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Sample records for pulp interstitial fluid

  1. Edemagenic gain and interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Quick, C M; Stewart, R H; Drake, R E; Cox, C S; Laine, G A

    2008-02-01

    Under physiological conditions, interstitial fluid volume is tightly regulated by balancing microvascular filtration and lymphatic return to the central venous circulation. Even though microvascular filtration and lymphatic return are governed by conservation of mass, their interaction can result in exceedingly complex behavior. Without making simplifying assumptions, investigators must solve the fluid balance equations numerically, which limits the generality of the results. We thus made critical simplifying assumptions to develop a simple solution to the standard fluid balance equations that is expressed as an algebraic formula. Using a classical approach to describe systems with negative feedback, we formulated our solution as a "gain" relating the change in interstitial fluid volume to a change in effective microvascular driving pressure. The resulting "edemagenic gain" is a function of microvascular filtration coefficient (K(f)), effective lymphatic resistance (R(L)), and interstitial compliance (C). This formulation suggests two types of gain: "multivariate" dependent on C, R(L), and K(f), and "compliance-dominated" approximately equal to C. The latter forms a basis of a novel method to estimate C without measuring interstitial fluid pressure. Data from ovine experiments illustrate how edemagenic gain is altered with pulmonary edema induced by venous hypertension, histamine, and endotoxin. Reformulation of the classical equations governing fluid balance in terms of edemagenic gain thus yields new insight into the factors affecting an organ's susceptibility to edema.

  2. What is interstitial fluid? Biochemical and physiological analysis of fluid obtained from tissue cages.

    PubMed

    Eickenberg, H U

    1978-01-01

    Multiperforated polypropylene balls implanted in soft-tissue and renal parenchyma deliver fluid which represents interstitial fluid, which was characterized biochemically and physiologically. In a time-concentration study, the serum antibiotic level was compared to levels in interstitial fluid of the kidney (RIF), interstitial fluid of soft-tissues of the abdominal wall (STIF) and urine, measured simultaneously after intravenous injection of six different antibiotics. A direct time-concentration relationship between the concentration of antibiotics in the serum and in the renal interstitial fluid was found. This study helps delineate the basic pharmacokinetics in renal interstitial tissue and suggests guidelines for optimal therapy in renal parenchymal infections.

  3. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  4. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  5. Brain interstitial fluid collected through implanted tissue cages.

    PubMed

    Sechi, G P; Petruzzi, V; Rosati, G; Rubattu, L; Tanda, F; Deiana, G A; De Riu, P

    1991-11-08

    The physicochemical properties of the whole-brain interstitial fluid (IF) are unknown. A volume of whole-brain IF sufficient for analysis was obtained through a small, hollow, multiperforated polypropylene sphere implanted for 4-5 weeks into the dog brain parenchyma. The main physicochemical properties of the whole-brain IF were characterized, in comparison with the physicochemical properties of cerebrospinal fluid and blood/serum.

  6. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    PubMed

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    PubMed Central

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  8. Interstitial fluid flow: simulation of mechanical environment of cells in the interosseous membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Guang-Hong

    2011-08-01

    In vitro experiments have shown that subtle fluid flow environment plays a significant role in living biological tissues, while there is no in vivo practical dynamical measurement of the interstitial fluid flow velocity. On the basis of a new finding that capillaries and collagen fibrils in the interosseous membrane form a parallel array, we set up a porous media model simulating the flow field with FLUENT software, studied the shear stress on interstitial cells' surface due to the interstitial fluid flow, and analyzed the effect of flow on protein space distribution around the cells. The numerical simulation results show that the parallel nature of capillaries could lead to directional interstitial fluid flow in the direction of capillaries. Interstitial fluid flow would induce shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells, up to 30 Pa or so, which reaches or exceeds the threshold values of cells' biological response observed in vitro. Interstitial fluid flow would induce nonuniform spacial distribution of secretion protein of mast cells. Shear tress on cells could be affected by capillary parameters such as the distance between the adjacent capillaries, blood pressure and the permeability coefficient of capillary's wall. The interstitial pressure and the interstitial porosity could also affect the shear stress on cells. In conclusion, numerical simulation provides an effective way for in vivo dynamic interstitial velocity research, helps to set up the vivid subtle interstitial flow environment of cells, and is beneficial to understanding the physiological functions of interstitial fluid flow.

  9. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  10. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  11. Modeling of relationship between glucose concentration in blood and glucose concentration in interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Ji, Yongjie; Li, Guoqing; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, using the detection of interstitial fluid glucose concentration to realize the real-time continuous monitoring of blood glucose concentration gets more and more attention, because for one person, the relationship between blood glucose concentration and interstitial fluid glucose concentration satisfies specific rules. However, the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid is not entirely equal to the glucose concentration in blood and has a physiological lag because of the physiological difference of cells in blood and interstitial fluid. Because the clinical diagnostic criteria of diabetes are still blood glucose concentration, the evaluation model of the physiological lag parameter between the glucose concentration in blood and the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid should be established. The physiological difference in glucose molecules uptake, utilization, and elimination by cells in blood and interstitial fluid and the diffusion velocity of glucose molecule from blood to interstitial fluid will be induced to the mass transfer model to express the physiological lag parameter. Based on the continuous monitoring of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid, the project had studied the mass transfer model to establish the evaluation model of the physiological lag parameter between the glucose concentration in blood and the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid. We have preliminary achieved to evaluate the physiological lag parameter exactly and predict the glucose concentration in blood through the glucose concentration in interstitial fluid accurately.

  12. Probe for Sampling of Interstitial Fluid From Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janle, Elsa M.

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus characterized as both a membrane probe and a bone ultrafiltration probe has been developed to enable in vivo sampling of interstitial fluid in bone. The probe makes it possible to measure the concentration of calcium and other constituents of the fluid that may be relevant to bone physiology. The probe could be especially helpful in experimental studies of microgravitational bone loss and of terrestrial bone-loss disease states, including osteoporosis. The probe can be implanted in the bone tissue of a living animal and can be used to extract samples of the interstitial bone fluid from time to time during a long-term study. The probe includes three 12-cm-long polyacrylonitrile fibers configured in a loop form and attached to polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.025 in. (0.64 mm), outside diameter 0.040 in. (1 mm)]; the attachment is made by use of a 1-cm-long connecting piece of polyurethane tubing [inside diameter 0.035 0.003 in. (0.89 0.08 mm), outside diameter 0.060 0.003 in. (1.52 0.08 mm)]. At the distal end, a 2-cm-long piece of polyurethane tubing of the same inner and outer diameters serves as a connector to a hub. A 1-cm long piece of expanded poly (tetrafluoroethylene) tubing over the joint between the fibers and the connecting tubing serves as a tissue-in-growth site.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Pore fluids on Debris Flow Entrainment: Rheological Effects of Interstitial Fluid Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullenbach, J.; Longjas, A.; Hill, K. M.; Long, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent field and laboratory observations have indicated that the nature of the matrix of rocky debris flows - the muddy or watery interstitial fluid among the gravel and boulders - can have a significant influence on the flow behaviors of a debris flow, from local sorting behaviors to entrainment and depositional behaviors, to associated avulsion behaviors. We investigate the influence of the rheology and relative density of the matrix of a debris flow on its behaviors through laboratory experiments of particle-fluid flows and their erosive behaviors. To do so, we systematically vary, independently, the interstitial fluid in our debris flow and the erodible bed over which it flows. We track the particles throughout the experiment along with the local bed stress and pore pressure which enables us to determine the instantaneous flow dynamics and correlations in the flow and erosion behavior. We find that increasing the viscosity of the interstitial fluid in both the flow and the bed yields, not surprisingly, a lower flow rate and entrainment rate; however, the net mass eroded from the system is uncorrelated with the viscosity. On the other hand, when the viscosity of the interstitial fluid of the bed is increased relative to that of the flow, the flow rate, net entrainment and net mass eroded decrease. We demonstrate how these differences are associated with the change in effective stress in the bed as well as changing nature of the interparticle interactions with changing interstitial fluid properties through measurements of the ``granular temperature'' (kinetic energy of velocity fluctuations) and average stresses in the flow and bed.

  14. Rolling resistance of articular cartilage due to interstitial fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Ateshian, G A; Wang, H

    1997-01-01

    A mechanism which may contribute to the frictional coefficient of diarthrodial joints is the rolling resistance due to hysteretic energy loss of viscoelastic cartilage resulting from interstitial fluid flow. The hypothesis of this study is that rolling resistance contributes significantly to the measured friction coefficient of articular cartilage. Due to the difficulty of testing this hypothesis experimentally, theoretical predictions of the rolling resistance are obtained using the solution for rolling contact of biphasic cylindrical cartilage layers [Ateshian and Wang]. Over a range of rolling velocities, tissue properties and dimensions, it is found that the coefficient of rolling resistance microR varies in magnitude from 10(-6) to 10(-2); thus, it is generally negligible in comparison with experimental measurements of the cartilage friction coefficient (10(-3)-10(-1)) except, possibly, when the tissue is arthritic. Hence, the hypothesis of this study is rejected on the basis of these results.

  15. Optical microsensor for continuous glucose measurements in interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesberg, Jonathon T.; Cao, Chuanshun; Yager, Jeffrey R.; Prineas, John P.; Coretsopoulos, Chris; Arnold, Mark A.; Olafsen, Linda J.; Santilli, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Tight control of blood glucose levels has been shown to dramatically reduce the long-term complications of diabetes. Current invasive technology for monitoring glucose levels is effective but underutilized by people with diabetes because of the pain of repeated finger-sticks, the inconvenience of handling samples of blood, and the cost of reagent strips. A continuous glucose sensor coupled with an insulin delivery system could provide closed-loop glucose control without the need for discrete sampling or user intervention. We describe an optical glucose microsensor based on absorption spectroscopy in interstitial fluid that can potentially be implanted to provide continuous glucose readings. Light from a GaInAsSb LED in the 2.2-2.4 μm wavelength range is passed through a sample of interstitial fluid and a linear variable filter before being detected by an uncooled, 32-element GaInAsSb detector array. Spectral resolution is provided by the linear variable filter, which has a 10 nm band pass and a center wavelength that varies from 2.18-2.38 μm (4600-4200 cm -1) over the length of the detector array. The sensor assembly is a monolithic design requiring no coupling optics. In the present system, the LED running with 100 mA of drive current delivers 20 nW of power to each of the detector pixels, which have a noise-equivalent-power of 3 pW/Hz 1/2. This is sufficient to provide a signal-to-noise ratio of 4500 Hz 1/2 under detector-noise limited conditions. This signal-to-noise ratio corresponds to a spectral noise level less than 10 μAU for a five minute integration, which should be sufficient for sub-millimolar glucose detection.

  16. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Guanghong

    2012-01-01

    Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells) caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i) the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii) when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii) interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv) capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments. PMID:23365601

  17. A review of recent advances in the assessment of bone porosity, permeability, and interstitial fluid flow

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Luis; Fritton, Susannah P.; Gailani, Gaffar; Benalla, Mohammed; Cowin, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    This contribution reviews recent research performed to assess the porosity and permeability of bone tissue with the objective of understanding interstitial fluid movement. Bone tissue mechanotransduction is considered to occur due to the passage of interstitial pore fluid adjacent to dendritic cell structures in the lacunar-canalicular porosity. The movement of interstitial fluid is also necessary for the nutrition of osteocytes. This review will focus on four topics related to improved assessment of bone interstitial fluid flow. First, the advantages and limitations of imaging technologies to visualize bone porosities and architecture at several length scales are summarized. Second, recent efforts to measure the vascular porosity and lacunar-canalicular microarchitecture are discussed. Third, studies associated with the measurement and estimation of the fluid pressure and permeability in the vascular and lacunar-canalicular domains are summarized. Fourth, the development of recent models to represent the interchange of fluids between the bone porosities is described. PMID:23174418

  18. Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in TMJ Lubrication

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, B.K.; Bonnevie, E.D.; Park, M.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, L.; Burris, D.L.

    2015-01-01

    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the disc and condylar cartilage function as load-bearing, shock-absorbing, and friction-reducing materials. The ultrastructure of the TMJ disc and cartilage is different from that of hyaline cartilage in other diarthrodial joints, and little is known about their lubrication mechanisms. In this study, we performed micro-tribometry testing on the TMJ disc and condylar cartilage to obtain their region- and direction-dependent friction properties. Frictional tests with a migrating contact area were performed on 8 adult porcine TMJs at 5 different regions (anterior, posterior, central, medial, and lateral) in 2 orthogonal directions (anterior-posterior and medial-lateral). Some significant regional differences were detected, and the lateral-medial direction showed higher friction than the anterior-posterior direction on both tissues. The mean friction coefficient of condylar cartilage against steel was 0.027, but the disc, at 0.074, displayed a significantly higher friction coefficient. The 2 tissues also exhibited different frictional dependencies on sliding speed and normal loading force. Whereas the friction of condylar cartilage decreased with increased sliding speed and was independent of the magnitude of normal force, friction of the disc showed no dependence on sliding speed but decreased as normal force increased. Further analysis of the Péclet number and frictional coefficients suggested that condylar cartilage relies on interstitial fluid pressurization to a greater extent than the corresponding contact area of the TMJ disc. PMID:25297115

  19. Role of interstitial fluid pressurization in TMJ lubrication.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, B K; Bonnevie, E D; Park, M; Zhou, Y; Wang, L; Burris, D L; Lu, X L

    2015-01-01

    In temporomandibular joints (TMJs), the disc and condylar cartilage function as load-bearing, shock-absorbing, and friction-reducing materials. The ultrastructure of the TMJ disc and cartilage is different from that of hyaline cartilage in other diarthrodial joints, and little is known about their lubrication mechanisms. In this study, we performed micro-tribometry testing on the TMJ disc and condylar cartilage to obtain their region- and direction-dependent friction properties. Frictional tests with a migrating contact area were performed on 8 adult porcine TMJs at 5 different regions (anterior, posterior, central, medial, and lateral) in 2 orthogonal directions (anterior-posterior and medial-lateral). Some significant regional differences were detected, and the lateral-medial direction showed higher friction than the anterior-posterior direction on both tissues. The mean friction coefficient of condylar cartilage against steel was 0.027, but the disc, at 0.074, displayed a significantly higher friction coefficient. The 2 tissues also exhibited different frictional dependencies on sliding speed and normal loading force. Whereas the friction of condylar cartilage decreased with increased sliding speed and was independent of the magnitude of normal force, friction of the disc showed no dependence on sliding speed but decreased as normal force increased. Further analysis of the Péclet number and frictional coefficients suggested that condylar cartilage relies on interstitial fluid pressurization to a greater extent than the corresponding contact area of the TMJ disc. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.

  20. Prediction of blood glucose using interstitial fluid extracted by ultrasound and vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dachao; Yu, Haixia; Huang, Xian; Huang, Fuxiang; Hu, Xiaotang; Xu, Kexin

    2007-02-01

    Prediction of blood glucose using interstitial fluid extracted by ultrasound and vacuum is proposed by the paper. Low-frequency ultrasound with 55 KHz is applied for about 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability to interstitial fluid by disrupting the stratum corneum lipid bilayers and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin successfully by 10in.Hg vacuum for 15 minutes. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is measured by an instrument with immobilized enzyme sensor. And then a method of data analysis is set up to prediction the glucose concentration in the blood by the measurement of the glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid. At last, Clarke Error Grid analysis is performed to assess if the prediction accuracy could satisfy the requirements of clinical application. The whole method and experimental system above is set up in the article and the feasibility of this way for blood glucose detecting is primarily validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring. Additional a prototype of miniature diabetes monitoring device with the technique of surface plasma resonance to measure the glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is also being developed.

  1. Comparison of apoprotein B of low density lipoproteins of human interstitial fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Hong, J L; Pflug, J; Reichl, D

    1984-08-15

    Virtually all apoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins of the peripheral interstitial fluid of subjects with primary lymphoedema float in the ultracentrifugal field in the density interval 1.019-1.063 g/ml; in this respect they are similar to plasma low-density lipoproteins (LDL). 2. Virtually all apo-B-containing lipoproteins of interstitial fluid migrate in the electrophoretic field with pre-beta mobility; in this respect they are similar to plasma very-low-density lipoproteins. 3. The apoB of lipoproteins of interstitial fluid does not differ in terms of Mr from apoB-100 of human plasma [Kane, Hardman & Paulus (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 2465-2469] as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 4. Both apoB of interstitial fluid and plasma are heterogenous in terms of their charge as determined by isoelectric focusing of their complexes with the nonionic detergent Nonidet P40. ApoB of plasma LDL focuses between pH5.9 and 6.65, and that of interstitial fluid LDL between pH 5.9 and 6.1. Thus the overall charge of apoB of interstitial fluid is more negative than that of its plasma LDL counterpart.

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and progression of scleroderma interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Maria; Bosello, Silvia Laura; Peluso, Giusy; Pinnelli, Michela; Alivernini, Stefano; Zizzo, Gaetano; Bocci, Mario; Capacci, Annunziata; La Torre, Giuseppe; Mannocci, Alice; Pagliari, Gabriella; Varone, Francesco; Pistelli, Roberto; Danza, Francesco Maria; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    So far no clinical or experimental evidences clearly explain how and which systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients will experience a functional and radiological progression of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of the study was to investigate whether any bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) characteristic, compared with clinical, functional and radiological parameters, is associated with the risk of progression of ILD and worse survival in SSc patients. Lung involvement was evaluated in 110 consecutively examined SSc patients with pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); 73 patients with evidence of ILD on HRCT underwent BAL. The progression of ILD was evaluated with PFTs and HRCT after 1-year follow-up. A 36-month survival analysis was assessed. ILD patients with alveolitis had a higher risk to have restrictive lung disease and honeycombing, to experience a worsening in honeycombing score or to develop honeycombing. ILD progression was associated with the evidence of honeycombing on HRCT, with the presence of eosinophils, with an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio and with a higher CD19 percentage count in the BALF or with a positive BALF microbiological culture. The patients with ILD had a worse overall survival. The diffuse disease was the only independent risk factor of overall mortality, and the extent of honeycombing on HRCT was the only independent risk factor of lung disease-related mortality. Our study suggests the importance of evaluating ILD with HRCT and BAL in order to characterize the risk factors of SSc lung involvement progression. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Targeting tumor microenvironment: crossing tumor interstitial fluid by multifunctional nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Yadollah; Barar, Jaleh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The genesis of cancer appears to be a complex matter, which is not simply based upon few genetic abnormalities/alteration. In fact, irregular microvasculature and aberrant interstitium of solid tumors impose significant pathophysiologic barrier functions against cancer treatment modalities, hence novel strategies should holistically target bioelements of tumor microenvironment (TME). In this study, we provide some overview and insights on TME and important strategies used to control the impacts of such pathophysiologic barriers. Methods: We reviewed all relevant literature for the impacts of tumor interstitium and microvasculature within the TME as well as the significance of the implemented strategies. Results: While tumorigenesis initiation seems to be in close relation with an emergence of hypoxia and alterations in epigenetic/genetic materials, large panoplies of molecular events emerge as intricate networks during oncogenesis to form unique lenient TME in favor of tumor progression. Within such irregular interstitium, immune system displays defective surveillance functionalities against malignant cells. Solid tumors show multifacial traits with coadaptation and self-regulation potentials, which bestow profound resistance against the currently used conventional chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents that target solely one face of the disease. Conclusion: The cancerous cells attain unique abilities to form its permissive microenvironment, wherein (a) extracellular pH is dysregulated towards acidification, (b) extracellular matrix (ECM) is deformed, (c) stromal cells are cooperative with cancer cells, (d) immune system mechanisms are defective, (e) non-integrated irregular microvasculature with pores (120-1200 nm) are formed, and (h) interstitial fluid pressure is high. All these phenomena are against cancer treatment modalities. As a result, to control such abnormal pathophysiologic traits, novel cancer therapy strategies need to be devised using

  4. Model study of the effects of interactions between systemic and peripheral circulation on interstitial fluid balance.

    PubMed

    Aletti, Federico; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2007-07-01

    Interstitial fluid balance is severely altered in microgravity, but the mechanisms underlying the fluid shift from lower to upper body are still partially unclear. A lumped parameter model of the arterial tree with active and non linear modulation of peripheral resistances and capillary fluid exchange was adopted to simulate the response of microcirculation to pulsatility and edema. Results suggest that myogenic regulation not only impinges on arteriolar radius, but it also indirectly affects interstitial fluid balance. Non linear dynamics of blood pressure (BP) and flow in capillary beds are influenced by systemic pulsatility, hinting that local activity is involved in the response to peripheral edema as well.

  5. Interstitial fluid flow of alveolar primary septa after pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Haber, Shimon; Weisbord, Michal; Mishima, Michiaki; Mentzer, Steve J; Tsuda, Akira

    2016-07-07

    Neoalveolation is known to occur in the remaining lung after pneumonectomy. While compensatory lung growth is a complex process, stretching of the lung tissue appears to be crucial for tissue remodeling. Even a minute shear stress exerted on fibroblasts in the interstitial space is known to trigger cell differentiation into myofibroblast that are essential to building new tissues. We hypothesize that the non-uniform motion of the primary septa due to their heterogeneous mechanical properties under tidal breathing induces a spatially unique interstitial flow and shear stress distribution in the interstitial space. This may in turn trigger pulmonary fibroblast differentiation and neoalveolation. In this study, we developed a theoretical basis for how cyclic motion of the primary septal walls with heterogeneous mechanical properties affects the interstitial flow and shear stress distribution. The velocity field of the interstitial flow was expressed by a Fourier (complex) series and its leading term was considered to induce the basic structure of stress distribution as long as the dominant length scale of heterogeneity is the size of collapsed alveoli. We conclude that the alteration of mechanical properties of the primary septa caused by pneumonectomy can develop a new interstitial flow field, which alters the shear stress distribution. This may trigger the differentiation of resident fibroblasts, which may in turn induce spatially unique neoalveolation in the remaining lung. Our example illustrates that the initial forming of new alveoli about half the size of the original ones.

  6. Mechanics of interstitial-lymphatic fluid transport: theoretical foundation and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Swartz, M A; Kaipainen, A; Netti, P A; Brekken, C; Boucher, Y; Grodzinsky, A J; Jain, R K

    1999-12-01

    Interstitial fluid movement is intrinsically linked to lymphatic drainage. However, their relationship is poorly understood, and associated pathologies are mostly untreatable. In this work we test the hypothesis that bulk tissue fluid movement can be evaluated in situ and described by a linear biphasic theory which integrates the regulatory function of the lymphatics with the mechanical stresses of the tissue. To accomplish this, we develop a novel experimental and theoretical model using the skin of the mouse tail. We then use the model to demonstrate how interstitial-lymphatic fluid movement depends on a balance between the elasticity, hydraulic conductivity, and lymphatic conductance as well as to demonstrate how chronic swelling (edema) alters the equipoise between tissue fluid balance parameters. Specifically, tissue fluid equilibrium is perturbed with a continuous interstitial infusion of saline into the tip of the tail. The resulting gradients in tissue stress are measured in terms of interstitial fluid pressure using a servo-null system. These measurements are then fit to the theory to provide in vivo estimates of the tissue hydraulic conductivity, elastic modulus, and overall resistance to lymphatic drainage. Additional experiments are performed on edematous tails to show that although chronic swelling causes an increase in the hydraulic conductivity, its greatly increased distensibility (due to matrix remodeling) dampens the driving forces for fluid movement and leads to fluid stagnation. This model is useful for examining potential treatments for edema and lymphatic disorders as well as substances which may alter tissue fluid balance and/or lymphatic drainage.

  7. Poroelastic analysis of interstitial fluid flow in a single lamellar trabecula subjected to cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Kameo, Yoshitaka; Ootao, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Trabecula, an anatomical unit of the cancellous bone, is a porous material that consists of a lamellar bone matrix and interstitial fluid in a lacuno-canalicular porosity. The flow of interstitial fluid caused by deformation of the bone matrix is believed to initiate a mechanical response in osteocytes for bone remodeling. In order to clarify the effect of the lamellar structure of the bone matrix--i.e., variations in material properties--on the fluid flow stimuli to osteocytes embedded in trabeculae, we investigated the mechanical behavior of an individual trabecula subjected to cyclic loading based on poroelasticity. We focused on variations in the trabecular permeability and developed an analytical solution containing both transient and steady-state responses for interstitial fluid pressure in a single trabecular model represented by a multilayered two-dimensional poroelastic slab. Based on the obtained solution, we calculated the pressure and seepage velocity of the interstitial fluid in lacuno-canalicular porosity, within the single trabecula, under various permeability distributions. Poroelastic analysis showed that a heterogeneous distribution of permeability produces remarkable variations in the fluid pressure and seepage velocity in the cross section of the individual trabecula, and suggests that fluid flow stimuli to osteocytes are mostly governed by the value of permeability in the neighborhood of the trabecular surfaces if there is no difference in the average permeability in a single trabecula.

  8. Interstitial Pressure in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Is Dominated by a Gel-Fluid Phase.

    PubMed

    DuFort, Christopher C; DelGiorno, Kathleen E; Carlson, Markus A; Osgood, Ryan J; Zhao, Chunmei; Huang, Zhongdong; Thompson, Curtis B; Connor, Robert J; Thanos, Christopher D; Scott Brockenbrough, J; Provenzano, Paolo P; Frost, Gregory I; Michael Shepard, H; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2016-05-10

    Elevated interstitial fluid pressure can present a substantial barrier to drug delivery in solid tumors. This is particularly true of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, a highly lethal disease characterized by a robust fibroinflammatory response, widespread vascular collapse, and hypoperfusion that together serve as primary mechanisms of treatment resistance. Free-fluid pressures, however, are relatively low in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and cannot account for the vascular collapse. Indeed, we have shown that the overexpression and deposition in the interstitium of high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HA) is principally responsible for generating pressures that can reach 100 mmHg through the creation of a large gel-fluid phase. By interrogating a variety of tissues, tumor types, and experimental model systems, we show that an HA-dependent fluid phase contributes substantially to pressures in many solid tumors and has been largely unappreciated heretofore. We investigated the relative contributions of both freely mobile fluid and gel fluid to interstitial fluid pressure by performing simultaneous, real-time fluid-pressure measurements with both the classical wick-in-needle method (to estimate free-fluid pressure) and a piezoelectric pressure catheter transducer (which is capable of capturing pressures associated with either phase). We demonstrate further that systemic treatment with pegylated recombinant hyaluronidase (PEGPH20) depletes interstitial HA and eliminates the gel-fluid phase. This significantly reduces interstitial pressures and leaves primarily free fluid behind, relieving the barrier to drug delivery. These findings argue that quantifying the contributions of free- and gel-fluid phases to hydraulically transmitted pressures in a given cancer will be essential to designing the most appropriate and effective strategies to overcome this important and frequently underestimated resistance mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by

  9. Dynamics of Interstitial Fluid Pressure in Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels in Microfluidic Devices.

    PubMed

    Tien, Joe; Li, Le; Ozsun, Ozgur; Ekinci, Kamil L

    2015-09-01

    In order to understand how interstitial fluid pressure and flow affect cell behavior, many studies use microfluidic approaches to apply externally controlled pressures to the boundary of a cell-containing gel. It is generally assumed that the resulting interstitial pressure distribution quickly reaches a steady-state, but this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and computationally that the interstitial fluid pressure within an extracellular matrix gel in a microfluidic device can, in some cases, react with a long time delay to external loading. Remarkably, the source of this delay is the slight (∼100 nm in the cases examined here) distension of the walls of the device under pressure. Finite-element models show that the dynamics of interstitial pressure can be described as an instantaneous jump, followed by axial and transverse diffusion, until the steady pressure distribution is reached. The dynamics follow scaling laws that enable estimation of a gel's poroelastic constants from time-resolved measurements of interstitial fluid pressure.

  10. Numerical simulation of the tumor interstitial fluid transport: Consideration of drug delivery mechanism.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Mohammad Charjouei; Deyranlou, Amin; Sharifi, Alireza; Niazmand, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    The interstitial fluid transport plays an important role in terms of its effect on the delivery of therapeutic agents to the cancerous organs. In this study, a comprehensive numerical simulation of the interstitial fluid transport establishing 3D models of tumor and normal tissue is accomplished. Different shapes of solid tumors and their surrounding normal tissues are selected, by employing the porous media model and incorporating Darcy's model and Starling's law. Besides, effects of the tumor radius, normal tissue size, tissue hydraulic conductivity and necrotic core are investigated on the interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and interstitial fluid velocity (IFV). Generally, results suggest that the configurations of the tumor and surrounding normal tissue affect IFP and IFV distributions inside the interstitium, which are much more pronounced for various configuration of the tumor. Furthermore, findings demonstrate that larger tumors are more prone for producing elevated IFP comparing with the smaller ones and impress both IFP and IFV dramatically. Nevertheless, normal tissue size has less impact on IFP and IFV, until its volume ratio to the tumor remains greater than unity; conversely, for the values lower than unity the variations become more significant. Finally, existence of necrotic core and its location in the tumor interstitium alters IFP and IFV patterns and increases IFV, considerably.

  11. Analysis of Blood Glucose Concentration by Interstitial Fluid Extracted in a Minimally Invasive way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaotang; Xu, Kexin; Cao, Xuejun; Qu, Xinghua; Li, Dachao

    2009-08-01

    A novel minimally invasive way to measure blood glucose concentration is proposed by combining interstitial fluid (ISF) transdermal extraction and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection. 55 kHz low-frequency ultrasound pulses are applied for 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin by vacuum. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is determined using an optical SPR sensor that measures the refractive index. A protein-glucose binding technology using D-galactose/D-glucose Binding Protein for specific absorption of glucose is also employed to increase SPR measurement precision. The mathematical model to express the correlation between interstitial fluid glucose and blood glucose is also developed by considering the changes of the skin conductivity. The feasibility of this method is validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring and a prototype microfluidic diabetes-monitoring device is under development with a current glucose resolution of approximately 1 mg/l.

  12. Interstitial fluid flow in cancer: implications for disease progression and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Jennifer M; Shieh, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    As cancer progresses, a dynamic microenvironment develops that creates and responds to cellular and biophysical cues. Increased intratumoral pressure and corresponding increases in interstitial flow from the tumor bulk to the healthy stroma is an observational hallmark of progressing cancers. Until recently, the role of interstitial flow was thought to be mostly passive in the transport and dissemination of cancer cells to metastatic sites. With research spanning the past decade, we have seen that interstitial flow has a promigratory effect on cancer cell invasion in multiple cancer types. This invasion is one mechanism by which cancers can resist therapeutics and recur, but the role of interstitial flow in cancer therapy is limited to the understanding of transport of therapeutics. Here we outline the current understanding of the role of interstitial flow in cancer and the tumor microenvironment through cancer progression and therapy. We also discuss the current role of fluid flow in the treatment of cancer, including drug transport and therapeutic strategies. By stating the current understanding of interstitial flow in cancer progression, we can begin exploring its role in therapeutic failure and treatment resistance. PMID:25170280

  13. Effects of Sustained Interstitial Fluid Pressurization Under Migrating Contact Area, and Boundary Lubrication by Synovial Fluid, on Cartilage Friction

    PubMed Central

    Caligaris, Matteo; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This experimental study tests two hypotheses which address outstanding questions in cartilage lubrication: Can the friction coefficient remain low under sustained physiological loading conditions? How effective is synovial fluid in the lubrication of articular cartilage? Based on theory, it is hypothesized that migrating contact areas can maintain elevated cartilage interstitial fluid pressurization, thus a low friction coefficient, indefinitely. It is also hypothesized that the beneficial effects of synovial fluid stem from boundary lubrication rather than fluid-film lubrication. Design Five experiments were conducted on immature bovine femoro-tibial joints, to compare the frictional response under migrating versus stationary contact areas; the frictional response in synovial fluid versus saline; the role of sliding velocity and the role of congruence on the friction coefficient. Results Migrating contact areas could maintain a low friction coefficient under sustained physiological conditions of loading for at least one hour. Synovial fluid reduced the friction coefficient by a factor of ~1.5 relative to saline. However, interstitial fluid pressurization was far more effective, reducing the friction coefficient by a factor of ~60 relative to equilibrium (zero-pressure) conditions. It was confirmed that synovial fluid acts as a boundary lubricant. Conclusions These results emphasize the importance of interstitial fluid pressurization on the frictional response of cartilage. They imply that the mechanical integrity of cartilage must be maintained to produce low friction in articular joints. The more limited effectiveness of synovial fluid implies that intra-articular injections of lubricants in degenerated joints may have only limited effectiveness on their tribological properties. PMID:18395475

  14. Comparison of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow, synovial fluid, adult dental pulp, and exfoliated deciduous tooth pulp.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Y; Koyama, N; Nakao, K; Osawa, K; Ikeno, M; Yamanaka, S; Okubo, Y; Fujimura, K; Bessho, K

    2016-01-01

    Populations of pluripotent stem cells were isolated from bone marrow, synovial fluid, adult dental pulp, and exfoliated deciduous teeth and their multipotentiality properties compared. Osteogenic, chondrogenic, adipogenic, and neurogenic differentiation potentials were examined. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and synovial fluid-derived cells (SFCs) showed the highest levels of osteogenesis as expressed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity (0.54±0.094 U/mg protein and 0.57±0.039 U/mg protein, respectively; P=0.60) and by osteocalcin (BGLAP; determined by real-time RT-PCR). SFCs showed the highest levels of chondrogenesis as expressed by ALP activity (1.75±0.097 U/mg protein) and of COL2A1 and COL10A1 by real-time PCR. In terms of adipogenesis, lipid vesicles were observed in the BMMSCs and SFCs. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) exhibited neurogenesis potential, as shown by increases in expression of class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) on RT-PCR. Variability was found in the differentiation potential corresponding to the tendency of the original tissue to differentiate. It is suggested that the cell type should be selected depending on the regenerative treatment regimen. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of sustained interstitial fluid pressurization under migrating contact area, and boundary lubrication by synovial fluid, on cartilage friction.

    PubMed

    Caligaris, M; Ateshian, G A

    2008-10-01

    This experimental study tests two hypotheses which address outstanding questions in cartilage lubrication: can the friction coefficient remain low under sustained physiological loading conditions? How effective is synovial fluid (SF) in the lubrication of articular cartilage? Based on theory, it is hypothesized that migrating contact areas can maintain elevated cartilage interstitial fluid pressurization, thus a low friction coefficient, indefinitely. It is also hypothesized that the beneficial effects of SF stem from boundary lubrication rather than fluid-film lubrication. Five experiments were conducted on immature bovine femoro-tibial joints, to compare the frictional response under migrating vs stationary contact areas; the frictional response in SF vs saline; the role of sliding velocity and the role of congruence on the friction coefficient. Migrating contact area could maintain a low friction coefficient under sustained physiological conditions of loading for at least 1 h. SF reduced the friction coefficient by a factor of approximately 1.5 relative to saline. However, interstitial fluid pressurization was far more effective, reducing the friction coefficient by a factor of approximately 60 relative to equilibrium (zero-pressure) conditions. It was confirmed that SF acts as a boundary lubricant. These results emphasize the importance of interstitial fluid pressurization on the frictional response of cartilage. They imply that the mechanical integrity of cartilage must be maintained to produce low friction in articular joints. The more limited effectiveness of SF implies that intra-articular injections of lubricants in degenerated joints may have only limited effectiveness on their tribological properties.

  16. Cartilage interstitial fluid load support in unconfined compression following enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Ines M; Mauck, Robert L; Kelly, Terri-Ann N; Nicoll, Steven B; Chen, Faye H; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2004-12-01

    Interstitial fluid pressurization plays an important role in cartilage biomechanics and is believed to be a primary mechanism of load support in synovial joints. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic degradation on the interstitial fluid load support mechanism of articular cartilage in unconfined compression. Thirty-seven immature bovine cartilage plugs were tested in unconfined compression before and after enzymatic digestion. The peak fluid load support decreased significantly (p < 0.0001) from 84 +/- 10% to 53 +/- 19% and from 80 +/- 10% to 46 +/- 21% after 18-hours digestion with 1.0 u/mg-wet-weight and 0.7 u/mg-wet-weight of collagenase, respectively. Treatment with 0.1 u/ml of chondroitinase ABC for 24 hours also significantly reduced the peak fluid load support from 83 +/- 12% to 48 +/- 16% (p < 0.0001). The drop in interstitial fluid load support following enzymatic treatment is believed to result from a decrease in the ratio of tensile to compressive moduli of the solid matrix.

  17. Role for Lower Extremity Interstitial Fluid Volume Changes in the Development of Orthostasis after Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Summers, Richard L.; Martin, David S.; Meck, Janice V.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Reentry orthostasis after exposure to the conditions of spaceflight is a persistent problem among astronauts. In a previous study, a computer model systems analysis was used to examine the physiologic mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this analysis, it was determined that an augmented capacitance of lower extremity veins due to a fluid volume contracture of the surrounding interstitial spaces during spaceflight results in an increase in sequestered blood volume upon standing and appears to be the initiating mechanism responsible for reentry orthostasis. In this study, we attempt to validate the central premise of this hypothesis using a ground-based spaceflight analog. 10 healthy subjects were placed at bed rest in a 6 head down tilt position for 60 days of bed rest. The impact of adaptations in interstitial fluid volume and venous capacitance in the lower extremities were then observed during a standard tilt test protocol performed before and after the confinement period. The interstitial thickness superficial to the calcaneous immediately below the lateral malleolus was measured using ultrasound with a 17-5 MHz linear array transducer. Measurements of the changes in anterior tibial vein diameter during tilt were obtained by similar methods. The measurements were taken while the subjects were supine and then during upright tilt (80') for thirty minutes, or until the subject had signs of presyncope. Additional measurements of the superficial left tibia interstitial thickness and stroke volume by standard echocardiographic methods were also recorded. In addition, calf compliance was measured over a pressure range of 10-60 mmHg, using plethysmography, in a subset of these subjects (n = 5). There was a average of 6% diminution in the size of the lower extremity interstitial space as compared to measurements acquired prior to bed rest. This contracture of the interstitial space coincided with a subsequent relative increase in the percentage change in tibial

  18. Geometry and Composition of Interstitial Fluids in Frozen Electrolyte Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, J.; Colussi, A. J.; Hoffmann, M. R.

    2009-12-01

    The composition and morphology of the fluid microchannels threading polycrystaline ice affects the integrity of ice core records and the strength of ice-atmosphere interactions. These fluids owe their existence to impurities and curvature depression. Electrolyte impurities induce bulk colligative effects, but also charge ice surfaces, while screening the resulting electrostatic repulsion. A non-monotonic rather than positive dependence of channel width δ on electrolyte concentration has thus been predicted. Herein we report the first time-resolved, confocal microscopy study of freezing water and electrolyte solutions doped with 10 μM of C-SNARF-1, a fluorescent pH probe. The freezing of doped water concentrates the probe into discrete δ = (12 ± 2) μm channels embedded in pristine ice, whereas ice fronts advancing (at < 5 μm/s) into 1 mM electrolytes destabilize and engulf them into < 1 μm fluid occlusions distributed over the sample. These findings are consistent with a non-monotonic dependence of δ on ion concentration. pH increases by less than 0.4 unit within the occlusions formed in freezing NaCl solutions, and by over 1 unit upon subsequent thawing, revealing that hydroxide ion slowly produced via the dissociation of water molecule in ice seeps from ice to relieve the excess charge generated by chloride inclusion. In contrast, the preferential incorporation of the ammonium ions over the acetate anions into ice leads to the acidification of partially frozen ammonium acetate solutions.

  19. Mapping bone interstitial fluid movement: Displacement of ferritin tracer during histological processing

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Cesare; Doty, Stephen B.; Fritton, Susannah P.

    2014-01-01

    Bone interstitial fluid flow is thought to play a fundamental role in the mechanical stimulation of bone cells, either via shear stresses or cytoskeletal deformations. Recent evidence indicates that osteocytes are surrounded by a fiber matrix that may be involved in the mechanotransduction of external stimuli as well as in nutrient exchange. In our previous tracer studies designed to map how different-sized molecules travel through the bone porosities, we found that injected ferritin was confined to blood vessels and did not pass into the mineralized matrix. However, other investigators have shown that ferritin forms halo-shaped labeling that enters the mineralized matrix around blood vessels. This labeling is widely used to explain normal interstitial fluid movement in bone; in particular, it is said to demonstrate bulk centrifugal interstitial fluid movement away from a highly pressurized vascular porosity. In addition, appositional ferritin fronts are said to demonstrate centrifugal interstitial fluid movement from the medullary canal to the periosteal surface. The purpose of this study was to investigate the conflicting ferritin labeling results by evaluating the role of different histological processes in the formation of ferritin “halos.” Ferritin was injected into the rat vasculature and allowed to circulate for 5 min. Samples obtained from tibiae were reacted for different times with Perl's reagent and then were either paraffin-embedded or sectioned with a cryostat. Halo-like labeling surrounding vascular pores was found in all groups, ranging from 1.2–3.9% for the samples treated with the shortest histological processes (unembedded, frozen sections) to 5.6–15% for the samples treated with the longest histological processes (paraffin-embedded sections). These results indicate that different histological processing methods are able to create ferritin “halos,” with some processing methods allowing more redistribution of the ferritin tracer than

  20. Roles of interstitial fluid pH in diabetes mellitus: Glycolysis and mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2015-02-15

    The pH of body fluids is one the most important key factors regulating various cell function such as enzyme activity and protein-protein interaction via modification of its binding affinity. Therefore, to keep cell function normal, the pH of body fluids is maintained constant by various systems. Insulin resistance is one of the most important, serious factors making the body condition worse in diabetes mellitus. I have recently found that the pH of body (interstitial) fluids is lower in diabetes mellitus than that in non-diabetic control, and that the lowered pH is one of the causes producing insulin resistance. In this review article, I introduce importance of body (interstitial) fluid pH in regulation of body function, evidence on abnormal regulation of body fluid pH in diabetes mellitus, and relationship between the body fluid pH and insulin resistance. Further, this review proposes perspective therapies on the basis of regulation of body fluid pH including propolis (honeybee product) diet.

  1. Roles of interstitial fluid pH in diabetes mellitus: Glycolysis and mitochondrial function

    PubMed Central

    Marunaka, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    The pH of body fluids is one the most important key factors regulating various cell function such as enzyme activity and protein-protein interaction via modification of its binding affinity. Therefore, to keep cell function normal, the pH of body fluids is maintained constant by various systems. Insulin resistance is one of the most important, serious factors making the body condition worse in diabetes mellitus. I have recently found that the pH of body (interstitial) fluids is lower in diabetes mellitus than that in non-diabetic control, and that the lowered pH is one of the causes producing insulin resistance. In this review article, I introduce importance of body (interstitial) fluid pH in regulation of body function, evidence on abnormal regulation of body fluid pH in diabetes mellitus, and relationship between the body fluid pH and insulin resistance. Further, this review proposes perspective therapies on the basis of regulation of body fluid pH including propolis (honeybee product) diet. PMID:25685283

  2. Kraft pulp biobleaching using an extracellular enzymatic fluid produced by Pycnoporus sanguineus.

    PubMed

    Eugenio, M E; Santos, S M; Carbajo, J M; Martín, J A; Martín-Sampedro, R; González, A E; Villar, J C

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain a LMS pre-treatment applicable to industrial TCF bleaching. Kraft pulp from Eucalyptus globulus was treated at 40 degrees C/pH 3 and 60 degrees C/pH 5 for 1h using an extracellular fluid enriched in laccase produced by Pycnoporus sanguineus and acetosyringone as mediator (HBT was used as a control mediator) (L). Alkaline extraction (E) and hydrogen peroxide (P) stages were then assayed. The LEP alternative was an efficient sequence to bleach kraft pulp since the enzymatic pre-treatment boosted the subsequent chemical bleaching. The best L pre-treatment was obtained with laccase-acetosyringone at 40 degrees C/pH 3. It reduces kappa number and hexenuronic acids, increases pulp viscosity, lowers hydrogen peroxide consumption down to an 87.4% (94.0% without L) and enhances brightness up to a 59% ISO (51% ISO without L).

  3. The interstitial fluid content in working muscle modifies the cardiovascular response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Schütze, H; Hildebrandt, W; Stegemann, J

    1991-01-01

    The volume of interstitial fluid in the limbs varies considerably, due to hydrostatic effects. As signals from working muscle, responsible for much of the cardiovascular drive, are assumed to be transmitted in this compartment, blood pressure and heart rate could be affected by local or systemic variations in interstitial hydration. Using a special calf ergometer, eight male subjects performed rhythmic aerobic plantar flexions in a supine position with dependent calves for periods of 7 min. During exercise heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake (VO2) and blood lactate concentrations were measured in two different tests, one before and after interstitial calf dehydration through limb elevation for 25 min, compared to the other, a control with unaltered fluid volume in a maintained working position. Impedance plethysmography showed calf volume to be stabilized in the control position. Leg elevation by passive hip flexion to 90 degrees resulted in a fast (vascular) volume decrease lasting less than 2 min, followed by a slow linear fluid loss from the interstitial compartment. Then, when returned to the control position, adjustment of vascular volume was completed within 2 min and exercise could be performed with dehydration remaining in the interstitium only. Cardiovascular response was identical at the start of both tests. However, exercising with dehydrated calves elicited a significantly larger increase in heart rate compared to the control, whereas VO2 was identical. The blood pressure response was shown to be only slightly enhanced. Structural interstitial features varying with hydration, most likely chemical or mechanical ones, may have been responsible for this amplification of signals.

  4. Numerical simulation of blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumor microcirculation based on tumor-induced angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gaiping; Wu, Jie; Xu, Shixiong; Collins, M. W.; Long, Quan; König, Carola S.; Jiang, Yuping; Wang, Jian; Padhani, A. R.

    2007-10-01

    A coupled intravascular transvascular interstitial fluid flow model is developed to study the distributions of blood flow and interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumor microcirculation based on a tumor-induced microvascular network. This is generated from a 2D nine-point discrete mathematical model of tumor angiogenesis and contains two parent vessels. Blood flow through the microvascular network and interstitial fluid flow in tumor tissues are performed by the extended Poiseuille’s law and Darcy’s law, respectively, transvascular flow is described by Starling’s law; effects of the vascular permeability and the interstitial hydraulic conductivity are also considered. The simulation results predict the heterogeneous blood supply, interstitial hypertension and low convection on the inside of the tumor, which are consistent with physiological observed facts. These results may provide beneficial information for anti-angiogenesis treatment of tumor and further clinical research.

  5. Non-invasive mapping of interstitial fluid pressure in microscale tissues.

    PubMed

    Ozsun, Ozgur; Thompson, Rebecca L; Ekinci, Kamil L; Tien, Joe

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a non-invasive method for mapping interstitial fluid pressure within hydrogel-based microscale tissues. The method is based on embedding (or forming) a tissue within a silicone (PDMS) microfluidic device, and measuring the extremely slight displacement (<1 μm) of the PDMS optically when the device is pressurized under static and flow conditions. The displacement field under uniform pressure provides a map of the local device stiffness, which can then be used to obtain the non-uniform pressure field under flow conditions. We have validated this method numerically and applied it towards determining the hydraulic properties of tumor cell aggregates, blind-ended epithelial tubes, and perfused endothelial tubes that were all cultured within micropatterned collagen gels. The method provides an accessible tool for generating high-resolution maps of interstitial fluid pressure for studies in mechanobiology.

  6. Distribution of lymecycline in interstitial fluid and paranasal sinus mucosa. An experimental and clinical study.

    PubMed

    Holm, S E; Bergholm, A M; Ekedahl, C; Lundin, K

    1983-01-01

    A comparison between different methods of determining the levels of lymecycline in tissue is presented. The drug levels have been compared with those registered, during the steady state condition, in interstitial fluid obtained from subcutaneously implated tissue cages in rabbits. The 'tissue piece diffusion method' developed is reproducible; it allows antibiotic levels to be determined in minute pieces of tissues, and it seems to measure the total diffusable drug in the interstitial fluid phase. This method was employed in the analyses of lymecycline concentrations in the maxillary sinus mucosa in 12 patients, and it demonstrated a good penetration into the tissue. The level reached was well above the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of most bacteria causing maxillary sinusitis.

  7. Effect of praseodymium(III) on zinc(II) species in human interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Wang, Jinping; Lu, Xin; Yang, Kuiyue; Niu, Chunji

    2005-11-01

    A multiphase model of metal ion species in human interstitial fluid was constructed under physiological conditions. The effect of Pr(III) on Zn(II) species was studied. At the normal conditions, Zn(II) species mainly distribute in [Zn(HSA)], [Zn(IgG)], and [Zn(Cys)(2)H](+). With the Pr(III) level increased, the apparent competition of Pr(III) for ligands lead to the redistribution of Zn(II) species.

  8. A batch fabricated capacitive pressure sensor with an integrated Guyton capsule for interstitial fluid pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Teimour; Fogle, Benjamin; Ziaie, Babak

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and test of a batch fabricated capacitive pressure sensor with an integrated Guyton capsule for interstitial fluid pressure measurement. The sensor is composed of 12 µm thick single crystalline silicon membrane and a 3 µm gap, hermetically sealed through silicon-glass anodic bonding. A novel batch scale method for creating electrical feed-throughs inside the sealed capacitor chamber is developed. The Guyton capsule consists of an array of 10 µm diameter access holes etched onto a silicon back-plate separated from the silicon sensing membrane by a gap of 5 µm. The presence of the Guyton capsule (i.e. plates with access holes plus the gap separating them from the sensing membrane) allows for the ingress of interstitial fluid inside the 5 µm gap following the implantation, thus, providing an accurate measurement of interstitial fluid pressure. The fabricated sensor is 3 × 2 × 0.42 mm3 in dimensions and has a maximum sensitivity of 10 fF mmHg-1.

  9. EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE ROLE OF INTERSTITIAL FLUID PRESSURIZATION IN CARTILAGE LUBRICATION

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Kopacz, Monika; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The objective of the current study was to measure the friction coefficient simultaneously with the interstitial fluid load support in bovine articular cartilage, while sliding against glass under a constant load. Ten visually normal 6 mm diameter cartilage plugs harvested from the humeral head of four bovine shoulder joints (ages 2-4 months) were tested in a custom friction device under reciprocating linear motion (range of translation ±2mm; sliding velocity 1mm/s), subjected to a 4.5N constant load. The frictional coefficient was found to increase with time from a minimum value of μmin = 0.010±0.007 (mean±standard deviation) to a maximum value of 0.243±0.044 over a duration ranging from 920s to 19,870s (median: 4,560 s). The corresponding interstitial fluid load support decreased from a maximum of 88.8±3.8% to 8.6±8.6%. A linear correlation was observed between the friction coefficient and interstitial fluid load support (r2=0.96±0.03). These results support the hypothesis that the temporal variation of the friction coefficient correlates negatively with the interstitial fluid load support, and that consequently interstitial fluid load support is a primary mechanism regulating the frictional response in articular cartilage. Fitting the experimental data to a previously proposed biphasic boundary lubrication model for cartilage yielded an equilibrium friction coefficient of μeq =0.284±0.044. The fraction of the apparent contact area over which the solid matrix of cartilage is in contact with the glass slide was predicted at φ =1.7%±6.3%, significantly smaller than the solid volume fraction of the tissue, φs =13.8%±1.8%. The model predictions suggest that mixed lubrication prevailed at the contact interface under the loading conditions employed in this study. PMID:15099636

  10. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Derek M.; Martin, Luke G.; Papich, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined) exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL), and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL) for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL) for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations, with over 900

  11. Comparison of Active Drug Concentrations in the Pulmonary Epithelial Lining Fluid and Interstitial Fluid of Calves Injected with Enrofloxacin, Florfenicol, Ceftiofur, or Tulathromycin.

    PubMed

    Foster, Derek M; Martin, Luke G; Papich, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is the most common reason for parenteral antimicrobial administration to beef cattle in the United States. Yet there is little information describing the antimicrobial concentrations at the site of action. The objective of this study was to compare the active drug concentrations in the pulmonary epithelial lining fluid and interstitial fluid of four antimicrobials commonly used in cattle. After injection, plasma, interstitial fluid, and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentrations and protein binding were measured to determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of each drug. A cross-over design with six calves per drug was used. Following sample collection and drug analysis, pharmacokinetic calculations were performed. For enrofloxacin and metabolite ciprofloxacin, the interstitial fluid concentration was 52% and 78% of the plasma concentration, while pulmonary fluid concentrations was 24% and 40% of the plasma concentration, respectively. The pulmonary concentrations (enrofloxacin + ciprofloxacin combined) exceeded the MIC90 of 0.06 μg/mL at 48 hours after administration. For florfenicol, the interstitial fluid concentration was almost 98% of the plasma concentration, and the pulmonary concentrations were over 200% of the plasma concentrations, exceeding the breakpoint (≤ 2 μg/mL), and the MIC90 for Mannheimia haemolytica (1.0 μg/mL) for the duration of the study. For ceftiofur, penetration to the interstitial fluid was only 5% of the plasma concentration. Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid concentration represented 40% of the plasma concentration. Airway concentrations exceeded the MIC breakpoint for susceptible respiratory pathogens (≤ 2 μg/mL) for a short time at 48 hours after administration. The plasma and interstitial fluid concentrations of tulathromcyin were lower than the concentrations in pulmonary fluid throughout the study. The bronchial concentrations were higher than the plasma or interstitial concentrations, with over 900

  12. Simulation of Interstitial Fluid Flow in Ligaments: Comparison among Stokes, Brinkman and Darcy Models

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Wei; Shen, Zhoufeng; Ding, Guanghong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use Stokes, Brinkman and Darcy equations to approximate the porous continuum media of ligament tissues respectively, simulate the flow field with FLUENT software, and study the shear stress on the cell surface due to the interstitial fluid flow. Since the Brinkman equation approaches Stokes equation well in high hydraulic permeability (kp) condition (kp ≥1.0×10-8 m2 in our numerical simulation), and it is an approximation to Darcy model in low kp condition (kp ≤5.0×10-12 m2 in our numerical simulation), we used the Brinkman model to simulate the interstitial fluid flow in the ligament where kp is approximately 1.0×10-16 m2. It shows kp and anisotropic property have a little effect on the flow field, but have a great effect on the shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells (τcell). There is a linear relationship between τcell and , when kp =1.0×10-16 m2 and the maximum τcell (τcell,max) is approximately 10 Pa. The anisotropic property will affect τcell's distribution on the cell surface. When kx/ky>1, low τcell dominates the cell, while when kx/ky<1, high τcell dominants the cell. PMID:24250250

  13. Mechanics of Fluid-Filled Interstitial Gaps. II. Gap Characteristics in Xenopus Embryonic Ectoderm.

    PubMed

    Barua, Debanjan; Parent, Serge E; Winklbauer, Rudolf

    2017-08-22

    The ectoderm of the Xenopus embryo is permeated by a network of channels that appear in histological sections as interstitial gaps. We characterized this interstitial space by measuring gap sizes, angles formed between adjacent cells, and curvatures of cell surfaces at gaps. From these parameters, and from surface-tension values measured previously, we estimated the values of critical mechanical variables that determine gap sizes and shapes in the ectoderm, using a general model of interstitial gap mechanics. We concluded that gaps of 1-4 μm side length can be formed by the insertion of extracellular matrix fluid at three-cell junctions such that cell adhesion is locally disrupted and a tension difference between cell-cell contacts and the free cell surface at gaps of 0.003 mJ/m(2) is generated. Furthermore, a cell hydrostatic pressure of 16.8 ± 1.7 Pa and an interstitial pressure of 3.9 ± 3.6 Pa, relative to the central blastocoel cavity of the embryo, was found to be consistent with the observed gap size and shape distribution. Reduction of cell adhesion by the knockdown of C-cadherin increased gap volume while leaving intracellular and interstitial pressures essentially unchanged. In both normal and adhesion-reduced ectoderm, cortical tension of the free cell surfaces at gaps does not return to the high values characteristic of the free surface of the whole tissue. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma. Immune complexes in sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Silver, R M; Metcalf, J F; LeRoy, E C

    1986-04-01

    Interstitial lung disease is a common feature of scleroderma (systemic sclerosis), and it may be a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with scleroderma has shown evidence of inflammation in the lower respiratory tract of many patients. We have analyzed sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from scleroderma patients for the presence of immune complexes, which may play a role in the inflammatory process. Using a solid-phase C1q enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we detected immune complexes in the sera of 6 of 23 patients (26%) and in none of 32 controls (P less than 0.01). All 6 patients with serum immune complexes had inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the presence of serum immune complexes correlated with the percentage of neutrophils in lavage fluid (P less than 0.02). Immune complexes were detected in lavage fluid of 11 of 21 patients (52%) compared with 1 of 7 normal controls (14%). Subjects having immune complexes in lavage fluid had a lower forced vital capacity than did those without lavage fluid immune complexes (P less than 0.05). The levels of immune complexes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exceeded those in serum by a mean of 45-fold, suggesting either local formation or selective deposition of immune complexes in the lower respiratory tract of some scleroderma patients.

  15. Experimental verification and theoretical prediction of cartilage interstitial fluid pressurization at an impermeable contact interface in confined compression.

