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Sample records for pulpal chamber temperature

  1. Temperature response in the pulpal chamber during ultrahigh-speed tooth preparation with diamond burs of different grit.

    PubMed

    Ottl, P; Lauer, H C

    1998-07-01

    Ultrahigh-speed tooth preparation can traumatize the hard dental tissues and the dental pulp. This in vitro study examined the relationship between different grits of diamond burs on the temperature response within a pulpal chamber during tooth preparation with a turbine. Newly extracted, undamaged third molars were secured by a rapid-tensioning device mounted on an air-supported slide. NiCrNi thermocouples were inserted apically and used to determine the temperature within a pulpal chamber. The grinding tests used cylindrical fine, coarse, and ultracoarse diamond burs. The maximal temperature elevation within the pulp was 3.2 degrees C, and the most pronounced rise in temperature occurred with ultracoarse burs. Temperature increases in the pulpal chambers and grinding times or temperatures of the cooling water were approximately proportional. Residual dentinal thickness was inversely proportional to temperature elevation within the pulpal chamber. This study demonstrated that coarse diamond burs resulted in more pronounced temperature increases within the pulpal chamber during tooth preparation. In addition, the benefit of short intervals between grinding steps and a cooling water temperature between 30 degrees C and 32 degrees C was confirmed. A cooling temperature of 38 degrees C to 43 degrees C did not afford actual cooling.

  2. Effect of simulated pulpal blood flow rate on the rise in pulp chamber temperature during direct fabrication of exothermic provisional restorations.

    PubMed

    Farah, R I

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate ex vivo the effect of several simulated pulpal blood flow rates on the change in pulp chamber temperature during direct fabrication of a provisional restoration using a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resin. Fifteen noncarious human premolars were prepared for complete coverage restorations. A curved needle connected to a peristaltic pump simulated the pulp blood flow. Two K-type thermocouples connected to a digital thermometer were placed in the pulp chamber, and the assembly was placed in an incubator at 37 °C. Three provisional crowns were made for each specimen using no water flow (group 1), a 1-mL min(-1) flow rate (group 2) and a 0.5-mL/min(-1) flow rate (group 3). The pulp chamber temperature was recorded continuously during polymerization until the temperature increase peaked and started to decrease and reached the baseline temperature (37 °C). The temperature increase was measured for the three water flow conditions. Data were analysed statistically using descriptive statistics, repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (anova) with Greenhouse-Geisser correction and Bonferroni tests. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. All of the groups were associated with an increased pulp chamber temperature. Groups with flow rates at 1 and 0.5 mL min(-1) had a significantly lower temperature rise when compared to the group without water flow (P < 0.001). Direct fabrication of provisional restorations can cause a critical increase in pulp chamber temperature. However, in the presence of simulated pulpal blood flow rates of 1 or 0.5 mL min(-1) , the increase in pulp chamber temperature did not exceed the critical threshold (5.6 °C). © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, Asli; Bulbul, Mehmet; Sari, Tugrul; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The neodymium/yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd/YAG) laser has been suggested to repair broken prostheses in the mouth. This study investigated the effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding. Three intact human maxillary molars were prepared for full-veneer crown. For each tooth, dentin thicknesses in mesiobuccal cusp was 2, 3, or 4 mm. Twenty dies were duplicated from each of the prepared teeth. For metal copings with 0.5-mm thickness, wax patterns were prepared with dip wax technique directly onto each of dies. All patterns were sprued and invested. The castings were made using a nickel-chromium alloy (Nicromed Premium, Neodontics). A hole with 0.5-mm diameter was prepared on the mesiobuccal cusp of each crown. The Nd/YAG laser (9.85 W; 1 Hz repetition rate; fluence, 1.230 J/cm(2); Fidelis Plus 3, Fotona) was used for welding with or without air cooling (n = 10). The temperature rise was measured in pulpal chamber with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Differences between start and highest temperature reading were taken, and temperature rise values were compared using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). Pulpal temperature rise varied significantly depending on the dentin thickness and air cooling (p < 0.05). The non-air cooling group induced significantly the highest temperature increases. There were no significant differences between 2- and 3-mm dentin thicknesses groups (p > 0.05); however, pulpal temperature rise was the lowest for 4-mm dentin thickness group (p < 0.05). The highest values of thermal increase were found in the pulp chamber (6.8°C) when no air cooling was used in 2-mm dentin thickness group. Laser welding on base metal castings with Nd/YAG laser can be applied with air cooling to avoid temperature rises known to adversely affect pulpal health when dentin thickness is 2 or 3 mm.

  4. Effect of simulated pulpal fluid circulation on intrapulpal temperature following irradiation with an Nd:YVO4 laser.

    PubMed

    Braun, Andreas; Kecsmar, Susann; Krause, Felix; Berthold, Michael; Frentzen, Matthias; Frankenberger, Roland; Schelle, Florian

    2015-05-01

    It is suggested that pulpal fluid circulation has an impact on pulp temperature increase during heat-generating dental treatment procedures. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the effect of a simulated pulpal fluid circulation on temperature changes inside the pulp chamber following laser irradiation of the tooth surface. Twenty freshly extracted human multirooted teeth were included and cross-sectioned along the long axis exposing two root canals each. The pulp chamber and root canals were cleaned from remaining soft tissues to achieve access for a temperature sensor and two cannulas to allow fluid circulation. Cross sections were glued together, and the roots were encased with silicone impression material to ensure the position of the connected devices. Each tooth was irradiated by employing a neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate (Nd:YVO4) laser at 1,064 nm with a pulse duration of 9 ps and a repetition rate of 500 kHz. A commercially available scanning system (SCANcube 7, SCANLAB) deflected the beam by providing rectangular irradiated areas of 0.5 mm edge length. Measurements were performed with four different settings for fluid circulation: without any water and with water (23 °C) at a flow rate of 6, 3, and 0 ml/min. The primary outcome measure was the maximum temperature difference (ΔT) after laser irradiation. Highest temperature changes (median 3.6 K, range 0.5-7.1 K) could be observed without any fluid inside the pulp chamber. Water without circulation decreased ΔT values statistically significantly (median 1.4 K, range 0.2-4.9 K) (p < 0.05). Lowest temperature changes could be observed with a water flow rate of 6 ml/min (median 0.8 K, range 0.2-3.7 K) (p < 0.05). Pulpal fluid circulation has a cooling effect on temperature increase caused by laser irradiation of dental hard tissues. Studies on heat generation during dental treatment procedures should include this aspect to assess a potential thermal injury of pulp tissue.

  5. Pulpal temperature increases with Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpieces.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Bruno Neves; Lage-Marques, José Luiz; Rode, Sigmar Mello

    2003-11-01

    During tooth preparation, both high-speed handpieces and lasers generate heat, which, if not controlled, can cause pulpal necrosis. The aim of this study was to compare temperature increases produced by a high-speed dental handpiece with those produced by a relatively new instrument, the Er:YAG (erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser. Thirty bovine mandibular incisors were reduced to an enamel/dentin thickness of 2.5 mm. Class V preparations were completed to a depth of 2.0 mm, measured with a caliper or by a mark on the burs. A thermocouple was placed inside the pulp chamber to determine temperature increases (degrees C). Analysis was performed on the following groups (n=10): Group I, high-speed handpiece without water cooling, Group II, high-speed handpiece with water cooling (30 mL/min), and Group III, the noncontact Er:YAG laser (2.94 microm at 350 mJ/10 Hz) with water cooling (4.5 mL/min). The temperature increases were recorded by a computer linked to the thermocouples. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The Dunn multiple comparison test was used as post hoc test (alpha=.05). The average temperature rises were: 11.64 degrees C (+/- 4.35) for Group I, 0.96 degrees C (+/- 0.71) for Group II, and 2.69 degrees C (+/- 1.12) for Group III. There were no statistical differences between Groups II and III; both II and III differed from Group I significantly (P=.000 and P=.002, respectively). The preparations made with the high-speed and the laser instrument generated similar heat increases under water cooling. Water cooling was essential to avoid destructive temperature increases when using both the high-speed handpiece and laser.

  6. Surface and pulpal temperature comparison of tooth whitening using lasers and curing lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Joel M.; Pelino, Jose; Rodrigues, Rively; Zwhalen, Brian J.; Nguyen, Max H.; Wu, Emily

    2000-03-01

    Chemical action of bleaching agents applied to tooth surface is accelerated by increase in temperature. This in vitro study measured the temperature rises on the surface and in the pulp of teeth during whitening using a diode laser, a plasma arc curing (PAC) light and conventional curing lights. Extracted, non-carious single-rooted teeth were exposed to PAC light and laser at times ranging from 10 to 60 seconds and energy ranges of 2 W, 4 W, and 6 W, and to low-intensity curing lights from 1 to 4 minutes. Maximum temperature rises were analyzed for both pulpal and surface temperature. Diode laser exposures at 2 W for all times and at 4 watts for 10 seconds and PAC light exposures at 10 seconds all produced acceptably safe pulpal rises equivalent to conventional light-curing exposures. Exposures at these settings also attained surface temperature rises that were significantly higher than those using conventional light-curing. The diode laser demonstrated bleaching results equivalent to the PAC light, and both were achieved in significantly less times than conventional light- curing.

  7. Temperature increase at the light guide tip of 15 contemporary LED units and thermal variation at the pulpal floor of cavities: an infrared thermographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, M; DeVito-Moraes, A; Francci, C; Moraes, R; Pereira, T; Froes-Salgado, N; Yamazaki, L; Silva, L; Zezell, D

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive investigation on the temperature increase at the light guide tip of several commercial light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing units (LCUs) and the associated thermal variation (ΔT) at the pulpal floor of dental cavities was carried out. In total, 15 LEDs from all generations were investigated, testing a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit as a reference. The irradiance level was measured with a power meter, and spectral distribution was analyzed using a spectrometer. Temperature increase at the tip was measured with a type-K thermocouple connected to a thermometer, while ΔT at the pulpal floor was measured by an infrared photodetector in class V cavities, with a 1-mm-thick dentin pulpal floor. The relationship among measured irradiance, ΔT at the tip, and ΔT at the pulpal floor was investigated using regression analyses. Large discrepancies between the expected and measured irradiances were detected for some LCUs. Most of the LCUs showed an emission spectrum narrower than the QTH unit, with emission peaks usually between 450 and 470 nm. The temperature increase at the tip followed a logarithmic growth for LCUs with irradiance ≥1000 mW/cm(2), with ΔT at the tip following the measured irradiance linearly (R(2)=0.67). Linear temperature increase at the pulpal floor over the 40-second exposure time was observed for several LCUs, with linear association between ΔT at the pulpal floor and measured irradiance (R(2)=0.39) or ΔT at the tip (R(2)=0.28). In conclusion, contemporary LED units show varied irradiance levels that affect the temperature increase at the light guide tip and, as a consequence, the thermal variation at the pulpal floor of dental cavities.

  8. Cavity preparation by Er-YAG laser on pulpal temperature rise.

    PubMed

    Oelgiesser, Dan; Blasbalg, Jaron; Ben-Amar, Ariel

    2003-04-01

    To measure the intrapulpal temperature changes in vitro, during cavity preparation and caries removal, using the Opus 20 Er-YAG laser plotted as a function of the laser energy and pulse rate. Class I and V cavity preparations were made in 175 fresh extracted caries-free human teeth and caries removal was carried out in 42 carious extracted teeth by the Opus 20 Er-YAG laser. K-type thermocouples were inserted into the pulp chambers filled with heat conducting paste. Lasing was carried out at different irradiation energies and pulse frequencies, using air-water spray. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber were measured during lasing. In all groups tested, the maximum temperature rise was lower than 5.5 degrees C, which is considered as critical value for pulp vitality. The highest temperature values were measured during Cl I preparations (3.13 degrees C +/- 1.54 - 4.11 degrees C +/- 1.29), medium values were in Cl V in enamel (2.38 degrees C +/- 1.37 - 4 degrees C +/- 1.07) and the lowest were in cementum (2.10 degrees C +/- 0.61 - 3.61 degrees C +/- 1.15) and during caries removal (1.21 degrees C +/- 0.46 - 3.51 degrees C +/- 0.68).

  9. PULPAL TEMPERATURE INCREASE WITH HIGH-SPEED HANDPIECE, ER:YAG LASER AND ULTRASOUND TIPS

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Camargo, Fernanda Pelogia; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Teixeira, Symone Cristina; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intrapulpal temperature increase produced by high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and CVDentus ultrasound tips during cavity preparation. Thirty bovine mandibular incisors with an enamel/dentin thickness of 4 mm at buccal surface had their roots amputated and were allocated to the following groups (n=10): Group I- high-speed handpiece; Group II- noncontact Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/4Hz); and Group III- CVDentus ultrasouns tips. All devices were used with water cooling. Class V cavities were prepared to a depth of 3.5 mm, measured with a periodontal probe. A type T thermocouple was placed inside the pulp chamber to determine the temperature increase (°C), which was recorded by a data acquisition system ADS 2000 IP (Lynx Technology) linked to a notebook computer. Data were analyzed statistically by oneway ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mean temperature rises were: 1.10°C (±0.56) for Group I, 0.84°C (±0.55) for Group II, and 3.00°C (± 1.34) for Group III. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between Groups I and II, but both of them differed significantly from Group III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpiece for cavity preparation resulted in similar temperature increase. Although ultrasound tips generated significantly higher intrapulpal temperature increase, it remained below the critical value of 5.5°C and may be considered safe for use. PMID:19089220

  10. Pulpal temperature increase with high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and ultrasound tips.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Fernanda Brandão; Camargo, Fernanda Pelogia; Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Pereira, Sarina Maciel Braga; Teixeira, Symone Cristina; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare intrapulpal temperature increase produced by high-speed handpiece, Er:YAG laser and CVDentus ultrasound tips during cavity preparation. Thirty bovine mandibular incisors with an enamel/dentin thickness of 4 mm at buccal surface had their roots amputated and were allocated to the following groups (n=10): Group I- high-speed handpiece; Group II- noncontact Er:YAG laser (250 mJ/4 Hz); and Group III- CVDentus ultrasouns tips. All devices were used with water cooling. Class V cavities were prepared to a depth of 3.5 mm, measured with a periodontal probe. A type T thermocouple was placed inside the pulp chamber to determine the temperature increase (degrees C), which was recorded by a data acquisition system ADS 2000 IP (Lynx Technology) linked to a notebook computer. Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p=0.05). The mean temperature rises were: 1.10 degrees C (+/-0.56) for Group I, 0.84 degrees C (+/-0.55) for Group II, and 3.00 degrees C (+/- 1.34) for Group III. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) between Groups I and II, but both of them differed significantly from Group III (p<0.05). In conclusion, the use of Er:YAG laser and high-speed handpiece for cavity preparation resulted in similar temperature increase. Although ultrasound tips generated significantly higher intrapulpal temperature increase, it remained below the critical value of 5.5 degrees C and may be considered safe for use.

  11. Influence of dentin thickness on intrapulpal temperature under simulated pulpal pressure during Nd:YAG laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Santis, L R; Silva, T M; Haddad, B A; Gonçalves, L L; Gonçalves, S E P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dentin thickness and pulpal pressure simulation (PPS) on the variation of intrapulpal temperature (∆T) when submitted to an adhesive technique using laser irradiation. Sixty sound human molars were sectioned and randomly divided into two groups (n = 30): group 1-1 mm of dentin thickness; group 2-2 mm of dentin thickness. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 15): subgroup A-absence of PPS; subgroup P-presence of PPS (15 cm H2O), sequentially treated with the following: 37 % phosphoric acid, adhesive system (Adper Single Bond), irradiation with Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 10 Hz, 60 s) using 60, 80, and 100 mJ/pulse energy parameters and light-curing (10 s). The ∆T was evaluated during the laser irradiation with a digital thermometer. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Three-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for dentin thickness (p = 0.6512) on ∆T. PPS significantly reduced ∆T (p = 0.0001). The laser energy parameters (p = 0.0027) indicated that 100 mJ presented with significantly greater ∆T when compared to the groups irradiated with 80 and 60 mJ. Dentin thickness did not affect ∆T. The presence of PPS reduced the mean temperature values. The Nd:YAG laser energy parameters had a negative influence on the variation of temperature in the absence of PPS. In the presence of PPS, there was no risk to the pulp, since this study obtained temperature increases below 5.5 °C for all energy parameters, showing the technical viability for in vivo conditions.

  12. Liquid-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, L.; Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Pardo, J.; Pazos, A.; Pena, J.; Zapata, M.

    2006-05-01

    Temperature and pressure corrections of the read-out signal of ionization chambers have a crucial importance in order to perform high-precision absolute dose measurements. In the present work the temperature and pressure dependences of a sealed liquid isooctane filled ionization chamber (previously developed by the authors) for radiotherapy applications have been studied. We have analyzed the thermal response of the liquid ionization chamber in a ˜20C interval around room temperature. The temperature dependence of the signal can be considered linear, with a slope that depends on the chamber collection electric field. For example, a relative signal slope of 0.27×10-2 K-1 for an operation electric field of 1.67×106 V m-1 has been measured in our detector. On the other hand, ambient pressure dependence has been found negligible, as expected for liquid-filled chambers. The thermal dependence of the liquid ionization chamber signal can be parametrized within the Onsager theory on initial recombination. Considering that changes with temperature of the detector response are due to variations in the free ion yield, a parametrization of this dependence has been obtained. There is a good agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical model from the Onsager framework.

  13. High temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazen, Melvin L. (Inventor); Mueller, Thomas J. (Inventor); Kruse, William D. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature thrust chamber for spacecraft (20) is provided herein. The high temperature thrust chamber comprises a hollow body member (12) having an outer surface and an internal surface (16) defining the high temperature chamber (10). The body member (12) is made substantially of rhenium. An alloy (18) consisting of iridium and at least alloying metal selected of the group consisting of rhodium, platinum and palladium is deposited on at least a portion of the internal surface (16) of the body member (12). The iridium and the alloying metal are electrodeposited onto the body member (12). A HIP cycle is performed upon the body member (12) to cause the coating of iridium and the alloying metal to form the alloy (18) which protects the body member (12) from oxidation.

  14. Diagnostic and clinical factors associated with pulpal and periapical pain.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Carlos; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; Silva, Júlio Almeida; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective survey was designed to identify diagnostic subgroups and clinical factors associated with odontogenic pain and discomfort in dental urgency patients. A consecutive sample of 1,765 patients seeking treatment for dental pain at the Urgency Service of the Dental School of the Federal University of Goiás, Brazil, was selected. Inclusion criteria were pulpal or periapical pain that occurred before dental treatment (minimum 6 months after the last dental appointment), and the exclusion criteria were teeth with odontogenic developmental anomalies and missing information or incomplete records. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed to assess clinical presentation of pain complaints including origin, duration, frequency and location of pain, palpation, percussion and vitality tests, radiographic features, endodontic diagnosis and characteristics of teeth. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze association between pulpal and periapical pain and independent variables. The most frequent endodontic diagnosis of pulpal pain were symptomatic pulpitis (28.3%) and hyperreactive pulpalgia (14.4%), and the most frequent periapical pain was symptomatic apical periodontitis of infectious origin (26.4%). Regression analysis revealed that closed pulp chamber and caries were highly associated with pulpal pain and, conversely, open pulp chamber was associated with periapical pain (p<0.001). Endodontic diagnosis and local factors associated with pulpal and periapical pain suggest that the important clinical factor of pulpal pain was closed pulp chamber and caries, and of periapical pain was open pulp chamber.

  15. Temperature changes of pulp chamber during in vitro laser welding of orthodontic attachments.

    PubMed

    Işman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside temperature changes to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. Temperature variation was determined as the change from baseline temperature to the highest temperature was recorded during welding. The recorded temperature changes were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3±1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required.

  16. Temperature Changes of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments

    PubMed Central

    İşman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar

    2014-01-01

    The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside temperature changes to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. Temperature variation was determined as the change from baseline temperature to the highest temperature was recorded during welding. The recorded temperature changes were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3 ± 1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714

  17. Uniform-Temperature Walls for Cloud Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G.

    1985-01-01

    Flat heat pipes rapidly transfer heat to and from experimental volumes. Heat pipe vapor chamber carries heat to and from thermo electric modules. Critical surface acts as evaporator or condenser in cloud physics experiments. Used as walls of spaceborne atmospheric cloud chambers. On Earth, used as isothermal floors for environmental test chambers.

  18. Uniform-Temperature Walls for Cloud Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G.

    1985-01-01

    Flat heat pipes rapidly transfer heat to and from experimental volumes. Heat pipe vapor chamber carries heat to and from thermo electric modules. Critical surface acts as evaporator or condenser in cloud physics experiments. Used as walls of spaceborne atmospheric cloud chambers. On Earth, used as isothermal floors for environmental test chambers.

  19. IN VITRO STUDY OF THE PULP CHAMBER TEMPERATURE RISE DURING LIGHT-ACTIVATED BLEACHING

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Thaise Graciele; Carrasco-Guerisoli, Laise Daniela; Fröner, Izabel Cristina

    2008-01-01

    significantly from each other regardless the temperature rise occurred with or without bleaching agent application. It may be concluded that during light-activated tooth bleaching, with or without the bleaching agent, halogen light promoted higher pulp chamber temperature rise than LED unit and LED-laser system. The tested light-curing units provided increases in the pulp chamber temperature that were compatible with pulpal health. PMID:19089234

  20. In vitro study of the pulp chamber temperature rise during light-activated bleaching.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Thaise Graciele; Carrasco-Guerisoli, Laise Daniela; Fröner, Izabel Cristina

    2008-01-01

    ). LED and LED-laser system did not differ significantly from each other regardless the temperature rise occurred with or without bleaching agent application. It may be concluded that during light-activated tooth bleaching, with or without the bleaching agent, halogen light promoted higher pulp chamber temperature rise than LED unit and LED-laser system. The tested light-curing units provided increases in the pulp chamber temperature that were compatible with pulpal health.

  1. Temperature and humidity control in indirect calorimeter chambers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A three-chamber, indirect calorimeter has been a part of the Environmental Laboratory at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) for over 25 yr. Corrosion of the animal chambers and unreliable temperature control forced either major repairs or complete replacement. There is a strong demand for...

  2. Damage Diagnosis for High Temperature Coke-oven Chamber Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Masato; Sakaida, Michitaka; Fujikake, Yohichi; Irie, Keisuke

    Metallurgical coke is needed as reducing reagent and energy source in blast furnaces. Most of coke ovens in Japan have been working over 30 years and have become gradually decrepit. A coke oven consists of many coking chambers, and each chamber is 6 m high, 16 m long and 0.4m wide. Uneven damage at the chamber-wall surface such as brick erosion and carbon deposition disturbs production because the coke is pushed horizontally when discharged from the chamber. To diagnose the chamber wall which is constantly sustained at a high temperature, we have developed a water-cooling heat-resistance probe. Line scan cameras mounted in the probe obtain thermal images of the entire chamber-wall surfaces with high resolution. In addition, to measure topographical information of the wall, a laser light-section method combined with line-scan-camera imaging has been considered. It is emphasized that the diagnosis probe works under enormously severe conditions, such as at a temperature of over 1000°C and inside a width of only 0.4m. Clarifying the appearance of chamber-wall damages in operating aged coke ovens, we proposed the index relating unevenness of a chamber-wall surface to pushing load. The index is utilized for the guidance enabling effective repairs of damaged oven walls.

  3. Study of the PTW microLion chamber temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, F.; González-Castaño, D.; Díaz-Botana, P.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2014-06-01

    The use of liquid ionization chambers in radiotherapy has grown during the past few years. While for air ionization chambers the kTP correction for air mass density due to pressure and temperature variations is well known, less work has been done on the case of liquid ionization chambers, where there is still the need to take into account the influence of temperature in the free ion yield. We have measured the PTW microLion isooctane-filled ionization chamber temperature dependence in a ˜ ±10 °C interval around the standard 20 °C room temperature for three operation voltages, including the manufacturer recommended voltage, and two beam qualities, 60Co and 50 kV x-rays. Within the measured temperature range, the microLion signal exhibits a positive linear dependence, which is around 0.24% K-1 at 800 V with 60Co irradiation. This effect is of the same order of magnitude as the T dependence found in air ionization chambers, but its nature is completely different and its sign opposite to that of an air chamber. Onsager theory has been used to model the results and is consistent with this linear behaviour. However, some inconsistencies in the modelling of the 50 kV x-ray results have been found that are attributed to the failure of Onsager's isolated pair assumption for such radiation quality.

  4. Acoustic force measurement in a dual-temperature resonant chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robey, Judith L.; Trinh, Eugene H.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1987-01-01

    The acoustic radiation force was measured for a dual-temperature resonant chamber. This rectangular chamber has its long dimension approximately 8.5 times the square cross-sectional dimension, and the opposite ends are at widely different temperatures. Force profiles were obtained for two hot end temperatures of 520 C and 760 C, while the cool end remained at approximately room temperature. Force magnitudes as high as 17 dyn for a sample 1.2 cm in diameter at 760 C and at 162-dB input level were measured.

  5. Miniature environmental chambers for temperature humidity bias testing of microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Michael David; Mayer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Environmental chambers are commonly used for reliability testing of microelectronics and other products and materials. These chambers are large, expensive, and limit electrical connectivity to devices under test. In this paper, we present a collection of ten small, low-cost environmental chambers, with humidity control based on mixtures of water and glycerol placed inside the chambers. We demonstrate relative humidities from 44% to 90%, at temperatures from 30 to 85 °C, enabling industry-standard testing at 85% humidity and 85 °C. The division of samples between ten separate chambers allows different conditions to be applied to each sample, in order to quickly characterize the effects of the environment on device reliability, enabling extrapolation to estimate lifetimes in working conditions.

  6. Miniature environmental chambers for temperature humidity bias testing of microelectronics.

    PubMed

    Hook, Michael David; Mayer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Environmental chambers are commonly used for reliability testing of microelectronics and other products and materials. These chambers are large, expensive, and limit electrical connectivity to devices under test. In this paper, we present a collection of ten small, low-cost environmental chambers, with humidity control based on mixtures of water and glycerol placed inside the chambers. We demonstrate relative humidities from 44% to 90%, at temperatures from 30 to 85 °C, enabling industry-standard testing at 85% humidity and 85 °C. The division of samples between ten separate chambers allows different conditions to be applied to each sample, in order to quickly characterize the effects of the environment on device reliability, enabling extrapolation to estimate lifetimes in working conditions.

  7. Optical Pressure-Temperature Sensor for a Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, John; Korman, Valentin; Gregory, Don

    2008-01-01

    A compact sensor for measuring temperature and pressure in a combusti on chamber has been proposed. The proposed sensor would include two optically birefringent, transmissive crystalline wedges: one of sapph ire (Al2O3) and one of magnesium oxide (MgO), the optical properties of both of which vary with temperature and pressure. The wedges wou ld be separated by a vapor-deposited thin-film transducer, which wou ld be primarily temperaturesensitive (in contradistinction to pressur e- sensitive) when attached to a crystalline substrate. The sensor w ould be housed in a rugged probe to survive the extreme temperatures and pressures in a combustion chamber.

  8. Effects of Nd: and Ho:yttrium-aluminium-garnet lasers on human dentine fluid flow and dental pulp-chamber temperature in vitro.

    PubMed

    Goodis, H E; White, J M; Marshall, G W; Yee, K; Fuller, N; Gee, L; Marshall, S J

    1997-12-01

    Dentine specimens were prepared from freshly extracted third molars and initial permeability measured. Each specimen was subjected to Nd:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) (1.06 or 1.32 microns wavelength) or Ho:YAG (2.10 microns wavelength) laser energy while temperatures in the pulp chambers were recorded. Permeability was again measured and the surfaces examined by scanning electron microscopy. Six crown segments were used for each laser variable and eight permeability measurements were taken before and eight after laser exposure, while temperature was recorded during treatment. All wavelengths reduced permeability but temperature rises were high enough to have caused pulpal damage, indicating that shorter treatment times and lower power settings may be necessary if used in vivo.

