jian

    2013-09-01

    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) isolated from bleached aspen kraft pulp was characterized, and its application as pulp strengthening additive and retention aid was investigated. Results showed that NCC with high crystallinity of more than 80% can be obtained using 64 wt% sulfuric acid. The structure of nanocrystalline cellulose is parallelepiped rod-like, and their cross-sectional dimension is in the nanometer range with a high aspect ratio. The formation of microparticle retention systems during the application of NCC together with cationic polyacrylamide and cationic starch in deinked pulp was able to further improve pulp retention and strength properties without negative influence on the drainage.

  4. [Interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Froidevaux-Janin, Sylvie; Dudler, Jean; Nicod, Laurent P; Lazor, Romain

    2011-11-23

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is found in up to 30% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is clinically manifest in 5 to 10%, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. The most frequent histopathological forms are usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Another recently described presentation is combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. Similarly to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute exacerbation of ILD may occur in RA and is associated with severe prognosis. Smoking is a known risk factor of RA and may also play a role in the pathogenesis of RA-associated ILD, in combination with genetic and immunologic mechanisms. Several treatments of RA may also lead to drug-induced ILD.

  5. The role of cytokines in pulp inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kokkas, A; Goulas, A; Stavrianos, C; Anogianakis, G

    2011-01-01

    Pulpitis is a typical inflammatory disease of dental pulp, characterized by the local accumulation of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. In addition to serving as intercellular messengers mediating the inflammatory response, cytokines and chemokines induce the expression and stimulate the activity of molecular and cellular agents which participate actively in destructive and reparative processes in the pulp. It is the balance between these processes which eventually determines the extent of pulp inflammation and the viability of the affected tooth. Over the last decade, a number of studies have attempted to correlate cytokine gene expression in the pulp with various stages of inflammation, with possible diagnostic applications in mind. A small survey of relevant information is presented in this paper.

  6. Pulp waste processing prior to hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Kosareva, I.M.; Savushkina, M.K.; Revenko, Y.A.; Sorokin, Y.P.

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with possible treatments of solid phases of radioactive pulp wastes for the purpose of solidification. Described are the methods for full or partial solid phase dissolving for isolation of radionuclides and/or making the macrocomposition more homogeneous. The ultimate aim is the highest possible degree of localization of radionuclides in solid compounds. The radioactive heterogeneous wastes of the radiochemical production are pulp wastes from the main process or processing of drain-desorping solutions as well as high-activity wastes. As a rule, pulp wastes are high- activity wastes radiating significant amounts of heat. Most long-lived radionuclides are found in the solid phase, and their distribution in this phase is irregular. As a result, the emergence of local high-temperature zones is a normal development. The possible consequences are boiling, emission of the vapor phase, and aerosol carry-over. This explains why such storage of pulp wastes is a technologically complicated and dangerous process.

  7. Pulp and paper program fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Summaries are presented of Argonne technology transfer research projects in: sustainable forest management, environmental performance, energy performance, improved capital effectiveness, recycling, and sensors and controls. Applications in paper/pulp industry, other industries, etc. are covered.

  8. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluid imbalance; Hypernatremia - fluid imbalance; Hypokalemia - fluid imbalance; Hyperkalemia - fluid imbalance ... of sodium or potassium is present as well. Medicines can also affect fluid balance. The most common ...

  9. Fractionalization of interstitials in curved colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, William T. M.; Bowick, Mark J.; Chaikin, Paul M.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the effect of curvature and topological frustration in crystals yields insights into the fragility of the ordered state. For instance, a one-dimensional crystal of identical charged particles can accommodate an extra particle (interstitial) if all the particle positions are readjusted, yet in a planar hexagonal crystal interstitials remain trapped between lattice sites and diffuse by hopping. Using optical tweezers operated independently of three-dimensional imaging, we inserted interstitials in a lattice of similar colloidal particles sitting on flat or curved oil/glycerol interfaces, and imaged the ensuing dynamics. We find that, unlike in flat space, the curved crystals self-heal through a collective particle rearrangement that redistributes the increased density associated with the interstitial. This process can be interpreted in terms of the out-of-equilibrium interaction of topological defects with each other and with the underlying curvature. Our observations suggest the existence of particle fractionalization on curved surface crystals.

  10. Thermodynamic processes of si-interstitial clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.; Birner, S.; Richie, D. A.; Voter, A. F.

    2001-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of silicon interstitial defects are extracted from extensive atomistic simulations using ab initio total energy calculations. With increasing number of interstitials, the stable defect shape evolves from compact to chain-like to rod-like. The rodlike {l_brace}311{r_brace} defect, formed from (011) interstitial chains, is stabilized as it grows, elongating in the chain direction. We utilize new accelerated dynamics algorithms based on the parallel-replica method and reliable empirical potentials to efficiently explore large configurational space involving many degrees of freedom. We evaluate the empirical potentials that have been widely used for bulk silicon in light of the energetic and structural properties of interstitial defects.

  11. Mathematical model of renal interstitial fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Wenrui; Rovin, Brad H.; Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune disease that occurs when autoantibodies complex with self-antigen and form immune complexes that accumulate in the glomeruli. These immune complexes initiate an inflammatory response resulting in glomerular injury. LN often concomitantly affects the tubulointerstitial compartment of the kidney, leading first to interstitial inflammation and subsequently to interstitial fibrosis and atrophy of the renal tubules if not appropriately treated. Presently the only way to assess interstitial inflammation and fibrosis is through kidney biopsy, which is invasive and cannot be repeated frequently. Hence, monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy is suboptimal. In this paper we describe a mathematical model of the progress from tubulointerstitial inflammation to fibrosis. We demonstrate how the model can be used to monitor treatments for interstitial fibrosis in LN with drugs currently being developed or used for nonrenal fibrosis. PMID:25225370

  12. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  13. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process. PMID:26771596

  14. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  15. Acute exacerbations of fibrotic interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Tazelaar, Henry D

    2011-03-01

    An acute exacerbation is the development of acute lung injury, usually resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, in a patient with a pre-existing fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. By definition, acute exacerbations are not caused by infection, heart failure, aspiration or drug reaction. Most patients with acute exacerbations have underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, either idiopathic or in association with a connective tissue disease, but the same process has been reported in patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis. Occasionally an acute exacerbation is the initial manifestation of underlying interstitial lung disease. On biopsy, acute exacerbations appear as diffuse alveolar damage or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) superimposed upon the fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Biopsies may be extremely confusing, because the acute injury pattern can completely obscure the underlying disease; a useful clue is that diffuse alveolar damage and organizing pneumonia should not be associated with old dense fibrosis and peripheral honeycomb change. Consultation with radiology can also be extremely helpful, because the fibrosing disease may be evident on old or concurrent computed tomography scans. The aetiology of acute exacerbations is unknown, and the prognosis is poor; however, some patients survive with high-dose steroid therapy.

  16. Interstitial zinc clusters in zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluba, M. A.; Nickel, N. H.; Karpensky, N.

    2013-12-01

    Doped zinc oxide (ZnO) exhibits anomalous Raman modes in the range of 270 to 870 cm-1. Commonly, the resonance at 275 cm-1 is attributed to the local vibration of Zn atoms in the vicinity of extrinsic dopants. We revisit this assignment by investigating the influence of isotopically purified zinc oxide thin films on the frequency of the vibrational mode around 275 cm-1. For this purpose, undoped and nitrogen-doped ZnO thin-films with Zn isotope compositions of natural Zn, 64Zn, 68Zn, and a 1:1 mixture of 64Zn and 68Zn were grown by pulsed laser deposition. The isotopic shift and the line shape of the Raman resonance around 275 cm-1 are analyzed in terms of three different microscopic models, which involve the vibration of (i) interstitial zinc atoms bound to extrinsic defects, (ii) interstitial diatomic Zn molecules, and (iii) interstitial zinc clusters. The energy diagram of interstitial Zn-Zn bonds in a ZnO matrix is derived from density functional theory calculations. The interstitial Zn-Zn bond is stabilized by transferring electrons from the antibonding orbital into the ZnO conduction band. This mechanism facilitates the formation of interstitial Zn clusters and fosters the common n-type doping asymmetry of ZnO.

  17. A review of interstitial pneumonia in cattle.

    PubMed

    Kerr, L A; Linnabary, R D

    1989-06-01

    Interstitial pneumonias comprise a significant proportion of cattle respiratory diseases. Known by different names, such as acute bovine pulmonary emphysema and edema (ABPE), fog fever, atypical interstitial pneumonia (AIP) and cow asthma, the condition seems to occur predominantly in late summer or fall. However, depending on the etiology, cases have occurred throughout the year. Interstitial pneumonia often begins with acute respiratory distress in animals that were clinically normal 12 hr earlier. Animals are observed breathing very rapid and shallow with their mouths open. If disturbed, death may occur rapidly from hypoxia. Causes of interstitial pneumonia are quite varied ranging from parasitic, viral and bacterial to toxic. Toxic agents constitute the most economically important cause of this condition in cattle. The primary toxin is the amino acid L-tryptophan in lush pasture grasses, a compound which is converted to 3-methylindole by rumen microorganisms. Other leading toxic causes of interstitial pneumonia are perilla mint and moldy sweet potatoes. Although treatments are mainly symptomatic and ineffective, preventive measures will reduce the occurrence of interstitial pneumonia. Prevention consists of denying animals exposure to know pneumotoxic agents, eliminating certain rumen microflora that break down the toxic compounds to reactive metabolites, and supplying ample good forage so that cattle will not as likely consume toxic plants.

  18. Reaction of the dental pulp to hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Jaber, L; Mascrès, C; Donohue, W B

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of hydroxyapatite (HA) (Osteogen HA Resorb, GBD Marketing Group Inc., Valley Stream, N.Y.) on the dental pulp of rats. Four upper molar pulps in 45 rats were exposed and capped with synthetic HA (Osteogen) with a stereoscopic microscope. Pulps capped with calcium hydroxide (Dycal, L.D. Caulk Co., Milford, Del.) served as controls. The cavities were filled with amalgam, and the molars on each side of the maxilla were protected by the placement of a pedodontic steel crown. Pulp inflammation and dentin repair were compared by histologic observations and computer image analysis after 7, 14, and 28 days. After 7 days a partial acute pulpitis were observed in specimens treated with Osteogen or Dycal. Reparative dentin formation along the pulp walls was also seen. After 14 days the pulpitis was more extensive in the Osteogen-treated teeth than in the control teeth. Dentin formation as measured by morphometric analysis was more pronounced in Osteogen-treated teeth. Neo-odontoblasts were observed after the use of both materials. After 28 days an acute inflammatory reaction was still evident in the Osteogen-treated group. A complete dentinal bridge was observed more frequently with Dycal than with Osteogen. Despite the putative abilities of HA to be osteoconductive, osteogenic, and dentinogenic, the results of this study indicate that it should not be used as a pulp-capping agent because of its tendency to cause scattered dystrophic calcification in the dental pulp, which could interfere with future endodontic treatment. PMID:1318535

  19. Urine markers of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the current state of the art with regard to urine markers of interstitial cystitis (IC), and describes the areas that need continuing research. Articles referenced in MEDLINE that describe urine alterations in IC were reviewed. Additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. The different marker alterations were tabulated. The relevant articles were discussed, considering different purposes for urine markers including: (1) diagnosing IC; (2) confirming a specific pathophysiology for IC; and (3) predicting or following response to a specific treatment. Currently, 2 markers (glycoprotein-51 and antiproliferative factor [APF]) clearly separate IC and control subjects, with minimal overlap. Markers that correlate with specific bladder biopsy features include 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which correlate with mast cell density, and interleukin (IL)-6, which correlates with mononuclear inflammation. Markers that changed after treatment were as follows: (1) nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased with oral L-arginine; (2) ECP decreased with subcutaneous heparin; (3) prostaglandin E(2) and kallikrein decreased after bladder distention; (4) neutrophil chemotactic activity decreased after dimethyl sulfoxide; (5) IL-2 inhibitor decreased after oral nifedipine; (6) IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; and (7) APF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor changed to or toward normal levels after bladder distention or sacral nerve stimulation. A larger number of urine alterations have been reported, and a few are being pursued further by correlating with bladder biopsy findings or treatment responses. Further research is needed.

  20. Interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Sakai, Takahiro; Sone, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Niwa, Takashi; Hotta, Machiko; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 75-year-old woman with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was administered the selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, alectinib, as a third-line treatment in a Phase 1-2 study. On the 102nd day, chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Laboratory data revealed high serum levels of KL-6, SP-D and lactate dehydrogenase without any clinical symptoms. There was no evidence of infection. Marked lymphocytosis was seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and transbronchial lung biopsy showed mild thickening of alveolar septa and lymphocyte infiltration. Interstitial lung disease was judged to be related to alectinib based on improvements in imaging findings and serum biomarkers after discontinuation of alectinib. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced interstitial lung disease. Alectinib is a promising drug for ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials of this selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor will facilitate the meticulous elucidation of its long-term safety profile.

  1. [Pulp treatment of young permanent teeth after traumatic dental injury].

    PubMed

    Qin, Man

    2009-06-01

    Dental trauma could be largely classified into three groups: Hard tissue injuries, pulp injuries and periodontal tissue injuries. Since pulp injuries are reported in tooth fracture, displacement and avulsion, it is commonly thought that pulp injuries were involved in almost every type of dental injuries. The sequelae of pulp tissue after dental injuries include pulp survival, pulp calcification and pulp necrosis. Dental trauma mostly occurs in 7-15 year-old children. The treatment and prognosis of dental trauma in children are more complicated than those in adults because of the developmental nature of the young permanent teeth. The evaluation of pulp damage and treatment after dental injuries in growing young permanent teeth are discussed in this paper.

  2. Pulp and paper NESHAP: A plain English description

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This document focuses on the NESHAP and describes; the pulping and bleaching processes; the requirements of the NESHAP; the scope of effluent limitations guidelines and standards revisions; and additional references and sources of information about pulp and paper mills.

  3. Dentin permeability: the basis for understanding pulp reactions and adhesive technology.

    PubMed

    Mjör, Ivar A

    2009-01-01

    Permeability involves the passage of fluids, ions, molecules, particulate matter and bacteria into and through a substance or tissue under different and varying conditions. The permeability of the dentin is essential to support the physiology and reaction patterns of the pulp-dentin organ. Nutrients and impulses are transported from the pulp via the odontoblast process and the contents of its tubules maintain the dentin as a vital tissue. However, the main interest of this paper focuses on penetration from the outside towards the pulp rather than from the pulp towards the outside. The present overview centers on the dentinal tubules; how they are formed and how they change as a result of normal and abnormal function, age, and pathological processes and the effect of these processes on the permeability of dentin. Particular attention is focused on the patency of the dentinal tubules.This overview is largely based on the authors own research, clinical insights and active participation in continuing dental education over the last 50 years. It is not a review of the literature related to the permeability of dentin. Rather it presents interpretation of results related to the permeability of dentin based on experience and opinions acquired over a lifetime in dental research.

  4. Fluid mechanics in the perivascular space.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Olbricht, William L

    2011-04-01

    Perivascular space (PVS) within the brain is an important pathway for interstitial fluid (ISF) and solute transport. Fluid flowing in the PVS can affect these transport processes and has significant impacts on physiology. In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis to investigate the fluid mechanics in the PVS. With certain assumptions and approximations, we are able to find an analytical solution to the problem. We discuss the physical meanings of the solution and particularly examine the consequences of the induced fluid flow in the context of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). We conclude that peristaltic motions of the blood vessel walls can facilitate fluid and solute transport in the PVS.

  5. The clinical utility of bronchoalveolar lavage in interstitial lung disease - is it really useful?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2014-04-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can be a very useful tool in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease, but BAL must be performed properly and the retrieved BAL fluid adequately processed and analyzed to allow accurate conclusions to be drawn from BAL analysis. A differential cell count of nucleated immune cells can show cell patterns that suggest or support certain diagnoses, and other testing (stains and cultures for infectious pathogens, malignant cell cytology) can be performed on BAL fluid that can also aid in diagnosis. When combined with the results of a careful history, physical examination, thoracic imaging, and other pertinent laboratory testing, the BAL analysis may allow a confident diagnosis of a specific interstitial lung disease to be made without proceeding to more invasive testing (e.g., surgical lung biopsy) that is associated with increased risk of complications.

  6. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  7. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  8. [Methods and clinical results of interstitial thermoradiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Seegenschmiedt, M H; Sauer, R

    1989-05-01

    Besides percutaneous hyperthermia techniques, some new interstitial procedures have been developed and included into the arsenal of radiotherapists. As compared to percutaneous techniques, considerable benefits are offered by interstitial methods: a more homogeneous distribution of therapeutical temperatures, a better sparing of normal tissue, the possibility to treat deep tumors, and better therapy control and evaluation by extensive "thermal mapping" within the target volume. This study presents the technical principles and the clinical possibilities of the interstitial hyperthermia methods developed hitherto: resistive radiofrequency hyperthermia, radiative microwave hyperthermia, inductive ferromagnetic seed hyperthermia, and conductive hot-water perfusion hyperthermia. Until now, interstitial thermo-radiotherapy was only performed during some phase I/II studies. It was applied for palliative reasons in persisting and recurrent tumors accessible for implantation and situated in superficial to semi-deep locations with no or insufficient response to differently combined treatment modalities (surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy). The preliminary clinical results obtained in almost 300 patients are quite promising: complete remission rates up to 70% have been achieved. Interstitial hyperthermia represents an effective and safe therapy modality, especially when combined with radiotherapy in palliative tumor therapy. At present, several prospective randomized multicentric studies are conducted to investigate its value as adjuvant therapy modality.

  9. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article. PMID:26234096

  10. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  11. The significance of interstitial cells in neurogastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-07-31

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα(+)) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract.

  12. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth.

  13. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  14. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  15. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  16. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and... transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (2) Standards incorporated by reference....

  17. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... emissions data that will enable a broader understanding of condensable PM emissions from pulp and paper... first review of the kraft pulp mills NSPS was completed on May 20, 1986 (51 FR 18544). The 1986 review..., 2000 (65 FR 61759); and September 21, 2006 (71 FR 55127)). The current kraft pulp mills NSPS...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and... transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (2) Standards incorporated by reference....

  19. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and... transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (2) Standards incorporated by reference....

  20. 29 CFR 1910.261 - Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 1910.261 Section 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Special Industries § 1910.261 Pulp, paper, and... transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. (2) Standards incorporated by reference....

  1. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  2. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  3. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a...

  4. Analyses of dental pulp in restored teeth.

    PubMed

    Lentz, D L; Buchanan, J T; Basinger, D R

    1989-03-01

    Restored teeth were extracted from test animals at four time intervals (1 hour, 1 day, 1 week, and 3 months) following amalgam insertion. Extracted teeth were frozen in liquid nitrogen, cryo-fractured so as to expose the pulps and then freeze-dried. Pulps were analyzed for mercury content by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Mercury levels appeared below the detection limits of EDS but could be detected by AAS which showed the highest readings seven days after amalgam insertion. PMID:2740863

  5. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis secondary to soy.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Senait W; Hirsch, Ann; Jaworsky, Christine

    2004-08-01

    A healthy 58-year-old woman developed an asymptomatic papular eruption of the neck, cheek, abdomen, arms, and flexures. There was an 8-year history of the lesions, which had erupted when the patient started a strict vegetarian diet. Lesions lasted 3 to 5 days, cleared without scarring, and were associated with burning and increased tearing of the eyes. The biopsy specimen showed an interstitial granulomatous dermatitis without vascular injury, collagen alteration, or mononuclear atypia. The eruption cleared when the patient omitted soy products from her diet. It subsequently recurred with intake of even minimal amounts of soy. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis is a histologic pattern of inflammation that generates a broad differential diagnosis. No previous reports of interstitial granulomatous dermatitis related to soy products are available in the literature.

  6. [Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: A new French case].

    PubMed

    Verine, Jérôme; Reade, Richard; Janin, Anne; Droz, Dominique

    2010-06-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare and slowly progressive chronic interstitial nephritis (CIN) (28 cases reported), described for the first time by Mihatsch et al. in 1979. Here, we report on a 50-year-old woman who presented with asymptomatic renal failure and mild proteinuria without hematuria. Renal biopsy showed large tubulo-interstitial fibrosis and massively enlarged tubular epithelial cell nuclei, without viral inclusion. KIN is a rare CIN defined by a karyomegaly of tubular epithelial cell nuclei. Its pathogenesis remains obscure. Nevertheless, an exogenous factor is suspected, ochratoxin A particularly. The familial clustering of patients and the frequency of HLA-A9 and HLA-B35 haplotypes suggest the presence of a possible genetic susceptibility to this disorder.

  7. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-11-21

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm{sup −1}, which disappears from the spectra at ∼170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm{sup −1} IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum.

  8. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  9. Wear evaluation of high interstitial stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.; Tylczak, J.H.

    2008-07-01

    A new series of high nitrogen-carbon manganese stainless steel alloys are studied for their wear resistance. High nitrogen and carbon concentrations were obtained by melting elemental iron-chromium-manganese (several with minor alloy additions of nickel, silicon, and molybdenum) in a nitrogen atmosphere and adding elemental graphite. The improvement in material properties (hardness and strength) with increasing nitrogen and carbon interstitial concentration was consistent with previously reported improvements in similar material properties alloyed with nitrogen only. Wear tests included: scratch, pin-on-disk, sand-rubber-wheel, impeller, and jet erosion. Additions of interstitial nitrogen and carbon as well as interstitial nitrogen and carbide precipitates were found to greatly improve material properties. In general, with increasing nitrogen and carbon concentrations, strength, hardness, and wear resistance increased.