    PubMed

    Soltz, M A; Ateshian, G A

    1998-10-01

    Interstitial fluid pressurization has long been hypothesized to play a fundamental role in the load support mechanism and frictional response of articular cartilage. However, to date, few experimental studies have been performed to verify this hypothesis from direct measurements. The first objective of this study was to investigate experimentally the hypothesis that cartilage interstitial fluid pressurization does support the great majority of the applied load, in the testing configurations of confined compression creep and stress relaxation. The second objective was to investigate the hypothesis that the experimentally observed interstitial fluid pressurization could also be predicted using the linear biphasic theory of Mow et al. (J. Biomech. Engng ASME, 102, 73-84, 1980). Fourteen bovine cartilage samples were tested in a confined compression chamber fitted with a microchip piezoresistive transducer to measure interstitial fluid pressure, while simultaneously measuring (during stress relaxation) or prescribing (during creep) the total stress. It was found that interstitial fluid pressure supported more than 90% of the total stress for durations as long as 725 +/- 248 s during stress relaxation (mean +/- S.D., n = 7), and 404 +/- 229 s during creep (n = 7). When comparing experimental measurements of the time-varying interstitial fluid pressure against predictions from the linear biphasic theory, nonlinear coefficients of determination r2 = 0.871 +/- 0.086 (stress relaxation) and r2 = 0.941 +/- 0.061 (creep) were found. The results of this study provide some of the most direct evidence to date that interstitial fluid pressurization plays a fundamental role in cartilage mechanics; they also indicate that the mechanism of fluid load support in cartilage can be properly predicted from theory.

  16. Effect of fatigue loading and associated matrix microdamage on bone blood flow and interstitial fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Muir, Peter; Sample, Susannah J; Barrett, Jennifer G; McCarthy, Jenna; Vanderby, Ray; Markel, Mark D; Prokuski, Laura J; Kalscheur, Vicki L

    2007-04-01

    Functional adaptation of bone to cyclic fatigue involves a complex physiological response that is targeted to sites of microdamage. The mechanisms that regulate this process are not understood, although lacunocanalicular interstitial fluid flow is likely important. We investigated the effect of a single period of cyclic fatigue on bone blood flow and interstitial fluid flow. The ulnae of 69 rats were subjected to cyclic fatigue unilaterally using an initial peak strain of -6000 muepsilon until 40% loss of stiffness developed. Groups of rats (n=23 per group) were euthanized immediately after loading, at 5 days, and at 14 days. The contralateral ulna served as a treatment control, and a baseline control group (n=23) that was not loaded was also included. After euthanasia, localization of intravascular gold microspheres within the ulna (n=7 rats/group) and tissue distribution of procion red tracer were quantified (n=8 rats/group). Microcracking, modeling, and remodeling (Cr.S.Dn, microm/mm(2), Ne.Wo.B.T.Ar, mm(2), and Rs.N/T.Ar, #/mm(2) respectively) were also quantified histologically (n=8 rats/group). Cyclic fatigue loading induced hyperemia of the loaded ulna, which peaked at 5 days after loading. There was an associated overall decrease in procion tracer uptake in both the loaded and contralateral control ulnae. Tracer uptake was also decreased in the periosteal region, when compared with the endosteal region of the cortex. Pooling of tracer was seen in microdamaged bone typically adjacent to an intracortical stress fracture at all time points after fatigue loading; in adjacent bone tracer uptake was decreased. New bone formation was similar at 5 days and at 14 days, whereas formation of resorption spaces was increased at 14 days. These data suggest that a short period of cyclic fatigue induces bone hyperemia and associated decreased lacunocanalicular interstitial fluid flow, which persists over the time period in which osteoclasts are recruited to sites of

  17. Interstitial Fluid Flow and Drug Delivery in Vascularized Tumors: A Computational Model

    PubMed Central

    Welter, Michael; Rieger, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the human cells and provides them with nutrients and a way of waste removal. It is generally believed that elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is partly responsible for the poor penetration and distribution of therapeutic agents in solid tumors, but the complex interplay of extravasation, permeabilities, vascular heterogeneities and diffusive and convective drug transport remains poorly understood. Here we consider–with the help of a theoretical model–the tumor IFP, interstitial fluid flow (IFF) and its impact upon drug delivery within tumor depending on biophysical determinants such as vessel network morphology, permeabilities and diffusive vs. convective transport. We developed a vascular tumor growth model, including vessel co-option, regression, and angiogenesis, that we extend here by the interstitium (represented by a porous medium obeying Darcy's law) and sources (vessels) and sinks (lymphatics) for IFF. With it we compute the spatial variation of the IFP and IFF and determine its correlation with the vascular network morphology and physiological parameters like vessel wall permeability, tissue conductivity, distribution of lymphatics etc. We find that an increased vascular wall conductivity together with a reduction of lymph function leads to increased tumor IFP, but also that the latter does not necessarily imply a decreased extravasation rate: Generally the IF flow rate is positively correlated with the various conductivities in the system. The IFF field is then used to determine the drug distribution after an injection via a convection diffusion reaction equation for intra- and extracellular concentrations with parameters guided by experimental data for the drug Doxorubicin. We observe that the interplay of convective and diffusive drug transport can lead to quite unexpected effects in the presence of a heterogeneous, compartmentalized vasculature. Finally we discuss various

  18. Quantification of interstitial fluid on whole body CT: comparison with whole body autopsy.

    PubMed

    Lo Gullo, Roberto; Mishra, Shelly; Lira, Diego A; Padole, Atul; Otrakji, Alexi; Khawaja, Ranish Deedar Ali; Pourjabbar, Sarvenaz; Singh, Sarabjeet; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Digumarthy, Subba R; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Stone, James R

    2015-12-01

    Interstitial fluid accumulation can occur in pleural, pericardial, and peritoneal spaces, and subcutaneous tissue planes. The purpose of the study was to assess if whole body CT examination in a postmortem setting could help determine the presence and severity of third space fluid accumulation in the body. Our study included 41 human cadavers (mean age 61 years, 25 males and 16 females) who had whole-body postmortem CT prior to autopsy. All bodies were maintained in the morgue in the time interval between death and autopsy. Two radiologists reviewed the whole-body CT examinations independently to grade third space fluid in the pleura, pericardium, peritoneum, and subcutaneous space using a 5-point grading system. Qualitative CT grading for third space fluid was correlated with the amount of fluid found on autopsy and the quantitative CT fluid volume, estimated using a dedicated software program (Volume, Syngo Explorer, Siemens Healthcare). Moderate and severe peripheral edema was seen in 16/41 and 7/41 cadavers respectively. It is not possible to quantify anasarca at autopsy. Correlation between imaging data for third space fluid and the quantity of fluid found during autopsy was 0.83 for pleural effusion, 0.4 for pericardial effusion and 0.9 for ascites. The degree of anasarca was significantly correlated with the severity of ascites (p < 0.0001) but not with pleural or pericardial effusion. There was strong correlation between volumetric estimation and qualitative grading for anasarca (p < 0.0001) and pleural effusion (p < 0.0001). Postmortem CT can help in accurate detection and quantification of third space fluid accumulation. The quantity of ascitic fluid on postmortem CT can predict the extent of anasarca.

  19. Mechanisms of Qi-blood circulation and Qi deficiency syndrome in view of blood and interstitial fluid circulation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wei; Yang, Hongwei; Ding, Guanghong

    2013-08-01

    Based on comparison between fundamental theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) and modern scientific research on meridians, we find that "Qi" in TCM is closely related to tissue fluid. In this study, the essence of Qi is explored in the view of circulation of blood and interstitial fluid. Because the concept of Qi is complicated, Qi deficiency syndrome (QDS) is chosen to probe the relationship between of Qi deficiency and Qi-blood circulation (QBC). We analyze Qi-blood theory in terms of WM, set up a hemodynamic model to describe QBC, and review clinical research on QDS in the view of blood-interstitial fluid circulation. QDS is caused by imbalances of substance exchanges between blood and interstitial fluid, leading to an increase in the interstitial liquid volume or a decrease and retention of metabolic wastes in interstitial fluid. This study describes the essence of Qi, providing support for further research on theories of Qiand Qi-blood circulation in TCM.

  20. Modulation of the interstitial fluid pressure by high intensity focused ultrasound as a way to alter local fluid and solute movement: insights from a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Sassaroli, E; O'Neill, B E

    2014-11-21

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) operated in thermal mode has been reported to reduce interstitial fluid pressure and improve the penetration of large macromolecules and nanoparticles in tumor and normal tissue. Little is understood about how the interstitial fluid pressure and velocity as well as the interstitial macromolecule transport are affected by HIFU exposure. A mathematical model is presented here which sheds light on the initial biophysical changes brought about HIFU. Our continuum model treats tissue as an effective poro-elastic material that reacts to elevated temperatures with a rapid drop in interstitial elastic modulus. Using parameters from the literature, the model is extrapolated to derive information on the effect in tumors, and to predict its impact on the convective and diffusive transport of macromolecular drugs. The model is first solved using an analytical approximation with step-wise changes at each boundary, and then solved numerically starting from a Gaussian beam approximation of the ultrasound treatment. Our results indicate that HIFU causes a rapid drop in interstitial fluid pressure that may be exploited to facilitate convection of macromolecules from vasculature to the exposed region. However, following a short recovery period in which the interstitial fluid pressure is normalized, transport returns to normal and the advantages disappear over time. The results indicate that this effect is strongest for the delivery of large molecules and nanoparticles that are in the circulation at the time of treatment. The model may be easily applied to more complex situations involving effects on vascular permeability and diffusion.

  1. High-Salt Diet Causes Osmotic Gradients and Hyperosmolality in Skin Without Affecting Interstitial Fluid and Lymph.

    PubMed

    Nikpey, Elham; Karlsen, Tine V; Rakova, Natalia; Titze, Jens M; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2017-02-06

    The common notion is that the body Na(+) is maintained within narrow limits for fluid and blood pressure homeostasis. Several studies have, however, shown that considerable amounts of Na(+) can be retained or removed from the body without commensurate water loss and that the skin can serve as a major salt reservoir. Our own data from rats have suggested that the skin is hypertonic compared with plasma on salt storage and that this also applies to skin interstitial fluid. Even small electrolyte gradients between plasma and interstitial fluid would represent strong edema-generating forces. Because the water accumulation has been shown to be modest, we decided to reexamine with alternative methods in rats whether interstitial fluid is hypertonic during salt accumulation induced by high-salt diet (8% NaCl and 1% saline to drink) or deoxycorticosterone pellet implantation. These treatments resulted both in increased systemic blood pressure, skin salt, and water accumulation and in skin hyperosmolality. Interstitial fluid isolated from implanted wicks and lymph draining the skin was, however, isosmotic, and Na(+) concentration in fluid isolated by centrifugation and in lymph was not different from plasma. Interestingly, by eluting layers of the skin, we could show that there was an osmolality and urea gradient from epidermis to dermis. Collectively, our data suggest that fluid leaving the skin as lymph is isosmotic to plasma but also that the skin can differentially control its own electrolyte microenvironment by creating local gradients that may be functionally important.

  2. Computer Simulations of the Tumor Vasculature: Applications to Interstitial Fluid Flow, Drug Delivery, and Oxygen Supply.

    PubMed

    Welter, Michael; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Tumor vasculature, the blood vessel network supplying a growing tumor with nutrients such as oxygen or glucose, is in many respects different from the hierarchically organized arterio-venous blood vessel network in normal tissues. Angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), vessel cooption (the integration of existing blood vessels into the tumor vasculature), and vessel regression remodel the healthy vascular network into a tumor-specific vasculature. Integrative models, based on detailed experimental data and physical laws, implement, in silico, the complex interplay of molecular pathways, cell proliferation, migration, and death, tissue microenvironment, mechanical and hydrodynamic forces, and the fine structure of the host tissue vasculature. With the help of computer simulations high-precision information about blood flow patterns, interstitial fluid flow, drug distribution, oxygen and nutrient distribution can be obtained and a plethora of therapeutic protocols can be tested before clinical trials. This chapter provides an overview over the current status of computer simulations of vascular remodeling during tumor growth including interstitial fluid flow, drug delivery, and oxygen supply within the tumor. The model predictions are compared with experimental and clinical data and a number of longstanding physiological paradigms about tumor vasculature and intratumoral solute transport are critically scrutinized.

  3. Disposition of cocaine in skin, interstitial fluid, sebum, and stratum corneum.

    PubMed

    Lester, Laeben; Uemura, Naoto; Ademola, John; Harkey, Martha R; Nath, Rajneesh P; Kim, Seong J; Jerschow, Elena; Henderson, Gary L; Mendelson, John; Jones, Reese T

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether or not the skin acts as a reservoir for cocaine. Cocaine-d5 (1 mg/kg) was administered to five nondependent, cocaine-experienced volunteers. Skin tissue, interstitial fluid, sebum, stratum corneum, and plasma were collected for 72 h after drug administration. Cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) levels were determined using GC-MS. Cocaine concentrations peaked in plasma at 1 h after administration, with pharmacokinetic parameters (t(1/2), CL, Vd) also in the expected ranges. In skin, cocaine levels peaked around 1.5 h after administration and became undetectable by 6 h. A correlation was found between the plasma and skin AUC for cocaine (R = 0.99, p = 0.006, N = 4). BE was not detected in skin. In interstitial fluid (N = 4), cocaine concentrations peaked around 5 h after drug administration and were undetectable by 24 h. BE peaks varied between 2 and 24 h and were not detectable at 48 h. In sebum, cocaine levels peaked between 3 and 24 h. BE was found in three samples between 12 and 24 h. In stratum corneum, cocaine was measurable in only one sample from one subject. These findings suggest that skin does not act as a reservoir for cocaine. Rather, cocaine appears to be distributed rapidly to the skin and eliminated, following a time course similar to that of plasma.

  4. Lipoprotein macroaggregates in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease: comparison with idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, P L; Hughes, D A; Dewar, A; Pantin, C F

    1988-01-01

    Lipoprotein macroaggregates were present in cytocentrifuge preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from four patients with diffuse lung diseases other than idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. In three patients the primary diagnosis was cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and in one sarcoidosis. We confirmed the presence of large multilamellar aggregates of lipoprotein by ultrastructural examination in patients with both interstitial lung disease and idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. The small lamellar bodies and amorphous debris found in idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis were rare in the patients with interstitial lung disease. The lavage fluid from patient with interstitial lung disease did not show the substantial alterations in phospholipid composition that were seen in lavage fluid in idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. These ultrastructural and biochemical features may help to distinguish idiopathic from other causes of alveolar lipoproteinosis, particularly at an early stage, when differential diagnosis may be difficult. Images PMID:3353885

  5. Glucose measurement in interstitial fluid by microdialysis for the calibration of minimally invasive blood glucose monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dachao; Wang, Ridong; Chong, Hao; Liu, Yu; Xu, Kexin

    2013-03-01

    According to the requirement of the calibration in minimally invasive blood glucose monitoring, a method based on microdialysis was presented to monitor glucose level in interstitial fluid continuously. An experimental system simulating the continuous change of glucose concentration in vivo was built. The influences on recovery of microdialysis caused by flow rate, glucose concentration, and temperature etc. were studied. The results led to the conclusion that the recovery fell by 71.7% when perfusion rate increased from 0.3 μL/min to 3.0 μL/min, while the different concentrations of glucose solutions scarcely contribute to the recovery instead, and the temperatures from 25 to 58 °C caused the recovery to increase by 34.6%.

  6. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T.; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. PMID:26077718

  7. A dural lymphatic vascular system that drains brain interstitial fluid and macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Aspelund, Aleksanteri; Antila, Salli; Proulx, Steven T; Karlsen, Tine Veronica; Karaman, Sinem; Detmar, Michael; Wiig, Helge; Alitalo, Kari

    2015-06-29

    The central nervous system (CNS) is considered an organ devoid of lymphatic vasculature. Yet, part of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains into the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). The mechanism of CSF entry into the LNs has been unclear. Here we report the surprising finding of a lymphatic vessel network in the dura mater of the mouse brain. We show that dural lymphatic vessels absorb CSF from the adjacent subarachnoid space and brain interstitial fluid (ISF) via the glymphatic system. Dural lymphatic vessels transport fluid into deep cervical LNs (dcLNs) via foramina at the base of the skull. In a transgenic mouse model expressing a VEGF-C/D trap and displaying complete aplasia of the dural lymphatic vessels, macromolecule clearance from the brain was attenuated and transport from the subarachnoid space into dcLNs was abrogated. Surprisingly, brain ISF pressure and water content were unaffected. Overall, these findings indicate that the mechanism of CSF flow into the dcLNs is directly via an adjacent dural lymphatic network, which may be important for the clearance of macromolecules from the brain. Importantly, these results call for a reexamination of the role of the lymphatic system in CNS physiology and disease. © 2015 Aspelund et al.

  8. Tumor interstitial fluid pressure-a link between tumor hypoxia, microvascular density, and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Rofstad, Einar K; Galappathi, Kanthi; Mathiesen, Berit S

    2014-07-01

    High microvascular density (MVD) in the primary tumor has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of lymph node metastases and poor clinical outcome. Other investigations have revealed that a large fraction of hypoxic tissue in the primary tumor is associated with metastatic disease and impaired survival. These data are apparently incompatible because tumor hypoxia is primarily a consequence of poor oxygen supply caused by an inadequate vasculature with increased intervessel distances. Here, we provide an explanation of these observations. Human melanoma xenografts were used as preclinical cancer models. Tumors that metastasized to lymph nodes showed higher interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) than those that did not metastasize, and compared with tumors with low IFP, tumors with high IFP showed large hypoxic fractions centrally, high MVD in the periphery, high peritumoral density of lymphatics, and elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and VEGF-C. Significant correlations were found between peripheral MVD and central hypoxia, and lymph node metastasis was associated with high values of both parameters. These findings suggest that the outcome of cancer may be associated with both high MVD and extensive hypoxia in the primary tumor. We propose that proangiogenic factors are upregulated in the tumor center and that the outward interstitial fluid flow caused by the elevated IFP transports these factors to the tumor surface where they evoke hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, and consequently, that the IFP serves as a link between tumor hypoxia, peripheral tumor hemangiogenesis, peritumoral lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. Copyright © 2014 Neoplasia Press, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pulp biology: progress during the past 25 years.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Henry O

    2003-04-01

    During the past 25 years there has been a rapid expansion in our knowledge of the dentine and pulp complex. This paper provides representative examples of important advances that researchers have made in this field. Topics to be considered include: differentiation of odontoblasts, dentine matrix proteins, extent of odontoblast processes, pulpal stem cells, apoptosis, interstitial fluid pressure in normal and inflamed pulps, class II antigen-presenting cells of the pulp, cytokines, antibodies, pulpal calcifications, tertiary dentine and pulpal inflammation associated with bacterial contamination of exposed dentine beneath restorations.

  10. Measurement of glucose concentration in interstitial fluid by surface plasmon resonance with D-galactose/D-glucose binding protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. C.; Zhang, J. X.; Wu, P.; Huang, F. X.; Song, B.; Xu, K. X.

    2009-08-01

    A novel minimally invasive way to measure blood glucose concentration is proposed by combining interstitial fluid transdermal extraction and surface plasma resonance (SPR) detecting. 55K Hz low-frequency ultrasound pulse is applied for less than 30 seconds to enhance the skin permeability and then interstitial fluid is extracted out of skin by vacuum. The mathematical model to express the correlation between interstitial fluid glucose and blood glucose is also developed by considering the changes of the skin conductivity. The glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid is determined using an optical SPR biological sensor that measures the refractive index. A protein-glucose binding technology using Dgalactose/ D-glucose Binding Protein for specific absorption of glucose is employed to increase SPR measurement precision. By immobilizing GGBP onto the surface of the SPR sensor, the experimental result indicates the detecting resolution of glucose rises to 1mg/L, the system succeeds in distinguishing glucose from other components in mixture. The feasibility of this method is validated for clinical application with the requirements of bloodless, painless, continuous glucose monitoring and a prototype microfluidic diabetes-monitoring device is under development.

  11. Multiplex cytokine analysis of dermal interstitial blister fluid defines local disease mechanisms in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Clark, Kristina En; Lopez, Henry; Abdi, Bahja Ahmed; Guerra, Sandra G; Shiwen, Xu; Khan, Korsa; Etomi, Oseme; Martin, George R; Abraham, David J; Denton, Christopher P; Stratton, Richard J

    2015-03-23

    Clinical diversity in systemic sclerosis (SSc) reflects multifaceted pathogenesis and the effect of key growth factors or cytokines operating within a disease-specific microenvironment. Dermal interstitial fluid sampling offers the potential to examine local mechanisms and identify proteins expressed within lesional tissue. We used multiplex cytokine analysis to profile the inflammatory and immune activity in the lesions of SSc patients. Dermal interstitial fluid sample from the involved forearm skin, and synchronous plasma samples were collected from SSc patients (n = 26, diffuse cutaneous SSc (DcSSc) n = 20, limited cutaneous SSc (LcSSc) n = 6), and healthy controls (HC) (n = 10) and profiled by Luminex® array for inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Luminex® profiling of the dermal blister fluid showed increased inflammatory cytokines (median interleukin ( IL)-6 in SSc 39.78 pg/ml, HC 5.51 pg/ml, p = 0.01, median IL-15 in SSc 6.27 pg/ml, HC 4.38 pg/ml, p = 0.03), chemokines (monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-3 9.81 pg/ml in SSc, 7.18 pg/ml HC, p = 0.04), and profibrotic growth factors (platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-AA 10.38 pg/ml versus 6.94 pg/ml in HC, p = 0.03). In general dermal fluid and plasma cytokine levels did not correlate, consistent with predominantly local production of these factors within the dermal lesions, rather than leakage from the serum. In hierarchical clustering and network analysis IL-6 emerged as a key central mediator. Our data confirm that an immuno-inflammatory environment and aberrant vascular repair are intimately linked to fibroblast activation in lesional skin in SSc. This non-invasive method could be used to profile disease activity in the clinic, and identifies key inflammatory or pro-fibrotic proteins that might be targeted therapeutically. Distinct subgroups of SSc may be defined that show innate or adaptive immune cytokine signatures.

  12. Differential cytokine response in interstitial fluid in skin and serum during experimental inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nedrebø, Torbjørn; Reed, Rolf K; Jonsson, Roland; Berg, Ansgar; Wiig, Helge

    2004-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) are important mediators produced during inflammation. We hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory cytokine response in the interstitial fluid (IF) is different from that in serum, and we aimed at quantifying the amount of TNF-α and IL-1β in the IF. By centrifugation of rat skin at < 424 g pure IF is extracted. Using ELISA such fluid was analysed for cytokines in back and/or paw skin of pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats, after either induction of endotoxaemia or ischaemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury. During endotoxaemia, TNF-α increased in the IF from 0 in control to 640 ± 100 pg ml−1 (mean ±s.e.m.) after 90 min, with the serum concentration being 5–10 times higher at all time points. The response pattern of IL-1β after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge differed greatly from that of TNF-α with a large increase in IF from 390 ± 90 to 28 000 ± 1500 pg ml−1 after 210 min, and a significantly smaller increase in serum (600 ± 45 pg ml−1). During reperfusion of the hind paw after 2 h of ischaemia, there was a gradual increase of TNF-α in both IF of the paw skin and serum after 3 min of reperfusion. Both declined after 20 min. The pattern for IL-1β differed, increasing significantly less in serum (25 ± 15 pg ml−1 after 20 min of reperfusion) than in the IF (1100 ± 200 pg ml−1). Immunostaining of the inflamed tissues showed increased expression of the two cytokines in cells of both epidermis and dermis compared to controls. Subdermal injections of TNF-α and IL-1β at the same concentrations found in IF after LPS infusion affected interstitial fluid pressure significantly. Local TNF-α production dominates after I/R injury, whereas in endotoxaemia systemic production predominates. For IL-1β local production dominates in both conditions. Thus, there is a differential pattern of cytokine production and the current method allows the study of the role of cytokines in IF during different

  13. Water in hydroxyapatite nanopores: Possible implications for interstitial bone fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, T; Pham, T T; Capiez-Lernout, E; de Leeuw, N H; Naili, S

    2015-09-18

    The role of bone water in the activity of this organ is essential in structuring apatite crystals, providing pathways for nutrients and waste involved in the metabolism of bone cells and participating in bone remodelling mechanotransduction. It is commonly accepted that bone presents three levels of porosity, namely the vasculature, the lacuno-canalicular system and the voids of the collagen-apatite matrix. Due to the observation of bound state of water at the latter level, the interstitial nanoscopic flow that may exist within these pores is classically neglected. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility to obtain a fluid flow at the nanoscale. That is why a molecular dynamics based analysis of a water-hydroxyapatite system is proposed to analyze the effect of water confinement on transport properties. The main result here is that free water can be observed inside hydroxyapatite pores of a few nanometers. This result would have strong implications in the multiscale treatment of the poromechanical behaviour of bone tissue. In particular, the mechanical properties of the bone matrix may be highly controlled by nanoscopic water diffusion and the classical idea that osteocytic activity is only regulated by bone fluid flow within the lacuno-canalicular system may be discussed again. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interstitial lung fluid balance in healthy lowlanders exposed to high-altitude.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bryan J; Stewart, Glenn M; Marck, Jan W; Summerfield, Douglas T; Issa, Amine N; Johnson, Bruce D

    2017-09-01

    We aimed to assess lung fluid balance before and after gradual ascent to 5150m. Lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO) and ultrasound lung comets (ULCs) were assessed in 12 healthy lowlanders at sea-level, and on Day 1, Day 5 and Day 9 after arrival at Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). EBC was reached following an 8-day hike at progressively increasing altitudes starting at 2860m. DLCO was unchanged from sea-level to Day 1 at EBC, but increased on Day 5 (11±10%) and Day 9 (10±9%) vs. sea-level (P≤0.047). DmCO increased from sea-level to Day 1 (9±6%), Day 5 (12±8%), and Day 9 (17±11%) (all P≤0.001) at EBC. There was no change in ULCs from sea-level to Day 1, Day 5 and Day 9 at EBC. These data provide evidence that interstitial lung fluid remains stable or may even decrease relative to at sea-level following 8days of gradual exposure to high-altitude in healthy humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of rhinocerebral mucormycosis with intravenous interstitial, and cerebrospinal fluid administration of amphotericin B: case report.

    PubMed

    Adler, D E; Milhorat, T H; Miller, J I

    1998-03-01

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is extremely difficult to treat. Approximately 70% of patients are poorly controlled diabetics, and many of the remainder are immunocompromised as a consequence of cytotoxic drugs, burn injuries, or end-stage renal disease. Despite standard treatment consisting of surgical debridement and the intravenous administration of amphotericin B, rhinocerebral mucormycosis is usually a fatal disease. We describe the case of a 16-year-old male patient with juvenile onset diabetes mellitus who presented with fever, right-sided hemiparesis, and dysarthria. Axial view computed tomography revealed abscess formation in the left basal ganglia and frontal lobe, which was proven by stereotactic biopsy to contain Rhizopus oryzae. Intravenous administration of amphotericin B (30-280 mg/dose) was begun on the day of admission. On hospital Day 20, after the occurrence of frank abscess formation, the lesion was aggressively debrided. Despite these therapies, there was neurological deterioration characterized by the development of hemiplegia and aphasia. Sequential computed tomographic scans enhanced with contrast medium demonstrated progressively enlarging lesions. Ommaya reservoirs were placed into the abscess cavity and the frontal horn of the contralateral lateral ventricle. The patient was then treated with intracavitary/interstitial injections of amphotericin B during the course of 80 days and three doses of intraventricular amphotericin B. Clinical and radiographic improvement was achieved after treatment. Two years after the initial diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no evidence of disease and an examination revealed a neurologically intact and fully functional patient. We conclude that with an infection as morbid as rhinocerebral mucormycosis, it is advisable to use surgical debridement and all available routes for delivering amphotericin B to infected cerebral parenchyma, which include intravenous, intracavitary/interstitial, and

  16. Effects of regional limb perfusion volume on concentrations of amikacin sulfate in synovial and interstitial fluid samples from anesthetized horses.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Jennifer L; Hardy, Joanne; Cohen, Noah D

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of volume of IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) on amikacin concentrations in synovial and interstitial fluid of horses. ANIMALS 8 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES Each forelimb was randomly assigned to receive IVRLP with 4 mL of amikacin sulfate solution (250 mg/mL) plus 56 mL (total volume, 60 mL) or 6 mL (total volume, 10 mL) of lactated Ringer solution. Horses were anesthetized, and baseline synovial and interstitial fluid samples were collected. A tourniquet was placed, and the assigned treatment was administered via the lateral palmar digital vein. Venous blood pressure in the distal portion of the limb was recorded. Additional synovial fluid samples were collected 30 minutes (just before tourniquet removal) and 24 hours after IVRLP began; additional interstitial fluid samples were collected 6 and 24 hours after IVRLP began. RESULTS 30 minutes after IVRLP began, mean amikacin concentration in synovial fluid was significantly greater for the large-volume (459 μg/mL) versus small-volume (70 μg/mL) treatment. Six hours after IVRLP, mean concentration in interstitial fluid was greater for the large-volume (723 μg/mL) versus small-volume (21 μg/mL) treatment. Peak venous blood pressure after large-volume IVRLP was significantly higher than after small-volume IVRLP, with no difference between treatments in time required for pressure to return to baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Study findings suggested that large-volume IVRLP would deliver more amikacin to metacarpophalangeal joints of horses than would small-volume IVRLP, without a clinically relevant effect on local venous blood pressure, potentially increasing treatment efficacy.

  17. Interstitial fluid shifts in simulated long-haul flights monitored by a miniature ultrasound device.

    PubMed

    Iblher, Peter; Paarmann, Hauke; Stuckert, Kristina; Werner, Andreas; Klotz, Friedrich K; Eichler, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Long-haul flights (LHF) are known to be connected with an increased risk of deep vein thrombosis. There is still some lack of clarity about the impact of hypoxia and lower levels of air pressure and humidity on passengers during flight. This cross-over study researched interstitial fluid shifts traced by measurements of tissue thickness (TT) under controlled simulated conditions of a LHF. There were 18 male volunteers (28.4 +/- 8.1 yr) who were subjected to both procedure 1 (altitude: 2500 m/humidity: 15%)and procedure 2 (altitude: 0 m/humidity: 50%), each lasting 8 h. Measurements forTT at tibia (TT-t) and forehead sites (TT-f) were made using a miniature A-mode ultrasonic device. Fluid intake, bodyweight, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded over time. Blood samples were collected before (t0) and after 8 h (t8) to analyze plasma viscosity (PV). We found an increased TT-t over time at an altitude of 0 m (t0: 4.8 +/- 1.2; t8: 5.2 +/- 1.3) and 2500 m (t0: 4.7 +/- 1.2; t8: 5.3 +/- 1.2), respectively, without differences between study groups. TT-f increased significantly over time at 2500 m (t0: 4.6 +/- 0.8; t8: 4.9 +/- 0.8) with significantly higher TT compared to 0 m at t8 (4.5 +/- 0.7). No further significant differences were found. This study suggests that the controlled variable "sitting position" seems to have the strongest influence on leg edema formation during LHF. PV appears not to be affected as long as passengers receive adequate fluid intake. Further studies should be conducted to investigate different methods of preventing venous congestion. These pre-emptive efforts could be tested easily using a miniature handheld ultrasound device.

  18. Continuous monitoring of plasma, interstitial, and intracellular fluid volumes in dialyzed patients by bioimpedance and hematocrit measurements.

    PubMed

    Jaffrin, Michel Y; Fenech, Marianne; de Fremont, Jean-François; Tolani, Michel

    2002-01-01

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) permits evaluation of extra- and intracellular fluid volumes in patients. We wished to examine whether this technique, used in combination with hematocrit measurement, can reliably monitor fluid transfers during dialysis. Ankle to wrist BIS measurements were collected during 21 dialysis runs while hematocrit was continuously monitored in the blood line by an optical device. Extracellular (ECW) and intracellular (ICW) water volumes were calculated using Hanai's electrical model of suspensions. Plasma volume variations were calculated from hematocrit, and changes in interstitial volume were calculated as the difference between ECW and plasma volume changes. Because accuracy of ICW was too low, changes in ICW were calculated as the difference between ultrafiltered volume and ECW changes. Total body water (TBW) volumes calculated pre- and postdialysis were, respectively, 3.25+/-3.2 and 1.95+/-2.5 liters lower on average than TBW given by Watson et al.'s correlation. Average decreases in fluid compartments expressed as percentage of ultrafiltered volume were as follows: plasma, 18%; interstitial, 28%, and ICW, 54%. When the ultrafiltered volume was increased in a patient in successive runs, the relative contributions of ICW and interstitial fluid were augmented so as to reduce the relative drop in plasma volume.

  19. Homeostasis and the concept of 'interstitial fluids hierarchy': Relevance of cerebrospinal fluid sodium concentrations and brain temperature control (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Agnati, Luigi F.; Marcoli, Manuela; Leo, Giuseppina; Maura, Guido; Guidolin, Diego

    2017-01-01

    In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced. Additionally, it is suggested that particularly for some chemico-physical parameters, oscillatory rhythms within their proper set-ranges should be considered a fundamental component of homeostasis. Against this background, we propose that the brain ISF has the highest hierarchic role in human beings, providing the optimal environment, not simply for brain cell survival, but also for brain complex functions and the oscillatory rhythms of some parameters, such as cerebrospinal fluid sodium and brain ISF pressure waves, which may play a crucial role in brain physio-pathological states. Thus, according to this proposal, the brain ISF represents the real internal medium since the maintenance of its dynamic intra-set-range homeostasis is the main factor for a free and independent life of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the evolutionary links between brain and kidney and their synergistic role in H2O/Na balance and brain temperature control are discussed. Finally, it is surmised that these two interrelated parameters have deep effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS) higher integrative actions such those linked to psychic homeostasis. PMID:28204813

  20. Mechanics of Fluid-Filled Interstitial Gaps. I. Modeling Gaps in a Compact Tissue.

    PubMed

    Parent, Serge E; Barua, Debanjan; Winklbauer, Rudolf

    2017-08-22

    Fluid-filled interstitial gaps are a common feature of compact tissues held together by cell-cell adhesion. Although such gaps can in principle be the result of weak, incomplete cell attachment, adhesion is usually too strong for this to occur. Using a mechanical model of tissue cohesion, we show that, instead, a combination of local prevention of cell adhesion at three-cell junctions by fluidlike extracellular material and a reduction of cortical tension at the gap surface are sufficient to generate stable gaps. The size and shape of these interstitial gaps depends on the mechanical tensions between cells and at gap surfaces, and on the difference between intracellular and interstitial pressures that is related to the volume of the interstitial fluid. As a consequence of the dependence on tension/tension ratios, the presence of gaps does not depend on the absolute strength of cell adhesion, and similar gaps are predicted to occur in tissues of widely differing cohesion. Tissue mechanical parameters can also vary within and between cells of a given tissue, generating asymmetrical gaps. Within limits, these can be approximated by symmetrical gaps. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels of atherogenic lipoproteins are unexpectedly reduced in interstitial fluid from type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Apro, Johanna; Parini, Paolo; Broijersén, Anders; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2015-08-01

    At a given level of serum cholesterol, patients with T2D have an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis compared with nondiabetic subjects. We hypothesized that T2D patients have an increased interstitial fluid (IF)-to-serum gradient ratio for LDL, due to leakage over the vascular wall. Therefore, lipoprotein profiles in serum and IF from 35 T2D patients and 35 healthy controls were assayed using fast performance liquid chromatography. The IF-to-serum gradients for VLDL and LDL cholesterol, as well as for apoB, were clearly reduced in T2D patients compared with healthy controls. No such differences were observed for HDL cholesterol. Contrary to our hypothesis, the atherogenic VLDL and LDL particles were not increased in IF from diabetic patients. Instead, they were relatively sparser than in healthy controls. The most probable explanation to our unexpected finding is that these lipoproteins are more susceptible to retainment in the extravascular space of these patients, reflecting a more active uptake by, or adhesion to, tissue cells, including macrophages in the vascular wall. Further studies are warranted to further characterize the mechanisms underlying these observations, which may be highly relevant for the understanding of why the propensity to develop atherosclerosis is increased in T2D. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Assessment of buffer systems for harvesting proteins from tissue interstitial fluid for proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Teng, Pang-ning; Rungruang, Bunja J; Hood, Brian L; Sun, Mai; Flint, Melanie S; Bateman, Nicholas W; Dhir, Rajiv; Bhargava, Rohit; Richard, Scott D; Edwards, Robert P; Conrads, Thomas P

    2010-08-06

    Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF) bathes cells in tissues, and it is hypothesized that TIF proximal to a developing tumor may contain an enriched population of tumor-specific shed and secreted proteins relative to peripheral blood. Extraction of TIF proteins is typically accomplished through passive incubation of surgically resected tissues in phosphate buffered saline (PBS); however, its influence on cellular activity and viability has not been fully explored. The present investigation sought to characterize whether different buffer systems influence the recovered TIF proteome. Five TIF buffer systems were investigated including PBS, Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM), and three organ transplantation preservative solutions: Celsior solution S (CS), histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK), and University of Wisconsin (UW). Kidney tumor, adjacent normal kidney, and ovarian tumor tissues were incubated in each of the buffer systems, and the harvested TIF proteins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the present results indicate that no significant differences exist in the recovered proteins from these two neoplasms between the five solution groups, additional sample preparative steps are required prior to LC-MS/MS for TIF proteins harvested from DMEM, UW, CS, and HTK. These data support that PBS is a suitable and convenient solution for harvesting TIF proteins for MS-based proteomics.

  3. Interstitial fluid flow in canaliculi as a mechanical stimulus for cancellous bone remodeling: in silico validation.

    PubMed

    Kameo, Yoshitaka; Adachi, Taiji

    2014-08-01

    Cancellous bone has a dynamic 3-dimensional architecture of trabeculae, the arrangement of which is continually reorganized via bone remodeling to adapt to the mechanical environment. Osteocytes are currently believed to be the major mechanosensory cells and to regulate osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation in response to mechanical stimuli. We previously developed a mathematical model of trabecular bone remodeling incorporating the possible mechanisms of cellular mechanosensing and intercellular communication in which we assumed that interstitial fluid flow activates the osteocytes to regulate bone remodeling. While the proposed model has been validated by the simulation of remodeling of a single trabecula, it remains unclear whether it can successfully represent in silico the functional adaptation of cancellous bone with its multiple trabeculae. In the present study, we demonstrated the response of cancellous bone morphology to uniaxial or bending loads using a combination of our remodeling model with the voxel finite element method. In this simulation, cancellous bone with randomly arranged trabeculae remodeled to form a well-organized architecture oriented parallel to the direction of loading, in agreement with the previous simulation results and experimental findings. These results suggested that our mathematical model for trabecular bone remodeling enables us to predict the reorganization of cancellous bone architecture from cellular activities. Furthermore, our remodeling model can represent the phenomenological law of bone transformation toward a locally uniform state of stress or strain at the trabecular level.

  4. Radiocurability Is Associated with Interstitial Fluid Pressure in Human Tumor Xenografts1

    PubMed Central

    Rofstad, Einar K; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Brurberg, Kjetil G; Mathiesen, Berit; Galappathi, Kanthi; Simonsen, Trude G

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has been shown to be an independent prognostic parameter for disease-free survival in cervical carcinoma patients treated with radiation therapy. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The main aims of this study were to investigate whether tumor radiocurability may be associated with IFP and, if so, to identify possible mechanisms. Human melanoma xenografts transplanted intradermally or in window chamber preparations in BALB/c nu/nu mice were used as preclinical tumor models. Radiation dose resulting in 50% local tumor control was higher by a factor of 1.19 ± 0.06 in tumors with IFP ≥ 9 mm Hg than in tumors with IFP ≤ 7 mm Hg. Tumor IFP was positively correlated to vessel segment length and vessel tortuosity and was inversely correlated to vessel density. Compared with tumors with low IFP, tumors with high IFP showed high resistance to blood flow, high frequency of Po2 fluctuations, and high fractions of acutely hypoxic cells, whereas the fraction of radiobiologically hypoxic cells and the fraction of chronically hypoxic cells did not differ between tumors with high and tumors with low IFP. IFP showed a significant correlation to the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells, probably because both parameters were determined primarily by the microvascular resistance to blood flow. Therefore, the observed association between tumor radiocurability and IFP was most likely an indirect consequence of a strong relationship between IFP and the fraction of acutely hypoxic cells. PMID:19881960

  5. Tumor interstitial fluid pressure as an early-response marker for anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Stephane; Allegrini, Peter R; Becquet, Mike M; McSheehy, Paul Mj

    2009-09-01

    Solid tumors have a raised interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) due to high vessel permeability, low lymphatic drainage, poor perfusion, and high cell density around the blood vessels. To investigate tumor IFP as an early-response biomarker, we have tested the effect of seven anticancer chemotherapeutics including cytotoxics and targeted cytostatics in 13 experimental tumor models. IFP was recorded with the wick-in-needle method. Models were either ectopic or orthotopic and included mouse and rat syngeneic as well as human xenografts in nude mice. The mean basal IFP was between 4.4 and 15.2mm Hg; IFP was lowest in human tumor xenografts and highest in rat syngeneic models. Where measured, basal IFP correlated positively with relative tumor blood volume (rTBV) determined by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Most chemotherapeutics sooner (2 or 3 days) or later (6 or 7 days) lowered tumor IFP significantly, and the cytotoxic patupilone caused the greatest decrease in IFP. In rat mammary orthotopic BN472 tumors, significant drug-induced decreases in IFP and rTBV correlated positively with each other for both patupilone and the cytostatic vatalanib. In the two orthotopic models studied, early decreases in IFP were significantly (P < or = .005) correlated with late changes in tumor volume. Thus, drug-induced decreases in tumor IFP are an early marker of response to therapy, which could aid clinical development.

  6. Interstitial Fluid Pressure and Vascularity of Intradermal and Intramuscular Human Tumor Xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliksrud, Kristine; Galappathi, Kanthi; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: High interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumors has been shown to be associated with poor prognosis. Mechanisms underlying the intertumor heterogeneity in IFP were investigated in this study. Methods and Materials: A-07 melanoma xenografts were transplanted intradermally or intramuscularly in BALB/c nu/nu mice. IFP was measured in the center of the tumors with a Millar catheter. Tumor blood perfusion and extracellular volume fraction were assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). The necrotic fraction, vascular density, and vessel diameters of the tumors were determined by image analysis of histological preparations. Results: Significant intertumor heterogeneity in IFP, blood perfusion, and microvascular morphology was observed whether the tumors were transplanted intradermally or intramuscularly. High IFP was mainly a consequence of high resistance to blood flow caused by low vessel diameters in either transplantation site. IFP decreased with increasing blood perfusion in intradermal tumors and increased with increasing blood perfusion in intramuscular tumors, mainly because the morphology of the tumor microvasculature differed systematically between the two tumor models. Conclusion: The potential of DCE-MRI as a noninvasive method for assessing the IFP of tumors may be limited because any relationship between IFP and blood perfusion may differ with the tumor growth site.

  7. High interstitial fluid pressure promotes tumor cell proliferation and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tao; Liu, Kun; Wu, Yingying; Fan, Jinchuan; Chen, Jianchao; Li, Chao; Zhu, Guiquan; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Longjiang

    2013-11-01

    It has been shown that interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is elevated in many solid tumors. The elevated IFP in tumors is responsible, at least in part, for the poor blood supply, inadequate delivery of therapeutic agents to solid tumors and poor treatment response in patients. The present study was carried out to examine alterations in malignant phenotypes in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells subjected to conditions mimicking IFP and to identify the relevant molecular mechanisms. We investigated tumor cell proliferation and invasion using SCC-4 and SCC-9 cells subjected to an increased extracellular pressure of 0, 15 and 30 mmHg in vitro. The results revealed that the increased IFP resulted in a marked increase in cancer cell proliferation, survival and invasion in vitro and altered the expression of >1,800 genes involved in invasion and metastasis, the heat shock pathway, the p38 and JNK signaling pathway, apoptosis and the cell growth and differentiation signaling pathway. These results suggest the important potential clinical application of measuring IFP, which can be used as a generic marker of prognosis and response to therapy.

  8. Development of a fluorescent method for simultaneous measurement of glucose concentrations in interstitial fluid and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ting; Li, Dachao; Li, Guoqing; Chen, Limin; Lin, Yuan; Xu, Kexin; Lu, Luo

    2013-12-01

    Continuous blood glucose monitoring is of great clinical significance to patients with diabetes. One of the effective methods to monitor blood glucose is to measure glucose concentrations of interstitial fluid (ISF). However, a time-delay problem exists between ISF and blood glucose concentrations, which results in difficulty in indicating real-time blood glucose concentrations. Therefore, we developed a fluorescent method to verify the accuracy and reliability of simultaneous ISF and blood glucose measurement, especially incorporating it into research on the delay relationship between blood and ISF glucose changes. This method is based on a competitive reaction among borate polymer, alizarin and glucose. When glucose molecules combine with borate polymers in alizarin-borate polymer competitively, changes in fluorescence intensity demonstrate changes in glucose concentrations. By applying the measured results to the blood and ISF glucose delay relationship, we were able to calculate the time delay as an average of 2.16 ± 2.05 min for ISF glucose changes with reference to blood glucose concentrations.

  9. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Vancomycin in Dermal Interstitial Fluid Using Dissolving Microneedles

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yukako; Inagaki, Yuto; Kobuchi, Shinji; Takada, Kanji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To design an alternative painless method for vancomycin (VCM) monitoring by withdrawing interstitial fluid (ISF) the skin using dissolving microneedles (DMNs) and possibly replace the conventional clinical blood sampling method. Methods: Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with 50 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital. Vancomycin at 5 mg/mL in saline was intravenously administered via the jugular vein. ISF was collected from a formed pore at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 min after the DMNs was removed from the skin. In addition, 0.3 mL blood samples were collected from the left femoral vein. Results: The correlation between the plasma and ISF VCM concentrations was significantly strong (r = 0.676, p < 0.05). Microscopic observation of the skin after application of the DMNs demonstrated their safety as a device for sampling ISF. Conclusion: A novel monitoring method for VCM was developed to painlessly determine concentrations in the ISF as opposed to blood sampling. PMID:27076783

  10. Interstitial fluid drainage is impaired in ischemic stroke and Alzheimer's disease mouse models.

    PubMed

    Arbel-Ornath, Michal; Hudry, Eloise; Eikermann-Haerter, Katharina; Hou, Steven; Gregory, Julia L; Zhao, Lingzhi; Betensky, Rebecca A; Frosch, Matthew P; Greenberg, Steven M; Bacskai, Brian J

    2013-09-01

    The interstitial fluid (ISF) drainage pathway has been hypothesized to underlie the clearance of solutes and metabolites from the brain. Previous work has implicated the perivascular spaces along arteries as the likely route for ISF clearance; however, it has never been demonstrated directly. The accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides in brain parenchyma is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD), and it is likely related to an imbalance between production and clearance of the peptide. Aβ drainage along perivascular spaces has been postulated to be one of the mechanisms that mediate the peptide clearance from the brain. We therefore devised a novel method to visualize solute clearance in real time in the living mouse brain using laser guided bolus dye injections and multiphoton imaging. This methodology allows high spatial and temporal resolution and revealed the kinetics of ISF clearance. We found that the ISF drains along perivascular spaces of arteries and capillaries but not veins, and its clearance exhibits a bi-exponential profile. ISF drainage requires a functional vasculature, as solute clearance decreased when perfusion was impaired. In addition, reduced solute clearance was observed in transgenic mice with significant vascular amyloid deposition; we suggest the existence of a feed-forward mechanism, by which amyloid deposition promotes further amyloid deposition. This important finding provides a mechanistic link between cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer disease and suggests that facilitation of Aβ clearance along the perivascular pathway should be considered as a new target for therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

  11. Determination of glucose in interstitial fluid by surface plasmon resonance biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Fuxiang; Liu, Jin; Yu, Haixia; Zhang, Zengfu; Li, Dachao; Xu, Kexin

    2008-02-01

    The concentration of glucose in interstitial fluid determined by using the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with chemical bonding D-Galactose/D-Glucose Binding Protein (GGBP) is proposed in this paper. D-Galactose/D-Glucose Binding Protein (GGBP), a kind of protein which has the ability to absorb the glucose specifically, is immobilized on the gold film of the SPR sensor to improve the sensitivity of glucose detecting. The GGBPs mutated at different points have different association abilities with glucose, which bring different measurement range and precision. So the selection of proteins is a critical problem of the determination of glucose by using SPR biosensor. Using different mutated GGBPs, the samples with different concentrations of glucose are measured in the experiment, and the prediction error and precision are discussed. Furthermore, the light intensity of sensor is instable, so the baseline of SPR responses is tracked and adjusted accordingly using the methods - fixing points and fixing areas' ratio. The experiment results show that GGBPs mutated at different points have its corresponding working curves and different measurement precision. In conclusion, the study is significant for the application of SPR biosensor to the minimally invasive diabetes testing and other detection of human body components.

  12. Cerebrospinal and Interstitial Fluid Transport via the Glymphatic Pathway Modeled by Optimal Mass Transport

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Vadim; Gao, Yi; Lee, Hedok; Elkin, Rena; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2017-01-01

    The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns. Here we have applied an alternative mathematical analysis approach to a dynamic time series of MRI images acquired every 4 min over ∼3 hrs in anesthetized rats, following administration of a small molecular weight paramagnetic tracer into the CSF reservoir of the cisterna magna. We use Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) to model the glymphatic flow vector field, and then analyze the flow to find the network of CSF-ISF flow channels. We use 3D visualization computational tools to visualize the OMT defined network of CSF-ISF flow channels in relation to anatomical and vascular key landmarks from the live rodent brain. The resulting OMT model of the glymphatic transport network agrees largely with the current understanding of the glymphatic transport patterns defined by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealing key CSF transport pathways along the ventral surface of the brain with a trajectory towards the pineal gland, cerebellum, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb. In addition, the OMT analysis also revealed some interesting previously unnoticed behaviors regarding CSF transport involving parenchymal streamlines moving from ventral reservoirs towards the surface of the brain, olfactory bulb and large central veins. PMID:28323163

  13. Cerebrospinal and interstitial fluid transport via the glymphatic pathway modeled by optimal mass transport.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Vadim; Gao, Yi; Lee, Hedok; Elkin, Rena; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2017-03-18

    The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of MRI in characterizing a macroscopic whole brain view of glymphatic transport but we have yet to define and visualize the specific flow patterns. Here we have applied an alternative mathematical analysis approach to a dynamic time series of MRI images acquired every 4min over ∼3h in anesthetized rats, following administration of a small molecular weight paramagnetic tracer into the CSF reservoir of the cisterna magna. We use Optimal Mass Transport (OMT) to model the glymphatic flow vector field, and then analyze the flow to find the network of CSF-ISF flow channels. We use 3D visualization computational tools to visualize the OMT defined network of CSF-ISF flow channels in relation to anatomical and vascular key landmarks from the live rodent brain. The resulting OMT model of the glymphatic transport network agrees largely with the current understanding of the glymphatic transport patterns defined by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealing key CSF transport pathways along the ventral surface of the brain with a trajectory towards the pineal gland, cerebellum, hypothalamus and olfactory bulb. In addition, the OMT analysis also revealed some interesting previously unnoticed behaviors regarding CSF transport involving parenchymal streamlines moving from ventral reservoirs towards the surface of the brain, olfactory bulb and large central veins.

  14. Numerical Modeling of Interstitial Fluid Flow Coupled with Blood Flow through a Remodeled Solid Tumor Microvascular Network

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, M.; Chen, P.

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor’s surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy’s law for tissue, and simplified Navier–Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling’s law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model. PMID:23840579

  15. Numerical Modeling of Interstitial Fluid Flow Coupled with Blood Flow through a Remodeled Solid Tumor Microvascular Network.

    PubMed

    Soltani, M; Chen, P

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor's surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy's law for tissue, and simplified Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling's law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model.

  16. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated augmentation of renal interstitial fluid angiotensin II in angiotensin II-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Akira; Seth, Dale M; Navar, L Gabriel

    2003-10-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension is associated with augmented intrarenal concentrations of Ang II; however, the distribution of the increased intrarenal Ang II has not been fully established. To determine the changes in renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations in Ang II-induced hypertension and the consequences of treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. Rats were selected to receive vehicle (5% acetic acid subcutaneously; n = 6), Ang II (80 ng/min subcutaneously, via osmotic minipump; n = 7) or Ang II plus an AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg per day, in drinking water; n = 6) for 13-14 days, at which time, experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the renal cortex and were perfused at 2 microl/min. The effluent dialysate concentrations of Ang I and Ang II were measured by radioimmunoassay and reported values were corrected for the equilibrium rates at this perfusion rate. Ang II-infused rats developed greater mean arterial pressures (155 +/- 7 mmHg) than vehicle-infused rats (108 +/- 3 mmHg). Ang II-infused rats showed greater plasma (181 +/- 30 fmol/ml) and kidney (330 +/- 38 fmol/g) Ang II concentrations than vehicle-infused rats (98 +/- 14 fmol/ml and 157 +/- 22 fmol/g, respectively). Renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations were much greater than plasma concentrations, averaging 5.74 +/- 0.26 pmol/ml in Ang II-infused rats - significantly greater than those in vehicle-infused rats (2.86 +/- 0.23 pmol/ml). Candesartan treatment prevented the hypertension (87 +/- 3 mmHg) and led to increased plasma Ang II concentrations (441 +/- 27 fmol/ml), but prevented increases in kidney (120 +/- 15 fmol/g) and renal interstitial fluid (2.15 +/- 0.12 pmol/ml) Ang II concentrations. These data indicate that Ang II-infused rats develop increased renal interstitial fluid concentrations of Ang II, which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance and

  17. Brain interstitial fluid glutamine homeostasis is controlled by blood-brain barrier SLC7A5/LAT1 amino acid transporter.

    PubMed

    Dolgodilina, Elena; Imobersteg, Stefan; Laczko, Endre; Welt, Tobias; Verrey, Francois; Makrides, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    L-glutamine (Gln) is the most abundant amino acid in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid and a precursor for the main central nervous system excitatory (L-glutamate) and inhibitory (γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)) neurotransmitters. Concentrations of Gln and 13 other brain interstitial fluid amino acids were measured in awake, freely moving mice by hippocampal microdialysis using an extrapolation to zero flow rate method. Interstitial fluid levels for all amino acids including Gln were ∼5-10 times lower than in cerebrospinal fluid. Although the large increase in plasma Gln by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of (15)N2-labeled Gln (hGln) did not increase total interstitial fluid Gln, low levels of hGln were detected in microdialysis samples. Competitive inhibition of system A (SLC38A1&2; SNAT1&2) or system L (SLC7A5&8; LAT1&2) transporters in brain by perfusion with α-(methylamino)-isobutyric acid (MeAIB) or 2-aminobicyclo-(2,2,1)-heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) respectively, was tested. The data showed a significantly greater increase in interstitial fluid Gln upon BCH than MeAIB treatment. Furthermore, brain BCH perfusion also strongly increased the influx of hGln into interstitial fluid following IP injection consistent with transstimulation of LAT1-mediated transendothelial transport. Taken together, the data support the independent homeostatic regulation of amino acids in interstitial fluid vs. cerebrospinal fluid and the role of the blood-brain barrier expressed SLC7A5/LAT1 as a key interstitial fluid gatekeeper.

  18. Lipoprotein remodeling generates lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I particles in human interstitial fluid

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Waldemar L.; Hattori, Hiroaki; Miller, Irina P.; Kujiraoka, Takeshi; Oka, Tomoichiro; Iwasaki, Tadao; Nanjee, M. Nazeem

    2013-01-01

    Although much is known about the remodeling of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in blood, there is no information on that in interstitial fluid, where it might have a major impact on the transport of cholesterol from cells. We incubated plasma and afferent (prenodal) peripheral lymph from 10 healthy men at 37°C in vitro and followed the changes in HDL subclasses by nondenaturing two-dimensional crossed immunoelectrophoresis and size-exclusion chromatography. In plasma, there was always initially a net conversion of small pre-β-HDLs to cholesteryl ester (CE)-rich α-HDLs. By contrast, in lymph, there was only net production of pre-β-HDLs from α-HDLs. Endogenous cholesterol esterification rate, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration, CE transfer activity, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) concentration, and phospholipid transfer activity in lymph averaged 5.0, 10.4, 8.2, 25.0, and 82.0% of those in plasma, respectively (all P < 0.02). Lymph PLTP concentration, but not phospholipid transfer activity, was positively correlated with that in plasma (r = +0.63, P = 0.05). Mean PLTP-specific activity was 3.5-fold greater in lymph, reflecting a greater proportion of the high-activity form of PLTP. These findings suggest that cholesterol esterification rate and PLTP specific activity are differentially regulated in the two matrices in accordance with the requirements of reverse cholesterol transport, generating lipid-poor pre-β-HDLs in the extracellular matrix for cholesterol uptake from neighboring cells and converting pre-β-HDLs to α-HDLs in plasma for the delivery of cell-derived CEs to the liver. PMID:23233540

  19. Would Interstitial Fluid Flow be Responsible for Skeletal Maintenance in Tail-Suspended Rats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Huang, Yun-Fei; Sun, Lian-Wen; Luan, Hui-Qin; Zhu, Bao-Zhang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Despite the fast development of manned space flight, the mechanism and countermeasures of weightlessness osteoporosis in astronauts are still within research. It is accepted that unloading has been considered as primary factor, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. Since bone's interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is believed to be significant to nutrient supply and waste metabolism of bone tissue, it may influence bone quality as well. We investigated IFF's variation in different parts of body (included parietal bone, ulna, lumbar, tibia and tailbone) of rats using a tail-suspended (TS) system. Ten female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups: control (CON) and tail-suspension (TS) group. And after 21 days' experiment, the rats were injected reactive red to observe lacuna's condition under a confocal laser scanning microscope. The variations of IFF were analyzed by the number and area of lacuna. Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitecture of bones were evaluated by micro-CT. The correlation coefficients between lacuna's number/area and vBMD were also analyzed. According to our experimental results, a 21 days' tail-suspension could cause a decrease of IFF in lumbar, tibia and tailbone and an increase of IFF in ulna. But in parietal bone, it showed no significant change. The vBMD and microarchitecture parameters also decreased in lumbar and tibia and increased in ulna. But in parietal bone and tailbone, it showed no significant change. And correlation analysis showed significant correlation between vBMD and lacuna's number in lumbar, tibia and ulna. Therefore, IFF decrease may be partly contribute to bone loss in tail-suspended rats, and it should be further investigated.