  9. In-vitro Study on Temperature Changes in the Pulp Chamber Due to Thermo-Cure Glass Ionomer Cements.

    PubMed

    van Duinen, Raimond Nb; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert; Glavina, Domagoj

    2016-12-01

    The application of the Glass Ionomer Cements in clinical dentistry is recommended due to properties such as fluoride release, chemical adhesion to tooth, negligible setting shrinkage, and coefficient of thermal expansion close to tooth, low creep, and good color stability. However, the cement is vulnerable to early exposure to moisture due to slow setting characteristics. The uses of external energy such as ultrasound and radiant heat (Thermo-curing) have been reported to provide acceleration of the setting chemistry and enhance physical properties. Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze temperature changes in the pulpal chamber when using radiant heat to accelerate the setting of GICs. Material and Methods:The encapsulated GIC Equia Forte was used for this study. The temperature changes in the pulp were measured using thermocouple in the cavities which were 2,6 and 4,7mm deep with and without filling. Results:The results showed that a temperature rise (ΔT) in the pulp chamber was 3,7°C. ΔT for the 2.6mm and 4.7mm deep cavity and without placing any restoration the temperature was 4,2°C and 2,6°C respectively. After the restoration has been placed, the ΔT range in the pulp chamber was lower ranging from 1.9°C to 2.4°C. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Thermo-curing of the GIC during the setting is safe for the pulp and can be recommended in clinical practice.

  10. In-vitro Study on Temperature Changes in the Pulp Chamber Due to Thermo-Cure Glass Ionomer Cements

    PubMed Central

    van Duinen, Raimond NB; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The application of the Glass Ionomer Cements in clinical dentistry is recommended due to properties such as fluoride release, chemical adhesion to tooth, negligible setting shrinkage, and coefficient of thermal expansion close to tooth, low creep, and good color stability. However, the cement is vulnerable to early exposure to moisture due to slow setting characteristics. The uses of external energy such as ultrasound and radiant heat (Thermo-curing) have been reported to provide acceleration of the setting chemistry and enhance physical properties. Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to analyze temperature changes in the pulpal chamber when using radiant heat to accelerate the setting of GICs. Material and Methods:The encapsulated GIC Equia Forte was used for this study. The temperature changes in the pulp were measured using thermocouple in the cavities which were 2,6 and 4,7mm deep with and without filling. Results:The results showed that a temperature rise (ΔT) in the pulp chamber was 3,7°C. ΔT for the 2.6mm and 4.7mm deep cavity and without placing any restoration the temperature was 4,2°C and 2,6°C respectively. After the restoration has been placed, the ΔT range in the pulp chamber was lower ranging from 1.9°C to 2.4°C. Conclusion: It could be concluded that Thermo-curing of the GIC during the setting is safe for the pulp and can be recommended in clinical practice. PMID:28275275

  11. Intra-pulpal temperature rise of different tooth types during dental bleaching supported by an Er,Cr:YSGG laser. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Strakas, D; Tolidis, K; Koliniotou-Koumpia, E; Vanweersch, L; Franzen, R; Gutknecht, N

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot in vitro study was to evaluate the temperature increase in the pulp chamber of the teeth, during Er,Cr:YSGG bleaching, as well as to show which teeth are the most susceptible in terms of pulp temperature increase during laser-activated bleaching treatment. Although Er:YAG studies have been published on this subject, it is the first time Er,Cr:YSGG wavelength is tested. Fifteen teeth were tested--3 each of the following--(maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors, canines, premolars and mandibular incisors). The bleaching procedure comprised an Er,Cr:YSGG laser (2780 nm, Waterlase MD, Biolase, USA) and a yellow-coloured bleaching agent with a concentration of 38 % H2O2 (Power whitening, WHITEsmile GmbH, Germany). The tip used was a 6-mm long Z-type glass tip (MZ8) of a 800 μm diameter. Average output power was set to 1.25 W, pulse duration 700 μs (S-mode), whilst the pulse repetition rate was 10 Hz. The results showed that the most susceptible teeth in terms of pulp temperature increase were the lateral maxillary incisors and the mandibular incisors. The mean temperature increase on these teeth was 1.06 and 1.00 °C, respectively, on 60 s Er,Cr:YSGG-supported bleaching.

  12. Characterization of air temperature in modern ion chambers due to phantom geometry and ambient temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Saenz, Daniel L; Kirby, Neil; Gutiérrez, Alonso N

    2016-07-01

    Temperature and pressure corrections are necessary to account for the varying mass of air in the sensitive volume of a vented ionization chamber (IC) when performing absolute dose measurements. Locations commonly used to measure the presumed IC air temperature may not accurately represent the chamber cavity air temperature, and phantoms undergoing temperature changes further compound the problem. Prior studies have characterized thermal equilibrium in separate phantoms for Farmer chambers alone. However, the purpose of this study was to characterize the cavity air temperature dependence on changes in the ambient temperature and phantom geometry configuration for a wider and more modern variety of chambers to determine if previously published wait times apply to these chambers as well. Thermal conduction properties were experimentally investigated by modifying a PTW 0.3 cm(3) Semiflex IC with a thermocouple replacing the central electrode. Air cavity temperature versus time was recorded in three phantom geometries characteristic of common absolute dose measurements. The phantoms were (15 ± 1) °C before measurement with an IC at the treatment vault temperature of (21 ± 1) °C. Simulations were conducted to provide a theoretical basis for the measurements and to simulate temperature response of a PTW PinPoint® and Farmer chamber. The simulation methods were first validated by comparison with measured Semiflex chamber thermal response curves before extension to the other chambers. Two thermal equilibria curves were recorded on different time scales. IC temperature initially dropped to the colder phantom temperature but subsequently increased as the phantom itself equilibrated with the warmer room temperature. In a large phantom of dimensions (25.5 × 25.5 × 23.4) cm(3), 3 min was required before the IC temperature reached within 0.5 °C of its equilibrium within the phantom. Similarly, wait times of 2 min were needed for 7.5 and 2 cm slab phantoms. Recording

  13. Kinetics of pulpal temperature rise during light curing of 6 bonding agents from different generations, using light emitting diode and quartz-tungsten-halogen units: An in-vitro simulation.

    PubMed

    Khaksaran, Najmeh Khatoon; Kashi, Tahereh Jafarzadeh; Rakhshan, Vahid; Zeynolabedin, Zahra Sadat; Bagheri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Application of bonding agents (BA) into deep cavities and light curing them might increase pulpal temperature and threaten its health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temperature rise of pulp by light curing six BA using two different light curing units (LCU), through a dent in wall of 0.5 mm. This in vitro experiment was carried out on 96 slices of the same number of human third molars (6 BAs × 2 LCUs × 8 specimens in each group). There were 6 groups of BAs: N Bond, G-Bond, OptiBond XTR, Clearfil SE, Adper Single Bond 2 and V Bond. Each group of BA (n = 16) had two subgroups of light emitting diode (LED) and quartz-tungsten-halogen light cure units (n = 8). Each of these 16 specimens were subjected to light emitting for 20 s, once without any BAs (control) and later when a BA was applied to surface of disk. Temperature rises in 140 s were evaluated. Their mean temperature change in first 20 s were calculated and analyzed using two-way repeated-measures and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey (α = 0.05). Furthermore rate of temperature increase was calculated for each material and LCU. Minimum and maximum temperature rises in all subgroups were 1.7 and 2.8°C, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that both of adhesive and LCU types had significant effect on temperature rise after application of adhesives. Tukey post-hoc analysis showed Clearfil SE showed significantly higher temperature rise in comparison with Adper Single bond 2 (P = 0.047) and N Bond (P = 0.038). Temperature rose in a linear fashion during first 30-40 s and after that it was non-linear. 20 s of light curing seems safe for pulpal health (with critical threshold of 5.5°C). However, in longer durations and especially when using LED units, the process should be broken to two sessions.

  14. Kinetics of pulpal temperature rise during light curing of 6 bonding agents from different generations, using light emitting diode and quartz-tungsten-halogen units: An in-vitro simulation

    PubMed Central

    Khaksaran, Najmeh Khatoon; Kashi, Tahereh Jafarzadeh; Rakhshan, Vahid; Zeynolabedin, Zahra Sadat; Bagheri, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Application of bonding agents (BA) into deep cavities and light curing them might increase pulpal temperature and threaten its health. The purpose of this study was to evaluate temperature rise of pulp by light curing six BA using two different light curing units (LCU), through a dent in wall of 0.5 mm. Materials and Methods: This in vitro experiment was carried out on 96 slices of the same number of human third molars (6 BAs × 2 LCUs × 8 specimens in each group). There were 6 groups of BAs: N Bond, G-Bond, OptiBond XTR, Clearfil SE, Adper Single Bond 2 and V Bond. Each group of BA (n = 16) had two subgroups of light emitting diode (LED) and quartz-tungsten-halogen light cure units (n = 8). Each of these 16 specimens were subjected to light emitting for 20 s, once without any BAs (control) and later when a BA was applied to surface of disk. Temperature rises in 140 s were evaluated. Their mean temperature change in first 20 s were calculated and analyzed using two-way repeated-measures and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey (α = 0.05). Furthermore rate of temperature increase was calculated for each material and LCU. Results: Minimum and maximum temperature rises in all subgroups were 1.7 and 2.8°C, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVA showed that both of adhesive and LCU types had significant effect on temperature rise after application of adhesives. Tukey post-hoc analysis showed Clearfil SE showed significantly higher temperature rise in comparison with Adper Single bond 2 (P = 0.047) and N Bond (P = 0.038). Temperature rose in a linear fashion during first 30-40 s and after that it was non-linear. Conclusion: 20 s of light curing seems safe for pulpal health (with critical threshold of 5.5°C). However, in longer durations and especially when using LED units, the process should be broken to two sessions. PMID:25878684

  15. Regulation of pulpal blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.

    1985-04-01

    The regulation of blood flow of the dental pulp was investigated in dogs and rats anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital. Pulpal blood flow was altered by variations of local and systemic hemodynamics. Macrocirculatory blood flow (ml/min/100 g) in the dental pulp was measured with both the /sup 133/Xe washout and the 15-microns radioisotope-labeled microsphere injection methods on the canine teeth of dogs, to provide a comparison of the two methods in the same tooth. Microcirculatory studies were conducted in the rat incisor tooth with microscopic determination of the vascular pattern, RBC velocity, and intravascular volumetric flow distribution. Pulpal resistance vessels have alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors. Activation of alpha-receptors by intra-arterial injection of norepinephrine (NE) caused both a reduction in macrocirculatory Qp in dogs and decreases in arteriolar and venular diameters and intravascular volumetric flow (Qi) in rats. These responses were blocked by the alpha-antagonist PBZ. Activation of beta-receptors by intra-arterial injection of isoproterenal (ISO) caused a paradoxical reduction of Qp in dogs. In rats, ISO caused a transient increase in arteriolar Qi followed by a flow reduction; arteriolar dilation was accompanied by venular constriction. These macrocirculatory and microcirculatory responses to ISO were blocked by the alpha-antagonist propranolol.

  16. Temperature study on PHENIX Resistive Plate Chamber 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Mathew

    2012-10-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is investigating the results of polarized proton + proton collisions generated by the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Studying these collisions will help gain perspective on the overall spin structure of the proton. PHENIX has developed a trigger upgrade for the muon arms to select single high transverse momentum (p/T) muons. A major part of this upgrade is the inclusion of 2 stations of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in each arm of PHENIX. The RPCs are constructed with two gas gaps made of Bakelite and coated with linseed oil, which closely follows the CMS design. These materials are known to be sensitive to high temperatures and within PHENIX a station of RPC's are installed between two large magnets, which could cause the temperature environment to elevate. In order to gain a better understanding of the temperature of the gas gaps, we will compare the externally monitored temperature data from Run-12 to the temperatures acquired from a dedicated temperature profile study. Overall this will help the collaboration operate the RPCs in a manner that will improve their performance and extend their lifetime.

  17. Thermistors Used in Climatic Chamber at High Temperature and Humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geel, J. L. W. A.; Bosma, R.; van Wensveen, J.; Peruzzi, A.

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, VSL initiated the development of a facility for a relative humidity between and for calibrating high-temperature relative humidity sensors at pressures other than atmospheric. The setup for calculating the relative humidity uses the dew-point temperature, measured by a chilled mirror hygrometer, and the temperature distribution in the chamber, measured by a series of thermistors. This paper describes the results of thermal tests performed on the thermistors to ensure that they meet the requirements of the humidity calibration facility. Different types of thermistors were evaluated up to , and the selected type showed a short-term drift of less than 2 mK. Exposure of these thermistors to temperatures up to gave an initial hysteresis of 40 mK, but after this initial hysteresis, the hysteresis, over the range from up to , was less than 10 mK. Use of a digital multimeter, with a low-power option, limited the self-heating of the thermistors, over the range from up to , to less than 5 mK. During use in the new setup, the thermistors were exposed to changing humidities between 1 %Rh and 90 %Rh and temperatures up to , showing drifts of less than 10 mK.

  18. Pulpal vascular changes in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Changes in pulpal vessels in experimentally induced acute and chronic pulpitis in dog tooth were investigated using corrosive resin casts and scanning electron microscopic examination. Following a cavity preparation without water spray, increased permeability of blood vessels occurred in the primary stage of acute pulpitis. This was evidenced by the extravasation of resin from the vessel. This phenomenon was found initially in the venular network as well as in the capillary network located under the dentin. The morphological change was minimal in the vascular network underneath the cavity. This is in contrast to an expanded and tortuous vascular network representing an ulceration which was found around an abscess in chronic pulpitis. Furthermore, formation of vascular loops and AVAlc close to the inflamed region may represent a protective change in the pulp against inflammation.

  19. The development of a vapor compression refrigeration system for a network of nine temperature test chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baca, Robert

    The thermal response of a component or system can be determined by exposure to a temperature environment simulated in a temperature chamber. The variation in both the size of the item under test and the desired temperature environment necessitates the need for test chambers with a range of capabilities. Most temperature chambers are equipped with a two-stage vapor compression refrigeration system and a heating system capable of simulating any temperature environment in the range of -65 C to 177 C. The refrigeration required to maintain a desired temperature level is a small fraction of the refrigeration required to lower the temperature in the chamber. Since most of the test time is spent maintaining a temperature level in the chamber, the refrigeration system is inherently inefficient and costly to operate. In order to increase the refrigeration system efficiency, a two-stage vapor compression refrigeration system has been developed to support nine temperature test chambers simultaneously. By networking chambers to a centralized refrigeration system, a larger percentage of the available refrigeration capacity is utilized. Moreover, each chamber can simulate a temperature environment which is independent of the other simulated temperature environments in the network.

  20. Vacuum ring exit chamber temperatures due to wiggler beam heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, S.; Ulc, S.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made to determine the effects of a shift in the electron orbital plane and resulting displacement of the wiggler photon beam striking the inner surface of the existing vacuum chamber outer wall. The wiggler beam/vacuum chamber geometry is shown. 7 figures.

  1. Pulpal Effects of Enamel Ablation With a Microsecond Pulsed λ=9.3-μm CO2 Laser

    PubMed Central

    Staninec, Michal; Darling, Cynthia L.; Goodis, Harold E.; Pierre, Daniel; Cox, Darren P.; Fan, Kenneth; Larson, Michael; Parisi, Renaldo; Hsu, Dennis; Manesh, Saman K.; Ho, Chi; Hosseini, Mehran; Fried, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives In vitro studies have shown that CO2 lasers operating at the highly absorbed 9.3 and 9.6-μm wavelengths with a pulse duration in the range of 10–20-microsecond are well suited for the efficient ablation of enamel and dentin with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Even though these CO2 lasers are highly promising, they have yet to receive FDA approval. Clinical studies are necessary to determine if excessive heat deposition in the tooth may have any detrimental pulpal effects, particularly at higher ablative fluencies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pulpal safety of laser irradiation of tooth occlusal surfaces under the conditions required for small conservative preparations confined to enamel. Study Design/Materials and Methods Test subjects requiring removal of third molar teeth were recruited and teeth scheduled for extraction were irradiated using a pulsed CO2 laser at a wavelength of 9.3 μm operating at 25 or 50 Hz using a incident fluence of 20 J/cm2 for a total of 3,000 laser pulses (36 J) for both rates with water cooling. Two control groups were used, one with no treatment and one with a small cut made with a conventional high-speed hand-piece. No anesthetic was used for any of the procedures and tooth vitality was evaluated prior to treatment by heat, cold and electrical testing. Short term effects were observed on teeth extracted within 72 hours after treatment and long term effects were observed on teeth extracted 90 days after treatment. The pulps of the teeth were fixed with formalin immediately after extraction and subjected to histological examination. Additionally, micro-thermocouple measurements were used to estimate the potential temperature rise in the pulp chamber of extracted teeth employing the same irradiation conditions used in vivo. Results Pulpal thermocouple measurements showed the internal temperature rise in the tooth was within safe limits, 3.3±4°C without water cooling versus 1.7±6

  2. Effect of Light Activation of Pulp-Capping Materials and Resin Composite on Dentin Deformation and the Pulp Temperature Change.

    PubMed

    Soares, C J; Ferreira, M S; Bicalho, A A; de Paula Rodrigues, M; Braga, Ssl; Versluis, A

    2017-10-04

    To analyze the effect of pulp-capping materials and resin composite light activation on strain and temperature development in the pulp and on the interfacial integrity at the pulpal floor/pulp-capping materials in large molar class II cavities. Forty extracted molars received large mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) cavity bur preparation with 1.0 mm of dentin remaining at the pulp floor. Four pulp-capping materials (self-etching adhesive system, Clearfil SE Bond [CLE], Kuraray), two light-curing calcium hydroxide cements (BioCal [BIO], Biodinâmica, and Ultra-Blend Plus [ULT], Ultradent), and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement- (Vitrebond [VIT], 3M ESPE) were applied on the pulpal floor. The cavities were incrementally restored with resin composite (Filtek Z350 XT, 3M ESPE). Thermocouple (n=10) and strain gauge (n=10) were placed inside the pulp chamber in contact with the top of the pulpal floor to detect temperature changes and dentin strain during light curing of the pulp-capping materials and during resin composite restoration. Exotherm was calculated by subtracting postcure from polymerization temperature (n=10). Interface integrity at the pulpal floor was investigated using micro-CT (SkyScan 1272, Bruker). The degree of cure of capping materials was calculated using the Fourier transform infrared and attenuated total reflectance cell. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance followed by the Tukey test (α=0.05). Pulpal dentin strains (μs) during light curing of CLE were higher than for other pulp-capping materials (p<0.001). During resin composite light activation, the pulpal dentin strain increased for ULT, VIT, and CLE and decreased for BIO. The pulpal dentin strain was significantly higher during pulp-capping light activation. The temperature inside the pulp chamber increased approximately 3.5°C after light curing the pulp-capping materials and approximately 2.1°C after final restoration. Pulp-capping material type had no influence temperature

  3. Effect of Er:YAG laser on dentin bonding durability under simulated pulpal pressure.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Ahmed Samir; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of Er:YAG laser ablation on the microtensile bond strength and the nanoleakage of Er:YAG-lased dentin bonded to a self-etching adhesive system with and without pulpal pressure. Twenty flat dentin surfaces were obtained from extracted molars. Ten specimens were irradiated by Er:YAG laser, other specimens (control group) were ground using #600 SiC paper. Direct communication to the pulp chamber was created by cutting at a level approximately 1 mm below the cementoenamel junction and parallel to the occlusal surface. The experimental groups were exposed to a simulated pulpal pressure of 15 cm H2O. Each specimen was restored using an adhesive and a photocured composite. The specimens were then sectioned vertically to obtain dentin/adhesive slabs. Ninety-six slabs were prepared for microtensile bond testing. Sixty-four slabs were immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate tracer solution for 18 h, then rinsed thoroughly, and immersed in photodeveloping solution for 6 h prior to their examination by FE-SEM. The method of dentin preparation and the pulpal pressure storage condition significantly affected the microTBS, while the storage duration did not (p < 0.05). The nanoleakage patterns observed in the dentin/bond interface differed depending on whether the dentin was conventionally prepared or ablated by Er:YAG laser. Er:YAG laser ablation to dentin adversely affected the microTBS and the sealing ability of SE Bond bonded to dentin under simulated pulpal condition.

  4. Comparison of temperature rise in pulp chamber during polymerization of materials used for direct fabrication of provisional restorations: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Rajat R.; Madan, Ravi; Agarwal, Swatantra; Gupta, Reecha; Vadavadgi, Sunil V.; Sharma, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose is to compare temperature rise in the pulp chamber during fabrication of provisional crowns using different materials and on different types of teeth using direct technique. Materials and Methods: An extracted, sound, caries free maxillary central incisor and a mandibular molar were selected for the study and crown preparations of all ceramic and all metal were done on central incisor and mandibular molar, respectively. Materials tested were DPI tooth molding self-curing material and protemp-4. Addition silicone putty was used as a matrix and 80 provisional crowns were fabricated, of which 40 were on central incisor and 40 on mandibular molar. Depending on the type of material used, they were further divided into two subgroups: Each comprising 20 provisional crowns. Temperature readings were recorded using K type of thermocouple with 0.1°C precision digital thermometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance, Tukey honest significant difference and Kruskall–Wallis H-test. Results: Statistically significant difference exists between two materials tested on the basis of peak temperature achieved and time taken by a particular material to reach peak temperature. Peak temperature achieved was highest for provisional crowns with DPI tooth molding self-curing material on maxillary central incisor (40.39 + 0.46), followed by DPI tooth molding self-curing material on mandibular molar (40.03 + 0.32), protemp-4 on maxillary central incisor (39.46 + 0.26) and least with protemp-4 on mandibular molar (39.09 + 0.33). The time taken to reach peak temperature was almost double in DPI tooth molding self-curing material (5 min) than in protemp-4. Conclusion: Polymethyl methacrylate resin produced higher intra-pulpal rise when compared to newer generation bis-acrylic composite. PMID:26038649

  5. Pulpal thermal responses to an erbium,chromium: YSGG pulsed laser hydrokinetic system.

    PubMed

    Rizoiu, I; Kohanghadosh, F; Kimmel, A I; Eversole, L R

    1998-08-01

    Laser systems are known to raise pulpal temperatures when applied to tooth surfaces. Dental biocalcified tissues can be cut with an erbium,chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser-powered hydrokinetic system. This device is effective for caries removal and cavity preparation in vitro. Pulpal monitoring of temperature changes during hard tissue cutting by a hydrokinetic system have not been reported. This study compared the effects of hydrokinetic system, dry bur, and wet bur tooth cutting on pulpal temperature. In vivo thermocouple intrapulpal measurements were made on cuspid teeth in anesthetized beagle dogs. In vitro measurements were made on extracted human molar teeth preserved in high-salt solution and later rinsed in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.4) to simulate in vivo conditions. The hydrokinetic system was compared with conventional air-turbine-powered bur cutting. The hydrokinetic system cuts and bur preparations were randomly made on the buccal surfaces at the cervical one third of the crown and extended until exposure of the pulp was confirmed clinically. Pulpal temperatures associated with the hydrokinetic system either showed no change or decreased by up to 2 degrees C. Wet bur preparations resulted in a 3 degrees to 4 degrees C rise. With dry bur preparations, a 14 degrees C rise in temperature was recorded. Under the conditions of this study, the erbium,chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser-powered hydrokinetic system, when used for cavity preparation, had no apparent adverse thermal effect as measured in the pulp space.

  6. Constructal approach to bio-engineering: the ocular anterior chamber temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Dolcino, Daniela; Astori, Maria Rosa; Massa, Eugenio; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the pressure inside the eyes anterior chamber, namedintraocular pressure (IOP), in relation to the biomechanical properties of corneas. The approach used was based on the constructal law, recently introduced in vision analysis. Results were expressed as the relation between the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber and the biomechanical properties of the cornea. The IOP, the elastic properties of the cornea, and the related refractive properties of the eye were demonstrated to be dependent on the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber. These results could lead to new perspectives for experimental analysis of the IOP in relation to the properties of the cornea. PMID:27492652

  7. Constructal approach to bio-engineering: the ocular anterior chamber temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Dolcino, Daniela; Astori, Maria Rosa; Massa, Eugenio; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the pressure inside the eyes anterior chamber, namedintraocular pressure (IOP), in relation to the biomechanical properties of corneas. The approach used was based on the constructal law, recently introduced in vision analysis. Results were expressed as the relation between the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber and the biomechanical properties of the cornea. The IOP, the elastic properties of the cornea, and the related refractive properties of the eye were demonstrated to be dependent on the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber. These results could lead to new perspectives for experimental analysis of the IOP in relation to the properties of the cornea.

  8. Effects of inlet distortion on gas turbine combustion chamber exit temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqsood, Omar Shahzada

    Damage to a nozzle guide vane or blade, caused by non-uniform temperature distributions at the combustion chamber exit, is deleterious to turbine performance and can lead to expensive and time consuming overhaul and repair. A test rig was designed and constructed for the Allison 250-C20B combustion chamber to investigate the effects of inlet air distortion on the combustion chamber's exit temperature fields. The rig made use of the engine's diffuser tubes, combustion case, combustion liner, and first stage nozzle guide vane shield. Rig operating conditions simulated engine cruise conditions, matching the quasi-non-dimensional Mach number, equivalence ratio and Sauter mean diameter. The combustion chamber was tested with an even distribution of inlet air and a 4% difference in airflow at either side. An even distribution of inlet air to the combustion chamber did not create a uniform temperature profile and varying the inlet distribution of air exacerbated the profile's non-uniformity. The design of the combustion liner promoted the formation of an oval-shaped toroidal vortex inside the chamber, creating localized hot and cool sections separated by 90° that appeared in the exhaust. Uneven inlet air distributions skewed the oval vortex, increasing the temperature of the hot section nearest the side with the most mass flow rate and decreasing the temperature of the hot section on the opposite side. Keywords: Allison 250, Combustion, Dual-Entry, Exit Temperature Profile, Gas Turbine, Pattern Factor, Reverse Flow.

  9. Determining Temperature Differential to Prevent Hardware Cross-Contamination in a Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David

    2013-01-01

    When contamination-sensitive hardware must be tested in a thermal vacuum chamber, cross-contamination from other hardware present in the chamber, or residue from previous tests, becomes a concern. Typical mitigation strategies involve maintaining the temperature of the critical item above that of other hardware elements at the end of the test. A formula for relating the pumping speed of a chamber, the surface area of contamination sources, and the temperatures of the chamber, source, and contamination-sensitive items has been developed. The formula allows the determination of a temperature threshold about which contamination will not condense on the sensitive items. It defines a parameter alpha that is the fraction given by (contaminant source area)/[chamber pumping speed (time under vacuum) 0.5]. If this parameter is less than 10(exp -6), cross-contamination from common spacecraft material will not occur when the sensitive hardware is at the same temperature as the source of contamination (The chamber is isothermal within 5 C.). Knowing when it becomes safe to have the hardware isothermal permits faster and easier thermal transitions when compared with maintaining an arbitrary temperature differential between parts. Furthermore, the standard temperature differential may not be adequate under some conditions (alpha>10(exp -4)).

  10. Light-induced fluorescence for pulpal diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Arata; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.

    2001-04-01

    A direct non-histological means of pulpal diagnosis remains elusive to clinical practice. Clinical vitality testing remains limited to electric, thermal criteria, or laser Doppler flowmetry. The goal of these investigations was to determine the feasibility of using light-induced fluorescence as a non-invasive modality for pulpal evaluation. Such a capability would, for example, permit expanded use of pulpotomy/pulpectomy techniques. Clinically healthy and diseased human extirpated pulpal tissues were used in this study. After excision, they were rapidly frozen and standard cryosections prepared. Measurement of tissue excitation/emission characteristics was performed using spectrographic analysis. A low-light level fluorescence microscopy system was then used to image autofluorescence localization and intensity at optimal excitation/detection parameters. Excitation/detection parameters used in this study included 405/605, 405/635, 405/670, 440/550, and 440/635. Autofluorescence intensities in healthy tissues were significantly stronger than those in diseased tissues at optimal parameters. It is postulated that autofluorescence characteristics are related to pathology- related structural changes in the pulp. This work provides the basis for further investigation into the relation between autofluorescence, histology and clinical symptoms.

  11. Acoustic temperature profile measurement technique for large combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateshan, S. P.; Shakkottai, P.; Kwack, E. Y.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    Measurement of times of flight of sound waves can be used to determine temperatures in a gas. This paper describes a system, based on this principle, that is capable of giving the temperature profile in a nonisothermal gas volume, for example, prevalent in a large furnace. The apparatus is simple, rugged, accurate, and capable of being automated for process control applications. It is basically an acoustic waveguide where the outside temperature profile is transferred to a chosen gas contained inside the guide.