  10. Interstitial Pneumonitis from Treatment with Gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Brolin B.; Brockman, Megan M.; Byrd, Debbie C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of gemcitabine may lead to numerous adverse effects ranging from mild to very severe, such as interstitial pneumonitis. The diagnosis of this complication is based on multiple laboratory findings, radiographic evidence, and high clinical suspicion. Presented is a case report of a patient who met these criteria and had onset consistent with drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Case Presentation: A 76-year-old White female was treated with gemcitabine for pancreatic cancer. Two months after the initiation of therapy, she was admitted to the hospital for worsening dyspnea and cough. High clinical suspicion, bilateral interstitial opacities on chest x-ray, worsening pulmonary status, and onset 2 months after initiation of therapy led to the diagnosis of gemcitabine-induced interstitial pneumonitis. Steroid therapy with prednisone was initiated, and the patient’s clinical symptoms and radiographic findings improved. Discussion: Gemcitabine-induced interstitial pneumonitis is well described in the literature. It is a rare but serious complication associated with gemcitabine therapy in which patients present with worsening dyspnea. Most patients only require supportive care and discontinuation of the drug for treatment, but in severe cases supplemental oxygen and steroid therapy must be used before resolution of symptoms. It is important to obtain an accurate medication history to evaluate for other potentially pulmonary toxic medications. Radiographic findings such as bilateral infiltrates should be completely resolved after therapy. Conclusion: Radiographic findings, clinical symptoms, and clinical suspicion can lead to early recognition of interstitial pneumonitis from gemcitabine. Physician awareness of this adverse effect and early recognition are keys to providing prompt treatment in resolving symptoms and decreasing mortality. PMID:25477616

  11. Usual interstitial pneumonia in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Elicker, B M; Maldonado, F; Webb, W R; Ryu, J H; Van Uden, J H; Lee, J S; King, T E; Collard, H R

    2010-06-01

    Interstitial lung disease is a common manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis; however, little is known about factors that influence its prognosis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern found on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is of prognostic significance in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). Patients with RA-ILD were identified retrospectively (n = 82). The relationship of a definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT to survival was determined and compared to that in a cohort of patients with radiologically diagnosed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 51). A definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern was seen in 20 (24%) out of 82 patients with RA-ILD. These patients showed worse survival than those without this pattern (median survival 3.2 versus 6.6 yrs), and a similar survival to those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. On multivariate analysis, a definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT was associated with worse survival (hazard ratio of 2.3). Analysis of specific HRCT features demonstrated that traction bronchiectasis and honeycomb fibrosis were associated with worse survival (hazard ratio of 2.6 and 2.1, respectively). Female sex (hazard ratio of 0.30) and a higher baseline diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (hazard ratio of 0.96) were associated with better survival. A definite usual interstitial pneumonia pattern on HRCT has important prognostic implications in RA-ILD.

  12. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline.

  13. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline. PMID:20679058

  14. Interstitial irradiation of brain tumors: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, M.; Gutin, P.H.

    1981-12-01

    As an adjuvant to surgery, radiation therapy has consistently proven to be the most successful form of treatment for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors and possibly for inoperable benign tumors. Because the risk of radiation necrosis of normal brain limits the amount of radiation that can be given by external beam therapy at conventional dose rates, interstitial radiation of brain tumors is a logical alternative treatment approach. We discuss the radiobiological advantages of low dose rate irradiation and intratumoral placement of sources that make interstitial irradiation an attractive treatment for brain tumors and review the history of clinical brachytherapy for intracranial neoplasia.

  15. Improvement of bleached wheat straw pulp properties by using aspen high-yield pulp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongjie; Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huiren; He, Zhibin; Ni, Yonghao

    2012-09-01

    The bleached wheat straw pulp (BWSP) accounts for about 25% of the virgin fiber supply in the Chinese Pulp and Paper Industry. As a non-wood chemical pulp, BWSP is known to have low bulk, low light scattering coefficient and poor drainage due to its high content of parenchyma cells. In this study, a high-quality aspen high-yield pulp (HYP) was used to improve the BWSP properties at the laboratory scale. The results indicate that adding 5-20% aspen HYP into unrefined or refined BWSP can minimize many of the drawbacks associated with the BWSP: improving its drainage, bulk, light scattering coefficient and opacity. The addition of a small amount (up to 20%) of aspen HYP can also significantly increase the tear index of BWSP with only a slight decrease of the tensile index.

  16. CYTOTOXICITY AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT PULP CAPPING MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Atta, Maria Teresa; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri; Sipert, Carla Renata; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    There are several studies about the cytotoxic effects of dental materials in contact with the pulp tissue, such as calcium hydroxide (CH), adhesive systems, resin composite and glass ionomer cements. The aim of this review article was to summarize and discuss the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex, some components of resin composites and adhesive systems when placed in direct or indirect contact with the pulp tissue. A large number of dental materials present cytotoxic effects when applied close or directly to the pulp, and the only material that seems to stimulate early pulp repair and dentin hard tissue barrier formation is CH. PMID:20027424

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of ammonia-treated sugar beet pulp.

    PubMed

    Foster, B L; Dale, B E; Doran-Peterson, J B

    2001-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp is a carbohydrate-rich coproduct generated by the table sugar industry. Beet pulp has shown promise as a feedstock for ethanol production using enzymes to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates and engineered bacteria to ferment sugars to ethanol. In this study, sugar beet pulp underwent an ammonia pressurization depressurization (APD) pretreatment in which the pulp was exploded by the sudden evaporation of ammonia in a reactor vessel. APD was found to substantially increase hydrolysis efficiency of the cellulose component, but when hemicellulose- and pectin-degrading enzymes were added, treated pulp hydrolysis was no better than the untreated control.

  18. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  19. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  20. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  1. Influence of different types of pulp treatment during isolation in the obtention of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Viña-Almunia, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; El Alamy, Marya; Viña, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Different methods have been used in order to isolate dental pulp stem cells. The aim of this study was to study the effect of different types of pulp treatment during isolation, under 3% O2 conditions, in the time needed and the efficacy for obtaining dental pulp stem cells. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty dental pulps were used to isolate dental pulp stem cells treating the pulp tissue during isolation using 9 different methods, using digestive, disgregation, or mechanical agents, or combining them. The cells were positive for CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, CD34 markers, and negative for the hematopoietic cell marker CD-45, thus confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. The efficacy of dental pulp stem cells obtention and the minimum time needed to obtain such cells comparing the 9 different methods was analyzed. Results Dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 97 of the 120 pulps used in the study, i.e. 80.8% of the cases. They were obtained with all the methods used except with mechanical fragmentation of the pulp, where no enzymatic digestion was performed. The minimum time needed to isolate dental pulp stem cells was 8 hours, digesting with 2mg/ml EDTA for 10 minutes, 4mg/ml of type I collagenase, 4mg/ml of type II dispase for 40 minutes, 13ng/ml of thermolysine for 40 minutes and sonicating the culture for one minute. Conclusions Dental pulp stem cells were obtained in 97 cases from a series of 120 pulps. The time for obtaining dental pulp stem cells was reduced maximally, without compromising the obtention of the cells, by combining digestive, disgregation, and mechanical agents. Key words:Dental pulp stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, isolation method. PMID:26946201

  2. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp.

  3. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. PMID:27518034

  4. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. PMID:24698687

  5. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Kaswan, Sumita; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The intra oral occlusal radiographs were also evaluated to determine the presence or absence of salivary stones. The results were compared and analyzed using the Chi-square test (p<0.001). Results: Salivary gland calcifications were detected in 5 patients. 191 patients had pulp narrowing and 118 patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and salivary stones (p>0.001) and also between pulp stones and salivary gland stones (p>0.001). Conclusions: However, the incidental findings of salivary gland stones on intra oral occlusal radiographs can provide useful information in the early diagnosis of the condition, but in the present study no significant relationship was found between the presence of pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Key words:Pulp stone, salivary gland stone, periapical radiograph, occlusal radiograph. PMID:25674311

  6. Biological approaches toward dental pulp regeneration by tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Jin, Tao; Yu, Qing; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2011-04-01

    Root canal therapy has been the predominant approach in endodontic treatment, wherein the entire pulp is cleaned out and replaced with a gutta-percha filling. However, living pulp is critical for the maintenance of tooth homeostasis and essential for tooth longevity. An ideal form of therapy, therefore, might consist of regenerative approaches in which diseased/necrotic pulp tissues are removed and replaced with regenerated pulp tissues to revitalize the teeth. Dental pulp regeneration presents one of the most challenging issues in regenerative dentistry due to the poor intrinsic ability of pulp tissues for self-healing and regrowth. With the advent of modern tissue engineering and the discovery of dental stem cells, biological therapies have paved the way to utilize stem cells, delivered or internally recruited, to generate dental pulp tissues, where growth factors and a series of dentine extracellular matrix molecules are key mediators that regulate the complex cascade of regeneration events to be faithfully fulfilled.

  7. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia. PMID:27123874

  8. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia.

  9. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Joshua J; Brown, Kevin K

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the US population. Patients can have extra-articular manifestations of their disease and the lungs are commonly involved. RA can affect any compartment of the respiratory system and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung is abnormal in over half of these patients. Interstitial lung disease is a dreaded complication of RA. It is more prevalent in smokers, males, and those with high antibody titers. The pathogenesis is unknown but data suggest an environmental insult in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Smoking may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease through citrullination of protein in the lung leading to the development of autoimmunity. Patients usually present in middle age with cough and dyspnea. Pulmonary function testing most commonly shows reduced diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and HRCT reveals a combination of reticulation and ground glass abnormalities. The most common pattern on HRCT and histopathology is usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia seen less frequently. There are no large-scale well-controlled treatment trials. In severe or progressive cases, treatment usually consists of corticosteroids with or without a cytotoxic agent for 6 months or longer. RA interstitial lung disease is progressive; over half of patients show radiographic progression within 2 years. Patients with a UIP pattern on biopsy have a survival similar to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  10. Reversible Fluindione-Induced Chronic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Crepin, Thomas; Bamoulid, Jamal; Courivaud, Cécile; Dahmani, Omar; Felix, Sophie; Ducloux, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Fluindione is well known to induce acute drug-induced interstitial nephritis (IN). Most cases occurred soon after the onset of treatment. We report a unique case of severe subacute fluindione-induced IN diagnosed 2 years after the treatment was begun. Renal function dramatically improved after fluindione withdrawal and steroid therapy. PMID:27127666

  11. Nerve fibre proliferation in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Rode, J; Chapple, C R; Milroy, E J; Turner-Warwick, R T

    1990-01-01

    The aetiology of pain in interstitial cystitis is not understood, although it has been reported to be due to release of mediators from mast cell granules. Cystolysis and intravesical instillation of dimethyl sulphoxide have been shown to relieve pain in this condition. We have studied the nerve population within the bladder wall using immunohistochemical stains for protein gene product 9.5. A group of 18 cases of chronic interstitial cystitis and 12 controls; neuropathic bladder (n = 1), chronic bacterial cystitis (n = 3), systemic lupus erythematosus cystitis (n = 2) and normals (n = 6), were investigated. There were significantly more nerve fibres within the sub-urothelial and detrusor muscle layers in chronic interstitial cystitis than there were in normals. Patients with chronic cystitis of other aetiology did not have a significant increase in nerve fibre density within the bladder wall suggesting a specific association between nerve fibre proliferation and interstitial cystitis. Cystolysis is shown to deplete selectively the submucosal nerve plexuses without altering the nerve density within detrusor muscle. This finding explains the desensitisation of the bladder without impairment of detrusor function after this procedure.

  12. Hormonal regulation of fluid and electrolyte metabolism during periods of headward fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.; Severs, W. B.; Thrasher, T.; Ramsay, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    In the broadest sense, this project evaluates how spaceflight induced shifts of blood and interstitial fluids into the thorax affect regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) of fluid-electrolyte hormone secretion. Specifically, it focuses on the role of hormones related to salt/water balance and their potential function in the control of intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. Fluid-electrolyte status during spaceflight gradually equilibrates, with a reduction in all body fluid compartments. Related to this is the cardiovascular deconditioning of spaceflight which is manifested upon return to earth as orthostatic intolerance.

  13. Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Kevin R; Fell, Charlene; Aubry, Marie-Christine; Brown, Kevin; Colby, Thomas; Costabel, Ulrich; Franks, Teri J; Gross, Barry H; Hansell, David M; Kazerooni, Ella; Kim, Dong Soon; King, Talmadge E; Kitachi, Masanori; Lynch, David; Myers, Jeff; Nagai, Sonoko; Nicholson, Andrew G; Poletti, Venerino; Raghu, Ganesh; Selman, Moises; Toews, Galen; Travis, William; Wells, Athol U; Vassallo, Robert; Martinez, Fernando J

    2014-09-01

    Cigarette smoking is a key factor in the development of numerous pulmonary diseases. An international group of clinicians, radiologists and pathologists evaluated patients with previously identified idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) to determine unique features of cigarette smoking. Phase 1 (derivation group) identified smoking-related features in patients with a history of smoking (n=41). Phase 2 (validation group) determined if these features correctly predicted the smoking status of IIP patients (n=100) to participants blinded to smoking history. Finally, the investigators sought to determine if a new smoking-related interstitial lung disease phenotype could be defined. Phase 1 suggested that preserved forced vital capacity with disproportionately reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and various radiographic and histopathological findings were smoking-related features. In phase 2, the kappa coefficient among clinicians was 0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21), among the pathologists 0.36 (95% CI 0.32-0.40) and among the radiologists 0.43 (95% CI 0.35-0.52) for smoking-related features. Eight of the 100 cases were felt to represent a potential smoking-related interstitial lung disease. Smoking-related features of interstitial lung disease were identified in a minority of smokers and were not specific for smoking. This study is limited by its retrospective design, the potential for recall bias in smoking history and lack of information on second-hand smoke exposure. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between smoking and interstitial lung disease. PMID:25063244

  14. Using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry to investigate the mixing of non-Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dineshkumar; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2012-12-01

    Mixing is a critical unit operation, which is widely used in chemical and allied industries. Mixing of non-Newtonian fluids is a challenging task due to the complex rheology exhibited by these fluids. Pseudoplastic fluids with yield stress are an important class of non-Newtonian fluids. In this study, we utilized ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to explore the flow field generated by different impellers in the agitation of xanthan gum solutions and pulp suspensions, which are yield-pseudoplastic fluids.

  15. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  16. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance model (FEB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzjerrell, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of various oral input water loads on solute and water distribution throughout the body are presented in the form of a model. The model was a three compartment model; the three compartments being plasma, interstitial fluid and cellular fluid. Sodium, potassium, chloride and urea were the only major solutes considered explicitly. The control of body water and electrolyte distribution was affected via drinking and hormone levels.

  17. Mobilized dental pulp stem cells for pulp regeneration: initiation of clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro

    2014-04-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to regenerate the dentin-pulp complex, enabling the conservation and restoration of functional teeth. We assessed the efficacy and safety of pulp stem cell transplantation as a prelude before the initiation of clinical trials. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) induces subsets of dental pulp stem cells to form mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs). Good manufacturing practice is a prerequisite for the isolation and expansion of MDPSCs that are enriched in stem cells, expressing a high level of trophic factors with properties of high proliferation, migration, and antiapoptotic effects and endowed with regenerative potential. The quality of clinical-grade MDPSCs was assured by the absence of abnormalities/aberrations in karyotype and the lack of tumor formation after transplantation in immunodeficient mice. Autologous transplantation of MDPSCs with G-CSF in pulpectomized teeth in dogs augmented the regeneration of pulp tissue. The combinatorial trophic effects of MDPSCs and G-CSF on cell migration, antiapoptosis, immunosuppression, and neurite outgrowth were also confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, MDPSCs from the aged donors were as potent as the young donors. It is noteworthy that there were no significant age-related changes in biological properties such as stability, regenerative potential, and expression of the senescence markers in MDPSCs. On the other hand, autologous transplantation of MDPSCs with G-CSF induced less regenerated pulp tissue in the aged dogs compared with the young dogs. In conclusion, the preclinical safety, feasibility, and efficacy of pulp regeneration by MDPSCs and G-CSF were established. Therefore, the standardization and establishment of regulatory guidelines for stem cell therapy in clinical endodontics is now a reality.

  18. Genetic Analysis of Sporadic and Familial Interstitial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Although much progress has been made in understanding the biology and clinical course of interstitial pneumonia, the etiology of this disease remains elusive. Epidemiologic studies have consistently identified cigarette smoke as an important exposure; however, most smokers do not develop interstitial pneumonia and many individuals with interstitial pneumonia do not smoke cigarettes. Moreover, interstitial pneumonias have been reported to cluster in families. Thus, a more thorough understanding of the genetic etiology of interstitial pneumonia may prove critically important in defining the biology and clinical course of this complex human disease. PMID:18403331

  19. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  20. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    PubMed

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  1. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  2. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF.

  3. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF. PMID:27239479

  4. Modeling and Measurement of Correlation between Blood and Interstitial Glucose Changes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Zhang, Yiming; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2016-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for continuous blood glucose monitoring is to continuously measure glucose in the interstitial fluid (ISF). However, multiple physiological factors can modulate glucose concentrations and affect the lag phase between blood and ISF glucose changes. This study aims to develop a compensatory tool for measuring the delay in ISF glucose variations in reference to blood glucose changes. A theoretical model was developed based on biophysics and physiology of glucose transport in the microcirculation system. Blood and interstitial fluid glucose changes were measured in mice and rats by fluorescent and isotope methods, respectively. Computer simulation mimicked curves were fitted with data resulting from fluorescent measurements of mice and isotope measurements of rats, indicating that there were lag times for ISF glucose changes. It also showed that there was a required diffusion distance for glucose to travel from center of capillaries to interstitial space in both mouse and rat models. We conclude that it is feasible with the developed model to continuously monitor dynamic changes of blood glucose concentration through measuring glucose changes in ISF with high accuracy, which requires correct parameters for determining and compensating for the delay time of glucose changes in ISF. PMID:27239479

  5. Facts and controversies in the classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, V; Kitaichi, M

    2000-10-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are defined from the pathological point of view as non granulomatous intralobular inflammatory and fibrotic processes involving the alveolar walls. More than thirty years ago Liebow and Carrington pioneered the notion that morphological characteristics could be used with benefit in separating the different entities found in this group, which present with typical, but not pathognomonic clinical features. In the mid-1980s some entities, including giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP), were removed from this group and considered as peculiar forms. In the early 90s the concept of cellular or nonspecific interstitial pneumonia was reconsidered, leading to an in depth revision of various types of interstitial pneumonia of unknown etiology. The histological pattern observed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is now referred to as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Other entities that have been revised during the last ten years are desquamative interstitial pneumonia/alveolar macrophage pneumonia (DIP/AMP), respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). This paper provides a detailed description of pulmonary disorders which have been included in the new classification systems of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. In the second part of the paper we will discuss several doubts and controversies that this new classification schemes leave unresolved.

  6. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins.

    PubMed

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R

    2007-10-01

    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  7. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunil; Shin, Su-Jung; Song, Yunjung; Kim, Euiseong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration. PMID:26688616

  8. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials. PMID:27107340

  9. Novel fiber optic dental pulp vitalometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makiniemi, Matti; Kopola, Harri K.; Oikarinen, Kyosti; Herrala, Esko

    1995-02-01

    Since the diagnosis of the intradental blood supply is difficult in dental trauma, we have designed and built a new dental pulp vitalometer based on optical reflectance measurement and exploiting the different absorption spectra of haemoglobins. The device comprises light transmitters, a receiver, electronics and a PC. Pulsed light is transmitted along the fiber optic probe, which illuminates the tooth being tested. The same probe collects the reflected light from the tooth pulp and transfers the light to the receiver. The received signal is divided into AC and DC components and a data acquisition card reads these signals, performs an A/D conversion and writes the results in a text file. A reference plethysmogram signal from a finger is used to help in processing the measured dental signal. The computer program calculates an estimate for the oxygen saturation.

  10. Pattern-recognition receptors in pulp defense.

    PubMed

    Staquet, M-J; Carrouel, F; Keller, J-F; Baudouin, C; Msika, P; Bleicher, F; Kufer, T A; Farges, J-C

    2011-07-01

    Initial sensing of infection is mediated by germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), the activation of which leads to the expression of inflammatory mediators responsible for the elimination of pathogens and infected cells. PRRs act as immune sensors that provide immediate cell responses to pathogen invasion or tissue injury. Here, we review the expression of PRRs in human dental pulp cells, namely, receptors from the Toll-like (TLR) and Nod-like NLR families, by which cells recognize bacteria. Particular attention is given to odontoblasts, which are the first cells encountered by pathogens and represent, in the tooth, the first line of defense for the host. Understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the recognition of bacterial pathogens by odontoblasts is critical for the development of therapeutic strategies that aim at preventing excessive pulp inflammation and related deleterious effects.

  11. Activation of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenkai; Lv, Haipeng; Wang, Haijing; Wang, Diya; Sun, Shukai; Jia, Qian; Wang, Peina; Song, Bing; Ni, Longxing

    2015-08-01

    The NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway plays an important role in cellular immune defence against bacterial infection; however, its function in human dental pulp tissue and human dental pulp fibroblasts remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that NLRP3 protein expression occurs to a greater extent in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis than in normal pulp tissue and in tissue with reversible pulpitis. Caspase-1 is present in its active (cleaved) form only in pulp tissue with irreversible pulpitis. NLRP3 and caspase-1 are expressed in the odontoblast layers in normal human dental pulp tissue, whereas in inflamed pulp tissue, the odontoblast layers are disrupted and dental pulp cells are positive for NLRP3 and caspase-1. Additionally, we investigate the role of the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome pathway in human dental pulp fibroblasts and show that ATP activates the P2X7 receptor on the cell membrane triggering K(+) efflux and inducing the gradual recruitment of the membrane pore pannexin-1. Extracellular lipopolysaccharide is able to penetrate the cytosol and activate NLRP3. Furthermore, the low intracellular K(+) concentration in the cytosol triggers reactive oxygen species generation, which also induces the NLRP3 inflammasome. Thus, the NLRP3/caspase-1 pathway has a biological role in the innate immune response mounted by human dental pulp fibroblasts.

  12. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  13. Antepartum to postpartum changes in transcapillary fluid balance.

    PubMed

    Bungum, L; Tollan, A; Oian, P

    1990-09-01

    During the puerperium significant changes occur in the body volume homeostasis. In the present study the transcapillary fluid balance was examined antepartum in nine healthy women. The interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured by the 'wick' method, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the 'wick-in-needle' method in subcutaneous tissue on the thorax and at the ankle. From antepartum (gestational week 37-40) to postpartum (5th day), the following changes were observed: A significant increase in the colloid osmotic pressure both in plasma (mean 1.8 mmHg, P = 0.027) and in the interstitial fluid at the ankle (mean 2.9 mmHg, P = 0.008). Neither colloid osmotic pressure gradient (plasma-interstitium), interstitial hydrostatic pressure, nor haemoglobin and haematocrit changed. The observed rise in the interstitial colloid osmotic pressure must be caused by mobilization of fluid from the interstitium, probably due to a reduced capillary hydrostatic pressure. The increase in plasma colloid osmotic pressure is most likely caused by an increased albumin synthesis and/or transport of interstitial proteins back to the vascular compartment.