  20. Quantification of the concentration gradient of biomarkers between ovarian carcinoma interstitial fluid and blood

    PubMed Central

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Madani, Amina; Berg, Kaja C.G.; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B.; Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) rather than plasma should be used in cancer biomarker discovery because of the anticipated higher concentration of locally produced proteins in the tumor microenvironment. Nevertheless, the actual TIF-to-plasma gradient of tumor specific proteins has not been quantified. We present the proof-of-concept for the quantification of the postulated gradient between TIF and plasma. Methods TIF was collected by centrifugation from serous (n = 19), endometrioid (n = 9) and clear cell (n = 3) ovarian carcinomas with early (n = 15) and late stage (n = 16) disease in grades 1 (n = 2), 2 (n = 8) and 3 (n = 17), and ELISA was used for the determination of CA-125, osteopontin and VEGF-A. Results All three markers were significantly up-regulated in TIF compared with plasma (p < 0.0001). The TIF-to-plasma ratio of the ovarian cancer biomarker CA-125 ranged from 1.4 to 24,300 (median = 194) and was inversely correlated to stage (p = 0.0006). The cancer related osteopontin and VEGF-A had TIF-to-plasma ratios ranging from 1 to 62 (median = 15) and 2 to 1040 (median = 59), respectively. The ratios were not affected by tumor stage, indicative of more widespread protein expression. Conclusion We present absolute quantitative data on the TIF-to-plasma gradient of selected proteins in the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrate a substantial and stage dependent gradient for CA-125 between TIF and plasma, suggesting a relation between total tumor burden and tissue-to-plasma gradient. General significance We present novel quantitative data on biomarker concentration in the tumor microenvironment, and a new strategy for biomarker selection, applicable in future biomarker studies. PMID:26673827

  1. Would Interstitial Fluid Flow be Responsible for Skeletal Maintenance in Tail-Suspended Rats?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Ting; Huang, Yun-Fei; Sun, Lian-Wen; Luan, Hui-Qin; Zhu, Bao-Zhang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2017-02-01

    Despite the fast development of manned space flight, the mechanism and countermeasures of weightlessness osteoporosis in astronauts are still within research. It is accepted that unloading has been considered as primary factor, but the precise mechanism is still unclear. Since bone's interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is believed to be significant to nutrient supply and waste metabolism of bone tissue, it may influence bone quality as well. We investigated IFF's variation in different parts of body (included parietal bone, ulna, lumbar, tibia and tailbone) of rats using a tail-suspended (TS) system. Ten female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into two groups: control (CON) and tail-suspension (TS) group. And after 21 days' experiment, the rats were injected reactive red to observe lacuna's condition under a confocal laser scanning microscope. The variations of IFF were analyzed by the number and area of lacuna. Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitecture of bones were evaluated by micro-CT. The correlation coefficients between lacuna's number/area and vBMD were also analyzed. According to our experimental results, a 21 days' tail-suspension could cause a decrease of IFF in lumbar, tibia and tailbone and an increase of IFF in ulna. But in parietal bone, it showed no significant change. The vBMD and microarchitecture parameters also decreased in lumbar and tibia and increased in ulna. But in parietal bone and tailbone, it showed no significant change. And correlation analysis showed significant correlation between vBMD and lacuna's number in lumbar, tibia and ulna. Therefore, IFF decrease may be partly contribute to bone loss in tail-suspended rats, and it should be further investigated.

  2. Revolutionizing Therapeutic Drug Monitoring with the Use of Interstitial Fluid and Microneedles Technology.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Tony K L; Ranamukhaarachchi, Sahan A; Ensom, Mary H H

    2017-10-11

    While therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) that uses blood as the biological matrix is the traditional gold standard, this practice may be impossible, impractical, or unethical for some patient populations (e.g., elderly, pediatric, anemic) and those with fragile veins. In the context of finding an alternative biological matrix for TDM, this manuscript will provide a qualitative review on: (1) the principles of TDM; (2) alternative matrices for TDM; (3) current evidence supporting the use of interstitial fluid (ISF) for TDM in clinical models; (4) the use of microneedle technologies, which is potentially minimally invasive and pain-free, for the collection of ISF; and (5) future directions. The current state of knowledge on the use of ISF for TDM in humans is still limited. A thorough literature review indicates that only a few drug classes have been investigated (i.e., anti-infectives, anticonvulsants, and miscellaneous other agents). Studies have successfully demonstrated techniques for ISF extraction from the skin but have failed to demonstrate commercial feasibility of ISF extraction followed by analysis of its content outside the ISF-collecting microneedle device. In contrast, microneedle-integrated biosensors built to extract ISF and perform the biomolecule analysis on-device, with a key feature of not needing to transfer ISF to a separate instrument, have yielded promising results that need to be validated in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The most promising applications for microneedle-integrated biosensors is continuous monitoring of biomolecules from the skin's ISF. Conducting TDM using ISF is at the stage where its clinical utility should be investigated. Based on the advancements described in the current review, the immediate future direction for this area of research is to establish the suitability of using ISF for TDM in human models for drugs that have been found suitable in pre-clinical experiments.

  3. The intra-tumoral relationship between microcirculation, interstitial fluid pressure and liposome accumulation.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Shawn; Milosevic, Michael; Tannock, Ian F; Allen, Christine; Jaffray, David A

    2015-08-10

    The heterogeneous intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes has been linked to both the chaotic tumor microcirculation and to elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP). Here, we explored the relationship between tumor microcirculation, IFP, and the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes. Measurements of the tumor microcirculation using perfusion imaging, IFP using a novel image-guided robotic needle positioning system, and the intra-tumoral distribution of liposomes using volumetric micro-CT imaging were performed in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MDA-MB-231 tumors. Intra-tumoral perfusion and IFP were substantially different between the two tumor implantation sites. Tumor perfusion and not vascular permeability was found to be the primary mediator of the intra-tumoral accumulation of CT-liposomes. A strong relationship was observed between the radial distribution of IFP, metrics of tumor perfusion, and the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes. Tumors with elevated central IFP that decreased at the periphery had low perfusion and low levels of CT-liposome accumulation that increased towards the periphery. Conversely, tumors with low and radially uniform IFP exhibited higher levels of tumor perfusion and CT-liposome accumulation. Both tumor perfusion and elevated IFP exhibit substantial intra-tumoral heterogeneity and both play an integral role in mediating the intra-tumoral accumulation of liposomes through a complex interactive effect. Measuring IFP in the clinical setting remains challenging and these results demonstrate that tumor perfusion imaging alone provides a robust non-invasive method to identify factors that contribute to poor liposome accumulation and may allow for pre-selection of patients that are more likely to respond to nanoparticle therapy.

  4. Inhomogeneous cartilage properties enhance superficial interstitial fluid support and frictional properties, but do not provide a homogeneous state of stress.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Park, Seonghun; Eckstein, Felix; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2003-10-01

    It has been well established that articular cartilage is compositionally and mechanically inhomogenous through its depth. To what extent this structural inhomogeneity is a prerequisite for appropriate cartilage function and integrity is not well understood. The first hypothesis to be tested in this study was that the depth-dependent inhomogeneity of the cartilage acts to maximize the interstitial fluid load support at the articular surface, to provide efficient frictional and wear properties. The second hypothesis was that the inhomogeneity produces a more homogeneous state of elastic stress in the matrix than would be achieved with uniform properties. We have, for the first time, simultaneously determined depth-dependent tensile and compressive properties of human patellofemoral cartilage from unconfined compression stress relaxation tests. The results show that the tensile modulus increases significantly from 4.1 +/- 1.9 MPa in the deep zone to 8.3 +/- 3.7 MPa at the superficial zone, while the compressive modulus decreases from 0.73 +/- 0.26 MPa to 0.28 +/- 0.16 MPa. The experimental measurements were then implemented with the finite-element method to compute the response of an inhomogeneous and homogeneous cartilage layer to loading. The finite-element models demonstrate that structural inhomogeneity acts to increase the interstitial fluid load support at the articular surface. However, the state of stress, strain, or strain energy density in the solid matrix remained inhomogeneous through the depth of the articular layer, whether or not inhomogeneous material properties were employed. We suggest that increased fluid load support at the articular surface enhances the frictional and wear properties of articular cartilage, but that the tissue is not functionally adapted to produce homogeneous stress, strain, or strain energy density distributions. Interstitial fluid pressurization, but not a homogeneous elastic stress distribution, appears thus to be a

  5. Research into the Physiology of Cerebrospinal Fluid Reaches a New Horizon: Intimate Exchange between Cerebrospinal Fluid and Interstitial Fluid May Contribute to Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    MATSUMAE, Mitsunori; SATO, Osamu; HIRAYAMA, Akihiro; HAYASHI, Naokazu; TAKIZAWA, Ken; ATSUMI, Hideki; SORIMACHI, Takatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) plays an essential role in maintaining the homeostasis of the central nervous system. The functions of CSF include: (1) buoyancy of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; (2) volume adjustment in the cranial cavity; (3) nutrient transport; (4) protein or peptide transport; (5) brain volume regulation through osmoregulation; (6) buffering effect against external forces; (7) signal transduction; (8) drug transport; (9) immune system control; (10) elimination of metabolites and unnecessary substances; and finally (11) cooling of heat generated by neural activity. For CSF to fully mediate these functions, fluid-like movement in the ventricles and subarachnoid space is necessary. Furthermore, the relationship between the behaviors of CSF and interstitial fluid in the brain and spinal cord is important. In this review, we will present classical studies on CSF circulation from its discovery over 2,000 years ago, and will subsequently introduce functions that were recently discovered such as CSF production and absorption, water molecule movement in the interstitial space, exchange between interstitial fluid and CSF, and drainage of CSF and interstitial fluid into both the venous and the lymphatic systems. Finally, we will summarize future challenges in research. This review includes articles published up to February 2016. PMID:27245177

  6. Overview of Methods for Overcoming Hindrance to Drug Delivery to Tumors, with Special Attention to Tumor Interstitial Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Baronzio, Gianfranco; Parmar, Gurdev; Baronzio, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Every drug used to treat cancer (chemotherapeutics, immunological, monoclonal antibodies, nanoparticles, radionuclides) must reach the targeted cells through the tumor environment at adequate concentrations, in order to exert their cell-killing effects. For any of these agents to reach the goal cells, they must overcome a number of impediments created by the tumor microenvironment (TME), beginning with tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP), and a multifactorial increase in composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM). A primary modifier of TME is hypoxia, which increases the production of growth factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor. These growth factors released by both tumor cells and bone marrow recruited myeloid cells form abnormal vasculature characterized by vessels that are tortuous and more permeable. Increased leakiness combined with increased inflammatory byproducts accumulates fluid within the tumor mass (tumor interstitial fluid), ultimately creating an increased pressure (TIFP). Fibroblasts are also up-regulated by the TME, and deposit fibers that further augment the density of the ECM, thus, further worsening the TIFP. Increased TIFP with the ECM are the major obstacles to adequate drug delivery. By decreasing TIFP and ECM density, we can expect an associated rise in drug concentration within the tumor itself. In this overview, we will describe all the methods (drugs, nutraceuticals, and physical methods of treatment) able to lower TIFP and to modify ECM used for increasing drug concentration within the tumor tissue. PMID:26258072

  7. In Vivo Microdialysis To Determine Subcutaneous Interstitial Fluid Penetration and Pharmacokinetics of Fluconazole in Intensive Care Unit Patients with Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Lassig-Smith, Melissa; Starr, Therese; Robertson, Thomas; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the subcutaneous interstitial fluid (ISF) pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in critically ill patients with sepsis. This prospective observational study was conducted at two tertiary intensive care units in Australia. Serial fluconazole concentrations were measured over 24 h in plasma and subcutaneous ISF using microdialysis. The concentrations in plasma and microdialysate were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography system with electrospray mass spectrometer detector method. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Twelve critically ill patients with sepsis were enrolled. The mean in vivo fluconazole recovery rates ± standard deviation (SD) for microdialysis were 51.4% ± 16.1% with a mean (±SD) fluconazole ISF penetration ratio of 0.52 ± 0.30 (coefficient of variation, 58%). The median free plasma area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24) was significantly higher than the median ISF AUC0-24 (340.4 versus 141.1 mg · h/liter; P = 0.004). There was no statistical difference in median fluconazole ISF penetration between patients receiving and not receiving vasopressors (median, 0.28 versus 0.78; P = 0.106). Both minimum and the maximum concentrations of drug in serum (Cmax and Cmin) showed a significant correlation with the fluconazole plasma exposure (Cmax, R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.0001; Cmin, R(2) = 0.75, P < 0.001). Our data suggest that fluconazole was distributed variably, but incompletely, from plasma into subcutaneous interstitial fluid in this cohort of critically ill patients with sepsis. Given the variability of fluconazole interstitial fluid exposures and lack of clinically identifiable factors by which to recognize patients with reduced distribution/exposure, we suggest higher than standard doses to ensure that drug exposure is adequate at the site of infection.

  8. Biogas production from pretreated coffee-pulp waste by mixture of cow dung and rumen fluid in co-digestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Iswanto, Toto

    2017-05-01

    Coffee is an excellent commodity in Indonesia that has big problem in utilizing its wastes. As the solution, the abundant coffee pulp waste from processing of coffee bean industry has been used as a substrate of biogas production. Coffee pulp waste (CPW) was approximately 48% of total weight, consisting 42% of the coffee pulp and 6% of the seed coat. CPW holds good composition as biogas substrate that is consist of cellulose (63%), hemicellulose (2.3%) and protein (11.5%). Methane production from coffee pulp waste still has much problems because of toxic chemicals content such as caffeine, tannin, and total phenol which can inhibit the biogas production. In this case, CPW was pretreated by ethanol/water (50/50, v/v) at room temperature to remove those inhibitors. This study was to compare the methane production by microbial consortium of cow dung and rumen fluid mixture coffee pulp waste as a substrate with and without pretreatment. The pretreated CPW was fermented with mixture of Cow Dung (CD) and Rumen Fluid (RF) in anaerobic co-digestion for 30 days at mesophilic temperature (30-40°C) and the pH was maintained from 6.8 to 7.2 on a reactor with working volume of 3.6 liters. There were two reactors with each containing the mixture of CPW without pretreatment, cow dung and rumen fluid (CD+RF+CPW) and then compared with the CPW with pretreatment (CD+RF+PCPW) reactor. The measured parameters included the decreasing of inhibitor compound concentration, Volatile Fatty Acids (VFAs), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Solid (TS), Volatile Solid (VS), Methane and the Calorific value of gas (heating value) were studied as well. The result showed a decrease in inhibitor component concentration due to methanol pretreatment was 90% of caffeine; 78% of polyphenols (total phenol) and 66% of tannins. The highest methane content in biogas was produced in CD+RF+PCPW digester with concentration amounted of 44.56% with heating value of 27,770 BTU/gal.

  9. Interstitial Fluid Flow Intensity Modulates Endothelial Sprouting in Restricted Src-Activated Cell Clusters During Capillary Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Genové, Elsa; Alvarez, Lery; Borrós, Salvador; Kamm, Roger; Lauffenburger, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Development of tissues in vitro with dimensions larger than 150 to 200 μm requires the presence of a functional vascular network. Therefore, we have studied capillary morphogenesis under controlled biological and biophysical conditions with the aim of promoting vascular structures in tissue constructs. We and others have previously demonstrated that physiological values of interstitial fluid flow normal to an endothelial monolayer in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor play a critical role during capillary morphogenesis by promoting cell sprouting. In the present work, we studied the effect that a range of interstitial flow velocities (0–50 μm/min) has in promoting the amount, length, and branching of developing sprouts during capillary morphogenesis. The number of capillary-like structures developed from human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers across the interstitial flow values tested was not significantly affected. Instead, the length and branching degree of the sprouts presented a significant maximum at flow velocities of 10 to 20 μm/min. More-over, at these same flow values, the phosphorylation level of Src also showed its peak. We discovered that capillary morphogenesis is restricted to patches of Src-activated cells (phosphorylated Src (pSrc)) at the monolayer, suggesting that the transduction pathway in charge of sensing the mechanical stimulus induced by flow is promoting predetermined mechanically sensitive areas (pSrc) to undergo capillary morphogenesis. PMID:18636940

  10. Characterization of Breast Cancer Interstitial Fluids by TmT Labeling, LTQ-Orbitrap Velos Mass Spectrometry and Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cinzia, Raso; Carlo, Cosentino; Marco, Gaspari; Natalia, Malara; Xuemei, Han; Daniel, McClatchy; Kyu, Park Sung; Maria, Renne; Nuria, Vadalà; Ubaldo, Prati; Giovanni, Cuda; Vincenzo, Mollace; Francesco, Amato; Yates, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is currently considered as the end point of numerous genomic and epigenomic mutations and as the result of the interaction of transformed cells within the stromal microenvironment. The present work focuses on breast cancer, one of the most common malignancies affecting the female population in industrialized countries. In this study we perform a proteomic analysis of bioptic samples from human breast cancer, namely interstitial fluids and primary cells, normal vs disease tissues, using Tandem mass Tags (TmT) quantitative mass spectrometry combined with the MudPIT technique. To the best of our knowledge this work, with over 1700 proteins identified, represents the most comprehensive characterization of the breast cancer interstitial fluid proteome to date. Network analysis was used to identify functionally active networks in the breast cancer associated samples. From the list of differentially expressed genes we have retrieved the associated functional interaction networks. Many different signaling pathways were found activated, strongly linked to invasion, metastasis development, proliferation and with a significant cross-talking rate. This pilot study presents evidence that the proposed quantitative proteomic approach can be applied to discriminate between normal and tumoral samples and for the discovery of yet unknown carcinogenesis mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. PMID:22563702

  11. Accumulation of small hyaluronan oligosaccharides in tumour interstitial fluid correlates with lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Schmaus, A; Klusmeier, S; Rothley, M; Dimmler, A; Sipos, B; Faller, G; Thiele, W; Allgayer, H; Hohenberger, P; Post, S; Sleeman, J P

    2014-07-29

    Association studies have implicated the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA) and its degrading enzymes the hyaluronidases in tumour progression and metastasis. Oligosaccharides of degraded HA have been ascribed a number of biological functions that are not exerted by high-molecular-weight HA (HMW-HA). However, whether these small HA oligosaccharides (sHA) have a role in tumour progression currently remains uncertain due to an inability to analyse their concentration in tumours. We report a novel method to determine the concentration of sHA ranging from 6 to 25 disaccharides in tumour interstitial fluid (TIF). Levels of sHA were measured in TIF from experimental rat tumours and human colorectal tumours. While the majority of HA in TIF is HMW-HA, concentrations of sHA up to 6 μg ml(-1) were detected in a subset of tumours, but not in interstitial fluid from healthy tissues. In a cohort of 72 colorectal cancer patients we found that increased sHA concentrations in TIF are associated with lymphatic vessel invasion by tumour cells and the formation of lymph node metastasis. These data document for the first time the pathophysiological concentration of sHA in tumours, and provide evidence of a role for sHA in tumour progression.

  12. Role of Microvascular Tone and Extracellular Matrix Contraction in the Regulation of Interstitial Fluid: Implications for Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Mallat, Ziad; Tedgui, Alain; Henrion, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The pathophysiology of aortic dissection is poorly understood, and its risk is resistant to medical treatment. Most studies have focused on a proposed pathogenic role of transforming growth factor-β in Marfan disease and related thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections. However, clinical testing of this concept using angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists to block transforming growth factor-β signaling fell short of promise. Genetic mutations that predispose to thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections affect components of the extracellular matrix and proteins involved in cellular force generation. Thus, a role for dysfunctional mechanosensing in abnormal aortic wall remodeling is emerging. However, how abnormal mechanosensing leads to aortic dissection remains a mystery. Here, we review current knowledge about the regulation of interstitial fluid dynamics and myogenic tone and propose that alteration in contractile force reduces vascular tone in the microcirculation (here, aortic vasa vasorum) and leads to elevations of blood flow, transmural pressure, and fluid flux into the surrounding aortic media. Furthermore, reduced contractile force in medial smooth muscle cells coupled with alteration of structural components of the extracellular matrix limits extracellular matrix contraction, further promoting the formation of intramural edema, a critical step in the initiation of aortic dissection. The concept is supported by several pathophysiological and clinical observations. A direct implication of this concept is that drugs that lower blood pressure and limit interstitial fluid accumulation while preserving or increasing microvascular tone would limit the risk of dissection. In contrast, drugs that substantially lower microvascular tone would be ineffective or may accelerate the disease and precipitate aortic dissection.

  13. Pharmacokinetics and distribution in interstitial and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid of danofloxacin in ruminant and preruminant calves.

    PubMed

    Mzyk, D A; Baynes, R E; Messenger, K M; Martinez, M; Smith, G W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare active drug concentrations in the plasma vs. different effector compartments including interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) of healthy preruminating (3-week-old) and ruminating (6-month-old) calves. Eight calves in each age group were given a single subcutaneous (s.c.) dose (8 mg/kg) of danofloxacin. Plasma, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected over 96 h and analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. PELF concentrations were calculated by a urea dilution assay of the BAL fluids. Plasma protein binding was measured using a microcentrifugation system. For most preruminant and ruminant calves, the concentration-time profile of the central compartment was best described by a two-compartment open body model. For some calves, a third compartment was also observed. The time to maximum concentration in the plasma was longer in preruminating calves (3.1 h) vs. ruminating calves (1.4 h). Clearance (CL/F) was 385.15 and 535.11 mL/h/kg in preruminant and ruminant calves, respectively. Ruminant calves maintained higher ISF/plasma concentration ratios throughout the study period compared to that observed in preruminant calves. Potential reasons for age-related differences in plasma concentration-time profiles and partitioning of the drug to lungs and ISF as a function of age are explored.

  14. Unbound drug concentration in brain homogenate and cerebral spinal fluid at steady state as a surrogate for unbound concentration in brain interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingrong; Van Natta, Kristine; Yeo, Helen; Vilenski, Olga; Weller, Paul E; Worboys, Philip D; Monshouwer, Mario

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the accuracy of using unbound brain concentration determined by a brain homogenate method (C(ub)), cerebral spinal fluid concentration (C(CSF)), and unbound plasma concentration (C(up)) as a surrogate for brain interstitial fluid concentration determined by brain microdialysis (C(m)). Nine compounds-carbamazepine, citalopram, ganciclovir, metoclopramide, N-desmethylclozapine, quinidine, risperidone, 9-hydroxyrisperidone, and thiopental-were selected, and each was administered as an intravenous bolus (up to 5 mg/kg) followed by a constant intravenous infusion (1-9 mg/kg/h) for 6 h in rats. For eight of the nine compounds, the C(ub)s were within 3-fold of their C(m); thiopental had a C(m) 4-fold of its C(ub). The C(CSF)s of eight of the nine compounds were within 3-fold of their corresponding C(m); 9-hydroxyrisperidone showed a C(CSF) 5-fold of its C(m). The C(up)s of five of the nine compounds were within 3-fold of their C(m); four compounds (ganciclovir, metoclopramide, quinidine, and 9-hydroxyrisperidone) had C(up)s 6- to 14-fold of their C(m). In conclusion, the C(ub) and C(CSF) were within 3-fold of the C(m) for the majority of the compounds tested. The C(up)s were within 3-fold of C(m) for lipophilic non-P-glycoprotein (-P-gp) substrates and greater than 3-fold of C(m) for hydrophilic or P-gp substrates. The present study indicates that the brain homogenate and cerebral spinal fluid methods may be used as surrogate methods to predict brain interstitial fluid concentrations within 3-fold of error in drug discovery and development settings.

  15. Morphometric and DNA image analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid macrophages nuclei in interstitial lung diseases with lymphocytic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Smojver-Jezek, Silvana; Peros-Golubicić, Tatjana; Tekavec-Trkanjec, Jasna; Alilović, Marija; Vrabec-Branica, Bozica; Juros, Zrinka; Mazuranić, Ivica

    2010-03-01

    Lymphocytic alveolitis is a characteristic of diverse interstitial lung diseases (ILD-s), but macrophages are often more numerous cell population in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Aim of this study is to analyze morphometric characteristics of macrophages nuclei in BALF in patients with ILD-s and to detect possible differences allowing distinguishing sarcoidosis from other lymphocytic alveolitis ILD-s. Thirty-one patient with interstitial lung disease who had lymphocytic alveolitis in BALF cell count (17 sarcoidosis and 14 other ILD-s) and nine controls were included in the study. The following patients data were numbered: age, lymphocyte percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio in BALE Investigated morphometric parameters of macrophages nuclei were: area, outline, maximal radius, minimal radius, length, breadth, form factor (FF), elongation factor (EF) and DNA image cytometry ploidy status determined with Van Velthoven method. Predicted classifications in classification matrix (forward step-wise method in multivariate discriminant function analysis) based on macrophages nuclei length mean, minimum and maximum, breadth SD, FF mean and lymphocyte % were 100% (9/9) correct for control group, 88.235% (15/17) correct for sarcoidosis, and 92.857% (13/14) correct for other lymphocytic alveolitis ILD group. In total, 92.5% (37/40) of the examinees were correctly classified in particular group upon the observed variables.

  16. A time-of-flight flow sensor for the volume measurement of trace amount of interstitial fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Li, D.; Roberts, R. C.; Xu, K.; Tien, N. C.

    2012-05-01

    Transdermal extraction of interstitial fluid (ISF) offers an attractive method for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring. The existing macroscale systems are not suitable for ISF collection, mainly because of the minute volume of the transdermally extracted ISF which scatters on the skin surface. Human skin's low permeability to glucose and its varying permeability exemplify the crucial need to make precise ISF volume measurements in order to calculate blood glucose concentrations accurately. In this paper, we present a novel time-of-flight flow sensor consisting of four electrode pairs fabricated directly into the channel of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device designed to accurately measure the volume of transdermally extracted ISF. As fluid traverses the channel, it bridges each electrode pair and changes its resistance. By measuring the time difference in resistance change between each electrode pair, a precise fluid volume can be measured. In order to verify the suitability of the sensor for biological applications, experiments were conducted using a normal saline solution which is similar to ISF. The stability of the sensor was tested using a fixed volume, and the coefficient of variation for 20 tests was determined to be 0.0041. The consistency of the sensor for varied volume measurements was shown by the high correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.9992) between the tested volume and the volume measured by a commercial micro syringe. The excellent functionality of the flow sensor can be extended toward the measurement of conductive chemical and biochemical buffers and reagents.

  17. Isolated interstitial nodal spaces may facilitate preferential solute and fluid mixing in the rat renal inner medulla

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Rebecca L.; Pannabecker, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent anatomic findings indicate that in the upper inner medulla of the rodent kidney, tubules, and vessels are organized around clusters of collecting ducts (CDs). Within CD clusters, CDs and some of the ascending vasa recta (AVR) and ascending thin limbs (ATLs), when viewed in transverse sections, form interstitial nodal spaces, which are arrayed at structured intervals throughout the inner medulla. These spaces, or microdomains, are bordered on one side by a single CD, on the opposite side by one or more ATLs, and on the other two sides by AVR. To study the interactions among these CDs, ATLs, and AVR, we have developed a mathematical compartment model, which simulates steady-state solute exchange through the microdomain at a given inner medullary level. Fluid in all compartments contains Na+, Cl−, urea and, in the microdomain, negative fixed charges that represent macromolecules (e.g., hyaluronan) balanced by Na+. Fluid entry into AVR is assumed to be driven by hydraulic and oncotic pressures. Model results suggest that the isolated microdomains facilitate solute and fluid mixing among the CDs, ATLs, and AVR, promote water withdrawal from CDs, and consequently may play an important role in generating the inner medullary osmotic gradient. PMID:22160770

  18. Cytokine profiling of tumor interstitial fluid of the breast and its relationship with lymphocyte infiltration and clinicopathological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Jaime A; Jabeen, Shakila; Batra, Richa; Papaleo, Elena; Haakensen, Vilde; Timmermans Wielenga, Vera; Møller Talman, Maj-Lis; Brunner, Nils; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Gromov, Pavel; Helland, Åslaug; Kristensen, Vessela N; Gromova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is composed of many immune cell subpopulations and is an important factor in the malignant progression of neoplasms, particularly breast cancer (BC). However, the cytokine networks that coordinate various regulatory events within the BC interstitium remain largely uncharacterized. Moreover, the data obtained regarding the origin of cytokine secretions, the levels of secretion associated with tumor development, and the possible clinical relevance of cytokines remain controversial. Therefore, we profiled 27 cytokines in 78 breast tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) samples, 43 normal interstitial fluid (NIF) samples, and 25 matched serum samples obtained from BC patients with Luminex xMAP multiplex technology. Eleven cytokines exhibited significantly higher levels in the TIF samples compared with the NIF samples: interleukin (IL)-7, IL-10, fibroblast growth factor-2, IL-13, interferon (IFN)γ-inducible protein (IP-10), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-β, IL-1β, chemokine ligand 5 (RANTES), vascular endothelial growth factor, and IL-12. An immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that IL-1RA, IP-10, IL-10, PDGF-β, RANTES, and VEGF are widely expressed by both cancer cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), whereas IP-10 and RANTES were preferentially abundant in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) compared to Luminal A subtype cancers. The latter observation corresponds with the high level of TILs in the TNBC samples. IL-1β, IL-7, IL-10, and PDGFβ also exhibited a correlation between the TIF samples and matched sera. In a survival analysis, high levels of IL-5, a hallmark TH2 cytokine, in the TIF samples were associated with a worse prognosis. These findings have important implications for BC immunotherapy research.

  19. High interstitial fluid pressure is associated with low tumour penetration of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies applied for molecular imaging purposes.

    PubMed

    Heine, Markus; Freund, Barbara; Nielsen, Peter; Jung, Caroline; Reimer, Rudolph; Hohenberg, Heinrich; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe; Wester, Hans-Juergen; Lüers, Georg H; Schumacher, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The human epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is highly expressed in a variety of clinical tumour entities. Although an antibody against EpCAM has successfully been used as an adjuvant therapy in colon cancer, this therapy has never gained wide-spread use. We have therefore investigated the possibilities and limitations for EpCAM as possible molecular imaging target using a panel of preclinical cancer models. Twelve human cancer cell lines representing six tumour entities were tested for their EpCAM expression by qPCR, flow cytometry analysis and immunocytochemistry. In addition, EpCAM expression was analyzed in vivo in xenograft models for tumours derived from these cells. Except for melanoma, all cell lines expressed EpCAM mRNA and protein when grown in vitro. Although they exhibited different mRNA levels, all cell lines showed similar EpCAM protein levels upon detection with monoclonal antibodies. When grown in vivo, the EpCAM expression was unaffected compared to in vitro except for the pancreatic carcinoma cell line 5072 which lost its EpCAM expression in vivo. Intravenously applied radio-labelled anti EpCAM MOC31 antibody was enriched in HT29 primary tumour xenografts indicating that EpCAM binding sites are accessible in vivo. However, bound antibody could only be immunohistochemically detected in the vicinity of perfused blood vessels. Investigation of the fine structure of the HT29 tumour blood vessels showed that they were immature and prone for higher fluid flux into the interstitial space. Consistent with this hypothesis, a higher interstitial fluid pressure of about 12 mbar was measured in the HT29 primary tumour via "wick-in-needle" technique which could explain the limited diffusion of the antibody into the tumour observed by immunohistochemistry.

  20. Interstitial fluid chemistry of sediments underlying the North Atlantic gyre and the influence of subsurface fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebis, Wiebke; McManus, James; Ferdelman, Timothy; Schmidt-Schierhorn, Friederike; Bach, Wolfgang; Muratli, Jesse; Edwards, Katrina J.; Villinger, Heinrich

    2012-03-01

    The western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge is a region underlying the oligotrophic waters of the central Atlantic. The seafloor along portions of this ridge is characterized by sediment-filled depressions, which are surrounded by steep basaltic outcrops. We present pore fluid and sediment solid-phase chemical data from fourteen gravity cores from "North Pond", a sediment pond where previous drilling work indicated directed flow of seawater within the basement. Sediment lithology is broadly characterized as a nannofossil pelagic sediment containing varying amounts of clay, foraminifers, and Mn-micronodules and typically contains less than 0.3% organic carbon and ~ 70% calcium carbonate. Consistent with its location within an oligotrophic ocean gyre, oxygen and nitrate penetrated deeply into the sediment package. However there is significant spatial variability in the pore fluid nitrate and oxygen profiles, with oxygen generally lower and nitrate higher toward the center of the basin as compared to the edges. In addition, oxygen increased with sediment depth at a number of sites toward the edges of the pond, where sediment cover was thinnest. We interpret these oxygen distributions to indicate that there is upward diffusion of dissolved oxygen from the underlying basaltic basement fluid and the sediment package, and this process appears to be regionally pervasive. Pore fluid molybdenum generally decreases with depth and exhibits spatial variability similar to dissolved oxygen and nitrate. Molybdenum is likely being taken up at depth via adsorption onto manganese oxides, as these sediments are rich in manganese (~ 300-3000 ppm Mn) and molybdenum (~ 2-14 ppm Mo). The strong geographical variations in pore fluid chemistry coupled with the co-variation between molybdenum and oxygen, two species that we would not necessarily expect to be coupled, suggest that diffusion of dissolved constituents into the sediment package from below plays an important role in determining

  1. Patient-derived Interstitial Fluids and Predisposition to Aggressive Sporadic Breast Cancer through Collagen Remodeling and Inactivation of p53.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Timothy C; Schmidt, Hank; Adelson, Kerin; Hoshida, Yujin; Koh, Anna P; Shah, Nagma; Mandeli, John; Ting, Jess; Germain, Doris

    2017-09-15

    Purpose: Despite the fact that interstitial fluid (IF) represents a third of our body fluid, it is the most poorly understood body fluid in medicine. Increased IF pressure is thought to result from the increased deposition of extracellular matrix in the affected tissue preventing its reabsorption. In the cancer field, increased rigidity surrounding a cancerous mass remains the main reason that palpation and radiologic examination, such as mammography, are used for cancer detection. While the pressure produced by IF has been considered, the biochemical composition of IF has not been considered in its effect on tumors.Experimental Design: We classified 135 IF samples from bilateral mastectomy patients based on their ability to promote the invasion of breast cancer cells.Results: We observed a wide range of invasion scores. Patients with high-grade primary tumors at diagnosis had higher IF invasion scores. In mice, injections of high-score IF (IF(High)) in a normal mammary gland promotes ductal hyperplasia, increased collagen deposition, and local invasion. In a mouse model of residual disease, IF(High) increased disease progression and promoted aggressive visceral metastases. Mechanistically, we found that IF(High) induces myofibroblast differentiation and collagen production through activation of CLIC4. IF(High) also downregulates RYBP, leading to degradation of p53. Furthermore, in mammary glands of heterozygous p53-mutant knock-in mice, IF(High) promotes spontaneous tumor formation.Conclusions: Our study indicates that IF can increase the deposition of extracellular matrix and raises the provocative possibility that they play an active role in the predisposition, development, and clinical course of sporadic breast cancers. Clin Cancer Res; 23(18); 5446-59. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Absence of lymphatic vessels in human dental pulp: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Renato; Secciani, Ilaria; Sozio, Francesca; Rossi, Antonella; Weber, Elisabetta; Lorenzini, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Few and controversial data are available in the literature regarding the presence of lymphatic vessels in the human dental pulp. The present study was designed to examine morphologically the existence of a lymph drainage system in human dental pulp. Human dental pulp and skin sections were immunohistochemically stained with specific antibodies for lymphatic endothelium (D2-40, LYVE-1, VEGFR-3 [vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3], and Prox-1), with the pan-endothelial markers CD31 and von Willebrand factor (vWF), and with the blood-specific marker CD34. Several blood vessels were identified in human pulps and skin. Lymphatic vessels were found in all human skin samples but in none of the pulps examined. Western blotting performed on human dermis and on pulps treated with collagenase (to remove odontoblasts) confirmed these results. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that vessels which, by light microscopy, appeared to be initial lymphatic vessels had no anchoring filaments or discontinuous basement membrane, both of which are typical ultrastructural characteristics of lymphatic vessels. These results suggest that under normal conditions human dental pulp does not contain true lymphatic vessels. The various theories about dental pulp interstitial fluid circulation should be revised accordingly.

  3. Subharmonic aided pressure estimation for monitoring interstitial fluid pressure in tumours -in vitro and in vivo proof of concept

    PubMed Central

    Halldorsdottir, V G; Dave, J K; Eisenbrey, J R; Machado, P; Zhao, H; Liu, J B; Merton, D A; Forsberg, F

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of using subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) to noninvasively estimate interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) was studied. In vitro, radiofrequency signals, from 0.2 ml/l of Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA) were acquired within a water-tank with a Sonix RP ultrasound scanner (Ultrasonix, Richmond, BC, Canada; fT/R=6.7/3.35 MHz and fT/R =10/5 MHz) and the subharmonic amplitudes of the signals were compared over 0–50 mmHg. In vivo, five swine with naturally occurring melanomas were studied. Subharmonic signals were acquired from tumours and surrounding tissue during infusion of Definity and compared to needle-based pressure measurements. Both in vitro and in vivo, an inverse linear relationship between hydrostatic pressure and subharmonic amplitude was observed with r2=0.63–0.95; p<0.05, maximum amplitude drop 11.36 dB at 10 MHz and −8 dB, and r2 as high as 0.97; p<0.02 (10 MHz and −4/−8 dB most promising), respectively, indicating that SHAPE may be useful in monitoring IFP. PMID:24856899

  4. A needle-free technique for interstitial fluid sample acquisition using a lorentz-force actuated jet injector.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jean H; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-08-10

    We present a novel method of quickly acquiring dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) samples using a Lorentz-force actuated needle-free jet injector. The feasibility of the method is first demonstrated on post-mortem porcine tissue. The jet injector is used to first inject a small volume of physiological saline to breach the skin, and the back-drivability of the actuator is utilized to create negative pressure in the ampoule and collect ISF. The effect of the injection and extraction parameters on sample dilution and extracted volumes is investigated. A simple finite element model is developed to demonstrate why this acquisition method results in faster extractions than conventional sampling methods. Using this method, we are able to collect a sample that contains up to 3.5% ISF in 3.1s from post-mortem skin. The trends revealed from experimentation on post-mortem skin are then used to identify the parameters for a live animal study. The feasibility of the acquisition process is successfully demonstrated using live rats; the process is revealed to extract samples that have been diluted by a factor of 111-125. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of microvascular distribution and its density on interstitial fluid pressure in solid tumors: A computational model.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, M; Chen, P

    2015-09-01

    Solid tumors with different microvascular densities (MVD) have been shown to have different outcomes in clinical studies. Other studies have demonstrated the significant correlation between high MVD, elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and metastasis in cancers. Elevated IFP in solid tumors prevents drug macromolecules reaching most cancerous cells. To overcome this barrier, antiangiogenesis drugs can reduce MVD within the tumor and lower IFP. A quantitative approach is essential to compute how much reduction in MVD is required for a specific tumor to reach a desired amount of IFP for drug delivery purposes. Here we provide a computational framework to investigate how IFP is affected by the tumor size, the MVD, and location of vessels within the tumor. A general physiologically relevant tumor type with a heterogenous vascular structure surrounded by normal tissue is utilized. Then the continuity equation, Darcy's law, and Starling's equation are applied in the continuum mechanics model, which can calculate IFP for different cases of solid tumors. High MVD causes IFP elevation in solid tumors, and IFP distribution correlates with microvascular distribution within tumor tissue. However, for tumors with constant MVD but different microvascular structures, the average values of IFP were found to be the same. Moreover, for a constant MVD and vascular distribution, an increase in tumor size leads to increased IFP.

  6. A Method for Measuring the Volume of Transdermally Extracted Interstitial Fluid by a Three-Electrode Skin Resistance Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dachao; Wang, Ridong; Yu, Haixia; Li, Guoqing; Sun, Yue; Liang, Wenshuai; Xu, Kexin

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to accurately measure the volume of transdermally extracted interstitial fluid (ISF), which is important for improving blood glucose prediction accuracy. Skin resistance, which is a good indicator of skin permeability, can be used to determine the volume of extracted ISF. However, it is a challenge to realize in vivo longitudinal skin resistance measurements of microareas. In this study, a three-electrode sensor was presented for measuring single-point skin resistance in vivo, and a method for determining the volume of transdermally extracted ISF using this sensor was proposed. Skin resistance was measured under static and dynamic conditions. The correlation between the skin resistance and the permeation rate of transdermally extracted ISF was proven. The volume of transdermally extracted ISF was determined using skin resistance. Factors affecting the volume prediction accuracy of transdermally extracted ISF were discussed. This method is expected to improve the accuracy of blood glucose prediction, and is of great significance for the clinical application of minimally invasive blood glucose measurement. PMID:24759111

  7. Subharmonic aided pressure estimation for monitoring interstitial fluid pressure in tumours--in vitro and in vivo proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, V G; Dave, J K; Eisenbrey, J R; Machado, P; Zhao, H; Liu, J B; Merton, D A; Forsberg, F

    2014-09-01

    The feasibility of using subharmonic aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) to noninvasively estimate interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) was studied. In vitro, radiofrequency signals, from 0.2 ml/l of Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, MA) were acquired within a water-tank with a Sonix RP ultrasound scanner (Analogic Ultrasound, Richmond, BC, Canada; fT/R=6.7/3.35 MHz and fT/R=10/5 MHz) and the subharmonic amplitudes of the signals were compared over 0-50 mmHg. In vivo, five swine with naturally occurring melanomas were studied. Subharmonic signals were acquired from tumours and surrounding tissue during infusion of Definity and compared to needle-based pressure measurements. Both in vitro and in vivo, an inverse linear relationship between hydrostatic pressure and subharmonic amplitude was observed with r(2)=0.63-0.95; p<0.05, maximum amplitude drop 11.36 dB at 10 MHz and -8 dB, and r(2) as high as 0.97; p<0.02 (10 MHz and -4/-8 dB most promising), respectively, indicating that SHAPE may be useful in monitoring IFP.

  8. Differential Effect of Renal Cortical and Medullary Interstitial Fluid Calcium on Blood Pressure Regulation in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Eley, Shaleka; Anderson, Lauren; Waters, Brittany; Royall, Brittany; Nichols, Sheena; Wells, Candace

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypercalciuria is a frequent characteristic of hypertension. In this report we extend our earlier studies investigating the role of renal interstitial fluid calcium (ISFCa)2+ as a link between urinary calcium excretion and blood pressure in the Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) hypertensive model. METHODS Dahl salt-sensitive and salt-resistant (DR) rats were placed on control (0.45%) and high (8%) salt diets to determine if changes in renal cortical and medullary ISFCa 2+correlated with changes in urinary calcium excretion and blood pressure. RESULTS We observed that renal ISFCa 2+ was predicted by urinary calcium excretion (P < 0.05) in DS rats but not DR rats. Renal cortical ISFCa 2+ was negatively associated with blood pressure (P < 0.03) while renal medullary ISFCa 2+ was positively associated with blood pressure in DS rats (P < 0.04). In contrast, neither urinary calcium excretion nor renal ISFCa 2+ was associated with blood pressure in the DR rats under the conditions of this study. CONCLUSION We interpret these findings to suggest that decreased renal cortical ISFCa 2+ plays a role in the increase in blood pressure following a high salt diet in salt hypertension perhaps by mediating renal vasoconstriction; the role of medullary calcium remains to be fully understood. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of the altered renal ISFCa 2+ and its role in blood pressure regulation. PMID:25552516

  9. Evaluation of dynamic changes in interstitial fluid proteome following microdialysis probe insertion trauma in trapezius muscle of healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Turkina, Maria V.; Ghafouri, Nazdar; Gerdle, Björn; Ghafouri, Bijar

    2017-01-01

    Microdialysis (MD) has been shown to be a promising technique for sampling of biomarkers. Implantation of MD probe causes an acute tissue trauma and provokes innate response cascades. In order to normalize tissue a two hours equilibration period for analysis of small molecules has been reported previously. However, how the proteome profile changes due to this acute trauma has yet to be fully understood. To characterize the early proteome events induced by this trauma we compared proteome in muscle dialysate collected during the equilibration period with two hours later in “post-trauma”. Samples were collected from healthy females using a 100 kDa MW cut off membrane and analyzed by high sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Proteins involved in stress response, immune system processes, inflammatory responses and nociception from extracellular and intracellular fluid spaces were identified. Sixteen proteins were found to be differentially abundant in samples collected during first two hours in comparison to “post-trauma”. Our data suggests that microdialysis in combination with mass spectrometry may provide potentially new insights into the interstitial proteome of trapezius muscle, yet should be further adjusted for biomarker discovery and diagnostics. Moreover, MD proteome alterations in response to catheter injury may reflect individual innate reactivity. PMID:28266628

  10. Self-powered microneedle-based biosensors for pain-free high-accuracy measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Strambini, L M; Longo, A; Scarano, S; Prescimone, T; Palchetti, I; Minunni, M; Giannessi, D; Barillaro, G

    2015-04-15

    In this work a novel self-powered microneedle-based transdermal biosensor for pain-free high-accuracy real-time measurement of glycaemia in interstitial fluid (ISF) is reported. The proposed transdermal biosensor makes use of an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles that are about one order of magnitude both smaller (borehole down to 4µm) and more densely-packed (up to 1×10(6)needles/cm(2)) than state-of-the-art microneedles used for biosensing so far. This allows self-powered (i.e. pump-free) uptake of ISF to be carried out with high efficacy and reliability in a few seconds (uptake rate up to 1µl/s) by exploiting capillarity in the microneedles. By coupling the microneedles operating under capillary-action with an enzymatic glucose biosensor integrated on the back-side of the needle-chip, glucose measurements are performed with high accuracy (±20% of the actual glucose level for 96% of measures) and reproducibility (coefficient of variation 8.56%) in real-time (30s) over the range 0-630mg/dl, thus significantly improving microneedle-based biosensor performance with respect to the state-of-the-art.

  11. Amyloid-β and Tau Dynamics in Human Brain Interstitial Fluid in Patients with Suspected Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Rummukainen, Jaana; Ihalainen, Jouni; von Und Zu Fraunberg, Mikael; Koivisto, Anne M; Nerg, Ossi; Puli, Lakshman K; Seppälä, Toni T; Zetterberg, Henrik; Pyykkö, Okko T; Helisalmi, Seppo; Tanila, Heikki; Alafuzoff, Irina; Hiltunen, Mikko; Rinne, Jaakko; Soininen, Hilkka; Jääskeläinen, Juha E; Leinonen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ1 - 42), total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau181) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are the most promising biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Still, little is known about the dynamics of these molecules in the living brain. In a transgenic mouse brain, soluble Aβ decreases with increasing age and advanced Aβ pathology as seen similarly in CSF. To assess the relationship between AD-related pathological changes in human brain tissue, ventricular and lumbar CSF, and brain interstitial fluid (ISF). Altogether 11 patients with suspected idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus underwent frontal cortical brain biopsy, 24-h intraventricular pressure monitoring, and a microdialysis procedure. AD-related biomarkers were analyzed from brain tissue, CSF, and ISF. ISF T-tau levels decreased strongly within the first 12 h, then plateauing until the end of the experiment. Aβ1 - 42 and P-tau181 remained stable during the experiment (n = 3). T-tau and P-tau were higher in the ISF than in ventricular or lumbar CSF, while Aβ1 - 42 levels were within similar range in both CSF and ISF samples. ISF P-tau correlated with the ventricular CSF T-tau (r = 0.70, p = 0.017) and P-tau181 (r = 0.64, p = 0.034). Five patients with amyloid pathology in the brain biopsy tended to reveal lower ISF Aβ1 - 42 levels than those six without amyloid pathology. This is the first study to report ISF Aβ and tau levels in the human brain without significant brain injury. The set-up used enables sampling from the brain ISF for at least 24 h without causing adverse effects due to the microdialysis procedure to follow the dynamics of the key molecules in AD pathogenesis in the living brain at various stages of the disease.

  12. Locobase repair cream following CO2 laser skin resurfacing reduces interstitial fluid oozing.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, J T; Bjerring, P; Cramers, M

    2001-09-01

    The cosmetic result after laser resurfacing depends not only on the type of laser and the technique used, but also on post-treatment care. The efficacy of Locobase Repair((R)) cream, which improves skin barrier function due to its content of natural skin analogue fats and cholesterol, was investigated. A total of 18 Caucasian patients underwent resurfacing for acne scars. Laser treatment was performed with a Sharplan 1020 CO(2) laser and a Silk Touch scanner. Locobase Repair cream (a water-in-oil cream with 63% lipids including natural components of stratum corneum: cholesterol, ceramide and free fatty acids) was applied daily to one side of the face and petrolatum was applied to the other. In addition, both sides were treated with a 2% fusidic acid cream. There was a significant reduction of oozing during the first 2 days after CO(2) laser treatment on the sides treated with Locobase Repair cream (p < 0.05), CO(2) laser while from day 3 to day 7 no differences were demonstrated between the Locobase Repair cream and petrolatum. For the other parameters scored (scaling, oedema, erythema and pain), no significant differences between Locobase Repair cream and petrolatum were found. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between the two creams regarding the duration of wound healing and final cosmetic outcome. In all, 62% of the patients preferred to use Locobase Repair cream during the postoperative period, and 11% preferred petrolatum. The remaining 27% expressed no preferences. The use of Locobase Repair cream as a post laser resurfacing treatment reduces tissue fluid oozing during the first 2 postoperative days, indicating a quick restoration of skin barrier and hence possibly a reduction in the incidence of wound infections as well as enhancing patient compliance due to less fluid oozing.

  13. Homeostasis and the concept of 'interstitial fluids hierarchy': Relevance of cerebrospinal fluid sodium concentrations and brain temperature control (Review).

    PubMed

    Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Leo, Giuseppina; Maura, Guido; Guidolin, Diego

    2017-03-01

    In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced. Additionally, it is suggested that particularly for some chemico‑physical parameters, oscillatory rhythms within their proper set‑ranges should be considered a fundamental component of homeostasis. Against this background, we propose that the brain ISF has the highest hierarchic role in human beings, providing the optimal environment, not simply for brain cell survival, but also for brain complex functions and the oscillatory rhythms of some parameters, such as cerebrospinal fluid sodium and brain ISF pressure waves, which may play a crucial role in brain physio‑pathological states. Thus, according to this proposal, the brain ISF represents the real internal medium since the maintenance of its dynamic intra-set-range homeostasis is the main factor for a free and independent life of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the evolutionary links between brain and kidney and their synergistic role in H2O/Na balance and brain temperature control are discussed. Finally, it is surmised that these two interrelated parameters have deep effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS) higher integrative actions such those linked to psychic homeostasis.

  14. Amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells lead to bone differentiation when cocultured with dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    De Rosa, Alfredo; Tirino, Virginia; Paino, Francesca; Tartaglione, Antonella; Mitsiadis, Thimios; Feki, Anis; d'Aquino, Riccardo; Laino, Luigi; Colacurci, Nicola; Papaccio, Gianpaolo

    2011-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are present in many tissues of the human body, including amniotic fluid (AF) and dental pulp (DP). Stem cells of both AF and DP give rise to a variety of differentiated cells. In our experience, DP stem cells (DPSCs) display a high capacity to produce bone. Therefore, our aim was to investigate if AF-derived stem cells (AFSCs) were able to undergo bone differentiation in the presence of DPSCs. AFSCs were seeded under three different conditions: (i) cocultured with DPSCs previously differentiated into osteoblasts; (ii) cultured in the conditioned medium of osteoblast-differentiated DPSCs; (iii) cultured in the osteogenic medium supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Results showed that AFSCs were positive for mesenchymal markers, and expressed high levels of Tra1-60, Tra1-80, BMPR1, BMPR2, and BMP-2. In contrast, AFSCs were negative for epithelial and hematopoietic/endothelial markers. When AFSCs were cocultured with DPSCs-derived osteoblasts, they differentiated into osteoblasts. A similar effect was observed when AFSCs were cultured in the presence of a conditioned medium originated from DPSCs. We found that osteoblasts derived from DPSCs released large amounts of BMP-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor into the culture medium and that those morphogens significantly upregulate RUNX-2 gene, stimulating osteogenesis. This study highlights the mechanisms of osteogenesis and strongly suggests that the combination of AFSCs with DPSCs may provide a rich source of soluble proteins useful for bone engineering purposes.

  15. Cholesteryl palmitate crystals in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid smears as a possible prognostic biomarker for chronic interstitial pneumonia: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Naoko; Tachihara, Motoko; Tanino, Yoshinori; Saito, Junpei; Sato, Suguru; Nikaido, Takefumi; Misa, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Atsuro; Wang, Xintao; Ishida, Takashi; Onami, Tetsuo; Munakata, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    We observed cholesterol-like crystals (Crystal X) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) smears of patients with diffuse pulmonary disease. We analyzed the clinical data of patients with and without crystals, and elucidated the structure of Crystal X and its concentration in the BALF. Two hundred eighty-nine patients with diffuse pulmonary disease who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were analyzed. The relationships between the presence and number of Crystal X in BALF smears and clinical parameters were investigated. Furthermore, structure determination and quantitative analyses of the crystals were performed. Seventy-five (26.0%) patients had Crystal X in their BALF. The crystals were frequently observed in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia (CIP, 60/160=35.3%). Patients with Crystal X exhibited significantly higher serum Kerbs von Lungren 6 antigen and surfactant protein-D levels (P<0.01) and lower percentage vital capacity (P<0.05) than patients without Crystal X. The number of crystals was significantly correlated with these parameters. The presence of crystals was also associated with a lower survival rate at 1 year after the BAL. The interfacial angles of the crystals were 126±2° and 144±2°, different from those of cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Infrared absorption spectrometry showed Crystal X was cholesteryl palmitate. Its concentration was significantly higher in BALF with crystals than in BALF without crystals (P<0.01). Crystal X in the BALF of patients with diffuse pulmonary disease was identified as cholesteryl palmitate, which may be a useful prognostic biomarker for CIP. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of α-trinositol on interstitial fluid pressure, oedema generation and albumin extravasation in experimental frostbite in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Berg, A; Aas, P; Gustafsson, T; Reed, R K

    1999-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of α-trinositol (D-myo-inositol-1,2,6-trisphosphate) on oedema formation, microvascular protein leakage and interstitial fluid pressure (Pif) in rat skin after frostbite injury, was investigated. α-Trinositol (40 mg kg body weight−1) was administered intravenously as a bolus both before and/or in the interval between freezing and thawing of the tissue. Pif was measured in rat paw skin with micropipettes connected to a servo-controlled counterpressure system. Oedema formation was estimated by measuring the increase in total tissue water content (wet weight minus dry weight divided by dry weight). Albumin extravasation (i.e., the difference between the plasma equivalent space for 125I- and 131I-human serum albumin (HSA) circulating for different time intervals) was used to estimate the microvascular leakage. Compared to untreated animals, α-trinositol given pre- and/or post-freeze reduced total tissue water and albumin extravasation as well as the fall in Pif in injured tissue significantly (P<0.05). α-Trinositol given only post-freeze reduced total tissue water and albumin extravasation from 4.46±0.93 and 2.37±1.12 to 2.51±0.29 and 0.36±0.18 ml g dry weight−1, respectively (P<0.05). Pif fell from −0.8±0.2 mmHg pre-freeze to −3.4±1.0 mmHg (P<0.05) at 20 min after tissue injury (circulatory arrest) and was attenuated by treatment with α-trinositol. We conclude that α-trinositol exerts its anti-oedematous effect by acting on the extracellular matrix, attenuating the lowering of Pif as well as on the microvascular wall, thereby decreasing the protein extravasation. PMID:10217530

  17. Reducing Interstitial Fluid Pressure and Inhibiting Pulmonary Metastasis of Breast Cancer by Gelatin Modified Cationic Lipid Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuan; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Zun; Zuo, Tiantian; Lu, Qing; Wu, Guangyu; Shen, Qi

    2017-09-06

    Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumor is much higher than that in normal tissue, and it constitutes a great obstacle for the delivery of antitumor drugs, thus becoming a potential target for cancer therapy. In this study, cationic nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were modified by low molecular weight gelatin to achieve the desirable reduction of tumor IFP and improve the drug delivery. In this way, the chemotherapy of formulations on tumor proliferation and pulmonary metastasis was further improved. The nanoparticles were used to load three drugs, docetaxel (DTX), quercetin (Qu), and imatinib (IMA), with high encapsulation efficiency of 89.54%, 96.45%, and 60.13%, respectively. GNP-DTX/Qu/IMA nanoparticles exhibited an enzyme-sensitive drug release behavior, and the release rate could be mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9). Cellular uptake and MTT assays showed that the obtained GNP-DTX/Qu/IMA could be internalized into human breast 4T1 cells effectively and exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity. Moreover, GNP-DTX/Qu/IMA demonstrated obvious advantages in inducing apoptosis and mediating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (Caspase 3, Caspase 9, and bcl-2). In the wound-healing assay, GNP-DTX/Qu/IMA exhibited evidently inhibition of cell migration. The benefits of tumor IFP reduction induced by GNP-DTX/Qu/IMA were further proved after a continuous administration to 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. Finally, in the in vivo antitumor assays, GNP-DTX/Qu/IMA displayed stronger antitumor efficiency as well as suppression on pulmonary metastasis. In conclusion, the GNP-DTX/Qu/IMA system might be a promising strategy for metastatic breast cancer treatment.