  12. Rectal temperature changes and oxygen toxicity in dogs treated in a monoplace chamber.

    PubMed

    Shmalberg, Justin; Davies, Wendy; Lopez, Stacy; Shmalberg, Danielle; Zilberschtein, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen treatments are increasingly administered to pet dogs, using veterinary-specific monoplace chambers. The basic physiologic responses, chamber performance and oxygen toxicity rates have not yet been evaluated in dogs in a clinical setting. As a result, a series of consecutive 45-minute, 2-atmospheres absolute (atm abs) hyperbaric treatments with 100% oxygen were evaluated in a veterinary rehabilitation center (n = 285). 65 dogs with a mean body weight of 21 ± 15 kg (1.4-71 kg) were treated with an average of four sessions each. The mean rectal temperature of canine patients decreased 0.07 degrees C (0.1 degrees F) during treatments (p = 0.04). Intra-chamber temperature and humidity both increased: +1.0 degrees C (1.7 degrees F, p < 0.0001) and +5.7% (p < 0.0001), respectively. The mean maximal oxygen concentration measured before depressurization of the veterinary-specific commercial chamber was 98.0 ± 0.9%. No strong correlations (r > 0.75) were identified between body weights, body condition scores, maximal oxygen concentrations, starting or ending rectal temperature, chamber humidity and chamber temperature. Oxygen toxicity was not observed during the observational period. Patients were most commonly treated for intervertebral disc disease (n = 16 dogs) and extensive traumatic wounds (n = 10 dogs), which represented a large number of the total study sessions (19% and 16%, respectively).

  13. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Keith F.; McMahon, Andrew M.; Ely, Kim S.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Rogers, Alistair

    2017-09-01

    Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. However, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by ˜ 1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be ˜ 2-3 °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW) chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. The approach we describe is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming approaches is desired.

  14. A zero-power warming chamber for investigating plant responses to rising temperature

    DOE PAGES

    Lewin, Keith F.; McMahon, Andrew M.; Ely, Kim S.; ...

    2017-09-19

    Advances in understanding and model representation of plant and ecosystem responses to rising temperature have typically required temperature manipulation of research plots, particularly when considering warming scenarios that exceed current climate envelopes. In remote or logistically challenging locations, passive warming using solar radiation is often the only viable approach for temperature manipulation. But, current passive warming approaches are only able to elevate the mean daily air temperature by ~1.5 °C. Motivated by our need to understand temperature acclimation in the Arctic, where warming has been markedly greater than the global average and where future warming is projected to be ~2–3more » °C by the middle of the century; we have developed an alternative approach to passive warming. Our zero-power warming (ZPW) chamber requires no electrical power for fully autonomous operation. It uses a novel system of internal and external heat exchangers that allow differential actuation of pistons in coupled cylinders to control chamber venting. This enables the ZPW chamber venting to respond to the difference between the external and internal air temperatures, thereby increasing the potential for warming and eliminating the risk of overheating. During the thaw season on the coastal tundra of northern Alaska our ZPW chamber was able to elevate the mean daily air temperature 2.6 °C above ambient, double the warming achieved by an adjacent passively warmed control chamber that lacked our hydraulic system. We describe the construction, evaluation and performance of our ZPW chamber and discuss the impact of potential artefacts associated with the design and its operation on the Arctic tundra. Our approach is highly flexible and tunable, enabling customization for use in many different environments where significantly greater temperature manipulation than that possible with existing passive warming approaches is desired.« less

  15. Pulpal sequelae after trauma to anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients

    PubMed Central

    Oginni, Adeleke O; Adekoya-Sofowora, Comfort A

    2007-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies show that about 11.6% to 33.0% of all boys and about 3.6% to 19.3% of all girls suffer dental trauma of varying severity before the age of 12 years. Moderate injuries to the periodontium such as concussion and subluxation are usually associated with relatively minor symptoms and hence may go unnoticed by the patient or the dentist, if consulted. Patients with these kinds of injuries present years after a traumatic accident most of the time with a single discoloured tooth. This study sets out to document the incidence of various posttraumatic sequelae of discoloured anterior teeth among adult Nigerian dental patients. Methods One hundred and sixty eight (168) traumatized discoloured anterior teeth in 165 patients were studied. Teeth with root canal treatment were excluded from the study. Partial obliteration was recorded when the pulp chamber or root canal was not discernible or reduced in size on radiographs, total obliteration was recorded when pulp chamber and root canal were not discernible. A retrospective diagnosis of concussion was made from patient's history of trauma to the tooth without abnormal loosening, while subluxation was made from patient's history of trauma to the tooth with abnormal loosening. Results Of the 168 traumatized discoloured anterior teeth, 47.6% and 31.6% had partial and total obliteration of the pulp canal spaces respectively, 20.8% had pulpal necrosis. Concussion and subluxation injuries resulted more in obliteration of the pulp canal space, while fracture of the teeth resulted in more pulpal necrosis (p < 0.001). Injuries sustained during the 1st and 2nd decade of life resulted more in obliteration of the pulp canal space, while injuries sustained in the 3rd decade resulted in more pulpal necrosis. Conclusion Calcific metamorphosis developed more in teeth with concussion and subluxation injuries. Pulpal necrosis occurred more often in traumatized teeth including fractures. PMID:17764551

  16. Influence of the coloring agent concentration on bleaching gel and pulp chamber temperatures during dental bleaching.

    PubMed

    Zamboni, Sandra Costa; Castanho, Gisela Muassab; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Nogueira, Lafayette; Borges, Alessandra B; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the coloring agent concentration on the temperature of the gel layer and pulp chamber during dental bleaching with an LED/laser light source. Ten human incisors and a digital thermometer with K-type thermocouples were used. Using a high-speed spherical diamond bur, endodontic access was gained through openings on the lingual faces until pulp chamber was exposed. One end of the thermocouple was placed on the labial surface (immersed in bleaching gel) and the other end in the pulp chamber. The same 10 specimens were used in the 12 groups, according to the type and concentration of bleaching gel. Each bleaching gel was used in four different concentrations: manipulated without coloring, with normal quantity recommended by the manufacturer, with double the recommended amount of coloring, and with triple the recommended amount of coloring. The temperature rise was measured every 30 seconds for three minutes with a K-type thermocouple. The data were analyzed by ANOVA to examine the concentration and type of bleaching gel. This test was followed by Tukey's test, which was performed independently for the gel at the labial surface and the pulp chamber (a = 5%). For both surfaces, values of p = 0.00 were obtained for all factors and for the interaction between them. The varying concentrations of coloring agent produced statistically significant differences in terms of temperature increase for both the gel layer and the pulp chamber during activation.

  17. Pulpal and periodontal diseases increase triglyceride levels in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; da Silva Facundo, Aguinaldo Cândido; Azuma, Mariane Maffei; Sumida, Dóris Hissako; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Bomfim, Suely Regina Mogami; Narciso, Luís Gustavo; Gomes-Filho, João Eduardo

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate triglyceride and cholesterol levels in diabetic rats and their relationship with pulpal and periodontal diseases. Eighty male rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus, Wistar) were divided into the following eight groups comprising ten animals each: normal rats (G1), rats with pulpal diseases (G2), rats with periodontal diseases (G3), rats with both pulpal and periodontal diseases (G4), diabetic rats (G5), diabetic rats with pulpal diseases (G6), diabetic rats with periodontal diseases (G7), and diabetic rats with both periodontal and pulpal diseases (G8). Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin, periapical lesions were induced by exposing pulpal tissue to the oral environment, and periodontal diseases were induced by periodontal ligature. The animals were killed after 30 days, and lipid profile was enzymatically measured using Trinder's method. The total assessed values were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The triglyceride levels of diabetic rats with periodontal disease and of diabetic rats with both periodontal and pulpal diseases were significantly higher than those of normal rats and nondiabetic group rats, respectively. The differences in the cholesterol levels among the groups were not significant. We found that the association of pulpal and periodontal diseases with diabetes increased triglyceride levels in rats. Changes in lipid profile may be related to the presence of oral infections and diabetes.

  18. Improvements on APTC (Ambient Pressure Thermal Cycling) Chamber Regarding Temperature Homogeneity and Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollner, B.; Doring, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the working principles of IABG's Ambient Pressure Thermal Cycling chamber (an alternative to thermal-vacuum tests for some cases) and our activities to characterize and improve the system. For example a 3D grid of 64 temperature sensors was installed inside the test volume, in order to determine reliable temperature distribution data for standard operating conditions. Camera monitoring inside the temperature control / fan box allowed us to study the processes. A modification of the direct injection of liquid nitrogen (for efficient cooling) by installation of defined spray nozzles improved the temperature distribution. The characteristics of the original LN2 injection valve caused enormous consumption of liquid nitrogen and electrical power even at constant chamber temperatures. A new valve with a different control characteristic reduced this standby consumption remarkably.

  19. The Chamber for Studying Rice Response to Elevated Nighttime Temperature in Field

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Song; Zheng, Xi; Wang, Dangying; Xu, Chunmei; Laza, Ma. Rebecca C.; Zhang, Xiufu

    2013-01-01

    An in situ temperature-controlled field chamber was developed for studying a large population of rice plant under different nighttime temperature treatments while maintaining conditions similar to those in the field during daytime. The system consists of a pipe hoop shed-type chamber with manually removable covers manipulated to provide a natural environment at daytime and a relatively stable and accurate temperature at night. Average air temperatures of 22.4 ± 0.3°C at setting of 22°C, 27.6 ± 0.4°C at 27°C, and 23.8 ± 0.7°C ambient conditions were maintained with the system. No significant horizontal and vertical differences in temperature were found and only slight changes in water temperatures were observed between the chambers and ambient conditions at 36 days after transplanting. A slight variation in CO2 concentration was observed at the end of the treatment during the day, but the 10-μmol CO2 mol−1 difference was too small to alter plant response. The present utilitarian system, which only utilizes an air conditioner/heater, is suitable for studying the effect of nighttime temperature on plant physiological responses with minimal perturbation of other environmental factors. At the same time, it will enable in situ screening of many rice genotypes. PMID:24089603

  20. Temperature changes in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    To examine the temperature changes in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the temperature changes in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum temperature rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the temperature rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of temperature in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of temperature was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the temperature rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.

  1. Chamber validation of a passive air sampling device for measuring ambient VOCs at subzero temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gagner, R.V.; Hrudey, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation was made of the performance of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor No. 3500 through experiments conducted under permeation tube generated atmospheres in a controlled chamber environment. A range of typical ambient benzene and toluene concentrations were produced in the chamber to test the consistency of the sampling rate under different exposure levels. All tests were repeated at room temperature, and under subzero Celsius conditions to determine the effect of lowered temperatures on the performance of the badge. As expected, relatively low concentrations of benzene and toluene produced small incremental increases in analyte above the background levels inherent to the badge and analytical methods resulting in a loss of method precision. The badge sampling rate was not significantly affected by decreases in temperature to minus fifteen degrees Celsius. This finding was not consistent with the theoretically-based temperature correction factors identified in the product literature.

  2. Development of Local Gas Temperature Measurement Technique inside a Combustion Chamber Using Two-Wire Thermocouple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shigemi; Moriyoshi, Yasuo; Enomoto, Yoshiteru

    Thermocouples are widely used to measure the local gas temperature due to its accuracy and convenience. However, it is difficult to use thermocouples in a transient phenomenon such as reacting fields. In this study, the unsteady gas temperature inside a combustion chamber was measured by using an improved two-wire thermocouple technique. Based on previous two-wire methods, some modifications were examined. Firstly, numerical analysis of heat transfer between transient flow and thermocouple was performed to see what kind of modification was required. Secondly, a correction term was added to the basic equation, which was validated by experiments using a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine. Finally, an improved two-wire thermocouple technique was evaluated by measuring the transient gas temperature inside a combustion chamber and compared to the estimated temperature using measured pressure data and assumptions of chemical equilibrium.

  3. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, James P.; Galloway, Ewan C. King, Martin O.; Kerherve, Gwilherm; Watts, John F.

    2016-08-15

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  4. Note: A versatile mass spectrometer chamber for molecular beam and temperature programmed desorption experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonks, James P.; Galloway, Ewan C.; King, Martin O.; Kerherve, Gwilherm; Watts, John F.

    2016-08-01

    A dual purpose mass spectrometer chamber capable of performing molecular beam scattering (MBS) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) is detailed. Two simple features of this design allow it to perform these techniques. First, the diameter of entrance aperture to the mass spectrometer can be varied to maximize signal for TPD or to maximize angular resolution for MBS. Second, the mass spectrometer chamber can be radially translated so that it can be positioned close to the sample to maximize signal or far from the sample to maximize angular resolution. The performance of this system is described and compares well with systems designed for only one of these techniques.

  5. Altitude-chamber Performance of British Roll-royce Nene II Engine IV : Effect of Operational Variables on Temperature Distribution at Combustion-chamber Outlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntley, Sidney C

    1950-01-01

    Temperature surveys were made at the combustion-chamber outlets of a British Rolls-Royce Nene II engine. The highest mean nozzle-vane and mean gas temperatures were found to occur at a radius approximately 75% of the nozzle-vane length from the inner ring of the nozzle-vane assembly. Variations in engine speed, jet-nozzle area, simulated altitude, and simulated flight speed altered the temperature level but did not materially affect the pattern of radial temperature distribution.

  6. Comparison of temperature changes in the pulp chamber induced by various light curing units, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yazici, A Rüya; Müftü, Ali; Kugel, Gerard; Perry, Ronald D

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the temperature increase in a pulp chamber as a result of using various light-curing units during resin composite polymerization, and it determined the effect of remaining dentin thickness on temperature rise. A Class II occlusodistal cavity with a remaining dentin thickness of 2 mm was prepared in an extracted human mandibular molar. A 2-mm layer of fine hybrid resin composite was placed on the floor of the proximal box. A K-type thermocouple was inserted into pulp chambers filled with heat sink compound, and pulp chamber temperature rise (starting temperature: 37.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C) during polymerization of the composite was measured. The light-curing units tested included two halogen lights, Spectrum 800 and Elipar Trilight (Standard and Exponential mode); a light-emitting diode (LED, Elipar Freelight) and a plasma arc (Virtuoso, Xenon Power Arc). Irradiation time was 40 seconds for the halogen and LED lights and 3 seconds for the plasma arc light. Five measurements were carried out for every light-curing unit. The same experimental design was conducted after the cavity preparation was modified, leaving a 1-mm thick dentin layer. The Kruskal-Wallis and multiple comparison tests were used to evaluate the differences among the tested curing units. Mann Whitney-U tests were used to compare the mean temperature rise in each curing unit for different remaining dentin thicknesses. The increase in pulp chamber temperature ranged between 1.40-3.8 degrees C. The highest temperature rise was observed when using Elipar Trilight Standard mode, and the lowest temperature rise was observed with light emitting diode for both remaining dentin thicknesses. The only significant differences in temperature rise were observed between Elipar Trilight Standard mode and LED. No significant difference (p > 0.01) existed for the different modes of Elipar Trilight. A statistically significant higher temperature rise was observed within each curing unit at a depth of 1

  7. Monkey pulpal responses to conventional and adhesive luting cements.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, S; Fujitani, M; Otsuki, M; Sonoda, H; Kitasako, Y; Shimada, Y; Tagami, J

    1998-01-01

    Monkey pulpal responses to metal inlays luted with a combination of an adhesive resin and luting composite and conventional dental cements were histopathologically evaluated. Initial pulpal responses caused by re-exposure of the cut dentin surfaces and luting procedure under hydraulic pressure subsided at 90 days after final cementation. There was no significant difference among pulpal reactions to conventional dental cements and a combination of an adhesive resin and luting composite. The adhesive resin coating of freshly cut dentinal walls/floors immediately after cavity preparation seems to provide protection for the dentin and pulp in indirect restorations requiring temporary sealing.

  8. The effect of small temperature gradients on flow in a continuous flow electrophoresis chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous flow electrophoresis employs an electric field to separate biological cells suspended in a flowing liquid buffer solution. Good separations based on differences in electrophoretic mobility are obtained only when a unidirectional flow is maintained. The desired flow has a parabolic structure in the narrow dimension of the chamber and is uniform acros the width, except near the edges where the no-slip condition prevails. However, because of buoyancy, very small laterall or axial temperature gradients deform the flow significantly. The results of experiments conducted with a specially instrumented chamber show the origin and structure of the buoyancy-driven perturbations. It is found that very small temperature gradients can disturb the flow significantly, as was predicted by earlier theoretical work.

  9. Effects of chamber pressure variation on the grid temperature in an inertial electrostatic confinement device

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, S. Krupakar; Emmert, G. A.; Santarius, J. F.; Kulcinski, G. L.

    2010-10-15

    Inertial electrostatic confinement fusion devices are compact sources of neutrons, protons, electrons, and x rays. Such sources have many applications. Improving the efficiency of the device also increases the applications of this device. Hence a thorough understanding of the operation of this device is needed. In this paper, we study the effect of chamber pressure on the temperature of the cathode. Experimentally, the grid temperature decreases as the chamber pressure increases; numerical simulations suggest that this is caused by the reduction of the hot ion current to the cathode as the pressure increases for constant power supply current. Such an understanding further supports the conclusion that the asymmetric heating of the cathode can be decreased by homogenizing the ion flow around the cathode.

  10. Temperature estimation for the most upper part of magmatic chamber of the Elbrus volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhodeev, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies on thermal processes in the Elbrus volcanic center and adjacent territories are presented. Distributed temperature measurements on the Elbrus volcano and near the Maloye Azau glacier by means of temperature data loggers («High Capacity Temperature Loggers iButton» and «Rejim-avtomat-termo-10-100») have been performed. The comparative time series analysis is provided. On the basis of the Geophysical Observatory in Northern Caucasus, in the laboratory located some 20 km from the Elbrus volcano in the tunnel at a depth of 4 km the array of temperature sensors has been deployed. Results of continuous observations over variations of underground temperatures, including pin-point measurements in the vicinity of sources of carbonaceous mineral waters are presented and discussed. Temperature estimations for the most upper part of the shallow magmatic chamber of the of the Elbrus volcano were obtained on the basis of experimental measurements in the 180-meter deep borehole drilled through the glacier on the western plateau of Mount Elbrus. The estimations of deep temperatures have confirmed the possibility of existence of the magmatic chamber at depths of 0-1 km below sea level. At the same time the magnitudes of local heat flux were identified with enhanced precision. Thus, the original scientific results provide significant extension to our knowledge on possible resumption of volcanic activity in the vicinity of Mount Elbrus.

  11. Raman measurements of substrate temperature in a molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, T; Nazari, M; Eridisoorya, M; Myers, T M; Holtz, M

    2015-01-01

    A method is described for directly measuring the temperature of a substrate in a molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth system. The approach relies on the establishment of the temperature dependence of Raman-active phonons of the substrate material using independently known calibration points across the range of interest. An unknown temperature in this range is then determined based on the Raman peak position with the substrate in situ the MBE chamber. The apparatus relies on conventional optics and Raman components. Shifting and broadening of the Raman spectrum are described based on the effects of thermal expansion and anharmonic decay. The choice of reference temperature is discussed. The method is qualified by examining the substrate temperature dependence, relative to that of a standard thermocouple, during a commonly used ramp procedure. Both temperature difference and time lag are obtained.

  12. Raman measurements of substrate temperature in a molecular beam epitaxy growth chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, T.; Nazari, M.; Eridisoorya, M.; Myers, T. M.; Holtz, M.

    2015-01-15

    A method is described for directly measuring the temperature of a substrate in a molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) growth system. The approach relies on the establishment of the temperature dependence of Raman-active phonons of the substrate material using independently known calibration points across the range of interest. An unknown temperature in this range is then determined based on the Raman peak position with the substrate in situ the MBE chamber. The apparatus relies on conventional optics and Raman components. Shifting and broadening of the Raman spectrum are described based on the effects of thermal expansion and anharmonic decay. The choice of reference temperature is discussed. The method is qualified by examining the substrate temperature dependence, relative to that of a standard thermocouple, during a commonly used ramp procedure. Both temperature difference and time lag are obtained.

  13. Temperature Rises in the Pulp Chamber with Different Techniques of Orthodontic Adhesive Removal

    PubMed Central

    Mezomo, Maurício Barbieri; Abreu, Juliana; Weber, Juliana; Garcia, Renato Dalla Porta; Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the temperature rises in the pulp chamber and time spent with different techniques for orthodontic resin adhesive removal. Methods and Materials: Adhesive removal was performed in 20 extracted human maxillary second premolars with five techniques: high-speed tungsten carbide burs with water-cooling (BurH-cool) and without cooling (BurH), low-speed carbide burs (BurL), low-speed aluminum-oxide discs (DiscL), and low-speed fiberglass burs (BurFGL). Pulp chamber temperature was measured with a thermocouple probe and time spent was recorded with a digital stopwatch. Comparisons of temperature rise and time between the techniques were performed with Analysis of variance and Tukey’s Honestly test. Correlation between variables was investigated with Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: Temperature rise and time were statistically different between techniques and showed a positive correlation between them (r=0.826) (P<0.01). BurH-cool provoked the lowest temperature rise and BurFGL the highest (P<0.01). Temperature rises were higher with DiscL than with BurH and BurL (P<0.01), which showed no statistical differences between them (P>0.05). The fastest technique was BurH-cool followed by BurL, BurH, DiscL and BurFGL (P<0.01). Conclusion: BurH-cool, BurH and BurL are safe adhesive removal techniques, whereas DiscL and BurFGL may damage pulp tissues. Time spent on adhesive removal has direct effect on temperature rise in the pulp chamber. PMID:28808462

  14. Determining treatibility of primary teeth with pulpal exposure.

    PubMed

    Doğan, S; Durutürk, L; Orhan, A I; Batmaz, I

    2013-01-01

    To determine rates of pulpal exposure during caries removal with an excavator or a bur, to assess success rates of vital pulp therapies in both cases, to analyze pulpal bleeding as an indicator of primary teeth treatability. Of the 352 primary mandibular molars with deep carious lesions, 141 with pulp exposed during the removal of caries were grouped according to type of instrument causing pulpal exposure and existence of bleeding at the exposure site. Teeth suitable for direct pulp capping or formocresol pulpotomy were treated and followed up for two years. The difference between the rates of pulpal exposure with an excavator (52.5%) or a bur (47.5%) was insignificant. The treatment success rate of teeth with pulp exposed by an excavator (15.8%) was significantly lower than teeth with pulp exposed by a bur (48.8%), regardless of whether bleeding existed at the exposure site or not; however when bleeding existed, this difference was insignificant (15.8% and 40.6%, respectively). Pulpal exposure possibility during caries removal caused by an excavator and a bur was similar the treatment success rate was lower when the exposure was caused by an excavator the existence of pulpal bleeding resulted in mistakes in diagnoses.

  15. Temperature and performance variations along single chamber solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Bertrand; Roberge, Réal; Savoie, Sylvio; Napporn, Teko W.; Meunier, Michel

    The catalytic activity of single chamber solid oxide fuel cells (SC-SOFCs) with respect to hydrocarbon fuels induces a major overheating of the fuel cell, temperature variations along its length, and changes in the original fuel/air composition mainly over the anode component. This paper assesses the temperature gradients and the variations in performance along electrolyte-supported Ni-YSZ/YSZ/LSM cells fed with methane gas. The investigations are performed in a useful range of CH 4/O 2 ratios between 1.0 and 2.0, in which the furnace temperature and flow rate of methane-air mixtures are held constant at 700 °C and 450 sccm, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to sense the temperature at the location where smaller size cathodes are positioned on the opposite side of a full-size anode. Due to temperature increases, cells always perform better when the small cathodes are located at the inlet as well as at a CH 4/O 2 ratio of 1.0. With an increase in ratio, the results show the presence of artefacts due to the use of an active LSM material for the combustion of methane, and open-type gas distribution plates for the single chamber reactor.

  16. Atmospheric leakage and condensate production in NASA's biomass production chamber. Effect of diurnal temperature cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.; Drese, John H.; Sager, John C.

    1991-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted to monitor atmospheric leakage rate and condensate production in NASA's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC). Water was circulated through the 64 plant culture trays inside the chamber during the tests but no plants were present. Environmental conditions were set to a 12-hr photoperiod with either a matching 26 C (light)/20 C (dark) thermoperiod, or a constant 23 C temperature. Leakage, as determined by carbon dioxide decay rates, averaged about 9.8 percent for the 26 C/20 C regime and 7.3 percent for the constant 23 C regime. Increasing the temperature from 20 C to 26 C caused a temporary increase in pressure (up to 0.5 kPa) relative to ambient, while decreasing the temperature caused a temporary decrease in pressure of similar magnitude. Little pressure change was observed during transition between 23 C (light) and 23 C (dark). The lack of large pressure events under isothermal conditions may explain the lower leakage rate observed. When only the plant support inserts were placed in the culture trays, condensate production averaged about 37 liters per day. Placing acrylic germination covers over the tops of culture trays reduced condensate production to about 7 liters per day. During both tests, condensate production from the lower air handling system was 60 to 70 percent greater than from the upper system, suggesting imbalances exist in chilled and hot water flows for the two air handling systems. Results indicate that atmospheric leakage rates are sufficiently low to measure CO2 exchange rates by plants and the accumulation of certain volatile contaminants (e.g., ethylene). Control system changes are recommended in order to balance operational differences (e.g., humidity and temperature) between the two halves of the chamber.

  17. Effects of chamber temperature and pressure on the characteristics of high speed diesel jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittiwong, W.; Pianthong, K.; Seehanam, W.; Milton, B. E.; Takayama, K.

    2012-05-01

    This study is an investigation into the effects of temperature and pressure within a test chamber on the dynamic characteristics of injected supersonic diesel fuel jets. These jets were generated by the impact of a projectile driven by a horizontal single stage powder gun. A high speed video camera and a shadowgraph optical system were used to capture their dynamic characteristics. The test chamber had controlled air conditions of temperature and pressure up to 150 °C and 8.2 bar, respectively. It was found experimentally that, at the highest temperature, a maximum jet velocity of around 1,500 m/s was obtained. At this temperature, a narrow pointed jet appeared while at the highest pressure, a thick, blunt headed jet was obtained. Strong shock waves were generated in both cases at the jet head. For analytical prediction, equations of jet tip velocity and penetration from the work of Dent and of Hiroyasu were employed to describe the dynamic characteristics of the experiments at a standard condition of 1 bar, 30 °C. These analytical predictions show reasonable agreement to the experimental results, the experimental trend differing in slope because of the effect of the pressure, density fluctuation of the injection and the shock wave phenomena occurring during the jet generation process.

  18. Temperature field simulation with stratification model of magma chamber under Los Humeros Caldera, Puebla, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, M.P.; Verma, S.P.; Sanvicente, H. )

    1990-01-01

    A simulation of the temperature field underlying Los Humeros caldera is obtained through numerical solution of the energy-conservation equation for a conductive heat flow process. The up-date information on geological, geochemical, geophysical and geochronological studies is used to estimate the parameters of the internal structure of the caldera. The simulation is carried out under a model of the stratification of a magma chamber. The existence of such a stratification is supported by geological and geochemical evidence. The boundary conditions, the equality of temperature and heat flux are programmed in the numeric solution of the energy-conservation equation by considering the boundary of a very small, finite thickness and smoothing the temperature curve at every step of calculation.

  19. Ellipsometry with polarisation analysis at cryogenic temperatures inside a vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.; Grees, B.; Spitzer, D.; Beck, M.; Bottesch, R.; Ortjohann, H.-W.; Schäfer, T.; Wegmann, A.; Zbořil, M.; Weinheimer, C.; Ostrick, B.; Telle, H. H.

    2013-12-15

    In this paper we describe a new variant of null ellipsometry to determine thicknesses and optical properties of thin films on a substrate at cryogenic temperatures. In the PCSA arrangement of ellipsometry the polarizer and the compensator are placed before the substrate and the analyzer after it. Usually, in the null ellipsometry the polarizer and the analyzer are rotated to find the searched minimum in intensity. In our variant we rotate the polarizer and the compensator instead, both being placed in the incoming beam before the substrate. Therefore the polarisation analysis of the reflected beam can be realized by an analyzer at fixed orientation. We developed this method for investigations of thin cryogenic films inside a vacuum chamber where the analyzer and detector had to be placed inside the cold shield at a temperature of T≈ 90 K close to the substrate. All other optical components were installed at the incoming beam line outside the vacuum chamber, including all components which need to be rotated during the measurements. Our null ellipsometry variant has been tested with condensed krypton films on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate (HOPG) at a temperature of T≈ 25 K. We show that it is possible to determine the indices of refraction of condensed krypton and of the HOPG substrate as well as thickness of krypton films with reasonable accuracy.

  20. Demonstrated survivability of a high temperature optical fiber cable on a 1500 pound thrust rocket chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Amy L.