  14. Interstitial pregnancy management and subsequent pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Sagiv, Ron; Debby, Abraham; Keidar, Ran; Kerner, Ram; Golan, Abraham

    2013-11-01

    We report on management and subsequent fertility outcome of interstitial pregnancy in a retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3) at a university affiliated teaching hospital. Of 706 women with extrauterine pregnancy, 14 consecutive women with interstitial pregnancy were treated by methotrexate, laparotomy or laparoscopy between 1997 and 2007. The first four women, with significant hemoperitoneum, were treated by laparotomy. Of the next 10 women, four were selected for medical treatment with methotrexate. Only one case was treated successfully. The other six women had laparoscopic treatment. Of nine laparoscopies, one was converted to laparotomy due to excessive blood loss during the procedure. Of nine women desiring a child, three were infertile, whereas six conceived with an intrauterine pregnancy. A change from diagnosis later in pregnancy and laparotomy to more conservative treatment, mainly by laparoscopy, suggests a possibly better subsequent pregnancy rate.

  15. Interstitial laser thermotherapy in neurosurgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Menovsky, T; Beek, J F; van Gemert, M J; Roux, F X; Bown, S G

    1996-01-01

    One of the most recent laser treatment modalities in neurosurgery is interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). In this review, experimental and clinical studies concerning intracranial ILTT are discussed. Two methods for intra-operative control of the laser induced lesions are described; i.e., computer-controlled power delivery, using a thermocouple that is positioned interstitially at the periphery of the tumour to maintain the desired temperature at that point, and MRI, to visualise the extent of the thermal lesions induced by ILTT. The results show that ILTT using a Nd: YAG laser is easy and relatively effective in the treatment of small deep-seated brain tumours with minimal risk and complications. This review is concluded with suggestions for further improvement of this treatment modality.

  16. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  17. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  18. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Alis Kolter

    2007-02-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic, painful bladder syndrome primarily found in women. Although the direct cause(s) of IC are unknown, several theories exist. Common symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, and pain. Treatment options include behavioral therapies, use of pharmacologic agents, and surgery. Patients benefit from prompt diagnosis and initiation of treatments. Important clinical features of IC in women including the pathology, common symptoms, and recommended evaluation and management strategies are reviewed.

  19. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth. PMID:25665859

  20. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-12-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation.

  1. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation. PMID:26631412

  2. Bleaching kraft pulps with white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, I.D.; Paice, M.G.; Bourbonnais, R.

    1996-10-01

    Certain white-rot fungi, notably Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete sordida, and isolate IZU-154 can lower the residual lignin content and increase the brightness of kraft pulps without damaging the pulps` strength or yield. This biological delignification effect can be used in Elemental Chlorine Free and Totally Chlorine Free bleaching sequences. Physical contact between the fungal hyphae and the pulp fibers is not required, but the presence of the living fungus is necessary for continued delignification. In many but not a systems, delignification is correlated with manganese peroxidase activity. Experiments with pulps containing {sup 14}C-labelled lignin indicate that the residual lignin is solubilized, but not extensively mineralized, by T. versicolor. The solubilized lignin has the same molecular size as the residual lignin originally present in the pulp. Demethylation of the phenolic rings in the pulp is an early effect of incubation with the fungus.

  3. Optical measurement of pulp quantity in a rotating disc refiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahautala, Taito; Lassila, Erkki; Hernberg, Rolf; Härkönen, Esko; Vuorio, Petteri

    2004-11-01

    An optical method based on light extinction was used in measuring pulp quantity in the plate gap of a 10 MW thermomechanical pulping refiner for the first time. The relationship between pulp quantity and light extinction was determined by empirical laboratory experiments. The empirical relationship was then applied to interpret the image data obtained from field measurements. The results show the local distribution of pulp in the refiner plate gap for different rotor plate positions and refiner operation points. The maximum relative uncertainty in the measured pulp quantity was 50%. Relative pulp distributions were measured at higher accuracy. The measurements have influenced the development of a laser-based optical diagnostic method that can be applied to the quantitative visualization of technically demanding industrial processes.

  4. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp.

    PubMed

    Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K; Lyberatos, G

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

  5. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientation depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.

  6. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    DOE PAGES

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientationmore » depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.« less

  7. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  8. INTERSTITIAL IMMUNE COMPLEX THYROIDITIS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Clagett, James A.; Wilson, Curtis B.; Weigle, William O.

    1974-01-01

    Mice immunized with soluble heterologous thyroglobulins developed autoantibody that cross-reacted with autologous thyroglobulin. There was a direct correlation between the temporal appearance and quantity of serum autoantibody and the presumed in situ formation of immune complexes in the interstitium of the thyroid glands. Immediately after the formation of interstitial immune complexes containing antibody of the IgG complement-fixing type, the thyroids were invaded by a transient but intense neutrophil infiltrate which within 1 wk was replaced by chronic mononuclear elements. By the combination of fluorescence microscopy and autoradiography, thyroglobulin was demonstrated to be one, if not the sole, antigen in the interstitial immune complexes. The interstitial immune complexes were granular to lumpy in appearance and formed at the basal area of the follicular cells in intimate association with the follicular basement membrane. Electron microscopy revealed electron dense deposits, presumably immune complexes, between the follicular basement membrane and the plasma membrane. The presumed in situ formation of immune complexes in this model is similar to that which occurs in the Arthus reaction and is a different mechanism of immune complex injury than that caused by tissue deposition of circulating immune complexes as occurs in serum sickness. PMID:4279269

  9. Acid hydrolysis of cellulosic fibres: Comparison of bleached kraft pulp, dissolving pulps and cotton textile cellulose.

    PubMed

    Palme, Anna; Theliander, Hans; Brelid, Harald

    2016-01-20

    The behaviour of different cellulosic fibres during acid hydrolysis has been investigated and the levelling-off degree of polymerisation (LODP) has been determined. The study included a bleached kraft pulp (both never-dried and once-dried) and two dissolving pulps (once-dried). Additionally, cotton cellulose from new cotton sheets and sheets discarded after long-time use was studied. Experimental results from the investigation, together with results found in literature, imply that ultrastructural differences between different fibres affect their susceptibility towards acid hydrolysis. Drying of a bleached kraft pulp was found to enhance the rate of acid hydrolysis and also result in a decrease in LODP. This implies that the susceptibility of cellulosic fibres towards acid hydrolysis is affected by drying-induced stresses in the cellulose chains. In cotton cellulose, it was found that use and laundering gave a substantial loss in the degree of polymerisation (DP), but that the LODP was only marginally affected.

  10. Indirect pulp capping in young patients: immunohistological study of pulp-dentin complex.

    PubMed

    Ţuculină, Mihaela Jana; Răescu, Mihaela; Dascălu, Ionela Teodora; Popescu, Mihaela; Andreescu, Claudia Florina; Dăguci, C; Cumpătă, C N; Nimigean, Vanda Roxana; Baniţă, Ileana Monica

    2013-01-01

    Indirect capping is a complex therapy exclusively needed in deep cavities that provides, using biomaterials, a disinfection of the dentinary sore and seals the dentinary tubules, protects the pulp of physical mechanisms and chemical agents and stimulates the mechanisms that produce new dentin. Following this idea, we studied the histological changes in the dental pulp tissue and also the specific immunohistochemical response in various structures when an indirect capping technique was used. We used special histological techniques followed by classical staining or by immunohistochemical reaction in order to assess the odontoblastic, and the vascular reaction. The immunohistochemical study allows us to evaluate the changes in the pulp-dentin complex, as the result of the changes in the dentinal tubules permeability and the biological reactions at this level. PMID:24399005

  11. Pilot scale fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke tuber pulp mashes

    SciTech Connect

    Ziobro, G.C.; Williams, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    Processing and fermentation of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber pulp mashes were successfully carried out at pilot scales of 60 gallons and 1000 gallons. Whole tubers were pulped mechanically into a thick mash and fermented, using commercially available Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selected strains of Kluyveromyces fragilis. EtOH fermentation yields ranging from 50-70% of theoretical maximum were obtained in 3-4 days. Several problems regarding the processing and direct fermentation of tuber pulp mashes are discussed.

  12. The ups and downs of the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, J.C.

    1998-12-31

    The ``Up`s and Down`s of the Pulp and Paper Industry`` deals with the design, fabrication, and installation elements of upflow and downflow bleach (retention) towers utilized in the Pulp and Paper industry. Fabrication processes for the shop and field components of these systems are reviewed. In addition, an overview of the advantages of Fiberglass Reinforced Plastics (FRP), considering the changing chemistries for pulp bleaching is presented, and a number of case histories are reviewed.

  13. Bioceramic Materials and the Changing Concepts in Vital Pulp Therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yangpei; Bogen, George; Lim, Jung; Shon, Won-Jun; Kang, Mo K

    2016-05-01

    Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is devised to preserve and maintain vitality of pulpally involved teeth challenged by a variety of intraoral conditions. Notable progress has been made in this field due to a better understanding of pulp physiology, improved clinical protocols and advanced bioceramic materials paired with adhesive technology. With focused case selection, conservative VPT can provide reliable treatment options for permanent teeth diagnosed with normal pulps or reversible pulpitis. PMID:27290822

  14. Chemical composition of interstitial waters from the Japan Sea, ODP Leg 128

    SciTech Connect

    Sturz, A. ); Von Breymann, M.; Dunbar, R. )

    1990-06-01

    During ODP Leg 128, interstitial waters were recovered from Oki Ridge (Site 798) and Kita-Yamato Trough (Site 799) sediment, Sea of Japan. Interstitial water chemical composition reflects diagenetic processes. Evidence indicating organic matter degradation processes includes sulfate depletion, high ammonium concentrations, and shallow maxima of dissolved phosphate. Rapid alkalinity increases in the uppermost sections of the sediments are accompanied by decreases in dissolved calcium, reflecting inorganic calcite precipitation. Authigenic dolomitization results in changes in slopes of the Mg/Ca molar ratios with depth. The opal-A/opal-CT transition is documented by the concentration depth profiles of dissolved silica and lithium. Dolomitization precedes the opal-A/opal-CT transition at both sites. Kita-Yamato Trough sediments show an abrupt change in the compositional character of the pore fluids below 435 mbsf, which coincides with the occurrence of low porosity and high bulk density layers composed of dolomite and opal-CT. These layers impede to some extent diffusional communication with the overlying interstitial waters. The interstitial waters in sediments below 435 mbsf have chloride concentrations of 504-515 mM, significantly lower than that of modern day Japan Sea water (540 mM). The presence of low chloride waters within Miocene age sediments may indicate: (1) diagenetic reactions that involve the release of exchangeable and structural bound water from clay minerals and/or opal-A, (2) Miocene connate brackish lake water, (3) phase separation of hydrothermal fluids associated with rifting, (4) potential effects of clay membrane filtration in a high pressure zone.

  15. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  16. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  17. In vitro antibacterial activity of different pulp capping materials

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct pulp capping involves the application of a dental material to seal communications between the exposed pulp and the oral cavity (mechanical and carious pulp exposures) in an attempt to act as a barrier, protect the dental pulp complex and preserve its vitality. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by the agar disc diffusion test, the antimicrobial activity of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), Biodentine (Septodont). Material and Methods Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion test of different pulp capping materials. Paper disks were impregnated whit each pulp capping materials and placed onto culture agar-plates pre-adsorbed with bacterial cells and further incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones around each pulp capping materials were recorded and compared for each bacterial strain. Results For the investigation of the antibacterial properties the ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various materials. Tukey test showed that MTA-based materials induced lower growth inhibition zones. Conclusions MTA-based products show a discrete antibacterial activity varying from calcium hydroxide-based materials which present an higher antibacterial activity. Key words:Agar disc diffusion test, antimicrobial activity, calcium hydroxide, MTA, pulp capping materials. PMID:26644833

  18. LPS induces pulp progenitor cell recruitment via complement activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; Jeanneau, C; Laurent, P; About, I

    2015-01-01

    Complement system, a major component of the natural immunity, has been recently identified as an important mediator of the dentin-pulp regeneration process through STRO-1 pulp cell recruitment by the C5a active fragment. Moreover, it has been shown recently that under stimulation with lipoteichoic acid, a complex component of the Gram-positive bacteria cell wall, human pulp fibroblasts are able to synthesize all proteins required for complement activation. However, Gram-negative bacteria, which are also involved in tooth decay, are known as powerful activators of complement system and inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of Gram-negative bacteria-induced complement activation on the pulp progenitor cell recruitment using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a major component of all Gram-negative bacteria. Our results show that incubating pulp fibroblasts with LPS induced membrane attack complex formation and C5a release in serum-free fibroblast cultures. The produced C5a binds to the pulp progenitor cells' membrane and induces their migration toward the LPS stimulation chamber, as revealed by the dynamic transwell migration assays. The inhibition of this migration by the C5aR-specific antagonist W54011 indicates that the pulp progenitor migration is mediated by the interaction between C5a and C5aR. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a direct interaction between the recruitment of progenitor pulp cells and the activation of complement system generated by pulp fibroblast stimulation with LPS.

  19. Pulp Fibroblasts Control Nerve Regeneration through Complement Activation.

    PubMed

    Chmilewsky, F; About, I; Chung, S-H

    2016-07-01

    Dentin-pulp regeneration is closely linked to the presence of nerve fibers in the pulp and to the healing mechanism by sprouting of the nerve fiber's terminal branches beneath the carious injury site. However, little is known about the initial mechanisms regulating this process in carious teeth. It has been recently demonstrated that the complement system activation, which is one of the first immune responses, contributes to tissue regeneration through the local production of anaphylatoxins such as C5a. While few pulp fibroblasts in intact teeth and in untreated fibroblast cultures express the C5a receptor (C5aR), here we show that all dental pulp fibroblasts, localized beneath the carious injury site, do express this receptor. This observation is consistent with our in vitro results, which showed expression of C5aR in lipoteichoic acid-stimulated pulp fibroblasts. The interaction of C5a, produced after complement synthesis and activation from pulp fibroblasts, with the C5aR of these cells mediated the local brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) secretion. Overall, this activation guided the neuronal growth toward the lipoteichoic acid-stimulated fibroblasts. Thus, our findings highlight a new mechanism in one of the initial steps of the dentin-pulp regeneration process, linking pulp fibroblasts to the nerve sprouting through the complement system activation. This may provide a useful future therapeutic tool in targeting the fibroblasts in the dentin-pulp regeneration process. PMID:27053117

  20. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp. PMID:21289988

  1. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  2. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films.

  3. Simultaneous bench scale production of dissolving grade pulp and valuable hemicelluloses from softwood kraft pulp by ionic liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Laine, Christiane; Asikainen, Sari; Talja, Riku; Stépán, Agnes; Sixta, Herbert; Harlin, Ali

    2016-01-20

    Ionic liquid extraction of wood pulp has been highlighted as a highly potential new process for dissolving pulp production. Coproduction with a polymeric hemicellulose fraction was demonstrated in bench scale from softwood kraft pulp using extraction with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIM OAc) and water. In total, the recovered pulp and hemicellulose fraction together yielded 95.5 wt.% of the pulp input. The extracted pulp had a remarkably high purity with an R18-value of 97.8%. The hemicellulose fraction consisted of galactoglucomannan, arabinoxylan and some cellulose and was precipitated from the ionic liquid-water mixture. After hydroxypropylation of the hemicellulose fraction, films were prepared and barrier and strength properties were compared to films from other polysaccharides. Reduced oxygen and water vapor permeation and good strength properties were demonstrated when compared to corresponding films from hydroxypropylated xylan from cold caustic extraction. The films have potential for applications in food packaging and edible films. PMID:26572370

  4. Respiratory failure due to infliximab induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Kakavas, Sotiris; Balis, Evangelos; Lazarou, Vasiliki; Kouvela, Marousa; Tatsis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Although poorly understood, interstitial lung disease has been reported as a possible complication of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. We report a case of interstitial lung disease in a 64-year-old man with psoriasis 3 weeks after the initiation of infliximab treatment. The patient had received two fortnightly infusions of infliximab following a short course of methotrexate. Thoracic computed tomography showed bilateral ground glass and interstitial infiltrates, while the results of microbiology and immunologic workup were negative. Likewise, bronchoalveolar lavage detected neither typical nor atypical pathogens. Infliximab-induced interstitial lung injury was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was administered which resulted in rapid clinical and radiological improvement. This is one of the few reported cases of interstitial lung disease due to infliximab in the psoriasis population. The patient had no pre-existing lung pathology, while his previous exposure to methotrexate was minimal and was not temporally associated with the induction of interstitial lung disease.

  5. Fluid fertilizers. [Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    The use of fertilizer in the United States has increased spectacularly in the past 20 years. In 1981 plant nutrient use (N + P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ + K/sub 2/O) totaled 23.5 million short tons - compared with only 7.5 million tons in 1960 (table 2). Nutrient use doubled from 1960 to 1970 and tripled from 1960 to 1981. In 1981 fluid nutrient use (mixtures plus nitrogen solutions) totaled 4.1 million tons, more than doubling since 1970 and increasing from 6.3% to 17.5% of the total nutrient use since 1960. Fluid mixtures (NPK) use in 1981 totaled 1.8 million tons of nutrients - about 17% of total mixed fertilizers or 7.5% of total nutrients used. The proportion of total fertilizer nutrients applied in fluid from increases greatly if anhydrous ammonia is included. The 4.6 million tons of nitrogen applied as anhydrous ammonia in 1981 increases total fluid nutrients to 8.1 million tons - 34.5% of the total nutrients applied in the United States. Fluid fertilizer use has grown nearly twice as fast as total fertilizer use, averaging more than 15% per year increase between 1960 and 1970, and an 11% increase between 1960 and 1980. A large part of this increase occurred during the introductory stages of the new product form and was aided by rapid advances in technology.

  6. [Surgical therapy of interstitial pulmonary emphysema in a premature infant].

    PubMed

    Storm, W

    1986-07-01

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a frequent complication in the use of respirators in newborn infants suffering from respiratory insufficiency. If it is diffuse and bilateral, treatment often is without success; occasionally, interstitial emphysema may be localized in a lobe, in which case it may persist and lead to therapeutic difficulties. We report a successful surgical approach to a unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a premature infant.

  7. Problems in Pulps: A Study of Special Collections in Pulp Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, George

    Heads of special collections of pulp magazines, the medium for popular fiction prior to the introduction of mass market paperbacks in 1939, were surveyed to help analyze and address the problems facing these collections. A survey mailed to special collections administrators gathered background information from the four largest collections…

  8. Human dental pulp stem cells: Applications in future regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Potdar, Pravin D; Jethmalani, Yogita D

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells are pluripotent cells, having a property of differentiating into various types of cells of human body. Several studies have developed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from various human tissues, peripheral blood and body fluids. These cells are then characterized by cellular and molecular markers to understand their specific phenotypes. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are having a MSCs phenotype and they are differentiated into neuron, cardiomyocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, liver cells and β cells of islet of pancreas. Thus, DPSCs have shown great potentiality to use in regenerative medicine for treatment of various human diseases including dental related problems. These cells can also be developed into induced pluripotent stem cells by incorporation of pluripotency markers and use for regenerative therapies of various diseases. The DPSCs are derived from various dental tissues such as human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, periodontal ligament and dental follicle tissue. This review will overview the information about isolation, cellular and molecular characterization and differentiation of DPSCs into various types of human cells and thus these cells have important applications in regenerative therapies for various diseases. This review will be most useful for postgraduate dental students as well as scientists working in the field of oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:26131314

  9. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP. PMID:26564810

  10. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema treated by lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Matta, Reva; Matta, Judy; Hage, Pierre; Nassif, Yolla; Mansour, Nabil; Diab, Nabil

    2011-10-01

    Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is a rare condition that occurs in preterm infants on mechanical ventilation, characterized by abnormal accumulation of air in the pulmonary interstitium, due to disruption of the basement membrane. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is observed when small cysts are noted in all lobes of the lung. The management of infants suffering from diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema varies according to severity and stability of the patient, being either conservative treatment or aggressive surgical treatment by pneumonectomy. We report a case of an unstable patient with diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema successfully treated by lobectomy as a form of conservative surgical approach.

  11. Desquamative alveolar disease (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): case report 1

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Edgardo; Rodriguez, Jaime; Lisboa, Carmen; Ferretti, Ricardo

    1969-01-01

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a disease characterized by massive alveolar cell proliferation and desquamation with sparse interstitial involvement. The reported case shows an unusually widespread radiographic reticulo-nodular image and abundant alveolar cells in the sputum. Functional studies reveal the expected diffusion defect with practically normal mechanical properties of the lung, in contrast with interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. On the basis of the pathological findings, especially the behaviour of alveolar cells, the individuality of this disease is discussed. We think that it is different from other diseases classed as varieties of a single disease or as different entities under the names of primary interstitial fibrosis or chronic fibrosing alveolitis. Images PMID:5822250

  12. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  13. Interstitial microwave antennas for thermal therapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, J C; Wang, Y J

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a new microwave antenna design with improved heating at the tip for interstitial hyperthermia and thermocoagulation. Temperature distribution patterns surrounding a conventional insulated antenna and the new sleeved coaxial slot radiator are measured in a saline phantom under transient and steady-state conditions. The new design provides an improved steady-state temperature distribution over the active region of the radiator. In contrast to the cold zone at the tip of a conventional insulated antenna the new sleeved coaxial slot antenna provides maximal (sixfold greater) power deposition at its tip. PMID:3559297

  14. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy following ifosfamide therapy.

    PubMed

    Jayasurya, R; Srinivas, B H; Ponraj, M; Haridasan, S; Parameswaran, S; Priyamvada, P S

    2016-01-01

    Ifosfamide (IFO), an alkylating agent used for the management of solid organ tumors, can cause reversible Fanconi's syndrome and acute kidney injury. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy (KIN) is a rare form of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, initially described as a familial nephropathy in adults. So far, four cases of KIN have been reported in pediatric and adolescent population following treatment with IFO. We report a 22-year-old man who developed renal dysfunction following IFO therapy for relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. Renal biopsy revealed chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with atypical tubular epithelial cells showing nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia, consistent with a diagnosis of KIN. The renal function improved following a short course of corticosteroids.

  15. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy following ifosfamide therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jayasurya, R.; Srinivas, B. H.; Ponraj, M.; Haridasan, S.; Parameswaran, S.; Priyamvada, P. S.

    2016-01-01

    Ifosfamide (IFO), an alkylating agent used for the management of solid organ tumors, can cause reversible Fanconi's syndrome and acute kidney injury. Karyomegalic interstitial nephropathy (KIN) is a rare form of chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, initially described as a familial nephropathy in adults. So far, four cases of KIN have been reported in pediatric and adolescent population following treatment with IFO. We report a 22-year-old man who developed renal dysfunction following IFO therapy for relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. Renal biopsy revealed chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with atypical tubular epithelial cells showing nuclear enlargement and hyperchromasia, consistent with a diagnosis of KIN. The renal function improved following a short course of corticosteroids. PMID:27512305

  16. Azacitidine-associated acute interstitial pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Junya; Shimura, Yuji; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Nagoshi, Hisao; Kiyota, Miki; Chinen, Yoshiaki; Maegawa, Saori; Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Horiike, Shigeo; Taniwaki, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Azacitidine is the first-line therapeutic option for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). This report describes a case of MDS in a patient who developed fatal acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP) after the first seven-day course of intravenous azacitidine (75 mg/m(2)/day) treatment. A review of previous and present studies of azacitidine-associated AIP suggests that azacitidine may cause life-threatening AIP during or after the first seven-day course of treatment, with pyrexia commonly preceding AIP. Although the non-hematologic adverse events associated with azacitidine are generally relatively mild, further accumulation of evidence may help to make an earlier diagnosis of azacitidine-associated AIP.