  18. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p < 0.05) and 288 down-regulated proteins (ratio ≤ −1.3, p < 0.05) in tumor TIF were identified. Interestingly, proteins in S100 family were found remarkably up-regulated in tumor TIF. One dramatically up-regulated protein S100A9 (ratio = 19) was further validated by ELISA in sera from liver cirrhosis (LC, HCC high risk population) and HCC patients (n = 47 for each group). The level of this protein was significantly elevated in HCC sera compared with LC (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve of this protein to distinguish HCC from LC was 0.83, with sensitivity of 91% (higher than AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  19. Proteomic characterization of the interstitial fluid perfusing the breast tumor microenvironment: a novel resource for biomarker and therapeutic target discovery.

    PubMed

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Cabezón, Teresa; Moreira, José M A; Ambartsumian, Noona; Sandelin, Kerstin; Rank, Fritz; Gromova, Irina

    2004-04-01

    Clinical cancer proteomics aims at the identification of markers for early detection and predictive purposes, as well as to provide novel targets for drug discovery and therapeutic intervention. Proteomics-based analysis of traditional sources of biomarkers, such as serum, plasma, or tissue lyzates, has resulted in a wealth of information and the finding of several potential tumor biomarkers. However, many of these markers have shown limited usefulness in a clinical setting, underscoring the need for new clinically relevant sources. Here we present a novel and highly promising source of biomarkers, the tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) that perfuses the breast tumor microenvironment. We collected TIFs from small pieces of freshly dissected invasive breast carcinomas and analyzed them by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, Western immunoblotting, as well as by cytokine-specific antibody arrays. This approach provided for the first time a snapshot of the protein components of the TIF, which we show consists of more than one thousand proteins--either secreted, shed by membrane vesicles, or externalized due to cell death--produced by the complex network of cell types that make up the tumor microenvironment. So far, we have identified 267 primary translation products including, but not limited to, proteins involved in cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, inflammation, protein synthesis, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, the actin cytoskeleton assembly, protein folding, and transport. As expected, the TIF contained several classical serum proteins. Considering that the protein composition of the TIF reflects the physiological and pathological state of the tissue, it should provide a new and potentially rich resource for diagnostic biomarker discovery and for identifying more selective targets for therapeutic intervention.

  20. Tightness of the blood-brain barrier and evidence for brain interstitial fluid flow in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, N J; Bundgaard, M; Cserr, H F

    1985-01-01

    Cephalopod molluscs have complex brains and behaviour, yet little is known about the permeability of their blood-brain interface. The accompanying paper characterized the fluid compartments of the brain and presented evidence for restricted permeability of the blood-brain interface to albumin. The present paper investigates the permeability of the interface to small non-electrolytes. [14C]Polyethylene glycol (PEG, mol. wt. 4000), and [51Cr]EDTA (mol. wt. 342) were injected intravenously or intramuscularly, and their penetration into brain and muscle studied up to 48 h. Tracers equilibrated with muscle interstitial fluid (ISF) at relatively short times, but in brain ISF reached only 0.5-0.65 X their plasma concentration. This is qualitative evidence for the presence in brain of a barrier to these molecules and an efficient drainage mechanism for ISF. Quantitative treatment of the uptake data allows calculation of the permeability X surface area product (PS) and the permeability coefficient (P). For the brain PS and P are in the range 1-3 X 10(-4) ml g-1 min-1 and 1-3 X 10(-8) cm s-1 respectively, (PEG), and 3 X 10(-4) ml g-1 min-1 and 3-4 X 10(-8) cm s-1 respectively (Cr-EDTA). The P values are close to those reported for mammalian brain. Assuming that the lack of equilibration in brain is due to ISF flow, the rate of flow can be calculated. Values for vertical and optic lobe are approximately 0.2 microliter g-1 min-1, again close to those reported for mammalian brain. It is concluded that the tightness of the Sepia blood-brain barrier approaches that of mammals, and a flowing ISF system is present. An association between a tight barrier and higher central nervous system integrative function is suggested. The significance of these findings for the evolution of control of the brain microenvironment is discussed. Images Fig. 5 PMID:3935776

  1. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A study of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals and comparison to patients with other chronic interstitial lung diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Roggli, V.L.; Piantadosi, C.A.; Bell, D.Y.

    1986-09-01

    We studied the asbestos body (AB) content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from 20 patients with a history of occupational asbestos exposure, 31 patients with sarcoidosis and 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The cellular lavage pellet was digested in sodium hypochlorite and filtered onto Nuclepore filters for AB quantification by light microscopy. ABs were found in 15 of 20 asbestos-exposed individuals, 9 of 31 sarcoidosis cases and 2 of 5 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of ABs per million cells recovered or per milliliter of recovered lavage fluid in the asbestos-exposed group as compared to the other categories of chronic interstitial lung disease. The highest levels occurred in patients with asbestosis. Large numbers of asbestos bodies in the lavage fluid (greater than 1 AB/10(6) cells) were indicative of considerable occupational asbestos exposure, whereas occasional bodies were a nonspecific finding.

  2. Comparison of Interstitial Fluid pH, PCO2, PO2 with Venous Blood Values During Repetitive Handgrip Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagan, Ronald Donald; Soller, Babs R.; Shear, Michael; Walz, Matthias; Landry, Michelle; Heard, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the use of a small, fiber optic sensor to measure pH, PCO2 and PO2 from forearm muscle interstitial fluid (IF) during handgrip dynamometry. PURPOSE: Compare pH, PCO2 and PO2 values obtained from venous blood with those from the IF of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) during three levels of exercise intensity. METHODS: Six subjects (5M/1F), average age 29+/-5 yrs, participated in the study. A venous catheter was placed in the retrograde direction in the antecubital space and a fiber optic sensor (Paratrend, Diametrics Medical, Inc.) was placed through a 22 G catheter into the FDS muscle under ultrasound guidance. After a 45 min rest period, subjects performed three 5-min bouts of repetitive handgrip exercise (2s contraction/1 s relaxation) at attempted levels of 15%, 30% and 45% of maximal voluntary contraction. The order of the exercise bouts was random with the second and third bouts started after blood lactate had returned to baseline. Venous blood was sampled every minute during exercise and analyzed with an I-Stat CG-4+ cartridge, while IF fiber optic sensor measurements were obtained every 2 s. Change from pre-exercise baseline to end of exercise was computed for pH, PCO2 and PO2. Blood and IF values were compared with a paired t-test. RESULTS: Baseline values for pH, PCO2 and PO2 were 7.37+/-0.02, 46+/-4 mm Hg, and 36+/-6 mm Hg respectively in blood and 7.39+/-0.02, 44+/-6 mm Hg, and 35+/-14 mm Hg in IF. Average changes over all exercise levels are noted in the Table below. For each parameter the exercise-induced change was at least twice as great in IF as in blood. In blood and IF, pH and PCO2 increases were directly related to exercise intensity. Change in venous PO2 was unrelated to exercise intensity, while IF PO2 decreased with increases in exercise intensity. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of IF pH, PCO2 and PO2 is more sensitive to exercise intensity than measurement of the same parameters in venous blood and provides continuous

  3. Pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam in plasma and subcutaneous interstitial fluid in critically ill patients receiving continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Julie M; Jarrett, Paul; Boots, Robert J; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2014-04-01

    This prospective pharmacokinetic study aimed to describe plasma and interstitial fluid (ISF) pharmacokinetics of piperacillin and tazobactam in critically ill patients on continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). Piperacillin/tazobactam (4g/0.5g) was administered every 8h and CVVHDF was performed as a 3-3.5L/h exchange using a polyacrylonitrile filter with a surface area of 1.05m(2). Serial blood (pre- and post-filter), filtrate/dialysate, urine and ISF concentrations were measured. Subcutaneous tissue ISF concentrations were determined using microdialysis. A total of 407 samples were collected. Median peak plasma concentrations were 210.5 (interquartile range=161.5-229.0) and 29.4 (27.9-32.0) mg/L and median trough plasma concentrations were 64.3 (49.0-68.9) and 12.3 (7.7-13.7) mg/L for piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively. The plasma elimination half-life was 6.4 (4.6-8.7) and 7.3 (4.6-11.8) h, volume of distribution 0.42 (0.29-0.49) and 0.32 (0.24-0.36) L/kg, total clearance 5.1 (4.2-6.2) and 3.8 (3.3-4.2) L/h and CVVHDF clearance 2.5 (2.3-3.1) and 2.5 (2.3-3.2) L/h for piperacillin and tazobactam, respectively. The tissue penetration ratio or ratio of area under the concentration-time curve of the unbound drug in ISF to plasma (unbound AUCISF/AUCplasma) was ca. 1 for both piperacillin and tazobactam. This is the first report of concurrent plasma and ISF concentrations of piperacillin and tazobactam during CVVHDF. For the CVVHDF settings used in this study, a dose of 4.5g piperacillin/tazobactam administered evry 8h resulted in piperacillin concentrations in plasma and ISF >32mg/L throughout most of the dosing interval. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Skeletal Adaptation to Intramedullary Pressure-Induced Interstitial Fluid Flow Is Enhanced in Mice Subjected to Targeted Osteocyte Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ronald Y.; Meays, Diana R.; Meilan, Alexander S.; Jones, Jeremiah; Miramontes, Rosa; Kardos, Natalie; Yeh, Jiunn-Chern; Frangos, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid flow (IFF) is a potent regulatory signal in bone. During mechanical loading, IFF is generated through two distinct mechanisms that result in spatially distinct flow profiles: poroelastic interactions within the lacunar-canalicular system, and intramedullary pressurization. While the former generates IFF primarily within the lacunar-canalicular network, the latter generates significant flow at the endosteal surface as well as within the tissue. This gives rise to the intriguing possibility that loading-induced IFF may differentially activate osteocytes or surface-residing cells depending on the generating mechanism, and that sensation of IFF generated via intramedullary pressurization may be mediated by a non-osteocytic bone cell population. To begin to explore this possibility, we used the Dmp1-HBEGF inducible osteocyte ablation mouse model and a microfluidic system for modulating intramedullary pressure (ImP) to assess whether structural adaptation to ImP-driven IFF is altered by partial osteocyte depletion. Canalicular convective velocities during pressurization were estimated through the use of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and computational modeling. Following osteocyte ablation, transgenic mice exhibited severe losses in bone structure and altered responses to hindlimb suspension in a compartment-specific manner. In pressure-loaded limbs, transgenic mice displayed similar or significantly enhanced structural adaptation to Imp-driven IFF, particularly in the trabecular compartment, despite up to ∼50% of trabecular lacunae being uninhabited following ablation. Interestingly, regression analysis revealed relative gains in bone structure in pressure-loaded limbs were correlated with reductions in bone structure in unpressurized control limbs, suggesting that adaptation to ImP-driven IFF was potentiated by increases in osteoclastic activity and/or reductions in osteoblastic activity incurred independently of pressure loading

  5. Profiling of microRNAs in tumor interstitial fluid of breast tumors - a novel resource to identify biomarkers for prognostic classification and detection of cancer.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Ann Rita; Helland, Åslaug; Gromov, Pavel; Wielenga, Vera Timmermans; Talman, Maj-Lis Møller; Brunner, Nils; Sandhu, Vandana; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Gromova, Irina; Haakensen, Vilde D

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesized based on accumulated data that a class of small noncoding RNAs, termed microRNAs, are key factors in intercellular communication. Here, microRNAs present in interstitial breast tumor fluids have been analyzed to identify relevant markers for a diagnosis of breast cancer and to elucidate the cross-talk that exists among cells in a tumor microenvironment. Matched tumor interstitial fluid samples (TIF, n = 60), normal interstitial fluid samples (NIF, n = 51), corresponding tumor tissue specimens (n = 54), and serum samples (n = 27) were collected from patients with breast cancer, and detectable microRNAs were analyzed and compared. In addition, serum data from 32 patients with breast cancer and 22 healthy controls were obtained for a validation study. To identify potential serum biomarkers of breast cancer, first the microRNA profiles of TIF and NIF samples were compared. A total of 266 microRNAs were present at higher level in the TIF samples as compared to normal counterparts. Sixty-one of these microRNAs were present in > 75% of the serum samples and were subsequently tested in a validation set. Seven of the 61 microRNAs were associated with poor survival, while 23 were associated with the presence of immune cells and adipocytes. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time that profiling of microRNAs in TIF can identify novel biomarkers for the prognostic classification and detection of breast cancer. In addition, the present findings demonstrate that microRNAs may represent the cross-talk that occurs between tumor cells and their surrounding stroma. © 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Lymphatic vessels of the human dental pulp in different conditions.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, C; Poggi, P; Calligaro, A; Casasco, A

    1992-09-01

    The characteristics of the lymphatic vessel endothelial wall have been investigated in human normal and inflamed dental pulps. In normal pulps the endothelial wall is characterized by the presence of micropinocytotic vesicles and intraparietal channels. In the inflamed pulpal tissue, where an increase in interstitial fluid pressure occurs, the distended endothelial wall presents open junctions between endothelial cells and the openings of the intraparietal channels. Moreover the micropinocytotic vesicles disappear. The cytoplasm of the endothelial cells is characterized by the presence of numerous Weibel-Palade bodies, which increase in number in the dilated vessels. In the fibrillar apparatus surrounding the lymphatic vessel wall collagen fibrils are the prevalent component, while elastic fibers are not present. The different morphological properties of the lymphatic vessels are compared and discussed with regard to the variation of the functional conditions of the tissue.

  7. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-11-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2010 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Absence of lymphatic vessels in the dog dental pulp: an immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anna; Gasse, Hagen; Staszyk, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In spite of numerous investigations it has not been precisely determined whether lymphatic vessels are present in the dental pulp of dogs. Therefore, this study attempted a specific immunohistochemical detection of lymphatic endothelium. The canine teeth of 19 healthy beagle dogs were dissected into three segments (apical, intermediate and occlusal). After decalcification, specimens were embedded in paraffin wax and histologic cross-sections were stained immunohistochemically using a reliable antibody (anti-Prox-1) against the homeobox transcription factor Prox-1, which is located within the nucleus of lymphatic endothelium. Anti-Prox-1 reacted positively with canine control tissues (lymph nodes, gingiva, nasal mucosa), but showed no staining in tissue sections of the dental pulp. The dog dental pulp contained no vascular structures lined with lymphatic endothelium. This suggests that drainage of interstitial fluid makes use of other routes, i.e. extravascular pathways. PMID:20854283

  9. Effects of Perivitelline Fluid Obtained from Horseshoe Crab on The Proliferation and Genotoxicity of Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Musa, Marahaini; Mohd Ali, Khadijah; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Azlina, Ahmad; Omar, Nor Shamsuria; Chatterji, Anil; Mokhtar, Khairani Idah

    2015-01-01

    Perivitelline fluid (PVF) of the horseshoe crab embryo has been reported to possess an important role during embryogenesis by promoting cell proliferation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of PVF on the proliferation, chromosome aberration (CA) and mutagenicity of the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). This is an in vitro experimental study. PVF samples were collected from horseshoe crabs from beaches in Malaysia and the crude extract was prepared. DPSCs were treated with different concentrations of PVF crude extract in an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (cytotoxicity test). We choose two inhibitory concentrations (IC50 and IC25) and two PVF concentrations which produced more cell viability compared to a negative control (100%) for further tests. Quantitative analysis of the proliferation activity of PVF was studied using the AlamarBlue®assay for 10 days. Population doubling times (PDTs) of the treatment groups were calculated from this assay. Genotoxicity was evaluated based on the CA and Ames tests. Statistical analysis was carried out using independent t test to calculate significant differences in the PDT and mitotic indices in the CA test between the treatment and negative control groups. Significant differences in the data were P<0.05. A total of four PVF concentrations retrieved from the MTT assay were 26.887 mg/ml (IC50), 14.093 mg/ml (IC25), 0.278 mg/ml (102% cell viability) and 0.019 mg/ml (102.5% cell viability). According to the AlamarBlue®assay, these PVF groups produced comparable proliferation activities compared to the negative (untreated) control. PDTs between PVF groups and the negative control were insignificantly different (P>0.05). No significant aberrations in chromosomes were observed in the PVF groups and the Ames test on the PVF showed the absence of significant positive results. PVF from horseshoe crabs produced insignificant proliferative activity on treated DPSCs. The PVF was non

  10. Effects of Perivitelline Fluid Obtained from Horseshoe Crab on The Proliferation and Genotoxicity of Dental Pulp Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Marahaini; Mohd Ali, Khadijah; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Azlina, Ahmad; Omar, Nor Shamsuria; Chatterji, Anil; Mokhtar, Khairani Idah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Perivitelline fluid (PVF) of the horseshoe crab embryo has been reported to possess an important role during embryogenesis by promoting cell proliferation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of PVF on the proliferation, chromosome aberration (CA) and mutagenicity of the dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Materials and Methods This is an in vitro experimental study. PVF samples were collected from horseshoe crabs from beaches in Malaysia and the crude extract was prepared. DPSCs were treated with different concentrations of PVF crude extract in an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay (cytotoxicity test). We choose two inhibitory concentrations (IC50 and IC25) and two PVF concentrations which produced more cell viability compared to a negative control (100%) for further tests. Quantitative analysis of the proliferation activity of PVF was studied using the AlamarBlue®assay for 10 days. Population doubling times (PDTs) of the treatment groups were calculated from this assay. Genotoxicity was evaluated based on the CA and Ames tests. Statistical analysis was carried out using independent t test to calculate significant differences in the PDT and mitotic indices in the CA test between the treatment and negative control groups. Significant differences in the data were P<0.05. Results A total of four PVF concentrations retrieved from the MTT assay were 26.887 mg/ml (IC50), 14.093 mg/ml (IC25), 0.278 mg/ml (102% cell viability) and 0.019 mg/ml (102.5% cell viability). According to the AlamarBlue®assay, these PVF groups produced comparable proliferation activities compared to the negative (untreated) control. PDTs between PVF groups and the negative control were insignificantly different (P>0.05). No significant aberrations in chromosomes were observed in the PVF groups and the Ames test on the PVF showed the absence of significant positive results. Conclusion PVF from horseshoe crabs produced insignificant proliferative

  11. Pretreatment with VEGF(R)-inhibitors reduces interstitial fluid pressure, increases intraperitoneal chemotherapy drug penetration, and impedes tumor growth in a mouse colorectal carcinomatosis model.

    PubMed

    Gremonprez, Félix; Descamps, Benedicte; Izmer, Andrei; Vanhove, Christian; Vanhaecke, Frank; De Wever, Olivier; Ceelen, Wim

    2015-10-06

    Cytoreductive surgery combined with intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) is currently the standard treatment for selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer. However, especially after incomplete cytoreduction, disease progression is common and this is likely due to limited tissue penetration and efficacy of intraperitoneal cytotoxic drugs. Tumor microenvironment-targeting drugs, such as VEGF(R) and PDGFR inhibitors, can lower the heightened interstitial fluid pressure in tumors, a barrier to drug delivery. Here, we investigated whether tumor microenvironment-targeting drugs enhance the effectiveness of intraperitoneal chemotherapy. A mouse xenograft model with two large peritoneal implants of colorectal cancer cells was developed to study drug distribution and tumor physiology during intraperitoneal Oxaliplatin perfusion. Mice were treated for six days with either Placebo, Imatinib (anti-PDGFR, daily), Bevacizumab (anti-VEGF, twice) or Pazopanib (anti-PDGFR, -VEGFR; daily) followed by intraperitoneal oxaliplatin chemotherapy. Bevacizumab and Pazopanib significantly lowered interstitial fluid pressure, increased Oxaliplatin penetration (assessed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and delayed tumor growth of peritoneal implants (assessed by MRI). Our findings suggest that VEGF(R)-inhibition may improve the efficacy of IPC, particularly for patients for whom a complete cytoreduction might not be feasible.

  12. Influence of four modes of administration on penetration of aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin into interstitial fluid and fibrin clots and on in vivo efficacy against Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, G Y; Bergeron, M G

    1985-01-01

    The extravascular penetration and bactericidal activity of aztreonam, cefuroxime, and ampicillin against beta-lactamase-positive and -negative Haemophilus influenzae strains were compared in a rabbit model. All groups of animals received an identical total dose of 100 mg of either antibiotic per kg given by four different intravenous modes of administration including a single large injection, four intermittent injections, a continuous infusion, and an injection followed by an infusion. Aztreonam had a higher degree of penetration in interstitial fluid and fibrin clots and was the most effective agent against beta-lactamase-positive and -negative H. influenzae. A single large injection of either drug resulted in significantly higher peak levels and higher initial area under the curves of concentrations of drugs in serum, the interstitial fluid, and fibrin clots than those by other modes of administration. Continuous infusions of antibiotics resulted in poor in vivo bactericidal activity. Other modes of administration exhibited good antibacterial activity within the first 6 h of the study. Thereafter, a single large injection of aztreonam resulted in a much more rapid killing of H. influenzae than that by injection of the other drugs. Aztreonam and cefuroxime showed good in vivo stability to beta-lactamase produced by H. influenzae while ampicillin was rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo. PMID:3878128

  13. Comparative plasma and interstitial fluid pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine and ceftiofur hydrochloride following individual and co-administration in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gorden, P J; Kleinhenz, M D; Wulf, L W; Rajewski, S J; Wang, C; Gehring, R; Coetzee, J F

    2017-07-21

    Ceftiofur (CEF) and flunixin meglumine (FLU) are two drugs approved for use in beef and dairy cattle that are frequently used in combination for many diseases. These two drugs are the most commonly used drugs in dairy cattle in their respective drug classes. Two research groups have recently published manuscripts demonstrating altered pharmacokinetics of FLU and CEF in cows affected with naturally occurring mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine whether pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine administered intravenously or intramuscularly administered ceftiofur hydrochloride would be altered when co-administered versus individual administration to healthy dairy cattle. Ten cows were utilized in a three-period, three-treatment crossover design, with all cows receiving each treatment one time with a 10-day washout period between treatments. Following treatment, plasma and interstitial fluid samples were collected and stored for later analysis. Additionally, plasma ultrafiltrate was collected using microcentrifugation to determine plasma protein binding of each drug. Drug concentrations in plasma, plasma ultrafiltrate, and interstitial fluid were determined using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The results of this trial indicate that drug interactions between FLU and CEF do not occur when the two drugs are administered simultaneously in healthy cattle. Further work is needed to determine whether this relationship is maintained in the presence of severe disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Glutathione peroxidase 3 localizes to the epithelial lining fluid and the extracellular matrix in interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Andrea C.; Schiller, Herbert B.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Sterclova, Martina; Heinzelmann, Katharina; Hennen, Elisabeth; Hatz, Rudolf; Behr, Jürgen; Vašáková, Martina; Mann, Matthias; Eickelberg, Oliver; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant antioxidant activity and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) are hallmarks of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). It is known that oxidative stress alters the ECM, but extracellular antioxidant defence mechanisms in ILD are incompletely understood. Here, we extracted abundance and detergent solubility of extracellular antioxidant enzymes from a proteomic dataset of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice and assessed regulation and distribution of glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) in murine and human lung fibrosis. Superoxide dismutase 3 (Sod3), Gpx3, and Gpx activity were increased in mouse BALF during bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. In lung tissue homogenates, Gpx3, but not Sod3, was upregulated and detergent solubility profiling indicated that Gpx3 associated with ECM proteins. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that Gpx3 was expressed by bronchial epithelial cells and interstitial fibroblasts and localized to the basement membrane and interstitial ECM in lung tissue. As to human ILD samples, BALF of some patients contained high levels of GPX3, and GPX3 was upregulated in lung homogenates from IPF patients. GPX3 expression in primary human bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts was downregulated by TNF-α, but more variably regulated by TGF-β1 and menadione. In conclusion, the antioxidant enzyme GPX3 localizes to lung ECM and is variably upregulated in ILD. PMID:27435875

  15. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of human interstitial fluid in vitro and in vivo using FT-IR spectroscopy and pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCL): Establishing a new approach to non invasive glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleitez, Miguel; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Hermann; Mäntele, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid, i.e. the liquid present in the outermost layer of living cells of the skin between the Stratum corneum and the Stratum spinosum, was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by infrared spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade infrared lasers with photoacoustic detection. IR spectra of simulated interstitial fluid samples and of real samples from volunteers in the 850-1800 cm -1 range revealed that the major components of interstitial fluid are albumin and glucose within the physiological range, with only traces of sodium lactate if at all. The IR absorbance of glucose in interstitial fluid in vivo was probed in healthy volunteers using a setup with quantum cascade lasers and photoacoustic detection previously described [11]. A variation of blood glucose between approx. 80 mg/dl and 250 mg/dl in the volunteers was obtained using the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGT). At two IR wavelengths, 1054 cm -1 and 1084 cm -1, a reasonable correlation between the photoacoustic signal from the skin and the blood glucose value as determined by conventional glucose test sticks using blood from the finger tip was obtained. The infrared photoacoustic glucose signal (PAGS) may serve as the key for a non-invasive glucose measurement, since the glucose content in interstitial fluid closely follows blood glucose in the time course and in the level (a delay of some minutes and a level of approx. 80-90% of the glucose level in blood). Interstitial fluid is present in skin layers at a depth of only 15-50 μm and is thus within the reach of mid-IR energy in an absorbance measurement. A non-invasive glucose measurement for diabetes patients based on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and photoacoustic detection could replace the conventional measurement using enzymatic test stripes and a drop of blood from the finger tip, thus reducing pain and being a cost-efficient alternative for millions of diabetes patients.

  16. Interstitial Nephritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Tags: acute tubulointerstitial nephritis, AIN, interstitial nephritis, kidney disorders, kidney failure, renal failure, renal infection Men, Seniors, Women December 2004 ...

  17. Effect of storage in juice with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate on the subsequent survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Hyun-Gyun; Jo, Seong-Chun; Seo, Hye-Kyung; Park, Sun-Min; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2008-04-30

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of storing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fruit or vegetable juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate, on the bacterial resistance to a simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Apple, carrot, orange, and tomato juices containing pulp or freed from pulp by filtration were used in this study. Calcium lactate at about 1.4 g/l was added to juices to obtain calcium supplemented juices. Juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and then were stored at 7 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, or 4 days. The acid resistance of cells stored in juices with or without pulp and/or calcium lactate was determined by incubating in SGF for 90 or 240 min at 37 degrees C. Cells stored in apple juice for 4 days, carrot juice for 2 days, and orange juice for 4 days with pulp only had greater acid resistance, while all cells stored in tomato juice with pulp had greater acid resistance than cells stored in juice without pulp. The D-values of cells stored in supplemented apple and orange juices with calcium lactate declined 1.7-3.5 fold, whereas D-values of cells stored in supplemented tomato juice decreased by about 1.4-fold when compared to cells stored in juice without calcium lactate after exposure in SGF. These results indicate that storing E. coli O157:H7 in juices with pulp had little or no effect on the acid resistance of cells during subsequent exposure in SGF. Calcium lactate supplemented into juices could dramatically decrease the ability of E. coli O157:H7 to survive in SGF, possibly reducing the risk of foodborne illness by juice products.

  18. Bioavailability of insulin detemir and human insulin at the level of peripheral interstitial fluid in humans, assessed by open-flow microperfusion.

    PubMed

    Bodenlenz, M; Ellmerer, M; Schaupp, L; Jacobsen, L V; Plank, J; Brunner, G A; Wutte, A; Aigner, B; Mautner, S I; Pieber, T R

    2015-12-01

    To find an explanation for the lower potency of insulin detemir observed in humans compared with unmodified human insulin by investigating insulin detemir and human insulin concentrations directly at the level of peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues in humans in vivo. Euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp experiments were performed in healthy volunteers. Human insulin was administered i.v. at 6 pmol/kg/min and insulin detemir at 60 pmol/kg/min, achieving a comparable steady-state pharmacodynamic action. In addition, insulin detemir was doubled to 120 pmol/kg/min. Minimally invasive open-flow microperfusion (OFM) sampling methodology was combined with inulin calibration to quantify human insulin and insulin detemir in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of subcutaneous adipose and skeletal muscle tissue. The human insulin concentration in the ISF was ∼115 pmol/l or ∼30% of the serum concentration, whereas the insulin detemir concentration in the ISF was ∼680 pmol/l or ∼2% of the serum concentration. The molar insulin detemir interstitial concentration was five to six times higher than the human insulin interstitial concentration and metabolic clearance of insulin detemir from serum was substantially reduced compared with human insulin. OFM proved useful for target tissue measurements of human insulin and the analogue insulin detemir. Our tissue data confirm a highly effective retention of insulin detemir in the vascular compartment. The higher insulin detemir relative to human insulin tissue concentrations at comparable pharmacodynamics, however, indicate that the lower potency of insulin detemir in humans is attributable to a reduced effect in peripheral insulin-sensitive tissues and is consistent with the reduced in vitro receptor affinity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Investigation of utility of cerebrospinal fluid drug concentration as a surrogate for interstitial fluid concentration using microdialysis coupled with cisternal cerebrospinal fluid sampling in wild-type and Mdr1a(-/-) rats.

    PubMed

    Nagaya, Yoko; Nozaki, Yoshitane; Takenaka, Osamu; Watari, Ryuji; Kusano, Kazutomi; Yoshimura, Tsutomu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    In drug discovery, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drug concentration (CCSF) has been used as a surrogate for the interstitial fluid (ISF) concentration (CISF). However, the CCSF-to-CISF gradient suggested for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates in rodents causes uncertainty in CISF estimations and subsequent pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses. To evaluate the utility of CCSF as a surrogate for CISF, this study directly compared the CCSF with the CISF of 12 compounds, including P-gp substrates, under steady-state conditions in wild-type and Mdr1a(-/-) rats using microdialysis coupled with cisternal CSF sampling. In wild-type rats, the ISF-to-unbound plasma (Kp,uu,ISF) and CSF-to-unbound plasma (Kp,uu,CSF) concentration ratios of the P-gp substrates, except for metoclopramide, were lower than those of the non-P-gp substrates, and the Kp,uu,CSF values were within or close to 3-fold of the Kp,uu,ISF values for all the compounds examined. The Kp,uu,CSF values of the selected P-gp substrates increased in Mdr1a(-/-) rats with a similar magnitude to the Kp,uu,ISF values, resulting in the Kp,uu,CSF-to-Kp,uu,ISF ratios being unchanged. These results suggested that P-gp-mediated active efflux at the blood-brain barrier is a major determinant not only for CISF, but also for CCSF, and that CCSF can be used as a surrogate for CISF even for P-gp substrates in rats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical simulation of osteocyte cell in response to directional mechanical loadings and mechanotransduction analysis: Considering lacunar-canalicular interstitial fluid flow.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Amin; Niroomand-Oscuii, Hanieh; Ghalichi, Farzan

    2016-09-01

    The osteocyte cell is a bone cell that also functions as a bone mechanosensor. In this work, a three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model of an osteocyte cell under different mechanical loading conditions was used to obtain a better understanding of osteocyte cell behavior under different physiological conditions. In the current study, both fluid and solid parts of osteocyte cell were considered in order to allow for more accurate results. Five different loading conditions have been applied to the osteocyte cell, and consequently the different interstitial fluid flow velocities and shear stresses have been investigated. Furthermore, using a mathematical model, the change in the stimulus function value with shear stress and NO enzyme was revealed. This work suggests that changes in osteocyte morphology and direction of loadings affect cell stimulation. It was found that cell is mostly stimulated and expanded in the direction experiencing the most shear stress. Finally, the amount of cell stimulation was shown quantitatively and there was strong dependency between stimulus function, shear stress, calcium, and NO concentration.

  1. Fascin is a circulating tumor marker for head and neck cancer as determined by a proteomic analysis of interstitial fluid from the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Yu; Chen, Yin-Ju; Lu, Ya-Ching; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, I-How; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Huang, Yu-Chen; Chen, Wen-Ho; Huang, Chi-Che; Tsai, Chi-Ying; Cheng, Ann-Joy

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a prevalent cancer worldwide; however, clinically useful tumor markers for HNC have not been identified. Here, we aimed to identify secretory proteins from the tumor microenvironment as candidate circulating tumor markers. Samples derived from seven pairs of tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) and normal interstitial fluid (NIF) samples from patients with HNC were analyzed. The proteomes were determined by gel-based-mass-spectrometry proteomic methods. The most up-regulated protein, fascin was confirmed in the cancer tissues and cell culture supernatant by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry assays. Serum fascin was determined in 40 HNC and 40 normal individuals by ELISA. After proteomics analysis, 189 peptides were identified, corresponding to 75 proteins. Of the 21 proteins which were identified more than twice, five up-regulated proteins identified most frequently including fascin. The most elevated fascin was over-expressed in cancer tissues and cell culture supernatant. Serum fascin was significantly up-regulated in the cancer patients (p<0.001) and correlated with pathological lymph node metastasis (p=0.022). To assess the diagnostic efficacy, serum levels of fascin and another potential biomarker SCCA were determined. Fascin showed a high predictable value with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.808 (95% CI 0.723-0.901) in the receiver operator curve (ROC), compared to 0.501 (95% CI 0.378-0.634) for SCCA. We have identified 75 potential circulating tumor markers associated with HNC, including fascin. Serum fascin could discriminate cancer patients from healthy individuals; thus, it may serve as a circulating biomarker for HNC.

  2. Interstitial keratitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... However, interstitial keratitis accounts for 10% of avoidable blindness in the least developed countries worldwide. ... chap 4.17. World Health Organization. Causes of blindness and visual impairment. Prevention of blindness and visual ...

  3. Interstitial thermoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, C T; Strohbehn, J W

    1989-05-01

    The more recent engineering and clinical aspects of interstitial hyperthermia are reviewed. The advantages and difficulties of microwave, radiofrequency, and ferromagnetic seeds are evaluated and some future directions for improvements are outlined.

  4. Interstitial nephritis

    MedlinePlus

    Arend LJ. Tubulointerstitial diseases. In: Lager DJ, Abrahams NA, eds. Practical Renal Pathology . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 7. Nangaku M. Chronic interstitial nephritis. In: Johnson RJ, Feehally J, Floege ...

  5. Potential non-hypoxic/ischemic causes of increased cerebral interstitial fluid lactate/pyruvate ratio: a review of available literature.

    PubMed

    Larach, Daniel B; Kofke, W Andrew; Le Roux, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Microdialysis, an in vivo technique that permits collection and analysis of small molecular weight substances from the interstitial space, was developed more than 30 years ago and introduced into the clinical neurosciences in the 1990s. Today cerebral microdialysis is an established, commercially available clinical tool that is focused primarily on markers of cerebral energy metabolism (glucose, lactate, and pyruvate) and cell damage (glycerol), and neurotransmitters (glutamate). Although the brain comprises only 2% of body weight, it consumes 20% of total body energy. Consequently, the ability to monitor cerebral metabolism can provide significant insights during clinical care. Measurements of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose give information about the comparative contributions of aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms to brain energy. The lactate/pyruvate ratio reflects cytoplasmic redox state and thus provides information about tissue oxygenation. An elevated lactate pyruvate ratio (>40) frequently is interpreted as a sign of cerebral hypoxia or ischemia. However, several other factors may contribute to an elevated LPR. This article reviews potential non-hypoxic/ischemic causes of an increased LPR.

  6. Bronchoalveoloar lavage fluid cytokines and chemokines as markers and predictors for the outcome of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Katrin; Martinez-Gamboa, Lorena; Meier, Susan; Witt, Christian; Meisel, Christian; Hanitsch, Leif G; Becker, Mike O; Huscher, Doerte; Burmester, Gerd R; Riemekasten, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent manifestation of systemic sclerosis (SSc), and cytokines can contribute to the disease pathology. The aim of the current study was to identify specific changes in cytokine levels that may serve as disease markers and possible targets for therapy. Methods Cytokines were measured with bioplex analysis in 38 bronchoalveolar fluids (BALFs) from 32 SSc patients (27 with alveolitis and 11 without alveolitis) and 26 control patients. In the case of SSc patients, cytokines were correlated with the respective bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell differentiation, lung function, and thoracic HR-CT score. For 35 BALF samples derived from 29 SSc patients, follow-up investigations of clinical data, lung-function parameter, or thoracic HR-CT scans were available to evaluate the predictive capacity of BALF cytokines and chemokines. Results High IL-7 levels were characteristic of SSc-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) and, in addition, when compared with ILD-negative SSc patients, ILD-positive SSc patients revealed higher IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL2 (MCP-1) BALF levels. High CCL2 and IL-8 BALF concentrations were associated with neutrophilic and mixed alveolitis. Cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-8, and CCL2 correlated negatively with lung-function parameters; CCL2 concentrations also correlated with HR-CT scores. High concentrations of several cytokines were associated with the progress of ILD and end-stage ILD. Univariate analyses revealed high IL-2 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels as the best predictors for progressive disease, together with lung-function parameters, young age, and neutrophilic alveolitis. Multivariate analyses partially confirmed these results but did not sufficiently converge because of the limited number of patients. Conclusions The association of BALF cytokines with lung fibrosis and its progress suggests that cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of ILD and hence could be regarded as

  7. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of human interstitial fluid in vitro and in vivo using FT-IR spectroscopy and pulsed quantum cascade lasers (QCL): Establishing a new approach to non invasive glucose measurement.

    PubMed

    Pleitez, Miguel; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Hermann; Mäntele, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial fluid, i.e. the liquid present in the outermost layer of living cells of the skin between the Stratum corneum and the Stratum spinosum, was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by infrared spectroscopy using pulsed quantum cascade infrared lasers with photoacoustic detection. IR spectra of simulated interstitial fluid samples and of real samples from volunteers in the 850-1800cm(-1) range revealed that the major components of interstitial fluid are albumin and glucose within the physiological range, with only traces of sodium lactate if at all. The IR absorbance of glucose in interstitial fluid in vivo was probed in healthy volunteers using a setup with quantum cascade lasers and photoacoustic detection previously described. A variation of blood glucose between approx. 80mg/dl and 250mg/dl in the volunteers was obtained using the standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGT). At two IR wavelengths, 1054cm(-1) and 1084cm(-1), a reasonable correlation between the photoacoustic signal from the skin and the blood glucose value as determined by conventional glucose test sticks using blood from the finger tip was obtained. The infrared photoacoustic glucose signal (PAGS) may serve as the key for a non-invasive glucose measurement, since the glucose content in interstitial fluid closely follows blood glucose in the time course and in the level (a delay of some minutes and a level of approx. 80-90% of the glucose level in blood). Interstitial fluid is present in skin layers at a depth of only 15-50μm and is thus within the reach of mid-IR energy in an absorbance measurement. A non-invasive glucose measurement for diabetes patients based on mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and photoacoustic detection could replace the conventional measurement using enzymatic test stripes and a drop of blood from the finger tip, thus reducing pain and being a cost-efficient alternative for millions of diabetes patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Declining interstitial transsudation in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarchin, P.; Lagneaux, D.; Lecomte, J.

    1980-01-01

    Results and methodology of experimentation dealing with declining interstitial transsudation are discussed. Concepts of the formation of interstitial fluids are in agreement with measurements of calf volume in normal young women, in horizontal recumbency or after horizontal immersion. The volume of the calf is reduced when the hydrostatic pressure of the blood column is diminished under the phlebostatic level and when the external pressure is increased by the hydrostatic pressure of a water bath.

  9. [An evaluation of fibronectin and IgG in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Zhao, H W; Lu, C J; Li, Z H

    1994-04-01

    FN and IgG levels in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peripheral blood were evaluated in 25 patients with ILD and in 11 normal controls. The results showed: (1) In normal group, the level of lavage fluid FN was similar to that of plasma (P > 0.05). FN levels in BALF of patients with ILD were not only significantly higher than those of controls, but also than those of their own plasma (P < 0.01). However, plasma FN levels showed no remarkable changes in all study groups. (2) IgG levels were significantly increased in BALF of patients with ILD and were somewhat elevated in serum. (3) There were significant correlations between lavage FN or IgG levels and total cell counts in ILD, lavage FN and percentage of neutrophils in IPF, and lavage FN or IgG and percentage of lymphocytes in non-IPF. (4) A highly significant correlation existed between FN and IgG levels in BALF of patients with ILD. These data suggested that FN is significantly increased in patients with ILD. Elevation of lavage FN in ILD may be served as a marker of activity in assessment of alveolitis and elevation of lavage IgG appears to reflect an aspect of activity of humoral immunologic reaction in patients with ILD.

  10. Interstitial Fluid Glucose Is Not Just a Shifted-in-Time but a Distorted Mirror of Blood Glucose: Insight from an In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Schiavon, Michele; Dalla Man, Chiara; Basu, Ananda; Basu, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Glucose sensors measure glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF), remote from blood. ISF glucose is well known to be “delayed” with respect to blood glucose (BG). However, ISF glucose is not simply a shifted-in-time version of BG but exhibits a more complex pattern. Methods: To gain insight into this problem, one can use linear systems theory. However, this may lose a more clinical readership, thus we use simulation and two case studies to convey our thinking in an easier way. In particular, we consider BG concentration measured after meal and exercise in 12 healthy volunteers, whereas ISF glucose is simulated using a well-accepted model of blood–ISF glucose kinetics, which permits calculation of the equilibration time, a parameter characterizing the system. Two metrics are defined: blood and ISF glucose difference at each time point and time to reach the same glucose value in blood and ISF. Results: The simulation performed and the two metrics show that the relationship between blood–ISF glucose profiles is more complex than a pure shift in time and that the pattern depends on both equilibration time and BG. Conclusions: In this in silico study, we have illustrated, with simple case studies, the meaning of the of ISF glucose with respect to BG. Understanding that ISF glucose is not just a shifted-in-time version but a distorted mirror of BG is important for a correct use of continuous glucose monitoring for diabetes management. PMID:27253751

  11. Probing the mystery of Chinese medicine meridian channels with special emphasis on the connective tissue interstitial fluid system, mechanotransduction, cells durotaxis and mast cell degranulation

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Peter Chin Wan

    2009-01-01

    This article hypothesizes that the Chinese medicine meridian system is a special channel network comprising of skin with abundant nerves and nociceptive receptors of various types, and deeper connective tissues inside the body with the flowing interstitial fluid system. These meridian channels provide efficient migratory tracks mainly due to durotaxis (also including chemotaxis) for mast cells, fibroblasts and other cells to migrate and carry out a number of physiological functions. Acupuncture acting on meridian channel causes cytoskeletal remodeling through mechanotransduction, leading to regulation of gene expression and the subsequent production of related proteins. Also, stimulation on cell surface can trigger Ca2+ activities, resulting in a cascade of intra- and inter-cellular signaling. Moreover, nerve endings in the meridian channels interact with mast cells and induce the degranulation of these cells, leading to the release of many specific biomolecules needed for homeostasis, immune surveillance, wound healing and tissue repair. Acupoint along a meridian channel is a functional site to trigger the above functions with specificity and high efficiency. PMID:19480699

  12. Penetration of anticancer drugs through tumour tissue as a function of cellular packing density and interstitial fluid pressure and its modification by bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Grantab, Rama H; Tannock, Ian F

    2012-06-06

    Limited penetration of anticancer drugs in solid tumours is a probable cause of drug resistance. Our previous results indicate that drug penetration depends on cellular packing density and adhesion between cancer cells. We used epithelioid and round cell variants of the HCT-8 human colon carcinoma cell lines to generate tightly and loosely packed xenografts in nude mice. We measured packing density and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) and studied the penetration of anti-cancer drugs through multilayered cell cultures (MCC) derived from epithelioid HCT-8 variants, and the distribution of doxorubicin in xenografts with and without pre-treatment with bortezomib. We show lower packing density in xenografts established from round cell than epithelioid cell lines, with lower IFP in xenografts. There was better distribution of doxorubicin in xenografts grown from round cell variants, consistent with previous data in MCC. Bortezomib pre-treatment reduced cellular packing density, improved penetration, and enhanced cytotoxcity of several anticancer drugs in MCC derived from epithelioid cell lines. Pre-treatment of xenografts with bortezomib enhanced the distribution of doxorubicin within them. Our results provide a rationale for further investigation of agents that enhance the distribution of chemotherapeutic drugs in combination with conventional chemotherapy in solid tumours.

  13. A modified method using the SonoPrep ultrasonic skin permeation system for sampling human interstitial fluid is compatible with proteomic techniques.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Marie M J; Atkinson, Kelly R; Kay, Daniel P; Simons, Joanne L; Ingram, John R

    2013-02-01

    The use of biomarkers in skin is a novel diagnostic tool. Interstitial fluid (ISF) from skin provides a snapshot of proteins secreted at the time of sampling giving insights into the patient's health status. A minimally invasive technique for the transdermal collection of human ISF proteins. A low frequency ultrasonic skin permeation device (SonoPrep ultrasonic skin permeation system) was used to produce micropores in the stratum corneum through which ISF was extracted using a portable pulsed vacuum ISF collection device. On average, protein concentrations recovered ranged between 0.064 and 4.792 μg/μL (mean 1.258 μg/μL). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that this sample type was amenable to this type of analysis. Gel images indicated that both highly abundant proteins and lower abundance proteins were isolated from the skin. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of proteins commonly found in plasma and the epidermis. A minimally invasive method for the transdermal recovery of ISF proteins has been developed. We have demonstrated that ISF samples obtained using this approach can be analysed with proteomic techniques, such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and western blots, providing another tool for the identification of disease specific protein biomarkers. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Amyloid-β Peptides and Tau Protein as Biomarkers in Cerebrospinal and Interstitial Fluid Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Experimental and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tsitsopoulos, Parmenion P.; Marklund, Niklas

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors frequently suffer from life-long deficits in cognitive functions and a reduced quality of life. Axonal injury, observed in many severe TBI patients, results in accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Post-injury enzymatic cleavage of APP can generate amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, a hallmark finding in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). At autopsy, brains of AD and a subset of TBI victims display some similarities including accumulation of Aβ peptides and neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Most epidemiological evidence suggests a link between TBI and AD, implying that TBI has neurodegenerative sequelae. Aβ peptides and tau may be used as biomarkers in interstitial fluid (ISF) using cerebral microdialysis and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following clinical TBI. In the present review, the available clinical and experimental literature on Aβ peptides and tau as potential biomarkers following TBI is comprehensively analyzed. Elevated CSF and ISF tau protein levels have been observed following severe TBI and suggested to correlate with clinical outcome. Although Aβ peptides are produced by normal neuronal metabolism, high levels of long and/or fibrillary Aβ peptides may be neurotoxic. Increased CSF and/or ISF Aβ levels post-injury may be related to neuronal activity and/or the presence of axonal injury. The heterogeneity of animal models, clinical cohorts, analytical techniques, and the complexity of TBI in the available studies make the clinical value of tau and Aβ as biomarkers uncertain at present. Additionally, the link between early post-injury changes in tau and Aβ peptides and the future risk of developing AD remains unclear. Future studies using methods such as rapid biomarker sampling combined with enhanced analytical techniques and/or novel pharmacological tools could provide additional information on the importance of Aβ peptides and tau protein in both the acute pathophysiology and long

  15. Interstitial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Milligan, A J; Dobelbower, R R

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of hyperthermia as a treatment modality for cancer continues to gain popularity in the medical community. One of the disappointing findings has been the inability to deliver uniform thermal doses to tumor volumes. This inability to heat certain tumors is due to a variety of physical and physiologic phenomena. To increase the ability of heating tumors, local interstitial techniques have been developed that are proving to be safe and effective. These techniques employ implanted microwave or radiofrequency antennae for the delivery of local thermal doses. Recently, investigations into the placement of interstitially located ferromagnetic seeds for local hyperthermia have also been conducted. The seeds can be heated by delivery of a high-wattage RF magnetic field to the implanted volume by an external source after implantation. The tissue surrounding the ferromagnetic implant is heated by conduction of heat away from the implanted seeds. While these techniques have been effective, further development of the instrumentation for interstitial therapies is continuing. These developments will include the application of specific control circuitry for delivery of accurate thermal doses.

  16. Detection of cadherin-17 in human colon cancer LIM1215 cell secretome and tumour xenograft-derived interstitial fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Oliver K; Greening, David W; Barnes, Thomas W; Ji, Hong; Simpson, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most prevalent cancers in the western world, is treatable if detected early. However, 70% of CRC is detected at an advanced stage. This is largely due to the inadequacy of current faecal occult blood screening testing and costs involved in conducting population-based colonoscopy, the 'gold standard' for CRC detection. Another biomarker for CRC, carcinoembryonic antigen, while useful for monitoring CRC recurrence, is ineffective, lacking the specificity required early detection of CRC. For these reasons there is a need for more effective blood-based markers for early CRC detection. In this study we targeted glycoproteins secreted from the human colon carcinoma cell line LIM1215 as a source of potential CRC biomarkers. Secreted candidate glycoproteins were confirmed by MS and validated by Western blot analysis of tissue/tumour interstitial fluid (Tif) from LIM1215 xenograft tumours grown in immunocompromised mice. Overall, 39 glycoproteins were identified in LIM1215 culture media (CCM) and 5 glycoproteins in LIM1215 tumour xenograft Tif; of these, cadherin-17 (CDH17), galectin-3 binding protein (LGALS3BP), and tyrosine-protein kinase-like 7 (PTK7) were identified in both CM and glycosylation motifs. Swiss-Prot was used to annotate Tif. Many of the glycoproteins identified in this study (e.g., AREG, DSG2, EFNA1, EFNA3, EFNA4, EPHB4, ST14, and TIMP1) have been reported to be implicated in CRC biology. Interestingly, the cadherin-17 ectodomain, but not full length cadherin-17, was identified in CM, Tif and plasma derived from mice bearing the LIM1215 xenograft tumour. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the cadherin-17 ectodomain in plasma. In this study, we report for the first time that the presence of full-length cadherin-17 in exosomes released into the CM. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

  17. Effects of growth hormone-releasing hormone on sleep and brain interstitial fluid amyloid-β in an APP transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Liao, Fan; Zhang, Tony J; Mahan, Thomas E; Jiang, Hong; Holtzman, David M

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by impairment of cognitive function, extracellular amyloid plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and synaptic and neuronal loss. There is substantial evidence that the aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain plays a key role in the pathogenesis of AD and that Aβ aggregation is a concentration dependent process. Recently, it was found that Aβ levels in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) are regulated by the sleep-wake cycle in both humans and mice; ISF Aβ is higher during wakefulness and lower during sleep. Intracerebroventricular infusion of orexin increased wakefulness and ISF Aβ levels, and chronic sleep deprivation significantly increased Aβ plaque formation in amyloid precursor protein transgenic (APP) mice. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is a well-documented sleep regulatory substance which promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep. GHRHR(lit/lit) mice that lack functional GHRH receptor have shorter sleep duration and longer wakefulness during light periods. The current study was undertaken to determine whether manipulating sleep by interfering with GHRH signaling affects brain ISF Aβ levels in APPswe/PS1ΔE9 (PS1APP) transgenic mice that overexpress mutant forms of APP and PSEN1 that cause autosomal dominant AD. We found that intraperitoneal injection of GHRH at dark onset increased sleep and decreased ISF Aβ and that delivery of a GHRH antagonist via reverse-microdialysis suppressed sleep and increased ISF Aβ. The diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/lit) mice was significantly smaller than that in PS1APP/GHRHR(lit/+) mice. However despite decreased sleep in GHRHR deficient mice, this was not associated with an increase in Aβ accumulation later in life. One of several possibilities for the finding is the fact that GHRHR deficient mice have GHRH-dependent but sleep-independent factors which protect against Aβ deposition.

  18. Interstitial Fluid Sphingosine-1-Phosphate in Murine Mammary Gland and Cancer and Human Breast Tissue and Cancer Determined by Novel Methods.

    PubMed

    Nagahashi, Masayuki; Yamada, Akimitsu; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Allegood, Jeremy C; Tsuchida, Junko; Aoyagi, Tomoyoshi; Huang, Wei-Ching; Terracina, Krista P; Adams, Barbara J; Rashid, Omar M; Milstien, Sheldon; Wakai, Toshifumi; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-06-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a determining factor for cancer biology and progression. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), produced by sphingosine kinases (SphKs), is a bioactive lipid mediator that regulates processes important for cancer progression. Despite its critical roles, the levels of S1P in interstitial fluid (IF), an important component of the tumor microenvironment, have never previously been measured due to a lack of efficient methods for collecting and quantifying IF. The purpose of this study is to clarify the levels of S1P in the IF from murine mammary glands and its tumors utilizing our novel methods. We developed an improved centrifugation method to collect IF. Sphingolipids in IF, blood, and tissue samples were measured by mass spectrometry. In mice with a deletion of SphK1, but not SphK2, levels of S1P in IF from the mammary glands were greatly attenuated. Levels of S1P in IF from mammary tumors were reduced when tumor growth was suppressed by oral administration of FTY720/fingolimod. Importantly, sphingosine, dihydro-sphingosine, and S1P levels, but not dihydro-S1P, were significantly higher in human breast tumor tissue IF than in the normal breast tissue IF. To our knowledge, this is the first reported S1P IF measurement in murine normal mammary glands and mammary tumors, as well as in human patients with breast cancer. S1P tumor IF measurement illuminates new aspects of the role of S1P in the tumor microenvironment.

  19. Tumor priming by Apo2L/TRAIL reduces interstitial fluid pressure and enhances efficacy of liposomal gemcitabine in a patient derived xenograft tumor model.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Bonnie L; Sen, Arindam; Beachy, Sarah H; Pitoniak, Rose; Ullas, Soumya; Gibbs, John F; Qiu, Jingxin; Prey, Joshua D; Fetterly, Gerald J; Repasky, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-10

    Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is elevated in tumors and high IFP, a negative cancer prognosticator, is known to limit the uptake and efficacy of anti-tumor therapeutics. Approaches that alter the tumor microenvironment and enhance uptake of therapeutics are collectively referred to as tumor "priming". Here we show that the cytotoxic biological therapy Apo2L/TRAIL can prime the tumor microenvironment and significantly lower IFP in three different human tumor xenograft models (Colo205, MiaPaca-2 and a patient gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma tumor xenograft). We found that a single dose of Apo2L/TRAIL resulted in a wave of apoptosis which reached a maximum at 8h post-treatment. Apoptotic debris subsequently disappeared concurrent with an increase in macrophage infiltration. By 24h post-treatment, treated tumors appeared less condensed with widening of the stromal areas which increased at 48 and 72h. Analysis of tumor vasculature demonstrated a significant increase in overall vessel size at 48 and 72h although the number of vessels did not change. Notably, IFP was significantly reduced in these tumors by 48h after Apo2L/TRAIL treatment. Administration of gemcitabine at this time resulted in increased tumor uptake of both gemcitabine and liposomal gemcitabine and significantly improved anti-tumor efficacy of liposomal gemcitabine. These results suggest that Apo2L/TRAIL has a potential as a tumor priming agent and provides a rationale for developing a sequencing schema for combination therapy such that an initial dose of Apo2L/TRAIL would precede administration of gemcitabine or other therapies.

  20. Impaired Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of High-Density Lipoprotein Isolated From Interstitial Fluid in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Apro, Johanna; Tietge, Uwe J F; Dikkers, Arne; Parini, Paolo; Angelin, Bo; Rudling, Mats

    2016-05-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the mechanism of which is incompletely understood. Their high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma have been reported to have impaired cholesterol efflux capacity. However, the efflux capacity of HDL from interstitial fluid (IF), the starting point for reverse cholesterol transport, has not been studied. We here investigated the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from IF and plasma from T2D patients and healthy controls. HDL was isolated from IF and peripheral plasma from 35 T2D patients and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Cholesterol efflux to HDL was determined in vitro, normalized for HDL cholesterol, using cholesterol-loaded macrophages. Efflux capacity of plasma HDL was 10% lower in T2D patients than in healthy controls, in line with previous observations. This difference was much more pronounced for HDL from IF, where efflux capacity was reduced by 28% in T2D. Somewhat surprisingly, the efflux capacity of HDL from IF was lower than that of plasma HDL, by 15% and 32% in controls and T2D patients, respectively. These data demonstrate that (1) HDL from IF has a lower cholesterol efflux capacity than plasma HDL and (2) the efflux capacity of HDL from IF is severely impaired in T2D when compared with controls. Because IF comprises the compartment where reverse cholesterol transport is initiated, the marked reduction in cholesterol efflux capacity of IF-HDL from T2D patients may play an important role for their increased risk to develop atherosclerosis. © 2016 The Authors.