    1992-01-01

    A demonstration of the ability of an existing optical fiber cable to survive the harsh environment of a rocket engine was performed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The intent of this demonstration was to prove the feasibility of applying fiber optic technology to rocket engine instrumentation systems. Extreme thermal transient tests were achieved by wrapping a high temperature optical fiber, which was cablized for mechanical robustness, around the combustion chamber outside wall of a 1500 lb Hydrogen-Oxygen rocket engine. Additionally, the fiber was wrapped around coolant inlet pipes which were subject to near liquid hydrogen temperatures. Light from an LED was sent through the multimode fiber, and output power was monitored as a function of time while the engine was fired. The fiber showed no mechanical damage after 419 firings during which it was subject to transients from 30 K to 350 K, and total exposure time to near liquid hydrogen temperatures in excess of 990 seconds. These extreme temperatures did cause attenuation greater than 3 dB, but the signal was fully recovered at room temperature. This experiment demonstrates that commercially available optical fiber cables can survive the environment seen by a typical rocket engine instrumentation system, and disclose a temperature-dependent attenuation observed during exposure to near liquid hydrogen temperatures.

  1. Effect of temperature on embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs in an environmental chamber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Park, Ki Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    The influence of temperature on the development and embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs was studied using coarse sand medium in an environmental chamber with 50% humidity. The time required for development and embryonation of eggs was examined under 3 different temperature conditions, 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C. A. suum eggs did not develop over 1 month at the temperature of 5°C. However, other temperature conditions, 25°C and 35°C, induced egg development to the 8-cell-stage at days 5-6 after incubation. All eggs examined developed to the 8-cell stage at day 6 after incubation in the sand medium at 25°C. The higher temperature, 35°C, slightly accelerated the A. suum egg development compared to 25°C, and the development to the 8-cell stage occurred within day 5 after incubation. The formation of larvae in A. suum eggs at temperatures of 35° and 25°C appeared at days 17 and 19 after incubation, respectively. These findings show that 35° condition shortens the time for the development of A. suum eggs to the 8-cell-stage in comparison to 25°C, and suggest the possibility of accelerated transmission of this parasite, resulting from global warming and ecosystem changes.

  2. Pulpal inflammation and incidence of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Joshipura, Kaumudi J; Pitiphat, Waranuch; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Willett, Walter C; Colditz, Graham A; Douglass, Chester W

    2006-02-01

    Pulpal inflammation is primarily caused by coronal caries, and leads to root canal therapy (RCT). Chronic inflammation has been associated with various cardiovascular diseases. This study evaluates the association between pulpal inflammation (using RCT as a surrogate) and incident coronary heart disease (CHD). We report results among males from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), excluding participants with prior cardiovascular disease or diabetes. We obtained RCT data from the HPFS cohort (n = 34,683). Compared to men without RCT, those with >/=1 RCT had a multivariate RR of 1.21 (95% CI 1.05-1.40) for CHD. The association was limited to dentists (RR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.67). There was no association among nondentists (RR = 1.03). Dental caries was not associated with CHD. The results suggest a possible modest association between pulpal inflammation and CHD.

  3. Monkey pulpal response to adhesively luted indirect resin composite inlays.

    PubMed

    Inokoshi, S; Shimada, Y; Fujitani, M; Otsuki, M; Shono, T; Onoe, N; Morigami, M; Takatsu, T

    1995-01-01

    Monkey pulpal responses to resin-bonded indirect resin composite inlays were histopathologically evaluated by placing them in either etched-enamel, total-etched, or adhesive-resin-lined cavities. Initial pulpal responses caused by re-exposure of the cut dentin surfaces and luting procedure subsided if a tight marginal seal was secured by final cementation of the inlay. The adhesive resin coating of freshly cut dentinal walls/floors seems to provide a new technique to protect the dentin and pulp in indirect restorations requiring temporary sealing.

  4. High Temperature Fission Chamber for He- and FLiBe-cooled Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Zane W.; Giuliano, Dominic R.; Holcomb, David Eugene; Lance, Michael J.; Miller, Roger G.; Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wilson, Dane F.; Harrison, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated candidate technologies for in-core fission chambers for high-temperature reactors to monitor power level via measurements of neutron flux from start-up through full power at up to 800°C. This research is important because there are no commercially available instruments capable of operating above 550 °C. Component materials and processes were investigated for fission chambers suitable for operation at 800 °C in reactors cooled by molten fluoride salt (FLiBe) or flowing He, with an emphasis placed on sensitivity (≥ 1 cps/nv), service lifetime (2 years at full power), and resistance to direct immersion in FLiBe. The latter gives the instrument the ability to survive accidents involving breach of a thimble. The device is envisioned to be a two-gap, three-electrode instrument constructed from concentric nickel-plated alumina cylinders and using a noble gas–nitrogen fill-gas. We report the results of measurements and calculations of the response of fill gasses, impurity migration in nickel alloy, brazing of the alumina insulator, and thermodynamic calculations.

  5. Dual chamber capillary viscometer for viscosity measurements of concentrated polymer solutions at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkarachittoor, Narayanan S.; Fricke, Arthur L.; Small, James D., Jr.

    1986-06-01

    A dual chamber capillary viscometer (DCCV) has been designed and constructed to measure steady shear viscosity of concentrated polymer solutions at temperatures above the solution normal boiling point. Projected equipment capabilities are as follows: Shear rate: 102≤γ˙≤104 s-1, Viscosity: 10-1≤η≤104 Pa s, Temperature: 300 ≤T≤520 K. Equipment design and results using Newtonian viscosity standards and various Newtonian polymer solutions are presented. Viscosity results determined with Newtonian standards are within ±5% or better of the reported values and two different concentrated polymer solutions and a paper coating (a suspension of clay in a starch-water solution) were used to test the equipment capabilities over wide ranges of shear rate, viscosity, and temperature. The ranges of equipment capabilities tested to date are Shear rate: 300≤γ≤5500 s-1, Viscosity: 0.12≤η≤7.5 Pa s, Temperature: 299≤T≤399 K.

  6. Budget-limited thermal biology: Design, construction and performance of a large, walk-in style temperature-controlled chamber.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Eloy; Agosta, Salvatore J

    2016-05-01

    We describe a partial redesign of the conventional air-conditioning system and apply it to the construction of a relatively large (1.87m(3) air mass), walk-in style temperature-controlled chamber (TCC) using parts easily obtained in most countries. We conducted several tests to demonstrate the performance of the TCC. Across the physiologically relevant range of 5-37°C, the TCC took 26.5-50.0min to reach the desired set point temperature. Once at set point, temperature inside the chamber was controlled with an accuracy of ±1.0°C. User-entry effects on deviations from and return times to set point temperature were minimal. Overall, performance of the TCC was sufficient to make precise physiological measurements of insect metabolic rate while controlling assay temperature. Major advantages of the TCC include its simplicity, flexibility, and low cost.

  7. Primate pulpal healing after exposure and TheraCal application.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Mark; Gerodias, Nate; Viera, Ana; Percinoto, Celio; Jurado, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare the effectiveness of a new light cured resin based dicalcium/tricalcium silicate pulp capping material (TheraCalLC, Bisco), pure Portland cement, resin based calcium hydroxide or glass ionomer in the healing of bacterially contaminated primate pulps. The experiment required four primates each having 12 teeth prepared with buccal penetrations into the pulpal tissues with an exposure of approximately 1.0 mm. The exposed pulps of the primate teeth were covered with cotton pellets soaked in a bacterial mixture consisting of microorganisms normally found in human pulpal abscesses. After removal of the pellet, hemostasis was obtained and the pulp capping agents applied. The light cured resin based pulp capping material (TheraCal LC) was applied to the pulpal tissue of twelve teeth with a needle tip syringe and light cured for 15 seconds. Pure Portland cement mixed with a 2% Chlorhexidine solution was placed on the exposed pulpal tissues of another twelve teeth. Twelve additional teeth had a base of GIC applied (Triage, Fuji VII GC America) and another twelve had a pulp cap with VLC DYCAL (Dentsply), a light cured calcium hydroxide resin based material. The pulp capping bases were then covered with a RMGI (Fuji II LC GC America). The tissue samples were collected at 4 weeks. The samples were deminerilized, sectioned, stained and histologically graded. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in regard to pulpal inflammation (H = 0.679, P = 1.00). However, both the Portland cement and light cured TheraCal LC groups had significantly more frequent hard tissue bridge formation at 28 days than the GIC and VLC Dycal groups (H = 11.989, P = 0.009). The measured thickness of the hard tissue bridges with the pure Portland and light cured TheraCal LC groups were statistically greater than that of the other two groups (H = 15.849, P = 0.002). In addition, the occurrence of pulpal necrosis was greater

  8. An experimental and computational investigation of the standard temperature-pressure correction factor for ion chambers in kilovoltage x rays.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Daniel J; McEwen, Malcolm; Rogers, D W O

    2007-12-01

    For ion chambers with cavities open to the surrounding atmosphere, the response measured at a given temperature and pressure must be corrected using the standard temperature-pressure correction factor (P(TP)). A previous paper based solely on Monte Carlo simulations [D. J. La Russa and D. W. O. Rogers, Med. Phys. 33, 4590-4599 (2006)] pointed out the shortcomings of the P(TP) correction factor when used to correct the response of non-air-equivalent chambers for low-energy x-ray beams. This work presents the results of several experiments that corroborate these calculations for a number of ion chambers. Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup revealed additional insight into the various factors affecting the extent of the breakdown of P(TP), including the effect of impurities and the sensitivity to chamber dimensions. For an unfiltered 60 kV beam, the P(TP)-corrected response of an NE 2571 ion chamber measured at 0.7 atm was 2.5% below the response measured at reference conditions. In general, Monte Carlo simulations of the experimental setup using EGSnrc were within 0.5% of measured values. EGSnrc-calculated values of air kerma calibration coefficients (N(K)) at low x-ray energies are also provided as a means of estimating the level of impurities in the chambers investigated. Calculated values of N(K) normalized to the value measured for a 250 kV beam were obtained for three chambers and were within 1% of experiment with one exception, the Exradin A12 in a 50 kV beam.

  9. Biological Markers for Pulpal Inflammation: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Galicia, Johnah C.; Peters, Ove A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Pulpitis is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. Predictable vital pulp therapy depends on accurate determination of the pulpal status that will allow repair to occur. The role of several players of the host response in pulpitis is well documented: cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the presence of biomarkers in pulpitis. Methods The electronic databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and other sources were searched for English and non-English articles published through February 2015. Two independent reviewers extracted information regarding study design, tissue or analyte used, outcome measures, results and conclusions for each article. The quality of the included studies was assessed using a modification of the Newcastle-Ottawa-Scale. Results and Conclusions From the initial 847 publications evaluated, a total of 57 articles were included in this review. In general, irreversible pulpitis was associated with different expression of various biomarkers compared to normal controls. These biomarkers were significantly expressed not only in pulp tissue, but also in gingival crevicular fluid that can be collected non-invasively, and in dentin fluid that can be analyzed without extirpating the entire pulpal tissue. Such data may then be used to accurately differentiate diseased from healthy pulp tissue. The interplay of pulpal biomarkers and their potential use for a more accurate and biologically based diagnostic tool in endodontics is envisaged. PMID:27898727

  10. Different treatment protocols for different pulpal and periapical diagnoses of 72 cracked teeth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sin-Young; Kim, Su-Hyun; Cho, Soo-Bin; Lee, Gyung-Ok; Yang, Sung-Eun

    2013-04-01

    The treatment plan for cracked teeth depends on the extent of the crack. A tooth with an extensive crack of long duration may be more likely to require root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of cracked teeth and to assess the outcome of different treatment protocols depending on the pulpal and periapical diagnoses. Seventy-two of 476 crown-restored teeth were diagnosed as cracked teeth. The location of the cracked teeth, age and sex of the patients, restoration materials, a diagnosis of pulp and apex, and the periodontal probing depth were analyzed. Cracked teeth were treated by different treatment protocols depending on the pulpal and periapical diagnoses. Mandibular first molars (27.8%) were the most frequently involved teeth followed by maxillary first molars (25%), maxillary second molars (22.2%), and mandibular second molars (19.4%). The most frequently involved ages were 40-49 and 50-59 years. Cracks occurred mainly in nonbonded restorations such as gold (26.4%) and amalgam (12.5%), and 48.6% of cracks were found in intact teeth. In this study, 60 teeth (83.3%) were treated with root canal treatment before being restored with a permanent crown, and only 12 teeth (16.7%) remained vital and were restored with a permanent crown without root canal treatment. The proportion of teeth treated with root canal treatment increased along with a deep periodontal probing depth corresponding to the crack. The prognosis was less favorable in cracked teeth with a deep probing depth. In this study, the proportion of root canal treatment in the cracked teeth was higher than other studies. Many patients are referred to an endodontist in a university hospital after a long time has passed since the symptom started. Early recognition can help to avoid the propagation of a crack into the pulp chamber or subgingival level. Furthermore, it is important to investigate factors related to cracked teeth and develop different treatment protocols

  11. The Evaluation of High Temperature Adhesive Bonding Processes for Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCray, Daniel; Smith, Jeffrey; Rice, Brian; Blohowiak, Kay; Anderson, Robert; Shin, E. Eugene; McCorkle, Linda; Sutter, James

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is currently evaluating the possibility of using high- temperature polymer matrix composites to reinforce the combustion chamber of a rocket engine. One potential design utilizes a honeycomb structure composed of a PMR-II- 50/M40J 4HS composite facesheet and titanium honeycomb core to reinforce a stainless steel shell. In order to properly fabricate this structure, adhesive bond PMR-II-50 composite. Proper prebond surface preparation is critical in order to obtain an acceptable adhesive bond. Improperly treated surfaces will exhibit decreased bond strength and durability, especially in metallic bonds where interface are susceptible to degradation due to heat and moisture. Most treatments for titanium and stainless steel alloys require the use of strong chemicals to etch and clean the surface. This processes are difficult to perform due to limited processing facilities as well as safety and environmental risks and they do not consistently yield optimum bond durability. Boeing Phantom Works previously developed sol-gel surface preparations for titanium alloys using a PETI-5 based polyimide adhesive. In support of part of NASA Glenn Research Center, UDRI and Boeing Phantom Works evaluated variations of this high temperature sol-gel surface preparation, primer type, and primer cure conditions on the adhesion performance of titanium and stainless steel using Cytec FM 680-1 polyimide adhesive. It was also found that a modified cure cycle of the FM 680-1 adhesive, i.e., 4 hrs at 370 F in vacuum + post cure, significantly increased the adhesion strength compared to the manufacturer's suggested cure cycle. In addition, the surface preparation of the PMR-II-50 composite was evaluated in terms of surface cleanness and roughness. This presentation will discuss the results of strength and durability testing conducted on titanium, stainless steel, and PMR-II-50 composite adherends to evaluate possible bonding processes.

  12. Thermal boundary layer convection in silicic magma chambers: Effects of temperature-dependent rheology and implications for thermogravitational chemical fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Frank J.; Yuen, David A.; Kirschvink, Stephen J.

    1982-10-01

    Solution of the nonlinear boundary value problem describing the thermomechanical structure of a boundary layer adjacent to an isothermal cooled vertical wall in a strongly temperature dependent rheological medium is presented. The analysis and boundary conditions chosen are applicable to large Rayleigh number convection in a magma chamber. Numerical solution of the boundary layer equations by parallel shooting have been obtained for viscosity contrast up to 1011. Parameterization of these results allows extrapolation to higher viscosity contrasts. The non-Arrhenius viscosity function μ = μ∞ exp (-a(T∞ - T), where a is the rheological parameter and T is the absolute temperature, is based on experimental data and accounts for the effects of temperature and crystallinity on magma viscosity. The calculations clearly show the importance of explicit consideration of the viscosity-temperature relationship in determining the quantitative features of boundary layer convection. For example, for anhydrous rhyolite (μ∞ = 109 P), the thermal boundary layer thickness (δT), wall heat flux (q0), wall viscous shear stress (τ0), and maximum vertical convective velocity (umax) are 10 m, 700 HFU, 5×10-3 bar, and 2.5 km yr-1 when μ is taken as constant (i.e., a = 0). However, for a viscosity contrast across the thermal layer of 1012 (i.e., a = 0.07 K-1), δT = 120 m, q0 = 350 HFU, τ0 = 0.36 bar, and umax = 400 m yr-1. Extreme caution must be exercised in using results from isoviscous boundary layer theories for the prediction of the thermomechanical and heat transfer parameters of magma chamber convection. For a wall temperature of 600°C (country rock temperature far from intrusion is ˜200°C) and a core temperature of 1000°C and adopting rheological parameters characteristic of rhyolitic magma containing 3 wt % dissolved H2O, we find at distances of 1 and 10 km from the top of the convecting zone viscous shear stresses, τ0 around 6×10-2 and 3×10-2 bar, maximum

  13. Novel laser Doppler flowmeter for pulpal blood flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, De Yu; Millerd, James E.; Wilder-Smith, Petra B. B.; Arrastia-Jitosho, Anna-Marie A.

    1996-04-01

    We have proposed and experimentally demonstrated a new configuration of laser Doppler flowmetry for dental pulpal blood flow measurements. To date, the vitality of a tooth can be determined only by subjective thermal or electric tests, which are of questionable reliability and may induced pain in patient. Non-invasive techniques for determining pulpal vascular reactions to injury, treatment, and medication are in great demand. The laser Doppler flowmetry technique is non-invasive; however, clinical studies have shown that when used to measure pulpal blood flow the conventional back-scattering Doppler method suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and unreliable flux readings rendering it impossible to calibrate. A simplified theoretical model indicates that by using a forward scattered geometry the detected signal has a much higher SNR and can be calibrated. The forward scattered signal is readily detectable due to the fact that teeth are relatively thin organs with moderate optical loss. A preliminary experiment comparing forward scattered detection with conventional back- scattered detection was carried out using an extracted human molar. The results validated the findings of the simple theoretical model and clearly showed the utility of the forward scattering geometry. The back-scattering method had readings that fluctuated by as much as 187% in response to small changes in sensor position relative to the tooth. The forward scattered method had consistent readings (within 10%) that were independent of the sensor position, a signal-to-noise ratio that was at least 5.6 times higher than the back-scattering method, and a linear response to flow rate.

  14. Stem Cell Transplantation for Pulpal Regeneration: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jakusz, Kimberley; Jochens, Arne; Dörfer, Christof; Schwendicke, Falk

    2015-01-01

    For treating pulpal pathological conditions, pulpal regeneration through transplanted stem/progenitor cells might be an alternative to conventional root canal treatment. A number of animal studies demonstrated beneficial effects of stem/progenitor cell transplantation for pulp–dentin complex regeneration, that is, pulpal tissue, neural, vascular, and dentinal regeneration. We systematically reviewed animal studies investigating stem/progenitor cell-mediated pulp–dentin complex regeneration. Studies quantitatively comparing pulp–dentin complex regeneration after transplantation of stem/progenitor cells versus no stem/progenitor cell transplantation controls in intraoral in vivo teeth animal models were analyzed. The following outcomes were investigated: regenerated pulp area per root canal total area, capillaries per total surface, regenerated dentinal area per total defect area, and nerves per total surface. PubMed and EMBASE were screened for studies published until July 2014. Cross-referencing and hand searching were used to identify further articles. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. To assess possible bias, SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies was used. From 1364 screened articles, five studies (representing 64 animals) were included in the quantitative analysis. Risk of bias of all studies was high. Stem/progenitor cell-transplanted pulps showed significantly larger regenerated pulp area per root canal total area (SMD [95% CI]: 2.28 [0.35–4.21]) and regenerated dentin area per root canal total area (SMD: 6.91 [5.39–8.43]) compared with no stem/progenitor cell transplantation controls. Only one study reported on capillaries per or nerves per total surface and found both significantly increased in stem/progenitor cell-transplanted pulps compared with controls. Stem/progenitor cell transplantation seems to enhance pulp–dentin complex regeneration in

  15. Substrate temperature and strain during sputter deposition of aluminum on cast borosilicate glass in a Gemini Observatory coating chamber.

    PubMed

    Sebag, Jacques; Andrew, John; Neill, Douglas; Warner, Michael

    2010-08-20

    Temperature and strain measurements obtained during coating of spin-cast borosilicate samples are presented here with an analysis of these results. These tests were performed for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) project to verify the possible use of sputtering deposition of optical coating on its large 8.4m diameter primary-tertiary mirror. Made of spin-cast borosilicate glass, the working stress of the mirror's nonpolished surfaces is 100 psi (0.69 MPa), resulting in a local temperature difference limit of 5 degrees C. To ensure representative environmental conditions, the tests were performed in the Gemini Observatory coating chamber located in Hawaii, whose design was utilized to develop the LSST coating chamber design. In particular, this coating chamber is equipped with linear magnetrons built with cooled heat shields directly facing the mirror surface. These measurements have demonstrated that it will be safe for the LSST to use a magnetron sputtering process for coating its borosilicate primary-tertiary mirror.

  16. Variable temperature effects of Open Top Chambers at polar and alpine sites explained by irradiance and snow depth.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Huiskes, Ad; Aerts, Rien; Convey, Peter; Cooper, Elisabeth J; Dalen, Linda; Erschbamer, Brigitta; Gudmundsson, Jón; Hofgaard, Annika; Hollister, Robert D; Johnstone, Jill; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S; Lebouvier, Marc; Van de Vijver, Bart; Wahren, Carl-Henrik; Dorrepaal, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental manipulation studies are integral to determining biological consequences of climate warming. Open Top Chambers (OTCs) have been widely used to assess summer warming effects on terrestrial biota, with their effects during other seasons normally being given less attention even though chambers are often deployed year-round. In addition, their effects on temperature extremes and freeze-thaw events are poorly documented. To provide robust documentation of the microclimatic influences of OTCs throughout the year, we analysed temperature data from 20 studies distributed across polar and alpine regions. The effects of OTCs on mean temperature showed a large range (-0.9 to 2.1 °C) throughout the year, but did not differ significantly between studies. Increases in mean monthly and diurnal temperature were strongly related (R(2)  = 0.70) with irradiance, indicating that PAR can be used to predict the mean warming effect of OTCs. Deeper snow trapped in OTCs also induced higher temperatures at soil/vegetation level. OTC-induced changes in the frequency of freeze-thaw events included an increase in autumn and decreases in spring and summer. Frequency of high-temperature events in OTCs increased in spring, summer and autumn compared with non-manipulated control plots. Frequency of low-temperature events was reduced by deeper snow accumulation and higher mean temperatures. The strong interactions identified between aspects of ambient environmental conditions and effects of OTCs suggest that a detailed knowledge of snow depth, temperature and irradiance levels enables us to predict how OTCs will modify the microclimate at a particular site and season. Such predictive power allows a better mechanistic understanding of observed biotic response to experimental warming studies and for more informed design of future experiments. However, a need remains to quantify OTC effects on water availability and wind speed (affecting, for example, drying rates and water stress

  17. Antioxidant therapy enhances pulpal healing in bleached teeth

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Marques, Marcelo Rocha; Soares, Diana Gabriela; Hebling, Josimeri; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histopathological effects of an antioxidant therapy on the pulp tissue of rat teeth exposed to a bleaching gel with 35% hydrogen peroxide. Materials and Methods Forty rats were subjected to oral ingestion by gavage of distilled water (DW) or ascorbic acid (AA) 90 min before the bleaching therapy. For the bleaching treatment, the agent was applied twice for 5 min each to buccal surfaces of the first right mandibular molars. Then, the animals were sacrificed at 6 hr, 24 hr, 3 day, or 7 day post-bleaching, and the teeth were processed for microscopic evaluation of the pulp tissue. Results At 6 hr, the pulp tissue showed moderate inflammatory reactions in all teeth of both groups. In the DW and AA groups, 100% and 80% of teeth exhibited pulp tissue with significant necrosis and intense tissue disorganization, respectively. At 24 hr, the AA-treated group demonstrated a greater regenerative capability than the DW group, with less intense inflammatory reaction and new odontoblast layer formation in 60% of the teeth. For up to the 7 day period, the areas of pulpal necrosis were replaced by viable connective tissue, and the dentin was underlined by differentiated odontoblast-like cells in most teeth of both groups. Conclusions A slight reduction in initial pulpal damage during post-bleaching was promoted by AA therapy. However, the pulp tissue of AA-treated animals featured faster regenerative potential over time. PMID:26877990

  18. Correlation of corneal thickness, endothelial cell density and anterior chamber depth with ocular surface temperature in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Pattmöller, Johanna; Wang, Jiong; Zemova, Elena; Seitz, Berthold; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2015-09-01

    To analyze corneal surface temperature profile in a young and healthy study population and to determine the impact of corneal thickness (CT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and endothelial cell density (ECD) on surface temperature. In this prospective, single-center study 61 healthy right eyes of 61 subjects without tear film pathologies (mean age 24.9 ± 6.7 years) were recruited. Ocular surface temperature (OST) was measured with the Ocular Surface Thermographer TG-1000. From Pentacam HR CT and ACD, and from specular microscopy ECD and central corneal thickness (CCT) were acquired. From the raw measurement data (OST, CT and ACD) we extracted a) local OST the corneal center and 3mm away from the center at the 3, 6, and 9 o'clock positions, and b) Zernike parameters Z1, Z2 and Z3 to evaluate the general temperature profile within a 6mm circular area around the center. Overall, there was no correlation between OST and CT, ACD or ECD. Local OST did not correlate with CT at any measurement position. On average local OST was highest at measurement positions where CT was lowest, but without reaching statistical significance. Baseline OST was highest at thin corneal regions and temperature decay over time was smallest in those regions. Z1, Z2 and Z3 correlated well with CT. In healthy subjects corneal thickness, endothelial cell density and anterior chamber depth have no effect on corneal surface temperature. The general temperature profile seems to be influenced by the corneal thickness profile effecting a higher temperature and lower decay at thinner corneal regions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Temperature-Programmed Natural Convection for Micromixing and Biochemical Reaction in a Single Microfluidic Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Wang, Fang; Burns, Mark A.; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    Micromixing is a crucial step for biochemical reactions in microfluidic networks. A critical challenge is that the system containing micromixers needs numerous pumps, chambers, and channels not only for the micromixing but also for the biochemical reactions and detections. Thus, a simple and compatible design of the micromixer element for the system is essential. Here, we propose a simple, yet effective, scheme that enables micromixing and a biochemical reaction in a single microfluidic chamber without using any pumps. We accomplish this process by using natural convection in conjunction with alternating heating of two heaters for efficient micromixing, and by regulating capillarity for sample transport. As a model application, we demonstrate micromixing and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for an influenza viral DNA fragment. This process is achieved in a platform of a microfluidic cartridge and a microfabricated heating-instrument with a fast thermal response. Our results will significantly simplify micromixing and a subsequent biochemical reaction that involves reagent heating in microfluidic networks. PMID:19419189

  20. Flow chamber

    DOEpatents

    Morozov, Victor [Manassas, VA

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  1. An Insight Into Neurophysiology of Pulpal Pain: Facts and Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Abhishek; N., Meena

    2013-01-01

    Pain and pain control are important to the dental profession because the general perception of the public is that dental treatment and pain go hand in hand. Successful dental treatment requires that the source of pain be detected. If the origin of pain is not found, inappropriate dental care and, ultimately, extraction may result. Pain experienced before, during, or after endodontic therapy is a serious concern to both patients and endodontists, and the variability of discomfort presents a challenge in terms of diagnostic methods, endodontic therapy, and endodontic knowledge. This review will help clinicians understand the basic neurophysiology of pulpal pain and other painful conditions of the dental pulp that are not well understood. PMID:24156000

  2. Local anesthetics, pulpal blood flow and C. Edmund Kells.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, James L

    2011-01-01

    Historically there was an attempt by many dental practitioners to implicate anesthetic solutions in the death of the dental pulp. However, their implications may or may not have been valid, as damage to the dental pulp may have resulted from excessive and deleterious restorative procedures on teeth that were anesthetized. Unfortunately little was known about the anesthetic solutions at that time, their composition, which included vasoconstrictors, and their potential to alter pulpal blood flow. This paper will explore both the historical perspectives and concerns regarding the impact of anesthetic solutions on the dental pulp through the eyes of Dr. C. Edmund Kells, along with the contemporary perspectives and realities through the eyes of science, sound research data and clinical practice.