  17. Interstitial gas effect on vibrated granular columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastenes, Javier C.; Géminard, Jean-Christophe; Melo, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are satisfactorily described by considering that the column, despite the observed dilation, behaves like a porous solid. In addition, direct observation of the column dynamics shows that the grains of the upper and lower surfaces are in free fall in the gravitational field and that the dilation is due to a small delay between their takeoff times.

  18. Corvidae feather pulp and West Nile virus detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Docherty, D.E.; Romaine Long, R.; Griffin, Katie M.; Saito, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated cloacal swab, vascular pulp of flight feather, and kidney and spleen pool samples from carcasses of members of the family Corvidae as sources of West Nile virus (WNV). The cloacal swab, kidney and spleen pool, and feather pulp were the source of WNV in 38%, 43%, and 77%, respectively, of the carcasses.

  19. Fluid-solid modeling of lymphatic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulk, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The lymphatic system performs important physiological functions such as the return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream to maintain tissue fluid balance, as well as the transport of immune cells in the body. It utilizes contractile lymphatic vessels, which contain valves that open and close to allow flow in only one direction, to directionally pump lymph against a pressure gradient. We develop a fluid-solid model of geometrically representative lymphatic valves. Our model uses a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring method to capture fluid-solid interactions with two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a lymphatic vessel. We use this model to investigate the opening and closing of lymphatic valves, and its effect on lymphatic pumping. This helps to broaden our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the lymphatic system.

  20. Incidence and recognition of interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jindal, S K; Gupta, D

    1997-09-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis in developing countries is now diagnosed with an increased frequency. Increased awareness and more frequent availability of computed tomography and fiberoptic bronchoendoscopy have helped in making the diagnosis more often. The spectrum of diseases causing pulmonary fibrosis is broadly similar to that seen in the West. Connective tissue disorders such as systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis and sarcoidosis are more common causes. Idiopathic fibrosis is seen in approximately half the patients. Pneumoconiosis such as silicosis are also important. Diagnosis is often established on the basis of clinical features and radiologic findings alone. Transbronchial lung biopsy is used as a frequent method to make histologic diagnosis. Some of the causes described from India are rather rare. One of the interesting examples included a patient in whom pulmonary fibrosis was related to his ascent to very high altitude. Extreme cold, solar radiation, and other factors complicating low atmospheric oxygen pressure were implicated as causative factors. Lung fibrosis, secondary to exposure to toxic gas (methyl isocyanate), is reported in survivors of the Bhopal gas leakage tragedy of 1984. Serial bronchoalveolar studies have show elevated fibronectin levels and the presence of macrophage-neutrophilic exudate in the lavage fluid.

  1. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    PubMed

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  2. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Swati A; Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months), no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma.

  3. Biodentine pulpotomy several days after pulp exposure: Four case reports

    PubMed Central

    Borkar, Swati A.; Ataide, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Conventionally, few-days-old pulp exposures have been treated with root canal treatment. We report four cases of traumatized, fully matured, maxillary permanent central incisors, which have been treated by Biodentine pulpotomy several days after traumatic pulp exposure. Biodentine pulpotomy consisted of pulp tissue removal to a depth of 2 mm, then capping the pulpal wound with Biodentine, followed by immediate restoration. The teeth were assessed clinically through pulpal sensitivity tests and radiographically for periapical healing. At each recall (24 hours, 1 week, 30 days, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months), no spontaneous pain was observed; the pulp showed signs of vitality and absence of periapical radiolucency after 18 months. Biodentine pulpotomy is recommended as a treatment option for cases of vital pulp exposure in permanent incisors due to trauma. PMID:25657533

  4. Lignin oxidation and pulp delignification by laccase and mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Bourbonnais, R.; Paice, M.G.; Reid, I.D.

    1996-10-01

    The phenol oxidizing enzyme laccase is produced abundantly by the lignin-degrading fungus Trametes versicolor. We found previously that laccase can oxidize veratryl alcohol and other non-phenolic lignin model compounds when a mediator such as 2,2{prime}-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-5-sulphonate) (ABTS) was present. The laccase/mediator couple was also shown to be effective for delignification of kraft pulps. Two different isozymes of laccase produced by this fungus were purified and their reactivities towards lignins and kraft pulps were studied. The mediator ABTS was shown to be essential for pulp delignification and to reverse the polymerization of kraft lignin by either laccase. Pulp delignification with laccase and ABTS was also optimized. resulting in up to 55% lignin removal from kraft pulp following sequential enzyme treatments and alkaline extractions. Several variables were surveyed including enzyme and mediator dosage, oxygen pressure, temperature, reaction time, and pH.

  5. Nemesia Root Hair Response to Paper Pulp Substrate for Micropropagation

    PubMed Central

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp. PMID:22312323

  6. Is interstitial pregnancy clinically different from cornual pregnancy? A case report.

    PubMed

    Sargin, Mehmet Akif; Tug, Niyazi; Ayas, Selçuk; Yassa, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy with significant risk for morbidity. A 32-year-old woman, was brought to the emergency department with severe abdominal pain and syncope. There was no history of menolipsis and usage of any contraceptive methods. Serum ß hCG arrival was 11224 IU/L. Trans-vaginal ultrasound scan showed an empty uterus with a displaced 16 × 26 mm gestation sac on the left corn of the uterine cavity which surrounded by a thin myometrium. Free abdominal fluid and coagulum were also detected in the cul-de-sac. She was haemodynamically unstable. A ruptured ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in the left uterine cornu during emergency laparotomy. Cornual resection was performed. Interstitial and cornual pregnancies should be considered as two different clinical situations. It is important to enhance the clinician's suspicion about interstitial/cornual pregnancy. Thus, more detailed examination by transvaginal ultrasonography may contribute for accurate localization and diagnosis. PMID:26023605

  7. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølholt, T. E.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Gislason, H. P.; Johnston, K.; Langouche, G.; Ólafsson, S.; Sielemann, R.; Weyer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Isolated 57Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of 57Mn decaying to 57Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  8. Interstitial therapy of perineal and gynecological malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Herstein, P.; Portnuff, J.

    1983-03-01

    Thirty-five patients, 38 to 88 years of age, were treated with 125-Iodine or 192-Iridium interstitial implants at Stanford University Medical Center between July 1974, and December, 1978. There were 25 primary epithelial malignancies, eight extensions from intrapelvic organs and two metastatic tumors (hypernephroma and Hodgkin's disease). The involved sites were: urethra (6 patients); vulva (9 patients); vagina (8 patients); anus (7 patients); cervix (5 patients). Implantation was usually performed to treat evident or microscopic disease in conjunction with external beam pelvic treatment with or without local excision. Computerized implant preplanning was used.125-Iodine seeds were inserted either directly or within absorbable suture Polyglactin 910; 192-Iridium in nylon carriers was placed by suture or transperineal template. Two patients were lost to follow-up leaving 33 patients, 27 of whom are alive and free of local disease from 37 to 76 months. The overall local control rate was 88%, or 29/33 patients. All four local recurrences appeared before 24 months. Minor complications included: 10 patients with transient mucositis, four with superficial ulcers, and one patient with infection at the implanted site. Two major complications occurred: a necrotic rectal ulcer requiring a colostomy and a contracted, painful bladder necessitating a urinary diversion. It is concluded that in selected cases interstitial irradiation provides good local control of perineal and gynecological malignancies with low morbidity in this elderly and quite often fragile group of patients.

  9. Interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wells, Athol U

    2014-10-01

    Based on international collaborative data, interstitial lung disease is now the most frequent cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc), having supplanted renal crisis in that regard. Despite detailed explorations of candidate mediators, no primary pathway in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease associated with SSc (SSc-ILD) has been definitively identified and, therefore, treatment with current agents is only partially successful. However, as immunomodulatory agents do, on average, retard progression of lung disease, early identification of SSc-ILD, using thoracic high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), is highly desirable. The decision whether to introduce therapy immediately is often difficult as the balance of risk and benefit favours a strategy of careful observation when lung disease is very limited, especially in long-standing SSc. The threshold for initiating treatment is substantially reduced when lung disease is severe, systemic disease is short in duration or ongoing progression is evident, based on pulmonary function tests and symptoms. This review summarises epidemiology, pathogenesis, difficult clinical problems and management issues in SSc-ILD.

  10. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Mølholt, T. E. Gislason, H. P.; Ólafsson, S.; Mantovan, R.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Svane, A.; Weyer, G.; Masenda, H.; Naidoo, D.; Bharuth-Ram, K.; Fanciulli, M.; Johnston, K.; Sielemann, R.

    2014-01-14

    Isolated {sup 57}Fe atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy following implantation of {sup 57}Mn decaying to {sup 57}Fe. Four Mössbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  11. Acute interstitial pneumonia: report of a series.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, A; Cancellieri, A; Chilosi, M; Trisolini, R; Boaron, M; Crimi, N; Poletti, V

    2003-01-01

    Four cases of acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) are described with special emphasis on clinical background, lung imaging and bronchoalveolar lavage findings. A retrospective chart review of four patients with histologically-proven AIP, diagnosed between 1998 and 2000, was carried out. Clinical data, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) findings, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and histological features were analysed. Three patients died and only one is in follow-up. HRCT showed areas of ground glass attenuation and alveolar consolidation in all patients. Histology, documented by open lung biopsy or autopsy specimens, was consistent with the organising form of diffuse alveolar damage pattern. BAL findings were characteristic, with a huge neutrophilia associated with scattered atypical type II pneumocytes collected in clusters with extracellular amorphous material (fragments of hyaline membranes) observed in two out of three cases. In this paper, four cases of acute interstitial pneumonia are reported in detail. The poor prognosis associated with this entity has been confirmed and the possible diagnostic role of the bronchoalveolar lavage is emphasised.

  12. Eosinophilic alveolitis in immunologic interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, D; Pesci, A; Bertorelli, G

    1990-01-01

    To analyze the role of eosinophils in alveolitis due to immunological interstitial lung disorders, 568 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 537 patients affected by 13 types of interstitial lung disease involving immunologic mechanisms were considered. An arbitrary cut-off of 4% of eosinophils in BAL was assumed. In five (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), amiodarone-induced pneumonitis (AIP), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS)) out of the thirteen groups we took into consideration, the level of eosinophils was greater than 4%. In CEP and CSS in particular, the arbitrary cut-off of 4% was greatly exceeded (28.9% +/- 27.4, p less than 0.01 and 33.6% +/- 14.5, p less than 0.01, respectively). In the same two groups the increase of eosinophils in BAL was isolated with a direct correlation to the number of eosinophils in blood. By contrast, the increase of eosinophils in BAL of IPF, AIP and ABPA was of lesser extent (4.7% +/- 5.7 p less than 0.01, 5.0% +/- 3.0 p less than 0.01 and 6.1% +/- 10.4 p less than 0.01, respectively) and was accompanied by an increase of neutrophils in IPF, of lymphocytes in AIP and both in ABPA. These patterns are generally defined as "mixed alveolitis." On the basis of these data we conclude that the term "eosinophilic alveolitis" should be reserved for CEP and CSS.

  13. Fire performance of interstitial space construction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, J. R.

    1985-05-01

    Two unique walk-on deck construction systems were exposed to the standard NFPA 251 time-temperature fire exposure in order to evaluate their fire performance. A large scale steel structure was used in the test program to simulate construction systems found in the field. The structure consisted of two large functional floors separate by an interstitial space in which a walk-on deck system was constructed from light-weight concrete, and the second was built with poured gypsum. Three complete two hour fire tests were conducted along with one shorter test. Critical areas evaluated were the top functional floor, unprotected steel work in the interstitial space, response of the walk-on deck systems, and protection for a heavy steel column located in the center of each test bay. Test data were compared with the fire endurance test requirements of NFPA 251. Computer predictions were also made using the FIRES-08 model to determine its ability to accurately predict the construction systems performance.

  14. Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide.

    PubMed Central

    Biron, P; Dessureault, J; Napke, E

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical features of 4 unpublished cases and 26 published cases of acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis induced by hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). DATA SOURCES: The unpublished cases were found in the database of the Drug Adverse Reaction Program, Health Protection Branch, Department of National Health and Welfare, and the database of the Programme conjoint de pharmacovigilance, in Quebec. The published cases were retrieved from MEDLINE and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: Reported cases were selected if they were sufficiently documented. All published cases were selected because a differential diagnosis had been made in each one. DATA SYNTHESIS: The onset was acute and dramatic; the average time to onset of symptoms was 44 minutes. Sex was a predominant risk factor, since 27 (90%) of the 30 patients were women. The average age was 56 years; thus, most of the women were postmenopausal. Over two-thirds of the patients had one to three positive prechallenges or rechallenges, 3 of the 52 documented adverse events occurred after a voluntary rechallenge, some were life-threatening and necessitated mechanical ventilation, and 1 was fatal. Treatment was supportive; avoidance of HCT was the only prevention. CONCLUSION: Acute allergic interstitial pneumonitis due to HCT is extremely rare and potentially fatal. Such a reaction can be diagnosed only if the clinician suspects it when presented with a case of unexplained acute pulmonary edema. PMID:2049694

  15. Tissue temperature monitoring during interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Jenny; Johansson, Ann; Svanberg, Katarina; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

    2005-04-01

    During δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) a high light fluence rate is present close to the source fibers. This might induce an unintentional tissue temperature increase of importance for the treatment outcome. In a previous study, we have observed, that the absorption in the tissue increases during the treatment. A system to measure the local tissue temperature at the source fibers during IPDT on tissue phantoms is presented. The temperature was measured by acquiring the fluorescence from small Cr3+-doped crystals attached to the tip of the illumination fiber used in an IPDT-system. The fluorescence of the Alexandrite crystal used is temperature dependent. A ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence was formed between two different wavelength bands in the red region. The system was calibrated by immersing the fibers in an Intralipid solution placed in a temperature controlled oven. Measurements were then performed by placing the fibers interstitially in a pork chop as a tissue phantom. Measurements were also performed superficially on skin on a volunteer. A treatment was conducted for 10 minutes, and the fluorescence was measured each minute during the illumination. The fluorescence yielded the temperature at the fiber tip through the calibration curve. The measurements indicate a temperature increase of a few degrees during the simulated treatment.

  16. Multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ricken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This study formulates a theory for multigenerational interstitial growth of biological tissues whereby each generation has a distinct reference configuration determined at the time of its deposition. In this model, the solid matrix of a growing tissue consists of a multiplicity of intermingled porous permeable bodies, each of which represents a generation, all of which are constrained to move together in the current configuration. Each generation’s reference configuration has a one-to-one mapping with the master reference configuration, which is typically that of the first generation. This mapping is postulated based on a constitutive assumption with regard to that generations’ state of stress at the time of its deposition. For example, the newly deposited generation may be assumed to be in a stress-free state, even though the underlying tissue is in a loaded configuration. The mass content of each generation may vary over time as a result of growth or degradation, thereby altering the material properties of the tissue. A finite element implementation of this framework is used to provide several illustrative examples, including interstitial growth by cell division followed by matrix turnover. PMID:20238138

  17. Application of enzyme for improvement of Acacia APMP pulping and refining of mixed pulp for printing papermaking in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Dien, Le Quang; Hoang, Phan Huy; Tu, Do Thanh

    2014-02-01

    This study assesses the influence of commercial enzyme (FibreZyme LBR) treatment applied to APMP pulp and to the mixture of 55% Acacia CTMP75 pulp, 30% soft-wood bleached chemical pulp (LBKP 90 from Chile) and 15% hard-wood bleached chemical pulp (NPKP 90 from Indonesia). The treatment was conducted at different temperatures, reaction times and enzyme dosages. The APMP and mixed pulp treated with the enzyme showed a significant decrease of refining time to achieve the same refining degree (Schopper-Riegler freeness, °SR) and better mechanical-physical properties due to the development of fibrillation. The fibre morphology difference between before and after treatment was revealed by the microscopic observations performed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM analysis showed that the surface of the enzyme-treated fibre had some swelling and fibrillar phenomenon that lead to strong paper properties such as tear index, tensile index and burst index.

  18. A novel combinatorial therapy with pulp stem cells and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for total pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Takeuchi, Norio; Osako, Yohei; Ito, Masataka; Ishizaka, Ryo; Utunomiya, Shinji; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of deep caries with pulpitis is a major challenge in dentistry. Stem cell therapy represents a potential strategy to regenerate the dentin-pulp complex, enabling conservation and restoration of teeth. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of pulp stem cell transplantation as a prelude for the impending clinical trials. Clinical-grade pulp stem cells were isolated and expanded according to good manufacturing practice conditions. The absence of contamination, abnormalities/aberrations in karyotype, and tumor formation after transplantation in an immunodeficient mouse ensured excellent quality control. After autologous transplantation of pulp stem cells with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) in a dog pulpectomized tooth, regenerated pulp tissue including vasculature and innervation completely filled in the root canal, and regenerated dentin was formed in the coronal part and prevented microleakage up to day 180. Transplantation of pulp stem cells with G-CSF yielded a significantly larger amount of regenerated dentin-pulp complex compared with transplantation of G-CSF or stem cells alone. Also noteworthy was the reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and apoptotic cells and the significant increase in neurite outgrowth compared with results without G-CSF. The transplanted stem cells expressed angiogenic/neurotrophic factors. It is significant that G-CSF together with conditioned medium of pulp stem cells stimulated cell migration and neurite outgrowth, prevented cell death, and promoted immunosuppression in vitro. Furthermore, there was no evidence of toxicity or adverse events. In conclusion, the combinatorial trophic effects of pulp stem cells and G-CSF are of immediate utility for pulp/dentin regeneration, demonstrating the prerequisites of safety and efficacy critical for clinical applications.

  19. [Coffee hulls and pulp. XII. Effect of storage of coffee pulp on its nutritive value for calves].

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M T; Estrada, E; Murillo, B; González, J M; Bressani, R

    1976-06-01

    Coffee pulp, dehydrated and stored for 7, 13 and 17 months or ensiled for 4, 10 and 14 months, was studied in calves with a rapid growing rate. Storage of dehydrated coffee pulp did not affect its chemical composition, but ensiling reduced crude fiber and increased its nitrogen free extract content after 10 and 14 months. Three growth trials were carried out with Holstein calves averaging 95 kg in the first and second trials, and 130 kg in the third. Eighteen calves were used in the first trial and 24 in each of the other two. In each trial the animals were divided into three equal groups and randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: control, which contained 48% cottonseed hulls, and the other two, with 30% dehydrated coffee pulp or 30% ensiled coffee pulp. Basically, the difference between trials consisted in the time of storage or ensiling of coffee pulp. In all trials, weight gains of calves fed coffee pulp (1.00, 0.90 and 0.98 kg/day, and 1.06, 0.94 and 1.08 kg/day, respectively) were significantly lower (P less than 0.05) than the weight gains induced by the control ration (1.21, 1.08 and 1.19 kg/day). Feed intake was also lower, but feed conversion ratio was higher for those rations containing coffee pulp. Calf performance was better with ensiled than with deydrated coffee pulp, particularly in the third trial, where the differences in weight gains were significantly higher (P less than 0.05). It is concluded that storage time does not change nutritive value of coffee pulp; and the ensiling is an adequate process for storing pulp during coffee harvesting, and, possibly also, for improving its nutritive value.

  20. Local fluid transfer regulation in heart extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    McGee, Maria P; Morykwas, Michael J; Jordan, James E; Wang, Rui; Argenta, Louis C

    2016-06-01

    The interstitial myocardial matrix is a complex and dynamic structure that adapts to local fluctuations in pressure and actively contributes to the heart's fluid exchange and hydration. However, classical physiologic models tend to treat it as a passive conduit for water and solute, perhaps because local interstitial regulatory mechanisms are not easily accessible to experiment in vivo. Here, we examined the interstitial contribution to the fluid-driving pressure ex vivo. Interstitial hydration potentials were determined from influx/efflux rates measured in explants from healthy and ischemia-reperfusion-injured pigs during colloid osmotic pressure titrations. Adaptive responses were further explored by isolating myocardial fibroblasts and measuring their contractile responses to water activity changes in vitro. Results show hydration potentials between 5 and 60 mmHg in healthy myocardia and shifts in excess of 200 mmHg in edematous myocardia after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Further, rates of fluid transfer were temperature-dependent, and in collagen gel contraction assays, myocardial fibroblasts tended to preserve the micro-environment's hydration volume by slowing fluid efflux rates at pressures above 40 mmHg. Our studies quantify components of the fluid-driving forces in the heart interstitium that the classical Starling's equation does not explicitly consider. Measured hydration potentials in healthy myocardia and shifts with edema are larger than predicted from the known values of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic interstitial fluid pressures. Together with fibroblast responses in vitro, they are consistent with regulatory mechanisms that add local biological controls to classic fluid-balance models.

  1. Local fluid transfer regulation in heart extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    McGee, Maria P; Morykwas, Michael J; Jordan, James E; Wang, Rui; Argenta, Louis C

    2016-06-01

    The interstitial myocardial matrix is a complex and dynamic structure that adapts to local fluctuations in pressure and actively contributes to the heart's fluid exchange and hydration. However, classical physiologic models tend to treat it as a passive conduit for water and solute, perhaps because local interstitial regulatory mechanisms are not easily accessible to experiment in vivo. Here, we examined the interstitial contribution to the fluid-driving pressure ex vivo. Interstitial hydration potentials were determined from influx/efflux rates measured in explants from healthy and ischemia-reperfusion-injured pigs during colloid osmotic pressure titrations. Adaptive responses were further explored by isolating myocardial fibroblasts and measuring their contractile responses to water activity changes in vitro. Results show hydration potentials between 5 and 60 mmHg in healthy myocardia and shifts in excess of 200 mmHg in edematous myocardia after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Further, rates of fluid transfer were temperature-dependent, and in collagen gel contraction assays, myocardial fibroblasts tended to preserve the micro-environment's hydration volume by slowing fluid efflux rates at pressures above 40 mmHg. Our studies quantify components of the fluid-driving forces in the heart interstitium that the classical Starling's equation does not explicitly consider. Measured hydration potentials in healthy myocardia and shifts with edema are larger than predicted from the known values of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic interstitial fluid pressures. Together with fibroblast responses in vitro, they are consistent with regulatory mechanisms that add local biological controls to classic fluid-balance models. PMID:26961911

  2. Cold Work Embrittlement of Interstitial-Free Steels

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Interstitial-free (IF) steels are defined by their low amounts of solute interstitial elements, such as carbon and nitrogen. During secondary forming, strain can be localized at the grain boundaries of these steels, resulting in secondary cold work embrittlement (CWE).