  1. Influence of sustained low-efficiency diafiltration (SLED-f) on interstitial fluid concentrations of fluconazole in a critically ill patient: Use of microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Sinnollareddy, Mahipal G; Roberts, Michael S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Peake, Sandra L; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-07-01

    Acute kidney injury is a common complication in critically ill patients, and hybrid techniques including sustained low-efficiency dialysis/diafiltration (SLED-f) are being increasingly utilised in intensive care units. Most fungal infections occur in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of tissues and successful treatment of a fungal infection relies on the ability of an antifungal agent to achieve adequate concentrations at the site of infection. Tissue distribution of antimicrobials is impaired in critically ill patients owing to a variety of disease-related physiological changes, e.g. sepsis. Fluconazole is a widely used antifungal agent used to treat Candida spp. infections in critically ill patients. The implications for ISF concentrations of enhanced elimination during renal replacement therapy have not yet been reported for fluconazole. The aim of this single-patient case report was to describe the influence of SLED-f on subcutaneous (SC) ISF concentrations of fluconazole and the implications for achieving pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets. Serial blood and ISF samples were collected at pre- and post-filter ports within the SLED-f circuit and subcutaneously inserted microdialysis probe, respectively. Fluconazole concentrations were measured using a validated chromatography method. The SC ISF-to-plasma partition coefficient of fluconazole in this patient was 0.91, indicating rapid equilibrium. SC ISF fluconazole concentrations consistently decreased after initiating SLED-f. The majority of the fluconazole was eliminated from the SC ISF as a result of redistribution. Considering the extensive tissue re-distribution of fluconazole and observed elimination from tissue compartments, higher doses may be required to treat deep-seated fungal infections.

  2. Amniotic Fluid Derived Stem Cells with a Renal Progenitor Phenotype Inhibit Interstitial Fibrosis in Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, Marina Gabriela; Zia, Silvia; Oliveira Arcolino, Fanny; Carlon, Marianne Sylvia; Beckmann, Diego Vilibaldo; Pippi, Ney Luis; Luhers Graça, Dominguita; Levtchenko, Elena; Deprest, Jan; Toelen, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human amniotic fluid (hAFSCs) are a promising source for cellular therapy, especially for renal disorders, as a subpopulation is derived from the fetal urinary tract. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if hAFSCs with a renal progenitor phenotype demonstrate a nephroprotective effect in acute ischemia reperfusion (I/R) model and prevent late stage fibrosis. A total of 45 male 12-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three equal groups;: rats subjected to I/R injury and treated with Chang Medium, rats subjected to I/R injury and treated with hAFSCs and sham-operated animals. In the first part of this study, hAFSCs that highly expressed CD24, CD117, SIX2 and PAX2 were isolated and characterized. In the second part, renal I/R injury was induced in male rats and cellular treatment was performed 6 hours later via arterial injection. Functional and histological analyses were performed 24 hours, 48 hours and 2 months after treatment using serum creatinine, urine protein to creatinine ratio, inflammatory and regeneration markers and histomorphometric analysis of the kidney. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey's test for multiple comparisons or by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn. Statistical significance level was defined as p <0.05. hAFSCs treatment resulted in significantly reduced serum creatinine level at 24 hours, less tubular necrosis, less hyaline cast formation, higher proliferation index, less inflammatory cell infiltration and less myofibroblasts at 48 h. The treated group had less fibrosis and proteinuria at 2 months after injury. hAFSCs contain a renal progenitor cell subpopulation that has a nephroprotective effect when delivered intra-arterially in rats with renal I/R injury, and reduces interstitial fibrosis on long term follow-up.

  3. Effect of Transcatheter Intra-Arterial Therapies on Tumor Interstitial Fluid Pressure and Its Relation to Drug Penetration in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bin; Chen, Shaofeng; Li, Lin; Liu, Yiming; Xiong, Fu; Dong, Xiangjun; Feng, Gansheng; Gupta, Sanjay; Zheng, Chuansheng

    2015-12-01

    To determine the change in tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) after transcatheter intra-arterial (IA) therapies and its relation to drug penetration in liver cancer. VX2 tumors were grown in the livers of 16 rabbits. The rabbits were treated with intravenous injection of doxorubicin (group 1; n = 4), hepatic IA injection of doxorubicin (group 2; n = 4), hepatic IA injection of doxorubicin followed by embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles (group 3; n = 4), or hepatic IA injection of doxorubicin mixed with Lipiodol followed by polyvinyl alcohol embolization (group 4; n = 4). Tumor IFP was measured with a Mikro-Tip pressure catheter before and 1 hour after treatment. Doxorubicin penetration was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Tumor IFP after treatment decreased by 5.0% ± 2.8, 3.9% ± 9.0, 27.1% ± 5.2, and 31.8% ± 7.4 in groups 1-4, respectively. The difference in IFP reduction between embolization-treated groups (groups 3 and 4) and nonembolized groups (groups 1 and 2) was significant (P < .001). Doxorubicin penetration distances were 20.3 μm ± 3.7, 45.7 μm ± 10.5, 69.5 μm ± 9.3, and 47.9 μm ± 6.4 in groups 1-4, respectively. IFP reduction was significantly correlated with doxorubicin penetration distance (r = .671, P = .004). A greater reduction of tumor IFP was associated with embolization in a preclinical liver tumor model, and embolization may indirectly contribute to increased drug penetration. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of cartilage interstitial fluid on the mRNA levels of matrix proteins, cytokines, metalloproteases and their inhibitors in synovial membrane.

    PubMed

    Hyc, Anna; Moskalewski, Stanislaw; Osiecka-Iwan, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Articular cartilage and the synovial membrane both ensure the smooth action of synovial joints; however, the influence of chondrocytes on synovial metabolism remains unclear. The secretory activity of chondrocytes is usually studied in cell cultures and may differ from that in intact cartilage. According to McCutchen's theory of 'weeping' joint lubrication, loading of the articular cartilage during motion squeezes the fluid with lubricating properties from the cartilage. The purpose of the study was to obtain cartilage interstitial fluid (CIF) from intact cartilage and to evaluate its influence on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells. CIF was rinsed out from the cartilage of newborn rats at a pressure of three bar. The chondrocytes survived rinsing and grew in culture. Cytokines in CIF were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The influence of CIF and CIF-like cocktail (all cytokines found in CIF) on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells was studied after a 4 h-incubation, by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pair test or by the Mann‑Whitney U test. CIF contained basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)‑1, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), macrophage (M)-colony-stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte (G)-CSF and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). CIF stimulated the expression of hyaluronan synthase (HAS)1 and 2, lubricin, collagen I, versican, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)2 and 3, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 1-3, interleukin (IL)-6 and TGFβ1, and decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1β. Incubation of the synovial membrane with CIF-like cocktail partially imitated the effects of CIF. Analysis of CIF composition may help to characterize the secretory activity of chondrocytes in their natural environment under various physiological and

  5. Interstitial brines in playa sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.F.; Van Denburgh, A.S.; Truesdell, A.H.; Rettig, S.L.

    1969-01-01

    Study of several closed drainages in the Great Basin has shown that the interstitial solutions of shallow, fine-grained playa deposits store a large quantity of dissolved solids and are often more concentrated than associated lakes and ponds, except in peripheral zones of stream or ground-water inflow. These interstitial fluids, when compared with local runoff, impoundments, or spring waters, commonly have a distinctive ionic composition which sometimes cannot be explained by either simple mixing of surface and subsurface inflow or by evaporative concentration. At Abert Lake, Oregon, the interstitial solute concentrations increased with depth to values as much as five times greater than the lake, except where springs indicate significant ground-water input. Where Na+, Cl, and CO2 species constitute more than 90% of the solutes, Na+ Cl- ratios in the lake water are lower than in interstitial solutions of bottom cores and higher than in playa fluids. At the same time, Na+ K+ ratios are highest in the fluids of lake bottom muds and lowest in playa interstitials. In deeper playa profiles, interstitial Na+ Cl- tended to decrease with depth (5 ft. maximum). In the Abert Lake area, as in other parts of the western Great Basin, Na+ Cl- ratios are indicative of total CO2 in solution and the effects of organic decay in surficial sediments. These ratios, coupled with data on silica and bulk density, show that higher PCO2 accompanying decay promotes silicate dissolution and hydrogen ion exchange, stripping alkalis from sediment which had preferentially adsorbed K+ when entering the lake. On subsequent loss of pore fluid in the playa regime, silica initially released to solution in the lake environment is readsorbed on dissolution products. ?? 1969.

  6. Interstitial Cystitis Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have IC. Get The Facts Interstitial Cystitis Association The Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) is the only ... events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, VA ...

  7. Interstitial cystitis - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - interstitial cystitis ... The following organizations are good resources for information on interstitial cystitis : Interstitial Cystitis Association -- www.ichelp.org National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse -- www.kidney.niddk. ...

  8. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)/Pulmonary Fibrosis Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD)/Pulmonary Fibrosis Make an Appointment Refer ... ILD clinical trials and most effective therapies. Interstitial Lung Disease Care at National Jewish Health At National ...

  9. Putative Delays in Interstitial Fluid (ISF) Glucose Kinetics Can Be Attributed to the Glucose Sensing Systems Used to Measure Them Rather Than the Delay in ISF Glucose Itself

    PubMed Central

    Voskanyan, Gayane; Barry Keenan, D.; Mastrototaro, John J.; Steil, Garry M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Since the advent of subcutaneous glucose sensors, there has been intense focus on characterizing the delay in the interstitial fluid (ISF) glucose response and the effect of insulin to alter the plasma-to-ISF glucose gradient. The Medtronic MiniMed continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) has often been used for this purpose; however, many of the studies have used experimental conditions that fall outside its intended use, for example, studies that have assessed the delay during rapid glucose excursions brought about by intravenous infusion of glucose or insulin. Under these conditions, it is possible that the rate of glucose change may exceed that allowed by CGMS filtering routines. If so, the estimated delay may be because of the filter rather than the ISF. Also, sensor characteristics, such as nonspecific offset current or stability, may have been inadvertently attributed to changes in the plasma-to-ISF gradient. The potential for these issues to have confounded the understanding of ISF glucose delay and gradient is investigated. Methods An in vitro preparation in which no delay or gradient exists between sensor and measurement solution was used to recreate a rapidly changing glucose profile from a previously published in vivo study. The CGMS system (N = 6 sensors) was then used to estimate any artifactual delay and gradient introduced by the system per se. Results One-point calibration resulted in an apparent change in gradient as glucose was lowered from ∼100 to 50 mg/dl. After a two-point calibration, sensor glucose followed the glucose profile as it was decreased slowly from ∼100 to ∼60 mg/dl; however, when the glucose level was subsequently increased rapidly to ∼150 mg/dl, CGMS filtering routines limited the rate of change of sensor glucose and introduced a delay similar to that previously attributed to ISF glucose equilibration delay. Conclusions Studies that have previously used the Medtronic MiniMed CGMS system to assess changes in

  10. Interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R; Davies, M F

    1998-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a multifactorial syndrome with symptoms of pelvic or perineal pain, urinary frequency and urgency. The etiologies are unknown, but several theories have been proposed. Diagnosis is often delayed because most of the conventional evaluation is normal. Pelvic examination is normal except for bladder tenderness. Urodynamics are normal except for increased bladder sensitivity and low capacity. Urinalysis, urine culture and office cystoscopy are also normal. The diagnostic test is cystoscopy under anesthesia with bladder distension. Small submucosal hemorrhages (glomerulations) or ulcers appear after distension. Many empiric treatments have been proposed for IC. None is universally effective, and so treatments are tried sequentially until good symptom relief is achieved. Bladder distension gives excellent (but transient) relief in some patients, especially those with severe bladder inflammation (who also tend to be older). A variety of oral, intravesical and adjunctive treatments are also described.

  11. Citrus pulp for cattle.

    PubMed

    Arthington, John D; Kunkle, William E; Martin, Amy M

    2002-07-01

    Citrus pulp is classified as an energy concentrate by-product feed. Citrus by-products fed to beef cattle include citrus molasses, citrus meal, wet citrus pulp, dried citrus pulp, and pelleted citrus pulp; however, in current production systems, pulp (wet, dry, and pelleted) is the only by-product commonly used. Citrus pulp production in the United States is limited to specific subtropical regions, of which south central Florida remains the largest with additional production in California and Texas.

  12. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    PubMed

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  13. A pilot study of the effects of mild systemic heating on human head and neck tumour xenografts: Analysis of tumour perfusion, interstitial fluid pressure, hypoxia and efficacy of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Timothy B; Eranki, Annu; Ullas, Soumya; Singh, Anurag K; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Sen, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    The tumour microenvironment is frequently hypoxic, poorly perfused, and exhibits abnormally high interstitial fluid pressure. These factors can significantly reduce efficacy of chemo and radiation therapies. The present study aims to determine whether mild systemic heating alters these parameters and improves response to radiation in human head and neck tumour xenografts in SCID mice. SCID mice were injected with FaDu cells (a human head and neck carcinoma cell line), or implanted with a resected patient head and neck squamous cell carcinoma grown as a xenograft, followed by mild systemic heating. Body temperature during heating was maintained at 39.5 ± 0.5 °C for 4 h. Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), hypoxia and relative tumour perfusion in the tumours were measured at 2 and 24 h post-heating. Tumour vessel perfusion was measured 24 h post-heating, coinciding with the first dose of fractionated radiotherapy. Heating tumour-bearing mice resulted in significant decrease in intratumoural IFP, increased the number of perfused tumour blood vessels as well as relative tumour perfusion in both tumour models. Intratumoural hypoxia was also reduced in tumours of mice that received heat treatment. Mice bearing FaDu tumours heated 24 h prior to five daily radiation treatments exhibited significantly enhanced tumour response compared to tumours in control mice. Mild systemic heating can significantly alter the tumour microenvironment of human head and neck tumour xenograft models, decreasing IFP and hypoxia while increasing microvascular perfusion. Collectively, these effects could be responsible for the improved response to radiotherapy.

  14. A pilot study of the effects of mild systemic heating on human head and neck tumour xenografts: Analysis of tumour perfusion, interstitial fluid pressure, hypoxia and efficacy of radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Timothy B.; Eranki, Annu; Ullas, Soumya; Singh, Anurag K.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Sen, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The tumour microenvironment is frequently hypoxic, poorly perfused, and exhibits abnormally high interstitial fluid pressure. These factors can significantly reduce efficacy of chemo and radiation therapies. The present study aims to determine whether mild systemic heating alters these parameters and improves response to radiation in human head and neck tumour xenografts in SCID mice. Materials and methods SCID mice were injected with FaDu cells (a human head and neck carcinoma cell line), or implanted with a resected patient head and neck squamous cell carcinoma grown as a xenograft, followed by mild systemic heating. Body temperature during heating was maintained at 39.5 ± 0.5 °C for 4 h. Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), hypoxia and relative tumour perfusion in the tumours were measured at 2 and 24 h post-heating. Tumour vessel perfusion was measured 24 h post-heating, coinciding with the first dose of fractionated radiotherapy. Results Heating tumour-bearing mice resulted in significant decrease in intratumoural IFP, increased the number of perfused tumour blood vessels as well as relative tumour perfusion in both tumour models. Intratumoural hypoxia was also reduced in tumours of mice that received heat treatment. Mice bearing FaDu tumours heated 24 h prior to five daily radiation treatments exhibited significantly enhanced tumour response compared to tumours in control mice. Conclusions Mild systemic heating can significantly alter the tumour microenvironment of human head and neck tumour xenograft models, decreasing IFP and hypoxia while increasing microvascular perfusion. Collectively, these effects could be responsible for the improved response to radiotherapy. PMID:25986432

  15. Constraints of gas venting activity for the interstitial water geochemistry at the shallow gas hydrate site, eastern margin of the Japan Sea; results from high resolution time-series fluid sampling by OsmoSampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owari, S.; Tomaru, H.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    We have conducted ROV researches in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea where active gas venting and outcropping of gas hydrates were observed near the seafloor and have found the strength and location of venting had changed within a few days. These observations indicate the seafloor environments with the shallow gas hydrate system could have changed for short period compared to a geological time scale. We have applied a long-term osmotic fluid sampling system "OsmoSampler" on the active gas hydrate system for one year in order to document how the gas venting and gas hydrate activity have changed the geochemical environments near the seafloor. All the major ion concentrations in the interstitial water show synchronous increase and decrease repeatedly in three to five days, reflecting the incorporation and release of fresh water in gas hydrates in response to the gas concentration change near the sampling site. Dissolved methane concentration increases rapidly and excessively (over several mM) in the first 40 days corresponding to the active gas venting. The increases of methane concentration are often associated with high ion concentration during high water pressure period, indicating excess gas release from shallow gas pockets. Contrarily, enhanced gas hydrate growth may plug the fluid-gas paths in shallow sediment, reducing gas hydrate formation due to the decrease of methane flux. This study was conducted under the commission from AIST as a part of the methane hydrate research project funded by METI (the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Japan).

  16. Update on interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Pamela A; Lascola, Kara M

    2015-04-01

    Interstitial pneumonias encompass a wide variety of acute and chronic respiratory diseases and include the specific diseases equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis and acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress. These diseases have been diagnosed in all age groups of horses, and numerous agents have been identified as potential causes of interstitial pneumonia. Despite the varied causes, interstitial pneumonia is uniformly recognized by the severity of respiratory disease and often poor clinical outcome. This article reviews the causal agents that have been associated with the development of interstitial pneumonia in horses. Pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and treatment options are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Nd: and Ho:yttrium-aluminium-garnet lasers on human dentine fluid flow and dental pulp-chamber temperature in vitro.

    PubMed

    Goodis, H E; White, J M; Marshall, G W; Yee, K; Fuller, N; Gee, L; Marshall, S J

    1997-12-01

    Dentine specimens were prepared from freshly extracted third molars and initial permeability measured. Each specimen was subjected to Nd:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) (1.06 or 1.32 microns wavelength) or Ho:YAG (2.10 microns wavelength) laser energy while temperatures in the pulp chambers were recorded. Permeability was again measured and the surfaces examined by scanning electron microscopy. Six crown segments were used for each laser variable and eight permeability measurements were taken before and eight after laser exposure, while temperature was recorded during treatment. All wavelengths reduced permeability but temperature rises were high enough to have caused pulpal damage, indicating that shorter treatment times and lower power settings may be necessary if used in vivo.

  18. Mechanosensitivity of dental pulp stem cells is related to their osteogenic maturity.

    PubMed

    Kraft, David C E; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Melsen, Birte; Abdallah, Basem M; Kassem, Moustapha; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2010-02-01

    For engineering bone tissue, mechanosensitive cells are needed for bone (re)modelling. Local bone mass and architecture are affected by mechanical loading, which provokes a cellular response via loading-induced interstitial fluid flow. We studied whether human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PDSCs) portraying mature (PDSC-mature) or immature (PDSC-immature) bone cell characteristics are responsive to pulsating fluid flow (PFF) in vitro. We also assessed bone formation by PDSCs on hydroxyapatite-tricalcium phosphate granules after subcutaneous implantation in mice. Cultured PDSC-mature exhibited higher osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase gene expression and activity than PDSC-immature. Pulsating fluid flow (PFF) stimulated nitric oxide production within 5 min by PDSC-mature but not by PDSC-immature. In PDSC-mature, PFF induced prostaglandin E(2) production, and cyclooxygenase 2 gene expression was higher than in PDSC-immature. Implantation of PDSC-mature resulted in more osteoid deposition and lamellar bone formation than PDSC-immature. We conclude that PDSCs with a mature osteogenic phenotype are more responsive to pulsating fluid shear stress than osteogenically immature PDSCs and produce more bone in vivo. These data suggest that PDSCs with a mature osteogenic phenotype might be preferable for bone tissue engineering to restore, for example, maxillofacial defects, because they might be able to perform mature bone cell-specific functions during bone adaptation to mechanical loading in vivo.

  19. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  20. Pulp stones: a review.

    PubMed

    Goga, R; Chandler, N P; Oginni, A O

    2008-06-01

    Pulp stones are a frequent finding on bitewing and periapical radiographs but receive relatively little attention in textbooks. A review of the literature was therefore performed, initially using the PubMed database and beginning the search with 'pulp calcifications' and 'pulp stones'. Each term provided more than 400 references, many of which related to pulp calcification in general rather than pulp stones, and focussed largely on the problems these changes presented to clinicians. A manual search using references from this source was carried out. Contemporary textbooks in endodontology were also consulted, and an historic perspective gained from a number of older books and references. The factors involved in the development of the pulp stones are largely unknown. Further research may determine the reasons for their formation, but with current endodontic instruments and techniques this is unlikely to alter their relevance to clinicians.

  1. Controls on the 129I/I ratio of deep-seated marine interstitial fluids: ‘Old’ organic versus fissiogenic 129-iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Florian; Hensen, Christian; Lu, Zunli; Fehn, Udo

    2010-05-01

    Iodine and its radioisotope 129I have been successfully used to trace the origin of pore waters in submarine fluid escape structures because of their close association with organic material in deeply buried sediments. We report here halogen concentrations and 129I/I ratios for fluids of five mud volcanoes sampled along an E-W transect across the Gulf of Cadiz in the NE Atlantic Ocean. Concentrations of iodide and bromide increase consistently seaward accompanied by a decrease in 129I/I ratios from 6490 × 10 - 15 to 663 × 10 - 15 . The exceptionally high 129I/I ratios at the near-shore locations reflect the presence of fissiogenic 129I, produced in situ by spontaneous fission of 238U within terrigenous sediments and released into pore water during clay mineral diagenetic processes. The observed 129I/I and halogen trends, together with similar changes in 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, indicate a progressive seaward transition from inorganic-terrigenous to organic-marine fluid sources. Comparison of our results with literature data for varying geological settings reveals a general relationship between fissiogenic 129I, radiogenic 87Sr and the lithology or provenance of rocks and sediments, respectively. While 129I/I ratios in continental rock-hosted aquifers and terrigenous sedimentary systems are dominated by in situ production of fissiogenic 129I, iodine isotopes in oceanic settings or volcanogenic marine sediments reflect the release of 'old' iodine from deeply buried organic matter. The Gulf of Cadiz represents the full transition between these continental and oceanic 129I/I and 87Sr/ 86Sr end members. This is the first systematic investigation of fissiogenic 129I production in marine sedimentary environments.

  2. Organic Geochemistry of Sediments, Interstitial Fluids and Light Volatile Hydrocarbon Gases from Giza and North Alex Mud Volcanoes, Western Nile Deep-Sea Fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuzzo, Marianne; Elvert, Marcus; Heuer, Verena; Schmidt, Mark; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Scholz, Florian; Reitz, Anja; Hensen, Christian

    2010-05-01

    The West Nile Delta Project is a multi-disciplinary research project lead at IFM-GEOMAR (Kiel, Germany) and funded by RWE-DEA (Hamburg, Germany). It aims at investigating the sources and transport mechanisms of fluids and hydrocarbon gases seeping at two mud volcanoes (MVs) of the western Nile Deep-Sea Fan: North Alex and Giza MVs, and at the long-term monitoring of the seepage activity at these sites [1,2]. A comparative study of the organic geochemistry of sediments, gases and fluids was carried out in order to constrain (i) the sources of fluids, mud and gases erupted at these cold seeps, and (ii) the microbial hydrocarbon-oxidation processes associated with the extrusion of mud and gases. The molecular and stable isotope composition of light volatile hydrocarbon gases stripped from pore fluids reveal a clear thermogenic origin at the less active Giza MV and at the active centre of N. Alex MV. However, they probably originate from different sources, as shown by the distinct 13C-CH4 values of ~ -45‰ and -37‰VPDB at North Alex and Giza MVs, respectively, while 2H-CH4 values are similar (~ -228‰VSMOW). Away from the centre at North Alex MV the gases have variable compositions and are mainly produced by Archaea microbes. The microbial production of CH4 is probably sustained by the high content of the mud breccia sediments in labile organic matter. Indeed Total Organic Carbon content values are high (~ 1 and 2%weight) in MV sediments from both sites as well as at the reference site away from Giza MV, suggesting a main shallow (Plio-Pleistocene) sedimentary source. Consistently, the sedimentary lipids contain high amounts of compounds typically issued from terrestrial plants such as -amyrin and nC26:0 to nC30:0 fatty acids & alkenols. The hypothesis that labile terrestrial organic matter sustains intense microbial activity in the mud volcano sediments is supported by the extreme enrichment of pore fluids in a suite of Volatile Fatty Acids, in particular

  3. Paper Pulp Panoply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marque, Margo E.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating paper-pulp bowls is designed to acquaint students with the beginning vocabulary and finger dexterity needed to sculpt clay. Describes the process of making paper-pulp bowls and identifies important vocabulary words. Provides directions for making paper bowl forms and lists the materials. (CMK)

  4. Paper Pulp Panoply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marque, Margo E.

    1999-01-01

    Explains that creating paper-pulp bowls is designed to acquaint students with the beginning vocabulary and finger dexterity needed to sculpt clay. Describes the process of making paper-pulp bowls and identifies important vocabulary words. Provides directions for making paper bowl forms and lists the materials. (CMK)

  5. Structure-brain exposure relationships in rat and human using a novel data set of unbound drug concentrations in brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Fridén, Markus; Winiwarter, Susanne; Jerndal, Gunilla; Bengtsson, Ola; Wan, Hong; Bredberg, Ulf; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Antonsson, Madeleine

    2009-10-22

    New experimental methodologies were applied to measure the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (K(p,uu,brain)) and the unbound CSF-to-plasma concentration ratio (K(p,uu,CSF)) in rats for 43 structurally diverse drugs. The relationship between chemical structure and K(p,uu,brain) was dominated by hydrogen bonding. Contrary to popular understanding based on the total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (logBB), lipophilicity was not a determinant of unbound brain exposure. Although changing the number of hydrogen bond acceptors is a useful design strategy for optimizing K(p,uu,brain), future improvement of in silico prediction models is dependent on the accommodation of active drug transport. The structure-brain exposure relationships found in the rat also hold for humans, since the rank order of the drugs was similar for human and rat K(p,uu,CSF). This cross-species comparison was supported by K(p,uu,CSF) being within 3-fold of K(p,uu,brain) in the rat for 33 of 39 drugs. It was, however, also observed that K(p,uu,CSF) overpredicts K(p,uu,brain) for highly effluxed drugs, indicating lower efflux capacity of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier compared to the blood-brain barrier.

  6. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are tissue-based classifications. Factors that may make you more susceptible to ... the right side of your heart Improve your sleep and sense of well-being You're most ...

  7. Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Critical Care & Sleep Medicine Interstitial Lung Disease Program Sarcoidosis Program Autoimmune Lung Center Rebecca C. Keith, MD, ... Syndromes Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis LAM Lupus Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Sarcoidosis Overview Scleroderma (SSC) Systemic Vasculitis Reasons to Visit ...

  8. Intracranial interstitial radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.

    1986-06-01

    Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future.

  9. Periodic extraction of interstitial fluid from the site of subcutaneous insulin infusion for the measurement of glucose: a novel single-port technique for the treatment of type 1 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Regittnig, Werner; Lindpointner, Stefan; Korsatko, Stefan; Tutkur, Dina; Bodenlenz, Manfred; Pieber, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes patients could be simplified if the site of subcutaneous insulin infusion could also be used for the measurement of glucose. This study aimed to assess the agreement between blood glucose concentrations and glucose levels in the interstitial fluid (ISF) that is extracted from the insulin infusion site during periodic short-term interruptions of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). A perforated cannula (24 gauge) was inserted into subcutaneous adipose tissue of C-peptide-negative type 1 diabetes subjects (n=13) and used alternately to infuse rapid-acting insulin (100 U/mL) and to extract ISF glucose during a fasting period and after ingestion of a standard oral glucose load (75 g). Although periodically interrupted for extracting glucose (every hour for approximately 10 min), insulin infusion with the cannula was adequate to achieve euglycemia during fasting and to restore euglycemia after glucose ingestion. Furthermore, the ISF-derived estimates of plasma glucose levels agreed well with plasma glucose concentrations. Correlation coefficient and median absolute relative difference values were found to be 0.95 and 8.0%, respectively. Error grid analysis showed 99.0% of all ISF glucose values within clinically acceptable Zones A and B (83.5% Zone A, 15.5% Zone B). Results show that ISF glucose concentrations measured at the insulin infusion site during periodic short-term interruptions of CSII closely reflect blood glucose levels, thus suggesting that glucose monitoring and insulin delivery may be performed alternately at the same tissue site. A single-port device of this type could be used to simplify and improve glucose management in diabetes.

  10. Interstitial laser prostatectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Douglas E.; Cromeens, Douglas M.; Price, Roger E.

    1994-05-01

    Interstitial laser coagulation of the canine prostate using the Sharplan interstitial thermal therapy fiber (Model 25432) was performed in 9 adult dogs and the subsequent gross and histopathologic changes occurring in the prostate were studied at intervals ranging from 1 hour to 5 weeks. A large well-demarcated area of acute coagulative necrosis developed around each fiber tract which in turn was surrounded by a prominent narrow zone of marked tissue disruption and an outer zone of hemorrhage. Liquefaction developed within the coagulative areas within 24 hours and by 4 days, each prostatic lobe contained an irregular cavity which became lined by normal-appearing transitional epithelium and that by 5 weeks, communicated with the prostatic urethra. These changes, similar to those reported following transurethral visual laser ablation of the prostate, suggest that interstitial laser thermal therapy may provide an alternative means for treating selected patients suffering from prostatic enlargement.

  11. DENTAL PULP TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Demarco, FF; Conde, MCM; Cavalcanti, B; Casagrande, L; Sakai, V; Nör, JE

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp is a highly specialized mesenchymal tissue, which have a restrict regeneration capacity due to anatomical arrangement and post-mitotic nature of odontoblastic cells. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial material cause loss of a significant amount of dentin leaving as life-lasting sequelae a non-vital and weakened tooth. However, regenerative endodontics is an emerging field of modern tissue engineering that demonstrated promising results using stem cells associated with scaffolds and responsive molecules. Thereby, this article will review the most recent endeavors to regenerate pulp tissue based on tissue engineering principles and providing insightful information to readers about the different aspects enrolled in tissue engineering. Here, we speculate that the search for the ideal combination of cells, scaffolds, and morphogenic factors for dental pulp tissue engineering may be extended over future years and result in significant advances in other areas of dental and craniofacial research. The finds collected in our review showed that we are now at a stage in which engineering a complex tissue, such as the dental pulp, is no longer an unachievable and the next decade will certainly be an exciting time for dental and craniofacial research. PMID:21519641

  12. [Chronic interstitial pneumonitis].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rui; Reis, Guilhermina; Ferreira, Cristina; Oliveira, Ma José; Oliveira, Dulce; Fernandes, Paula; Ferreira, Paula; Frutuoso, Simão; Carreira, Luísa; Alves, Valter; Paiva, António; Guedes, Margarida

    2004-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease includes a group of chronic diseases characterized by alterations in alveolar walls and loss of functional alveolar-capillary units. These are rare diseases in children, mostly with an unknown cause and associated with a high morbidity and mortality due to insufficient therapeutic effectiveness. The authors report a case of a previously healthy 3 years old child who presented with wheezing and severe respiratory insufficiency following a respiratory infection. The investigation performed led to the diagnosis of chronic interstitial pneumonitis. Several treatments have been tried (corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, N-acetylcysteine) without any obvious improvement.

  13. Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    MedlinePlus

    ... News) U.S. Medical Groups Sound the Alarm on Climate Change Additional Content Medical News Overview of Idiopathic Interstitial ... HealthDay U.S. Medical Groups Sound the Alarm on Climate Change WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Climate change ...

  14. Karyomegalic Interstitial Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Isnard, Pierre; Rabant, Marion; Labaye, Jacques; Antignac, Corinne; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Zaidan, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis is a rare cause of hereditary chronic interstitial nephritis, described for the first time over 40 years ago. A 36-year-old woman, of Turkish origin, presented with chronic kidney disease and high blood pressure. She had a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections but no familial history of nephropathy. Physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory tests showed serum creatinine at 2.3 mg/dL with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 26 mL/min/1.73m2, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase at 3 and 1.5 times the upper normal limit. Urinalysis showed 0.8 g/day of nonselective proteinuria, microscopic hematuria, and aseptic leukocyturia. Immunological tests and tests for human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B and C viruses were negative. Complement level and serum proteins electrophoresis were normal. Analysis of the renal biopsy showed severe interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Numerous tubular cells had nuclear enlargement with irregular outlines, hyperchromatic aspect, and prominent nucleoli. These findings were highly suggestive of karyomegalic interstitial nephritis, which was further confirmed by exome sequencing of FAN1 gene showing an identified homozygous frameshift mutation due to a one-base-pair deletion in exon 12 (c.2616delA). The present case illustrates a rare but severe cause of hereditary interstitial nephritis, sometimes accompanied by subtle extrarenal manifestations. Identification of mutations in FAN1 gene underscores recent insights linking inadequate DNA repair and susceptibility to chronic kidney disease. PMID:27196444

  15. Lymphangiogenesis and Lesion Heterogeneity in Interstitial Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The lymphatic system has several physiological roles, including fluid homeostasis and the activation of adaptive immunity by fluid drainage and cell transport. Lymphangiogenesis occurs in adult tissues during various pathologic conditions. In addition, lymphangiogenesis is closely linked to capillary angiogenesis, and the balanced interrelationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is essential for maintaining homeostasis in tissues. Recently, an increasing body of information regarding the biology of lymphatic endothelial cells has allowed us to immunohistochemically characterize lymphangiogenesis in several lung diseases. Particular interest has been given to the interstitial lung diseases. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) are characterized by heterogeneity in pathologic changes and lesions, as typified by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia. In IIPs, lymphangiogenesis is likely to have different types of localized functions within each disorder, corresponding to the heterogeneity of lesions in terms of inflammation and fibrosis. These functions include inhibitory absorption of interstitial fluid and small molecules and maturation of fibrosis by excessive interstitial fluid drainage, caused by an unbalanced relationship between capillary angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis and trafficking of antigen-presenting cells and induction of fibrogenesis via CCL21 and CCR7 signals. Better understanding for regional functions of lymphangiogenesis might provide new treatment strategies tailored to lesion heterogeneity in these complicated diseases. PMID:26823655

  16. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  17. Influence of kraft pulping on carboxylate content of softwood kraft pulps

    Treesearch

    Zheng Dang; Thomas Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2006-01-01

    This study characterizes changes in fiber charge, which is the carboxylate content of fibers, for two sets of kraft pulps: (1) conventional laboratory cooked loblolly pine kraft pulps and (2) conventional pulping (CK) versus low solids pulping (LS) pulps. Laboratory kraft pulping of loblolly pine was carried out to study the influence of pulping conditions, including...

  18. Dental Pulp Testing: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Eugene; Abbott, Paul V.

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp testing is a useful and essential diagnostic aid in endodontics. Pulp sensibility tests include thermal and electric tests, which extrapolate pulp health from sensory response. Whilst pulp sensibility tests are the most commonly used in clinical practice, they are not without limitations and shortcomings. Pulp vitality tests attempt to examine the presence of pulp blood flow, as this is viewed as a better measure of true health than sensibility. Laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry are examples of vitality tests. Whilst the prospect is promising, there are still many practical issues that need to be addressed before vitality tests can replace sensibility tests as the standard clinical pulp diagnostic test. With all pulp tests, the results need to be carefully interpreted and closely scrutinised as false results can lead to misdiagnosis which can then lead to incorrect, inappropriate, or unnecessary treatment. PMID:20339575

  19. Hyaluronan in Tubular and Interstitial Nephrocalcinosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkoelen, Carl F.

    2007-04-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is the major glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of the renal medullary interstitium. HA is extremely large (up to 104 kDa) and composed of thousands repeating disaccharides of glucuronic acid (GlcUA) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). HA is synthesized by hyaluronan synthases (HASs) and degraded by hyaluronidases (Hyals). The production of HA by renomedullary interstitial cells is mediated by local osmolality. When excess water needs to be excreted, increased interstitial HA seems to antagonize water reabsorption, while the opposite occurs during water conservation. Hence, papillary interstitial HA is low and Hyal high during anti-diuresis, whereas during diuresis HA is high and Hyal low. The polyanion HA plays a role in the reabsorption of hypotonic fluid by immobilizing cations (Na+) via the carboxylate (COO-) groups of GlcUA. The binding of Ca2+ to anionic HA is probably also responsible for the fact that the papilla does not become a stone despite the extremely high interstitial phosphate and oxalate. HA is also an excellent crystal binding molecule. The expression of HA at the luminal surface of renal tubular cells leads to tubular nephrocalcinosis (tubular NC). Calcium staining methods (Von Kossa, Yasue) demonstrated that crystallization inhibitors cannot avoid the occasional precipitation of calcium phosphate in the papillary interstitium (interstitial NC). These crystals are probably immediately immobilized by the gel-like HA matrix. After ulcerating through the pelvic wall the calcified matrix becomes a Randall's plaque. The attachment of calcium oxalate crystals from the primary urine to plaque may ultimately lead to the development of clinical stones in the renal calyces (nephrolithiasis).

  20. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shivani; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Atta, Mohamed G.

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is a rare entity detected in ∼0.5–0.9% of all renal biopsies. GIN has been linked to several antibiotics such as cephalosporins, vancomycin, nitrofurantoin and ciprofloxacin. It is also associated with NSAIDs and granulomatous disorders such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, fungal infections, and granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Renal biopsy is critical in establishing this diagnosis, and the extent of tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis may aid in determining prognosis. Retrospective data and clinical experience suggest that removal of the offending agent in conjunction with corticosteroid therapy often results in improvement in renal function. We describe a patient with a history of multiple spinal surgeries complicated by wound infection who presented with confusion and rash with subsequent development of acute kidney injury. Urinalysis demonstrated pyuria and eosinophiluria, and renal biopsy revealed acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. These findings were attributed to doxycycline treatment of his wound infection. This review explores the clinical associations, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of this uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. PMID:26413275

  1. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Treesearch

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  2. Interstitial duplication 19p

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; DuPont, B.R.; Moore, C.M.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a 9-month-old girl with an interstitial duplication of 19p, developmental delay, and multiple anomalies including bifrontal prominence, obtuse frontonasal angle, short columella, additional midline philtral pillar, midline ridge on the tongue, vertical midline ridge at the mental symphysis, and a complex congenital heart defect including severe branch pulmonary artery stenosis, secundum atrial septal defect (ASD), and several ventricular septal defects (VSDs). Use of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with chromosome 19- specific probes showed a direct duplication of bands 19p13.13 and 19p13.2. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B

    2016-09-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process.

  4. Effect of Interstitial Media on Segregation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao-Xian; Li, Liang-Sheng; Wen, Ping-Ping; Shi, Qing-Fan; Zheng, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Vertically vibrated segregation behaviors of binary granular mixtures with different interstitial media are experimentally investigated. To study the role of interstitial media on the segregation, two types of interstitial fluids are adopted and the resulting phase diagrams are compared. The water-immersed granular mixture exhibits two kinds of complete segregation behaviors: Brazil nut effect and sandwich patterns, at least the latter is absent in the same air-immersed mixture. Additionally, the segregation extent is improved remarkably for the water-immersed mixture. The experimental observation further confirms that the effect of interstitial media on the relative motion of grains is one of the predominant mechanisms for granular segregation.

  5. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  6. Adhesive sealing of the pulp chamber.

    PubMed

    Belli, S; Zhang, Y; Pereira, P N; Pashley, D H

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate quantitatively the ability of four different filling materials to seal the orifices of root canals as a secondary seal after root canal therapy. Forty extracted human molar teeth were used. The top of pulp chambers and distal halves of the roots were removed using an Isomet saw. The canal orifices were temporarily sealed with a gutta-percha master cone without sealer. The pulp chambers were then treated with a self-etching primer adhesive system (Clearfil SE Bond), a wet bonding system (One-Step), a 4-methacryloyloxyethyl trimellitate anhydride adhesive system (C&B Metabond), or a reinforced zinc oxide-eugenol (IRM). The specimens were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each. A fluid filtration method was used for quantitative evaluation of leakage. Measurements of fluid movement were made at 2-min intervals for 8 min. The quality of the seal of each specimen was measured by fluid filtration immediately and after 1 day, 1 wk, and 1 month. Even after 1 month the resins showed an excellent seal. Zinc oxide-eugenol had significantly more leakage when compared with the resin systems (p < 0.05). Adhesive resins should be considered as a secondary seal to prevent intraorifice microleakage.

  7. Timber Bamboo Pulp

    Treesearch

    Troy Runge; Carl Houtman; Alberto Negri; Jackie Heinricher

    2013-01-01

    Fast-growing biomass, such as bamboo, has the potential to serve an important future role in the pulp and paper industry with potential to both lower resource costs and improve a product’s sustainability. Moso bamboo is particularly interesting due to its fast growth and size, which allows it to be handled and chipped similarly to wood resources. In this study, we will...

  8. Regenerative potential of dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Trope, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The regenerative potential of dental pulp, particularly in mature teeth, has been considered extremely limited. However, our improved understanding of pulpal inflammation and repair and improved dental materials and technologies make vital pulp therapy a viable alternative to root canal treatment. This article explores our knowledge in this regard and the future potential of saving or even regenerating the pulp as a routine dental procedure.

  9. Regenerative potential of dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Trope, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The regenerative potential of dental pulp, particularly in mature teeth, has been considered extremely limited. However, our improved understanding of pulpal inflammation and repair and improved dental materials and technologies make vital pulp therapy a viable alternative to root canal treatment. This article explores our knowledge in this regard and the future potential of saving or even regenerating the pulp as a routine dental procedure.

  10. [Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias in 2016].

    PubMed

    Debray, M-P; Borie, R; Danel, C; Khalil, A; Majlath, M; Crestani, B

    2017-02-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprise 8 clinicopathological entities, most of them with a chronic course and various prognosis. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most frequent and most severe of these. Computed tomography has an important role for its diagnosis. It can identify the corresponding pathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia in about 50 percent of cases. It can suggest differential diagnosis in other cases, most frequently fibrosing nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Imaging features should be integrated to clinical and available pathologic data during multidisciplinary team meetings involving physicians with a good knowledge of interstitial diseases. Some cases may be unclassifiable, but these could later be reclassified as new data may occur or imaging features may change. Surgical lung biopsy is being less frequently performed and an emerging less invasive technique, lung cryobiopsy, is under evaluation. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis is a distinct entity only recently described, with uncertain prevalence and prognosis that seems being quite often associated to another pattern of interstitial pneumonia.

  11. Renal Medullary Interstitial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Reena; Hao, Chuan-Ming; Breyer, Matthew D.

    2007-04-01

    Renal medullary interstitial cells (RMICs) are specialized fibroblast-like cells that reside in the renal medulla among the vasa recta, the thin limbs of Henle's loop, and medullary collecting ducts. These cells are characterized by abundant lipid droplets in the cytoplasm. The lipid droplets are composed of triglycerides, cholesterol esters and free long-chain fatty acids, including arachidonic acid. RMICs are also a major site of cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) expression, and thus a major site of COX-2 derived prostanoid biosynthesis. RMICs are also a potential target of hormones such as angiotensin II and endothelin. The RMIC COX-2 expression and the abundance of lipid droplets change with salt and water intake. These properties of RMICs are consistent with an important role of these cells in modulating physiologic and pathologic processes of the kidney.

  12. Blood and Interstitial flow in the hierarchical pore space architecture of bone tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cowin, Stephen C.; Cardoso, Luis

    2015-01-01

    There are two main types of fluid in bone tissue, blood and interstitial fluid. The chemical composition of these fluids varies with time and location in bone. Blood arrives through the arterial system containing oxygen and other nutrients and the blood components depart via the venous system containing less oxygen and reduced nutrition. Within the bone, as within other tissues, substances pass from the blood through the arterial walls into the interstitial fluid. The movement of the interstitial fluid carries these substances to the cells within the bone and, at the same time, carries off the waste materials from the cells. Bone tissue would not live without these fluid movements. The development of a model for poroelastic materials with hierarchical pore space architecture for the description of blood flow and interstitial fluid flow in living bone tissue is reviewed. The model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity and the lacunar-canalicular porosity in bone tissue due to cyclic mechanical loading and blood pressure. These results are basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells. PMID:25666410

  13. Blood and interstitial flow in the hierarchical pore space architecture of bone tissue.

    PubMed

    Cowin, Stephen C; Cardoso, Luis

    2015-03-18

    There are two main types of fluid in bone tissue, blood and interstitial fluid. The chemical composition of these fluids varies with time and location in bone. Blood arrives through the arterial system containing oxygen and other nutrients and the blood components depart via the venous system containing less oxygen and reduced nutrition. Within the bone, as within other tissues, substances pass from the blood through the arterial walls into the interstitial fluid. The movement of the interstitial fluid carries these substances to the cells within the bone and, at the same time, carries off the waste materials from the cells. Bone tissue would not live without these fluid movements. The development of a model for poroelastic materials with hierarchical pore space architecture for the description of blood flow and interstitial fluid flow in living bone tissue is reviewed. The model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity and the lacunar-canalicular porosity in bone tissue due to cyclic mechanical loading and blood pressure. These results are basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of dimethyl formamide pulping of bagasse on pulp properties.

    PubMed

    Rezayati-Charani, P; Mohammadi-Rovshandeh, J; Hashemi, S J; Kazemi-Najafi, S

    2006-12-01

    Organosolv pulping of bagasse was conducted following a central composite design using a two-level factorial plan involving three pulping variables (temperature: 190-210 degrees C, time: 120-180 min, organic solvent charge: 40-60% dimethyl formamide). Responses of pulp properties (yield and holocellulose, alpha-cellulose, kappa number, ash and ethanol-dichloromethane extractives contents) and the pH of the resulting wastewater to the process variables were analyzed using statistical software (MINITAB). Main factor analysis revealed that optimum pulp has the following characteristics: 82.7% (yield), 92.9 (kappa number), 95.84% (holocellulose), 83.53% (alpha-cellulose), 1.403% (ash), 2.562% (ethanol-dichloromethane extractives contents) and 6.39 (pH). These results showed that acceptable properties of pulps could be gained at 200-210 degrees C for 150 min and 40-60% DMF. Based on these results, this method could be used for pulping of bagasse equivalent NSSC concerning high yield at a fixed kappa number. In addition, bagasse could be pulped with ease to approximately 55% yield with a kappa number approximately 31. Numerical analyses showed that cooking temperature had the greatest influence on properties of obtained pulps within the DMF concentrations and cooking time as cooking variables.

  15. Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Following Bromocarbamide Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, H.; Hagedorn, M.; Bōttcher, D.; Neuhof, H.; Mittermayer, Ch.

    1974-01-01

    Bromocarbamides are sleep-inducing drugs which can lead, in man, to intoxication and death due to respiratory failure. To prove whether hemodynamic factors or the changed endothelial permeability induce pulmonary edema, animal experiments were performed. The fine structural changes in pulmonary edema in rabbits were observed at 60, 90 and 120 minutes after oral administration. The major findings were a) large blebs between capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium and b) interstitial edema of the vessel wall. The bleb contents were much less electron dense than the blood contents in the capillary. Colloidal carbon did not enter the bleb or the edematous interstitial tissue. Exogenous peroxidase uptake in pinocytotie vesicles increased in pathologic cases. The hemodynamic measurements in animal receiving artificial respiration which maintained the blood pO2 at a steady state showed similar blebs in the pulmonary vessels, indicating that anoxia is not the major cause of the vascular lesion. Moreover, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance could be held in the normal range in artificially respirated animals under bromocarbamide intoxication. Thus, hemodynamic factors are not likely to play a pathogenetic role in bringing about pulmonary edema. The chief, early factor is the increased endothelial permeability due to increased cytoplasmic transport. From this a practical suggestion for treating patients with bromocarbamide intoxication is derived: the usual fluid replacement in shock patients should be handled with great care to avoid fluid overload of the lung. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4835993

  16. Myocardial microvascular permeability, interstitial oedema, and compromised cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Dongaonkar, Ranjeet M.; Stewart, Randolph H.; Geissler, Hans J.; Laine, Glen A.

    2010-01-01

    The heart, perhaps more than any other organ, is exquisitely sensitive to increases in microvascular permeability and the accumulation of myocardial interstitial oedema fluid. Whereas some organs can cope with profound increases in the interstitial fluid volume or oedema formation without a compromise in function, heart function is significantly compromised with only a few percent increase in the interstitial fluid volume. This would be of little consequence if myocardial oedema were an uncommon pathology. On the contrary, myocardial oedema forms in response to many disease states as well as clinical interventions such as cardiopulmonary bypass and cardioplegic arrest common to many cardiothoracic surgical procedures. The heart's inability to function effectively in the presence of myocardial oedema is further confounded by the perplexing fact that the resolution of myocardial oedema does not restore normal cardiac function. We will attempt to provide some insight as to how microvascular permeability and myocardial oedema formation compromise cardiac function and discuss the acute changes that might take place in the myocardium to perpetuate compromised cardiac function following oedema resolution. We will also discuss compensatory changes in the interstitial matrix of the heart in response to chronic myocardial oedema and the role they play to optimize myocardial function during chronic oedemagenic disease. PMID:20472566

  17. Pulmonary interstitial pressure in premature rabbits.

    PubMed

    Miserocchi, G; Poskurica, B H; del Fabbro, M; Crisafulli, B

    1995-12-01

    By micropuncture technique we measured pulmonary interstitial pressure (Pip) from birth up to 6 h postnatal age in anesthetized and paralyzed cesarian delivered term (31 days gestation) and premature (27 to 30 days gestation) rabbits. In term cesarian delivered rabbits Pip followed the time course of vaginally delivered rabbits, namely, it increased from about zero at birth up to about 5 cmH2O at 2 h, as a result of alveolar fluid reabsorption, subsequently it decreased becoming subatmospheric due to progressive interstitial fluid drainage. In ventilated lung regions of premature rabbits, Pip also peaked to about 5 cmH2O at 2 h but its subsequent decrease was markedly slowed down while in atelectatic regions of premature rabbits Pip remained slightly subatmospheric. Up to 6 h, the wet/dry weight ratio of the lung was higher in premature relative to vaginally and cesarian delivered term rabbits (at birth 8.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.8). In 29-31 days rabbits, plasma protein concentration at birth was 3.6 +/- 0.5 g/dl (within 95% confidence limits for vaginally delivered rabbits, considered as control) while in 27-28 days rabbit it was 3.1 +/- 0.4 g/dl (at the lower edge of control confidence limits). In the first postnatal hours, the increase in Pip favoured fluid reabsorption into pulmonary microcirculation in term cesarian delivered rabbits and in ventilated regions of premature rabbits. Conversely, in the atelectatic regions of premature rabbits the unchanged Pip value in the postnatal hours favours fluid filtration from microcirculation into lung interstitium.

  18. Dissolving pulp industry : market trends

    Treesearch

    Irene. Durbak

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a worldwide overview of the dissolving pulp industry and highlights of this industry in Alaska. It describes trends in world markets and major end-use markets, with special emphasis on the manufacture and use of textile fibers in the United States. Figures and tables present data on production, consumption, and trade of dissolving pulp and the...

  19. [Dental pulp diseases. Ultramicroscopic studies].

    PubMed

    Conversini, A; Eramo, S; Manna, M G; Negri, P

    1998-12-01

    After the description of the anatomic and histologic aspects of the healthy dental pulp, stress is laid on pulpal pathologies and on the use of ultramicroscopic techniques to analyze the cytologic modifications in normal and pathologic dental pulp tissues. The results obtained are presented.

  20. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Michel; Njeh, Akram; Uzunoglu, Emel

    2015-01-01

    The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically. PMID:26538825

  1. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. [Interstitial Pneumonia and Emphysema].

    PubMed

    Sawa, Teiji; Kato, Yuko; Ishii, Sachiyo

    2015-09-01

    Interstitial pneumonia (IP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are representative diseases of restrictive pulmonary dysfunction and obstructive pulmonary dysfunction, respectively. In the preoperative anesthesia clinic, anesthesiologists are frequently asked to assess the anesthesia management of patients with these diseases. In respiratory function tests, IP is detected as a decrease in % vital capacity (< 80%), and COPD as a decrease in % FEV1.0 (< 70%). Other key factors which affect the assessment are; 1) severity assessment that affects the safety of anesthesia management, 2) prognostic evaluation including the acute exacerbation in the postoperative period, and 3) patient-related factors (age, life degree of autonomy, other comorbidities, surgery-related factors, and anesthesia method). In the patients in the disease stage I or II, anesthesia management is relatively safe. On the other hand, the patients in the disease stage IV have no surgical indication except life-saving emergent situation. In another words, anesthesiologists are required to make the judgment for the anesthesia management of the patient in the disease stage III, based on the assessment of patient-related factors, surgery-related factors, and prognosis.

  3. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts

    Treesearch

    T.H. Wegner; C.J. Houtman; A.W. Rudie; B.L. Illman; P.J. Ince; E.M. Bilek; T.W. Jeffries

    2013-01-01

    Although the term “integrateed biorefinery” is new, the concept has long been familiar to the pulp and paper industry, where processes include biomass boilers providing combined heat and power, and byproducts of pulping include turpentine, fatty acids and resin acids. In the dominant kraft (or sulfate) pulping process, dissolved lignin and chemicals from the pulp...

  4. POZONE technology to bleach pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Shi, Y.; Le, L.; Wang, S.M.; Wei, J.; Chang, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    Currently, there has been a move in the pulp and paper industry to reduce or eliminate chlorine-based bleaching due to environmental concerns. The POZONE process, a chemical means of ozone production, has been used to bleach wood pulp. The brightness, Kappa number, and viscosity of wood pulp subjected to POZONE treatment have been determined. Brightness increases of up to 44 points and Kappa number decreases of as much as 22 points have been achieved. Promise for effective industrial application has been demonstrated.

  5. [Clinical study on interstitial lung disease in children of China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-zhong

    2011-10-01

    Interstitial lung disease in children represents a heterogeneous group of disorders of both known and unknown causes. This study aimed to understand better the causes of the disease in children and to provide information on the current approach to diagnosis and management of the disease. Through the Pediatric Diffuse Parenchymal Lung Disease/Pediatric Interstitial Lung Disease Cooperative Group of China, data of 93 cases of interstitial lung disease of children from 11 hospitals were collected with the same questionnaire in 2009. Respiratory tract secretions were obtained for bacterial culture. Respiratory virus antigen examination, mycoplasma antibody, EB virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex viruses antibody detection were performed. Cells in the sputum, gastric juice and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were tested for hemosiderin. The CT or high resolution CT (HRCT) of the lung and blood-gas analysis were also performed. Fourteen cases underwent lung biopsy and 25 cases underwent bronchomicrocopy. Data were then pooled and discussed through a series of meetings. Fifty-three cases were male, 40 were female and their age ranged from 8 months to 14 years. Thirty-nine cases were diagnosed as bronchiolitis obliterans (BO); 39 as idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH); 7 as idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) of unknown causes, of whom 4 cases had non specific interstitial pneumonia, 1 case as acute interstitial pneumonia and 1 case as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia, 1 case as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; 2 cases as secondary interstitial lung disease, one was secondary to SLE, one to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 2 cases had hypersensitive pneumonitis; 2 cases had pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; 1 case had bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia; 1 case had lipoid pneumonia;1 case of diffuse panbronchiolitis; 1 case of microlithiasis alveolaris pulmonum. Forty two cases had cough, 24 of them also had tachypnea, 8 cases had

  6. Interstitial Functionalization in elemental Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Boris; Fohtung, Edwin

    Societies in the 21st century will face many challenges. Materials science and materials design will be essential to address and master some if not all of these challenges. Semiconductors are among the most important technological material classes. Properties such as electrical transport are strongly affected by defects and a central goal continues to be the reduction of defect densities as much as possible in these compounds. Here we present results of interstitial Fe doping in elemental Si using first-principles DFT calculations. The preliminary results show that Fe will only occupy octahedral interstitial sites. The analysis of the electronic structure shows that the compounds are ferromagnetic and that a bandgap opens as interstitial Fe concentrations decrease, with a possible intermittent semi-metallic phase. The formation energy for interstitial Fe is unfavorable, as expected, by ~1.5 eV but becomes favorable as the chemical potential of Fe increases. Therefore, we expect that biasing the system with an external electrical field will lead to the formation of these materials. Thus, our results show that interstitial defects can be beneficial for the design of functionalities that differ significantly from those of the host material.

  7. Fixed prosthodontics: avoiding pulp death.

    PubMed

    1995-11-01

    Fixed prostheses & crowns have become a major part of dental services due to aging population & increase in retention of natural teeth. In some practices, alarming numbers of endodontic procedures are necessary because of pulp damage after prosthesis cementation. Third party payment companies show many teeth receiving crowns require endodontic therapy within 5 years. Following report describes: (1) 14 potential causes of endodontic need related to fixed prosthodontics; & (2) state-of-art concepts to prevent pulp damage.