  3. Spectrophotometric Evaluation of the Pulpal Peroxide Levels in Intact and Restored Teeth - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Gourismita; Agrawal, Pratik; Panda, Vijeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hydrogen peroxide (30%) is a commonly used "in office" bleaching agent. Deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide on the pulp have been observed. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the penetration of 30% hydrogen peroxide into the pulp chamber through intact teeth and through the surface of teeth, restored with either hybrid composite or Resin Modified Glass Ionomer Cement (RMGIC). Materials and Methods Sixty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into six groups. Two groups were restored with hybrid composite resin and two with RMGIC, while two groups were left intact. The teeth with acetate buffer solution in their pulp cavity were then immersed in either 30% hydrogen peroxide or distilled water depending upon the group, for 60 minutes at 37°C. Then horseradish peroxidase and leucocrystal violet were added to the acetate buffer solution present in the pulp chamber after it was transferred to a test tube and the optical density of the resultant blue solution obtained was measured spectrophotometrically. Statistical Analysis The data obtained were analyzed using one way ANOVA and Student’s t-test. Results The data obtained established that hydrogen peroxide penetrated into the pulp from the bleaching agent used. Hydrogen peroxide (30%) showed the highest pulpal peroxide level in teeth restored with RMGIC followed by teeth restored with hybrid composite resin and the least amount of penetration was observed in intact teeth. Conclusion The amount of peroxide penetration into the tooth is more through restored tooth than intact tooth and is also dependant on the type of restorative materials used. PMID:27656562

  4. Alternative perovskite materials as a cathode component for intermediate temperature single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudillère, Cyril; Olivier, Louis; Vernoux, Philippe; Zhang, Chunming; Shao, Zongping; Farrusseng, David

    This paper exploits the suitability of three perovskite materials Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF), GdBaCo 2O 5+ δ (GBC) and Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Mn 0.7Fe 0.3O 3- δ (BSMF) as SOFC cathodes in the single-chamber configuration operating at the intermediate temperature range. TG analysis showed high thermal stability depending on the crystalline phases of the materials. The catalytic activity of these three materials for hydrocarbon conversion was investigated under a realistic feed, i.e. with hydrocarbon, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of the various cathodes tested in symmetric cell configuration revealed a B-site dependence of the electrode catalytic activity for oxygen reduction. High temperature (1000 °C) powder reactivity tests over a gadolinium doped-ceria (CGO) and perovskite cathode revealed excellent chemical compatibility of BSMF and CGO. Catalytic tests associated with thermal and structural characterization attest to the suitability of these materials in the single-chamber configuration.

  5. A pressurized ion chamber monitoring system for environmental radiation measurements utilizing a wide-range temperature-compensated electrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenick, W. Van . Environmental Measurements Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    The performance of a complete pressurized ion chamber (PIC) radiation monitoring system is described. The design incorporates an improved temperature-compensated electrometer which is stable to [+-]3 [center dot] 10[sup [minus]16] A over the environmental range of temperature ([minus]40 to +40 C). Using a single 10[sup 11] [Omega] feed-back resistor, the electrometer accurately measures currents over a range from 3 [center dot] 10[sup [minus]15] A to 3 [center dot] 10[sup [minus]11] A. While retaining the sensitivity of the original PIC system (the instrument responds readily to small background fluctuations on the order of 0.1 [mu]R h[sup [minus]1]), the new system measures radiation levels up to the point where the collection efficiency of the ion chamber begins to drop off, typically [approximately]27 pA at 1 mR h[sup [minus]1]. A data recorder and system controller was designed using the Tattletale[trademark] Model 4A computer. Digital data is stored on removable solid-state, credit-card style memory cards.

  6. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is described. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 C and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  7. Two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1998-05-05

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  8. Electricity generation of single-chamber microbial fuel cells at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaoan; Xing, Defeng; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-01-15

    Practical applications of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for wastewater treatment will require operation of these systems over a wide range of wastewater temperatures. MFCs at room or higher temperatures (20-35°C) are relatively well studied compared those at lower temperatures. MFC performance was examined here over a temperature range of 4-30°C in terms of startup time needed for reproducible power cycles, and performance. MFCs initially operated at 15°C or higher all attained a reproducible cycles of power generation, but the startup time to reach stable operation increased from 50 h at 30°C to 210 h at 15°C. At temperatures below 15°C, MFCs did not produce appreciable power even after one month of operation. If an MFC was first started up at temperature of 30°C, however, reproducible cycles of power generation could then be achieved at even the two lowest temperatures of 4°C and 10°C. Power production increased linearly with temperature at a rate of 33±4 mW °C(-1), from 425±2 mW m(-2) at 4°C to 1260±10 mW m(-2) at 30°C. Coulombic efficiency decreased by 45% over this same temperature range, or from CE=31% at 4°C to CE=17% at 30°C. These results demonstrate that MFCs can effectively be operated over a wide range of temperatures, but our findings have important implications for the startup of larger scale reactors where low wastewater temperatures could delay or prevent adequate startup of the system.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF VOCS DESORBED FROM BUILDING MATERIALS--A HIGH TEMPERATURE DYNAMIC CHAMBER METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass balance is a commonly used approach for characterizing the source and sink behavior of building materials. Because the traditional sink test methods evaluate the adsorption and desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOC) at ambient temperatures, the desorption process is...

  10. MEASUREMENT OF VOCS DESORBED FROM BUILDING MATERIALS--A HIGH TEMPERATURE DYNAMIC CHAMBER METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass balance is a commonly used approach for characterizing the source and sink behavior of building materials. Because the traditional sink test methods evaluate the adsorption and desorption of volatile organic compounds (VOC) at ambient temperatures, the desorption process is...

  11. Controlled simulation of optical turbulence in a temperature gradient air chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toselli, Italo; Wang, Fei; Korotkova, Olga

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric turbulence simulator is built and characterized for in-lab optical wave propagation with controlled strength of the refractive-index fluctuations. The temperature gradients are generated by a sequence of heat guns with controlled individual strengths. The temperature structure functions are measured in two directions transverse to propagation path with the help of a thermocouple array and used for evaluation of the corresponding refractive-index structure functions of optical turbulence.

  12. Pulpal thermal changes following Er-YAG laser debonding of ceramic brackets.

    PubMed

    Nalbantgil, Didem; Tozlu, Murat; Oztoprak, Mehmet Oguz

    2014-01-01

    Lasers are effective in debonding ceramic brackets. Unfortunately, while reducing the adhesive bond strength, lasers are also reported to increase pulpal temperature. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strengths and temperature increase levels after debonding ceramic brackets using an Er-YAG laser with or without water-cooling. Sixty polycrystalline upper premolar ceramic brackets were placed on the labial surface of sixty human premolar teeth which were randomly divided into three groups of twenty. A laser pulse at 5 W for 9 seconds was delivered to each bracket in both study groups either with water-cooling (water group) or without water-cooling (waterless group) using an Er-YAG laser. Debonding was performed 45 seconds after laser exposure and shear bond strengths were measured. Data comparison revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups. Mean temperature increases of 2.41°C and 4.59°C were recorded for the water and waterless laser groups, respectively. The shear bond strength value for the control group was 22.76 MPa and 10.46 and 6.36 MPa for the water and waterless laser groups, respectively. The application of Er-YAG laser with water-cooling was an efficient and safe method of debonding ceramic brackets.

  13. Integration of a broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction vacuum chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manova, D.; Bergmann, A.; Mändl, S.; Neumann, H.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2012-11-01

    Here, the integration of a low energy, linearly variable ion beam current density, mechanically in situ adjustable broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) vacuum chamber is reported. This allows in situ XRD investigation of phase formation and evolution processes induced by low energy ion implantation. Special care has been taken to an independent adjustment of the ion beam for geometrical directing towards the substrate, a 15 mm small ion source exit aperture to avoid a secondary sputter process of the chamber walls, linearly variable ion current density by using a pulse length modulation (PLM) for the accelerating voltages without changing the ion beam density profile, nearly homogeneous ion beam distribution over the x-ray footprint, together with easily replaceable Kapton® windows for x-rays entry and exit. By combining a position sensitive x-ray detector with this PLM-modulated ion beam, a fast and efficient time resolved investigation of low energy implantation processes is obtained in a compact experimental setup.

  14. Integration of a broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction vacuum chamber.

    PubMed

    Manova, D; Bergmann, A; Mändl, S; Neumann, H; Rauschenbach, B

    2012-11-01

    Here, the integration of a low energy, linearly variable ion beam current density, mechanically in situ adjustable broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) vacuum chamber is reported. This allows in situ XRD investigation of phase formation and evolution processes induced by low energy ion implantation. Special care has been taken to an independent adjustment of the ion beam for geometrical directing towards the substrate, a 15 mm small ion source exit aperture to avoid a secondary sputter process of the chamber walls, linearly variable ion current density by using a pulse length modulation (PLM) for the accelerating voltages without changing the ion beam density profile, nearly homogeneous ion beam distribution over the x-ray footprint, together with easily replaceable Kapton(®) windows for x-rays entry and exit. By combining a position sensitive x-ray detector with this PLM-modulated ion beam, a fast and efficient time resolved investigation of low energy implantation processes is obtained in a compact experimental setup.

  15. Integration of a broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Manova, D.; Bergmann, A.; Maendl, S.; Neumann, H.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2012-11-15

    Here, the integration of a low energy, linearly variable ion beam current density, mechanically in situ adjustable broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) vacuum chamber is reported. This allows in situ XRD investigation of phase formation and evolution processes induced by low energy ion implantation. Special care has been taken to an independent adjustment of the ion beam for geometrical directing towards the substrate, a 15 mm small ion source exit aperture to avoid a secondary sputter process of the chamber walls, linearly variable ion current density by using a pulse length modulation (PLM) for the accelerating voltages without changing the ion beam density profile, nearly homogeneous ion beam distribution over the x-ray footprint, together with easily replaceable Kapton{sup Registered-Sign} windows for x-rays entry and exit. By combining a position sensitive x-ray detector with this PLM-modulated ion beam, a fast and efficient time resolved investigation of low energy implantation processes is obtained in a compact experimental setup.

  16. Human Pulpal Reaction to the Modified McInnes Bleaching Technique,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Bleaching,v ital bleaching, pulp reaction D LA- 2. ABSTR ACT (Cotinue aevrw L N nweoesY and Identily by block number); ; z Am.C~m,-,e... pulp . Under the conditions of this study, there were no significant pulpal reactions to the bleaching technique even when a substantial amount of the...Bleaching Technique had any adverse effects on the pulp . Under the conditions of this study, there were no significant pulpal reactions to the

  17. Application of fuzzy logic to the control of wind tunnel settling chamber temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Humphreys, Gregory L.

    1994-01-01

    The application of Fuzzy Logic Controllers (FLC's) to the control of nonlinear processes, typically controlled by a human operator, is a topic of much study. Recent application of a microprocessor-based FLC to the control of temperature processes in several wind tunnels has proven to be very successful. The control of temperature processes in the wind tunnels requires the ability to monitor temperature feedback from several points and to accommodate varying operating conditions in the wind tunnels. The FLC has an intuitive and easily configurable structure which incorporates the flexibility required to have such an ability. The design and implementation of the FLC is presented along with process data from the wind tunnels under automatic control.

  18. Imaging of Flame Temperature in a Combustion Chamber of Diesel Engine at Transient Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Hidenori; Sumi, Nariaki

    In this study, the flame temperature is visualized in a newly designed optical access diesel engine in order to investigate the mechanism of soot emission at transient operation mode. This single cylinder diesel engine has hydraulic variable valve system and an optical access window instead of an exhaust valve. Optical access window has cleaned by the laser cleaning technique in which the soot on the window is vaporized by the Nd:YAG laser incident. Using this optical engine, high speed photographs of flame were taken under transient operation, and flame temperature was analyzed by two color pyrometry.

  19. DESIGN, FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Leininger

    2001-03-31

    Reliable measurement of gasifier reaction chamber temperature is important for the proper operation of slagging, entrained-flow gasification processes. Historically, thermocouples have been used as the main measurement technique, with the temperature inferred from syngas methane concentration being used as a backup measurement. While these have been sufficient for plant operation in many cases, both techniques suffer from limitations. The response time of methane measurements is too slow to detect rapid upset conditions, and thermocouples are subject to long-term drift, as well as slag attack, which eventually leads to failure of the thermocouple. Texaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) has developed an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier reaction chamber temperature. This system has a faster response time than both methane and thermocouples, and has been demonstrated to provide reliable temperature measurements for longer periods of time when compared to thermocouples installed in the same MTC gasifier. In addition, the system can be applied to commercial gasifiers without any significant scale-up issues. The major equipment items, the purge system, and the safety shutdown system in a commercial plant are essentially identical to the prototypes at MTC. The desired result of this DOE program is ''a bench-scale prototype, either assembled or with critical components (laboratory) tested in a convincing manner.'' The prototype of the pyrometer system (including gasifier optical access port) that was designed, assembled and tested for this program, has had previous prototypes that have been built and successfully tested under actual coal and coke gasification conditions in three pilot units at MTC. It was the intent of the work performed under the auspices of this program to review and update the existing design, and to fabricate and bench test an updated system that can be field tested in one or more commercial gasifiers during a follow on phase

  20. Enzymatic responses of human deciduous pulpal fibroblasts to dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chern-Chin; Chen, Robert Cheng-Shen; Huang, Shun-Te

    2002-06-05

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the responses of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of human deciduous teeth pulpal fibroblasts (HDPF) to dental restorative materials. Tested materials included Z100 (3M), Dyract (Dentsply), FujiII (GC), and FujiIILC (GC). IRM (Dentsply) and culture medium (MD) alone were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Specimens 6 mm (diameter) x 3 mm were prepared in accordance with manufacturers' instructions. For light-cured materials, specimens were light cured for 40 s on both sides under a celluloid strip. For chemical-cured materials, specimens were allowed to set at room temperature for 15 min. The specimens were immersed in 1 mL of culture medium without serum for 24 h at room temperature. The extracts were filtered through 0.22-mm filters. HDPF (10,000 cells/well) was incubated with 100 microL of extract and 20 % FBS in a 96-well plate for 24 h in a 37 degrees, 5 % CO(2) incubator. Six wells per material were prepared. Optical density (OD) of SDH and ALP of HDPF were measured by a spectrophotometer. The means were analyzed by ANOVA and then a Duncan Test. The ranking of OD of SDH was IRM < FujiIILC < FujiII = Z100 < Dyract < MD (p < 0.05). The ranking of OD of ALP was IRM < Z100 = Dyract < FujiII < FujiIILC < MD (p < 0.05). The result showed that all of the tested restorative materials were cytotoxic to human deciduous pulpal fibroblasts. The cytotoxicity of resin-modified glass ionomer cements (FujiIILC) was stronger than that of traditional glass ionomer cements (FujiII) and composite resin (Z100), and that of compomer (Dyract) was the weakest. On the contrary, ALP activities of resin-modified glass ionomer cements (FujiIILC) and composite resin (Z100) were higher than those of traditional glass ionomer cements (FujiII), while those of compomer (Dyract) were the lowest. It is concluded that, in this study, FujiIILC was the most cytotoxic material and the least

  1. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  2. Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Soules, David M.; Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum-bakeout apparatus for decontaminating and measuring outgassing from pieces of equipment constructed by mounting bakeout chamber within conventional vacuum chamber. Upgrade cost effective: fabrication and installation of bakeout chamber simple, installation performed quickly and without major changes in older vacuum chamber, and provides quantitative data on outgassing from pieces of equipment placed in bakeout chamber.

  3. The pulpal response to topically applied citric acid.

    PubMed

    Kitchings, S K; del Rio, C E; Aufdemorte, T B; Meffert, R M; Lane, J J

    1984-08-01

    Citric acid is currently being used to aid in the reattachment of periodontal tissues to tooth roots which have become separated as a result of periodontitis. The present study examines the effect of topically applied citric acid on the dental pulp. Citric acid, pH 1, was applied for 3 minutes on instrumented premolar teeth in six dogs. As a control, saline solution was applied on similarly instrumented premolars. The teeth were removed 1, 6, 24, 48, 72, and 144 hours after citric acid application. After histologic preparation, the pulps were examined for inflammatory cell infiltrates, odontoblast displacement into the dentinal tubules, hyperemic capillaries in the odontoblast layer, hemorrhage, abscess formation, irregular dentin, and the thickness of the dentin remaining beneath the treated area. There was no statistically significant response to the citric acid over the saline controls. Nor was the pulpal response, as examined above, correlated to the thickness of the remaining dentin. The results suggest that citric acid, pH 1, when applied to tooth roots during surgical reattachment therapy, does not adversely affect the pulp.

  4. Novel management of avulsed tooth by pulpal and periodontal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Johns, Dexton Antony; Shivashankar, Vasundara Yayathi; Maroli, Ramesh Kumar; Vidyanath, Surendran

    2013-12-01

    The avulsion of anterior teeth of young children is a tragic occurrence and often presents an unparalleled challenge for the dentist. Reimplantation is the state-of-the-art treatment but may incur several complications, particularly with inappropriate posttraumatic management. In this article we report the emergency and rehabilitation treatment of an avulsed maxillary anterior tooth by using platelet-rich fibrin. The osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties of platelet-rich fibrin were used to stimulate pulpal and periodontal regeneration. During follow-up, no clinical signs and symptoms were present. After the initial 6 months, no further bone loss and attachment loss were observed. The tooth remained functional and was aesthetically acceptable. When a tooth is avulsed, attachment damage and pulp necrosis occur. Viable periodontal ligament cells are often left on most of the root surface. If the periodontal ligament that is left attached to the root surface does not dry out, the consequences of tooth avulsion are usually minimal. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of ambient temperature and water vapor on chamber pressure and oxygen level during low atmospheric pressure stunning of poultry.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Paul H; Pritchard, David G

    2017-05-17

    The characteristics of the vacuum used in a low atmospheric pressure stunning system to stun (render unconscious) poultry prior to slaughter are described. A vacuum chamber is pumped by a wet screw compressor. The vacuum pressure is reduced from ambient atmospheric pressure to an absolute vacuum pressure of ∼250 Torr (∼33 kPa) in ∼67 sec with the vacuum gate valve fully open. At ∼250 Torr, the sliding gate valve is partially closed to reduce effective pumping speed, resulting in a slower rate of decreasing pressure. Ambient temperature affects air density and water vapor pressure and thereby oxygen levels and the time at the minimum total pressure of ∼160 Torr (∼21 kPa) is varied from ∼120 to ∼220 sec to ensure an effective stun within the 280 seconds of each cycle. The reduction in total pressure results in a gradual reduction of oxygen partial pressure that was measured by a solid-state electrochemical oxygen sensor. The reduced oxygen pressure leads to hypoxia, which is recognized as a humane method of stunning poultry. The system maintains an oxygen concentration of <5% for at least 2 minutes, which ensures that birds are irreversibly stunned. Calculated pump down (pressure versus time) data match experimental data very closely because the programmable logic controller and the human machine interface enable precise and accurate control. The vacuum system operates in the turbulent viscous flow regime, and is best characterized by absolute vacuum pressure rather than gauge pressure. Neither the presence of broiler chickens nor different fore-line pipe designs of four parallel commercial systems affected the pressure-time data. Water in wet air always reduces the oxygen concentrations to a value lower than in dry air. The partial pressure of water and oxygen were found to depend on the pump down parameters due to the formation of fog in the chamber and desorption of water from the birds and the walls of the vacuum chamber. © The Author 2017

  6. A gas-tight Cu K alpha x-ray transparent reaction chamber for high-temperature x-ray diffraction analyses of halide gas/solid reactions.

    PubMed

    Shian, Samuel; Sandhage, Kenneth H

    2009-11-01

    An externally heated, x-ray transparent reaction chamber has been developed to enable the dynamic high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD) analysis of a gas/solid [TiF(4)(g)/SiO(2)(s)] reaction involving a halide gas reactant formed at elevated temperatures (up to 350 degrees C) from a condensed source (TiF(4) powder) sealed within the chamber. The reaction chamber possessed x-ray transparent windows comprised of a thin (13 microm) internal layer of Al foil and a thicker (125 microm) external Kapton film. After sealing the SiO(2) specimens (diatom frustules or Stober spheres) above TiF(4) powder within the reaction chamber, the chamber was heated to a temperature in the range of 160-350 degrees C to allow for internal generation of TiF(4)(g). The TiF(4)(g) underwent a metathetic reaction with the SiO(2) specimen to yield a TiOF(2)(s) product. HTXRD analysis, using Cu K alpha x rays passed through the Kapton/Al windows of the chamber, was used to track the extent of SiO(2) consumption and/or TiOF(2) formation with time. The Al foil inner layer of the windows protected the Kapton film from chemical attack by TiF(4)(g), whereas the thicker, more transparent Kapton film provided the mechanical strength needed to contain this gas. By selecting an appropriate combination of x-ray transparent materials to endow such composite windows with the required thermal, chemical, and mechanical performance, this inexpensive reaction chamber design may be applied to the HTXRD analyses of a variety of gas/solid reactions.

  7. Temperature rise on dentin caused by temporary crown and fixed partial denture materials: influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Seelbach, Paul; Finger, Werner J; Ferger, Paul; Balkenhol, Markus

    2010-12-01

    Temporary crowns and fixed partial denture materials (t-c&b) generate exothermic heat during polymerization. The amount of temperature, reaching the pulp chamber, is dependent on the residual thickness of the prepared dentin as well as the volume of the t-c&b used. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both factors on the temperature rise at the pulpal dentin surface as well as in the bulk of the t-c&b during polymerization. Four t-c&bs (Luxatemp AM Plus, Protemp 3 Garant, Structur Premium, Trim) were used to fabricate flat cylindrical specimens (∅ 15.5mm) of different thicknesses (1, 2 and 4mm) using an over-impression placed on top of dentin discs (thickness 0.5, 1 and 2mm). Temperature was recorded at the pulpal dentin surface as well as inside the t-c&b (n=6). Data was subjected to parametric statistics (α=0.05). Peak temperatures inside the t-c&b varied between 37.0°C and 51.9°C and at the pulpal dentin side between 37.0°C and 50.6°C. The maximum temperatures registered depended significantly on the thickness of the dentin disc and t-c&b, respectively (ANOVA p<0.05). Peak temperatures were reached 2-3 min after start of mixing (dimethacrylates) and 6 min (mono-methacrylate), respectively, whereas Trim exhibited significantly higher peak temperatures (p<0.05). At 4mm layer thickness of the t-c&b, temperature rise may become critical if the material is not cooled properly. Composite-based t-c&bs showed significant lower curing temperatures than Trim and should therefore be preferred in daily practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Seedling-Size Fumigation Chambers

    Treesearch

    Keith F. Jensen; Frederick W. Bender

    1977-01-01

    The design of fumigation chambers is described. Each chamber has individual temperature, humidity, light, and pollutant control. Temperature is variable from 15 to 35ºC and controlled within ± 1ºC. Humidity is variable from 25 to 95 percent and controlled within ± 3 percent. Seedlings have been successfully grown in these chambers...

  9. Static diffusion cloud chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G.

    1981-01-01

    The chamber geometry and optical arrangement are described. The supersaturation range is given and consists of readings taken at five fixed points: 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, and 1.25%. The detection system is described including light source, cameras, and photocell detectors. The temperature control and the calibration of the chamber are discussed.

  10. The current status of fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) technology and its overlap with HIF target chamber concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarlat, Raluca O.; Peterson, Per F.

    2014-01-01

    The fluoride salt cooled high temperature reactor (FHR) is a class of fission reactor designs that use liquid fluoride salt coolant, TRISO coated particle fuel, and graphite moderator. Heavy ion fusion (HIF) can likewise make use of liquid fluoride salts, to create thick or thin liquid layers to protect structures in the target chamber from ablation by target X-rays and damage from fusion neutron irradiation. This presentation summarizes ongoing work in support of design development and safety analysis of FHR systems. Development work for fluoride salt systems with application to both FHR and HIF includes thermal-hydraulic modeling and experimentation, salt chemistry control, tritium management, salt corrosion of metallic alloys, and development of major components (e.g., pumps, heat exchangers) and gas-Brayton cycle power conversion systems. In support of FHR development, a thermal-hydraulic experimental test bay for separate effects (SETs) and integral effect tests (IETs) was built at UC Berkeley, and a second IET facility is under design. The experiments investigate heat transfer and fluid dynamics and they make use of oils as simulant fluids at reduced scale, temperature, and power of the prototypical salt-cooled system. With direct application to HIF, vortex tube flow was investigated in scaled experiments with mineral oil. Liquid jets response to impulse loading was likewise studied using water as a simulant fluid. A set of four workshops engaging industry and national laboratory experts were completed in 2012, with the goal of developing a technology pathway to the design and licensing of a commercial FHR. The pathway will include experimental and modeling efforts at universities and national laboratories, requirements for a component test facility for reliability testing of fluoride salt equipment at prototypical conditions, requirements for an FHR test reactor, and development of a pre-conceptual design for a commercial reactor.

  11. Physiological Root End Closure in a Traumatized Young Permanent Tooth Using Collagen Particles as Pulpal Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Divya; Kumar, CH Santosh; Shilpa, G

    2017-01-01

    The management of traumatized young permanent teeth has always been a challenge to the clinician, considering the importance of retaining the vitality of the tooth. Recently, collagen particles have been successfully used as pulpotomy medicaments in primary teeth. This case report shows the use of collagen particles as pulpal dressing in a traumatized young permanent tooth of a nine-year-old child presenting with complicated fracture of young permanent left maxillary central incisor. Partial pulpotomy was performed with collagen particles (Biofil-AB) as pulpal dressing. At six months follow up, apexogenesis was found to be nearly complete. Thus, collagen can be considered as a potential pulpal medicament for apexogenesis procedures. PMID:28274076

  12. Exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Briant, James K.

    1983-01-01

    An exposure chamber includes an imperforate casing having a fluid inlet at the top and an outlet at the bottom. A single vertical series of imperforate trays is provided. Each tray is spaced on all sides from the chamber walls. Baffles adjacent some of the trays restrict and direct the flow to give partial flow back and forth across the chambers and downward flow past the lowermost pan adjacent a central plane of the chamber.

  13. An in vivo evaluation of the change in the pulpal oxygen saturation after administration of preoperative anxiolytics and local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    P Shetty, Krishna; V Satish, Sarvepalli; Kilaru, Krishnarao; Chakravarthi Ponangi, Kalyana; M Luke, Alexander; Neshangi, Srisha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Given the influence of systemic blood pressure on pulpal blood flow, anxiolytics prescribed may alter the pulpal blood flow along with the local anesthetic solution containing a vasoconstrictor. This study evaluated the impact of preoperative anxiolytics and vasoconstrictors in local anesthetic agents on pulpal oxygen saturation. Methods. Thirty anxious young healthy individuals with a mean age of 24 years were randomly selected using the Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). After checking the vital signs the initial pulpal oxygen saturation (initial SpO2) was measured using a pulse oximeter. Oral midzolam was administered at a dose of 7.5 mg. After 30 min, the vital signs were monitored and the pulpal oxygen saturation (anxiolytic SpO2) was measured. A total of 1.5 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200000 epinephrine was administered as buccal infiltration anesthesia and 10 min the final pulpal oxygen saturation (L.A SpO2) was measured. Results. The mean initial (SpO2) was 96.37% which significantly decreased to 90.76% (SpO2) after the administration of the anxiolytic agent. This drop was later accentuated to 85.17% (SpO2) after administration of local anesthetic solution. Statistical significance was set at P<0.0001. Conclusion. High concentrations of irritants may permeate dentin due to a considerable decrease in the pulpal blood flow from crown or cavity preparation. Therefore, maintaining optimal blood flow during restorative procedures may prevent pulpal injury.

  14. Pulpal response to irradiation of enamel with continuous wave CO sub 2 laser

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, G.L.; Morton, T.H.; Larsen, A.E.

    1989-12-01

    Selected dog's teeth, in vivo, were exposed to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) laser power densities ranging from 13 to 102 J per cm{sup 2}. The teeth were extracted 48 h postlasing, fixed with 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified with Kristensen's solution, processed, sectioned, stained, and evaluated for pulpal damage. No pulpal damage was observed when compared with nonlased control teeth. It appears that carbon dioxide laser power densities of approximately 13 to 102 J per cm{sup 2} could be used to irradiate enamel of teeth without damage to the pulp.

  15. At-home bleaching: pulpal effects and tooth sensitivity issues, part II.

    PubMed

    Swift, Edward J

    2006-01-01

    The most common side effect of at-home bleaching is transient tooth sensitivity. Despite its high frequency, this phenomenon is not well understood. This is the second of a two-part Critical Appraisal on tooth sensitivity associated with at-home bleaching. The first installment reviewed articles that focus on the incidence of sensitivity, long-term effects of bleaching, and related pulpal concerns. This installment also covers pulpal concerns, as well as the prevention of sensitivity during at-home whitening treatments.