  3. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare association.

    PubMed

    Radha, S; Tameem, A; Rao, B S

    2014-03-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare form of, progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. We present a case of KIN in a child, who was also found to have nephrotic syndrome because of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of KIN associated with glomerulopathy.

  4. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis: A rare association

    PubMed Central

    Radha, S.; Tameem, A.; Rao, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis (KIN) is a rare form of, progressive chronic interstitial nephritis. We present a case of KIN in a child, who was also found to have nephrotic syndrome because of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on renal biopsy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of KIN associated with glomerulopathy. PMID:24701046

  5. Effective saccharification of kraft pulp by using a cellulase cocktail prepared from genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Yoshie, Toshihide; Sakai, Shoji; Wakai, Satoshi; Asai-Nakashima, Nanami; Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Ogino, Chiaki; Hisada, Hiromoto; Tsutsumi, Hiroko; Hata, Yoji; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp is a promising feedstock for bioproduction. The efficiency of kraft pulp saccharification was improved by using a cellulase cocktail prepared from genetically engineered Aspergillus oryzae. Application of the cellulase cocktail was demonstrated by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, using kraft pulp and non-cellulolytic yeast. Such application would make possible to do an efficient production of other chemicals from kraft pulp.

  6. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but is not...

  7. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes,...

  8. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes,...

  9. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes, but is not...

  10. 40 CFR 430.80 - Applicability; description of the non-wood chemical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-wood chemical pulp subcategory. 430.80 Section 430.80 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD... from the production of pulp and paper at non-wood chemical pulp mills. This subcategory includes,...

  11. Scaffolds to Control Inflammation and Facilitate Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, John S.; Moore, Amanda N.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.; D’Souza, Rena N.

    2014-01-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance, as teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. While the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis due to their ability to switch to a pro-resolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a pro-resolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented. PMID:24698696

  12. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  13. Pollution prevention in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, P.G.

    1995-09-01

    Probably no other industry has made as much progress as the kraft pulp and paper industry in reclaiming waste products. About half of the wood used in making pulp is cellulose; the reclamation of the other ingredients in the wood constitutes a continuing evolution of pollution prevention and economic success. The by-products of chemical pulping include turpentine used in the paint industry, lignosulfonates used as surfactants and dispersants, ``tall oil`` used in chemical manufacturing, yeast, vanillin, acetic acid, activated carbon, and alcohol. Sulfamic turpentine recovered in the kraft process is used to manufacture pine oil, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and other useful chemical products. In addition, the noncellulose portion of the wood is used to provide energy for the pulping process through the combustion of concentrated black liquor. Over 75% of the pulp produced in the US is manufactured using the kraft process. Because of the predominance of the kraft process, the remainder of this section will address pollution prevention methods for kraft pulp and paper mills. Some of these techniques may be applicable or adaptable to other pulping processes, especially sulfite mills. The major steps in the kraft process are described, followed by a discussion of major wastestreams, and proven pollution prevention methods for each of these steps.

  14. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  15. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, John M.; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid mechanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  16. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Tarbell, John M.; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow–induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs. PMID:25360054

  17. Fluid Mechanics, Arterial Disease, and Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Tarbell, John M; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Dunn, Jessilyn; Jo, Hanjoong

    2014-01-01

    This review places modern research developments in vascular mechanobiology in the context of hemodynamic phenomena in the cardiovascular system and the discrete localization of vascular disease. The modern origins of this field are traced, beginning in the 1960s when associations between flow characteristics, particularly blood flow-induced wall shear stress, and the localization of atherosclerotic plaques were uncovered, and continuing to fluid shear stress effects on the vascular lining endothelial) cells (ECs), including their effects on EC morphology, biochemical production, and gene expression. The earliest single-gene studies and genome-wide analyses are considered. The final section moves from the ECs lining the vessel wall to the smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts within the wall that are fluid me chanically activated by interstitial flow that imposes shear stresses on their surfaces comparable with those of flowing blood on EC surfaces. Interstitial flow stimulates biochemical production and gene expression, much like blood flow on ECs.

  18. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  19. Interstitial Lung Disease in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ascherman, Dana P.; Cottin, Vincent; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Danoff, Sonye K.; Oddis, Chester V.

    2011-01-01

    The lung is one of the most common extra-muscular targets in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a prevalent and often devastating manifestation of IIM. IIM-associated ILD (IIM-ILD) contributes to nearly 80% of the mortality in IIM with a reported prevalence of 65% of newly diagnosed IIM cases. Although ILD frequently accompanies clinical and laboratory findings of myositis, overt signs of muscle disease may be absent in the setting of significant lung disease. Understanding the varied scope of presentation of these diseases is essential to providing optimal patient care. This review will provide an in depth examination of ILD in IIM both from a rheumatologic and pulmonary perspective and will discuss the scope of disease, presenting features, genetic associations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, radiographic and histopathologic findings, along with biomarker assessment and a rationale for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21941374

  20. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD.

  1. [Tubulo-interstitial renal complications of myeloma].

    PubMed

    Le Goas, F; Mougenot, B; Mignon, F; Ronco, P

    1993-02-01

    Tubulo-interstitial lesions are the main causes of renal failure in patients with myeloma, and they sometimes reveal this tumour. They are mainly found in large tumoral mass myelomas and are characterized by tubular lesions and specific casts of unexplained physiopathology. Symptomatic and aetiological treatments must be instituted at an early stage to obtain the recovery, at least partial, of renal function, as observed in more than 50% of the cases. The persistence of renal failure carries a sombre prognosis, which emphasizes the importance of a preventive treatment that is too often omitted. Functional tubular disorders are frequent but seldom result in Fanconi's syndrome. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the nephrotoxicity of monoclonal immunoglobulins should permit to reduce the incidence of tubular lesions in myelomas.

  2. Unclassifiable interstitial lung disease: A review.

    PubMed

    Skolnik, Kate; Ryerson, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Accurate classification of interstitial lung disease (ILD) requires a multidisciplinary approach that incorporates input from an experienced respirologist, chest radiologist and lung pathologist. Despite a thorough multidisciplinary evaluation, up to 15% of ILD patients have unclassifiable ILD and cannot be given a specific diagnosis. The objectives of this review are to discuss the definition and features of unclassifiable ILD, identify the barriers to ILD classification and outline an approach to management of unclassifiable ILD. Several recent studies have described the characteristics of these patients; however, there are inconsistencies in the definition and terminology of unclassifiable ILD due to limited research in this population. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate evaluation and management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:26059704

  3. Bortezomib-induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Leung, Nelson; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Cornell, Lynn D; Sethi, Sanjeev; Angioi, Andrea; Fervenza, Fernando C

    2015-07-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is one of the important causes of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from inflammatory tubulointerstitial injury induced by medications, infections and systemic diseases. Bortezomib has been increasingly used especially in renal related indications such as multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance. Severe allergic reactions from bortezomib treatment including AIN have not been described in the literature. We report a 47-year-old white man who developed biopsy-proven allergic AIN after treatment with bortezomib for his C3 glomerulonephritis. The patient's kidney function improved after treatment with glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib, but worsened with recurrent AKI episode after re-initiation of bortezomib. His renal function improved after glucocorticoid therapy and discontinuation of bortezomib. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a biopsy-proven AIN from bortezomib.

  4. Nestin expressions of exposed pulp after direct pulp capping by calcium hydroxide and platelet rich plasma

    PubMed Central

    Puspita, Sartika; Utoro, Totok; Haniastuti, Tetiana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate nestin expression of pulp tissue following direct pulp capping with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Materials and Methods: The thirty sound teeth from Sprague-Dawley rats were used and divided into two groups: Groups 1, teeth were capped with calcium hydroxide/Ca(OH)2 (n = 15) and Group 2 with PRP (n = 15). After 1st, 7th, and 21st days, respectively, 5 teeth each group (American Dental Association 41) were processed for light microscopic examination. Expressions of nestin were assessed by immunohistochemical techniques. Results: Nestin expression of Ca(OH)2 on the distance place of exposure at 1st and 7th days were 80% and at 21st day were 60%. Nestin expression of PRP on the distance place at 1st day was 80%, 7th 100%, and 21st day was 80%. At day 21 observation, Kruskal–Wallis test shows nestin expression was increased significantly in PRP groups (P < 0.05), but it was not increase significantly compare with Ca(OH)2. Conclusion: PRP had ability as a direct pulp capping material to induce nestin expression. PMID:27403050

  5. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  6. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, Richard; Callis, James B.; Mathews, Jeffrey D.; Robinson, John; Bruckner, Carsten A.; Suvamakich, Kuntinee

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  7. [Study progress of dental pulp stem cells in tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Shiyu, Shi; Jiamin, Xie

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, modern tissue engineering is becoming emerging and developing rapidly, and the acquisition, cultivation and differentiation of seed cells is the premise and foundation of the construction of tissue engineering, so more and more scholars pay attention to stem cells as seed cells for tissue engineering construction. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) is a kind of adult stem cells derived from dental pulp, and as a new kind of seed cells of tissue engineering, the study of DPSCs presents important significance in tissue and organ regeneration. In this review, we introduced the progress of studies on dental pulp stem cells and discussed their clinical application prospects. PMID:27051964

  8. Interstitial flows promote an amoeboid over mesenchymal motility of breast cancer cells revealed by a three dimensional microfluidic model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu Ling; Tung, Chih-kuan; Zheng, Anqi; Kim, Beum Jun; Wu, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tumors are often associated with an elevated fluid pressure due to the abnormal growth of vascular vessels, and thus an increased interstitial flow out of the tumor. Recent in vitro work revealed that interstitial flows critically regulated tumor cell migration within a three dimensional biomatrix, and breast cancer cell migration behavior depended sensitively on the cell seeding density, chemokine availability and flow rates. In this paper, we focus on roles of interstitial flows in modulating heterogeneity of cancer cell motility phenotype within a three dimensional biomatrix. Using a newly developed microfluidic model, we show that breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) embedded in a 3D type I collagen matrix exhibit both an amoeboid and a mesenchymal motility, and interstitial flows promote the cell population towards the amoeboid motility phenotype. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous adhesion molecules (fibronectin) within the extracellular matrix (type I collagen) partially rescues the mesenchymal phenotype in the presence of the flow. Quantitative analysis of cell tracks and cell shape shows distinct differential migration characteristics of amoeboid and mesenchymal cells. Notably, the fastest moving cells belong to the subpopulation of amoeboid cells. Together, these findings highlight the important roles of biophysical forces in modulating tumor cell migration heterogeneity and plasticity, as well as the suitability of microfluidic models in interrogating tumor cell dynamics at single-cell and subpopulation level. PMID:26235230

  9. Interstitial Photoacoustic Sensor for the Measurement of Tissue Temperature during Interstitial Laser Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment. PMID:25756865

  10. Interstitial photoacoustic sensor for the measurement of tissue temperature during interstitial laser phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifang; Chen, Haiyu; Zhou, Feifan; Li, Hui; Chen, Wei R

    2015-03-06

    Photothermal therapy is an effective means to induce tumor cell death, since tumor tissue is more sensitive to temperature increases than normal tissue. Biological responses depend on tissue temperature; target tissue temperature needs to be precisely measured and controlled to achieve desired thermal effects. In this work, a unique photoacoustic (PA) sensor is proposed for temperature measurement during interstitial laser phototherapy. A continuous-wave laser light and a pulsed laser light, for photothermal irradiation and photoacoustic temperature measurement, respectively, were delivered to the target tissue through a fiber coupler. During laser irradiation, the PA amplitude was measured. The Grüneisen parameter and the bioheat equation were used to determine the temperature in strategic positions in the target tissue. Our results demonstrate that the interstitial PA amplitude is a linear function of temperature in the range of 22 to 55 °C, as confirmed by thermocouple measurement. Furthermore, by choosing appropriate laser parameters, the maximum temperature surrounding the active diffuse fiber tip in tissue can be controlled in the range of 41 to 55 °C. Thus, this sensor could potentially be used for fast, accurate, and convenient three-dimensional temperature measurement, and for real-time feedback and control of interstitial laser phototherapy in cancer treatment.

  11. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  12. Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P.

    2007-12-01

    Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile

  13. Assessment of extracellular fluid volume and fluid status in hemodialysis patients: current status and technical advances.

    PubMed

    Dou, Yanna; Zhu, Fansan; Kotanko, Peter

    2012-07-01

    The assessment of extracellular fluid volume (ECV) and fluid status is both important and challenging in hemodialysis patients. Extracellular fluid is distributed in two major sub-compartments: interstitial fluid and plasma. A variety of methods are used to assess the ECV, with tracer dilution techniques considered gold standard. However, ECV defined as the distribution space of bromide, sodium, chloride, and ferrocyanide appears to be larger than the distribution volume of inulin and sucrose, suggesting a partial distribution into the intracellular volume. Relative blood volume monitoring, measurement of inferior vena cava diameter by ultrasound and biochemical markers are indirect methods, which do not reflect the ECV and fluid status accurately. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) techniques enable assessment of ECV and intracellular volume. Currently, BIS appears to be the most practical method for assessing ECV volume and fluid status in dialysis patients.

  14. Abnormal urothelial HLA-DR expression in interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Christmas, T J; Bottazzo, G F

    1992-03-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the urinary bladder that predominantly afflicts middle-age women. The end stage of the disease is ulceration of the urothelium, the so-called Hunner's ulcer. The aetiology of interstitial cystitis remains obscure. We have studied bladder biopsies from 22 cases of interstitial cystitis and control groups consisting of six cases of bacterial cystitis and eight healthy women. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed on the biopsies using murine MoAbs to human HLA class I molecules, and class II molecules, HLA-DP, HLA-DQ and HLA-DR. In interstitial cystitis, bacterial cystitis and normal controls most cells expressed HLA class I products. In six cases of interstitial cystitis and one case of bacterial cystitis there was evidence of HLA class I hyperexpression. In normal bladder and bacterial cystitis HLA class II expression was restricted to submucosal dendritic cells, Langerhans cells macrophages, vascular endothelial cells and activated lymphocytes. All but two cases of interstitial cystitis showed surface expression of HLA-DR (but not HLA-DP or DQ). In all cases of interstitial cystitis there was an increase in the numbers of macrophages, activated lymphocytes and vascular endothelial cells expressing HLA class II molecules within the submucosa. These findings provide further evidence for the importance of inappropriate HLA molecule expression in a disease suspected of having an autoimmune pathogenesis and where cellular autoimmune mechanisms play a decisive role in the destruction of the target cells--the bladder urothelium.

  15. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  16. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.

    2011-09-01

    A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008), P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009)] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005)] which have been

  17. Interstitial lung disease in infancy: A general approach.

    PubMed

    Hines, Erica J; Walsh, Mark; Armes, Jane E; Douglas, Tonia; Chawla, Jasneek

    2016-04-01

    Childhood Interstitial lung disease (chILD) is an umbrella term used to define a broad range of rare, diffuse pulmonary disorders with altered interstitial structure that leads to abnormal gas exchange. Presentation of chILD in infancy can be difficult to differentiate from other common causes of diffuse lung disease. This article aimed at paediatricians provides an overview of interstitial lung disease presenting in infancy and includes key clinical features, a suggested approach to investigation and a summary of management. An overview of three clinical cases has been included to demonstrate the diagnostic approach, characteristic investigation findings and varied clinical outcomes.

  18. Pulp-dentin Regeneration: Current State and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y; Song, M; Kim, E; Shon, W; Chugal, N; Bogen, G; Lin, L; Kim, R H; Park, N-H; Kang, M K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to reinstate normal pulp function in necrotic and infected teeth that would result in reestablishment of protective functions, including innate pulp immunity, pulp repair through mineralization, and pulp sensibility. In the unique microenvironment of the dental pulp, the triad of tissue engineering would require infection control, biomaterials, and stem cells. Although revascularization is successful in resolving apical periodontitis, multiple studies suggest that it alone does not support pulp-dentin regeneration. More recently, cell-based approaches in endodontic regeneration based on pulpal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising results in terms of pulp-dentin regeneration in vivo through autologous transplantation. Although pulpal regeneration requires the cell-based approach, several challenges in clinical translation must be overcome-including aging-associated phenotypic changes in pulpal MSCs, availability of tissue sources, and safety and regulation involved with expansion of MSCs in laboratories. Allotransplantation of MSCs may alleviate some of these obstacles, although the long-term stability of MSCs and efficacy in pulp-dentin regeneration demand further investigation. For an alternative source of MSCs, our laboratory developed induced MSCs (iMSCs) from primary human keratinocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating the epithelial plasticity genes. Initially, we showed that overexpression of ΔNp63α, a major isoform of the p63 gene, led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of stem characteristics. More recently, iMSCs were generated by transient knockdown of all p63 isoforms through siRNA, further simplifying the protocol and resolving the potential safety issues of viral vectors. These cells may be useful for patients who lack tissue sources for endogenous MSCs. Further research will elucidate the level of potency of these iMSCs and assess their

  19. Considerations on the ultrastructural particularities of the dental pulp cells.

    PubMed

    Manolea, H; Deva, V; Bogdan, Fl; Moraru, Iren; Pancă, Oana-Adina; Caraivan, O

    2008-01-01

    We realized an ultrastructural study of the cells of the dental pulp, having in view their particularities relative to other types of conjunctive tissue. For this purpose, we selected five cases represented by teeth without subjective or objective symptomatology. Within the paper there are exposed the morphological aspects observed by means of electron microscopy. The results are then discussed in relation with a series of observations made by other researchers regarding the particularities of the pulp cells structures.

  20. [Autopsy case of pulmonary zygomycosis and pneumocystis pneumonia in a patient with interstitial pneumonia treated by corticosteroid therapy].

    PubMed

    Mukasa, Yosuke; Ichiyasu, Hidenori; Akaike, Kimitaka; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Kohrogi, Hirotsugu

    2010-11-01

    We report a 75-year-old man with pneumoconiosis, interstitial pneumonia and diabetes mellitus, who had carcinoma of the buccal mucosa. After resection of the carcinoma, he was given corticosteroids for the deterioration of interstitial pneumonia, but 38 days after initiating steroid therapy, he was admitted to our hospital with severe hypoxemia and multiple cavitary lesions superimposed on ground-glass attenuation in both lung fields. The Aspergillus antigen was positive in his serum and examination of his bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid revealed mixed infections with filamentous fungus and Pneumocystis jirovecii. Pulmonary aspergillosis and pneumocystis pneumonia with an immunocompromised state was diagnosed, and voriconazole, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and high-dose corticosteroids were given. At 20 days after these treatments he developed bloody sputum, and Cunninghamella bertholletiae was isolated from the BAL fluid obtained at admission. A diagnosis of pulmonary zygomycosis was finally established. Amphotericin B therapy was started, and the dose was increased thereafter. Despite intensive treatment he died 18 days later. Histological examination of lung tissue obtained at autopsy showed invasive growth of zygomycetes in the necrotic tissue and the cavity wall. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of concurrent Cunninghamella bertholletiae and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection during steroid therapy for interstitial pneumonia. PMID:21141065

  1. Evaluation of single cell protein from pulp mills: laboratory analyses and in vivo digestibility

    SciTech Connect

    Kellems, R.O.; Aseltine, M.S.; Church, D.C.

    1981-12-01

    Single cell protein (SCP) derived from secondary clarifiers of pulp mills is a potential commercial protein supplement in many areas. Samples of SCP were collected from several pulp mills in the Pacific Northwest and evaluated by laboratory procedures. Six in vivo digestion trials were conducted to determine the relative nutritive value of SCP that was dewatered by centrifugation or by the addition of a polyacrylamide polymer before being put through a belt press and dried with a sonic dehydrator. Amino acid analyses showed that SCP was higher in methionine than was cottonseed meal (CSM) and had a similar level of lysine. True protein, based upon amino acids recovered in SCP samples, ranged from 51.6 to 65.9% of the crude protein (CP). Pepsin digestibility of the CP ranged from 16.2 to 36.8%. Pepsin digestibility increased by 6.3 to 11.3 percentage units when SCP were incubated in a buffered rumen fluid for 24 hours. Solubility of the nitrogenous components in 10% Burroughs' buffer solution ranged from 12.4 to 36.5%. The range in mineral composition was : P, .62 to 1.55%; Ca, .14 to .99%; K, .21 to 5.52%; Mg, .07 to .59%. The concentration of trace minerals and heavy metals varied considerably from sample to sample. Digestion trials were conducted with sheep to compare SCP with CSM; 20 to 50% of the total CP was provided by the SCP sources. The CP digestibilities of the centrifuged and the polymer-dewatered SCP were 70.5 to 70.8% and 66.3 to 69.9%, respectively, of that observed for CSM. In all digestion trials, sheep consumed the SCP diets readily, and no digestive disturbances were observed. On the basis of laboratory and in vivo results, pulp mill SCP has the potential to be a viable protein supplement for livestock.

  2. Visibility of dental pulp spaces in dental ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Szopinski, K T; Regulski, P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of dental ultrasound with conventional sonographic equipment. The teeth of three adult volunteers who had cone beam CT examinations performed previously with clinical indications and one extracted tooth were examined using linear and compact (hockey stick) sonographic probes. The sonographic images were compared with cone beam CT images reconstructed accordingly. Dental pulp spaces were demonstrated in all teeth not covered with prosthetic crowns. The dentin and pulp were best visualized at the level of the neck of the teeth. The dentin was hypoechoic, and the superficial layer comprising the cementum and the pulp spaces were hyperechoic. Dental ultrasound is feasible with general purpose sonographic machines. The buccal surfaces of all teeth are accessible with a compact (hockey stick) probe. Visualization and differentiation of dental pulp spaces, dentin and the superficial layer comprising cementum is possible in the portions of teeth not covered by the alveolar bone or prosthetic crowns. The dental pulp spaces are best seen at the level of the tooth neck. Pulp and endodontic fillings can be distinguished on ultrasound.