  8. Patterns of interstitial lung disease during everolimus treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ryuichi; Asano, Koichiro; Mikami, Shuji; Nagata, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Gou; Oya, Mototsugu

    2012-05-01

    To elucidate the patterns of interstitial lung disease during everolimus treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, we reviewed seven cases of everolimus-induced interstitial lung disease. Seven patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which continued to progress despite treatment with sunitinib or sorafenib, developed interstitial lung disease after treatment with everolimus. Chest X-ray demonstrated diffuse infiltrates in lung fields, and chest computed tomography showed bilateral reticular and ground-glass opacities. Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (7/7), C-reactive protein (6/7), pulmonary surfactant associated protein D (1/7) and Krebs von den Lungen 6 (5/7) were elevated. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from four patients with Grade 3 interstitial lung disease showed lymphocytosis. The transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed interstitial lymphocytic infiltration and septal thickening of alveolar walls. In two cases with mild interstitial lung disease, the everolimus therapy was successfully continued. In four cases with Grade 3 interstitial lung disease, the drug was discontinued and steroid therapy was initiated. Pulmonary symptoms and radiological abnormalities resolved within 2 months. Serum Krebs von den Lungen 6 was elevated compared with baseline in all cases with interstitial lung disease. Some patients who developed mild interstitial lung disease during everolimus treatment could continue to receive the treatment. Even when severe interstitial lung disease developed, withdrawal of the drug and short-term use of high-dose steroids resulted in rapid recovery. Prompt recognition of interstitial lung disease exacerbation as well as exclusion of progressive disease or infection is of primary importance.

  9. Drug Induced Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwaiblmair, Martin; Behr, Werner; Haeckel, Thomas; Märkl, Bruno; Foerg, Wolfgang; Berghaus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of therapeutic drugs, the list of drugs that is responsible for severe pulmonary disease also grows. Many drugs have been associated with pulmonary complications of various types, including interstitial inflammation and fibrosis, bronchospasm, pulmonary edema, and pleural effusions. Drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) can be caused by chemotherapeutic agents, antibiotics, antiarrhythmic drugs, and immunosuppressive agents. There are no distinct physiologic, radiographic or pathologic patterns of DILD, and the diagnosis is usually made when a patient with interstitial lung disease (ILD) is exposed to a medication known to result in lung disease. Other causes of ILD must be excluded. Treatment is avoidance of further exposure and systemic corticosteroids in patients with progressive or disabling disease. PMID:22896776

  10. Pathology of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Hashisako, Mikiko; Fukuoka, Junya

    2015-01-01

    The updated classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) in 2013 by American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society included several important revisions to the categories described in the 2002 classification. In the updated classification, lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) was moved from major to rare IIPs, pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) was newly included in the rare IIPs, acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) and interstitial pneumonias with a bronchiolocentric distribution are recognized as rare histologic patterns, and unclassifiable IIP (UCIP) was classified as an IIP. However, recent reports indicate the areas of concern that may require further evaluation. Here, we describe the histopathologic features of the updated IIPs and their rare histologic patterns and also point out some of the issues to be considered in this context. PMID:26949346

  11. Interstitial nephritis. A brief review.

    PubMed Central

    Heptinstall, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    Interstitial nephritis is a common condition, which in spite of a relatively constant pathologic picture has different etiologic agents and pathogenetic mechanisms. Failure to appreciate this, particularly in the chronic group, has led to considerable confusion and has been largely responsible for the overdiagnosis of chronic pyelonephritis. Although we are still largely ignorant of the causes of interstitial nephritis, it is now possible to define many of them. While experimental studies have not made spectacular contributions to our understanding, an attempt is now being made to develop appropriate models, and we hope these will enable us to still further clarify our understanding of other entities. PMID:776003

  12. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  13. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease Treated? Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) is ... prevent acid reflux, which can lead to aspiration. Lung Transplant A lung transplant may be an option ...

  14. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2.

    Treesearch

    Ted Bilek; Carl Houtman; Peter Ince

    2011-01-01

    Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) is a novel biorefining concept for pulp mills that includes hydrolysis extraction of hemicellulose wood sugars and acetic acid from pulpwood prior to pulping. The concept involves conversion of wood sugars via fermentation to fuel ethanol or other chemicals and the use of remaining solid wood material in the pulping process. This paper...

  15. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Laria, A.; Lurati, A.; Scarpellini, M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs) are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US) findings in the follow-up of a NSIP's case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:26240772

  16. Dissolving pulp from jute stick.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mhafuza; Rahaman, M Mostafizur; Nayeem, Jannatun; Sarkar, Mamon; Jahan, M Sarwar

    2015-01-22

    Jute stick is woody portion of jute plant, which remain as leftover after extracting bast fibre. Presently, it is being used for fencing in the rural area. In this investigation, biorefinery concept was initiated in producing dissolving pulp from jute stick by pre-hydrolysis kraft process. At 170°C for 1h of pre-hydrolysis, 70% of hemicelluloses was dissolved with negligible loss of α-cellulose. At this condition, 75% of dissolved sugars in the pre-hydrolysis liquor were in the oligomeric form. The pre-hydrolysed jute stick was subsequently pulped by kraft process with the variation of active alkali. The pulp yield was 36.2% with kappa number 18.5 at the conditions of 16% active alkali for 2h of cooking at 170°C. Final pulp was produced with 92% α-cellulose and 89% brightness after D0EpD1EpD1 bleaching. The produced dissolving pulp can be used in rayon production.

  17. Biological bleaching of chemical pulps.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Pratima

    2004-01-01

    Use of biotechnology in pulp bleaching has attracted considerable attention and achieved interesting results in recent years. Enzymes of the hemicellulolytic type, particularly xylan-attacking enzymes, xylanases are now used commercially in the mills for pulp treatment and subsequent incorporation into bleach sequences. The aims of the enzymatic treatment depend on the actual mill conditions and may be related to environmental demands, reduction of chemical costs or maintenance or even improvement of product quality. The use of oxidative enzymes from white-rot fungi, that can directly attack lignin, is a second-generation approach, which could produce larger chemical savings than xylanase but has not yet been developed to the full scale. It is being studied in several laboratories in Canada, Japan, the U.S.A. and Europe. Certain white-rot fungi can delignify kraft pulps increasing their brightness and their responsiveness to brightening with chemicals. The fungal treatments are too slow but the enzyme manganese peroxidase and laccase can also delignify pulps and enzymatic processes are likely to be easier to optimize and apply than the fungal treatments. Development work on laccase and manganese peroxidase continues. This article presents an overview of developments in the application of hemicellulase enzymes, lignin-oxidizing enzymes and white-rot fungi in bleaching of chemical pulps. The basic enzymology involved and the present knowledge of the mechanisms of the action of enzymes as well as the practical results and advantages obtained on the laboratory and industrial scale are discussed.

  18. Electric pulp testing: a review.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Chandler, N P

    2008-05-01

    Electric pulp testing (EPT) has been available for more than a century and used in dental practices worldwide. This article provides an overview of this diagnostic aid. The PubMed database from 1953 was used initially; the reference list for pulp testing featured 1071 articles, and for EPT identified 121 papers. A forward search was undertaken on these articles and using selected author names. Potentially relevant material was also sought in contemporary endodontic texts, while older textbooks on endodontics, operative dentistry and pain revealed historic information and primary research not found electronically. A short account of the innervation of the pulp is followed by an historic overview. Clinical considerations discussed include tooth isolation, glove wearing and tester electrode placement. Orthodontic treatment, pacemaker wearing and patient medications are considered. Research applications are also discussed. While EPT is valuable, no single pulp testing technique can reliably diagnose all pulp conditions. Careful collection of patient history regarding the problem tooth and prudent use of appropriate radiographs are also helpful. The shortcomings of electric tests, especially in the case of immature and concussed teeth, must be understood. The demeanour of the patient and the responses given by control teeth also require careful consideration.

  19. Role of human pulp fibroblasts in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tran-Hung, L; Mathieu, S; About, I

    2006-09-01

    After pulp amputation, complete pulp healing requires not only reparative dentin production but also fibroblast proliferation, nerve fiber growth, and neoangiogenesis. This study was designed to investigate the role of pulp fibroblasts in angiogenesis. Human pulp fibroblasts from third molars co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced the organization of endothelial cells and the formation of tubular structures corresponding to capillaries in vivo. The direct contact between both cells was not necessary to induce angiogenesis, and the observed effect was due to soluble factors. This was confirmed with neutralizing antibodies against FGF-2 and VEGF, which decreased the angiogenic effects of these soluble factors. Immunohistochemistry showed that both FGF-2 and VEGF were expressed in human dental pulp fibroblasts, and this expression increased after injury. These results suggest that the pulp fibroblasts secrete angiogenic factors, which are necessary for complete pulp healing, particularly at the pulp injury site.

  20. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  1. Research in bagasse pulp bleaching

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, N.; Naranjo, M.E.; Alvarez, J.; Sardinas, O.; Serrantes, M.

    1982-01-01

    Bleaching of soda and sulfate bagasse pulps by CED, CEH, CEHD, and O/alkali CED sequences gave products with Elrepho brightness 85-90, Post color no. 1.3-2.5, viscosity 20-28 cP, tear factor 60-78, and breaking length 3710-4590 m. Bleaching bagasse pulp with Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/-NaClO increased its brightness increasing temperature, pH, and NaOCl consumption. Brightening of mechanical bagasse pulp with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaClO reduced the consumption of peroxide, Na/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 4/, and NaOCl by 0.5-0.8, 0.5-1.5, and 10-12%, respectively.

  2. Biomechanical pulping : a mill-scale evaluation

    Treesearch

    Masood. Akhtar; Gary M. Scott; Ross E. Swaney; Mike J. Lentz; Eric G. Horn; Marguerite S. Sykes; Gary C. Myers

    1999-01-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory...

  3. New technology in pulping and bleaching

    Treesearch

    R. H. Atalla; R. S. Reiner; C. J. Houtman; E. L. Springer

    2004-01-01

    Innovation in advancing technoogies for production of pulp and paper has been driven, by and large, by the needs to reduce the environmental impact of pulp mills or to enhance the yield in processes of conversion of wood to fibers. "Fiberization" of wood chips is carred out in two categores of processes. One, chemical pulping relies on removing the lignin...

  4. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1720 Pulp tester. (a) Identification. A pulp tester is an AC or...

  5. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Treesearch

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  6. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma. Analysis by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Silver, R M; Metcalf, J F; Stanley, J H; LeRoy, E C

    1984-11-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis is a common feature of scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) which may result in impairment of pulmonary function and may be a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Clinicopathologic observations suggest that interstitial and alveolar inflammation may appear prior to fibrosis. Using the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) technique, we have characterized the nature of the inflammatory process in the lower respiratory tracts of 19 non-smoking scleroderma patients. Eleven of 19 patients (58%) had increased percentages of neutrophils and/or eosinophils in BAL fluid. Five of 10 patients (50%) had elevations of IgG in BAL fluid. The presence of neutrophils was associated with a decreased lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (P less than 0.05) and with more advanced radiographic features of interstitial fibrosis in patients with disease of more than 1 year's duration. This study suggests that scleroderma lung involvement may be characterized by an inflammatory alveolitis and that the presence of such inflammation may relate to the severity of the pulmonary disease.

  7. Histological study of the circulatory system of human dental pulp from individuals under local anesthesia and electro-acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Ueki, S; Iwai-Liao, Y; Han, K S; Higashi, Y

    1995-03-01

    A transmission electron microscopic (TEM) study was conducted on dental pulp obtained from patients under acupuncture or infiltration local analgesia. It was difficult to differentiate lymphatic circulation in the dental pulp that received infiltration anesthesia, because the vessels were constricted, congested, and showed stasis and thrombosis. On the other hand, the dental pulp that received acupuncture showed normal arterioles, capillaries, and venules, as well as some lymph capillaries and small efferent lymphatic vessels that measured about 8 microns and 100 microns in diameter, respectively. The lymphatic endothelial walls had many intercellular gaps, an imperfect basal lamina, and a few discontinuous pericytes. Between the openings in the lymphatic vessels, there were bundles of junctional filaments extending towards the dental pulp connective tissue. Therefore, the lymphatic system, which contains mainly B-3-alpha capillaries, is a leaky tissue for regulating fluid in the dental pulp.

  8. Methanol-reinforced kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.; Olm, L.; Teder, A. )

    1993-03-01

    The addition of methanol to a high-sulfidity kraft cook on Scandinavian softwood chips was studied under different process conditions. Delignification and the degradation of carbohydrates were accelerated, but the effect on delignification was greater. Thus, methanol addition improved selectivity. The positive effect of methanol could also be observed for modified kraft cooks having a leveled out alkali concentration and lower concentration of sodium ions and dissolved lignin at the end of the cook. Methanol addition had no discernible effect on pulp strength or on pulp bleachability.

  9. In vivo interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrebova Eikje, Natalja

    2011-03-01

    Successful development of real-time non-invasive glucose monitoring would represent a major advancement not only in the treatment and management of patients with diabetes mellitus and carbohydrate metabolism disorders, but also for understanding in those biochemical, metabolic and (patho-)physiological processes of glucose at the molecular level in vivo. Here, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has been challenged not only for in vivo measurement of interstitial glucose levels, but also for their non-invasive molecular qualitative and quantitative comparative characterization in the skin tissue. The results, based on calculated mean values of determined 5 glucose-specific peaks in the glucose-related 1000-1160 cm-1 region, showed intra- and inter-subject differences in interstitial glucose activity levels with their changes at different times and doses of OGTT, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. In conclusion, the introduction of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy technique has opened up an access to the interstitial fluid space in the skin tissue for interstitial glucose characterization and monitoring in vivo. Though interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring has different characteristics, it can be argued that accurate and precise measurements of interstitial glucose levels may be more important clinically.

  10. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siauve, N.; Lormel, C.

    2012-11-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  11. Phentermine induced acute interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Emily Ximin; Wilson, Gregory John; Ranganathan, Dwarakanathan

    2017-03-09

    Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) has a number of medication-related aetiologies. Antibiotics, proton pump inhibitors and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are common causes; however, any medication has the potential to cause drug-induced AIN. We report the first case of phentermine-induced AIN. A Caucasian woman aged 43 years presented with a 5-week history of lethargy, left-sided lower abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. She had been taking phentermine for weight loss for 9 months and had recently ceased the medication. The patient underwent a renal biopsy that showed a predominantly lymphohistiocytic interstitial infiltrate with a moderate number of eosinophils consistent with AIN. Phentermine is increasingly used for weight loss in obese patients. This is the first case implicating phentermine as the causative agent for drug-induced AIN. While rare, phentermine-induced AIN is a possible adverse reaction of phentermine. Physicians and patients need to be aware of this risk.

  12. Interstitial lung disease in children.

    PubMed

    Cazzato, Salvatore; di Palmo, Emanuela; Ragazzo, Vincenzo; Ghione, Silvia

    2013-10-01

    Children's interstitial lung disease (ILD) includes a wide range of rare respiratory disorders associated with high morbidity and mortality. Genetic factors, systemic disease processes, nonspecific inflammatory or fibrotic patterns of repair seen in a number of clinical settings are involved in the ILD pathogenesis. Specific disorders more prevalent in young children include diffuse developmental disorders, alveolar growth abnormalities, genetic surfactant disorders, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis and neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. It may be difficult to recognize these entities and this can lead to delayed treatment. The diagnostic approach is based on a combination of history/physical examinations, imaging studies, pulmonary function testing, genetic testing, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and in most cases an open lung biopsy. Although some disease types overlap with those seen in adults, in this review emphasis is placed on entities unique to the pediatric population focusing on clinical characteristics, histologic definitions, radiologic-pathologic correlation and therapeutic strategies. © 2013.

  13. Smoking and interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Margaritopoulos, George A; Vasarmidi, Eirini; Jacob, Joseph; Wells, Athol U; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2015-09-01

    For many years has been well known that smoking could cause lung damage. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer have been the two most common smoking-related lung diseases. In the recent years, attention has also focused on the role of smoking in the development of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Indeed, there are three diseases, namely respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis, that are currently considered aetiologically linked to smoking and a few others which are more likely to develop in smokers. Here, we aim to focus on the most recent findings regarding the role of smoking in the pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of ILDs. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  14. Deinked pulp manufacturers make a midwest market

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M. ); Meade, K.

    1993-09-01

    Deinked pulp manufacturers, a burgeoning trend in recycling, are opening up the market for office waste paper in the Midwest. Great Lakes Pulp and Fibre, Inc., (Menominee, Michigan), a new paper group formed by industry veterans, is planning a major deinked pulp mill in Michigan's Upper Peninsula that will recycle large amounts of office waste paper. The mill will have the capacity to process nearly 275,000 tons per year (tpy)-673 tpd-of mixed office paper into 182,000 tpd of sheet-dried, deinked pulp. That pulp would be sold to nearby fine paper manufacturers that want to have recycled content without adding their own deinking.

  15. Pulmonary gas conducting interstitial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Gunnar; Jorulf, Håkan; Farkas, Árpád; Eden-Strindberg, Jerker; Gennser, Mikael; Jókay, Ágnes; Krebsz, Ádám

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the growing efforts oriented towards revealing different aspects of emphysema, the persistence of the emphysematous or emphysema-like changes (ELCs) is not explored yet in the open literature. In this study we demonstrate the persistence of an ELC for 22 years in a spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) patient which indicates a hitherto unknown gas supply to the ELC. For this purpose we used high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images processed into three-dimensional (3D) geometry. By the same token, not only a long persistence but also the volume increase of this ELC between 2002 and 2010 was demonstrated. The 3D geometry visualized an aerated interstitial structure between the sites of supposed gas leakage at the wall of the third generation airways and the ELC. This potential gas conducting interstitial pathway is not a continuation and has neither the form nor the structure of a bronchus. The finding suggests that in this patient the intrabronchial gas passes through the bronchial wall and via a gas conducting interstitial pathway reaches the ELC. Despite the availability of the presently employed techniques for at least 15 years, such case and phenomenon have not been described previously. The retrieval of the patient suggests that the findings could be relevant for a considerable proportion of the population. PMID:26500785

  16. Pulp size in molars: underestimation on radiographs.

    PubMed

    Chandler, N P; Ford, T R Pitt; Monteith, B D

    2004-08-01

    The aim was to determine whether radiographs provide a clinically useful indication of pulp size in diseased/restored human first molar teeth, and to investigate accessibility of pulp tissue for diagnostic testing using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Extracted teeth of known age were collected. Restorative materials were removed and teeth with evidence of pulp exposures excluded. Fifty-six teeth were radiographed from buccal and mesial aspects, and then their crowns were sectioned axiobuccolingually and photographed. Images were digitally scanned and measurements made of the total pulp area (above a line across the most superior part of the pulpal floor) and the pulp area in the clinical crown (superior to a line between the amelocemental junctions). The pulp width at the cervix and the highest point of the pulp were also recorded. Data were analysed using Pearson correlations. Pulp areas within the clinical crowns were significantly larger than indicated by radiographs, by 23% in the case of the clinically attainable buccal view (P < 0.05). Pulps may be more accessible to flowmeter testing than they appear. Absence of pulp tissues in the crown was recorded in equal numbers of teeth on radiographs and sections, but with agreement for only one tooth. Sixteen per cent of the teeth had no pulp area in the clinical crown when sectioned, but might still be suitable for testing using LDF.

  17. Ovine lentivirus lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Rapid induction in neonatal lambs.

    PubMed Central

    Lairmore, M. D.; Rosadio, R. H.; DeMartini, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    For examination of the characteristics of lentivirus-induced pulmonary disease in an animal model, neonatal lambs were given intratracheal injections of high-and low-passage ovine lentivirus (OvLV) isolates. In 6 of 6 lambs inoculated with low-passage OvLV or OvLV from lung lavage fluid, lesions of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) developed. In none of 7 lambs inoculated with a high-passage OvLV or 4 control lambs inoculated with medium alone or ultrafiltered lung fluid did lung lesions develop. Systemic distribution of lentivirus was greater and development of lentivirus antibody was more rapid in lambs inoculated with low-passage OvLV, compared with lambs inoculated with high passage OvLV. The number of lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage samples was increased in lambs with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. The development of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia was markedly accelerated, in comparison with previous reports of experimentally induced lentivirus pneumonia in sheep. In lentivirus-inoculated lambs pulmonary lesions developed comparable to lymphoid interstitial pneumonia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other human benign lymphoid disorders of the lung. Similarities between the disease manifestations and virologic properties of OvLV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus III argue for the relevance of OvLV-induced disease as a model for human retrovirus diseases. The ability of OvLV to cause accelerated pulmonary disease in neonates may be due to age-related susceptibility factors that enhance the pathogenicity of lentiviruses. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3022591

  18. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    PubMed

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  19. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    PubMed

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  20. Increase in the expression of alpha E beta 7, characteristic of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes, on T cells in the lung epithelium of patients with interstitial lung diseases and in synovial fluid of patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Baumgart, M; Witt, C; Hüge, W; Müller, B

    1996-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium contains a distinct group of lymphocytes (iIEL). The majority of iIEL are T cells characterized by a phenotype different from PBL. This phenotypic peculiarity has led to the hypothesis that iIEL, develop in a thymus-independent fashion, that they may develop locally in the gut epithelium itself and that they have the distinct function of providing a first line of defense in the gut. We looked at the expression of the gut-associated surface molecule alpha E beta 7 on T cells in inflamed tissues outside the gut epithelium. The already high frequency of 41.8% alpha E beta 7+ T cells in bronchoalveolar lavage from healthy lungs rises to a median of 61% in a fibrotic lung. In synovial fluid the percentage of T cells expressing alpha E beta 7 was diverse; it was not as high as in the lung but was elevated compared to PBL levels. In both tissues, the increase in alpha E beta 7 expression correlated with an increase in CD8+ cells. We discuss our data in the context of a model in which iIEL can leave the gut epithelium and become involved in inflammatory processes, possibly related to autoimmune disease.

  1. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration. PMID:27014076

  2. Pulp Regeneration: Current Approaches and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingwen; Yuan, Guohua; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α), basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), stem cell factor (SCF), and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  3. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B; McDougall, Steven R; Chaplain, Mark A J; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-03-07

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform

  4. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McDougall, Steven R.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    The flow of interstitial fluid and the associated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in solid tumors and surrounding host tissues have been identified as critical elements in cancer growth and vascularization. Both experimental and theoretical studies have shown that tumors may present elevated IFP, which can be a formidable physical barrier for delivery of cell nutrients and small molecules into the tumor. Elevated IFP may also exacerbate gradients of biochemical signals such as angiogenic factors released by tumors into the surrounding tissues. These studies have helped to understand both biochemical signaling and treatment prognosis. Building upon previous work, here we develop a vascular tumor growth model by coupling a continuous growth model with a discrete angiogenesis model. We include fluid/oxygen extravasation as well as a continuous lymphatic field, and study the micro-environmental fluid dynamics and their effect on tumor growth by accounting for blood flow, transcapillary fluid flux, interstitial fluid flow, and lymphatic drainage. We thus elucidate further the non-trivial relationship between the key elements contributing to the effects of interstitial pressure in solid tumors. In particular, we study the effect of IFP on oxygen extravasation and show that small blood/lymphatic vessel resistance and collapse may contribute to lower transcapillary fluid/oxygen flux, thus decreasing the rate of tumor growth. We also investigate the effect of tumor vascular pathologies, including elevated vascular and interstitial hydraulic conductivities inside the tumor as well as diminished osmotic pressure differences, on the fluid flow across the tumor capillary bed, the lymphatic drainage, and the IFP. Our results reveal that elevated interstitial hydraulic conductivity together with poor lymphatic function is the root cause of the development of plateau profiles of the IFP in the tumor, which have been observed in experiments, and contributes to a more uniform

  5. Pulp reaction to vital bleaching.

    PubMed

    Fugaro, Jessica O; Nordahl, Inger; Fugaro, Orlando J; Matis, Bruce A; Mjör, Ivar A

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the histological changes in dental pulp after nightguard vital bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide gel. Fifteen patients between 12 and 26 years of age with caries-free first premolars scheduled for orthodontic extraction were treated with 10% Opalescence (Ultradent Products, Inc). Tooth #5 had four days of bleaching, tooth #12 was treated for two weeks, tooth #21 was bleached for two weeks followed by two weeks without treatment and tooth #28, serving as the control, was without treatment. All teeth were extracted at the same time. Immediately after extraction, 4 mm of the most apical portion of the root was sectioned off and each specimen was placed in a vial containing 10% neutral buffered formalin. The samples were prepared for histological evaluation at the Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials (NIOM) and microscopically examined independently at both NIOM and Indiana University School of Dentistry (IUSD). Pulp reactions were semi-quantitatively graded as none, slight, moderate and severe. Slight pulpal changes were detected in 16 of the 45 bleached teeth. Neither moderate nor severe reactions were observed. The findings indicate that the slight histological changes sometimes observed after bleaching tend to resolve within two weeks post-treatment. Statistical differences existed only between the untreated control and the four-day (p=0.0109) and two-week (p=0.0045) treatment groups. The findings from this study demonstrated that nightguard vital bleaching procedures using 10% carbamide peroxide might cause initial mild, localized pulp reactions. However, the minor histological changes observed did not affect the overall health of the pulp tissue and were reversible within two weeks post-treatment. Therefore, two weeks of treatment with 10% carbamide peroxide used for nightguard vital bleaching is considered safe for dental pulp.

  6. Signaling Molecules and Pulp Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Schmalz, Gottfried; Widbiller, Matthias; Galler, Kerstin M

    2017-09-01

    Signaling molecules play an essential role in tissue engineering because they regulate regenerative processes. Evidence exists from animal studies that single molecules such as members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily and factors that induce the growth of blood vessels (vascular endothelial growth factor), nerves (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), or fibroblasts (fibroblast growth factor) may induce reparative dentin formation. Mainly the formation of atubular dentin (osteodentin) has been described after the application of single molecules or combinations of recombinant growth factors on healthy exposed pulps or in pulp regeneration. Generally, such preparations have not received regulatory approval on the market so far. Only the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors together with cell transplantation is presently tested clinically. Besides approaches with only 1 or few combined molecules, the exploitation of tissue-derived growth factors depicts a third promising way in dental pulp tissue engineering. Preparations such as platelet-rich plasma or platelet-rich fibrin provide a multitude of endogenous signaling molecules, and special regulatory approval for the market does not seem necessary. Furthermore, dentin is a perfect reservoir of signaling molecules that can be mobilized by treatment with demineralizing agents such as EDTA. This conditions the dentin surface and allows for contact differentiation of pulp stem cells into odontoblastlike cells, protects dentin from resorption, and enhances cell growth as well as attachment to dentin. By ultrasonic activation, signaling molecules can be further released from EDTA pretreated dentin into saline, thus avoiding cytotoxic EDTA in the final preparation. The use of dentin-derived growth factors offers a number of advantages because they are locally available and presumably are most fit to induce signaling processes in dental pulp. However, better characterization and standardization of the

  7. New Approaches in Vital Pulp Therapy in Permanent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam; Parisay, Iman

    2014-01-01

    Vitality of dental pulp is essential for long-term tooth survival. The aim of vital pulp therapy is to maintain healthy pulp tissue by eliminating bacteria from the dentin-pulp complex. There are several different treatment options for vital pulp therapy in extensively decayed or traumatized teeth. Pulp capping or pulpotomy procedures rely upon an accurate assessment of the pulp status, and careful management of the remaining pulp tissue. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of new approaches in vital pulp therapy in permanent teeth. PMID:24396371

  8. [Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Marten, Katharina

    2007-03-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  9. Interstitial IgG antibody pharmacokinetics assessed by combined in vivo- and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Eigenmann, Miro J; Karlsen, Tine V; Krippendorff, Ben-Fillippo; Tenstad, Olav; Fronton, Ludivine; Otteneder, Michael B; Wiig, Helge

    2017-09-27

    For most therapeutic antibodies, the interstitium is the target space. Although experimental methods for measuring antibody pharmacokinetics (PK) in this space are not well established, making quantitative assessment difficult, the interstitial antibody concentration is assumed to be low. Here, we combined direct quantification of antibodies in the interstitial fluid with a physiologically-based PK (PBPK) modelling approach with the goal of better describing the PK of monoclonal antibodies in the interstitial space of different tissues. We isolated interstitial fluid by tissue centrifugation, and conducted an antibody biodistribution study in mice, measuring total tissue- and interstitial concentrations in selected tissues. Residual plasma, interstitial volumes and lymph flows, which are important PBPK model parameters, were assessed in vivo. We could thereby refine PBPK modelling of monoclonal antibodies, better interpret antibody biodistribution data and more accurately predict their PK in the different tissue spaces. Our results indicate that in tissues with discontinuous capillaries (liver and spleen), interstitial concentrations are reflected by plasma concentration. In tissues with continuous capillaries (e.g. skin and muscle), ∼50-60% of plasma concentration is found in the interstitial space. In brain and kidney, on the other hand, antibodies are restricted to the vascular space. Our data may significantly impact the interpretation of biodistribution data of monoclonal antibodies and might be important when relating measured concentrations to a therapeutic effect. Opposing the view that antibodies distribution to the interstitial space is limited, we show by direct measurements and model-based data interpretation that high antibody interstitial concentrations are reached in most tissues. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis and Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Sjoerd A.M.E.G.; Christiaans, Maarten H.L.; Abdul-Hamid, Myrurgia A.; Stifft, Frank; Damoiseaux, Jan G.M.C.; van Paassen, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatous interstitial nephritis has been observed in <1% of native renal biopsies. Here, we describe two patients with granulomatous interstitial nephritis in relation to Crohn's disease. Circulating helper and cytotoxic T cells were highly activated, and both cell types predominated in the interstitial infiltrate, indicating a cellular autoimmune response. After immunosuppressive treatment, renal function either improved or stabilized in both patients. In conclusion, granulomatous interstitial nephritis is a genuine extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn's disease, the treatment of which should include immunosuppressive agents. PMID:27478596

  11. Contribution of interstitial solute strengthening in aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Isao; Ono, Satoshi; Hanaoka, Yudai; Uesugi, Tokuteru; Takigawa, Yorinobu; Higashi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Enthalpies of solutions and misfit strains for the Al-X (X = H, B, C, N, and O) binary alloys were determined by first-principles calculations to estimate the strengthening of solid solutions caused by interstitial atoms. The results indicate that interstitial solute atoms produced large misfit strains. Electrodeposited Al containing 0.12-1.32 at.% C was used to assess the validity of solid-solution strengthening by interstitial solute atoms. The role that interstitial carbon plays in strengthening electrodeposited Al is discussed.

  12. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Caminati, A; Graziano, P; Sverzellati, N; Harari, S

    2010-12-01

    In pulmonary pathology, a wide spectrum of morphological changes is related to the consequences of smoking, and recognizing them on surgical specimens and on small transbronchial biopsies represents a challenge for the pathologist. Respiratory bronchiolitis, also referred to as smoker's bronchiolitis, is a common histologic feature found in the lung tissue of cigarette smokers. When identified as the sole histopathologic finding in the clinical setting of symptomatic interstitial lung disease, a diagnosis of respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease is made. Since smoking is recognized to cause a variety of histologic patterns encompassing respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary Langerhans cell hystiocytosis, smoking-related interstitial lung disease may be a useful concept to keep in mind for the pathologists. The relationship of smoking with each of these entities has been largely established on the basis of epidemiologic evidence. Although they have been retained as distinct and separate conditions in various classifications of interstitial lung diseases, these entities share a number of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features suggesting that they represent a spectrum of patterns of interstitial lung disease occurring in predisposed individuals who smoke. Evaluation of histologic features, particularly in surgical lung biopsy samples, is important in making the distinction between these disorders. However, even after tissue biopsy, it may sometimes be difficult to clearly separate these entities. Recently, respiratory bronchiolitis-interstitial lung disease with fibrosis has been described and postulated that this is a smoking-related condition distinct from fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

  13. Interstitial leukocyte migration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Pui-ying; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Rapid leukocyte motility is essential for immunity and host defense. There has been progress in understanding the molecular signals that regulate leukocyte motility both in vitro and in vivo. However, a gap remains in understanding how complex signals are prioritized to result in directed migration, which is critical for both adaptive and innate immune function. Here we focus on interstitial migration and how external cues are translated into intracellular signaling pathways that regulate leukocyte polarity, directional sensing and motility in three-dimensional spaces. PMID:23797028

  14. [Functional morphology of pulp tissue].

    PubMed

    Heine, H; Schaeg, G; Türk, R

    1989-01-01

    As compared with mesenchyme no genuine defense cells are developed in the tissue of the dental pulp and the nervous tissue. This is a further hint for the common development from ectoderm. The three dimensional meshwork of pulpa fibroblasts ("mesectoderm") is structured by elongated cell processes connected with each other by a variety of special cell junctions ("electronic cell coupling"). Metabolites from the microcirculation and neuropeptides from vegetative axons influence the activity of fibroblasts synthetizing groundsubstance. The meshwork of the groundsubstance has exclusion effects concerning molecules with a distinct molecular weight and charge. Thus a primitive defense system is established. With this the role of a newly described cell type of the dental pulp, the "lymphocytic pericyte" is discussed. Because of the poor capacity of the pulpa tissue for immunological reactions pathologically disorders may easily become chronically spreading their antigenic components throughout the body.

  15. [Confusion and solution for vital pulp therapy].

    PubMed

    Dingming, Huang; Qian, Lu; Qian, Liao; Ling, Ye; Xuedong, Zhou

    2017-06-01

    Dental pulp tissue plays a role in forming dentin, providing nutrition, conducting pain, and generating protective responses to environmental stimuli. Bacterial infection is the main cause of pulp disease, where histopathological changes are the histological basis for determining the choice of treatment and the evaluation of therapeutic effect. Thus, particular attention should be given to eliminate infection, as well as preserve and maintain pulpal health in teeth that show reversible or limited pulpal injuries. Vital pulp therapy, especially its indications and prognostic factors, has been a research hotspot that often causes confusion among clinicians. In this paper, we briefly introduce the confusion and solution for vital pulp therapy in terms of indications, pulp condition assessment, infection elimination, and capping material selection. In addition, we develop a clinical pathway and an operation normalization of vital pulp therapy to better perform the therapy.

  16. Evaluation of dentinal fluid flow behaviours: a fluid-structure interaction simulation.

    PubMed

    Su, Kuo-Chih; Chuang, Shu-Fen; Ng, Eddie Yin-Kwee; Chang, Chih-Han

    2014-11-01

    This study uses the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method to investigate the fluid flow in dental pulp. First, the FSI method is used for the biomechanical simulation of dental intrapulpal responses during force loading (50, 100 and 150 N) on a tooth. The results are validated by comparison with experimental outcomes. Second, the FSI method is used to investigate an intact tooth subjected to a mechanical stimulus during loading at various loading rates. Force loading (0-100 N) is applied gradually to an intact tooth surface with loading rates of 125, 62.5, 25 and 12.5 N/s, respectively, and the fluid flow changes in the pulp are evaluated. FSI analysis is found to be suitable for examining intrapulpal biomechanics. An external force applied to a tooth with a low loading rate leads to a low fluid flow velocity in the pulp chamber, thus avoiding tooth pain.

  17. Laccase modification of the physical properties of bark and pulp of loblolly pine and spruce pulp

    Treesearch

    William Kenealy; John Klungness; Mandla Tshabalala; Eric Horn; Masood Akhtar; Roland Gleisner; Gisela Buschle-Diller

    2004-01-01

    Pine bark, pine pulp, and spruce pulp were reacted with laccase in the presence of phenolic laccase substrates to modify the fiber surface properties. The acid-base and dispersive characteristics of these modified steam-treated thermomechanical loblolly pine pulps were determined by inverse gas chromatography. Different combinations of substrates with laccase modified...

  18. Fatty acid metabolism in lambs fed citrus pulp.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Scerra, M; Bognanno, M; Buccioni, A; Cilione, C; Biondi, L; Priolo, A; Luciano, G

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we have hypothesized that replacing barley with high proportions of dried citrus pulp in a concentrate-based diet for lambs could increase the intake of unsaturated fatty acids and could reduce the rate of the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA, with a consequent improvement of the intramuscular fatty acid composition. To test this hypothesis, 26 Comisana lambs were divided into 3 groups and for 56 d were fed a barley-based concentrate diet (CON; 8 lambs) or 2 diets in which barley was replaced with 24% (CIT24; 9 lambs) or 35% (CIT35; 9 lambs) dried citrus pulp. An overall improvement of the fatty acid composition of LM from lambs fed citrus pulp-containing diets was found. The PUFA/SFA ratio was lower (P < 0.05) in the LM from lambs in the CON group compared with both the CIT24 and CIT35 groups. The thrombogenic index was lower (P < 0.05) in meat from lambs fed the CIT35 diet compared with those fed the CON diet. The CIT35 diet increased the proportion of C20:5 n-3 in the LM (P < 0.05), whereas the CIT24 diet enhanced that of C22:6 -3 (P < 0.05) compared with the CON diet. Some of these results might be explained considering that feeding the CIT24 and CIT35 diets increased the intake of total fatty acids (P < 0.05) and of C18:3 n-3 (P < 0.01) compared with feeding the CON treatment. On the other hand, phenolic compounds present in citrus pulp could have inhibited the ruminal biohydrogenation of PUFA. This is supported by the fact that regardless of the level of inclusion in the diet, citrus pulp increased the proportion of rumenic acid (P < 0.001) in LM compared with the CON diet. The plasma from lambs fed both CIT24 and CIT35 diets had a greater percentage of vaccenic acid (VA; < 0.001) compared with that from lambs fed the CON diet, and the CIT35 diet increased the proportion of rumenic acid in plasma compared with the CON treatment (P < 0.05). In the ruminal fluid, stearic acid (SA) tended to decrease, and the sum of CLA tended to increase

  19. Bioremediation of paper and pulp mill effluents.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, K

    2003-11-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluents pollute water, air and soil, causing a major threat to the environment. Several methods have been attempted by various researchers throughout the world for the removal of colour from pulp and paper mill effluents. The biological colour removal process uses several classes of microorganisms--bacteria, algae and fungi--to degrade the polymeric lignin derived chromophoric material. White rot fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Corius versicolor, Trametes versicolor etc., are efficient in decolourizing paper and pulp mill effluents. Gliocladium virens, a saprophytic soil fungus decolourised paper and pulp mill effluents by 42% due to the production of hemicellulase, lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase.

  20. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  1. An analytical model to predict interstitial lubrication of cartilage in migrating contact areas.

    PubMed

    Moore, A C; Burris, D L

    2014-01-03

    For nearly a century, articular cartilage has been known for its exceptional tribological properties. For nearly as long, there have been research efforts to elucidate the responsible mechanisms for application toward biomimetic bearing applications. It is now widely accepted that interstitial fluid pressurization is the primary mechanism responsible for the unusual lubrication and load bearing properties of cartilage. Although the biomechanics community has developed elegant mathematical theories describing the coupling of solid and fluid (biphasic) mechanics and its role in interstitial lubrication, quantitative gaps in our understanding of cartilage tribology have inhibited our ability to predict how tribological conditions and material properties impact tissue function. This paper presents an analytical model of the interstitial lubrication of biphasic materials under migrating contact conditions. Although finite element and other numerical models of cartilage mechanics exist, they typically neglect the important role of the collagen network and are limited to a specific set of input conditions, which limits general applicability. The simplified approach taken in this work aims to capture the broader underlying physics as a starting point for further model development. In agreement with existing literature, the model indicates that a large Peclet number, Pe, is necessary for effective interstitial lubrication. It also predicts that the tensile modulus must be large relative to the compressive modulus. This explains why hydrogels and other biphasic materials do not provide significant interstitial pressure under high Pe conditions. The model quantitatively agrees with in-situ measurements of interstitial load support and the results have interesting implications for tissue engineering and osteoarthritis problems. This paper suggests that a low tensile modulus (from chondromalacia or local collagen rupture after impact, for example) may disrupt interstitial

  2. An analytical model to predict interstitial lubrication of cartilage in migrating contact areas

    PubMed Central

    Moore, A.; Burris, D.L.

    2013-01-01

    For nearly a century, articular cartilage has been known for its exceptional tribological properties. For nearly as long, there have been research efforts to elucidate the responsible mechanisms for application toward biomimetic bearing applications. It is now widely accepted that interstitial fluid pressurization is the primary mechanism responsible for the unusual lubrication and load bearing properties of cartilage. Although the biomechanics community has developed elegant mathematical theories describing the coupling of solid and fluid (biphasic) mechanics and its role in interstitial lubrication, quantitative gaps in our understanding of cartilage tribology have inhibited our ability to predict how tribological conditions and material properties impact tissue function. This paper presents an analytical model of the interstitial lubrication of biphasic materials under migrating contact conditions. Although finite element and other numerical models of cartilage mechanics exist, they typically neglect the important role of the collagen network and are limited to a specific set of input conditions, which limits general applicability. The simplified approach taken in this work aims to capture the broader underlying physics as a starting point for further model development. In agreement with existing literature, the model indicates that a large Peclet number, Pe, is necessary for effective interstitial lubrication. It also predicts that the tensile modulus must be large relative to the compressive modulus. This explains why hydrogels and other biphasic materials do not provide significant interstitial pressure under high Pe conditions. The model quantitatively agrees with in-situ measurements of interstitial load support and the results have interesting implications for tissue engineering and osteoarthritis problems. This paper suggests that a low tensile modulus (from chondromalacia or local collagen rupture after impact, for example) may disrupt interstitial

  3. [Multiple pulp stones: report of a case and literature review].

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-jie; Luo, Xin; Li, Ren; Dong, Wei; Qi, Meng-chun

    2015-08-01

    Pulp stones were denaturation of pulp tissue, which were usually found in the pulp chamber. Generally, they were associated with caries and pulposis, and the occurrence of pulp stone increased with age. Pulp stones were frequently found by radiographic examination, and appeared as radiopaque lesions which were round or ovoid in shape. We reported an unusual case of multiple pulp stones with normal clinical crowns in a young female patient and analyzed the possible etiology.

  4. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" (chILD) ... therapeutic intervention Lung and bone marrow transplant-associated lung diseases Diffuse alveolar damage of unknown cause The various types ...

  5. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; hide

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  6. Cough in interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Garner, Justin; George, Peter M; Renzoni, Elisabetta

    2015-12-01

    Cough in the context of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has not been the focus of many studies. However, chronic cough has a major impact on quality of life in a significant proportion of patients with ILD. For the purpose of this review, we have chosen to highlight some of the more frequently encountered diffuse lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and systemic sclerosis associated ILD. Many of the underlying mechanisms remain speculative and further research is now required to elucidate the complex pathways involved in the pathogenesis of chronic cough in ILD. This will hopefully pave the way for the identification of new therapeutic agents to alleviate this distressing and often intractable symptom. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interstitial Lung Disease in Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Sara R.; Castelino, Flavia V.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous disease of unknown etiology and with limited effective therapies. It is characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy and fibrosis and is clinically manifested by multi-organ involvement. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common complication of the disease and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of ILD hinges upon careful clinical evaluation as well as pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). A number of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators are involved in the pathogenesis of SSc-ILD, with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) playing a key role in the development of fibrosis. Despite recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of disease initiation and progression, effective therapeutic options are still limited. A number of experimental therapies are currently in early phase clinical trials and show promise. PMID:25836640

  8. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Leg 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayles, Fred L.; Manheim, Frank T.; Waterman, Lee S.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of pore fluids from reducing environments demonstrate that reduction of SO4 is accompanied by large increases in alkalinity and strong depletion of Ca and Mg. The data are compatible with a model of replacement of Fe3+ in clay lattices by Mg from the interstitial solutions and the precipitation of pyrite. Depletions of Na in the interstitial solutions are related to Mg losses by a ratio of approximately 1:3. Pore fluids from oxidizing pelagic sediments exhibit little SO4 depletion. Losses of Mg are accompanied by the addition of Ca to the pore solutions on a nearly 1:1 basis. Strong Sr enrichment is also found in these solutions. The magnitude of the Sr increase suggests that considerable carbonate recrystallization has occurred. As part of an extensive interlaboratory and analytical calibration, the effect of squeezing sediment at different temperatures has been studied in depth. Samples of a variety of lithologies have been included. Enrichment of K by as much as 24 percent and depletion of Mg and Ca by up to 7 percent occurs during warming. However, no significant effect upon Cl and SO4 could be detected. The strongest effects are seen in the minor constituents studied. On warming, Sr, Si, and B are enriched as much as 19, 40, and 60 percent, respectively. The size of the observed concentration changes varies with the mineralogy of the sediment, but is significant in all types studied, particularly with regards to Mg and K.

  9. Sonophoresis for Rapid Assessment of Interstitial Fluid and Drug Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    interleukins, chemokines, growth factors, antibodies and others), lipids (cholesterol, ceramides , fatty acids, triglycerides and others), nucleic acids (RNA...signature of the skin . All in all, ultrasound extracted at least a total of 71 proteins, 14 types of lipids , nucleic acids, 18 small-molecules as...extraction experiments on human cadaver skin also revealed similar results. Ultrasound also extracted 6 types of non-polar lipids (paraffin hydrocarbons (PH

  10. Effects of distance from the pulp and thickness on the hydraulic conductance of human radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Fogel, H M; Marshall, F J; Pashley, D H

    1988-11-01

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to measure the effect of distance from the pulp on the hydraulic conductance of human radicular dentin; (2) to determine the influence of dentin thickness on the rates of fluid flow; and (3) to attempt to correlate dentinal tubule densities and diameters with root dentin hydraulic conductance. Dentin slabs prepared from extracted, unerupted, human third molar teeth were placed in a split-chamber device to permit quantitation of fluid filtration rate (hydraulic conductance). In the SEM portion of the study, dentinal tubule numbers and diameters were recorded. The results indicated that radicular dentin hydraulic conductance decreased with distance from the pulp and with increasing dentin thickness. Tubule density and diameter correlated well with the measured hydraulic conductances. The relatively low hydraulic conductance of outer root dentin makes it a significant barrier to fluid movement across root structure.

  11. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  12. Changes are in Store for Pulping Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry are being forced by economic considerations and air pollution regulations to consider alternatives to the use of sulfur systems, be they kraft, acid or neutral sulfite. To meet environmental requirements and combat erosion of profits, modernized non-sulfur pulping methods will increasingly appear on the scene. (BT)

  13. Pulp quality from small-diameter trees.

    Treesearch

    G.C. Myers; S. Kumar; R.R. Gustafson; R.J. Barbour; S.M. Abubakr

    1997-01-01

    Kraft and thermomechanical (TMP) pulps were prepared and evaluated from lodgepole pine and mixed Douglas-fir/western larch sawmill residue chips; lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch submerchantable logs; and lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch small trees and tops. Kraft pulp from small trees and tops was identical to that from submerchantable...

  14. Changes are in Store for Pulping Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry are being forced by economic considerations and air pollution regulations to consider alternatives to the use of sulfur systems, be they kraft, acid or neutral sulfite. To meet environmental requirements and combat erosion of profits, modernized non-sulfur pulping methods will increasingly appear on the scene. (BT)

  15. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Pulp and Paper Industry Effluent Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, George W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from pulp and paper industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) receiving water, toxicity, and effluent characterization; (2) pulping liquor disposal and recovery; and (3) physicochemical and biological treatment. A list of 238 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  18. Assessment of pulp vitality: a review.

    PubMed

    Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Pradeep, Gali; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest diagnostic challenges in clinical practice is the accurate assessment of pulp status. This may be further complicated in paediatric dentistry where the practitioner is faced with a developing dentition, traumatized teeth, or young children who have a limited ability to recall a pain history for the tooth in question. A variety of pulp testing approaches exist, and there may be confusion as to their validity or appropriateness in different clinical situations. The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a comprehensive review of current pulp testing methods. A key objective is to highlight the difference between sensitivity testing and vitality testing. A biological basis for pulp testing is also provided to allow greater insight into the interpretation of pulp testing results. The rationale for, and methods of, assessing pulpal blood flow are described.

  19. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  20. Novel bleaching of thermomechanical pulp for improved paper properties

    Treesearch

    Marguerite S. Sykes; John H. Klungness; Freya. Tan

    2002-01-01

    Production of mechanical pulp is expected to increase significantly to meet the growing global demand for paper. Mechanical pulping uses wood resources more efficiently with less negative impact on the environment than does chemical pulping. However, several problems related to mechanical pulping need to be resolved: high energy consumption, low paper strength...

  1. SOME ASPECTS OF THE CHEMISTRY OF POLYSULFIDE PULPING,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Kraft pulping with the addition of polysulfide, i.e. polysulfide pulping, is one of the few methods available which can be used to increase the yield...and change the properties of kraft pulp. The chemistry of aqueous polysulfide solutions and the concurrent reactions occurring in polysulfide pulping

  2. Potential uses for peroxymonosulfate in pulping and bleaching

    Treesearch

    Edward L. Springer

    1992-01-01

    Practical and cost-effective uses for peroxymonosulfate can be developed in pulping and bleaching. Peroxymonosulfate pulping produces strong pulps, has lower capital requirements, and is less environmentally troublesome compared with current pulping processes. The cost of oxidant may, however, be somewhat too high for practical use. We discuss means for reducing the...

  3. Polyoxometalates in oxidative delignification of chemical pulps: effect on lignin

    Treesearch

    Biljana Bujanovic; Sally Ralph; Richard Reiner; Kolby Hirth; Rajai Atalla

    2010-01-01

    Chemical pulps are produced by chemical delignification of lignocelluloses such as wood or annual non-woody plants. After pulping (e.g., kraft pulping), the remaining lignin is removed by bleaching to produce a high quality, bright paper. The goal of bleaching is to remove lignin from the pulp without a negative effect on the cellulose; for this reason, delignification...

  4. Combined treatment with interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial radiotherapy in an animal tumor model.

    PubMed

    Ruifrok, A C; Levendag, P C; Lakeman, R F; Deurloo, I K; Visser, A G

    1991-06-01

    An interstitial hyperthermia system operating at 27 MHz has been developed at the Dr. Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center. To test this system in combination with interstitial radiotherapy and to study the interactions of interstitial radiotherapy and interstitial hyperthermia, animal experiments were performed using rhabdomyosarcoma type R1 transplanted in the flanks of female Wag/Rij rats. Using the 27 MHz system, it appeared feasible to obtain hyperthermic temperatures. In this experiment a thermal dose of 44 degrees C for 30 minutes was delivered by controlling the temperature at the periphery of the tumor to 44 degrees C. The interstitial heating applicators were inserted in four standard afterloading catheters implanted with a fixed spacing of 7 mm; the same catheters were used for the radioactive sources for interstitial radiotherapy treatment following the interstitial hyperthermia sessions. Interstitial radiotherapy was given by means of four Ir192 wires with an average activity of 4.5.10(7) Bq/cm. Minimum tumor doses of 20 to 115 Gy with a mean dose rate of 47 cGy/hour were applied. Interstitial hyperthermia alone resulted in a growth delay (GD1) of 6 +/- 2 days without significant reduction of tumor volume. The 50% tumor cure dose after interstitial radiotherapy alone was 95 +/- 9 Gy. Combination of interstitial hyperthermia and interstitial radiotherapy resulted in reduction of the 50% tumor cure dose to 48 +/- 13 Gy. The dose-effect data for cure for these modalities are compared to existing data for external irradiation and external hyperthermia in the same tumor model. It was found that the addition of hyperthermia to different modes of irradiation, that is, either to single dose or protracted radiotherapy, results in a common level of radiosensitivity through impaired repair of sublethal damage. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the 27 MHz heating system in achieving hyperthermic temperatures; in the combined modality experiments a thermal

  5. [Chemotherapy in Patients Complicated with Interstitial Pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Sata, Masafumi; Kato, Terufumi

    2016-08-01

    Interstitial pneumonia has high risk for chemotherapy-related exacerbation. Chemotherapy-related exacerbation is often fatal with respiratory failure. When we treat the cancer patient with interstitial pneumonia, it is necessary for us to regard of the efficacy of chemotherapy, and the frequency and mortality of chemotherapy-related exacerbation. All anti-cancer drugs has the possibilities of chemotherapy-related exacerbation. The incidence of chemotherapy-related exacerbation was higher in patients with target therapy agent or immune-checkpoint therapy agent, though there is not an interstitial pneumonia patient. In patients complicated with interstitial pneumonia, you should not use of these drugs, such as target therapy agent or immune-checkpoint therapy agent.

  6. Imaging of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aphorism that children are not little adults certainly applies for the imaging of interstitial lung disease. Acquiring motion-free images of fine pulmonary structures at desired lung volumes is much more difficult in children than in adults. Several forms of interstitial lung disease are unique to children, and some forms of interstitial lung disease encountered in adults rarely, if ever, occur in children. Meticulous attention to imaging technique and specialized knowledge are required to properly perform and interpret chest imaging studies obtained for the evaluation of childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD). This review will address technique recommendations for imaging chILD, the salient imaging findings in various forms of chILD, and the efficacy of imaging in the diagnosis and management of chILD. PMID:22332031

  7. Diffuse interstitial lung disease: overlaps and uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Simon L F; Hansell, David M

    2010-08-01

    Histopathological analysis of lung biopsy material allows the diagnosis of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias; however, the strength of this diagnosis is sometimes subverted by interobserver variation and sampling. The American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society recommendations of 2002 provide a framework for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and proposed an integrated clinical, radiological and histopathological approach. These recommendations represent a break with tradition by replacing the 'gold standard' of histopathology with the combined 'silver standards' of clinical, imaging and histopathological information. One of the pitfalls of a rigid classification system for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is its failure to accommodate the phenomenon of overlapping disease patterns. This article reviews the various ways that interstitial lung disease may be classified and discusses their applicability. In addition the issue of overlap disease patterns is considered in the context of histopathological interobserver variation and sampling error and how a pigeonhole approach to disease classification may overlook these hybrid entities.

  8. Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Diagnosis of Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Sant, Grannum R

    2002-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a bladder syndrome of unknown etiology. The cause of IC is most likely multifactorial and includes genetic and environmental factors. Various pathophysiological changes in the bladder, pelvis, and peripheral and central nervous systems have been identified, and this has led to the emergence of biologically specific treatment modalities. Interstitial cystitis is being diagnosed with increasing frequency; however, current diagnostic criteria are non-uniform, and there is significant overlap between chronic pelvic pain syndromes in men and women, interstitial cystitis, recurrent “cystitis,” and the overactive bladder syndrome. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis can be made clinically and by cystoscopy and hydrodistension. The sensitivity and specificity of urinary markers and the potassium sensitivity test have not been prospectively studied. PMID:16986036

  9. A sensitive in vivo model for quantifying interstitial convective transport of injected macromolecules and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Sai T; Berk, David A; Jain, Rakesh K; Swartz, Melody A

    2006-10-01

    Effective interstitial transport of particles is necessary for injected drug/diagnostic agents to reach the intended target; however, quantitative methods to estimate such transport parameters are lacking. In this study, we develop an in vivo model for evaluating interstitial convection of injected macromolecules and nanoparticles. Fluorescently labeled macromolecules and particles are coinfused with a reference solute at constant infusion pressure intradermally into the mouse tail tip, and their relative convection coefficients are determined from spatial and temporal interstitial concentration profiles. Quantifying relative solute velocity with a coinfused reference solute eliminates the need to estimate interstitial fluid velocity profiles, greatly reducing experimental variability. To demonstrate sensitivity and usefulness of this model, we compare the effects of size (dextrans of 3, 40, 71, and 2,000 kDa and 40-nm diameter particles), shape (linear dextran 71 kDa vs. 69 kDa globular protein albumin), and charge (anionic vs. neutral dextran 3 kDa) on interstitial convection. We find significant differences in interstitial transport rates between each of these molecules and confirm expected transport phenomena, testifying to sensitivity of the model in comparing solutes of different size, shape, and charge. Our data show that size exclusion (within a specific size range) dominates molecular convection, while mechanical hindrance slows larger molecules and nanoparticles; proteins convect slower than linear molecules of equal molecular mass, and negative surface charges increase convection through matrix repulsion. Our in vivo model is presumably a sensitive and reliable tool for evaluating and optimizing potential drug/diagnostic vehicles that utilize interstitial and lymphatic delivery routes.

  10. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1) exposure-related ILD; 2) systemic disease-associated ILD; 3) alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4) ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy. PMID:20727133

  11. Interstitial fibrosis and growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, J A; Brody, A R

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is scarring of the lung caused by a variety of inhaled agents including mineral particles, organic dusts, and oxidant gases. The disease afflicts millions of individuals worldwide, and there are no effective therapeutic approaches. A major reason for this lack of useful treatments is that few of the molecular mechanisms of disease have been defined sufficiently to design appropriate targets for therapy. Our laboratory has focused on the molecular mechanisms through which three selected peptide growth factors could play a role in the development of IPF. Hundreds of growth factors and cytokines could be involved in the complex disease process. We are studying platelet-derived growth factor because it is the most potent mesenchymal cell mitogen yet described, transforming growth factor beta because it is a powerful inducer of extracellular matrix (scar tissue) components by mesenchymal cells, and tumor necrosis factor alpha because it is a pleiotropic cytokine that we and others have shown is essential for the development of IPF in animal models. This review describes some of the evidence from studies in humans, in animal models, and in vitro, that supports the growth factor hypothesis. The use of modern molecular and transgenic technologies could elucidate those targets that will allow effective therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10931794

  12. A Review on Vital Pulp Therapy in Primary Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed. PMID:25598803

  13. A review on vital pulp therapy in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Parisay, Iman; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Forghani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining deciduous teeth in function until their natural exfoliation is absolutely necessary. Vital pulp therapy (VPT) is a way of saving deciduous teeth. The most important factors in success of VPT are the early diagnosis of pulp and periradicular status, preservation of the pulp vitality and proper vascularization of the pulp. Development of new biomaterials with suitable biocompatibility and seal has changed the attitudes towards preserving the reversible pulp in cariously exposed teeth. Before exposure and irreversible involvement of the pulp, indirect pulp capping (IPC) is the treatment of choice, but after the spread of inflammation within the pulp chamber and establishment of irreversible pulpitis, removal of inflamed pulp tissue is recommended. In this review, new concepts in preservation of the healthy pulp tissue in deciduous teeth and induction of the reparative dentin formation with new biomaterials instead of devitalization and the consequent destruction of vital tissues are discussed.