  16. Method for decreasing radial temperature gradients of crystal growth melts utilizing radiant energy absorptive materials and crystal growth chambers comprising such materials

    SciTech Connect

    Belt, R.F.

    1984-10-23

    A method for reducing the radial temperature gradient of a radiant energy emitting heated body is described. The method comprises insulating such heated body with a refractory insulating material containing an efficient absorber of the radiant energy emitted by said heated body. Specifically, materials containing trivalent dysprosium are disclosed as suitable thermal insulation for use where the heated body is at a temperature in the 1800/sup 0/ C.-2500/sup 0/ C. range. Also described is a crystal growth chamber for pulling unicrystalline compositions from a melt utilizing the Czochralski technique. The chamber is characterized by the placement of a refractory insulating material containing an efficient absorber of near infrared radiation around a crucible which contains the melt. Dysprosium is specifically disclosed as an efficient absorber of the near infrared radiation which is emitted by melt and crucible at the elevated temperatures employed for boule formation utilizing the Czochralski technique.

  17. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field.

    PubMed

    Locke, Anna M; Sack, Lawren; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2013-09-01

    Leaf hydraulic properties are strongly linked with transpiration and photosynthesis in many species. However, it is not known if gas exchange and hydraulics will have co-ordinated responses to climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) in Glycine max (soybean) to growth at elevated [CO2] and increased temperature compared with the responses of leaf gas exchange and leaf water status. Two controlled-environment growth chamber experiments were conducted with soybean to measure Kleaf, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (A) during growth at elevated [CO2] and temperature relative to ambient levels. These results were validated with field experiments on soybean grown under free-air elevated [CO2] (FACE) and canopy warming. In chamber studies, Kleaf did not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2], even though stomatal conductance decreased and photosynthesis increased. Growth at elevated temperature also did not affect Kleaf, although gs and A showed significant but inconsistent decreases. The lack of response of Kleaf to growth at increased [CO2] and temperature in chamber-grown plants was confirmed with field-grown soybean at a FACE facility. Leaf hydraulic and leaf gas exchange responses to these two climate change factors were not strongly linked in soybean, although gs responded to [CO2] and increased temperature as previously reported. This differential behaviour could lead to an imbalance between hydraulic supply and transpiration demand under extreme environmental conditions likely to become more common as global climate continues to change.

  18. The Mars Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Mars chamber is a box about the size of a refrigerator that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scie...

  19. Geochemistry and Temperatures Recorded by Zircon During the Final Stages of the Youngest Toba Tuff Magma Chamber, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaither, T.; Reid, M. R.; Vazquez, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    The ~74 ka eruption of the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) in Sumatra, Indonesia, was one of the largest single volcanic eruptions in geologic history, on par with other voluminous silicic eruptions such as the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff of Yellowstone and the Bishop Tuff of Long Valley, California. We are exploring how zircon and other accessory mineral phases record compositional and thermal changes that occurred in the YTT magma, and the important clues these crystal scale records hold for magma chamber dynamics and processes that lead up to supervolcano eruptions. In this study, we report trace element (REE, U, Th, Ti, and Hf) characteristics, Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperatures, and apparent REE partition coefficients obtained for YTT zircon rims. Twenty-nine zircons from pumices with a compositional range of 70-76 wt% SiO2 were analyzed on the UCLA Cameca ims 1270 ion microprobe. The grains were mounted so that only the outermost ~1.5 microns of the crystals were analyzed. Median Zr/Hf ratios of 34 to 38 characterize zircons from the pumices; the high silica rhyolite grains have lower Zr/Hf. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are strongly LREE-depleted. Positive Ce anomalies are large (Ce/Ce* ranges up to 88) and Eu/Eu* varies by a factor of four (0.05 to 0.21). Eu/Eu*, Nd/Yb, and Th/U decrease with decreasing Zr/Hf, showing that the variation in zircon rim compositions may be related by co-precipitation of feldspar and allanite along with zircon. Titanium contents also decrease with decreasing Zr/Hf, suggesting that the chemical differences could be related to temperature changes. REE partition coefficients calculated from zircon rim compositions and pumice glass compositions give a good fit to a lattice strain model. They are also quite similar to the partition coefficients of Sano et al. (2002) which have been shown to be successful at reproducing melt compositions in other settings. Temperatures of crystallization calculated using the Ti

  20. Effect of a new method to simulate pulpal pressure on bond strength and nanoleakage of dental adhesives to dentin.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Victor Pinheiro; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate a new method of simulated pulpal pressure in vitro in comparison with the conventional one. Four adhesives were analyzed: a three-step etch-and-rinse (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose [SBMP]), a two-step etch-and-rinse (Single Bond 2 [SB]), a two-step self-etching (Clearfil SE Bond [SE]), and a one-step self-etching (Clearfil S3 [S3]) system. Restorations were built up in flat, deep dentin from extracted molars. After two methods of simulated pulpal pressure or no pulpal pressure (control groups), the samples were cut into sticks and submitted to microtensile bond strength (µTBS) testing and nanoleakage evaluation. Results were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05). In general, statistical analysis of µTBS showed SBMP>SB=SE>S3. For both methods of simulated pulpal pressure, the µTBS of SB and S3 was lower than in control groups. For SBMP and SE, the µTBS remained stable with simulated pulpal pressure. Conventional and experimental methods of simulating pulpal pressure resulted in similar µTBS (p = 1.00) and nanoleakage patterns. Silver impregnation was higher with SB and S3, especially after simulated pulpal pressure with both methods. The experimental simulated pulpal-pressure method tested here was similar to the conventional method and can be an alternative to it. The simplified adhesives show reduction in bond strength after simulated pulpal pressure. The multistep adhesives have stable bond strengths under simulated pulpal pressure. Therefore, the separate application of hydrophobic resin can achieve resistance to bonding deterioration after hydrostatic pressure.

  1. Knowledge and Pattern of Antibiotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic Prescription for Pulpal and Periapical Pathologies- A Survey among Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Karunakar, P; Vishwanath, B; Chinmayi, S Soumya; Siddhartha, P; Chaitanya, B

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The objective was to assess the knowledge and pattern of antibiotic and non narcotic analgesic prescription for pulpal and periapical pathologies among dentists, registered with IDA, in and around Hyderabad. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 2014 to February 2014 in and around Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. A questionnaire for this cross-sectional survey was designed for evaluating the knowledge and patterns of antibiotic and non narcotic analgesic prescription for pulpal and periapical pathologies. It included some demographic information, questions regarding clinical and non clinical factors, type of antibiotics and non narcotics analgesics prescribed were recorded. Data was computed and analysed using SPSS software. Descriptive statistics was performed. Results: The response rate for the study was 85%, 51.4% being males and 53.9% were pursuing post graduation. Of the respondents, 44.3% would prescribe medication with elevated body temperatures and evidence of systemic involvement, while 42.8% would prescribe medication for non clinical factors such as unsure of diagnosis. Necrotic pulp with acute apical periodontitis with swelling present and mod/severe preoperative symptoms was the most common condition identified for antibiotic therapy (56.4%). The first antibiotic of choice in patients with no medical allergies is amoxicillin, followed by amoxicillin and metronidazole. The first antibiotic of choice in case of allergic to penicillin was erythromycin. 55.1% and 37.3% would not prescribe antibiotic and analgesic after Root canal treatment respectively. The most commonly prescribed NSAID is Diclofenac (51.1%). Factors influencing the choice of analgesics among respondents is severity of pain (61.4%). 31.7% remained informed of current prophylactic practices through pharmaceutical companies followed by university training sessions and scientific societies (30.7%). Conclusion: The results of the present survey have

  2. An in-vitro study to compare the temperature rise in the pulp chamber by direct method using three different provisional restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Piplani, Ankita; Suresh Sajjan, M C; Ramaraju, A V; Tanwani, Tushar; Sushma, G; Ganathipathi, G; Jagdish, K; Agrawal, Anil

    2016-01-01

    The provisional restorative materials in fixed prosthodontics are basically bis-GMA resins which releases exothermic temperature while polymerization which can damage the pulp. Intrapulpal temperature exceeding 42.5°C found to result in irreversible damage to the pulp. The remaining thickness of dentine after tooth preparation control the conduction of heat released by the resins. (1) To quantify the temperature changes in the pulp chamber using different provisional restorative materials. (2) To evaluate the peak temperature time of different materials used. (3) To compare the intrapulpal temperature changes with a variation in the width of the finish line. Two intact mandibular molars were selected and designated as Specimen A and B. Tooth preparation was done to prepare a finish line of 1.2 mm and 1 mm width, respectively. Three provisional restorative materials were considered and they were grouped as Group I-Cool temp, Group II-Protemp-4, Group III-Integrity. A J thermocouple probe was placed into the pulp chamber to determine the rise in temperature. The temperature was recorded during polymerization at 30-s intervals until the peak temperature was reached. The same procedure was repeated for fabricating remaining provisional crowns. A total of 45 provisional crowns were fabricated for each specimen. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that there was a significant difference in the temperature changes associated with the provisional restorative materials used. All the three provisional restorative materials were compared for 1.2 mm and 1 mm wide finish line. Integrity produced the highest temperature rise and the maximum temperature recorded was 40.2°C in 1.2 mm wide finish line. However, for a 1 mm wide finish line, Protemp-4 produced the highest temperature rise and the maximum temperature recorded was 40.3°C. It was observed that peak temperatures with Specimen B were more when compared with Specimen A. Cool temp showed least temperature rise in the pulp

  3. An in-vitro study to compare the temperature rise in the pulp chamber by direct method using three different provisional restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Piplani, Ankita; Suresh Sajjan, M. C.; Ramaraju, A. V.; Tanwani, Tushar; Sushma, G.; Ganathipathi, G.; Jagdish, K.; Agrawal, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The provisional restorative materials in fixed prosthodontics are basically bis-GMA resins which releases exothermic temperature while polymerization which can damage the pulp. Intrapulpal temperature exceeding 42.5°C found to result in irreversible damage to the pulp. The remaining thickness of dentine after tooth preparation control the conduction of heat released by the resins. Purpose: (1) To quantify the temperature changes in the pulp chamber using different provisional restorative materials. (2) To evaluate the peak temperature time of different materials used. (3) To compare the intrapulpal temperature changes with a variation in the width of the finish line. Methodology: Two intact mandibular molars were selected and designated as Specimen A and B. Tooth preparation was done to prepare a finish line of 1.2 mm and 1 mm width, respectively. Three provisional restorative materials were considered and they were grouped as Group I-Cool temp, Group II-Protemp-4, Group III-Integrity. A J thermocouple probe was placed into the pulp chamber to determine the rise in temperature. The temperature was recorded during polymerization at 30-s intervals until the peak temperature was reached. The same procedure was repeated for fabricating remaining provisional crowns. A total of 45 provisional crowns were fabricated for each specimen. Results: Kruskal–Wallis test revealed that there was a significant difference in the temperature changes associated with the provisional restorative materials used. All the three provisional restorative materials were compared for 1.2 mm and 1 mm wide finish line. Integrity produced the highest temperature rise and the maximum temperature recorded was 40.2°C in 1.2 mm wide finish line. However, for a 1 mm wide finish line, Protemp-4 produced the highest temperature rise and the maximum temperature recorded was 40.3°C. It was observed that peak temperatures with Specimen B were more when compared with Specimen A

  4. Management of pulpal floor perforation and grade II Furcation involvement using mineral trioxide aggregate and platelet rich fibrin: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Bains, Rhythm; Bains, Vivek K; Loomba, Kapil; Verma, Kavita; Nasir, Afreena

    2012-09-01

    To report the management of an iatrogenic perforation of pulpal floor in the furcation of mandibular first molar, using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). Unpredictable endodontic root/pulp chamber floor perforations resulting in unacceptable high rate of clinical failure has now been a lesser threat with the advent of new technologies and biocompatible materials that utilize the applications of basic research along with tissue engineering concept in clinical practice. Present case report illustrates the use of MTA and platelet rich fibrin (PRF) for the repair of the perforation defect and regeneration of the lost periodontium in furcation area. Although, histologic events and reaction of MTA with PRF is not studied so far, however, the autologous and biocompatible nature of the components used for present treatment modalities seems to be beneficial for the long term clinical results obtained in our case.

  5. Management of pulpal floor perforation and grade II Furcation involvement using mineral trioxide aggregate and platelet rich fibrin: A clinical report

    PubMed Central

    Bains, Rhythm; Bains, Vivek K.; Loomba, Kapil; Verma, Kavita; Nasir, Afreena

    2012-01-01

    To report the management of an iatrogenic perforation of pulpal floor in the furcation of mandibular first molar, using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) and platelet rich fibrin (PRF). Unpredictable endodontic root/pulp chamber floor perforations resulting in unacceptable high rate of clinical failure has now been a lesser threat with the advent of new technologies and biocompatible materials that utilize the applications of basic research along with tissue engineering concept in clinical practice. Present case report illustrates the use of MTA and platelet rich fibrin (PRF) for the repair of the perforation defect and regeneration of the lost periodontium in furcation area. Although, histologic events and reaction of MTA with PRF is not studied so far, however, the autologous and biocompatible nature of the components used for present treatment modalities seems to be beneficial for the long term clinical results obtained in our case. PMID:23230369

  6. Effect of phytic acid used as etchant on bond strength, smear layer, and pulpal cells.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohannad; Hiraishi, Noriko; Islam, Md Sofiqul; Aizawa, Mamoru; Tamura, Yukihiko; Otsuki, Masayuki; Kasugai, Shohei; Ohya, Keiichi; Tagami, Junji

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phytic acid (IP6), used as etchant, on resin-dentin bond strength, smear layer removal, and the viability of pulpal cells. Flat dentin surfaces with smear layer were etched with 1% IP6 for 60, 30, or 15 s; in the control group 37% phosphoric acid (PA) was used. Dentin surfaces were rinsed, blot-dried, and bonded with an etch-and-rinse adhesive, followed by composite build-ups. The specimens were subjected to tensile testing after 24 h of water storage at 37°C, and failure modes were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of IP6 to remove the smear layer was observed using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the effect on pulpal cells, solutions of 0.1 and 0.01% IP6 and of 3.7 and 0.37% PA were prepared and rat pulpal cells were treated with these solutions for 6 and 24 h. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated that all application times of IP6 produced bond-strength values that were significantly higher than that of the control. Phytic acid effectively removed the smear layer and plugs, thus exposing the collagen network. Phytic acid had a minimal effect on pulpal cells, whereas PA resulted in a marked decrease in their viability.

  7. Comparison of the Booster Interface Temperature in Stainless Steel (SS) V-Channel Versus the Aluminum (Al) Y-Channel Primer Chamber Assemblies (PCAs). Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Technical Fellow for Propulsion, requested a technical assessment of the performance improvement achieved by the introduction of the stainless steel (SS) V-channel compared to the aluminum (Al) Y-channel Primer Chamber Assembly (PCA) design. The SS V-channel PCA was developed for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project. The principle focus of the assessment was to measure the transient temperature at the booster interface with both designs. This document contains the Appendices to the Volume I main report.

  8. Effect of pulpal pressure on the microtensile bond strength of luting resin cements to human dentin.

    PubMed

    Hiraishi, N; Yiu, C K Y; King, N M; Tay, F R

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effect of pulpal pressure on the microtensile bond strength (mTBS) of luting resin cements to human dentin and the permeability of dentin surfaces pre-treated with an adhesive and a self-etching primer. Cylindrical composite blocks were luted with resin cements (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE: ARC; Panavia F, Kuraray Medical Inc.: PF; RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE: UN) in the absence or presence of simulated pulpal pressure. The application of Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE) and ED primer 2.0 (Kuraray) was performed under 0 cm H(2)O. After each resin cement was applied, the pulpal pressure group was subjected to 20 cm H(2)O of hydrostatic pressure for 10 min during the initial setting period. Testing for mTBS was performed on 0.9 mm x 0.9 mm sectioned beams after 24h water-storage. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate the fractured surfaces after mTBS testing and additional dentin surfaces that were treated by an etchant, ED primer 2.0 and UN. Fluid permeability was measured on dentin surfaces that were applied with Adper Single Bond 2 and ED primer 2.0. Application of pulpal pressure reduced mTBS significantly in groups ARC and PF. Porous bonding interfaces due to water permeability through the cured adhesive were observed on fractured surfaces. Dentin surfaces that were applied with the adhesive and the primer were more permeable than smear layer-covered dentin. The mTBS of UN was significantly lower than ARC and PF regardless of the absence/presence of pulpal pressure. Fluid permeation during the initial setting period deteriorated the bonding quality of resin cements.

  9. Exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.

    1980-01-01

    A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

  10. A multipurpose ultra-high vacuum-compatible chamber for in situ X-ray surface scattering studies over a wide range of temperature and pressure environment conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, P.; Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Heyman, C.; Esteban-Betegón, F.; Castro, G. R.

    2013-03-01

    A low/high temperature (60-1000K) and pressure (10-10-3x103 mbar) "baby chamber", specially adapted to the grazing-incidence X-ray scattering station, has been designed, developed and installed at the Spanish CRG BM25 SpLine beamline at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The chamber has a cylindrical form with 100 mm of diameter, built on a 360° beryllium nipple of 150 mm height. The UHV equipment and a turbo pump are located on the upper part of the chamber to leave a wide solid angle for exploring reciprocal space. The chamber features 4 CF16 and 5 CF40 ports for electrical feed through and leak valves, ion gun, etc. The heat exchanger is a customized compact LN2 (or LHe) continuous flow cryostat. The sample is mounted on a Mo support on the heat exchanger, which has in the back side a BORALECTRIC® Heater Elements. Experiments of surfaces/interfaces/ multilayer materials, thin films or single crystals in a huge variety of environments can be performed, also in situ studies of growth or evolution of the samples. Data measurement can be collected with a punctual and a bi-dimensional detector, being possible to simultaneously use them.

  11. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, Richard D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700.degree. and 800.degree. C.) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800.degree. to 950.degree. C. to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product.

  12. Vertical two chamber reaction furnace

    DOEpatents

    Blaugher, R.D.

    1999-03-16

    A vertical two chamber reaction furnace is disclosed. The furnace comprises a lower chamber having an independently operable first heating means for heating the lower chamber and a gas inlet means for admitting a gas to create an ambient atmosphere, and an upper chamber disposed above the lower chamber and having an independently operable second heating means for heating the upper chamber. Disposed between the lower chamber and the upper chamber is a vapor permeable diffusion partition. The upper chamber has a conveyor means for conveying a reactant there through. Of particular importance is the thallinating of long-length thallium-barium-calcium copper oxide (TBCCO) or barium-calcium-copper oxide (BCCO) precursor tapes or wires conveyed through the upper chamber to thereby effectuate the deposition of vaporized thallium (being so vaporized as the first reactant in the lower chamber at a temperature between about 700 and 800 C) on TBCCO or BCCO tape or wire (the second reactant) at its simultaneous annealing temperature in the upper chamber of about 800 to 950 C to thereby replace thallium oxide lost from TBCCO tape or wire because of the high annealing temperature or to deposit thallium on BCCO tape or wire. Continuously moving the tape or wire provides a single-step process that effectuates production of long-length TBCCO superconducting product. 2 figs.

  13. The Mobile Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharfstein, Gregory; Cox, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a simulation chamber that represents a shift from the thermal-vacuum chamber stereotype. This innovation, currently in development, combines the capabilities of space simulation chambers, the user-friendliness of modern-day electronics, and the modularity of plug-and-play computing. The Mobile Chamber is a customized test chamber that can be deployed with great ease, and is capable of bringing payloads at temperatures down to 20 K, in high vacuum, and with the desired metrology instruments integrated to the systems control. Flexure plans to lease Mobile Chambers, making them affordable for smaller budgets and available to a larger customer base. A key feature of this design will be an Apple iPad-like user interface that allows someone with minimal training to control the environment inside the chamber, and to simulate the required extreme environments. The feedback of thermal, pressure, and other measurements is delivered in a 3D CAD model of the chamber's payload and support hardware. This GUI will provide the user with a better understanding of the payload than any existing thermal-vacuum system.

  14. Wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer

    1989-01-01

    A wire chamber or proportional counter device, such as Geiger-Mueller tube or drift chamber, improved with a gas mixture providing a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor.

  15. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Anna M.; Sack, Lawren; Bernacchi, Carl J.; Ort, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Leaf hydraulic properties are strongly linked with transpiration and photosynthesis in many species. However, it is not known if gas exchange and hydraulics will have co-ordinated responses to climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) in Glycine max (soybean) to growth at elevated [CO2] and increased temperature compared with the responses of leaf gas exchange and leaf water status. Methods Two controlled-environment growth chamber experiments were conducted with soybean to measure Kleaf, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (A) during growth at elevated [CO2] and temperature relative to ambient levels. These results were validated with field experiments on soybean grown under free-air elevated [CO2] (FACE) and canopy warming. Key results In chamber studies, Kleaf did not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2], even though stomatal conductance decreased and photosynthesis increased. Growth at elevated temperature also did not affect Kleaf, although gs and A showed significant but inconsistent decreases. The lack of response of Kleaf to growth at increased [CO2] and temperature in chamber-grown plants was confirmed with field-grown soybean at a FACE facility. Conclusions Leaf hydraulic and leaf gas exchange responses to these two climate change factors were not strongly linked in soybean, although gs responded to [CO2] and increased temperature as previously reported. This differential behaviour could lead to an imbalance between hydraulic supply and transpiration demand under extreme environmental conditions likely to become more common as global climate continues to change. PMID:23864003

  16. IONIZATION CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Redman, W.C.; Shonka, F.R.

    1958-02-18

    This patent describes a novel ionization chamber which is well suited to measuring the radioactivity of the various portions of a wire as the wire is moved at a uniform speed, in order to produce the neutron flux traverse pattern of a reactor in which the wire was previously exposed to neutron radiation. The ionization chamber of the present invention is characterized by the construction wherein the wire is passed through a tubular, straight electrode and radiation shielding material is disposed along the wire except at an intermediate, narrow area where the second electrode of the chamber is located.

  17. Regenerative Characteristics of Apical Papilla-derived Cells from Immature Teeth with Pulpal and Periapical Pathosis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Oh, Joung-Hwan; Lee, WooCheol; Woo, Kyung Mi

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the regenerative characteristics of apical papilla-derived cells (APDCs) from immature teeth with pulpal and periapical pathosis and thus to provide proof-of-principle evidence for further regenerative endodontic research. Pulpal and periapical pathosis was induced in immature permanent double-rooted premolars of beagles, which were randomly assigned to experimental treatment groups: group AO (n = 14), pulp disruption and access left open; group PS (n = 14), supragingival plaque suspension-soaked cotton pellet was introduced, and access was sealed; and control (n = 7), untreated. The teeth were extracted at 2- and 4-week periods after experimental treatments. APDCs were cultured from the extracted teeth, and their cellular proliferation, differentiation characteristics, and stemness were assessed. The data were statistically analyzed. After 4 weeks of intentional pulpal and periapical pathosis induction period, all teeth in group PS showed features of apical periodontitis with necrotic pulp, and their APDCs showed significantly increased proliferation rate and osteogenic/odontogenic differentiation capabilities (P < .05). The stemness was maintained in all APDCs, although the stem cell population was smaller in group PS at 2-week period when the inflammatory responses were most fulminant (P < .05). The APDCs from immature teeth retained the regenerative characteristics with the differences according to their pulpal and periapical pathosis. The results of this study partly provide the evidence for regenerative endodontic research. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium combustion chamber withstands operating temperatures up to 2,200 degrees C. Chamber designed to replace older silicide-coated combustion chamber in small rocket engine. Modified versions of newer chamber could be designed for use on Earth in gas turbines, ramjets, and scramjets.

  19. Iridium-Coated Rhenium Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Rosenberg, Sanders D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium combustion chamber withstands operating temperatures up to 2,200 degrees C. Chamber designed to replace older silicide-coated combustion chamber in small rocket engine. Modified versions of newer chamber could be designed for use on Earth in gas turbines, ramjets, and scramjets.

  20. Temperature changes inside the molar pulp chamber and on the enamel and root surfaces induced by the CO2 laser beam, in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anic, Ivica; Dzubur, A.; Skala, Karolj; Sutalo, Jozo

    1993-12-01

    The application of the CO2 laser continuous wave to hard dental tissue causes temperature changes on the impact area, on the adjacent area and inside the pulp chamber. The purpose of this study was to investigate the thermal effects induced by the CO2 laser continuous wave, and the temperature flow through adjacent areas. Forty healthy molars, 15 molars with class II amalgam restoration and 10 canines with cervical caries extracted for periodontal reasons were irradiated with laser beam. On the occlusal surface the class I preparation was made just beyond the dentine-enamel junction. Temperature changes were measured at the enamel, root surface and at the cross section of the previously prepared holes 3 mm in diameter which were made 2 mm above the bifurcation level.

  1. Influence of orthodontic derotation and extrusion on pulpal and periodontal condition of autotransplanted immature third molars.

    PubMed

    Bauss, Oskar; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of orthodontic treatment on the pulpal and periodontal condition of 91 transplanted immature third molars. In patients with atrophy of the alveolar process or unfavorable root morphology, transplants had to be placed in extreme rotated or infraoccluded positions. After 3 to 6 months, these transplants were derotated (45 degrees to 90 degrees) to a correct position in the dental arch (derotation group; n = 28) or extruded to the occlusal plane (extrusion group; n = 21). Finally, approximal spaces were closed in both groups. A sample of 42 transplanted third molars with no orthodontic treatment need served as the control group. All transplants were followed clinically and radiologically for a mean period of 4.0 years. With respect to pulpal and periodontal conditions, no significant differences were observed between the control and the extrusion group. In contrast, compared with the control group, transplants in the derotation group had a significantly poorer pulpal and periodontal condition. In the derotated transplants, a significant correlation was detected between pulp necrosis and orthodontic treatment of multi-rooted transplants. This study indicates that orthodontic extrusion and minor lateral movements of autotransplanted immature third molars, as well as rotation of single-rooted third-molar transplants, represent no additional risk to transplant survival. In contrast, rotation of multi-rooted transplants seems to initiate later severance of the vascular and nerval supply to the pulp.

  2. [The reaction of the pulpal blood circulation to thermal stimuli].

    PubMed

    Gängler, P

    1976-01-01

    The present paper characterizes the reactions of the systemcirculation and microcirculation of the pulpa to the effects of temperature changes from--30 degrees C to +55 degrees C. In the range between 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C an increase of the blood flow rate can be observed. By long-standing action of temperatures above 40 degrees C and below 25 degrees C a dilatation of the blood vessels and a decrease of the blood flow rate are caused, thus leading to aggregations, capillary stoppage, and finally to thrombosis of entire pulpa sections. In addition to the outline of the critical initial alterations of the microcirculation in the course of inflammation the clinical conclusions towards crown and cavity preparation by means of water spray cooling, concerning thermal sensibility tests, and cryo-surgical operations are discussed.

  3. Automated Electrostatics Environmental Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos; Lewis, Dean C.; Buchanan, Randy K.; Buchanan, Aubri

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Electrostatics Chamber (MEC) is an environmental chamber designed primarily to create atmospheric conditions like those at the surface of Mars to support experiments on electrostatic effects in the Martian environment. The chamber is equipped with a vacuum system, a cryogenic cooling system, an atmospheric-gas replenishing and analysis system, and a computerized control system that can be programmed by the user and that provides both automation and options for manual control. The control system can be set to maintain steady Mars-like conditions or to impose temperature and pressure variations of a Mars diurnal cycle at any given season and latitude. In addition, the MEC can be used in other areas of research because it can create steady or varying atmospheric conditions anywhere within the wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges between the extremes of Mars-like and Earth-like conditions.

  4. Growth responses, biomass partitioning, and nitrogen isotopes of prairie legumes in response to elevated temperature and varying nitrogen source in a growth chamber experiment.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Heather R; Deede, Laura; Powers, Jennifer S

    2012-05-01

    Because legumes can add nitrogen (N) to ecosystems through symbiotic fixation, they play important roles in many plant communities, such as prairies and grasslands. However, very little research has examined the effect of projected climate change on legume growth and function. Our goal was to study the effects of temperature on growth, nodulation, and N chemistry of prairie legumes and determine whether these effects are mediated by source of N. We grew seedlings of Amorpha canescens, Dalea purpurea, Lespedeza capitata, and Lupinus perennis at 25/20°C (day/night) or 28/23°C with and without rhizobia and mineral N in controlled-environment growth chambers. Biomass, leaf area, nodule number and mass, and shoot N concentration and δ(15)N values were measured after 12 wk of growth. Both temperature and N-source affected responses in a species-specific manner. Lespedeza showed increased growth and higher shoot N content at 28°C. Lupinus showed decreases in nodulation and lower shoot N concentration at 28°C. The effect of temperature on shoot N concentration occurred only in individuals whose sole N source was N(2)-fixation, but there was no effect of temperature on δ(15)N values in these plants. Elevated temperature enhanced seedling growth of some species, while inhibiting nodulation in another. Temperature-induced shifts in legume composition or nitrogen dynamics may be another potential mechanism through which climate change affects unmanaged ecosystems.