  3. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Kavitha Sankar, P C; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M J

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. PMID:26838891

  4. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means. PMID:10959086

  5. Visibility of dental pulp spaces in dental ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Szopinski, K T; Regulski, P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of dental ultrasound with conventional sonographic equipment. The teeth of three adult volunteers who had cone beam CT examinations performed previously with clinical indications and one extracted tooth were examined using linear and compact (hockey stick) sonographic probes. The sonographic images were compared with cone beam CT images reconstructed accordingly. Dental pulp spaces were demonstrated in all teeth not covered with prosthetic crowns. The dentin and pulp were best visualized at the level of the neck of the teeth. The dentin was hypoechoic, and the superficial layer comprising the cementum and the pulp spaces were hyperechoic. Dental ultrasound is feasible with general purpose sonographic machines. The buccal surfaces of all teeth are accessible with a compact (hockey stick) probe. Visualization and differentiation of dental pulp spaces, dentin and the superficial layer comprising cementum is possible in the portions of teeth not covered by the alveolar bone or prosthetic crowns. The dental pulp spaces are best seen at the level of the tooth neck. Pulp and endodontic fillings can be distinguished on ultrasound. PMID:24170803

  6. Conversion of henequen pulp to microbial biomass by submerged fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Blancas, A.; Alpizar, L.; Larios, G.; Saval, S.; Huitron, C.

    1982-01-01

    Mexico has cellulosic by-products that could be developed as renewable food sources for animal consumption. Sugarcane bagasse and henequen pulp are the most important of these materials because they are abundant, cheap, renewable, and nontoxic, in addition to being underutilized. A significant research and development effort has centered on the production of single-cell protein from sugarcane begasse. Nevertheless, there are no large-scale processes that utilize this substrate as a source of carbon, probably because of the extensive physical or chemical pretreatment that is needed. Henequen pulp is a by-product which is obtained in large amounts in southeastern Mexico in the process of removing fibers from the leaves of agave (sisal). A group has been working on a fermentative process that will increase the protein content of the henequen pulp by microbial conversion. The primary aim is to carry out the conversion without chemical pretreatment of the substrate and without a separation step for cells and residual substrate. A gram-negative cellulolytic bacteria has been isolated which grows well on microcrystalline cellulose, pectin, and xylane and it is able to convert an appreciable fraction of henequen pulp to microbial biomass. In this article, some results on the effect of substrate and nitrogen source concentration, on the protein enrichment of the henequen pulp, as well as the content of essential amino acids of fermented henequen pulp are presented. 4 figures.

  7. Biosolids recycling at a pulp and paper mill

    SciTech Connect

    Gratton, P.F.; Montgomery, K.L.; Page, S.H.

    1997-12-31

    The Bio Gro Division of Wheelabrator Water Technologies Inc. has traditionally been involved in recycling biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants. The biosolids, or primarily organic residuals that result from the treatment of wastewater, have long been used in agriculture as a soil conditioner, fertilizer, organic lime material and also for other soil fertility practices. It has long been known that residuals from certain industrial wastewater processes are very high in nutrients and organic matter which can also be successfully used in agricultural activities. One of these industrial biosolids with well-documented agricultural value is the organic residual from the treatment of wastewater from pulp and paper mills. Most pulp and paper producers in the US recognize the value of pulp and paper biosolids as a material that can fertilize their own tree stands or can be used in normal agricultural practices. In 1995, Bio Gro entered into a contract with a two large pulp and paper mills in Maine for the management of its pulp and paper biosolids. Bio Gro was responsible for implementing the beneficial use options for a mixture of primary and secondary biosolids from the wastewater treatment process which was combined with combustion ash from the facility`s power generation facilities. The contract included the layout of spreading areas, mixing of the residuals and spreading the material on the sites. This paper will explain the process that Bio Gro employed to manage the pulp and paper biosolids generated at the mill.

  8. [Assessment of pulps vitality for children and adolesents].

    PubMed

    Noy, A Fux; Fuks, A

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assessment of pulp status is one of the greatest diagnostic challenges in clinical practice. This may be further complicated in children and adolescent where the practitioner is faced with different situations such as: primary teeth, developing permanent dentition, traumatized teeth, patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. In addition, the dentist is frequently faced with young children who have limited ability to recall a pain history or cooperate with the test itself. A variety of pulp testing approaches exist, and there may be a confusion as to their validity in different clinical situations. Sensitivity tests include thermal testing and Electric Pulp Test. Their limitation is the possibility to get false positive or false negative results. Their primary limitation lies in the fact that they test the sensory response of the tooth, which can be temporarily lost after dental trauma. A more accurate assessment of pulp vitality would be made by determining the presence of a functioning blood supply with the use of Laser Doppler Flowmetry or Pulse Oximetry. This paper provides the clinician with a comprehensive review of current pulp testing methods and allow greater insight into the interpretation of pulp testing results, especially in young patients.

  9. The use of lasers for direct pulp capping.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Ebihara, Arata; Aoki, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Direct pulp capping helps extend the life of a diseased tooth by maintaining tooth vitality. Nowadays, lasers are more frequently used during direct pulp capping in the clinic, but their use has not been previously reviewed. This review presents the basic properties of currently available lasers, scientific evidence on the effects of laser application on direct pulp capping, and future directions for this technology. An extensive literature search was conducted in various databases for articles published up to January 2015. Original in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies, reviews, and book chapters published in English were included. Various laser systems have been increasingly and successfully applied in direct pulp capping. Lasers offer excellent characteristics in terms of hemostasis and decontamination for field preparation during direct pulp capping treatment; however, the sealing of exposed pulp with one of the dental materials, such as calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregates, and bonded composite resins, is still required after laser treatment. Clinicians should consider the characteristics of each wavelength, the emission mode, irradiation exposure time, power, type of laser tip, and the distance between the laser tip and the surface being irradiated.

  10. Biotechnological potential of coffee pulp and coffee husk for bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Pandey; Soccol; Nigam; Brand; Mohan; Roussos

    2000-10-01

    Advances in industrial biotechnology offer potential opportunities for economic utilization of agro-industrial residues such as coffee pulp and coffee husk. Coffee pulp or husk is a fibrous mucilagenous material (sub-product) obtained during the processing of coffee cherries by wet or dry process, respectively. Coffee pulp/husk contains some amount of caffeine and tannins, which makes it toxic in nature, resulting the disposal problem. However, it is rich in organic nature, which makes it an ideal substrate for microbial processes for the production of value-added products. Several solutions and alternative uses of the coffee pulp and husk have been attempted. These include as fertilizers, livestock feed, compost, etc. However, these applications utilize only a fraction of available quantity and are not technically very efficient. Attempts have been made to detoxify it for improved application as feed, and to produce several products such as enzymes, organic acids, flavour and aroma compounds, and mushrooms, etc. from coffee pulp/husk. Solid state fermentation has been mostly employed for bioconversion processes. Factorial design experiments offer useful information for the process optimization. This paper reviews the developments on processes and products developed for the value-addition of coffee pulp/husk through the biotechnological means.

  11. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Quentin E. Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq{sup 153}Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D{sub 98%}), I-RSBT reduced urethral D{sub 0.1cc} below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D{sub 1cc} was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq {sup 153}Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed{sup 153}Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29

  12. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  13. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; Chaplain, Mark A J; McDougall, Steven R; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John S

    2014-08-21

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the response

  14. The effect of interstitial pressure on therapeutic agent transport: coupling with the tumor blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; McDougall, Steven R.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2014-01-01

    Vascularized tumor growth is characterized by both abnormal interstitial fluid flow and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we study the effect that these conditions have on the transport of therapeutic agents during chemotherapy. We apply our recently developed vascular tumor growth model which couples a continuous growth component with a discrete angiogenesis model to show that hypertensive IFP is a physical barrier that may hinder vascular extravasation of agents through transvascular fluid flux convection, which drives the agents away from the tumor. This result is consistent with previous work using simpler models without blood flow or lymphatic drainage. We consider the vascular/interstitial/lymphatic fluid dynamics to show that tumors with larger lymphatic resistance increase the agent concentration more rapidly while also experiencing faster washout. In contrast, tumors with smaller lymphatic resistance accumulate less agents but are able to retain them for a longer time. The agent availability (area-under-the curve, or AUC) increases for less permeable agents as lymphatic resistance increases, and correspondingly decreases for more permeable agents. We also investigate the effect of vascular pathologies on agent transport. We show that elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity contributes to the highest AUC when the agent is less permeable, but leads to lower AUC when the agent is more permeable. We find that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity contributes to low AUC in general regardless of the transvascular agent transport capability. We also couple the agent transport with the tumor dynamics to simulate chemotherapy with the same vascularized tumor under different vascular pathologies. We show that tumors with an elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity alone require the strongest dosage to shrink. We further show that tumors with elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity are more hypoxic during therapy and that the

  15. Transcapillary fluid dynamics during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tollan, A; Holst, N; Forsdahl, F; Fadnes, H O; Oian, P; Maltau, J M

    1990-02-01

    Transcapillary fluid dynamics were studied in 10 women during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. The examinations were done on the first day of stimulation (day 3 of the menstrual cycle, mean serum estradiol concentration 0.2 nmol/L), and the day before oocyte aspiration (day 10 to 12, mean serum estradiol concentration 6.8 nmol/L). Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured on the thorax at heart level by the "wick" method, and interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the "wick-in-needle" method. Plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased (mean, 2.0 mm Hg; p less than 0.002) and interstitial colloid osmotic pressure increased (mean, 1.0 mm Hg; p less than 0.02) during hormonal stimulation. This implies a reduced transcapillary colloid osmotic gradient (plasma colloid osmotic pressure--interstitial colloid osmotic pressure), probably because of increased capillary permeability to plasma proteins. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were significantly reduced, and body weight and foot volume significantly increased. These results demonstrate that during ovarian stimulation there are both water retention and augmented filtration of fluid from the vascular to the interstitial compartment. This may be of significance for the pathophysiologic condition in the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  16. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  17. Ethanol determination in frozen fruit pulps: an application of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    da Silva Nunes, Wilian; de Oliveira, Caroline Silva; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of five types of industrial frozen fruit pulps (acerola, cashew, grape, passion fruit and pineapple fruit pulps) and compares them with homemade pulps at two different stages of ripening. The fruit pulps were characterized by analyzing their metabolic profiles and determining their ethanol content using quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR). In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract more information from the NMR data. We detected ethanol in all industrial and homemade pulps; and acetic acid in cashew, grape and passion fruit industrial and homemade pulps. The ethanol content in some industrial pulps is above the level recommended by regulatory agencies and is near the levels of some post-ripened homemade pulps. This study demonstrates that qNMR can be used to rapidly detect ethanol content in frozen fruit pulps and food derivatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26578064

  18. Production of pulp from Salix viminalis energy crops using the FIRSST process.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Capek-Menard, Eva; Gauvin, Henri; Chornet, Esteban

    2010-07-01

    In this work, isolation of the cellulose fibres was carried out via the Feedstock Impregnation Rapid and Sequential Steam Treatment process (FIRSST). The latter allows the separation of extractives, hemicellulosic sugars and lignin isolating the cellulose fibres. Quantitative data on the constitutive macromolecules of biomass was obtained using ASTM or TAPPI standard methods. Carbohydrates found in the hemicelluloses were also quantified using HPLC. Kraft pulp from whole biomass has also been produced at a bench scale (few kg per batch) using known and established pulping conditions. The pulps from both pulping techniques were tested following ATTPC standard methods. Pulp yields were of 34% for the classical Kraft processes (using whole biomass) while the FIRSST process showed yields around 30%. The average fibre lengths were similar for FIRSST pulp (0.39 mm) and Kraft pulp (0.41 mm) and the mechanical properties of the FIRSST pulp were as good as those of the Kraft pulp.

  19. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-09-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease.

  20. Interstitial deletion of distal 13q associated with Hirschsprung's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Fitchett, M; Dennis, N R

    1989-01-01

    Three cases of interstitial deletion of chromosome 13 involving the common segment 13q22.1----q32.1 are reported. In addition to the recognised clinical features of this deletion, two had Hirschsprung's disease. Images PMID:2918536

  1. View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level from north showing interstitial structural columns for the Shuttle assemble configuration. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. Phenotypic characterization of rare interstitial deletion of chromosome 4

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Samira; Helmy, Nivine A.; Mahmoud, Wael M.; El-Ruby, Mona O.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 is rare. Patients with interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 4 differ from those with terminal deletions. Phenotypes may be variable, depending upon the specific length and location of the deleted portion. Here, we report on a boy exhibiting most of the congenital malformations encountered in terminal 4q syndrome. The conventional karyotyping and Fluorescence in-situ hybridization revealed a de novo interstitial del (4)(q31q32). The current report is a further document highlighting that deletion of segment q31 could be contributing to the expression of most of the phenotype of 4q deletion syndrome. Using array comparative genome hybridization methodology is recommended for investigating further cases with similar segmental interstitial deletions to support and delineate findings and to define genes implicated in the pathogenesis of the disorder.

  3. Complexes of self-interstitials with oxygen atoms in Ge

    SciTech Connect

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Pomozov, Yu. V.; Sosnin, M. G.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2014-02-21

    Interactions of germanium self-interstitials with interstitial oxygen atoms in Ge subjected to irradiation at ∼80 K and subsequently to annealing have been studied. To distinguish the processes involving vacancies and self-interstitials the doping with tin was used. It was shown that absorption lines with maximum at 602, 674, 713 and 803 cm{sup −1} are self-interstitials-related. Two lines at 602 and 674, which develop upon annealing in the temperature range 180–240 K, belong to IO complexes, while the bands at 713 and 803 cm{sup −1}, which emerge after annealing at T>220 K, are associated with I{sub 2}O. It is argued that the annealing of IO occurs by two mechanisms: by dissociation and by diffusion.

  4. Transcapillary fluid dynamics during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Oian, P; Tollan, A; Fadnes, H O; Noddeland, H; Maltau, J M

    1987-04-01

    Transcapillary fluid dynamics in the follicular and luteal phase in women without symptoms of premenstrual syndrome were studied. Interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured by the "wick" method and interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the "wick-in-needle" method in subcutaneous tissue on the thorax and ankle. From follicular to luteal phase, the following changes were observed: Colloid osmotic pressures were significantly reduced, both in plasma (mean 2.5 mm Hg) and in the interstitium (thorax mean 1.9 mm Hg and ankle mean 2.0 mm Hg). The interstitial hydrostatic pressures did not change. There were no significant changes in serum albumin, hemoglobin, or hematocrit. A slight, but significant, weight gain was observed (mean 0.7 kg). The reduced plasma and interstitial colloid osmotic pressures in the luteal phase may be due to water retention, but the observed reductions in colloid osmotic pressures are probably not fully explained by simple dilution. A reduction in total protein mass in the luteal phase is suggested.

  5. Interstitial laser photocoagulation of breast tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickard, David C. O.; Bown, Stephen G.; Briggs, Gavin M.; Hall-Craggs, Margret A.

    2001-10-01

    Interstitial Laser Photocoagulation (ILP) is a method of destroying lesions in the center of solid organs without the need for open surgery. Under image guidance, up to four needles are inserted percutaneously into the tumor through which thin optic fibers are passed into the target lesion. Low power laser light from a semiconductor laser is delivered to gently coagulate the tissue. This dead tissue is subsequently resorbed by the body's normal healing processes. Follow up is achieved with ultrasound imaging. One study is described for assessing ILP for benign fibroadenomas. Fibroadenomas were treated to assess how laser treated breast tissue healed in the long term and we have shown that the necrosed tissue is resorbed without complications over a period of months. Nevertheless, by following treated fibroadenomas (up to 35mm diameter) with ultrasound measurement at 3, 6 and 12 months, in 14 patients, only one lesion was still detectable 12 months after ILP. In appropriate cases, ILP could be an attractive option, as it leaves no scars and should not change the shape or size of the breast. If the present studies are successful, the plan is for a multi-center trial of minimally invasive, thermal ablation of breast cancers.

  6. Interstitial lung disease in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ascherman, Dana P

    2010-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common systemic autoimmune disease in the United States, affecting 1% to 2% of the adult population. Although joints and synovium are the primary targets in this disorder, extra-articular manifestations involving the lungs can lead to significant morbidity and excess mortality. Among the various pulmonary complications that occur in RA, interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most damaging, with effects ranging from subclinical inflammation/scarring to end-stage pulmonary fibrosis. New insights during the past several years have underscored the epidemiologic impact of clinically/functionally significant RA-associated ILD (RA-ILD) and have begun to identify factors contributing to the pathogenesis of this potentially devastating complication of RA. Despite these advancements, the complexity of RA-ILD and the lack of reliable predictors for disease progression highlight the need for improved biomarker development. Establishing such detailed molecular signatures will ultimately guide the application and timing of therapeutic agents that include immunomodulators as well as newly studied antifibrotic agents.

  7. [Acute interstitial pneumonia: diagnostic approach and management].

    PubMed

    Feuillet, S; Tazi, A

    2011-06-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) encompasses a spectrum of pulmonary disorders characterized by involvement of the lung interstitium and distal airways (bronchioles and alveoli). The onset of respiratory symptoms is acute, most often within two weeks. Most AIP take place de novo, but sometimes represent an acute exacerbation of chronic lung disease. The clinical presentation of AIP comprises rapidly progressive dyspnoea, associated sometimes with cough, fever, myalgia and asthenia. Chest radiography shows diffuse pulmonary opacities. The associated hypoxemia may be severe enough to cause acute respiratory failure. Underlying aetiologies are numerous and variable, particularly in relation to the underlying immune status of the host. Various histopathological entities may be responsible for AIP although diffuse alveolar damage is the predominant pattern. The diagnostic approach to a patient presenting with AIP is to try to determine the most likely underlying histopathological pattern and to search for a precise aetiology. It relies mainly on a meticulous clinical evaluation and accurate biological investigation, essentially guided by the results of bronchoalveolar lavage performed in an area identified by abnormalities on high resolution computed tomography of the lungs. Initial therapeutic management includes symptomatic measures, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment adapted to the clinical context, frequently combined with systemic corticosteroid therapy.

  8. Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

    2015-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications. PMID:25727222

  9. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims. PMID:25344842

  10. Interstitial laser photocoagulation of uterine leimyoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Alastair D.; Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A.; Patel, Bipin L.; Broadbent, Jeff J.; Thurrell, Wendy; Bown, Stephen G.

    1996-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are common benign tumors which may cause heavy or painful periods, may present as a pelvic mass and are associated with infertility. Local excision of symptomatic lesions can be difficult and hazardous, and the alternative is hysterectomy. We are investigating interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) as a less invasive alternative. Initial experiments were undertaken on 40 fibroids after surgical removal. One or two bare tipped, precharred fibers from a 25 W semiconductor laser (805 nm) were inserted into the center of the fibroid and treatment delivered with 2 - 10 W for 100 - 1000 sec. Specimens were subsequently sectioned perpendicular to the fiber track. Fibroids are very pale and apart from occasional charred tracts there was little evidence of thermal coagulation macroscopically or after haematoxylon and eosin staining. However, using a diaphorase stain technique we were able to demonstrate ellipsoid zones of devitalized tissue up to 20 mm across (15 mm for single fibers). These results suggest that ILP is producing gentle, uniform coagulation which could lead to resorption of treated areas. With appropriate numbers of treatment sites, this could permit minimally invasive management of clinically significant lesions. Clinical studies have commenced treating fibroids with ILP at the time of surgical excision by myomectomy or hysterectomy.

  11. Pulmonary hypertension in chronic interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Caminati, Antonella; Cassandro, Roberto; Harari, Sergio

    2013-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), particularly in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and ILD associated with connective tissue disease. However, other lung diseases, such as combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema syndrome, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, and lymphangioleiomyomatosis, may also include PH in their clinical manifestations. In all of these diseases, PH is associated with reduced exercise capacity and poor prognosis. The degree of PH in ILDs is typically mild-to-moderate. However, some of these patients may develop a disproportionate increase in PH that cannot be justified solely by hypoxia and parenchymal injury: this condition has been termed "out-of-proportion" PH. The pathogenesis of PH in these diseases is various, incompletely understood and may be multifactorial. The clinical suspicion (i.e. increased dyspnoea, low diffusion capacity) and echocardiographic assessment are the first steps towards proper diagnosis of PH; however, right heart catheterisation remains the current gold standard for diagnosis of PH. At present, no specific therapies have been approved for the treatment of PH in patients with ILDs. PMID:23997057

  12. Optical dosimetry for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Arnfield, M.R.; Tulip, J.; Chetner, M.; McPhee, M.S. )

    1989-07-01

    An approach to photodynamic treatment of tumors is the interstitial implantation of fiber optic light sources. Dosimetry is critical in identifying regions of low light intensity in the tumor which may prevent tumor cure. We describe a numerical technique for calculating light distributions within tumors, from multiple fiber optic sources. The method was tested using four translucent plastic needles, which were placed in a 0.94 X 0.94 cm grid pattern within excised Dunning R3327-AT rat prostate tumors. A cylindrical diffusing fiber tip, illuminated by 630 nm dye laser light was placed within one needle and a miniature light detector was placed within another. The average penetration depth in the tumor region between the two needles was calculated from the optical power measured by the detector, using a modified diffusion theory. Repeating the procedure for each pair of needles revealed significant variations in penetration depth within individual tumors. Average values of penetration depth, absorption coefficient, scattering coefficient, and mean scattering cosine were 0.282 cm, 0.469 cm-1, 250 cm-1 and 0.964, respectively. Calculated light distributions from four cylindrical sources in tumors gave reasonable agreement with direct light measurements using fiber optic probes.

  13. Nilotinib-induced interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Myung Hee; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Hoon-Gu

    2013-09-01

    Nilotinib is a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor active in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) resistant to imatinib, and has been recently approved for newly diagnosed patients. We present a case of nilotinib-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD). A 67-year-old female patient was initially treated with imatinib for chronic-phase Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) CML. Imatinib was replaced by nilotinib because of hematological toxicity. The patient had received nilotinib for about 3 years without significant adverse effects. She visited the clinic due to chronic cough; chest X-ray revealed consolidations in both lung fields. Nilotinib-induced ILD was diagnosed based on intensive workup, including lung biopsy. She responded dramatically to corticosteroid therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of nilotinib-induced ILD in a patient with Ph(+) CML. We emphasize that if unexplained lung abnormalities progress in patients receiving nilotinib, physicians should consider this potentially fatal complication in their differential diagnoses.

  14. Connective tissue disease-associated interstitial pneumonia and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: similarity and difference.