  14. The Microbial Challenge to Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Pulp regeneration is considered in cases where the dental pulp has been destroyed because of microbial irritation. Diverse oral and food-borne micro-organisms are able to invade the pulp space, form biofilm on canal walls, and infiltrate dentinal tubules. Prior to pulp regeneration procedures, the pulp space and dentinal walls need to be sufficiently disinfected to allow for and promote regeneration. The necessary level of disinfection is likely higher than that accepted for traditional endodontic therapy, because in traditional techniques the mere lowering of bacterial loads and prevention of bacterial access to periapical tissues is conducive to healing. Moreover, several of the non-specific antimicrobials used in traditional endodontic therapy may cause significant changes in remaining dentin that interfere with its inherent potential to mediate regeneration. Non-specific antimicrobials also suppress all microbial taxa, which may allow residual virulent micro-organisms to preferentially repopulate the pulp space. Therefore, it is important for endodontic pathogens to be studied by molecular methods that allow for a broad depth of coverage. It is then essential to determine the most effective protocols to disinfect the pulp space, with minimal disruption of remaining dentin. These protocols include the topical use of effective antibiotics, including newer agents that have demonstrated efficacy against endodontic pathogens. PMID:21677080

  15. The microbial challenge to pulp regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A F

    2011-07-01

    Pulp regeneration is considered in cases where the dental pulp has been destroyed because of microbial irritation. Diverse oral and food-borne micro-organisms are able to invade the pulp space, form biofilm on canal walls, and infiltrate dentinal tubules. Prior to pulp regeneration procedures, the pulp space and dentinal walls need to be sufficiently disinfected to allow for and promote regeneration. The necessary level of disinfection is likely higher than that accepted for traditional endodontic therapy, because in traditional techniques the mere lowering of bacterial loads and prevention of bacterial access to periapical tissues is conducive to healing. Moreover, several of the non-specific antimicrobials used in traditional endodontic therapy may cause significant changes in remaining dentin that interfere with its inherent potential to mediate regeneration. Non-specific antimicrobials also suppress all microbial taxa, which may allow residual virulent micro-organisms to preferentially repopulate the pulp space. Therefore, it is important for endodontic pathogens to be studied by molecular methods that allow for a broad depth of coverage. It is then essential to determine the most effective protocols to disinfect the pulp space, with minimal disruption of remaining dentin. These protocols include the topical use of effective antibiotics, including newer agents that have demonstrated efficacy against endodontic pathogens.

  16. Biomechanical pulping: A mill-scale evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Scott, G.M.; Swaney, R.E.; Shipley, D.F.

    1999-07-01

    Mechanical pulping process is electrical energy intensive and results in low paper strength. Biomechanical pulping, defined as the fungal treatment of lignocellulosic materials prior to mechanical pulping, has shown at least 30% savings in electrical energy consumption, and significant improvements in paper strength properties compared to the control at a laboratory scale. In an effort to scale-up biomechanical pulping to an industrial level, fifty tons of spruce wood chips were inoculated with the best biopulping fungus in a continuous operation and stored in the form of an outdoor chip pile for two weeks. The pile was ventilated with conditioned air to maintain the optimum growth temperature and moisture throughout the pile. The control and fungus-treated chips were refined through a thermomechanical pulp mill (TMP) producing lightweight coated paper. The fungal pretreatment saved 33% electrical energy and improved paper strength properties significantly compared to the control. Since biofibers were stronger than the conventional TMP fibers, the authors were able to reduce the amount of bleached softwood kraft pulp by at least 5% in the final product. Fungal pretreatment reduced brightness, but brightness was restored to the level of bleached control with 60% more hydrogen peroxide. The economics of biomechanical pulping look attractive.

  17. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S. . School of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge.

  18. Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis: Multimodality Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is an increasingly common disease characterized by urgency, frequency, and pelvic pain. Its etiology is poorly understood but is likely to be multifactorial. A proposed pathophysiology describing a cascade of events, including epithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, and neurogenic inflammation, is presented. Using this model, multimodality therapy regimens have been developed that treat all components of this cascade. Multimodality therapy appears more effective than single agents in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. PMID:16986029

  19. Interstitial twin pregnancy: A unique case presentation.

    PubMed

    Garretto, Diana; Lee, Lan Na; Budorick, Nancy E; Figueroa, Reinaldo

    2015-09-01

    Early recognition and timely treatment of an interstitial pregnancy is imperative to avoid the high morbidity and mortality of this type of ectopic pregnancy. We report a case of twin interstitial pregnancy that was initially missed on initial sonogram and was subsequently recognized at our institution by transvaginal sonography. The patient underwent open laparoscopic surgery with cornual wedge resection but suffered infundibulopelvic ligament hemorrhage and subsequently required ipsilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She did well and was discharged home a day later.

  20. Acute exacerbations of fibrotic interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Tazelaar, Henry D

    2011-03-01

    An acute exacerbation is the development of acute lung injury, usually resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome, in a patient with a pre-existing fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. By definition, acute exacerbations are not caused by infection, heart failure, aspiration or drug reaction. Most patients with acute exacerbations have underlying usual interstitial pneumonia, either idiopathic or in association with a connective tissue disease, but the same process has been reported in patients with fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia, fibrotic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia and asbestosis. Occasionally an acute exacerbation is the initial manifestation of underlying interstitial lung disease. On biopsy, acute exacerbations appear as diffuse alveolar damage or bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) superimposed upon the fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. Biopsies may be extremely confusing, because the acute injury pattern can completely obscure the underlying disease; a useful clue is that diffuse alveolar damage and organizing pneumonia should not be associated with old dense fibrosis and peripheral honeycomb change. Consultation with radiology can also be extremely helpful, because the fibrosing disease may be evident on old or concurrent computed tomography scans. The aetiology of acute exacerbations is unknown, and the prognosis is poor; however, some patients survive with high-dose steroid therapy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  1. Interstitial cystitis. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of interstitial cystitis, with special emphasis on management of this condition by family physicians. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified through MEDLINE and review of abstracts presented at Urology and Interstitial Cystitis meetings during the last decade. Recent reviews were further searched for additional studies and trials. Data were summarized from large epidemiologic studies. Etiologic theories were extracted from current concepts and reviews of scientific studies. Diagnostic criteria described in this review are based on clinical interpretation of National Institutes of Health (NIH) research guidelines, interpretation of data from the NIH Interstitial Cystitis Cohort Study, and recent evidence on use of the potassium sensitivity test. Treatment suggestions are based on six randomized placebo-controlled clinical treatment trials and best available clinical data. MAIN MESSAGE: Interstitial cystitis affects about 0.01% to 0.5% of women. Its etiology is unknown, but might involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and other yet undefined agents. The diagnosis of interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, or hydroxyzine; and intravesical treatments with heparinlike medications, dimethyl sulfoxide, or BCG vaccine could benefit some patients. CONCLUSION: Family physicians should have an understanding of interstitial cystitis and be able to make a diagnosis and formulate an evidence-based treatment strategy for their patients. PMID:11153410

  2. Optimization of pulping conditions of abaca. An alternative raw material for producing cellulose pulp.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; Rodríguez, A; De la Torre, M J; Ferrer, J L

    2005-06-01

    The influence of temperature (150-170 degrees C), pulping time (15-45 min) and soda concentration (5-10%) in the pulping of abaca on the yield, kappa, viscosity, breaking length, stretch and tear index of pulp and paper sheets, was studied. Using a factorial design to identify the optimum operating conditions, equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the pulping process were derived that reproduced the former with errors lower than 25%. Using a high temperature, and a medium time and soda concentration, led to pulp that was difficult to bleach (kappa 28.34) but provided acceptable strength-related properties (breaking length 4728 m; stretch 4.76%; tear index 18.25 mN m2/g), with good yield (77.33%) and potential savings on capital equipment costs. Obtaining pulp amenable to bleaching would entail using more drastic conditions than those employed in this work.

  3. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C.

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization. PMID:20454445

  4. Vital pulp therapy-current progress of dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weibo; Yelick, Pamela C

    2010-01-01

    Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  5. Recent Advances in Pulp Capping Materials: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Asma; E., Soujanya; Nandakumar; Pratapkumar; Sambashivarao

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has shifted from the “doomed” organ concept of an exposed pulp to one of hope and recovery. The era of vital-pulp therapy has been greatly enhanced with the introduction of various pulp capping materials. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss about the various and newer pulp capping materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. PMID:24596805

  6. Pulp Revascularization: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Pollyana Rodrigues de Souza; Silva, Luciano Barreto; Neto, Alexandrino Pereira Dos Santos; Almeida de Arruda, José Alcides; Álvares, Pâmella Recco; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras; Júnior, Severino Alves; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Braz da Silva, Rodivan; Sampaio, Gerhilde Callou

    2017-01-01

    Reestablishing blood flow and allowing the continuation of root development are some of the objectives of pulp revascularization. This procedure is currently indicated for teeth with incomplete root formation as an alternative to the traditional treatment of apecification, which consists of inserting calcium hydroxide paste into the root canal for a determined time period in order to induce the formation of a calcified barrier. Although it is considered as the most classically employed therapy, the permanence of the paste for long time periods may lead to the weakening of the root due to hygroscopic properties, as well as proteolytic activities of calcium hydroxide. Therefore, there has been a permanent search for alternatives which allow the full development of immature teeth. Revascularization has emerged as such an alternative, and a range of treatment protocols can be found in the scientific literature. The aim of this paper is to accomplish a literature review concerning this issue.

  7. Urine markers of interstitial cystitis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D R

    2001-06-01

    This article describes the current state of the art with regard to urine markers of interstitial cystitis (IC), and describes the areas that need continuing research. Articles referenced in MEDLINE that describe urine alterations in IC were reviewed. Additional articles were identified by cross-referencing. The different marker alterations were tabulated. The relevant articles were discussed, considering different purposes for urine markers including: (1) diagnosing IC; (2) confirming a specific pathophysiology for IC; and (3) predicting or following response to a specific treatment. Currently, 2 markers (glycoprotein-51 and antiproliferative factor [APF]) clearly separate IC and control subjects, with minimal overlap. Markers that correlate with specific bladder biopsy features include 1,4-methylimidazole acetic acid and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which correlate with mast cell density, and interleukin (IL)-6, which correlates with mononuclear inflammation. Markers that changed after treatment were as follows: (1) nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate increased with oral L-arginine; (2) ECP decreased with subcutaneous heparin; (3) prostaglandin E(2) and kallikrein decreased after bladder distention; (4) neutrophil chemotactic activity decreased after dimethyl sulfoxide; (5) IL-2 inhibitor decreased after oral nifedipine; (6) IL-2, IL-6, and IL-8 decreased after bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine; and (7) APF and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor changed to or toward normal levels after bladder distention or sacral nerve stimulation. A larger number of urine alterations have been reported, and a few are being pursued further by correlating with bladder biopsy findings or treatment responses. Further research is needed.

  8. How does interstitial cystitis begin?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis (IC) does not start as an endstage disease, it has a beginning when symptoms are milder, intermittent and the disease is misdiagnosed. To determine how IC develops patients were interviewed on when their symptoms began, what they were and are now as well as the various diagnoses that they received before they were determined to have IC. Methods One hundred female IC patients were screened. They filled out a questionnaire asking about the age their disease presented, their initial and current symptoms, what their original diagnoses were, effect of the menstrual cycle and sexual activity on their symptoms and about any relatives with bladder symptoms or a current diagnosis of IC. Results By age 30, 81% of patients had bladder symptoms, 21% before age 10. The first symptom was frequency in 81%, pain present in 59% and the symptoms were intermittent in 64%. Most common early misdiagnosis was UTI in 74% with 93% reporting negative urine cultures. Sex was painful and causes symptom flares in 82%, symptoms flared the week before the menses in 75%. Most common gynecologic diagnosis was yeast vaginitis, 42%. Urge incontinence was present in 33%. There were 51% that reported bladder symptoms in a first degree female relative. Conclusions IC begins primarily with frequency and is intermittent in most patients with symptom flares associated with sexual activity. Pain and urgency incontinence tend to be a later symptoms. When IC flares the most common misdiagnosis is UTI. Symptoms begin before age 30 in most but an IC diagnosis is often not made until age 40. Genetics appear to play a significant role. It is important to consider these facts when evaluating women with “early IC” because correct diagnosis will result in proper therapy and reduced health care costs. PMID:26816860

  9. Fluid mechanics in the perivascular space.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Olbricht, William L

    2011-04-07

    Perivascular space (PVS) within the brain is an important pathway for interstitial fluid (ISF) and solute transport. Fluid flowing in the PVS can affect these transport processes and has significant impacts on physiology. In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis to investigate the fluid mechanics in the PVS. With certain assumptions and approximations, we are able to find an analytical solution to the problem. We discuss the physical meanings of the solution and particularly examine the consequences of the induced fluid flow in the context of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). We conclude that peristaltic motions of the blood vessel walls can facilitate fluid and solute transport in the PVS.

  10. GHGRP Pulp and Paper Sector Industrial Profile

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program periodically produces detailed profiles of the various industries that report under the program. The profiles available for download below contain detailed analyses for the Pulp and Paper industry.

  11. Pulp and paper program fact sheets

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    Summaries are presented of Argonne technology transfer research projects in: sustainable forest management, environmental performance, energy performance, improved capital effectiveness, recycling, and sensors and controls. Applications in paper/pulp industry, other industries, etc. are covered.

  12. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing on active lesion into on arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented.

  13. Indirect pulp therapy and stepwise excavation.

    PubMed

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-07-01

    Various treatment concepts have been suggested to solve the deep carious lesion dilemma. Recent systematic reviews are presented. Their conclusions are based on very few studies, and the main message is that optimal randomized clinical studies are lacking. Observational studies on indirect pulp treatment and stepwise excavation demonstrate that these treatments avoid pulp exposures, but it cannot be said which approach is best. A less invasive modified stepwise excavation approach is described, focusing on changing an active lesion into an arrested lesion even without performing an excavation close to the pulp. In Denmark and Sweden a randomized clinical multi-center trial is currently taking place, the Caries and Pulp (CAP) trial. This trial is investigating the effects of stepwise excavation over 2 visits versus 1 complete excavation of deep caries in permanent teeth. Guidelines for treatment are presented.

  14. Minimizing Excessive Stimulus during Electric Pulp Testing.

    PubMed

    Kim, D; Nam, K; Lee, S; Kim, S

    2005-01-01

    Electric pulp test is a method to examine the vitality of dental pulp using the electrical stimulation. During the pulp test, the current stimulates intradental nerve, and give severe pain to patients. Some studies were accomplished to measure the responses of subjects by stimulating over the sensory threshold. But these studies were focused on the time delay of subject's response after stimulating over the threshold. The purpose of this study was first to measure the excessive stimulation time during pulp testing by means of EMG in anterior belly of digastric muscle, voice, and finger movement, secondly, to determine whether the excessive stimulation time could be reduced by the specially designed automatic circuit breaker on the basis of EMG signal.

  15. The role of cytokines in pulp inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kokkas, A; Goulas, A; Stavrianos, C; Anogianakis, G

    2011-01-01

    Pulpitis is a typical inflammatory disease of dental pulp, characterized by the local accumulation of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines. In addition to serving as intercellular messengers mediating the inflammatory response, cytokines and chemokines induce the expression and stimulate the activity of molecular and cellular agents which participate actively in destructive and reparative processes in the pulp. It is the balance between these processes which eventually determines the extent of pulp inflammation and the viability of the affected tooth. Over the last decade, a number of studies have attempted to correlate cytokine gene expression in the pulp with various stages of inflammation, with possible diagnostic applications in mind. A small survey of relevant information is presented in this paper.

  16. Interstitial lung disease induced by alectinib (CH5424802/RO5424802).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko; Sakai, Takahiro; Sone, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Niwa, Takashi; Hotta, Machiko; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    A 75-year-old woman with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged Stage IV lung adenocarcinoma was administered the selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, alectinib, as a third-line treatment in a Phase 1-2 study. On the 102nd day, chest computed tomography showed diffuse ground glass opacities. Laboratory data revealed high serum levels of KL-6, SP-D and lactate dehydrogenase without any clinical symptoms. There was no evidence of infection. Marked lymphocytosis was seen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, and transbronchial lung biopsy showed mild thickening of alveolar septa and lymphocyte infiltration. Interstitial lung disease was judged to be related to alectinib based on improvements in imaging findings and serum biomarkers after discontinuation of alectinib. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of alectinib-induced interstitial lung disease. Alectinib is a promising drug for ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer. Clinical trials of this selective anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor will facilitate the meticulous elucidation of its long-term safety profile. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Missing Concepts in De Novo Pulp Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, G T-J; Garcia-Godoy, F

    2014-08-01

    Regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in the past decade because it offers an alternative approach in treating endodontically involved teeth. Instead of filling the canal space with artificial materials, it attempts to fill the canal with vital tissues. The objective of regeneration is to regain the tissue and restore its function to the original state. In terms of pulp regeneration, a clinical protocol that intends to reestablish pulp/dentin tissues in the canal space has been developed--termed revitalization or revascularization. Histologic studies from animal and human teeth receiving revitalization have shown that pulp regeneration is difficult to achieve. In tissue engineering, there are 2 approaches to regeneration tissues: cell based and cell free. The former involves transplanting exogenous cells into the host, and the latter does not. Revitalization belongs to the latter approach. A number of crucial concepts have not been well discussed, noted, or understood in the field of regenerative endodontics in terms of pulp/dentin regeneration: (1) critical size defect of dentin and pulp, (2) cell lineage commitment to odontoblasts, (3) regeneration vs. repair, and (4) hurdles of cell-based pulp regeneration for clinical applications. This review article elaborates on these missing concepts and analyzes them at their cellular and molecular levels, which will in part explain why the non-cell-based revitalization procedure is difficult to establish pulp/dentin regeneration. Although the cell-based approach has been proven to regenerate pulp/dentin, such an approach will face barriers--with the key hurdle being the shortage of the current good manufacturing practice facilities, discussed herein. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  18. Missing Concepts in De Novo Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Huang, G.T.-J.; Garcia-Godoy, F.

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics has gained much attention in the past decade because it offers an alternative approach in treating endodontically involved teeth. Instead of filling the canal space with artificial materials, it attempts to fill the canal with vital tissues. The objective of regeneration is to regain the tissue and restore its function to the original state. In terms of pulp regeneration, a clinical protocol that intends to reestablish pulp/dentin tissues in the canal space has been developed—termed revitalization or revascularization. Histologic studies from animal and human teeth receiving revitalization have shown that pulp regeneration is difficult to achieve. In tissue engineering, there are 2 approaches to regeneration tissues: cell based and cell free. The former involves transplanting exogenous cells into the host, and the latter does not. Revitalization belongs to the latter approach. A number of crucial concepts have not been well discussed, noted, or understood in the field of regenerative endodontics in terms of pulp/dentin regeneration: (1) critical size defect of dentin and pulp, (2) cell lineage commitment to odontoblasts, (3) regeneration vs. repair, and (4) hurdles of cell-based pulp regeneration for clinical applications. This review article elaborates on these missing concepts and analyzes them at their cellular and molecular levels, which will in part explain why the non-cell-based revitalization procedure is difficult to establish pulp/dentin regeneration. Although the cell-based approach has been proven to regenerate pulp/dentin, such an approach will face barriers—with the key hurdle being the shortage of the current good manufacturing practice facilities, discussed herein. PMID:24879576

  19. A structural model of the forced compression of the fingertip pulp.

    PubMed

    Serina, E R; Mockensturm, E; Mote, C D; Rempel, D

    1998-07-01

    The fingertip pulp modulates the force transmitted to the underlying musculoskeletal system during finger contact on external bodies. A model of the fingertip pulp is needed to represent the transmission of forces to the tendons, muscles, and bone during these contacts. In this study, a structural model of the in vivo human fingertip was developed that incorporates both the material inhomogeneity and geometry. Study objectives were to determine (1) if this fingertip model can predict the force-displacement and force contact area responses of the in vivo human fingertip during contact with a flat, rigid surface, and (2) if the stresses and strains predicted by this model are consistent with the tactile sensing functionality of the in vivo human fingertip. The in vivo fingertip pulp was modeled as an inflated, ellipsoidal membrane, containing an incompressible fluid, that is quasi-statically compressed against a flat, frictionless surface. The membrane was assigned properties of skin (Veronda and Westmann, 1970) and when inflated, possessed dimensions approximating those of a human fingertip. Finite deformation was allowed. The model was validated by the pulp force-displacement relationship obtained by Serina et al. (1997) and by measurements of the contact area when the fingertip was pressed against a rigid surface with contact forces between 0.25 and 7.0 N. Model predictions represent the experimental data sufficiently well, suggesting that geometry, inhomogeneous material structure, and initial skin tension appear to represent the nonlinear response of the in vivo human fingertip pulp under compression. The predicted response of the fingertip pulp is consistent with its functionality as a tactile sensor.

  20. Is pulp regeneration necessary for root maturation?

    PubMed

    Nosrat, Ali; Li, Kevin L; Vir, Kunwar; Hicks, M Lamar; Fouad, Ashraf F

    2013-10-01

    True regeneration of the dental pulp-dentin complex in immature teeth with necrotic pulps has not been shown histologically. It is not known to what extent this true tissue regeneration is necessary to achieve clinically acceptable outcomes. This case report describes the treatment of a patient with an immature maxillary right central incisor with a history of impact trauma and enamel-dentin crown fracture. A diagnosis of pulp necrosis with acute apical abscess was established. A regenerative endodontic protocol that used a paste containing Augmentin for 5 weeks as an intracanal medicament was used. Follow-ups at 9, 12, 17, and 31 months revealed complete osseous healing of the periapical lesion and formation of the root apex, but without increase in root length. Clinically, the tooth was functional, asymptomatic, and nonresponsive to pulp vitality tests. The crown discolored over time. On reentering the root canal, no tissues were observed under magnification inside the root canal space. The root canal treatment was completed with mineral trioxide aggregate obturation. Augmentin might be an acceptable choice for root canal disinfection in regenerative endodontic procedures. The protocol for regenerative endodontic treatment is not predictable for pulp-dentin regeneration. Formation of the root apex is possible without pulp regeneration. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of vascular normalization on interstitial flow and delivery of liposomes in tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozturk, Deniz; Yonucu, Sirin; Yilmaz, Defne; Burcin Unlu, Mehmet

    2015-02-01

    Elevated interstitial fluid pressure is one of the barriers of drug delivery in solid tumors. Recent studies have shown that normalization of tumor vasculature by anti-angiogenic factors may improve the delivery of conventional cytotoxic drugs, possibly by increasing blood flow, decreasing interstitial fluid pressure, and enhancing the convective transvascular transport of drug molecules. Delivery of large therapeutic agents such as nanoparticles and liposomes might also benefit from normalization therapy since their transport depends primarily on convection. In this study, a mathematical model is presented to provide supporting evidence that normalization therapy may improve the delivery of 100 nm liposomes into solid tumors, by both increasing the total drug extravasation and providing a more homogeneous drug distribution within the tumor. However these beneficial effects largely depend on tumor size and are stronger for tumors within a certain size range. It is shown that this size effect may persist under different microenvironmental conditions and for tumors with irregular margins or heterogeneous blood supply.

  2. Xylanase and ultrasound assisted pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Bhavin S; Csoka, Levente; Rathod, Virendra K

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, a novel approach to pretreat wheat straw pulping was investigated with ultrasound and xylanase to achieve maximum reduction in lignin content. Sequential xylanase pretreatment and alkaline pulping was found to reduce kappa number by 0.31 to 4.84 % compared with only alkaline pulping alone at different pulping conditions. Although Klason lignin of ultrasound-treated straw was found to be 7.37 % less compared with untreated straw, sequential ultrasound pretreatment and alkaline pulping could not show any significant reduction in kappa number compared with alkaline pulping alone. Also, sequential xylanase and ultrasound pretreatment could not show any significant reduction in kappa number. Total yield of the pulp was found to be less in ultrasound-assisted processing compared with both alkaline pulping alone and sequential xylanase pretreatment and alkaline pulping.

  3. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  4. The Significance of Interstitial Cells in Neurogastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Peter J; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract consist of a heterogeneous population of cells that include enteric neurons, several classes of interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin, a variety of immune cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Over the last number of years the complexity of the interactions between these cell types has begun to emerge. For example, interstitial cells, consisting of both interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha-positive (PDGFRα+) cells generate pacemaker activity throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and also transduce enteric motor nerve signals and mechanosensitivity to adjacent SMCs. ICC and PDGFRα+ cells are electrically coupled to SMCs possibly via gap junctions forming a multicellular functional syncytium termed the SIP syncytium. Cells that make up the SIP syncytium are highly specialized containing unique receptors, ion channels and intracellular signaling pathways that regulate the excitability of GI muscles. The unique role of these cells in coordinating GI motility is evident by the altered motility patterns in animal models where interstitial cell networks are disrupted. Although considerable advances have been made in recent years on our understanding of the roles of these cells within the SIP syncytium, the full physiological functions of these cells and the consequences of their disruption in GI muscles have not been clearly defined. This review gives a synopsis of the history of interstitial cell discovery and highlights recent advances in structural, molecular expression and functional roles of these cells in the GI tract. PMID:24948131

  5. Interstitial Cells: Regulators of Smooth Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα+ cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα+ cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues. PMID:24987007

  6. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  7. Interstitial cells: regulators of smooth muscle function.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Ward, Sean M; Koh, Sang Don

    2014-07-01

    Smooth muscles are complex tissues containing a variety of cells in addition to muscle cells. Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin interact with and form electrical connectivity with smooth muscle cells in many organs, and these cells provide important regulatory functions. For example, in the gastrointestinal tract, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and PDGFRα(+) cells have been described, in detail, and represent distinct classes of cells with unique ultrastructure, molecular phenotypes, and functions. Smooth muscle cells are electrically coupled to ICC and PDGFRα(+) cells, forming an integrated unit called the SIP syncytium. SIP cells express a variety of receptors and ion channels, and conductance changes in any type of SIP cell affect the excitability and responses of the syncytium. SIP cells are known to provide pacemaker activity, propagation pathways for slow waves, transduction of inputs from motor neurons, and mechanosensitivity. Loss of interstitial cells has been associated with motor disorders of the gut. Interstitial cells are also found in a variety of other smooth muscles; however, in most cases, the physiological and pathophysiological roles for these cells have not been clearly defined. This review describes structural, functional, and molecular features of interstitial cells and discusses their contributions in determining the behaviors of smooth muscle tissues.

  8. [Methods and clinical results of interstitial thermoradiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Seegenschmiedt, M H; Sauer, R

    1989-05-01

    Besides percutaneous hyperthermia techniques, some new interstitial procedures have been developed and included into the arsenal of radiotherapists. As compared to percutaneous techniques, considerable benefits are offered by interstitial methods: a more homogeneous distribution of therapeutical temperatures, a better sparing of normal tissue, the possibility to treat deep tumors, and better therapy control and evaluation by extensive "thermal mapping" within the target volume. This study presents the technical principles and the clinical possibilities of the interstitial hyperthermia methods developed hitherto: resistive radiofrequency hyperthermia, radiative microwave hyperthermia, inductive ferromagnetic seed hyperthermia, and conductive hot-water perfusion hyperthermia. Until now, interstitial thermo-radiotherapy was only performed during some phase I/II studies. It was applied for palliative reasons in persisting and recurrent tumors accessible for implantation and situated in superficial to semi-deep locations with no or insufficient response to differently combined treatment modalities (surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy). The preliminary clinical results obtained in almost 300 patients are quite promising: complete remission rates up to 70% have been achieved. Interstitial hyperthermia represents an effective and safe therapy modality, especially when combined with radiotherapy in palliative tumor therapy. At present, several prospective randomized multicentric studies are conducted to investigate its value as adjuvant therapy modality.

  9. Invasive diagnostic techniques in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Venerino; Ravaglia, Claudia; Gurioli, Carlo; Piciucchi, Sara; Dubini, Alessandra; Cavazza, Alberto; Chilosi, Marco; Rossi, Andrea; Tomassetti, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosing interstitial lung diseases (f-ILDs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders in which the aetiology may be identified or, not infrequently, remain unknown. Establishing a correct diagnosis of a distinct f-ILD requires a multidisciplinary approach, integrating clinical profile, physiological and laboratory data, radiological appearance and, when appropriate, histological findings. Surgical lung biopsy is still considered the most important diagnostic tool as it is able to provide lung samples large enough for identification of complex patterns such as usual interstitial pneumonitis (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. However, this procedure is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Bronchoalveolar lavage is still a popular diagnostic tool allowing identification of alternative diagnoses in patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when an increase in lymphocytes is detected. Conventional transbronchial lung biopsy has a very low sensitivity in detecting the UIP pattern and its role in this clinical-radiological context is marginal. The introduction of less invasive methods such as transbronchial cryobiopsy show great promise to clinical practice as they can be used to obtain samples large enough to morphologically support a diagnosis of IPF or other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, along with fewer complications. Recent advances in the field suggest that less invasive methods of lung sampling, without significant side effects, in combination with other diagnostic methods could replace the need for surgical lung biopsy in the future. Indeed, these new multidisciplinary procedures may become the main diagnostic work-up method for patients with suspected idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.

  10. Pulsed laser photoacoustic monitoring of paper pulp consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zuomin; Törmänen, Matti; Myllylä, Risto

    2008-06-01

    This study involves measurements of pulp consistency in cuvette and by an online apparatus, by innovatively scattering photoacoustic (SPA) method. The theoretical aspects were described at first. Then, a few kinds of wood fiber suspensions with consistencies from 0.5% to 5% were studied in cuvette. After that, a pilot of online apparatus was built to measure suspensions with fiber consistency lower than 1% and filler content up to 3%. The results showed that although there were many fiber flocks in cuvette which strongly affected the measurement accuracy of samples consistencies, the apparatus can sense fiber types with different optical and acoustic properties. The measurement accuracy can be greatly improved in the online style apparatus, by pumping suspension fluids in a circulating system to improve the suspension homogeneity. The results demonstrated that wood fibers cause larger attenuation of acoustic waves but fillers do not. On the other hand, fillers cause stronger scattering of incident light. Therefore, our SPA apparatus has a potential ability to simultaneously determine fiber and filler fractions in pulp suspensions with consistency up to 5%.

  11. Complementary and Alternative Therapies as Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Kristene E

    2002-01-01

    The management of interstitial cystitis (IC) is predominantly the reduction of the symptoms of frequency, urgency, and pain. Multimodal treatment approaches for IC are helpful in customizing therapy for individual patients. Complementary and alternative therapies are a quintessential addition to the therapeutic armamentarium and frequently include dietary modification, nutraceuticals, bladder training, neuromodulation, stress reduction, and sex therapy. Dietary modification involves elimination of bladder irritants, fluid regulation, and a bowel regimen. Nutraceuticals studied for the treatment of IC include calcium glycerophosphate, L-arginine, mucopolysaccharides, bioflavinoids, and Chinese herbs. Bladder training is effective after pain reduction. The neuromodulation of high-tone pelvic-floor muscle dysfunction is achieved with physical therapy and acupuncture. Stress reduction and sex therapy are best administered by a qualified stress manager and sex therapist. Multimodal, nonconventional management may add efficacy to the treatment of IC. PMID:16986031

  12. Hydrothermal carbonization of autoclaved municipal solid waste pulp and anaerobically treated pulp digestate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, the autoclaved organic fraction of municipal solid waste pulp (OFMSW) and the digestate from OFMSW pulp after anaerobic digestion (AD) were processed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min and 2 h. The focus of this work was to evaluate the potential fo...

  13. SEM evaluation of pulp reaction to different pulp capping materials in dog’s teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Parirokh, Masoud; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This investigation evaluates the effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium enriched mixture (CEM) as pulp capping materials on dental pulp tissues. Materials and Methods: The experimental procedures were performed on eighteen intact dog canine teeth. The pulps were exposed. Cavities were randomly filled with CEM, MTA, or CH followed by glass ionomer filling. After 2 months, animals were sacrificed, each tooth was sectioned into halves, and the interface between each capping material and pulp tissue was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) in profile view of the specimens. Results: Dentinal bridge formation as the most characteristic reaction was resulted from SEM observation in all examined groups. Odontoblast-like cells were formed and create dens collagen network, which was calcified gradually by deposition of calcosphirit structures to form newly dentinal bridge. Conclusion: Based on the results of this in vivo study, it was concluded that these test materials are able to produce calcified tissue in underlying pulp in the case of being used as a pulp capping agent. Additionally, it appears that CEM has the potential to be used as a direct pulp capping material during vital pulp therapy. PMID:24379876

  14. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-11-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references.

  15. Interstitial Lung Disease Induced by Pazopanib Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Shotaro; Sakamoto, Noriho; Hara, Shintaro; Hara, Atsuko; Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Futsuki, Yoji; Izumikawa, Koichi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Although pneumothorax has been reported to be a major pulmonary adverse event in patients treated with pazopanib, a multikinase inhibitor, drug-induced interstitial lung disease (DILD) has not been reported. A 74-year-old Japanese man who received pazopanib for the treatment of femoral leiomyosarcoma and lung metastasis presented with dyspnea and fatigue. He had mild interstitial pneumonia when pazopanib treatment was initiated. Chest computed tomography revealed progressive bilateral ground-glass opacity (GGO) and traction bronchiectasis. We diagnosed DILD due to pazopanib. The patient's pazopanib treatment was interrupted and a steroid was administered. The symptoms and GGO were improved with treatment. Physicians should be aware of DILD due to pazopanib in patients with pre-existing interstitial lung disease. PMID:28050004

  16. Photodynamic therapy: superficial and interstitial illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svanberg, Katarina; Bendsoe, Niels; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is reviewed using the treatment of skin tumors as an example of superficial lesions and prostate cancer as an example of deep-lying lesions requiring interstitial intervention. These two applications are among the most commonly studied in oncological PDT, and illustrate well the different challenges facing the two modalities of PDT-superficial and interstitial. They thus serve as good examples to illustrate the entire field of PDT in oncology. PDT is discussed based on the Lund University group's over 20 yr of experience in the field. In particular, the interplay between optical diagnostics and dosimetry and the delivery of the therapeutic light dose are highlighted. An interactive multiple-fiber interstitial procedure to deliver the required therapeutic dose based on the assessment of light fluence rate and sensitizer concentration and oxygen level throughout the tumor is presented.

  17. Timolol-induced interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hetain; Wilches, Lina Vanessa; Guerrero, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Timolol maleate is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocking agent with demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of open-angle glaucoma. A 76 year old female who presented with productive cough, progressive dyspnea and hypoxia after starting timolol maleate opthalamic drops following glaucoma surgery. The patient was diagnosed with interstitial lung disease secondary to timolol treatment and after cessation of the offending agent along with corticosteroid treatment, symptoms improved drastically. Elimination of other possible causes of disease along with evolution of radiological and functional signs left us with a diagnosis of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of timolol-induced interstitial lung disease. PMID:26236595

  18. Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development

    PubMed Central

    Maarek, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Background Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS) works and what its clinical applications may be. Materials and methods The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode. Current scientific knowledge EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1) the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2) the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (α parameter); (3) electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO) production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4) the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis) of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e−]) and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation). Results For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1) electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection); (2) estimation of interstitial fluid’s acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection); (3) estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in children); and (4) estimation of the morphology of the interstitial fluid

  19. Transcapillary fluid responses to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aratow, Michael; Fortney, Suzanne M.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Crenshaw, Albert G.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on transcapillary fluid balance, with and without saline ingestion, was investigated in normally hydrated human subjects by measuring leg interstitial fluid pressure, leg circumference, plasma volume, and net whole body transcapillary fluid transport during and after supine LBNP in human subjects. The results indicate that prolonged LBNP, especially with saline ingestion, promotes fluid filtration into lower body tissues.

  20. Transcapillary fluid responses to lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aratow, Michael; Fortney, Suzanne M.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Crenshaw, Albert G.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) on transcapillary fluid balance, with and without saline ingestion, was investigated in normally hydrated human subjects by measuring leg interstitial fluid pressure, leg circumference, plasma volume, and net whole body transcapillary fluid transport during and after supine LBNP in human subjects. The results indicate that prolonged LBNP, especially with saline ingestion, promotes fluid filtration into lower body tissues.

  1. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Robert; Ryu, Jay H

    2012-03-01

    Cigarette smoke, a toxic collection of thousands of chemicals generated from combustion of tobacco, is recognized as the primary causative agent of certain diffuse interstitial and bronchiolar lung diseases. Most patients afflicted with these disorders are cigarette smokers, and smoking cessation has been shown to be capable of inducing disease remission and should occupy a pivotal role in the management of all smokers with these diffuse lung diseases. The role of pharmacotherapy with corticosteroids or other immunomodulating agents is not well established but may be considered in patients with progressive forms of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Interstitial cystitis. A challenge for the clinician].

    PubMed

    Young, Pablo; Finn, Bárbara C; González, Martín; Comercio, Laura P; Quezel, Mariano; Bruetman, Julio E

    2010-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is characterized by over 6 months of chronic pain, pressure and discomfort felt in the lower pelvis or bladder. It is often relieved with voiding, along with daytime frequency and nocturia in the absence of an urinary tract infection. The disorder can be divided clinically into two groups -ulcerative and non-ulcerative- based on cystoscopic findings and response to treatment. Management follows an approach of applying the least invasive therapy that affords sufficient relief of symptoms. We report a case of a patient with interstitial cystitis. The diagnosis was performed by symptoms and lesion in the cystoscopy and excellent response to amitriptyline.

  3. Dental Pulp Cell Behavior in Biomimetic Environments.

    PubMed

    Smith, J G; Smith, A J; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R

    2015-11-01

    There is emerging recognition of the importance of a physiologically relevant in vitro cell culture environment to promote maintenance of stem cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine purposes. In vivo, appropriate cellular cues are provided by local tissue extracellular matrix (ECM), and these are not currently recapitulated well in vitro using traditional cultureware. We therefore hypothesized that better replication of the in vivo environment for cell culture and differentiation could be achieved by culturing dental pulp cells with their associated ECM. Primary dental pulp cells were subsequently seeded onto pulp-derived ECM-coated cultureware. While at up to 24 h they exhibited the same level of adherence as those cells seeded on tissue culture-treated surfaces, by 4 d cell numbers and proliferation rates were significantly decreased in cells grown on pulp ECM compared with controls. Analysis of stem cell and differentiation marker transcripts, as well as Oct 3/4 protein distribution, supported the hypothesis that cells cultured on ECM better maintained a stem cell phenotype compared with those cultured on standard tissue culture-treated surfaces. Subsequent differentiation analysis of cells cultured on ECM demonstrated that they exhibited enhanced mineralization, as determined by alizarin red staining and mineralized marker expression. Supplementation of a 3% alginate hydrogel with pulp ECM components and dental pulp cells followed by differentiation induction in mineralization medium resulted in a time-dependent mineral deposition at the periphery of the construct, as demonstrated histologically and using micro-computed tomography analysis, which was reminiscent of tooth structure. In conclusion, data indicate that culture of pulp cells in the presence of ECM better replicates the in vivo environment, maintaining a stem cell phenotype suitable for downstream tissue engineering applications. © International & American Associations for Dental

  4. Dentin permeability: the basis for understanding pulp reactions and adhesive technology.

    PubMed

    Mjör, Ivar A

    2009-01-01

    Permeability involves the passage of fluids, ions, molecules, particulate matter and bacteria into and through a substance or tissue under different and varying conditions. The permeability of the dentin is essential to support the physiology and reaction patterns of the pulp-dentin organ. Nutrients and impulses are transported from the pulp via the odontoblast process and the contents of its tubules maintain the dentin as a vital tissue. However, the main interest of this paper focuses on penetration from the outside towards the pulp rather than from the pulp towards the outside. The present overview centers on the dentinal tubules; how they are formed and how they change as a result of normal and abnormal function, age, and pathological processes and the effect of these processes on the permeability of dentin. Particular attention is focused on the patency of the dentinal tubules.This overview is largely based on the authors own research, clinical insights and active participation in continuing dental education over the last 50 years. It is not a review of the literature related to the permeability of dentin. Rather it presents interpretation of results related to the permeability of dentin based on experience and opinions acquired over a lifetime in dental research.

  5. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  6. Hormonal regulation of fluid and electrolyte metabolism during periods of headward fluid shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Lanny C.; Severs, W. B.; Thrasher, T.; Ramsay, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    In the broadest sense, this project evaluates how spaceflight induced shifts of blood and interstitial fluids into the thorax affect regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) of fluid-electrolyte hormone secretion. Specifically, it focuses on the role of hormones related to salt/water balance and their potential function in the control of intracranial pressure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. Fluid-electrolyte status during spaceflight gradually equilibrates, with a reduction in all body fluid compartments. Related to this is the cardiovascular deconditioning of spaceflight which is manifested upon return to earth as orthostatic intolerance.

  7. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  8. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  9. [Pulp treatment of young permanent teeth after traumatic dental injury].

    PubMed

    Qin, Man

    2009-06-01

    Dental trauma could be largely classified into three groups: Hard tissue injuries, pulp injuries and periodontal tissue injuries. Since pulp injuries are reported in tooth fracture, displacement and avulsion, it is commonly thought that pulp injuries were involved in almost every type of dental injuries. The sequelae of pulp tissue after dental injuries include pulp survival, pulp calcification and pulp necrosis. Dental trauma mostly occurs in 7-15 year-old children. The treatment and prognosis of dental trauma in children are more complicated than those in adults because of the developmental nature of the young permanent teeth. The evaluation of pulp damage and treatment after dental injuries in growing young permanent teeth are discussed in this paper.

  10. [Mineral trioxide aggregate in the pulp capping treatment tooth].

    PubMed

    Góra, Monika; Nowicka, Alicja; Łagocka, Ryta; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga; Lipski, Mariusz; Górski, Maciej

    2008-01-01

    Therapeutic procedure for the treatment of tooth pulp exposure or pulp injury is a conservative treatment using direct pulp capping. Achievements to date in biological pulp treatment and the case of treatment of tooth pulp injury by odontotropic preparation Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (ProRoot MTA, Dentsply Maillefer, U.S.A.) has been presented in this paper. Applied treatment consisted in total processing of cariotic cavity, covering the place of cavity with compomer Dyract and composite Herculite (SDS, Kerr, U.S.A.) material. Pulp of a treated tooth remained its vitality during control study and pathological changes of pulp and within adjacent periapical tissues were not detected by means of an X-ray photography. After 12 months of observation a positive therapeutic result of pulp vitality preservation in a tooth was achieved.

  11. A tale of two compartments: interstitial versus blood glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Eda; Tamborlane, William V

    2009-06-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose was described as one of the most important advancements in diabetes management since the invention of insulin in 1920. Recent advances in glucose sensor technology for measuring interstitial glucose concentrations have challenged the dominance of glucose meters in diabetes management, while raising questions about the relationships between interstitial and blood glucose levels. This article will review the differences between interstitial and blood glucose and some of the challenges in measuring interstitial glucose levels accurately.

  12. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis mimicking interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Braham, Emna; Ayadi-Kaddour, Aïda; Smati, Belhassen; Ben Mrad, Sonia; Besbes, Mohammed; El Mezni, Faouzi

    2008-11-01

    Lymphoid granulomatosis is a rare form of pulmonary angiitis. This case report presents a patient with lymphoid granulomatosis in whom the clinical presentation, radiological features and the partial response to corticosteroid therapy mimicked interstitial lung disease. Lymphoid granulomatosis was only diagnosed at post-mortem examination. The range of reported clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches and outcomes are described.

  13. [Interstitial processes of the lungs in childhood].

    PubMed

    Popper, H

    2017-07-01

    Interstitial processes in the lungs of children can be due to several underlying diseases. Knowledge of the child's age is important as genetic aberrations play a major role in diseases in the first 2 years, whereas immunological diseases are more common starting in kindergarden age. In general lung diseases are rare in children, which makes the diagnostics difficult and results in a delayed diagnosis. In addition, pediatric pulmonologists are often very reluctant to perform lung biopsies due to a lack of a specialized pathologist. In order to make a contribution to the diagnostics of pediatric pulmonary diseases, pathologists should be specialized in pulmonary pathology, have a good knowledge of genetic methods and fetal lung development, which includes the genetic factors involved in lung growth and differentiation. A close cooperation with the pediatric pulmonologist is necessary and each patient should be discussed jointly on an interstitial lung disease board to promote the quality of diagnostics. The pathologist should be aware that the developing lungs of children are not just a smaller form of adult lungs and often react very differently. In this article, we mainly focus on diffuse infiltration patterns, such as ground glass and reticulonodular infiltrations as described in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Localized interstitial processes, which can sometimes be tumor-like and malformations are not dealt with; however, vascular malformations are included as these often manifest as diffuse interstitial infiltrations and must therefore be taken into consideration for the differential diagnostics.

  14. Acute and subacute idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) may have an acute or subacute presentation, or acute exacerbation may occur in a previously subclinical or unrecognized chronic IIP. Acute or subacute IIPs include acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP), cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) and AE-NSIP. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) including connective tissue disease (CTD) associated ILD, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, drug-induced lung disease and diffuse alveolar haemorrhage need to be differentiated from acute and subacute IIPs. Despite the severe lack of randomized controlled trials for the treatment of acute and subacute IIPs, the mainstream treatment remains corticosteroid therapy. Other potential therapies reported in the literature include corticosteroids and immunosuppression, antibiotics, anticoagulants, neutrophil elastase inhibitor, autoantibody-targeted treatment, antifibrotics and hemoperfusion therapy. With regard to mechanical ventilation, patients in recent studies with acute and subacute IIPs have shown better survival than those in previous studies. Therefore, a careful value-laden decision about the indications for endotracheal intubation should be made for each patient. Noninvasive ventilation may be beneficial to reduce ventilator associated pneumonia.

  15. Interstitial lung disease probably caused by imipramine.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Prasanna R; Ravi, Ranjani; Gouda, Sinddalingana; Stanley, Weena; Hande, Manjunath H

    2014-01-01

    Drugs are rarely associated with causing interstitial lung disease (ILD). We report a case of a 75-year-old woman who developed ILD after exposure to imipramine. To our knowledge, this is one of the rare cases of ILD probably caused due to imipramine. There is need to report such rare adverse effects related to ILD and drugs for better management of ILD.

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Joshua J; Brown, Kevin K

    2012-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the US population. Patients can have extra-articular manifestations of their disease and the lungs are commonly involved. RA can affect any compartment of the respiratory system and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lung is abnormal in over half of these patients. Interstitial lung disease is a dreaded complication of RA. It is more prevalent in smokers, males, and those with high antibody titers. The pathogenesis is unknown but data suggest an environmental insult in the setting of a genetic predisposition. Smoking may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease through citrullination of protein in the lung leading to the development of autoimmunity. Patients usually present in middle age with cough and dyspnea. Pulmonary function testing most commonly shows reduced diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and HRCT reveals a combination of reticulation and ground glass abnormalities. The most common pattern on HRCT and histopathology is usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia seen less frequently. There are no large-scale well-controlled treatment trials. In severe or progressive cases, treatment usually consists of corticosteroids with or without a cytotoxic agent for 6 months or longer. RA interstitial lung disease is progressive; over half of patients show radiographic progression within 2 years. Patients with a UIP pattern on biopsy have a survival similar to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:27790009

  17. Using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry to investigate the mixing of non-Newtonian fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dineshkumar; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2012-12-01

    Mixing is a critical unit operation, which is widely used in chemical and allied industries. Mixing of non-Newtonian fluids is a challenging task due to the complex rheology exhibited by these fluids. Pseudoplastic fluids with yield stress are an important class of non-Newtonian fluids. In this study, we utilized ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry (UDV) to explore the flow field generated by different impellers in the agitation of xanthan gum solutions and pulp suspensions, which are yield-pseudoplastic fluids.

  18. Interstitial solute transport in 3D reconstructed neuropil occurs by diffusion rather than bulk flow.

    PubMed

    Holter, Karl Erik; Kehlet, Benjamin; Devor, Anna; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Dale, Anders M; Omholt, Stig W; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Nagelhus, Erlend Arnulf; Mardal, Kent-André; Pettersen, Klas H

    2017-09-12

    The brain lacks lymph vessels and must rely on other mechanisms for clearance of waste products, including amyloid [Formula: see text] that may form pathological aggregates if not effectively cleared. It has been proposed that flow of interstitial fluid through the brain's interstitial space provides a mechanism for waste clearance. Here we compute the permeability and simulate pressure-mediated bulk flow through 3D electron microscope (EM) reconstructions of interstitial space. The space was divided into sheets (i.e., space between two parallel membranes) and tunnels (where three or more membranes meet). Simulation results indicate that even for larger extracellular volume fractions than what is reported for sleep and for geometries with a high tunnel volume fraction, the permeability was too low to allow for any substantial bulk flow at physiological hydrostatic pressure gradients. For two different geometries with the same extracellular volume fraction the geometry with the most tunnel volume had [Formula: see text] higher permeability, but the bulk flow was still insignificant. These simulation results suggest that even large molecule solutes would be more easily cleared from the brain interstitium by diffusion than by bulk flow. Thus, diffusion within the interstitial space combined with advection along vessels is likely to substitute for the lymphatic drainage system in other organs.

  19. Effects of Hydration on Steric and Electric Charge-Induced Interstitial Volume Exclusion—a Model

    PubMed Central

    Øien, Alf H.; Justad, Sigrid R.; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2013-01-01

    The presence of collagen and charged macromolecules like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the interstitial space limits the space available for plasma proteins and other macromolecules. This phenomenon, known as interstitial exclusion, is of importance for interstitial fluid volume regulation. Physical/mathematical models are presented for calculating the exclusion of electrically charged and neutral macromolecules that equilibrate in the interstitium under various degrees of hydration. Here, a central hypothesis is that the swelling of highly electrically charged GAGs with increased hydration shields parts of the neutral collagen of the interstitial matrix from interacting with electrically charged macromolecules, such that exclusion of charged macromolecules exhibits change due to steric and charge effects. GAGs are also thought to allow relatively small neutral, but also charged macromolecules neutralized by a very high ionic strength, diffuse into the interior of GAGs, whereas larger macromolecules may not. Thus, in the model, relatively small electrically charged macromolecules, such as human serum albumin, and larger neutral macromolecules such as IgG, will have quite similar total volume exclusion properties in the interstitium. Our results are in agreement with ex vivo and in vivo experiments, and suggest that the charge of GAGs or macromolecular drugs may be targeted to increase the tissue uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents. PMID:24010671

  20. [The relationship between cigarette smoking and some types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias].

    PubMed

    Gasior, Grzegorz; Pierzchała, Władysław; Ograbek-Król, Mariola

    2008-01-01

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are the interstitial lung diseases of unknown etiology. Among patients with these disorders there is a prevalence of current or ex-smokers: over 90% in RB-ILD, 60-90% in DIP and 41-83% in IPF. Thus, cigarette smoking is to be a risk factor of a great significance. In clinical practice a correct differential diagnosis between RB-ILD and DIP on one hand and IPF on the other one is very important. Both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung biopsy specimen taken from RB-ILD and DIP patients contain increased proportion of dusty brown alveolar macrophages. On CT scans the extent of fibrosis and inflammation areas is rather low. Contrary to IPF the prognosis of RB-ILD and DIP is generally good. Most patients improve clinically and radiologically with smoking cessation and corticosteroids. Further attempts towards new facts regarding the relationship between cigarette smoking and the pathogenesis and clinical course of different types of interstitial lung diseases are still needed.

  1. Effects of hydration on steric and electric charge-induced interstitial volume exclusion--a model.

    PubMed

    Øien, Alf H; Justad, Sigrid R; Tenstad, Olav; Wiig, Helge

    2013-09-03

    The presence of collagen and charged macromolecules like glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the interstitial space limits the space available for plasma proteins and other macromolecules. This phenomenon, known as interstitial exclusion, is of importance for interstitial fluid volume regulation. Physical/mathematical models are presented for calculating the exclusion of electrically charged and neutral macromolecules that equilibrate in the interstitium under various degrees of hydration. Here, a central hypothesis is that the swelling of highly electrically charged GAGs with increased hydration shields parts of the neutral collagen of the interstitial matrix from interacting with electrically charged macromolecules, such that exclusion of charged macromolecules exhibits change due to steric and charge effects. GAGs are also thought to allow relatively small neutral, but also charged macromolecules neutralized by a very high ionic strength, diffuse into the interior of GAGs, whereas larger macromolecules may not. Thus, in the model, relatively small electrically charged macromolecules, such as human serum albumin, and larger neutral macromolecules such as IgG, will have quite similar total volume exclusion properties in the interstitium. Our results are in agreement with ex vivo and in vivo experiments, and suggest that the charge of GAGs or macromolecular drugs may be targeted to increase the tissue uptake of macromolecular therapeutic agents.

  2. Interstitial pneumonia and subclinical infection after intranasal inoculation of murine cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, M C

    1978-01-01

    Although cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are common throughout the world, little is known about the means of person-to-person transmission. To determine whether infection could be established by a respiratory route, studies were conducted in a murine CMV (MCMV) model by using intranasal inoculation. The infectious dose which resulted in pulmonary and systemic infection of half the mice was 100 plaque-forming units of MCMV. Here, infection was subclinical, but virus replicated in the lungs and subsequently disseminated via the blood to other organs within 7 days. The serum immunofluorescence antibody titer peaked by day 21. None of these mice died, although focal peribronchial interstitial pneumonitis was found in infected animals. In mice given greater than or equal to 10(4) plaque-forming units of MCMV intranasally, severe diffuse interstitial pneumonitis resulted uniformly, closely resembling that seen in immunocompromised patients and in newborn infants, and 20% of the animals died. Normal pulmonary architecture was obliterated by sheets of histiocytes, many containing MCMV intranuclear inclusions, and by accumulation of proteinaceous fluid in the interstitial and alveolar spaces. Of relevance to human disease, these experiments show that MCMV as a sole pathogen can cause severe interstitial pneumonitis in normal mice and that subclinical systemic infection results from respiratory inoculation of small amounts of virus. Images PMID:213384

  3. Interstitial solute transport in 3D reconstructed neuropil occurs by diffusion rather than bulk flow

    PubMed Central

    Holter, Karl Erik; Kehlet, Benjamin; Devor, Anna; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Dale, Anders M.; Omholt, Stig W.; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Nagelhus, Erlend Arnulf; Mardal, Kent-André; Pettersen, Klas H.

    2017-01-01

    The brain lacks lymph vessels and must rely on other mechanisms for clearance of waste products, including amyloid β that may form pathological aggregates if not effectively cleared. It has been proposed that flow of interstitial fluid through the brain’s interstitial space provides a mechanism for waste clearance. Here we compute the permeability and simulate pressure-mediated bulk flow through 3D electron microscope (EM) reconstructions of interstitial space. The space was divided into sheets (i.e., space between two parallel membranes) and tunnels (where three or more membranes meet). Simulation results indicate that even for larger extracellular volume fractions than what is reported for sleep and for geometries with a high tunnel volume fraction, the permeability was too low to allow for any substantial bulk flow at physiological hydrostatic pressure gradients. For two different geometries with the same extracellular volume fraction the geometry with the most tunnel volume had 36% higher permeability, but the bulk flow was still insignificant. These simulation results suggest that even large molecule solutes would be more easily cleared from the brain interstitium by diffusion than by bulk flow. Thus, diffusion within the interstitial space combined with advection along vessels is likely to substitute for the lymphatic drainage system in other organs. PMID:28847942

  4. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis in a patient with trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Morrison, A K; Patel, M; Johnson, S L; LeGallo, R; Teague, W G; Vergales, B

    2016-05-17

    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis is an interstitial lung disease of childhood that has been increasingly reported over the past decade. Here, we present a case of pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis associated with trisomy 21, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and congenital heart disease in a 34 week premature infant.

  5. Interstitial stromal progenitors during kidney development: here, there and everywhere.

    PubMed

    Fanni, Daniela; Gerosa, Clara; Vinci, Laura; Ambu, Rossano; Dessì, Angelica; Eyken, Peter Van; Fanos, Vassilios; Faa, Gavino

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the renal interstitium has been identified as the site of multiple cell types, giving rise to multiple contiguous cellular networks with multiple fundamental structural and functional roles. Few studies have been carried out on the morphological and functional properties of the stromal/interstitial renal cells during the intrauterine life. This work was aimed at reviewing the peculiar features of renal interstitial stem/progenitor cells involved in kidney development. The origin of the renal interstitial progenitor cells remains unknown. During kidney development, besides the Six2 + cells of the cap mesenchyme, a self-renewing progenitor population, characterized by the expression of Foxd1, represents the first actor of the non-nephrogenic lineage. Foxd1 + interstitial progenitors originate the cortical and the renal medullary interstitial progenitors. Here, the most important stromal/interstitial compartments present in the developing human kidney will be analyzed: capsular stromal cells, cortical interstitial cells, medullary interstitial cells, the interstitium inside the renal stem cell niche, Hilar interstitial cells and Ureteric interstitial cells. Data reported here indicate that the different interstitial compartments of the developing kidney are formed by different cell types that characterize the different renal areas. Further studies are needed to better characterize the different pools of renal interstitial progenitors and their role in human nephrogenesis.