  5. Comparison of the Amount of Temperature Rise in the Pulp Chamber of Teeth Treated With QTH, Second and Third Generation LED Light Curing Units: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mahant, Rajesh Harivadanbhai; Chokshi, Shraddha; Vaidya, Rupal; Patel, Pruthvi; Vora, Asima; Mahant, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study was designed to measure and compare the amount of temperature rise in the pulp chamber of the teeth exposed to different light curing units (LCU), which are being used for curing composite restorations. Methods: The study was performed in two settings; first, an in vitro and second was mimicking an in vivo situation. In the first setup of the study, three groups were formed according to the respective three light curing sources. i.e. quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit and two light-emitting diode (LED) units (second and third generations). In the in vitro setting, direct thermal emission from three light sources at 3 mm and 6 mm distances, was measured with a k-type thermocouple, and connected to a digital thermometer. For a simulation of an in vivo situation, 30 premolar teeth were used. Class I Occlusal cavity of all the teeth were prepared and they were restored with incremental curing of composite, after bonding agent application. While curing the bonding agent and composite in layers, the intrapulpal temperature rise was simultaneously measured with a k-type thermocouple. Results: The first setting of the study showed that the heat produced by irradiation with LCU was significantly less at 6 mm distance when compared to 3 mm distance. The second setting of the study showed that the rise of intrapulpal temperature was significantly less with third generation LED light cure units than with second generation LED and QTH light cure units. Conclusion: As the distance from the light source increases, less irradiation heat is produced. Third generation LED lights cause the least temperature change in the pulp chamber of single rooted teeth. PMID:28144440

  6. Comparison of the Amount of Temperature Rise in the Pulp Chamber of Teeth Treated With QTH, Second and Third Generation LED Light Curing Units: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Mahant, Rajesh Harivadanbhai; Chokshi, Shraddha; Vaidya, Rupal; Patel, Pruthvi; Vora, Asima; Mahant, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study was designed to measure and compare the amount of temperature rise in the pulp chamber of the teeth exposed to different light curing units (LCU), which are being used for curing composite restorations. Methods: The study was performed in two settings; first, an in vitro and second was mimicking an in vivo situation. In the first setup of the study, three groups were formed according to the respective three light curing sources. i.e. quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit and two light-emitting diode (LED) units (second and third generations). In the in vitro setting, direct thermal emission from three light sources at 3 mm and 6 mm distances, was measured with a k-type thermocouple, and connected to a digital thermometer. For a simulation of an in vivo situation, 30 premolar teeth were used. Class I Occlusal cavity of all the teeth were prepared and they were restored with incremental curing of composite, after bonding agent application. While curing the bonding agent and composite in layers, the intrapulpal temperature rise was simultaneously measured with a k-type thermocouple. Results: The first setting of the study showed that the heat produced by irradiation with LCU was significantly less at 6 mm distance when compared to 3 mm distance. The second setting of the study showed that the rise of intrapulpal temperature was significantly less with third generation LED light cure units than with second generation LED and QTH light cure units. Conclusion: As the distance from the light source increases, less irradiation heat is produced. Third generation LED lights cause the least temperature change in the pulp chamber of single rooted teeth.

  7. A Microfluidics-based Pulpal Arteriole Blood Flow Phantom for Validation of Doppler Ultrasound Devices in Pulpal Blood Flow Velocity Measurement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohyun; Park, Sung-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Recently, Doppler ultrasound has been used for the measurement of pulpal blood flow in human teeth. However, the reliability of this method has not been verified. In this study, we developed a model to simulate arteriole blood flow within the dental pulp by using microfluidics. This arteriole simulator, or flow phantom, was used to determine the reliability of measurements obtained by using a Doppler ultrasound device. A microfluidic chip was fabricated by using the soft lithography technique, and blood-mimicking fluid was pumped through the channel by a microfluidic system. A Doppler ultrasound device was used for the measurement of flow velocity. The peak, mean, and minimal flow velocities obtained from the phantom and the Doppler ultrasound device were compared by using linear regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman analyses were performed to evaluate the velocity differences between the flow generated by the phantom and the flow measurements made with the Doppler ultrasound device. The microfluidic system was able to generate the flow profiles as intended, and the fluid flow could be monitored and controlled by the software program. There were excellent linear correlations between the peak, mean, and minimal flow velocities of the phantom and those of the Doppler ultrasound device (r = 0.94-0.996, P < .001). However, the velocities were overestimated by the Doppler ultrasound device. This phantom provides opportunities for research and education involving the Doppler ultrasound technique in dentistry. Although Doppler ultrasound can be an effective tool for the measurement of pulpal blood flow velocity, it is essential to validate and calibrate the device before clinical use. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulp-temperature increases after selective ablation of caries by KTP:NdYAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nammour, S.; Kowalyk, Kenneth; Valici, Ch.; Guillaume, Patrick

    1997-05-01

    The aim of this investigation is to define optimal parameters of KTP laser irradiation during caries removal. 12 decayed human teeth, recently extracted were used. Their rot canals were prepared for insertion of a thermocouple probe into the pulp chamber. The demineralized tissues have been colored by Acid Red 52 before proceeding to different conditions of irradiation. Pulpal temperature increases were found under the following parameters with 15 seconds continuous lasing: 400mw, 0.10 m sec pulse width, PRR temperature to get back to its baseline.

  9. Fast-response cloud chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.

    1977-01-01

    Wall structure keeps chambers at constant, uniform temperature, yet allows them to be cooled rapidly if necessary. Wall structure, used in fast-response cloud chamber, has surface heater and coolant shell separated by foam insulation. It is lightweight and requires relatively little power.

  10. Effects of removing adhesive from tooth surfaces by Er:YAG laser and a composite bur on enamel surface roughnessand pulp chamber temperature

    PubMed Central

    Yassaei, Sogra; Aghili, Hossein; Joshan, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Background: At the end of fixed orthodontic treatment, the remnant of adhesive should be eliminated from the tooth surface. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of three methods of removing adhesive on enamel surface roughness, dental pulp temperature, and also on the time spent. Materials and Methods: The brackets on 90 extracted teeth were debonded using bracket removal pliers. A thermocouple sensor was fitted on the buccal wall of the pulp chamber through access cavity to measure thermal changes during adhesive removal. The residue of adhesive was eliminated from enamel surface of teeth by either tungsten carbide bur, erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser, or fiber reinforced composite bur. Scanning electron micrographs images were taken to assess the roughness of enamel surface. The time spent for adhesive removal was recorded as well. Chi-square test was used to evaluate the remnants of adhesive and enamel surface roughness; t-test and also repeated measurement analysis of variance were applied at P < 0.05 to compare the thermal changes of the pulp chamber and time spent between the methods of surface treatment. Results: The results of surface roughness were significantly different (P < 0.001). The pulp temperature changed significantly (P < 0.001). Tungsten carbide bur increased the temperature by 5.5°C significantly slower than reinforced composite bur (P = 0.004), however removed the adhesive residue faster than two other methods although not significantly (P = 0.069). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, fiber reinforced composite bur created the smoothest enamel surface while Er:YAG laser the roughest. Tungsten carbide and composite burs generated more heat compared to Er:YAG laser. In addition, tungsten carbide bur was the fastest and Er:YAG laser the slowest devices to remove adhesive residue. PMID:26005466

  11. Pulpal heat changes with newly developed resin photopolymerisation systems.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, A T; Meyers, I A; Symons, A L; Walsh, L J

    2002-12-01

    Composite resin is a widely-used direct tooth coloured restorative material. Photoactivation of the polymerisation reaction can be achieved by visible blue light from a range of light sources, including halogen lamps, metal halide lamps, plasma arc lamps, and Light Emitting Diode (LED) lights. Concerns have been raised that curing lights may induce a temperature rise that could be detrimental to the vitality of the dental pulp during the act of photoactivation. The present study examined heat changes associated with standardised class V restorations on the buccal surface of extracted premolar teeth, using a curing time of 40 seconds. The independent effects of type of light source, resin shade, and remaining tooth thickness were assessed using a matrix experimental design. When a conventional halogen lamp, a metal halide lamp and two different LED lights were compared, it was found that both LED lamps elicited minimal thermal changes at the level of the dental pulp, whereas the halogen lamp induced greater changes, and the metal halide lamp caused the greatest thermal insult of all the light sources. These thermal changes were influenced by resin shade, with different patterns for LED versus halogen or halide sources. Thermal stress reduced as the remaining thickness of tooth structure between the pulp and the cavity floor increased. From these results, it is concluded that LED lights produce the least thermal insult during photopolymerisation of composite resins.

  12. Holmium:YAG laser: effect on pulpal tissues and root surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Raleigh A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    1996-04-01

    The effects of the Holmium:YAG irradiation on the pulpal tissues and surface topography on root surface dentin in human teeth in vivo were studied. The exposed root surfaces of seventeen pre-immediate denture patients were scaled and root planed with a Gracey 3 - 4 curette apical to the dentinoenamel junction until smooth and hard. The prepared root surfaces of two teeth per patient were exposed with Holmium:YAG laser energy after an application of nonfilled resin/fluoride mixture. The laser exposed areas were below the dentinoenamel junction around one-half of each root surface. The opposing sides of each of the teeth received resin/fluoride but no laser energy. A third tooth was identified as a nontreated control. The HO:YAG at 2.12 microns wavelength with a defocused beam size of 3 mm was used. The amount of laser energy delivered per 3 X 5 mm area was 0.450 (+/- .05) joules with a fluence of 2.66 - 3.30 J/cm2. The teeth were extracted after periods of 45 - 120 days. The specimens were fixed in formalin and prepared for histological examination using hematoxylin and eosin stains. Microscopic evaluation of room surfaces showed increased smoothness on the laser treated sites compared to their opposing non-lased sides. Histological examination of the pulpal tissues exhibited no abnormal changes. No clinical symptoms of pulpal pathology were produced. HO:YAG laser energy proved safe for treating room surfaces of human teeth in vivo under conditions presented in this study.

  13. Pulpal response to Er:YAG laser drilling of dentine in healthy human third molars.

    PubMed

    Nair, P N Ramachandran; Baltensperger, Marc M; Luder, Hans-Ulrich; Eyrich, Gerold K H

    2003-01-01

    Maintenance of pulpal health is a critical prerequisite for successful application of light amplification by stimulated emission of radiations (lasers) in the hard tissue management of vital teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term pulpal effects to cavity-preparations in healthy human teeth using erbium-doped:yttrium, aluminum, and garnet (Er:YAG) laser. A total of seven healthy third molars that were to be removed due to space-problem were used. Following the laser excavation, the cavities in dentine were closed temporarily and the teeth were extracted after 7 days (n = 5) and 3 months (n = 2) post-operation. The specimens were fixed, decalcified, subdivided, and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. In the short-term group, four of the five laser-drilled teeth did not reveal any pathological changes in the pulp-dentine complex. One tooth showed mild disruption of odontoblasts (OB) and vascular dilatation subjacent to the deepest point of the cavity-preparation with a remaining dentine thickness (RDT) of less than 80 microm. The two teeth under long-term observation revealed distinct apposition of tertiary dentine (TD), lined predominantly with cuboidal cells on its pulpal aspect. These results would allow a conclusion to be drawn that the Er:YAG laser under investigation is a pulp preserving hard-tissue drilling tool when used with the specific energy settings and emitting radiation at a wavelength of 2.94 microm. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Observations on pulpal response to carbon dioxide laser drilling of dentine in healthy human third molars.

    PubMed

    Nair, P N R; Baltensperger, M; Luder, H U; Eyrich, G K H

    2005-01-01

    Preservation of pulpal health is the primary prerequisite for successful application of laser systems in the hard tissue management of vital teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short and long-term pulpal effects to cavity preparations in healthy human teeth using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. A total of seven, healthy, third molars that were scheduled to be removed due to space problems were used. After the laser drilling, the occlusal cavities were closed temporarily, and the teeth were extracted 7 days (n=5) and 3 months (n=2) after the operation. The specimens were fixed, decalcified, subdivided and processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. Seven days postoperatively all the five teeth that had been irradiated with the CO2 laser did not reveal any pathological changes in the pulpo-dentine complex. Three months postoperatively the two teeth that were prepared with the laser showed subtle but distinct apposition of tertiary dentine that was lined with intact odontoblasts. One of the specimens at 3 months revealed the presence of a mild, but very circumscribed, pulpal infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells subjacent to the cavity preparation. The latter is unlikely to be due to a direct effect of the laser irradiation but a possible consequence of microleakage of oral antigens and/or other tissue-irritating molecules through the temporary restoration and the remaining dentine thickness (RDT). Although these preliminary histological results suggest that the CO2 laser under investigation induced only minimal response of the dentine-pulp complex when used as a hard-tissue drilling tool, with specific energy settings, pulse duration within thermal relaxation time and emitting radiations at 9.6 microm of wavelength, larger clinical trials involving various types of teeth are necessary to reach definite conclusions for large-scale clinical application of the laser device.

  15. Human teeth exposed to argon laser irradiation: determination of power-time-temperature working conditions.

    PubMed

    Kurachi, C; Eduardo, C P; Magalhães, D V; Bagnato, V S

    1999-12-01

    This study was conducted to establish the operating parameters of the argon laser without thermal damage to the pulp tissue for clinical applications. Previous studies have mainly compared the temperature modifications of the pulp chamber in a very limited situation, where a complete view of the thermal history cannot be obtained nor even extrapolated to new applications. We used samples of molar and premolar tooth where a class V cavity was prepared and illuminated with an argon laser at different power levels, fixing the exposition area for all cases. Situations including open cavity and teeth restoration were analyzed. High-precision thermistors were placed in four different positions, one of which was inside the pulp chamber. The temperature evolution was monitored continuously by an interfaced computer during all laser exposure. Special attention was paid to the intrapulpal temperature variation because it is considered the most vulnerable thermal region. The temperature time evolution allowed the determination of the operating conditions (power-time-temperature variation) in which the use of the argon laser causes no pulpal damage. As a function of temperature variation, we divided the whole parameter space (power-time-temperature) into zones and the optimum zone of operation was determined. We created a diagram called power-time-temperature (PTT) where zones of temperature increased under laser irradiation allow the verification of which condition is safe for clinical laser application. The results have a broad use when this type of analysis is applicable.

  16. Critical appraisal. In-office tooth whitening: pulpal effects and tooth sensitivity issues.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Swift, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    In-office bleaching is an effective method for whitening teeth.Tooth sensitivity associated with in-office whitening is reversible and may range from mild to considerable. The incidence and severity of tooth sensitivity can be reduced by pretreatment with a desensitizer such as potassium nitrate. Histologic studies and clinical studies on long-term pulpal effects are lacking to definitively support the safety of in-office tooth whitening. Future studies on the etiology of tooth sensitivity related to whitening might greatly improve the means of preventing and managing this side effect.

  17. Pulpal response to cavity preparation by an erbium, chromium:YSGG laser-powered hydrokinetic system.

    PubMed

    Eversole, L R; Rizoiu, I; Kimmel, A I

    1997-08-01

    The near red-pulsed erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser hydrokinetic system, or Er,Cr:YSGG laser HKS, is effective in cutting dental hard tissues. In this longitudinal study, the authors studied the continuously erupting open-apex incisors of New Zealand albino rabbits and the constricted apex teeth of beagles to determine the effects of HKS-produced lesions at various energy levels and of preparations produced by a tapered fissure bur on dental pulp. No pulpal inflammatory responses could be identified either immediately or 30 days after surgery in HKS preparations that removed enamel and dentin without pulp exposure.

  18. Considerations during crown reattachment procedure over the pulpal exposure: case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bona; Lee, Yoon; Song, Min-Ju; Shin, Su-Jung; Park, Jeong-Won

    2012-11-01

    Crown reattachment is the most conservative treatment which can be used to restore fractured tooth, presumably with sufficient strength, while maintaining original contour, incisal translucency, and reducing chair time and cost.However, in case of crown fracture with pin-point pulp exposure, we should cautiously minimize the irritation to the pulp and consider pre-treatment pulpal status, choice of pulp capping materials, choice of bonding system and treatment sequence during crown reattachment procedures. This case reports the considerations while crown reattachment with direct pulp capping using calcium hydroxide (Dycal, Dentsply Caulk).

  19. Considerations during crown reattachment procedure over the pulpal exposure: case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bona; Lee, Yoon; Song, Min-Ju; Shin, Su-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Crown reattachment is the most conservative treatment which can be used to restore fractured tooth, presumably with sufficient strength, while maintaining original contour, incisal translucency, and reducing chair time and cost. However, in case of crown fracture with pin-point pulp exposure, we should cautiously minimize the irritation to the pulp and consider pre-treatment pulpal status, choice of pulp capping materials, choice of bonding system and treatment sequence during crown reattachment procedures. This case reports the considerations while crown reattachment with direct pulp capping using calcium hydroxide (Dycal, Dentsply Caulk). PMID:23430343

  20. Antipollution combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Caruel, J.E.; Gastebois, P.M.

    1981-01-27

    The invention concerns a combustion chamber for turbojet engines. The combustion chamber is of the annular type and consists of two coaxial flame tubes opening into a common dilution and mixing zone. The inner tube is designed for low operating ratings of the engine, the outer tube for high ratings. Air is injected as far upstream as possible into the dilution zone, to enhance the homogenization of the gaseous flow issuing from the two tubes prior to their passage into the turbine and to assure the optimum radial distribution of temperatures. The combustion chamber according to the invention finds application in a particularly advantageous manner in turbojet engines used in aircraft propulsion because of the reduced emission of pollutants it affords.

  1. Thrust chamber life prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The reusable life of the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) is influenced by the cyclic life of the regeneratively liquid cooled main combustion chamber (MCC). During an operational duty cycle the MCC liner is subjected to a large transient thermal gradient that imparts a high thermal cyclic strain to the liner hot gas wall. Life predictions of such chambers have usually been based on low cycle fatigue (LCF) evaluations. Hot-fire testing, however, has shown significant mid-channel wall deformation and thinning during accrued cyclic testing. This phenomenon is termed cyclic creep and appears to be significantly accelerated at elevated temperatures. An analytical method that models the cyclic creep phenomenon and its application to thrust chamber life prediction is presented. The chamber finite element geometry is updated periodically to account for accrued wall thinning and distortion. Failure is based on the tensile instability failure criterion. Cyclic life results for several chamber life enhancing coolant channel designs are compared to the typically used LCF analysis that neglects cyclic creep. The results show that the usable cyclic creep life is approximately 30 to 50% of the commonly used LCF life.

  2. Small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, Sybil; Reed, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Instrumented and optically-accessible rocket chambers are being developed to be used for diagnostics of small rocket (less than 440 N thrust level) flowfields. These chambers are being tested to gather local fluid dynamic and thermodynamic flowfield data over a range of test conditions. This flowfield database is being used to better understand mixing and heat transfer phenomena in small rockets, influence the numerical modeling of small rocket flowfields, and characterize small rocket components. The diagnostic chamber designs include: a chamber design for gathering wall temperature profiles to be used as boundary conditions in a finite element heat flux model; a chamber design for gathering inner wall temperature and static pressure profiles; and optically-accessible chamber designs, to be used with a suite of laser-based diagnostics for gathering local species concentration, temperature, density, and velocity profiles. These chambers were run with gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GH2/GO2) propellants, while subsequent versions will be run on liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon (LOX/HC) propellants. The purpose, design, and initial test results of these small rocket flowfield diagnostic chambers are summarized.

  3. Species- and chamber-specific responses of 12 kDa FK506-binding protein to temperature in fish heart.

    PubMed

    Korajoki, Hanna; Vornanen, Matti

    2014-04-01

    The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel or ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the vertebrate heart is regulated by the FK506-binding proteins, FKBP12 and FKBP12.6. This study examines whether temperature-related changes in the SR function of fish hearts are associated with changes in FKBP12 expression. For this purpose, a polyclonal antibody against trout FKBP12 was used to compare FKPB12 expression in cold-acclimated (4 °C, CA) and warm-acclimated (18 °C, WA) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), burbot (Lota lota) and crucian carp (Carassius carassius) hearts. FKBP12 expression was modulated in a species- and tissue-specific manner. Temperature acclimation affected FKBP12 expression only in atrial tissue. Changes in the ventricular FKBP12 expression were not detected in any of the fish species. In the atria of rainbow trout and crucian carp, temperature acclimation produced opposite thermal responses: FKBP12 increased in the trout atrium and decreased in the crucian carp atrium under cold acclimation. In the burbot heart, chronic temperature changes did not affect cardiac FKBP12 levels. Expression of FKBP12 mRNA in rainbow trout and crucian carp hearts suggests that the transcript levels are higher in the ventricle than in the atrium and are elevated by cold acclimation in trout, but not in crucian carp. Since FKBP12 is known to increase the Ca(2+) sensitivity of cardiac RyRs and thereby the opening frequency of the Ca(2+) release channels, temperature-related changes in FKBP12 expression may modify the SR function in excitation-contraction coupling. The cold-induced increase in FKBP12 in the trout atrium and decrease in the crucian carp atrium are consistent with the previously noted increase and decrease, respectively, of SR Ca(2+) stores in cardiac contraction in these species.

  4. Warmer temperatures stimulate respiration and reduce net ecosystem productivity in a northern Great Plains grassland: Analysis of CO2 exchange in automatic chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, L. B.

    2013-12-01

    The interacting effects of altered temperature and precipitation are expected to have significant consequences for ecosystem net carbon storage. Here I report the results of an experiment that evaluated the effects of elevated temperature and altered precipitation on ecosystem CO2 exchange in a northern Great Plains grassland, near Lethbridge, Alberta Canada. Open-top chambers were used to establish an experiment in 2012 with three treatments (control, warmed, warmed plus 50% of normal precipitation input). A smaller experiment with only the two temperature treatments (control and warmed) was conducted in 2013. Continuous half-hourly net CO2 exchange measurements were made using nine automatic chambers during May-October in both years. My objectives were to determine the sensitivity of the ecosystem carbon budget to temperature and moisture manipulations, and to test for direct and indirect effects of the environmental changes on ecosystem CO2 exchange. The experimental manipulations resulted primarily in a significant increase in air temperature in the warmed treatment plots. A cumulative net loss of carbon or negative net ecosystem productivity (NEP) occurred during May through September in the warmed treatment (NEP = -659 g C m-2), while in the control treatment there was a cumulative net gain of carbon (NEP = +50 g C m-2). An eddy covariance system that operated at the site, over a footprint region that was not influenced by the experimental treatments, also showed a net gain of carbon by the ecosystem. The reduced NEP was due to higher plant and soil respiration rates in the warmed treatment that appeared to be caused by a combination of: (i) higher carbon substrate availability indirectly stimulating soil respiration in the warmed relative to the control treatment, and (ii) a strong increase in leaf respiration likely caused by a shift in electron partitioning to the alternative pathway respiration in the warmed treatment, particularly when exposed to high

  5. In vitro microtensile bond strength of four adhesives tested at the gingival and pulpal walls of class II restorations

    PubMed Central

    Purk, John H.; Healy, Matthew; Dusevich, Vladimir; Glaros, Alan; Eick, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Background The authors compared the microtensile bond strength of teeth restored with four adhesives at the gingival and pulpal cavity walls of Class II resin-based composite restorations. Methods Five pairs of extracted third molars received two Class II preparations/restorations in each tooth. The authors randomly assigned each preparation to one of four adhesive groups: Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Dental Adhesive (SBMP) (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn.), Clearfil SE Bond (CFSE) (Kuraray America, New York City), Prime & Bond NT (PBNT) (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del.) and PQ1 (Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah). They restored the teeth and obtained microtensile specimens from each cavity wall. Specimens were tested on a testing machine until they failed. Results The mean (± standard deviation) bond strengths (in megapascals) were as follows: SBMP (pulpal), 36.4 (17.2); SBMP (gingival), 29.7 (15.3); CFSE (pulpal), 50.8 (13.6); CFSE (gingival), 50.2 (14.0); PBNT (pulpal), 38.3 (19.2); PBNT (gingival), 38.9 (17.7); PQ1 (pulpal), 58.7 (8.7); and PQ1 (gingival), 54.5 (18.5). A two-way analysis of variance found an adhesive effect (P < .001) but no location effect (P > .05). Conclusions PQ1 and CFSE performed the best. The results showed no significant difference in microtensile bond strength at the gingival wall versus the pulpal wall. Clinical Implications Under in vitro conditions, a total-etch ethanol-based adhesive (PQ1) failed cohesively more often than did the other adhesives tested. PMID:17012721

  6. In vitro microtensile bond strength of four adhesives tested at the gingival and pulpal walls of Class II restorations.

    PubMed

    Purk, John H; Healy, Matthew; Dusevich, Vladimir; Glaros, Alan; Eick, J David

    2006-10-01

    The authors compared the microtensile bond strength of teeth restored with four adhesives at the gingival and pulpal cavity walls of Class II resin-based composite restorations. Five pairs of extracted third molars received two Class II preparations/restorations in each tooth. The authors randomly assigned each preparation to one of four adhesive groups: Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose Dental Adhesive (SBMP) (3M ESPE, St. Paul, Minn.), Clearfil SE Bond (CFSE) (Kuraray America, New York City), Prime & Bond NT (PBNT) (Dentsply Caulk, Milford, Del.) and PQ1 (Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah). They restored the teeth and obtained microtensile specimens from each cavity wall. Specimens were tested on a testing machine until they failed. The mean (+/- standard deviation) bond strengths (in megapascals) were as follows: SBMP (pulpal), 36.4 (17.2); SBMP (gingival), 29.7 (15.3); CFSE (pulpal), 50.8 (13.6); CFSE (gingival), 50.2 (14.0); PBNT (pulpal), 38.3 (19.2); PBNT (gingival), 38.9 (17.7); PQ1 (pulpal), 58.7 (8.7); and PQ1 (gingival), 54.5 (18.5). A two-way analysis of variance found an adhesive effect (P < .001) but no location effect (P >.05). PQ1 and CFSE performed the best. The results showed no significant difference in microtensile bond strength at the gingival wall versus the pulpal wall. Under in vitro conditions, a total-etch ethanol-based adhesive (PQ1) failed cohesively more often than did the other adhesives tested.

  7. Design, Fabrication and Testing of an Infrared Ratio Pyrometer System for the Measurement of Gasifier Reaction Chamber Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Leininger

    2005-03-31

    Texaco was awarded contract DE-FC26-99FT40684 from the U.S. DOE to design, build, bench test and field test an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier temperature. The award occurred in two phases. Phase 1, which involved designing, building and bench testing, was completed in September 2000, and the Phase 1 report was issued in March 2001. Phase 2 was completed in 2005, and the results of the field test are contained in this final report. Two test campaigns were made. In the first one, the pyrometer was sighted into the gasifier. It performed well for a brief period of time and then experienced difficulties in keeping the sight tube open due to a slag accumulation which developed around the opening of the sight tube in the gasifier wall. In the second test campaign, the pyrometer was sighted into the top of the radiant syngas cooler through an unused soot blower lance. The pyrometer experienced no more problems with slag occlusions, and the readings were continuous and consistent. However, the pyrometer readings were 800 to 900 F lower than the gasifier thermocouple readings, which is consistent with computer simulations of the temperature distribution inside the radiant syngas cooler. In addition, the pyrometer readings were too sluggish to use for control purposes. Additional funds beyond what were available in this contract would be required to develop a solution that would allow the pyrometer to be used to measure the temperature inside the gasifier.