    PubMed

    Bryson, Thomas; Sundaram, Baskaran; Khanna, Dinesh; Kazerooni, Ella A

    2014-02-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are increasingly recognized in patients with systemic diseases. Patients with early ILD changes may be asymptomatic. Features of ILD overlap among systemic diseases and with idiopathic variety. High-resolution computed tomography plays a central role in diagnosing ILDs. Imaging features are often nonspecific. Therapy- and complication-related lung changes would pose difficulty in diagnosing and classifying an ILD. Biology and prognosis of secondary ILDs may differ between different disease-related ILDs and idiopathic variety. Combination of clinical features, serological tests, pulmonary and extrapulmonary imaging findings, and pathology findings may help to diagnose ILDs. PMID:24480141

  15. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis: rare cutaneous manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Veronez, Isis Suga; Dantas, Fernando Luiz; Valente, Neusa Yuriko; Kakizaki, Priscila; Yasuda, Thaís Helena; Cunha, Thaís do Amaral

    2015-01-01

    Besides being an uncommon clinicopathological entity, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, also described as interstitial granulomatous dermatitis with arthritis (IGDA), has shown a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, such as linear and erythematous lesions, papules, plaques and nodules. Histological features include dense dermal histiocytic infiltrate, usually in a palisade configuration, and scattered neutrophils and eosinophils. We describe a middle aged woman with rheumatoid arthritis of difficult management and cutaneous lesions compatible with IGDA. PMID:26131871

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Deborah; Lee, Joyce S; King, Talmadge E

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  17. Calcium channel antagonists in the treatment of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, J

    1994-02-01

    The calcium channel antagonist nifedipine has shown efficacy in the treatment of interstitial cystitis and the urethral syndrome. The optimal daily dose of nifedipine can be determined with the use of a nifedipine titration test. To complete the repair of damaged bladder and/or urethral mucosa, nifedipine therapy should be used for a minimum of 3 months. Patients who do not respond well to nifedipine are those with the pelvic floor muscle spasm syndrome variant of interstitial cystitis.

  18. Pulp cell tracking by radionuclide imaging for dental tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Souron, Jean-Baptiste; Petiet, Anne; Decup, Franck; Tran, Xuan Vinh; Lesieur, Julie; Poliard, Anne; Le Guludec, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Chaussain, Catherine; Rouzet, Francois; Opsahl Vital, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    Pulp engineering with dental mesenchymal stem cells is a promising therapy for injured teeth. An important point is to determine the fate of implanted cells in the pulp over time and particularly during the early phase following implantation. Indeed, the potential engraftment of the implanted cells in other organs has to be assessed, in particular, to evaluate the risk of inducing ectopic mineralization. In this study, our aim was to follow by nuclear imaging the radiolabeled pulp cells after implantation in the rat emptied pulp chamber. For that purpose, indium-111-oxine (¹¹¹In-oxine)-labeled rat pulp cells were added to polymerizing type I collagen hydrogel to obtain a pulp equivalent. This scaffold was implanted in the emptied pulp chamber space in the upper first rat molar. Labeled cells were then tracked during 3 weeks by helical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography performed on a dual modality dedicated small animal camera. Negative controls were performed using lysed radiolabeled cells obtained in a hypotonic solution. In vitro data indicated that ¹¹¹In-oxine labeling did not affect cell viability and proliferation. In vivo experiments allowed a noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implanted living cells for at least 3 weeks and indicated that SPECT signal intensity was related to implanted cell integrity. Notably, there was no detectable systemic release of implanted cells from the tooth. In addition, histological analysis of the samples showed mitotically active fibroblastic cells as well as neoangiogenesis and nervous fibers in pulp equivalents seeded with entire cells, whereas pulp equivalents prepared from lysed cells were devoid of cell colonization. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that efficient labeling of pulp cells can be achieved and, for the first time, that these cells can be followed up after implantation in the tooth by nuclear imaging. Furthermore, it appears that grafted cells retained the label

  19. Pulp cell tracking by radionuclide imaging for dental tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Souron, Jean-Baptiste; Petiet, Anne; Decup, Franck; Tran, Xuan Vinh; Lesieur, Julie; Poliard, Anne; Le Guludec, Dominique; Letourneur, Didier; Chaussain, Catherine; Rouzet, Francois; Opsahl Vital, Sibylle

    2014-03-01

    Pulp engineering with dental mesenchymal stem cells is a promising therapy for injured teeth. An important point is to determine the fate of implanted cells in the pulp over time and particularly during the early phase following implantation. Indeed, the potential engraftment of the implanted cells in other organs has to be assessed, in particular, to evaluate the risk of inducing ectopic mineralization. In this study, our aim was to follow by nuclear imaging the radiolabeled pulp cells after implantation in the rat emptied pulp chamber. For that purpose, indium-111-oxine (¹¹¹In-oxine)-labeled rat pulp cells were added to polymerizing type I collagen hydrogel to obtain a pulp equivalent. This scaffold was implanted in the emptied pulp chamber space in the upper first rat molar. Labeled cells were then tracked during 3 weeks by helical single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography performed on a dual modality dedicated small animal camera. Negative controls were performed using lysed radiolabeled cells obtained in a hypotonic solution. In vitro data indicated that ¹¹¹In-oxine labeling did not affect cell viability and proliferation. In vivo experiments allowed a noninvasive longitudinal follow-up of implanted living cells for at least 3 weeks and indicated that SPECT signal intensity was related to implanted cell integrity. Notably, there was no detectable systemic release of implanted cells from the tooth. In addition, histological analysis of the samples showed mitotically active fibroblastic cells as well as neoangiogenesis and nervous fibers in pulp equivalents seeded with entire cells, whereas pulp equivalents prepared from lysed cells were devoid of cell colonization. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that efficient labeling of pulp cells can be achieved and, for the first time, that these cells can be followed up after implantation in the tooth by nuclear imaging. Furthermore, it appears that grafted cells retained the label

  20. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    SciTech Connect

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  1. Interstitial and substitutional Zr in SrTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, John; van Ginhoven, Renee; Jiang, Weilin

    2011-03-01

    We investigate Zr in SrTi O3 (STO) as an electronic dopant and as a model for nuclear waste forms in which radioactive Sr decays to Y and then to stable Zr through beta emission. Density functional theory (DFT) within the supercell model is used to predict the thermodynamic stability and electronic states of interstitial and Sr- or Ti-substituted Zr atoms in the STO lattice. Native point defects such as vacancies and antisites are also considered. When Zr replaces Sr, its most stable configuration is to simply occupy the Sr site (instead of, for example, replacing a Ti and displacing the Ti to the Sr site.) For Zr added to the lattice, its most stable configuration is to replace a Ti, making a Zr Ti impurity plus a Ti interstitial (as opposed to the Zr just remaining as an interstitial atom.) Zr Sr is predicted to be a double electron donor, Zr Ti is electrically inactive and interstitial Zr and Ti are predicted to be quadruple donors, with all donor levels in the conduction band. Zr Sr and the tetravalent interstitials are all predicted to increase the crystal volume, and the interstitials also are predicted to lead to a tetragonal distortion of the lattice. Experiments with injection of Zr atoms into STO qualitatively confirm these predictions of crystal structural changes. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy Waste Form Campaign.

  2. The Contribution of B Cells to Renal Interstitial Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Florian; Lindenmeyer, Maja T.; Cohen, Clemens D.; Brandt, Ulrike; Draganovici, Dan; Fischereder, Michael; Kretzler, Matthias; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Sitter, Thomas; Mosberger, Isabella; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Regele, Heinz; Schlöndorff, Detlef; Segerer, Stephan

    2007-01-01

    Local B-cell infiltrates play a role in tissue fibrosis, neolymphangiogenesis, and renal allograft survival. We sought to characterize the B-cell infiltrates, factors involved in B-cell recruitment, and lymphangiogenesis in renal interstitial injury (ie, acute and chronic interstitial nephritis and chronic IgA nephropathy). CD20-positive B cells formed a prominent part of the interstitial infiltrating cells. Together with CD3-positive T cells, the CD20-positive B cells formed larger nodular structures. CD10-positive pre-B cells were rare, and the majority were mature CD27-positive B cells. Proliferating B cells were detected within nodular infiltrates. The level of mRNA expression of the chemokine CXCL13 was increased and correlated with CD20 mRNA in the tubulointerstitial space. CXCL13 protein was predominantly found at sites of nodular infiltrates, in association with CXCR5-positive B cells. Furthermore, sites of chronic interstitial inflammation were associated with a high number of lymphatic vessels. B-cell infiltrates form a prominent part of the interstitial infiltrates both in primary interstitial lesions and in IgA nephropathy. CXCR5-positive B cells might be recruited via the chemokine CXCL13 and seem to contribute to the formation of intrarenal lymphoid follicle-like structures. These might represent an intrarenal immune system. PMID:17255314

  3. [Intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema in ventilatorsy supported infants (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Coradello, H; Fodor, M; Simbruner, G

    1980-09-01

    Development of intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema together with other forms of extraalveolar air collections following alveolar rupture was investigated retrospectively in 46 term and preterm newborn infants with respect to gestational age severity of pulmonary disease and mode of ventilatory assistance. Intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema was found in 31 of these 46 infants (67%). Development depended on the severity of pulmonary disease, mode of ventilatory assistance and level of inspiratory pressure. Intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema was found at an average age of 1 day (1-6 days) in 2 out of 23 infants (9%) during unassisted spontaneous breathing, in 8 out of 24 infants (33%) during CPAP and in 21 out of 26 infants (81%) during controlled ventilation. 18 out of these 31 infants (58%) additionally developed other forms of extraalveolar air collections but only in 9 from these interstitial emphysema has been found prior to other forms of extraalveolar air. Mortality rate of infants with intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema alone (10 out of 13; 77%) and infants who additionally developed other forms of extraalveolar air collections (16 out of 18; 89%) did not differ significantly. Development of intrapulmonary interstitial emphysema even in he absence of other forms of extraalveolar air collections has therefore to be judged as a severe complication in infants undergoing different forms of ventilatory assistance.

  4. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  5. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g–1 protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1–17.5 mg g–1 SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load. PMID:24677771

  6. Fungal secretomes enhance sugar beet pulp hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Kracher, Daniel; Oros, Damir; Yao, Wanying; Preims, Marita; Rezic, Iva; Haltrich, Dietmar; Rezic, Tonci; Ludwig, Roland

    2014-04-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes enzymatic hydrolysis of plant biomass for the production of second generation biofuels a major challenge. This work investigates an efficient and economic approach for the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp (SBP), which is a difficult to degrade, hemicellulose-rich by-product of the table sugar industry. Three fungal strains were grown on different substrates and the production of various extracellular hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes involved in pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose breakdown were monitored. In a second step, the ability of the culture supernatants to hydrolyze thermally pretreated SBP was tested in batch experiments. The supernatant of Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne facultative plant pathogen, was found to have the highest hydrolytic activity on SBP and was selected for further hydrolyzation experiments. A low enzyme load of 0.2 mg g(-1) protein from the culture supernatant was sufficient to hydrolyze a large fraction of the pectin and hemicelluloses present in SBP. The addition of Trichoderma reesei cellulase (1-17.5 mg g(-1) SBP) resulted in almost complete hydrolyzation of cellulose. It was found that the combination of pectinolytic, hemicellulolytic, and cellulolytic activities works synergistically on the complex SBP composite, and a combination of these hydrolytic enzymes is required to achieve a high degree of enzymatic SBP hydrolysis with a low enzyme load.

  7. Body Fluid Dynamics: Back to the Future

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Gautam; Neilson, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Pioneering investigations conducted over a half century ago on tonicity, transcapillary fluid exchange, and the distribution of water and solute serve as a foundation for understanding the physiology of body fluid spaces. With passage of time, however, some of these concepts have lost their connectivity to more contemporary information. Here we examine the physical forces determining the compartmentalization of body fluid and its movement across capillary and cell membrane barriers, drawing particular attention to the interstitium operating as a dynamic interface for water and solute distribution rather than as a static reservoir. Newer work now supports an evolving model of body fluid dynamics that integrates exchangeable Na+ stores and transcapillary dynamics with advances in interstitial matrix biology. PMID:22034644

  8. Body fluid dynamics: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Gautam; Neilson, Eric G

    2011-12-01

    Pioneering investigations conducted over a half century ago on tonicity, transcapillary fluid exchange, and the distribution of water and solute serve as a foundation for understanding the physiology of body fluid spaces. With passage of time, however, some of these concepts have lost their connectivity to more contemporary information. Here we examine the physical forces determining the compartmentalization of body fluid and its movement across capillary and cell membrane barriers, drawing particular attention to the interstitium operating as a dynamic interface for water and solute distribution rather than as a static reservoir. Newer work now supports an evolving model of body fluid dynamics that integrates exchangeable Na(+) stores and transcapillary dynamics with advances in interstitial matrix biology. PMID:22034644

  9. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    PubMed Central

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol–water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol–water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  10. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts.

    PubMed

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol-water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol-water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol-water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques.

  11. 75 FR 26794 - International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Employment and Training Administration International Paper Company Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill Including On..., Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill, Franklin, Virginia. The notice was published in the Federal Register on... the Franklin, Virginia location of International Paper Company, Franklin Pulp & Paper Mill....

  12. Local regeneration of dentin-pulp complex using controlled release of fgf-2 and naturally derived sponge-like scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Chiaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Terashita, Masamichi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Washio, Ayako

    2012-01-01

    Restorative and endodontic procedures have been recently developed in an attempt to preserve the vitality of dental pulp after exposure to external stimuli, such as caries infection or traumatic injury. When damage to dental pulp is reversible, pulp wound healing can proceed, whereas irreversible damage induces pathological changes in dental pulp, eventually requiring its removal. Nonvital teeth lose their defensive abilities and become severely damaged, resulting in extraction. Development of regeneration therapy for the dentin-pulp complex is important to overcome limitations with presently available therapies. Three strategies to regenerate the dentin-pulp complex have been proposed; regeneration of the entire tooth, local regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex from amputated dental pulp, and regeneration of dental pulp from apical dental pulp or periapical tissues. In this paper, we focus on the local regeneration of the dentin-pulp complex by application of exogenous growth factors and scaffolds to amputated dental pulp.

  13. Application of bioactive molecules in pulp-capping situations.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M; Six, N; Decup, F; Buch, D; Soheili Majd, E; Lasfargues, J J; Salih, E; Stanislawski, L

    2001-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of bioactive molecules in pulpal wound healing, we carried out experiments using the rat upper molars as an in vivo model. Cavities were prepared on the mesial aspect, and pulp perforation was accomplished by the application of pressure with the tip of a steel probe. After the pulp-capping procedure, the cavities were filled with a glass-ionomer cement. Comparison was made between and among: (1) sham-operated controls with dentin and predentin fragments implanted in the pulp during perforation after 8, 14, and 28 days; (2) carrier without bioactive substance; (3) calcium hydroxide; (4) Bone Sialoprotein (BSP); (5) different concentrations of Bone Morphogenetic Protein-7 (BMP-7), also termed Osteogenic Protein-1 (OP-1); and (6) N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant agent preventing glutathione depletion. Histologic and morphometric comparison, carried out among the first 4 groups on demineralized tissue sections, indicated that, at 28 days after implantation, BSP was the most efficient bioactive molecule, inducing homogeneous and well-mineralized reparative dentin. BMP-7 gave reparative dentin of the osteodentin type in the coronal part of the pulp, and generated the formation of a homogeneous mineralized structure in the root canal. These findings indicate that the crown and radicular parts of the pulp bear their own specificity. Both BSP and BMP-7 were superior to calcium hydroxide in their mineralization-inducing properties, and displayed larger areas of mineralization containing fewer pulp tissue inclusions. The overall mineralization process to these molecules appeared to proceed by mechanisms that involved the recruitment of cells which differentiate into osteoblast-like cells, producing a mineralizing extracellular matrix. We also provide preliminary evidence that NAC induces reparative dentin formation in the rat molar model. Pulp-capping with bioactive molecules provides new prospects for dental therapy. PMID:12640750

  14. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  15. The role of preameloblast-conditioned medium in dental pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Choung, Han-Wool; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Seol; Choung, Pill-Hoon; Park, Joo-Cheol

    2013-12-01

    Pulp regeneration using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) maintains tooth vitality compared with conventional root canal therapy. Our previous study demonstrated that preameloblast-conditioned medium (PA-CM) from murine apical bud cells induces the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs and promoted dentin formation in mouse subcutaneous tissue. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of PA-CM with human whole pulp cells on pulp regeneration in an empty root canal space. Human pulp cells were seeded in the pulp cavities of 5 mm-thick human tooth segments with or without PA-CM treatment, and then transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. In the pulp cell-only group, skeletal muscle with pulp-like tissue was generated in the pulp cavity. A reparative dentin-like structure with entrapped cells lined the existing dentin wall. However, in the PA-CM-treated group, only pulp-like tissue was regenerated without muscle or a reparative dentin-like structure. Moreover, human odontoblast-like cells exhibited palisade arrangement around the pulp, and typical odontoblast processes elongated into dentinal tubules. The results suggest that PA-CM can induce pulp regeneration of human pulp cells with physiological structures in an empty root canal space.

  16. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  17. An in vitro model of human dental pulp repair.

    PubMed

    Magloire, H; Joffre, A; Bleicher, F

    1996-12-01

    Pulp tissue responds to dentin injury by laying down reactionary dentin secreted by existing odontoblasts or reparative dentin elaborated by odontoblast-like cells that differentiated from precursor cells in the absence of inner dental epithelium and basement membrane. Furthermore, growth factors or active dentin matrix components are fundamental signals involved in odontoblast differentiation. In vitro, dental pulp cells cultured under various conditions are able to express typical markers of differentiation, but no culture system can re-create pulp response to dentin drilling. This paper reports the behavior of thick slices from human teeth drilled immediately after extraction and cultured from 3 days to 1 month. Results show that the damaged pulp beneath the cavity is able to develop, in vitro, some typical aspects correlated to tissue healing, evidenced by cell proliferation (BrdU-positive cells), neovascularization (positive with antitype-IV collagen antibodies), and the presence of functional (3H proline-positive) cuboidal cells close to the injured area. After 30 days of culture, elongated spindle-shaped cells can be seen aligned along the edges of the relevant dentin walls, whereas sound functional odontoblasts are well-preserved beneath healthy areas. This tissue recovery leads us to believe that such a culture model will be a useful system for testing factors regulating pulp repair.

  18. [Effect of polyphenols of coffee pulp on iron absorption].

    PubMed

    de Rozo, M P; Vélez, J; García, L A

    1985-06-01

    The effect of the polyphenols of coffee pulp on iron absorption was studied using the method of ligated segments in rats. Optimal conditions to measure iron absorption, were determined using as criteria the concentration of Fe59 and the time that produced the highest value of blood radioactivity. A concentration of 0.4 uCi/dose of Fe59 and a 3-hr period were chosen to measure iron absorption. Experimental groups were formed assigning six rats randomly to each group. Each group was injected with a solution of 59Fe and either with the standard polyphenol solution or with the coffee pulp extract, except the control group which was injected with the Fe59 solution only. The effect of two polyphenol concentrations was also studied. Iron uptake from the duodenum was found to be the best indicator of iron absorption when compared to the sum of iron uptake by the tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidneys, heart and carcass). Therefore, this indicator was used to interpret the results obtained. Catechin, tannic acid and the coffee pulp extract decreased significantly iron absorption when compared with the control group. The level of polyphenols used in these experiments is similar to the amounts consumed by animals fed coffee pulp at a 10% level. Therefore, we can conclude that the antinutritional effect of coffee pulp polyphenols may be partially due to their capacity to bind iron.

  19. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  20. Ultrasonic Sensor to Characterize Wood Pulp During Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Bond, Leonard J.; McCaw, M. W.

    2006-12-22

    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the consistency, the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the consistency of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 minutes and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The consistency is obtained from a calibration, in which the attenuation of ultrasound through the pulp suspension is measured as a function of the solids weight percentage. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (consistency less than 0.5 Wt%) is observed, after the mixer that keeps the pulp uniformly distributed is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak, after a certain delay, defined as the “peak time.” The degree of refining increases with the peak time, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with different degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T2/T1, where T1 is an initial value of the peak time and T2 is the value after additional refining. This method offers an additional WRV test for the industry, because the freeness test is not specific for the WRV.

  1. Bacteriological analysis of necrotic pulp and fistulae in primary teeth

    PubMed Central

    FABRIS, Antônio Scalco; NAKANO, Viviane; AVILA-CAMPOS, Mario Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Primary teeth work as guides for the eruption of permanent dentition, contribute for the development of the jaws, chewing process, preparing food for digestion, and nutrient assimilation. Treatment of pulp necrosis in primary teeth is complex due to anatomical and physiological characteristics and high number of bacterial species present in endodontic infections. The bacterial presence alone or in association in necrotic pulp and fistula samples from primary teeth of boys and girls was evaluated. Material and Methods Necrotic pulp (103) and fistula (7) samples from deciduous teeth with deep caries of 110 children were evaluated. Bacterial morphotypes and species from all clinical samples were determined. Results A predominance of gram-positive cocci (81.8%) and gram-negative coccobacilli (49.1%) was observed. In 88 out of 103 pulp samples, a high prevalence of Enterococcus spp. (50%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (49%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (25%) and Prevotella nigrescens (11.4%) was observed. Porphyromonas gingivalis was detected in three out of seven fistula samples, Enterococcus spp. in two out of seven samples, and F. nucleatum, P. nigrescens and D. pneumosintes in one out of seven samples. Conclusions Our results show that Enterococcus spp. and P. gingivalis were prevalent in necrotic pulp from deciduous teeth in boys from 2 to 5 years old, and that care of the oral cavity of children up to five years of age is important. PMID:24676582

  2. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  3. Parenchymal stress affects interstitial and pleural pressures in in situ lung.

    PubMed

    Miserocchi, G; Negrini, D; Gonano, C

    1991-11-01

    After resecting the intercostal muscles and thinning the endothoracic fascia, we micropunctured the lung tissue through the intact pleural space at functional residual capacity (FRC) and at volumes above FRC to evaluate the effect of increasing parenchymal stresses on pulmonary interstitial pressure (Pip). Pip was measured at a depth of approximately 230 microns from the pleural surface, at 50% lung height, in 12 anesthetized paralyzed rabbits oxygenated via a tracheal tube with 50% humidified O2. Pip was -10 +/- 1.5 cmH2O at FRC. At alveolar pressure of 5 and 10 cmH2O, lung volume increased by 8.5 and 19 ml and Pip decreased to -12.4 +/- 1.6 and -12.3 +/- 5 cmH2O, respectively. For the same lung volumes held by decreasing pleural surface pressure to about -5 and -8.5 cmH2O, Pip decreased to -17.4 +/- 1.6 and -23.8 +/- 5 cmH2O, respectively. Because Pip is more negative than pleural pressure, the data suggest that in intact pulmonary interstitium the pressure of the liquid phase is primarily set by the mechanisms controlling interstitial fluid turnover.

  4. Highly Energy Efficient Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a project that seeks to develop feasible chemical modifications during kraft pulping operations to obtain significant energy and product benefits for U.S. kraft pulp and paper mills.