  6. Regulation of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle Function by Interstitial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Kenton M; Kito, Yoshihiko; Hwang, Sung Jin; Ward, Sean M

    2016-09-01

    Interstitial cells of mesenchymal origin form gap junctions with smooth muscle cells in visceral smooth muscles and provide important regulatory functions. In gastrointestinal (GI) muscles, there are two distinct classes of interstitial cells, c-Kit(+) interstitial cells of Cajal and PDGFRα(+) cells, that regulate motility patterns. Loss of these cells may contribute to symptoms in GI motility disorders.

  7. Paper pulp from sugar mill bagasse

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, H.; Berndt, W.; Schwartzkopff, U.; Reitter, F.J.; Hoepner, T.; Muehlig, H.J.

    1981-04-07

    This is a continuation-in-part of US Serial No. 884,513, abandoned. Neutral sulfite semichemical (NSSC) cooking of depithed bagasse gave pulp with improved physicomechanical properties for use in the production of newsprint paper. Thus, the NSSC cooking at 170-175/sup 0/ gave pulp in 70-75% yield. The NSSC pulp as above was bleached with alkali H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ at 50-70/sup 0/ to give a product with breaking load 8.7 kg, tensile 3.9%, breaking length 7.13 km, absolute tearing strength 135 cmg/cm, absolute bursting strength 3.8 kg/sq. cm and Elrepho brightness 61.

  8. Treatment of crown fractures with pulp exposure.

    PubMed

    de Blanco, L P

    1996-11-01

    Thirty permanent incisors with vital pulps and complicated crown fractures were treated by a partial pulpotomy (Cvek technique). This consisted of amputation of 1 to 2 mm of the exposed pulp, placement of calcium hydroxide powder, and a temporary restoration. Clinical and radiographic assessment of the hard tissue barrier was done after 3 months and again after 1 to 8 years. The treatment was successful in all incisors. No differences were found in stage of root development, size of exposure, and length of time exposed. In conclusion, the partial pulpotomy technique is a successful and permanent treatment for crown fractures with pulp exposure regardless of the size of exposure, the maturity of the root, or the interval between accident and dental treatment.

  9. Biocompatibility of a new pulp capping cement

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Ceci, Matteo; Beltrami, Riccardo; Dagna, Alberto; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new pulp capping material (Biodentine, Septodont) compared with reference pulp capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), ProRoot MTA (Dentsply) and MTA-Angelus (Angelus) by using murine odontoblast cell line and Alamar blue and MTT cytotoxicity tests. Methods The citocompatibility of murine odontoblasts cells (MDPC-23) were evaluated at different times using a 24 Transwell culture plate by Alamar blue test and MTT assay. Results The results were significantly different among the pulp capping materials tested. Biocompatibility was significant different among materials with different composition. Conclusions Biodentine and MTA-based products show lower cytotoxicity varying from calcium hydroxide-based material which present higher citotoxicity. PMID:25002921

  10. Raman spectroscopic characterization of wood and pulp fibers

    Treesearch

    Umesh Prasad Agarwal

    2008-01-01

    This chapter reviews applications of Raman spectroscopy in the field of wood and pulp fibers. Most of the literature examined was published between 1998 and 2006. In addition to introduction, this chapter contains sections on wood and components, mechanical pulp, chemical pulp, modified/treated wood, cellulose I crystallinity of wood fibers, and the self-absorption...

  11. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  12. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing,...

  13. Properties of kenaf from various cultivars, growth and pulping conditions

    Treesearch

    James S. Han; Ernest S. Miyashita; Sara J. Spielvogel

    1999-01-01

    The physical properties of kenaf offer potential as an alternative raw material for the manufacture of paper. Investigations to date have not determined whether core and fiber should be pulped together or separately. Kenaf bast and core fibers of different cultivars were pulped under various kraft pulping conditions and physical properties: density, Canadian Standard...

  14. Ranking mechanical pulps for their potential to photoyellow

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2000-01-01

    Recently found experimental evidence has provided strong support for an alternative photoyellowing mechanism that suggests that pulp- photoyellowing occurs due to direct photooxidation of hydroquinones (present in mechanical pulps) top-quinones. Because hydroquinones were found to be present in pulps, it may be possible to quantify them. Quantification of mechanical-...

  15. The pulp. A big issue about a little tissue.

    PubMed

    Feiglin, B

    1978-02-01

    Difficulties in correlating pulp symptomology with available histopathological and biochemical data have hampered understanding of pulp reaction to stimuli. Some of the less well known biochemical cell and tissue regulatory systems are appraised. Pathways whereby such systems could be implicated in pulp function are suggested.

  16. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing, packing...

  17. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260... for Use Only as Components of Paper and Paperboard § 176.260 Pulp from reclaimed fiber. (a) Pulp from reclaimed fiber may be safely used as a component of articles used in producing, manufacturing, packing...

  18. 21 CFR 872.1730 - Electrode gel for pulp testers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrode gel for pulp testers. 872.1730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 872.1730 Electrode gel for pulp testers. (a) Identification. An electrode gel for pulp testers is a device intended to be applied to the surface of a tooth...

  19. Frequently asked questions in direct pulp capping of permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Mouawad, Stéphanie; Artine, Simon; Hajjar, Pétra; McConnell, Robert; Fahd, Jean-Claude; Sabbagh, Joseph

    2014-05-01

    Direct pulp capping is a proven method of preserving tooth vitality of a mature permanent tooth in cases of pulp exposures. The indications for this treatment, treatment modalities and materials are discussed in this paper. This paper answers many of the frequently asked questions by general practitioners, dental students and specialists about direct pulp capping.

  20. Interstitial water chemistry of sediments of the Costa Rica Accretionary Complex off the Nicoya Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuleger, E.; Gieskes, J. M.; You, C.-F.

    Interstitial water analyses from numerous piston, gravity, and Alvin push cores show that fluid flow at the Costa Rica Accretionary Prism is spatially limited and can only be detected by visually directed cores in zones of biogenic activity. Most of the sites cored show evidence for normal diagenetic processes in rapidly deposited, organic carbon-rich sediments, with little evidence for fluid advection. However, in visually directed Alvin push cores, obtained from black sulfidic sediments characterized by the presence of Calyptogena clams or tubeworms, evidence for fluids advected upward from greater depth horizons is shown. These zones are associated with a large mudvolcano on the prism and with the zoes of Out Of Sequence Thrusts. As changes from sea water concentrations are still relatively small, substantial mixing with sea water must have occurred during this upward fluid movement.

  1. Suction blister fluid as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins.

    PubMed

    Kool, Jeroen; Reubsaet, Léon; Wesseldijk, Feikje; Maravilha, Raquel T; Pinkse, Martijn W; D'Santos, Clive S; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Zijlstra, Freek J; Heck, Albert J R

    2007-10-01

    Early diagnosis is important for effective disease management. Measurement of biomarkers present at the local level of the skin could be advantageous in facilitating the diagnostic process. The analysis of the proteome of suction blister fluid, representative for the interstitial fluid of the skin, is therefore a desirable first step in the search for potential biomarkers involved in biological pathways of particular diseases. Here, we describe a global analysis of the suction blister fluid proteome as potential body fluid for biomarker proteins. The suction blister fluid proteome was compared with a serum proteome analyzed using identical protocols. By using stringent criteria allowing less than 1% false positive identifications, we were able to detect, using identical experimental conditions and amount of starting material, 401 proteins in suction blister fluid and 240 proteins in serum. As a major result of our analysis we construct a prejudiced list of 34 proteins, relatively highly and uniquely detected in suction blister fluid as compared to serum, with established and putative characteristics as biomarkers. We conclude that suction blister fluid might potentially serve as a good alternative biomarker body fluid for diseases that involve the skin.

  2. Effects of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Variables on the Durian Rind Pulp and Paper Characteristics: A Preliminary Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Rahmad Talib, Mohd; Sian, Lau Lee

    2017-08-01

    Good combination of pulping variables is required to obtain the quality pulp and paper characteristics. Thus, in this preliminary work, naturally dried durian rind were pulped under Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with 18% to 22% alkali charge, 0% to 0.1% Anthraquinone (AQ) charge, 90 minutes to 150 minutes of cooking time and 150°C to 170°C to investigate the effect of pulping variables on the characteristics of the pulp and paper. Pulping condition with 0% of AQ charge was also conducted for comparison. Results indicated that the best screen yield percentage, reject yield percentage, freeness, drainage time, tear index, number of folds and optical properties were shown by the pulp produced with combination of the highest active alkali (22%), AQ charge (0.1%), cooking time (150 minutes) and cooking temperature (170°C) except apparent density, tensile index and burst index. This preliminary result shows that the optimum quality of durian rind pulp as a potential papermaking raw material pulp could be produced by selecting the good combination of pulping variables which influences the pulp and paper characteristics.

  3. Role of prostatic interstitial cells in prostate motility

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Richard J; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prostate is a gland whose secretions contribute to the seminal fluids ejaculated upon activation of autonomic sympathetic nerves. In elder males, the prostate undergoes an increase in stroma mass and myogenic tone, leading to benign prostatic hyperplasia that occludes the proximal urethra and the presentation of various lower urinary tract symptoms that decrease their quality of life. This review summarises the role of prostatic interstitial cells (PICs) in the generation of the spontaneous tone in the prostate. It presents current knowledge of the role of Ca2+ plays in PIC pacemaking, as well as the mechanisms by which this spontaneous activity triggers slow wave generation and stromal contraction. PICs display a small T-type Ca2+ current (ICaT) and a large L-type Ca2+ current (ICaL). In contrast to other interstitial cells in the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, spontaneous Ca2+ signalling in PICs is uniquely dependent on Ca2+ influx through ICaL channels. A model of prostatic pacemaking is presented describing how ICaL can be triggered by an initial membrane depolarization evoked upon the selective opening of Ca2+-activated Cl– channels by Ca2+ flowing only through ICaT channels. The resulting current flow through ICaL results in release of Ca2+ from internal stores and the summation of Cl–-selective spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs) to form pacemaker potentials that propagate passively into the prostatic stroma to evoke regenerative action potentials and excitation-contraction coupling. PMID:28652517

  4. CYTOTOXICITY AND BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT PULP CAPPING MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Casas-Apayco, Leslie Caroll; Atta, Maria Teresa; Costa, Carlos Alberto de Souza; Hebling, Josimeri; Sipert, Carla Renata; Navarro, Maria Fidela de Lima; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    There are several studies about the cytotoxic effects of dental materials in contact with the pulp tissue, such as calcium hydroxide (CH), adhesive systems, resin composite and glass ionomer cements. The aim of this review article was to summarize and discuss the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of materials used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex, some components of resin composites and adhesive systems when placed in direct or indirect contact with the pulp tissue. A large number of dental materials present cytotoxic effects when applied close or directly to the pulp, and the only material that seems to stimulate early pulp repair and dentin hard tissue barrier formation is CH. PMID:20027424

  5. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  6. Chemokines in tumor proximal fluids.

    PubMed

    Kotyza, Jaromir

    2017-03-01

    Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines produced by leukocytes and other types of cells including tumor cells. Their action is determined by the expression of cognate receptors and subsequent signaling in target cells, followed by the modulation of cytoskeletal proteins and the induction of other responses. In tumors, chemokines produced by neoplastic/stroma cells control the leukocyte infiltrate influencing tumor growth and progression. Tumor cells also express functional chemokine receptors responding to chemokine signals, promoting cell survival, proliferation and metastasis formation. Chemokines may be detected in serum of cancer patients, but due to the paracrine nature of these molecules, more significant concentrations are found in the tumor adjacent, non-vascular fluids, collectively called tumor proximal fluids. This review summarizes the expression of CC and CXC chemokines in these fluids, namely in interstitial fluid, pleural, ascitic, and cyst fluids, but also in urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, cervical secretions and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Most comparative clinical studies reveal increased chemokine levels in high-grade tumor proximal fluids rather than in low-grade tumors and benign conditions, indicating shorter survival periods. The data confirm peritumoral fluid chemokines as sensitive diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as offer support for chemokines and their receptors as potential targets for antitumor therapy.

  7. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  8. Influence of different types of pulp treatment during isolation in the obtention of human dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Viña-Almunia, Jose; Borras, Consuelo; Gambini, Juan; El Alamy, Marya; Viña, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Background Different methods have been used in order to isolate dental pulp stem cells. The aim of this study was to study the effect of different types of pulp treatment during isolation, under 3% O2 conditions, in the time needed and the efficacy for obtaining dental pulp stem cells. Material and Methods One hundred and twenty dental pulps were used to isolate dental pulp stem cells treating the pulp tissue during isolation using 9 different methods, using digestive, disgregation, or mechanical agents, or combining them. The cells were positive for CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, CD34 markers, and negative for the hematopoietic cell marker CD-45, thus confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. The efficacy of dental pulp stem cells obtention and the minimum time needed to obtain such cells comparing the 9 different methods was analyzed. Results Dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 97 of the 120 pulps used in the study, i.e. 80.8% of the cases. They were obtained with all the methods used except with mechanical fragmentation of the pulp, where no enzymatic digestion was performed. The minimum time needed to isolate dental pulp stem cells was 8 hours, digesting with 2mg/ml EDTA for 10 minutes, 4mg/ml of type I collagenase, 4mg/ml of type II dispase for 40 minutes, 13ng/ml of thermolysine for 40 minutes and sonicating the culture for one minute. Conclusions Dental pulp stem cells were obtained in 97 cases from a series of 120 pulps. The time for obtaining dental pulp stem cells was reduced maximally, without compromising the obtention of the cells, by combining digestive, disgregation, and mechanical agents. Key words:Dental pulp stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, isolation method. PMID:26946201

  9. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    PubMed

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp.

  10. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth.

  11. Pulp and dentin tissue engineering and regeneration: current progress

    PubMed Central

    Huang, George TJ

    2009-01-01

    Dental pulp tissue is vulnerable to infection. Entire pulp amputation followed by pulp-space disinfection and filling with an artificial rubber-like material is employed to treat the infection – commonly known as root-canal therapy. Regeneration of pulp tissue has been difficult as the tissue is encased in dentin without collateral blood supply except from the root apical end. However, with the advent of the concept of modern tissue engineering and the discovery of dental stem cells, regeneration of pulp and dentin has been tested. This article will review the early attempts to regenerate pulp tissue and the current endeavor of pulp and dentin tissue engineering, and regeneration. The prospective outcome of the current advancement in this line of research will be discussed. PMID:19761395

  12. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  13. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  14. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1673 - Pulp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... food packaging containers. (c) The ingredient is used in paper and paperboard made by conventional... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pulp. 186.1673 Section 186.1673 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT...

  17. Optimizing lodgepole pine submerchantable log thermomechanical pulp

    Treesearch

    Gary C. Myers

    2004-01-01

    To restore and maintain ecosystem health and function in the western interior of the United States, many small-diameter stems need to be removed from densely stocked stands. These stems are considered nonusable or underutilized (good, economical uses need to be developed). As of now, the most logical use for the small-diameter resource is pulp. In this study,...

  18. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency...

  19. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency...

  20. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency...

  1. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pulp tester. 872.1720 Section 872.1720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency...

  2. Catalysis: A Potential Alternative to Kraft Pulping

    Treesearch

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2014-01-01

    A thorough analysis of the kraft pulping process makes it obvious why it has dominated for over a century as an industrial process with no replacement in sight. It uses low cost raw materials, collects and regenerates over 90% of the chemicals needed in the process, is indifferent to wood raw material and good at preserving the cellulose portion of the wood which is...

  3. [New cellulases efficiently hydrolyzing lignocellulose pulp].

    PubMed

    Skomarovskiĭ, A A; Markov, A V; Gusakov, A V; Kondrat'eva, E G; Okunev, O N; Bekkerevich, A O; Matys, V Iu; Sinitsyn, A P

    2006-01-01

    Commercial and pilot enzyme preparations from fungi of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma have been compared with regard to their action on conifer wood pretreated with acidified aqueous ethanol (organosolve). In most experiments, enzymes from the genus Penicillium allowed higher yields of reducing sugars and glucose than those from Trichoderma. High beta-glucosidase activity is essential for deep pulp hydrolysis.

  4. Archaea prevalence in inflamed pulp tissues

    PubMed Central

    Efenberger, Magdalena; Agier, Justyna; Pawłowska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Archaea have been detected in several ecological niches of the human body such as the large intestine, skin, vagina as well as the oral cavity. At present, archaea are recognized as nonpathogenic microorganisms. However, some data indicate that they may be involved in the etiopathogenesis of several diseases, including intestinal diseases as well as oral diseases: periodontitis, peri-implantitis and endodontitis. In this study, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we examined whether archaea might be present in inflamed pulp tissues and contribute to the development of endodontic infection. In comparison, we also determined selected bacterial species associated with endodontitis. We detected archaea in 85% of infected endodontic samples. In addition, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were present in inflamed pulp tissue samples and Treponema denticola occurred with the highest frequency (70%). Further analysis revealed the presence of methanogenic archaea in analyzed samples. Direct sequencing of archaeal 16S rRNA gene PCR products indicated the occurrence of methanogenic archaea in inflamed pulp tissues; phylogenetically most similar were Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii. Therefore, our results show that methanogenic archaea are present in inflamed pulp tissues and may participate in the development of endodontic infection. PMID:26557034

  5. Deriving Sediment Interstitial Water Remediation Goals ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a methodology for developing interstitial water remediation goals (IWRGs) for nonionic organic pollutants (toxicants) in sediments for the protection of benthic organisms. The document provides the basis for using the final chronic values (FCVs) from EPA’s aquatic water quality criteria (AWQC) for the protection of aquatic life to set the IWRGs for toxicants in sediments. Concentrations of the toxicants in the sediment interstitial water are measured using passive sampling. This document also discusses how to evaluate the consistency between passive sampling measurements and sediment toxicity test results. When these data are consistent, one can be reasonably assured that the causes of toxicity to benthic organisms in the sediment have been correctly identified and that the developed IWRGs for the toxicants will be protective of the benthic organisms at the site. The consistency evaluation is an important step in developing defensible IWRGs. To assist in developing defensible IWRGs.

  6. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  7. Irradiation system for interstitial photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacheco, L.; Stolik, S.; De la Rosa, J.

    2013-11-01

    Interstitial Photodynamic Therapy (IPDT) is a promising form of treatment of deep-seated and bulky malignant tumors, based on the lethal cell response to the photochemical reactions when drug is light activated in presence of oxygen. In order to accomplish an effective internal illumination, laser sources are preferably used because of two important reasons: the monochromatic light can be confined to the narrow absorption band of the drug and the laser beam is easily focused into optical fibers. In this work the development of a diode-laser-light-source is presented. The system is tuned by temperature to get a better match in the 5-ALA absorption band. This system also comprises a trifurcated fiber system to accomplish interstitial illumination.

  8. Uncommon causes of occupational interstitial lung diseases.

    PubMed

    Gong, H

    1996-09-01

    Uncommon causes of occupational interstitial lung disease, or pneumoconiosis, are being increasingly recognized and diagnosed. The fibrogenic potential of numerous types of respirable inorganic particles remains poorly understood but is significantly determined by lung deposition and clearance, the agent's size and solubility, host susceptibility, and other factors. Microanalytic techniques have improved the identification of uncommon or unusual biopersistent particles or elements in fibrotic lung tissue. Recent findings in workers exposed to manmade vitreous fibers, silicon carbide, talc, titanium, cerium, and polyvinyl chloride provide new clinical insights into not only their specific fibrogenic capabilities but also in the broader appreciation that many cases of unexplained interstitial lung disease may be caused by occupational exposures to one or more uncommon airborne substances.

  9. [Alveolo-interstitial pneumonia due to Temozolamide].

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, L; Carré, P; de Luca, K; Beau Salinas, F; Autret-Leca, E; Narciso, B; Diot, P

    2008-09-01

    Temozolomide is an alkylating agent approved for treatment of glioblastoma in association with radiotherapy. We report the case of a 56 year old woman presenting with alveolo-interstitial pneumonia after treatment with Temozolomide. Initially she received induction treatment with Temozolomide and concomitant radiotherapy for bifocal high grade glioblastoma. A month later she received, as scheduled, the first course of Temozolomide maintenance chemotherapy. Grade II dyspnoea developed a few days later. High resolution computed tomography showed alveolo-interstitial opacities with basal predominance, associated with alveolar nodules. Broncho-alveolar lavage showed a lymphocytosis. No bacteria were isolated from microbiological samples. A final diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonia was based on the time sequence and absence of other causes. There is little literature concerning the pulmonary toxicity of Temozolomide. However, our case report of drug-induced pneumonia and similar observations in the databases of regional pharmacovigilance centres suggest that this side effect should be included in the summary of product characteristics.

  10. Interstitial hyperthermia in combination with brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, C T; Douple, E B; Strohbehn, J W; Eaton, W L; Trembly, B S; Wong, T Z

    1983-07-01

    Flexible coaxial cables were modified to serve as microwave antennas operating at a frequency of 915 MHz. These antennas were inserted into nylon afterloading tubes that had been implanted in tumors using conventional interstitial implantation techniques for iridium-192 seed brachytherapy. The tumor volume was heated to 42-45 degrees C within 15 minutes and heating was continued for a total of 1 hour per treatment. Immediately following a conventional brachytherapy dose and removal of the iridium seeds the tumors were heated again in a second treatment. This interstitial technique for delivering local hyperthermia should be compatible with most brachytherapy methods. The technique has proved so far to be practical and without complications. Temperature distributions obtained in tissue phantoms and a patient are described.

  11. RTOG quality assurance guidelines for interstitial hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Emami, B; Stauffer, P; Dewhirst, M W; Prionas, S; Ryan, T; Corry, P; Herman, T; Kapp, D S; Myerson, R J; Samulski, T

    1991-05-01

    This document specifies the current recommendations for quality assurance for hyperthermia administration with interstitial techniques as specified by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). The document begins by providing a brief description of the physical principles behind the use of the three most commonly used methods of interstitial hyperthermia: radiofrequency (RF-LCF), microwave antennas, and ferromagnetic seeds. Emphasis is placed on features that effect quality assurance. Specific recommendations are provided for: a) Pretreatment planning and equipment performance checks, b) Implant considerations and documentation, c) Thermometry, and d) Safety procedures. Specific details regarding quality assurance issues that are common to all local and regional hyperthermia methods are outlined in previous documents sponsored by the RTOG. It is anticipated that technological advances may lead to future modifications of this document.

  12. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation. PMID:26631412

  13. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-12-03

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation.

  14. Transportation in the Interstitial Space of the Brain Can Be Regulated by Neuronal Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chunyan; Lei, Yiming; Han, Hongbin; Zuo, Long; Yan, Junhao; He, Qingyuan; Yuan, Lan; Liu, Huipo; Xu, Ge; Xu, Weiguo

    2015-12-01

    The transportation of substances in the interstitial space (ISS) is crucial for the maintenance of brain homeostasis, however its link to neuronal activity remains unclear. Here, we report a marked reduction in substance transportation in the ISS after neuronal excitation. Using a tracer-based method, water molecules in the interstitial fluid (ISF) could be specifically visualized in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We first observed the flow of ISF in the thalamus and caudate nucleus of a rat. The ISF flow was then modulated using a painful stimulation model. We demonstrated that the flow of ISF slowed significantly following neuronal activity in the thalamus. This reduction in ISF flow continued for hours and was not accompanied by slow diffusion into the ISS. This observation suggests that the transportation of substances into the ISS can be regulated with a selective external stimulation.

  15. Interstitial devices for treating deep seated tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Cathignol, Dominique; Prat, Frédéric; Melodelima, David; Salomir, Rares; Theillère, Yves; Chapelon, Jean-Yves

    2006-05-01

    Techniques using intracavitary or interstitial applicators have been proposed because extracorporeal HIFU techniques are not always suitable for deep-seated tumors. Bones or gaseous pockets may indeed be located in the intervening tissue. The objective is to bring the ultrasound source as close as possible to the target through natural routes in order to minimize the effects of attenuation and phase aberration along the ultrasound pathway. Under these circumstances, it becomes possible to use higher frequency, thus increasing the ultrasonic absorption coefficient and resulting in more efficient heating of the treatment region. In contrast to extra-corporeal applicators, the design of interstitial probes imposes additional constraints relative to size and ergonomy. The goal of this paper is to present the range of miniature interstitial applicators we developed at INSERM for various applications. The sources are rotating plane water-cooled transducers that operate at a frequency between 3 and 10 MHz depending on the desired therapeutic depth. The choice of a plane transducer rather than divergent sources permits to extend the therapeutic depth and to enhance the angular selectivity of the treatment Rotating single element flat transducer can also be replaced by cylindrical arrays for rotating electronically a reconstructed plane wave. When extended zone of coagulation are required, original therapeutic modalities combining cavitation and thermal effects are used. These methods consist in favoring in depth heating by increasing the acoustic attenuation away from the transducer with the presence of bubbles. When associated to modern imaging modalities, these minimally invasive therapeutic devices offer very promising options for cancer treatment. For examples, two versions of an image-guided esophageal applicator are designed: one uses a retractable ultrasound mini probe for the positioning of the applicator, while the other is MRI compatible and offers on line

  16. [Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis with interstitial myositis].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saori; Nozawa, Tomo; Kizawa, Toshitaka; Kikuchi, Masako; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Inaba, Hiroshi; Sato, Tatsuharu; Hashimoto, Kunio; Aida, Noriko; Yokota, Shumpei

    2013-01-01

    Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) is an inflammatory, non-infectious disorder of skeletal system mainly seen in children. We report a case of CRMO presenting with fever and leg pain. The patient was an 11-year-old boy complaining of a fever, swelling and pain on his right foot, and pain on both legs. Although serum levels of CK and aldolase were not increased, MRI imaging suggested polymyositis. Muscle biopsy showed interstitial infiltration of inflammatory cells without any evidences of dermatomyositis or polymyositis. One month later, he complained of a swelling, pain and redness of his left clavicle as recurrently experienced during the recent 6 months, and MRI investigation indicated the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Bone biopsy was performed and showed chronic inflammatory changes with negative bacterial culture. Multiple bone lesions and muscle uptake of FDG in his legs were revealed by whole body FDG-PET/CT, and he was diagnosed as having CRMO with interstitial myositis. The combinatorial administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bisphosphonate successfully improved his clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities. To our knowledge, there is no report of a patient of CRMO associated with interstitial myositis.

  17. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    SciTech Connect

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientation depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.

  18. Interstitial loop transformations in FeCr

    DOE PAGES

    Béland, Laurent Karim; Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.; ...

    2015-03-27

    Here, we improve the Self-Evolving Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) algorithm by integrating the Activation Relaxation Technique nouveau (ARTn), a powerful open-ended saddle-point search method, into the algorithm. We use it to investigate the reaction of 37-interstitial 1/2[1 1 1] and 1/2[View the MathML source] loops in FeCr at 10 at.% Cr. They transform into 1/2[1 1 1], 1/2[View the MathML source], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] 74-interstitial clusters with an overall barrier of 0.85 eV. We find that Cr decoration locally inhibits the rotation of crowdions, which dictates the final loop orientation. Moreover, the final loop orientationmore » depends on the details of the Cr decoration. Generally, a region of a given orientation is favored if Cr near its interface with a region of another orientation is able to inhibit reorientation at this interface more than the Cr present at the other interfaces. Also, we find that substitutional Cr atoms can diffuse from energetically unfavorable to energetically favorable sites within the interlocked 37-interstitial loops conformation with barriers of less than 0.35 eV.« less

  19. Breast conservation treatment with perioperative interstitial irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, L.; Mansfield, C.M.; Jewell, W.R.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-10-01

    Limited resection of the breast combined with radiation has proved to be as effective as more radical surgery in treating early breast cancer. At the University of Kansas Medical Center, the radiotherapy consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to deliver an interstitial boost dose to the tumor bed with iridium-192 immediately following the surgical procedure. An axillary node dissection is also performed at the time of lumpectomy. A dose of 2000 cGy is delivered to the tumor bed between 40 and 60 h. Two to three weeks later, 4500-5000 cGy is delivered to the entire breast with external beam radiation over 5-5.5 weeks. One hundred breasts in 98 patients were so treated between June 1982 and February 1986, with 2 carcinomas in situ, 40 stage I, 51 stage II, and 7 stage III cancers, consisting of 2 TIS, 54 T1, 39 T2, and 5 T3 lesions. Locoregional control with a median follow-up of 31 months was 98%. One recurrence was in a different quadrant, and the other revealed predominantly the in situ component. Immediate implant did not compromise wound healing or cosmesis. The cosmetic result was graded as good to excellent in 88% of the breasts. Our preliminary results appear to suggest a better local control with immediate interstitial irradiation.

  20. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  1. Alkaline polyol pulping and enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood: effect of pulping severity and pulp properties on cellulase activity and overall sugar yield.

    PubMed

    Hundt, Martin; Schnitzlein, Klaus; Schnitzlein, Michael G

    2013-04-01

    The saccharification of softwood using alkaline polyol pulping (AlkaPolP) and enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. It will be demonstrated that the AlkaPolP process yields high quality pulps which can easily be hydrolyzed by cellulases. Temperature (180-230°C) and duration (15-60 min) of the alkaline glycerol pulping, expressed as pulping severity R0, were varied to find optimum reaction conditions. The obtained pulps were characterized regarding their residual lignin content, kappa number and crystallinity index. Thus, the dependencies of the conversion during enzymatic hydrolysis on severity, pulp composition and pulp characteristics could be observed. In further experiments it was investigated how the enzymatic hydrolysis is affected by pulp drying or by a reduction of enzyme loading. Up to 83% of the initial cellulose in wood and almost 97% of the cellulose in pulp were converted into glucose using cellulases from Trichoderma reesei and β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of serum protein binding and mode of administration on penetration of five cephalosporins into subcutaneous tissue fluid in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffstedt, B; Walder, M

    1981-01-01

    The penetration of five cephalosporins into interstitial fluid was investigated by a new method employing cotton threads implanted subcutaneously. Penetration after short bolus injections, calculated as area under interstitial fluid level curve divided by area under serum level curve x 100, was 47.0% for cephradine, 30.6% for cefuroxime, 26.7% for cefotaxime, 24.6% for cefoxitin, and 9.6% for cefoperazone. There was an inverse correlation between the degree of penetration and serum protein binding with r = -0.97. The area under interstitial fluid level curves was the same whether the drugs were administered as short bolus injections or short time infusions. PMID:7325644

  3. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  4. Interstitial space and collagen alterations of the developing rat diaphragm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosselin, L. E.; Martinez, D. A.; Vailas, A. C.; Sieck, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of growth on the relative interstitial space [%total cross-sectional area (CSA)] and collagen content of the rat diaphragm muscle was examined at postnatal ages of 0, 7, 14, and 21 days as well as in adult males. The proportion of interstitial space relative to total muscle CSA was determined by computerized image analysis of lectin-stained cross sections of diaphragm muscle. To assess collagen content and extent of collagen maturation (i.e., cross-linking), high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis was used to measure hydroxyproline concentration and the nonreducible collagen cross-link hydroxylysylpyridinoline (HP), respectively. At birth, interstitial space accounted for approximately 47% of total diaphragm muscle CSA. During postnatal growth, the relative contribution of interstitial space decreased such that by adulthood the interstitial space accounted for approximately 18% of total muscle CSA. The change in relative interstitial space occurred without a concomitant change in hydroxyproline concentration. However, the concentration of HP markedly increased with age such that the adult diaphragm contained approximately 17 times more HP than at birth. These results indicate that during development the relative CSA occupied by interstitial space decreases as muscle fiber size increases. However, the reduction in relative interstitial space is not associated with a change in collagen concentration. Thus collagen density in the interstitial space may increase with age. It is possible that the observed changes in relative interstitial space and collagen influence the passive length-force properties of the diaphragm.

  5. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    SciTech Connect

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-04-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells.

  6. Influence of different types of pulp treatment during isolation in the obtention of human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Viña-Almunia, J; Borras, C; Gambini, J; El Alamy, M; Peñarrocha, M; Viña, J

    2016-05-01

    Different methods have been used in order to isolate dental pulp stem cells. The aim of this study was to study the effect of different types of pulp treatment during isolation, under 3% O2 conditions, in the time needed and the efficacy for obtaining dental pulp stem cells. One hundred and twenty dental pulps were used to isolate dental pulp stem cells treating the pulp tissue during isolation using 9 different methods, using digestive, disgregation, or mechanical agents, or combining them. The cells were positive for CD133, Oct4, Nestin, Stro-1, CD34 markers, and negative for the hematopoietic cell marker CD-45, thus confirming the presence of mesenchymal stem cells. The efficacy of dental pulp stem cells obtention and the minimum time needed to obtain such cells comparing the 9 different methods was analyzed. Dental pulp stem cells were obtained from 97 of the 120 pulps used in the study, i.e. 80.8% of the cases. They were obtained with all the methods used except with mechanical fragmentation of the pulp, where no enzymatic digestion was performed. The minimum time needed to isolate dental pulp stem cells was 8 hours, digesting with 2mg/ml EDTA for 10 minutes, 4mg/ml of type I collagenase, 4mg/ml of type II dispase for 40 minutes, 13ng/ml of thermolysine for 40 minutes and sonicating the culture for one minute. Dental pulp stem cells were obtained in 97 cases from a series of 120 pulps. The time for obtaining dental pulp stem cells was reduced maximally, without compromising the obtention of the cells, by combining digestive, disgregation, and mechanical agents.

  7. Mobilized dental pulp stem cells for pulp regeneration: initiation of clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro

    2014-04-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential strategy to regenerate the dentin-pulp complex, enabling the conservation and restoration of functional teeth. We assessed the efficacy and safety of pulp stem cell transplantation as a prelude before the initiation of clinical trials. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) induces subsets of dental pulp stem cells to form mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs). Good manufacturing practice is a prerequisite for the isolation and expansion of MDPSCs that are enriched in stem cells, expressing a high level of trophic factors with properties of high proliferation, migration, and antiapoptotic effects and endowed with regenerative potential. The quality of clinical-grade MDPSCs was assured by the absence of abnormalities/aberrations in karyotype and the lack of tumor formation after transplantation in immunodeficient mice. Autologous transplantation of MDPSCs with G-CSF in pulpectomized teeth in dogs augmented the regeneration of pulp tissue. The combinatorial trophic effects of MDPSCs and G-CSF on cell migration, antiapoptosis, immunosuppression, and neurite outgrowth were also confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, MDPSCs from the aged donors were as potent as the young donors. It is noteworthy that there were no significant age-related changes in biological properties such as stability, regenerative potential, and expression of the senescence markers in MDPSCs. On the other hand, autologous transplantation of MDPSCs with G-CSF induced less regenerated pulp tissue in the aged dogs compared with the young dogs. In conclusion, the preclinical safety, feasibility, and efficacy of pulp regeneration by MDPSCs and G-CSF were established. Therefore, the standardization and establishment of regulatory guidelines for stem cell therapy in clinical endodontics is now a reality. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary study on dental pulp stem cell-mediated pulp regeneration in canine immature permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Yuming; Jia, Weiqian; Yang, Jie; Ge, Lihong

    2013-02-01

    The health of human teeth depends on the integrity of the hard tissue and the activity of the pulp and periodontal tissues, which are responsible for nutritional supply. Without the nourishing of the pulp tissue, the possibility of tooth fracture can increase. In immature permanent teeth, root development may be influenced as well. This study explored the potential of using autologous dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to achieve pulp regeneration in a canine pulpless model. The establishment of the pulpless animal model involved pulp extirpation and root canal preparation of young permanent incisor teeth in beagles. Autologous DPSCs were obtained from extracted first molars and expanded ex vivo to obtain a larger number of cells. The biological characteristics of canine DPSCs (cDPSCs) were analyzed both in vitro and in vivo by using the same method as used in human DPSCs. cDPSCs were transplanted into the pulpless root canal with Gelfoam as the scaffold, and root development was evaluated by radiographic and histologic analyses. cDPSCs with rapid proliferation, multiple differentiation capacity, and development potential were successfully isolated and identified both in vitro and in vivo. After they were transplanted into the pulpless root canal with Gelfoam as the scaffold, DPSCs were capable of generating pulp-like tissues containing blood vessels and dentin-like tissue. Thickening of the root canal wall was also observed. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using stem cell-mediated tissue engineering to realize pulp regeneration in immature teeth. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of plantation density on kraft pulp production from red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.)

    Treesearch

    J.Y. Zhu; G.C. Myers

    2006-01-01

    Red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) butt logs from 38 year old research plots were used to study the effect of plantation stand density on kraft pulp production. Results indicate that plantation stand density can affect pulp yield, unrefined pulp mean fibre length, and the response of pulp fibre length to pulp refining. However, the effect of plantation stand density on...

  10. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  11. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  12. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    PubMed

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  13. Pulp Vascularization during Tooth Development, Regeneration, and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rombouts, C; Giraud, T; Jeanneau, C; About, I

    2017-02-01

    The pulp is a highly vascularized tissue situated in an inextensible environment surrounded by rigid dentin walls, with the apical foramina being the only access. The pulp vascular system is not only responsible for nutrient supply and waste removal but also contributes actively to the pulp inflammatory response and subsequent regeneration. This review discusses the underlying mechanisms of pulp vascularization during tooth development, regeneration, and therapeutic procedures, such as tissue engineering and tooth transplantation. Whereas the pulp vascular system is established by vasculogenesis during embryonic development, sprouting angiogenesis is the predominant process during regeneration and therapeutic processes. Hypoxia can be considered a common driving force. Dental pulp cells under hypoxic stress release proangiogenic factors, with vascular endothelial growth factor being one of the most potent. The benefit of exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor application in tissue engineering has been well demonstrated. Interestingly, dental pulp stem cells have an important role in pulp revascularization. Indeed, recent studies show that dental pulp stem cell secretome possesses angiogenic potential that actively contributes to the angiogenic process by guiding endothelial cells and even by differentiating themselves into the endothelial lineage. Although considerable insight has been obtained in the processes underlying pulp vascularization, many questions remain relating to the signaling pathways, timing, and influence of various stress conditions.

  14. [Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a clinicopathologic entity, histologic pattern or unclassified group of heterogeneous interstitial pneumonitis?].

    PubMed

    Morais, António; Moura, M Conceição Souto; Cruz, M Rosa; Gomes, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) initially described by Katzenstein and Fiorelli in 1994, seems to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity among idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP). Besides different histologic features from other IIP, NSIP is characterized by a better long-term outcome, associated with a better steroids responsiveness than idiopathic pulmonar fibrosis (IPF), where usually were included. Thus, differentiating NSIP from other IIP, namely IPF is very significant, since it has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. NSIP encloses different pathologies, namely those with inflammatory predominance (cellular subtype) or fibrous predominance (fibrosing subtype). NSIP is reviewed and discussed by the authors, after two clinical cases description.

  15. Steroid-responsive interstitial pulmonary disease in systemic sclerosis. Monitoring by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Kallenberg, C G; Jansen, H M; Elema, J D; The, T H

    1984-09-01

    We describe a 38-year-old woman with systemic sclerosis of recent onset and progressive dyspnea. Studies of pulmonary function revealed a restrictive ventilatory disorder with decreased diffusing capacity. Interstitial fibrosis and infiltration with lymphocytes and plasma cells with formation of follicles were observed in the lung biopsy. Analysis of fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage showed an increase in the total number of cells, with a relative increase in neutrophils. Also, the relative amount of the immunoglobulins, IgG and IgM, was increased. During corticosteroid treatment, rapid improvement of pulmonary volumes occurred, together with disappearance of neutrophils and an increase in the percentage of lymphocytes in the lavage fluid. Later on, the total number of cells in the fluid from bronchoalveolar lavage and the percentage of lymphocytes reached normal values. Bronchoalveolar lavage may be of value in assessing and monitoring pulmonary disease in patients with systemic sclerosis.

  16. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  17. Estimates of sensitivity and specificity of electric pulp testing depend on pulp disease spectrum: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Mejàre, I A; Bergenholtz, G; Petersson, K; Tranæus, S

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate how the spectrum of diseased pulps may influence sensitivity and specificity in diagnostic studies on pulp status. An original sample from a previous study consisting of 59 teeth scheduled for root canal treatment was used where the relationship between the response to electric pulp testing and the visual status of the pulp was evaluated. To alter the spectrum of diseased pulps, a hypothetical sample of asymptomatic teeth with deep caries lesions was added to the original sample. Sensitivity and specificity were then compared for the two samples. In the original sample of 59 teeth, sensitivity was 72% and specificity 90%. When the spectrum of diseased pulps was altered, sensitivity decreased to 67% and specificity increased to 97%. The change in disease spectrum also decreased the prevalence of necrotic pulps. The spectrum of diseased pulps included in a diagnostic study on the accuracy of electric pulp testing, and indirectly also disease prevalence (here pulp necrosis), influences estimates of sensitivity and specificity. This implies that estimates of diagnostic accuracy from one study with a particular tooth population spectrum may not apply to another tooth population with a different disease spectrum. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  19. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunil; Shin, Su-Jung; Song, Yunjung; Kim, Euiseong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration.

  20. In Vivo Experiments with Dental Pulp Stem Cells for Pulp-Dentin Complex Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunil; Shin, Su-Jung; Song, Yunjung; Kim, Euiseong

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have examined the pulp-dentin complex regeneration with DPSCs. While it is important to perform research on cells, scaffolds, and growth factors, it is also critical to develop animal models for preclinical trials. The development of a reproducible animal model of transplantation is essential for obtaining precise and accurate data in vivo. The efficacy of pulp regeneration should be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using animal models. This review article sought to introduce in vivo experiments that have evaluated the potential of dental pulp stem cells for pulp-dentin complex regeneration. According to a review of various researches about DPSCs, the majority of studies have used subcutaneous mouse and dog teeth for animal models. There is no way to know which animal model will reproduce the clinical environment. If an animal model is developed which is easier to use and is useful in more situations than the currently popular models, it will be a substantial aid to studies examining pulp-dentin complex regeneration. PMID:26688616

  1. [Streptococcal infection, acute kidney failure and interstitial nephritis].

    PubMed

    Faurie, R E; Prado, A C

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between streptococcal infection and renal disease has been object of multiple studies. Streptococcal infection may induce acute glomerulonephritis or interstitial nephritis. We report a patient with a streptococcal infection who developed acute renal failure. The renal biopsy showed an acute interstitial nephritis, with an interstitium infiltrate with a significant number of eosinophils. We review the causes of acute renal failure associated with streptococcal infection, specially acute interstitial nephritis.

  2. Fluid-solid modeling of lymphatic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caulk, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The lymphatic system performs important physiological functions such as the return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream to maintain tissue fluid balance, as well as the transport of immune cells in the body. It utilizes contractile lymphatic vessels, which contain valves that open and close to allow flow in only one direction, to directionally pump lymph against a pressure gradient. We develop a fluid-solid model of geometrically representative lymphatic valves. Our model uses a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring method to capture fluid-solid interactions with two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a lymphatic vessel. We use this model to investigate the opening and closing of lymphatic valves, and its effect on lymphatic pumping. This helps to broaden our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the lymphatic system.

  3. Does removal of the original pulp tissue before autotransplantation influence ingrowth of new tissue in the pulp chamber?

    PubMed

    Laureys, Wim G M; Dermaut, Luc R; Cuvelier, Claude A; De Pauw, Guy A M

    2010-10-01

    In an attempt to extend the indication area for autotransplantation of vital teeth, two possibilities can be proposed: (i) The enlargement of the apical foramen, with the aim to facilitate revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue. The ingrowth of tissue will eliminate the need for endodontic treatment when mature teeth are transplanted and (ii) the cryopreservation of teeth in case they cannot be transplanted immediately to the receptor site. Teeth with an ideal stage of root formation can be cryopreserved to perform transplantation later. Although pulpcell cultures survive crypreservation in vitro, the pulp tissue cannot survive the cryopreservation procedures when it is kept inside the pulpchamber. Therefore, the pulp tissue has to be removed before cryopreservation. It has been demonstrated that revascularization and ingrowth of new tissue can occur in an empty pulp chamber (1). The aim of this study was to find out if revascularization and ingrowth of new pulp tissue is influenced by removal of the original pulp tissue before autotransplantation. Twenty nine single-rooted teeth from three adult beagle dogs were transplanted after resection of the root tip. One group of teeth (n = 14) had the pulp tissue removed before transplantation. The other group (n = 15) had the original pulp left in situ. The transplanted teeth were histologically analysed 90 days post-transplantation. In the group with the tissue left in situ, 12 teeth (80%) showed a pulp chamber totally filled or at least 1/3 to 2/3 filled with viable tissue. In the group with the pulp tissue removed, 11 teeth (79%) had no or little vital tissue in the pulp chamber. The necrotic masses that develop in the original pulp tissue immediately after transplantation are a possible stimulating factor in the repair process of the pulp. As a conclusion, it can be stated that in case of autotransplantation of teeth, it is advisable to leave the pulp tissue in situ to stimulate the revascularization and

  4. Response of inflamed pulps of rat molars after capping with pulp-capping material containing fluocinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Louwakul, Phumisak; Lertchirakarn, Veera

    2015-04-01

    Capping inflamed dental pulp tissue is currently a controversial issue. To reduce pulp inflammation and stimulate pulp healing, a pulp-capping material containing fluocinolone acetonide (PCFA) has been developed. This study was aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response and hard tissue formation of inflamed dental pulps of rat maxillary molars after capping with Dycal, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), or PCFA. Sixty maxillary rat molars were exposed to the oral environment for 48 hours. The exposed pulps were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10) according to pulp-capping materials (Dycal, MTA, or PCFA) and time (8 or 30 days). The cavities were capped and sealed with Fuji II LC. The animals were sacrificed after 8 and 30 days. Histologic specimens were prepared and evaluated for inflammatory response and hard tissue formation. Eight days after pulp capping, all experimental groups showed disruption of the odontoblast layer in areas corresponding to the pulpal exposure. Acute inflammation was found in 80%, 60%, and 40% of samples in the Dycal, MTA, and PCFA groups, respectively. PCFA significantly decreased the pulp inflammation compared with Dycal. After 30 days, slight to moderate inflammation was found in all experimental groups. Hard tissue formation was found in 78%, 63%, and 100% of samples in the Dycal, MTA, and PCFA groups, respectively. No significant difference was found among the experimental groups. Pulp capping with PCFA reduced the inflammation and stimulated hard tissue formation in the exposed pulps of rat molars. It may be used as a pulp-capping agent in inflamed pulps. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrothermal carbonization of pulp mill streams.

    PubMed

    Wikberg, Hanne; Ohra-Aho, Taina; Honkanen, Mari; Kanerva, Heimo; Harlin, Ali; Vippola, Minnamari; Laine, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    The progress of the conversion, the yield, the structure and the morphology of the produced carbonaceous materials as a function of time were systematically studied with pyrolysis-GC/FID and FESEM microscope. The conversion of galactoglucomannan, bleached kraft pulp and TEMPO oxidized cellulose nanofibrils followed the reaction route of glucose being slower though with fibrous material, higher molar mass and viscosity. The conversion of kraft lignin was minor following completely different reaction route. Carbonaceous particles of different shape and size were produced with yields between 23% and 73% after 4h with being higher for lignin than carbohydrates. According to the results, potential pulp mill streams represent lignocellulosic resources for generation of carbonaceous materials.

  6. Tissue Engineering Considerations in Dental Pulp Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nosrat, Ali; Kim, Jong Ryul; Verma, Prashant; S. Chand, Priya

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedure is introduced as a biologically based treatment for immature teeth with pulp necrosis. Successful clinical and radiographic outcomes following regenerative procedures have been reported in landmark case reports. Retrospective studies have shown that this conservative treatment allows for continued root development and increases success and survival rate of the treated teeth compared to other treatment options. Although the goal of treatment is regeneration of a functional pulp tissue, histological analyses show a different outcome. Developing predictable protocols would require the use of key elements for tissue engineering: stem cells, bioactive scaffolds, and growth factors. In this study we will review the evidence based steps and outcomes of regenerative endodontics. PMID:24396373

  7. Lymphatic vessels in inflamed human dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, C; Piacentini, C; Menghini, P

    1990-01-01

    Investigation has been performed on both the light and electron microscopic characteristics of the lymphatic vessels present in the dental pulp of human teeth which have been affected by serious carious lesions. These conditions provoke a severe inflammatory response resulting in structural and functional modifications of the tissue; increase of the tissue pressure is followed by the need for a more intensive lymphatic drainage. In the inflamed pulps, dilated lymphatic vessels with distended walls and "open junctions" between endothelial cells are detectable. On the other hand they lack certain endothelial structures which characterize the morphology of these vessels under normal conditions. In the pulpal regions affected by fibrotic proliferation shrunken vessels with irregular profiles are present. From these observations it is possible to obtain other information on the mechanisms regulating the lymphatic drainage in different structural and functional conditions of the interstitium.

  8. Idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Belloli, Elizabeth A; Beckford, Rosemarie; Hadley, Ryan; Flaherty, Kevin R

    2016-02-01

    Non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is an interstitial lung disease that may be idiopathic or secondary to connective tissue disease, toxins or numerous other causes. Idiopathic NSIP is a rare diagnosis and requires exclusion of these other possible causes. Patients typically present in mid-adulthood with dyspnoea, cough and often constitutional symptoms including fever and fatigue. The disease has a female predominance, and more than 50% of patients have never smoked. Physical exam features mild hypoxaemia and inspiratory rales. Pulmonary function tests demonstrate restriction and a low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include predominantly lower lobe subpleural reticular changes, traction bronchiectasis and ground-glass opacities; honeycombing is rarely seen. An evaluation of the underlying pathology is necessary for a firm diagnosis. Histologically, alveolar and interstitial mononuclear cell inflammation and fibrosis are seen in a temporally uniform pattern with preserved underlying alveolar architecture. NSIP must be differentiated from other parenchymal lung diseases including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. A thorough exposure history and assessment for underlying connective tissue diseases are highly important, as positive findings in these categories would likely denote a case of secondary NSIP. A multi-disciplinary discussion that includes pulmonologist(s), radiologist(s) and pathologist(s) assists in reaching a consensus diagnosis and improves diagnostic accuracy. Treatment of idiopathic NSIP, although not well proven, is generally instituted in the form of immunosuppression. Prognosis is favourable compared with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, although the diagnosis still carries an attributable mortality. Herein we will summarize the clinical characteristics and management of idiopathic NSIP.

  9. Current concepts and dilemmas in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Jay H.; Moua, Teng; Azadeh, Natalya; Baqir, Misbah; Yi, Eunhee S.

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias comprise approximately one-third of interstitial lung diseases (also called diffuse parenchymal infiltrative lung diseases). The classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias has undergone several revisions since the initial description of 40 years ago, and the most recent version was published in 2013. Although some aspects have been clarified, this group of heterogeneous disorders continues to be a source of confusion and misunderstanding in clinical applications. In this article, we explore several topical themes in the evaluation and management of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. PMID:27853529

  10. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema treated by lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Matta, Reva; Matta, Judy; Hage, Pierre; Nassif, Yolla; Mansour, Nabil; Diab, Nabil

    2011-10-01

    Persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is a rare condition that occurs in preterm infants on mechanical ventilation, characterized by abnormal accumulation of air in the pulmonary interstitium, due to disruption of the basement membrane. Diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema is observed when small cysts are noted in all lobes of the lung. The management of infants suffering from diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema varies according to severity and stability of the patient, being either conservative treatment or aggressive surgical treatment by pneumonectomy. We report a case of an unstable patient with diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema successfully treated by lobectomy as a form of conservative surgical approach.

  11. Migration of Di- and Tri-Interstitials in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, Matthias; Gao, Fei; Zwicker, D

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The results are compared with data from the literature and the implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed.

  12. Defects involving interstitial boron in low-temperature irradiated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khirunenko, L. I.; Sosnin, M. G.; Duvanskii, A. V.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Riemann, H.

    2016-12-01

    Interstitial boron-related defects in silicon subjected to irradiation with 5 MeV electrons at a temperature of 80 K are investigated by Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy. This study demonstrates the radiation-enhanced annealing of interstitial boron during irradiation. We have revealed the interaction, which occurs in the course of irradiation, of diffusing interstitial boron atoms with one another and with interstitial oxygen. The local vibrational modes associated with these defects are identified, and the thermal stability of the defects is determined.

  13. Tooth slice/scaffold model of dental pulp tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Sakai, V T; Cordeiro, M M; Dong, Z; Zhang, Z; Zeitlin, B D; Nör, J E

    2011-07-01

    Multipotency is a defining characteristic of post-natal stem cells. The human dental pulp contains a small subpopulation of stem cells that exhibit multipotency, as demonstrated by their ability to differentiate into odontoblasts, neural cells, and vascular endothelial cells. These discoveries highlight the fundamental role of stem cells in the biology of the dental pulp and suggest that these cells are uniquely suited for dental pulp tissue-engineering purposes. The availability of experimental approaches specifically designed for studies of the differentiation potential of dental pulp stem cells has played an important role in these discoveries. The objective of this review is to describe the development and characterization of the Tooth Slice/Scaffold Model of Dental Pulp Tissue Engineering. In addition, we discuss the multipotency of dental pulp stem cells, focusing on the differentiation of these cells into functional odontoblasts and into vascular endothelial cells.

  14. Bleaching kraft pulps with white-rot fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, I.D.; Paice, M.G.; Bourbonnais, R.

    1996-10-01

    Certain white-rot fungi, notably Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete sordida, and isolate IZU-154 can lower the residual lignin content and increase the brightness of kraft pulps without damaging the pulps` strength or yield. This biological delignification effect can be used in Elemental Chlorine Free and Totally Chlorine Free bleaching sequences. Physical contact between the fungal hyphae and the pulp fibers is not required, but the presence of the living fungus is necessary for continued delignification. In many but not a systems, delignification is correlated with manganese peroxidase activity. Experiments with pulps containing {sup 14}C-labelled lignin indicate that the residual lignin is solubilized, but not extensively mineralized, by T. versicolor. The solubilized lignin has the same molecular size as the residual lignin originally present in the pulp. Demethylation of the phenolic rings in the pulp is an early effect of incubation with the fungus.

  15. Changes in pulp web properties by addition of natural filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaludin, Nurul Hasanah; Ghazali, Arniza; Daud, Wan Rosli Wan; Ghazali, Salmi

    2012-09-01

    Development of the desired pulp-based products eco-properties are governed by factors like choice and suitability of raw material, the design and operation of pulping process and choice of additives. Fines recovered during refining discharge of an alkaline peroxide pulping system were collected based on their retention on varying mesh-sizes screens. Analysis shows that 12% of the 400-mesh fines added to the web enhances paper tensile strength by 100%. This defines the usefulness of fibrillar particles whose cell wall collapsibility increases the web density by increasing bonding ability and thus, strength of pulp-based products such as paper. The study acknowledges fines functioning as natural filler in pulp network and collection of fines from the refining discharge was found to reduce 70% turbidity and this improvement will help reduce the costs pertinent to generation of whitewater from the pulping system.

  16. Use of laccase in pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Virk, Antar Puneet; Sharma, Prince; Capalash, Neena

    2012-01-01

    Laccase, through its versatile mode of action, has the potential to revolutionize the pulping and paper making industry. It not only plays a role in the delignification and brightening of the pulp but has also been described for the removal of the lipophilic extractives responsible for pitch deposition from both wood and nonwood paper pulps. Laccases are capable of improving physical, chemical, as well as mechanical properties of pulp either by forming reactive radicals with lignin or by functionalizing lignocellulosic fibers. Laccases can also target the colored and toxic compounds released as effluents from various industries and render them nontoxic through its polymerization and depolymerization reactions. This article reviews the use of both fungal and bacterial laccases in improving pulp properties and bioremediation of pulp and paper mill effluents.

  17. Transplantation stimulates interstitial cell migration in hydra

    SciTech Connect

    Fujisawa, T.; David, C.N.; Bosch, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Migration of interstitial cells and nerve cell precursors was analyzed in Hydra magnipapillata and Hydra vulgaris (formerly Hydra attenuata). Axial grafts were made between ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled donor and unlabeled host tissue. Migration of labeled cells into the unlabeled half was followed for 4 days. The results indicate that the rate of migration was initially high and then slowed on Days 2-4. Regrafting fresh donor tissue on Days 2-4 maintained high levels of migration. Thus, migration appears to be stimulated by the grafting procedure itself.

  18. Collagen gene expression in radiation interstitial pneumonitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Yun-hong; Wang, De-wen; Cui Cai-bin

    1994-12-31

    By using type I and type III collagen cDNA probe and cDNA-mRNA in situ hybridization, we observed the changes of rat lung {alpha} 1(I) and {alpha} 1(III) collagen gene expression in radiation interstitial pneumonitis. The results showed that the expressed cell of type I and type III collagen were scattered within the fibroblasts in the thickened interalveolar walls. The type I and type III collagen mRNA content in irradiated animals were higher than those in the controls at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Wastes from paper and pulp mills

    PubMed Central

    Makkonen, Osmo A. P.

    1956-01-01

    The disposal of wastes from