  5. Pulpal response to different pulp capping methods after pulp exposure by air abrasion.

    PubMed

    Cardenas-Duque, Lina Maria; Yoshida, Makoto; Goto, George

    2002-01-01

    Air abrasion is regaining popularity especially in the area of pediatric dentistry due to its ease of use and its advantages. Due to the lost of tactile information, while using this technique, there is an increased risk for pulpal exposure. On the other hand, Ca(OH)2 medicament has been proven to induce dentin bridge formation, but an adequate sealing seems to be even more important that the capping material used. The purpose of this study was two fold: to assess the pulpal response after pulpal exposure by air abrasion and to evaluate the healing potential after using Ca(OH)2 medicament or Liner Bond II as a capping agent. Two hundred sixteen teeth from mixed-bred dogs were used in this study. The teeth were divided into three groups, A) pulpal exposure by air-abrasion followed by sealing of the cavity with Liner Bond II, B) pulpal exposure by air-abrasion and Ca(OH)2 pulp capping and C) pulpal exposure by high-speed followed by air-abrasion and Ca(OH)2 pulp capping as a control group. The animals were sacrificed after 7, 14, 30 and 60 days and a histopathological evaluation was undertaken. After applying Analysis of Variance to compare the groups, it was observed that at earlier observation periods, the inflammatory criteria near the exposure site were different among the groups. As time elapsed, the inflammation was resolved in the pulp tissue, however, the odontoblastic layer and the dentin bridge formation had a highly statistically significant difference (p<0.001) among the various groups at all observation periods. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between the organization of the odontoblastic layer and the dentin bridge formation mainly after 30 days. It could be concluded that dentin bridge formation could be achieved with the use of Ca(OH) or Liner Bond II as capping agent with an adequate sealing. However, the formation is delayed especially when Liner Bond II is used as capping agent.

  6. Wastewater treatment of pulp and paper industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Ankur; Siddiqui, Nihalanwar; Gautam, Ashutosh

    2011-04-01

    Pulp and paper industries generate varieties of complex organic and inorganic pollutants depending upon the type of the pulping process. A state-of-art of treatment processes and efficiencies of various wastewater treatment is presented and critically reviewed in this paper. Process description, source of wastewater and their treatment is discussed in detail. Main emphasis is given to aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment. In pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment aerobic treatment includes activated sludge process, aerated lagoons and aerobic biological reactors. UASB, fluidized bed, anaerobic lagoon and anaerobic contact reactors are the main technologies for anaerobic wastewater treatment. It is found that the combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment processes is much efficient in the removal of soluble biodegradable organic pollutants. Color can be removed effectively by fungal treatment, coagulation, chemical oxidation, and ozonation. Chlorinated phenolic compounds and adsorable organic halides (AOX) can be efficiently reduced by adsorption, ozonation and membrane filtration techniques. PMID:23033705

  7. Wastewater treatment of pulp and paper industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Ankur; Siddiqui, Nihalanwar; Gautam, Ashutosh

    2011-04-01

    Pulp and paper industries generate varieties of complex organic and inorganic pollutants depending upon the type of the pulping process. A state-of-art of treatment processes and efficiencies of various wastewater treatment is presented and critically reviewed in this paper. Process description, source of wastewater and their treatment is discussed in detail. Main emphasis is given to aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment. In pulp and paper mill wastewater treatment aerobic treatment includes activated sludge process, aerated lagoons and aerobic biological reactors. UASB, fluidized bed, anaerobic lagoon and anaerobic contact reactors are the main technologies for anaerobic wastewater treatment. It is found that the combination of anaerobic and aerobic treatment processes is much efficient in the removal of soluble biodegradable organic pollutants. Color can be removed effectively by fungal treatment, coagulation, chemical oxidation, and ozonation. Chlorinated phenolic compounds and adsorable organic halides (AOX) can be efficiently reduced by adsorption, ozonation and membrane filtration techniques.

  8. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Luft, P.A.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.S.

    2001-05-05

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  9. Biological pretreatment for thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermomechanical (CTMP) pulping processes

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.C.; Akhtar, M.; Lentz, M.

    1996-10-01

    Treatment of wood chips with lignin-degrading fungi prior to preparing a refiner mechanical pulp (RMP) has substantially reduced energy consumption and increased paper strength properties. This study reports on thermomechanical (TMP) and chemithermo-mechanical pulping (CTMP) of fungus treated wood chips. Loblolly pine chips were innoculated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, strain L14807 SS-3, and incubated two weeks in a chip silo. A pressurized 305 mm diameter disk refiner was used to prepare TMP and CTMP`s from fungal treated and non-treated wood chips. Two procedures were used to prepare the CTMP`s, injecting a sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide solution into the pressurized refiner, and impregnating the wood chips with a sodium sulfite solution. Energy consumption during pulp preparation and handsheet strength and optical properties will be presented and discussed.

  10. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Hydrotropic Pulps at Different Substrate Loadings.

    PubMed

    Denisova, Marina N; Makarova, Ekaterina I; Pavlov, Igor N; Budaeva, Vera V; Sakovich, Gennady V

    2016-03-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic raw materials to produce nutrient broths for microbiological synthesis of ethanol and other valuable products is an important field of modern biotechnology. Biotechnological processing implies the selection of an effective pretreatment technique for raw materials. In this study, the hydrotropic treatment increased the reactivity of the obtained substrates toward enzymatic hydrolysis by 7.1 times for Miscanthus and by 7.3 times for oat hulls. The hydrotropic pulp from oat hulls was more reactive toward enzymatic hydrolysis compared to that from Miscanthus, despite that the substrates had similar compositions. As the initial substrate loadings were raised during enzymatic hydrolysis of the hydrotropic Miscanthus and oat hull pulps, the concentration of reducing sugars increased by 34 g/dm(3) and the yield of reducing sugars decreased by 31 %. The findings allow us to predict the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of hydrotropic pulps from Miscanthus and oat hulls when scaling up the process by volume. PMID:26634840

  11. Soda pulp and fuel gases synthesis from Hesperaloe funifera.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Requejo, Ana; Ferrer, Ana; Navarro, Enrique

    2010-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the suitability of Hesperaloe funifera which is an alternative raw material, for pulping with soda-anthraquinone to produce pulp and paper. It was studied the influence of operational variables (temperature (155-185 degrees C), cooking time (20-60 min) and soda concentration (5-15%), with a constant addition of 1% of anthraquinone and a liquid/solid ratio of 8, in soda-anthraquinone cooking of H. funifera on pulps and paper sheets properties obtained. Finally, the cooking liquors were acidified to separate solid fractions that were subjected to pyrolysis and gasification in order to obtain synthesis and fuel gases. H. funifera contains little lignin and abundant alpha-cellulose; this, together with the morphological characteristics of its fibers, makes it a potentially highly useful papermaking raw material.

  12. Research on the properties of dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.

    2016-07-01

    In order to understand the properties of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp staple fibers, the moisture regains, tensile properties, friction properties and electrical conductivity of them and the white bamboo pulp fiber were tested, compared and analyzed. The results show that the moisture regains of the dope-dyed bamboo pulp fibers are smaller than the white bamboo pulp fiber's, whereas their friction coefficients, breaking strengths and elongations and mass ratio resistances are a bit larger.

  13. Detection of interstitial lung disease in PA chest radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loog, Marco; van Ginneken, Bram; Nielsen, Mads

    2004-05-01

    A computer-aided diagnosis scheme for the detection of interstitial disease in standard digital posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs is presented. The detection technique is supervised-manually labelled data should be provided for training the algorithm-and fully automatic, and can be used as part of a computerized analysis scheme for X-ray lung images. Prior to the detection, a segmentation should be performed which delineates the lung field boundaries. Subsequently, a quadratic decision rule is employed for every pixel within the lung fields to associate with each pixel a probabilistic measure indicating interstitial disease. The locally obtained per-pixel probabilities are fused to a single global probability indicating to what extent there is interstitial disease present in the image. Finally, a threshold on this quantity classifies the image as containing interstitial disease or not. The probability combination scheme presented utilizes the quantiles of the local posterior probabilities to fuse the local probability into a global one. Using this nonparametric technique, reasonable results are obtained on the interstitial disease detection task. The area under the receiver operating characteristic equals 0.92 for the optimal setting.

  14. Modest hyperglycemia prevents interstitial dispersion of insulin in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kolka, Cathryn M.; Castro, Ana Valeria B.; Kirkman, Erlinda L.; Bergman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin injected directly into skeletal muscle diffuses rapidly through the interstitial space to cause glucose uptake, but this is blocked in insulin resistance. As glucotoxicity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, the observed hyperglycemia in diet-induced obese dogs may inhibit insulin access to muscle cells, and exacerbate insulin resistance. Here we asked whether interstitial insulin diffusion is reduced in modest hyperglycemia, similar to that induced by a high fat diet. METHODS During normoglycemic (100mg/dl) and moderately hyperglycemic (120mg/dl) clamps in anesthetized canines, sequential doses of insulin were injected into the vastus medialis of one hindlimb; the contra-lateral limb served as a control. Plasma samples were collected and analyzed for insulin content. Lymph vessels of the hind leg were also catheterized, and lymph samples were analyzed as an indicator of interstitial insulin concentration. RESULTS Insulin injection increased lymph insulin in normoglycemic animals, but not in hyperglycemic animals. Muscle glucose uptake was elevated in response to hyperglycemia, however the insulin-mediated glucose uptake in normoglycemic controls was not observed in hyperglycemia. Modest hyperglycemia prevented intra-muscularly injected insulin from diffusing through the interstitial space reduced insulin-mediated glucose uptake. CONCLUSION Hyperglycemia prevents the appearance of injected insulin in the interstitial space, thus reducing insulin action on skeletal muscle cells. PMID:25468139

  15. Interstitial Mycosis Fungoides: A Clinicopathologic Study of 21 Patients.

    PubMed

    Reggiani, Camilla; Massone, Cesare; Fink-Puches, Regina; Cota, Carlo; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    Interstitial mycosis fungoides (IMF) is a rare histopathologic variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) that may mimic other inflammatory dermatoses, mainly interstitial granuloma annulare, inflammatory morphea, and interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Only small series and sporadic case reports of IMF have been described in the literature. We reviewed 27 specimens from 21 patients with IMF (M:F=11:10, median age 60) to better characterize clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease. Most patients presented clinically with patches and/or plaques. Conventional MF was documented before, concomitant with, or after IMF in 12 patients, whereas only in 2 patients different biopsies showed exclusive features of IMF over a period of 4 and 191 months, respectively. Histology revealed in all cases variably long, linear aggregates of dermal lymphocytes splaying the collagen fibers, involving predominantly the superficial and mid-dermis (6 cases) or the entire dermis (21 cases). Immunohistochemical stainings revealed a cytotoxic phenotype in 9/18 tested cases. Variable amounts of histiocytes/macrophages were found interstitially in all tested biopsies but never represented a population larger than that of T lymphocytes. Our study shows that IMF is a peculiar variant of MF with frequent cytotoxic phenotype. This histopathologic variant in most cases represents a transient pattern in otherwise conventional MF. Accurate clinicopathologic correlation and phenotypic studies of atypical dermal interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates allow to make a correct diagnosis.

  16. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    PubMed

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  17. Innovative endodontic therapy for anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping of permanent teeth with a mature apex

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Direct pulp capping is a treatment of an exposed vital pulp with a dental material to facilitate the formation of reparative dentin and maintenance of vital pulp. It has been studied as an alternate way to avoid vital pulp extirpation. However, the success rate of pulp capping is much lower than that of vital pulp extirpation. Therefore, direct pulp capping is currently considered controversial by many clinicians. To increase success rate, a critical need exists to develop new biologically-based therapeutics that reduce pulp inflammation, promote the continued formation of new dentin-pulp complex, and restore vitality by stimulating the regrowth of pulpal tissue. Bioengineered anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping materials, together with adhesive materials for leakage prevention, have great potential to improve the condition of the existing pulp from an inflamed to a non-inflamed status and lead to a high rate of long-term success. PMID:20416524

  18. Innovative endodontic therapy for anti-inflammatory direct pulp capping of permanent teeth with a mature apex.

    PubMed

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang

    2010-05-01

    Direct pulp capping is treatment of an exposed vital pulp with a dental material to facilitate the formation of reparative dentin and maintenance of vital pulp. It has been studied as an alternate way to avoid vital pulp extirpation. However, the success rate of pulp capping is much lower than that of vital pulp extirpation. Therefore, direct pulp capping is currently considered controversial by many clinicians. To increase the success rate, a critical need exists to develop new biologically based therapeutics that reduce pulp inflammation, promote the continued formation of new dentin-pulp complex, and restore vitality by stimulating the regrowth of pulpal tissue. Bioengineered anti-inflammatory direct pulp-capping materials, together with adhesive materials for leakage prevention, have great potential to improve the condition of the existing pulp from an inflamed to a noninflamed status and lead to a high rate of long-term success.

  19. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  20. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  1. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  2. Experimental investigations of beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Urbaniec, K.; Malczewski, J.

    1997-10-01

    Beet pulp drying in superheated steam under pressure makes it possible to save energy in sugar factories. A new concept of a two-stage convective steam drier is presented. To obtain kinetic data on beet pulp drying, an experimental setup was built. Beet pulp samples were dried at steam pressure up to 4 bar and temperature up to 220 C.

  3. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  4. Electron microscope characteristics of dentin repair after hydroxylapatite direct pulp capping in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaber, L; Mascrès, C; Donohue, W B

    1991-11-01

    In order to study the osteogenic action of hydroxylapatite (HA) on the dental pulp, a pulp capping experiment was designed using the rat upper molar. Under general anesthesia, molar teeth in 14 male Sprague-Dawley rats were pulp capped with Osteogen (HA) or with Dycal as a control material. After pulp capping, the maxillary molars cavities were restored with amalgam and a pedodontic steel crown was adjusted and sealed over the molar teeth on either side of the maxilla. After 7 days, the areas of necrosis and acute inflammation were more evident in the pulps treated with Dycal than with Osteogen. Hard tissue formation began to appear around dentinal chips in the pulp and extended from the cavity walls into the pulp regardless of the material that was used. Furthermore, this calcified material was scattered throughout the pulp when Osteogen was used, but was not observed in the Dycal treated pulps. The hard tissue formation was thought to be due to the putative fibroblasts and odontoblasts found in the pulp. After 28 days dense dentinal tissue was observed bridging the exposure site when Dycal was used. The dentinal tissues formed with Osteogen was always of a globular type, and showed an irregular distribution. Since Osteogen tends to cause areas of dystrophic calcification in the pulp, its use is not be recommended for pulp capping purposes in humans, because these areas of calcification would make future endodontic treatment difficult. PMID:1661333

  5. Simplification of culture medium and conditions for fermentation of henequen pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Blancas, A.; Aguilar, G.; Huitron, C.

    1984-01-01

    Henequen pulp is obtained during the defibering process of Agave fourcroydes which grows in the southeast of Mexico. Previously, dried untreated henequen pulp was fermented to give protein but in this work the increase in the yields of crude protein from the fermentation of fresh henequen pulp are presented.

  6. 40 CFR 430.70 - Applicability; description of the mechanical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... paper at groundwood chemi-mechanical mills; the production of pulp and paper at groundwood mills through the application of the thermo-mechanical process; the integrated production of pulp and coarse...

  7. 40 CFR 430.70 - Applicability; description of the mechanical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... paper at groundwood chemi-mechanical mills; the production of pulp and paper at groundwood mills through the application of the thermo-mechanical process; the integrated production of pulp and coarse...

  8. 40 CFR 430.70 - Applicability; description of the mechanical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE... paper at groundwood chemi-mechanical mills; the production of pulp and paper at groundwood mills through the application of the thermo-mechanical process; the integrated production of pulp and coarse...

  9. 76 FR 81327 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76... Part 63 RIN 2060-AQ41 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper... proposing amendments to the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants for the pulp and...

  10. 40 CFR 430.70 - Applicability; description of the mechanical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from: the production of pulp and paper at groundwood chemi-mechanical mills; the production of pulp and paper at groundwood mills through...

  11. 40 CFR 430.70 - Applicability; description of the mechanical pulp subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE PULP, PAPER, AND PAPERBOARD POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from: the production of pulp and paper at groundwood chemi-mechanical mills; the production of pulp and paper at groundwood mills through...

  12. 77 FR 55698 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... for the pulp and paper industry was promulgated on April 15, 1998 (63 FR 18504). The standards are... uncertainties discussed in the proposal preamble (76 FR 81338-40), the risks from the pulp and paper source... Pulp and Paper Industry AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule....

  13. 40 CFR 63.446 - Standards for kraft pulping process condensates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards for kraft pulping process... Standards for kraft pulping process condensates. (a) The requirements of this section apply to owners or operators of kraft processes subject to the requirements of this subpart. (b) The pulping...

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage: role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Daniele, R.P.; Elias, J.A.; Epstein, P.E.; Rossman, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage has emerged as a useful technique for the study of pulmonary interstitial disorders. Several types of information are provided by the evaluation of lavage fluid. First, the identification of cellular constituents helps to separate inflammatory processes in which lymphocytes predominate (for example, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and berylliosis) from those in which neutrophils or macrophages predominate (for example, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and histiocytosis X). Second, the cells removed during lavage can be studied for their immune properties and function; tested with specific antigens, in diseases such as berylliosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis; and examined for the presence of unique surface antigens with monoclonal antibodies (for example, histiocytosis X). Third, in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and electron probe analysis, lavage makes possible the identification of inorganic particles in alveolar macrophages of patients with pneumoconiotic lung disease. Finally, although lavage is still an investigative procedure for most pulmonary disorders, it has an established role in the diagnosis of opportunistic infections in the immunocompromised patient.

  15. Method of treating contaminated HEPA filter media in pulp process

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Jian S.; Argyle, Mark D.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Mondok, Emilio P.

    2003-07-29

    A method for reducing contamination of HEPA filters with radioactive and/or hazardous materials is described. The method includes pre-processing of the filter for removing loose particles. Next, the filter medium is removed from the housing, and the housing is decontaminated. Finally, the filter medium is processed as pulp for removing contaminated particles by physical and/or chemical methods, including gravity, flotation, and dissolution of the particles. The decontaminated filter medium is then disposed of as non-RCRA waste; the particles are collected, stabilized, and disposed of according to well known methods of handling such materials; and the liquid medium in which the pulp was processed is recycled.

  16. Fluoropolymer use in the pulp and paper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Magdzinski, L.

    1999-11-01

    Fluoropolymers are ubiquitous in the pulp and paper industry. Fluoropolymer-lined pumps, valves, pipes, tanks, scrubbers, and towers are encountered frequently in the pulp mill. Chemically resistant fluoropolymer filter fabrics are used in bleach plant washers and flue gas scrubbers. In the recovery cycle, fluoropolymer coatings and fluoroelastomers are used as gaskets and expansion joints in accumulators and heat exchangers. Fluoropolymer-containing paper machine fabrics, roll covers, and greases provide corrosion-free, clean and smooth performance. The array of fluorinated materials for different applications is detailed. New corrosion and caustic resistant filter fabrics, surfacing veils, paints and ductwork are presented.

  17. Stability of Si-Interstitial Defects: From Point to Extended Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jeongnim; Kirchhoff, Florian; Wilkins, John W.; Khan, Furrukh S.

    2000-01-17

    Trends in the growth of extended interstitial defects are extracted from extensive tight-binding and ab inito local density approximation simulations. With an increasing number of interstitials, the stable defect shape evolves from compact to chainlike to rodlike. The rodlike {l_brace}311{r_brace} defect, formed from (011) interstitial chains, is stabilized as it grows, elongating in the chain direction. Accurate parametrization of the defect-formation energy on the number of interstitials and interstitial chains, together with the anisotropy of the interstitial capture radius, enables macroscopic defect-growth simulations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Interstitial solutions and diagenesis in deeply buried marine sediments: results from the Deep Sea Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayles, F.L.; Manheim, F. T.

    1975-01-01

    Through the Deep Sea Drilling Project samples of interstitial solutions of deeply buried marine sediments throughout the World Ocean have been obtained and analyzed. The studies have shown that in all but the most slowly deposited sediments pore fluids exhibit changes in composition upon burial. These changes can be grouped into a few consistent patterns that facilitate identification of the diagenetic reactions occurring in the sediments. Pelagic clays and slowly deposited (<1 cm/103yr) biogenic sediments are the only types that exhibit little evidence of reaction in the pore waters. In most biogenic sediments sea water undergoes considerable alteration. In sediments deposited at rates up to a few cm/103 yr the changes chiefly involve gains of Ca2+ and Sr2+ and losses of Mg2+ which balance the Ca2+ enrichment. The Ca-Mg substitution may often reach 30 mM/kg while Sr2+ may be enriched 15-fold over sea water. These changes reflect recrystallization of biogenic calcite and the substitution of Mg2+ for Ca2+ during this reaction. The Ca-Mg-carbonate formed is most likely a dolomitic phase. A related but more complex pattern is found in carbonate sediments deposited at somewhat greater rates. Ca2+ and Sr2+ enrichment is again characteristic, but Mg2+ losses exceed Ca2+ gains with the excess being balanced by SO4post staggered2- losses. The data indicate that the reactions are similar to those noted above, except that the Ca2+ released is not kept in solution but is precipitated by the HCO3post staggered- produced in SO4post staggered2- reduction. In both these types of pore waters Na+ is usually conservative, but K+ depletions are frequent. In several partly consolidated sediment sections approaching igneous basement contact, very marked interstitial calcium enrichment has been found (to 5.5 g/kg). These phenomena are marked by pronounced depletion in Na+, Si and CO2, and slight enhancement in Cl-. The changes are attributed to exchange of Na+ for Ca2+ in silicate

  19. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-08-15

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set.

  20. Ulcerative colitis and steroid-responsive, diffuse interstitial lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Balestra, D.J.; Balestra, S.T.; Wasson, J.H.

    1988-07-01

    The authors describe a patient with ulcerative colitis and extracolonic manifestations in whom diffuse interstitial pulmonary disease developed that was responsive to glucocorticoid therapy one year after total proctocolectomy. The patient presented in December 1983 with a subacute course marked by cough and progressive exertional dyspnea, abnormal chest examination results, and a chest roentgenogram that revealed diffuse interstitital and alveolar infiltrates. A transbronchial biopsy specimen revealed a polymorphic interstitial infiltrate, mild interstitial fibrosis without apparent intraluminal fibrosis, and no vasculitis, granulomas, or significant eosinophilic infiltration. Within one week of the initiation of daily high-dose steroid therapy, the patient's symptoms dramatically improved; chest roentgenogram and forced vital capacity (60%) improved at a slower rate. All three measures deteriorated when alternate-day prednisone therapy was started but once again improved until the patient was totally asymptomatic, chest roentgenograms were normal, and forced vital capacity was 80% of the predicted value 2 1/2 years later.