  8. Pulpal responses following direct pulp capping of healthy dog teeth with dentine adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Koliniotou-Koumpia, E; Tziafas, D

    2005-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pulpal responses following direct pulp capping of mechanically exposed teeth with new dentine adhesive systems, in the preclinical model of dog teeth. Class V cavities (approximately 2.50 mm wide, 3.00 mm long, 1.5-2.0 mm deep) were prepared on the buccal surface of permanent maxillary and mandibulary molars, two rooted premolars, canines and third incisors. The cavities were assigned to five experimental groups, representing one control group treated with a Ca(OH)2-based material and four experimental groups where the adhesive systems Clearfil SE Bond, Prompt-L-Pop, Etch & Prime 3.0 and Single Bond were tested. The pulpal tissue responses to dentine adhesives were assessed at post-operative periods of 7, 21, 65 days. Variable responses were recorded, which were characterized by moderate to severe inflammatory reactions, progressive extension of tissue necrosis with time and total absence of continuous hard tissue bridge formation after pulp capping with each of the four adhesive systems. Application of a Ca(OH)2-based material was characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, limited tissue necrosis as well as partial to complete hard tissue bridging. It seems evident that application of dentine adhesive systems in direct contact with the mechanically exposed pulp of healthy dog teeth cannot lead to acceptable repair of the dentine-pulp complex e.g. wound healing with tertiary dentine bridge formation.

  9. Microtensile bond strengths of composite cores to pulpal floor dentin with resin coating.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Meu; Nikaido, Toru; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resin coating on the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of indirect composite cores to pulpal floor dentin. Thirty extracted human molars with root canal fillings were used. After post space preparation, dentin surface was coated with either Clearfil SE Bond (SE) or SE with Clearfil Flow FX (SE+FX) for the resin-coated groups, while dentin was treated with ED Primer II (ED) for the non-coated group. Indirect composite cores were cemented with either Panavia F2.0 (PA) or Clearfil DC Core Automix (DC). After 24-hour storage, MTBSs were measured at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Two-way ANOVA indicated that the MTBSs of resin-coated groups were significantly higher than those of the non-coated groups. In particular, the SE+FX/DC group exhibited the highest MTBS. It was thus concluded that resin coating enhanced the dentin bond strength of indirect composite cores to pulpal floor dentin.

  10. Experimentally Induced Pulpal Lesion and Substance P Expression: Effect of Ketoprofen—A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbate, Gian Marco; Sacerdote, Paola; Amodeo, Giada; Mangano, Alessandro; Levrini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate substance P (SP) and the effect of ketoprofen administration, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), on SP in the pulp of upper third molars with experimentally induced pulpal lesion. Materials and Methods. A sample of 20 young systemically healthy adults of both sexes, nonsmokers, with a healthy upper third molar to extract for orthodontic purposes, was selected. Prior to the procedure, an inflammatory process was generated by mechanical exposure of the pulp. After 15 minutes, the pulp was collected using a sterile barbed broach. SP levels were determined by using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) kit. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: group 1 received a dose of ketoprofen 30 minutes prior to the experimental procedure. The subjects of group 2 did not receive any kind of drug administration. The patients were asked to complete a diary on the postoperative pain. Results. No statistically significant difference could be detected in SP expression between the two groups. In group 1, pain manifestation was significantly delayed in comparison with group 2. Conclusions. Preventive administration of ketoprofen did not significantly affect the pulpal levels of SP but resulted in a significantly postponed manifestation of pain after extraction. PMID:27034673

  11. The Magma Chamber Simulator: Modeling Compositional, Temperature and Mass Variations in a Composite Magma-Wallrock System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohrson, W. A.; Spera, F. J.; Creamer, J. B.; Ghiorso, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Elucidation of the spectrum of compositional and mineralogical characteristics that can be generated by assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) contributes to the goal of defining the thermal and mass characteristics required to develop and maintain magma storage and transport systems in a range of tectonic settings. The Magma Chamber Simulator (MCS) utilizes the thermodynamic functionality of MELTS (Ghiorso & Sack 1995) to assess thermal, compositional and mass variations that develop in a composite magma-wallrock (M-WR) system undergoing AFC. Wallrock of defined initial conditions (e.g., PTX) heats up and potentially melts as magma cools and crystallizes. Energy balance is maintained between magma and wallrock and informs the thermal condition of wallrock, which dictates the amount and composition of anatectic melt that is incorporated into magma. As magma cools through a defined T path, output includes thermal, mass, compositional, and physical parameters for melt and solids in magma and wallrock. The simulation is complete when thermal equilibrium between magma and wallrock is achieved. Key parameters that impact the bulk composition and mineralogy of magma undergoing AFC include the initial wallrock to magma mass ratio, wallrock initial T, and initial compositions of magma and wallrock. While other system parameters are held constant, assimilation of lherzolite vs. granite by high-alumina basalt (HAB) yields differences in the total mass of anatectic melt at thermal equilibrium (e.g., 4 vs. 12% of starting magma mass, respectively) but magma SiO2 range is similar (51-53 wt. %). Thus, basaltic samples with similar Si contents can have different assimilation histories and thus manifest different trace element/isotopic characteristics; caution is therefore required when interpreting the origin of compositional heterogeneity of basalts. Initial mass of wallrock impacts magma chemical evolution as illustrated by two cases in a HAB-granite M-WR system in which

  12. Effect of temperature and humidity on post-gel shrinkage, cusp deformation, bond strength and shrinkage stress - Construction of a chamber to simulate the oral environment.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Aline Aredes; de Souza, Silas Júnior Boaventura; de Rosatto, Camila Maria Peres; Tantbirojn, Daranee; Versluis, Antheunis; Soares, Carlos José

    2015-12-01

    Evaluate the effect of environment on post-gel shrinkage (Shr), cuspal strains (CS), microtensile bond strength (μTBS), elastic modulus (E) and shrinkage stress in molars with large class II restorations. Sixty human molars received standardized Class II mesio-oclusal-distal cavity preparations. Restorations were made with two composites (CHA, Charisma Diamond, Heraus Kulzer and IPS Empress Direct, Ivoclar-Vivadent) using three environment conditions (22°C/50% humidity, 37°C/50% humidity and 37°C/90% humidity) simulated in custom developed chamber. Shr was measured using the strain gauge technique (n=10). CS was measured using strain gauges. Half of the teeth (n=5) were used to assess the elastic modulus (E) and Knoop hardness (KHN) at different depths using microhardness indentation. The other half (n=5) was used to measure the μTBS. The composites and environment conditions were simulated in a two-dimensional finite element analysis of a tooth restoration. Polymerization shrinkage was modeled using Shr data. The Shr, CS, μTBS, KHN and E data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (significance level: 0.05). Both composites had similar Shr, CS, μTBS and shrinkage stress. CHA had higher elastic modulus than IPS. Increasing temperature and humidity significantly increased Shr, CS and shrinkage stress. μTBS were similar for groups with lower humidity, irrespective of temperature, and higher with higher humidity. E and KHN were constant through the depth for CHA. E and KHN values were affected by environment only for IPS, mainly deeper in the cavity. Shrinkage stress at dentin/composite interface had high inverse correlation with μTBS. Shrinkage stress in enamel had high correlation with CS. Increasing temperature and humidity caused higher post-gel shrinkage and cusp deformation with higher shrinkage stresses in the tooth structure and tooth/restoration interface for both composites tested. The chamber developed for simulating the

  13. Novel chamber to measure equilibrium soil-air partitioning coefficients of low-volatility organic chemicals under conditions of varying temperature and soil moisture.

    PubMed

    Wolters, André; Linnemann, Volker; Smith, Kilian E C; Klingelmann, Eva; Park, Byung-Jun; Vereecken, Harry

    2008-07-01

    The need to determine soil-air partitioning coefficients (K(SA)) of low-volatility organic chemicals as a measure of their distribution in the soil surface after release into the environment resulted in the development of a novel chamber system, which has been filed for patent. A major advantage of this pseudo-static system is that sufficient time can be factored into the experiment to ensure that the system has achieved equilibrium. In a highly precise method, the air is collected in adsorption tubes and subsequently liberated in a thermodesorption system for the quantitation of the adsorbed compound. The precision of the method is great enough that even the effects of temperature and soil moisture on the soil-air partitioning of very low-volatility compounds can be quantified. Because of analytical detection limits, quantitation of these influences has not been possible to date. Functionality of the setup was illustrated by measurements on the fungicide fenpropimorph. K(SA) values of fenpropimorph displayed a negative relationship with temperature and soil moisture. The type of application (spraying or incorporation) and the use of formulated compounds was shown to have a major impact on the measured K(SA) values. Comparison with calculations using an estimation method revealed that the use of experimentally determined K(SA) values will facilitate a more adequate consideration of volatilization in recent model approaches.

  14. Columbium Chamber Fabrication Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    materials. Demonstrate CVO close-out of slotted, filled, C103 columbium alloy panels and subsequent removal of the filler materials. 1.0, Introduction...their removal subsequent to CV0 of a columbium close-out. C103 columbium alloy plate, procured to Aeronautical Materials Specification (SAE) -- AMS 7852...into the chamber. Surface oxygen contamination of the C103 columbium alloy wcs evident in all metallographic sections. 8.1 LOW TEMPERATURE DEPOSIT

  15. Chamber transport

    SciTech Connect

    OLSON,CRAIG L.

    2000-05-17

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system.

  16. The Efficacy of a Repeated Buccal Infiltration of Articaine in Prolonging Duration of Pulpal Anesthesia in the Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Pabst, Lindsay; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown declining rates of pulpal anesthesia over 60 minutes when a cartridge of 4% articaine is used with 1∶100,000 epinephrine for buccal infiltration in the mandibular first molar. The authors conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blind, crossover study comparing the degree of pulpal anesthesia obtained with 2 sets of mandibular first molar buccal infiltrations, given in 2 separate appointments, to 86 adult subjects: an initial infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine plus a repeated infiltration of the same anesthetic and dose given 25 minutes following the initial infiltration versus an initial infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine plus a mock repeated infiltration given 25 minutes following the initial infiltration. The authors used an electric pulp tester to test the first molar for anesthesia in 3-minute cycles for 112 minutes after the injections. The repeated infiltration significantly improved pulpal anesthesia from 28 minutes through 109 minutes in the mandibular first molar. A repeated infiltration of a cartridge of 4% articaine with 1∶100,000 epinephrine given 25 minutes after an initial infiltration of the same type and dose of anesthetic significantly improved the duration of pulpal anesthesia, when compared with only an initial buccal infiltration, in the mandibular first molar. PMID:20020793

  17. In vitro Effects of Ice, Skin Refrigerant, and CO2 Snow on Intra-Pulpal Temperature.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-11

    TAB Un nnounced Ju!tifi C tin , w,! h ’ f v C-es j.LI’d or D1st spec al * C ft 41 INTRODUCTION A reliable and yet practical vitality test would be a... Endodontic therapy or extraction is indicated for such teeth, however, underscoring the 2 the misdiagnosis which can result from reliance on electrical pulp...to 33% of teeth with partial or total necrosis responded normally to ice or ethyl chloride, while 27% to 50% of teeth not requiring endodontic

  18. In Vitro Model System to Evaluate Intra-Pulpal Temperature Changes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    not to be construed as those of the Army Medical Department. Requests for reprints should be directed to: COL Donald D. Peters Mentor, Endodontic ...Laboratory Study. J Dent Res 42(5): 1140-1145, 1963. 7. Sokal, R.R., and Rahlf, F.J. Biometry:The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological

  19. Porcelain inlays cemented with composite resin cement: an in vivo investigation of pulpal reaction one year following cementation.

    PubMed

    Vigolo, Paolo; Graiff, Lorenzo; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Fonzi, Fulvio

    2007-01-01

    This in vivo study was designed to verify the presence of pulpal inflammation on teeth after 1 year of function from cementation of porcelain inlays. Thirty-two vital, healthy, caries-free and previously untreated maxillary and mandibular first premolars in eight patients needing extraction for orthodontic reasons were included in this study. For each patient three first premolars were randomly chosen and treated with porcelain MOD inlays. One first premolar served as the control group with no restorations. The porcelain inlays were cemented with dental adhesive and composite resin cement without pulpal protection. The same dentist, following standardized preparation, impression, and cementation techniques, accomplished all clinical phases. The teeth were extracted 1 year later. The condition of the pulp tissues of the 24 teeth with porcelain inlays was compared with the pulpal tissues of the eight teeth of the control group. The data relating to the number of inflammatory cells were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance to assess quantitative differences between the group of teeth with porcelain inlays and the group without porcelain inlays (p < 0.05). Means and standard deviations were calculated for each group. The microscopic analysis revealed the absence of pulpal inflammation of the teeth with porcelain inlays when compared with the teeth of the control group. The analysis of variance revealed no statistical differences between the two groups compared. Within the limitations of this study, the cementation of porcelain inlays with dental adhesive and composite cement on healthy premolars did not result in any inflammatory reaction of the pulpal tissues 1 year after placement.

  20. Exposed Dentin: Influence of Cleaning Procedures and Simulated Pulpal Pressure on Bond Strength of a Universal Adhesive System

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To compare various pre-treatments serving as cleaning procedures of dentin on the bond strength of resin composite promoted by a universal adhesive system applied either in the absence or presence of simulated pulpal pressure. Materials and Methods Prior to application of the adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal) and resin composite (Filtek Z250), ground dentin surfaces were given one of five pre-treatments either without or with simulated pulpal pressure: 1) no pre-treatment, adhesive system in “self-etch” mode, 2) phosphoric acid etching, adhesive system in “total-etch” mode, 3) polishing with pumice on prophylaxis cup, 4) air abrasion with AIR-FLOW PLUS powder, 5) air abrasion with AIR-FLOW PERIO powder; n = 20/group of pre-treatment. After storage (37°C, 100% humidity, 24 h), micro shear bond strength was measured and data analyzed with parametric ANOVA including Bonferroni-Holm correction for multiple testing followed by Student’s t tests (significance level: α = 0.05). Results The ANOVA found type of pre-treatment and simulated pulpal pressure to have no significant effect on dentin bond strength. The explorative post-hoc tests showed a negative effect of simulated pulpal pressure for phosphoric acid etching (adhesive system in “total-etch” mode; p = 0.020), but not for the other four pre-treatments (all p = 1.000). Conclusion Air abrasion with powders containing either erythritol and chlorhexidine (AIR-FLOW PLUS) or glycine (AIR-FLOW PERIO) yielded dentin bond strengths similar to no pre-treatment, phosphoric acid etching, or polishing with pumice. Simulated pulpal pressure reduced the bond strength only when the self-etch adhesive system was used in total-etch mode. PMID:28081572

  1. Potential applications of antimicrobial peptides and their mimics in combating caries and pulpal infections.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sui; Mauger, Matthew T; Niu, Li-Na; Barnes, Jonathan B; Kao, Solon; Bergeron, Brian E; Ling, Jun-Qi; Tay, Franklin R

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are short cationic host-defense molecules that provide the early stage of protection against invading microbes. They also have important modulatory roles and act as a bridge between innate and acquired immunity. The types and functions of oral AMPs were reviewed and experimental reports on the use of natural AMPs and their synthetic mimics in caries and pulpal infections were discussed. Natural AMPs in the oral cavity, predominantly defensins, cathelicidins and histatins, possess antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens and biofilms. Incomplete debridement of microorganisms in root canal space may precipitate an exacerbated immune response that results in periradicular bone resorption. Because of their immunomodulatory and wound healing potentials, AMPs stimulate pro-inflammatory cytokine production, recruit host defense cells and regulate immuno-inflammatory responses in the vicinity of the pulp and periapex. Recent rapid advances in the development of synthetic AMP mimics offer exciting opportunities for new therapeutic initiatives in root canal treatment and regenerative endodontics.

  2. [Approach to pulpal and pulpo-periodontal lesions of the temporary teeth using therapeutic endodontics].

    PubMed

    Demars-Fremault, C; Pilipili, M C; Roupa, M

    1992-01-01

    The anatomical and physiological properties of deciduous teeth make them susceptible to caries and inflammatory and infectious complications. This specificity, the proximity of the germ of the underlaying permanent tooth, and the relation of the last one to the deciduous tooth, make delicate its conservation by endodontal therapeutics after a pulpal or pulpo-periodontal affection. The success of this attempt is related to a good case-selection, based on the general condition of the child, his and his parents motivation, the condition of cariogenicity of the mouth, the analysis of the unity deciduous tooth/germ of the underlaying permanent tooth, the follow-up of the case. A success spares young children extraction of the deciduous teeth before the physiological period of permutation.

  3. Periapical lesions are not always a sequelae of pulpal necrosis: a retrospective study of 1521 biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kontogiannis, T G; Tosios, K I; Kerezoudis, N P; Krithinakis, S; Christopoulos, P; Sklavounou, A

    2015-01-01

    To record the incidence of lesions that were not the sequelae of pulpal necrosis (non-SPN) amongst 1521 biopsies of periapical lesions submitted with a clinical diagnosis of a sequelae of pulpal necrosis (SPN). A retrospective study of 1521 biopsy request forms of specimens submitted for histopathological examination with a clinical diagnosis 'periapical inflammation', 'periapical abscess', 'periapical granuloma' or 'periapical cyst' during an arbitrarily selected 14-year period was undertaken. Gender and age of the patient, site and maximum diameter of the lesion, symptoms, inclusion of the final diagnosis in the differential diagnosis and specialty of the clinician submitting the biopsy material were recorded in each case. The final diagnosis for each case was extracted from the pathology report, and two groups were formed, SPN and non-SPN lesions. Differences between the respective features of SPN and non-SPN cases were analysed with Yate's chi-square test and t-test (significance level P < 0.05) RESULTS: In 52 of the 1521 cases examined (3.42%), the histological diagnosis was not consistent with a SPN. In most non-SPN cases, the histopathological diagnosis was not included in the differential diagnosis. The keratocystic odontogenic tumour [odontogenic keratocyst (OKC)] was the most frequent non-SPN lesion (34.62%). Other, yet less frequent, non-SPN lesions included glandular odontogenic cysts, lateral periodontal cysts, central ossifying fibromas as well as malignancies (metastatic carcinomas and Langerhans cell histiocytosis). Non-SPN lesions appeared in the periapical region mimicking a SPN, although rarely. Most of them were developmental cysts, in particular OKCs, but odontogenic tumours, such as ameloblastoma, or malignant lesions were also diagnosed. Histological examination of tissue harvested from periapical lesions should be performed, in particular when those lesions are large. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  4. Cytotoxicity and Osteogenic Potential of Silicate Calcium Cements as Potential Protective Materials for Pulpal Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Bortoluzzi, Eduardo A.; Niu, Li-na; Palani, Chithra D.; El-Awady, Ahmed R.; Hammond, Barry D.; Pei, Dan-dan; Tian, Fu-cong; Cutler, Christopher W.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In pulpal revascularization, a protective material is placed coronal to the blood clot to prevent recontamination and to facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchynal stem cells to produce new dental tissues. Although mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been the material of choice for clot protection, it is easily displaced into the clot during condensation. The present study evaluated the effects of recently-introduced calcium silicate cements (Biodentine and TheraCal LC) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) by comparing with MTA Angelus. Methods Cell viability was assessed using XTT assay and flow cytometry. The osteogenic potential of hDPSCs exposed to calcium silicate cements was examined using qRT-PCR for osteogeic gene expressions, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity, Alizarin red S staining and transmission electron microscopy of extracellular calcium deposits. Parametric statistical methods were employed for analyses of significant difference among groups, with α=0.05. Results The cytotoxic effects of Biodentine and TheraCal LC on hDPSCs were time- and concentration-dependent. Osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs was enhanced after exposure to Biodentine that was depleted of its cytotoxic components. This effect was less readily observed in hDPSCs exposed to TheraCal LC, although both cements supported extracelluar mineralization better than the positive control (zinc oxide-eugenol–based cement). Significance A favorable tissue response is anticipated to occur with the use of Biodentine as a blood clot-protecting material for pulpal revascularizaiton. Further investigations with the use of in vivo animal models are required to validate the potential adverse biological effects of TheraCal LC on hDPSCs. PMID:26494267

  5. Cytotoxicity and osteogenic potential of silicate calcium cements as potential protective materials for pulpal revascularization.

    PubMed

    Bortoluzzi, Eduardo A; Niu, Li-Na; Palani, Chithra D; El-Awady, Ahmed R; Hammond, Barry D; Pei, Dan-Dan; Tian, Fu-Cong; Cutler, Christopher W; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2015-12-01

    In pulpal revascularization, a protective material is placed coronal to the blood clot to prevent recontamination and to facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to produce new dental tissues. Although mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been the material of choice for clot protection, it is easily displaced into the clot during condensation. The present study evaluated the effects of recently introduced calcium silicate cements (Biodentine and TheraCal LC) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) by comparing with MTA Angelus. Cell viability was assessed using XTT assay and flow cytometry. The osteogenic potential of hDPSCs exposed to calcium silicate cements was examined using qRT-PCR for osteogenic gene expressions, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity, Alizarin red S staining and transmission electron microscopy of extracellular calcium deposits. Parametric statistical methods were employed for analyses of significant difference among groups, with α=0.05. The cytotoxic effects of Biodentine and TheraCal LC on hDPSCs were time- and concentration-dependent. Osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs was enhanced after exposure to Biodentine that was depleted of its cytotoxic components. This effect was less readily observed in hDPSCs exposed to TheraCal LC, although both cements supported extracellular mineralization better than the positive control (zinc oxide-eugenol-based cement). A favorable tissue response is anticipated to occur with the use of Biodentine as a blood clot-protecting material for pulpal revascularization. Further investigations with the use of in vivo animal models are required to validate the potential adverse biological effects of TheraCal LC on hDPSCs. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. National Ignition Facility Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Wavrik, R W; Cox, J R; Fleming, P J

    2000-10-05

    On June 11, 1999 the Department of Energy dedicated the single largest piece of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. The ten (10) meter diameter aluminum target high vacuum chamber will serve as the working end of the largest laser in the world. The output of 192 laser beams will converge at the precise center of the chamber. The laser beams will enter the chamber in two by two arrays to illuminate 10 millimeter long gold cylinders called hohlraums enclosing 2 millimeter capsule containing deuterium, tritium and isotopes of hydrogen. The two isotopes will fuse, thereby creating temperatures and pressures resembling those found only inside stars and in detonated nuclear weapons, but on a minute scale. The NIF Project will serve as an essential facility to insure safety and reliability of our nation's nuclear arsenal as well as demonstrating inertial fusion's contribution to creating electrical power. The paper will discuss the requirements that had to be addressed during the design, fabrication and testing of the target chamber. A team from Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and LLNL with input from industry performed the configuration and basic design of the target chamber. The method of fabrication and construction of the aluminum target chamber was devised by Pitt-Des Moines, Inc. (PDM). PDM also participated in the design of the chamber in areas such as the Target Chamber Realignment and Adjustment System, which would allow realignment of the sphere laser beams in the event of earth settlement or movement from a seismic event. During the fabrication of the target chamber the sphericity tolerances had to be addressed for the individual plates. Procedures were developed for forming, edge preparation and welding of individual plates. Construction plans were developed to allow the field construction of the target chamber to occur parallel to other NIF construction activities. This was

  7. A new miniature hydrostatic pressure chamber for microscopy. Strain- free optical glass windows facilitate phase-contrast and polarized- light microscopy of living cells. Optional fixture permits simultaneous control of pressure and temperature

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a miniature, temperature- controlled, stainless steel pressure chamber which uses strain-free optical glass for windows. It is directly adaptable to standard phase- contrast and polarized-light microscopes and requires a minimum amount of equipment to generate and measure pressure. Birefringence retardation (BR) og 0.1 nm up to 3,000 psi, 0.4 nm up to 5,000 psi and 1.0 nm up to 10,000 psi can be detected over a 0.75-mm central field with two strain-free Leitz 20 times UM objectives, one used as a condenser. In phase-contrast studies a Nikon DML 40 times phase objective and Zeiss model IS long working-distance phase condenser were used, with little deterioration of image quality or contrast at pressures as high as 12,000 psi. The actual design process required a synthesis of various criteria which may be categorized under four main areas of consideration: (a) specimen physiology; (b) constraints imposed by available optical equipment and standard microscope systems; (c) mechanical strength and methods for generating pressure; and (d) optical requirements of the chamber windows. Procedures for using the chambers, as well as methods for shifting and controlling the temperature within the chamber, are included. PMID:1094021

  8. Portable Hyperbaric Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); Locke, James P. (Inventor); DeLaFuente, Horacio (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A portable, collapsible hyperbaric chamber was developed. A toroidal inflatable skeleton provides initial structural support for the chamber, allowing the attendant and/or patient to enter the chamber. Oval hatches mate against bulkhead rings, and the hyperbaric chamber is pressurized. The hatches seal against an o-ring, and the internal pressure of the chamber provides the required pressure against the hatch to maintain an airtight seal. In the preferred embodiment, the hyperbaric chamber has an airlock to allow the attendant to enter and exit the patient chamber during treatment. Visual communication is provided through portholes in the patient and/or airlock chamber. Life monitoring and support systems are in communication with the interior of the hyperbaric chamber and/or airlock chamber through conduits and/or sealed feed-through connectors into the hyperbaric chamber.

  9. Portable Hyperbaric Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, William C. (Inventor); Locke, James P. (Inventor); DeLaFuente, Horacio (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A portable, collapsible hyperbaric chamber was developed. A toroidal inflatable skeleton provides initial structural support for the chamber, allowing the attendant and/or patient to enter the chamber. Oval hatches mate against bulkhead rings, and the hyperbaric chamber is pressurized. The hatches seal against an o-ring, and the internal pressure of the chamber provides the required pressure against the hatch to maintain an airtight seal. In the preferred embodiment, the hyperbaric chamber has an airlock to allow the attendant to enter and exit the patient chamber during treatment. Visual communication is provided through portholes in the patient and/or airlock chamber. Life monitoring and support systems are in communication with the interior of the hyperbaric chamber and/or airlock chamber through conduits and/or sealed feed-through connectors into the hyperbaric chamber.

  10. Mechanisms underlying ectopic persistent tooth-pulp pain following pulpal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Shingo; Shimizu, Kohei; Shinoda, Masamichi; Ohara, Kinuyo; Ogiso, Bunnai; Honda, Kuniya; Katagiri, Ayano; Sessle, Barry J; Urata, Kentaro; Iwata, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the peripheral mechanisms of ectopic persistent pain in a tooth pulp following pulpal inflammation of an adjacent tooth, masseter muscle activity, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) and TRPV1 immunohistochemistries and satellite cell activation using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) were studied in the rats with molar tooth-pulp inflammation. And, Fluorogold (FG) and DiI were also used in a neuronal tracing study to analyze if some TG neurons innervate more than one tooth pulp. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) or saline was applied into the upper first molar tooth pulp (M1) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and capsaicin was applied into the upper second molar tooth pulp (M2) on day 3 after the CFA or saline application. Mean EMG activity elicited in the masseter muscle by capsaicin application to M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. The mean number of pERK-immunoreactive (IR) TG cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. Application of the satellite cell inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) into TG caused a significant depression of capsaicin-induced masseter muscle activity and a significant reduction of satellite cell activation. The number of TRPV1-IR TG cells innervating M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats, and that was decreased following FC injection into TG. Furthermore, 6% of TG neurons innervating M1 and/or M2 innervated both M1 and M2. These findings suggest that satellite cell activation following tooth pulp inflammation and innervation of multiple tooth pulps by single TG neurons may be involved in the enhancement of the activity of TG neurons innervating adjacent non-inflamed teeth that also show enhancement of TRPV1 expression in TG neurons, resulting in the ectopic persistent tooth-pulp pain

  11. Mechanisms Underlying Ectopic Persistent Tooth-Pulp Pain following Pulpal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Shingo; Shimizu, Kohei; Shinoda, Masamichi; Ohara, Kinuyo; Ogiso, Bunnai; Honda, Kuniya; Katagiri, Ayano; Sessle, Barry J.; Urata, Kentaro; Iwata, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the peripheral mechanisms of ectopic persistent pain in a tooth pulp following pulpal inflammation of an adjacent tooth, masseter muscle activity, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK) and TRPV1 immunohistochemistries and satellite cell activation using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunohistochemistry in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) were studied in the rats with molar tooth-pulp inflammation. And, Fluorogold (FG) and DiI were also used in a neuronal tracing study to analyze if some TG neurons innervate more than one tooth pulp. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) or saline was applied into the upper first molar tooth pulp (M1) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and capsaicin was applied into the upper second molar tooth pulp (M2) on day 3 after the CFA or saline application. Mean EMG activity elicited in the masseter muscle by capsaicin application to M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. The mean number of pERK-immunoreactive (IR) TG cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. Application of the satellite cell inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC) into TG caused a significant depression of capsaicin-induced masseter muscle activity and a significant reduction of satellite cell activation. The number of TRPV1-IR TG cells innervating M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats, and that was decreased following FC injection into TG. Furthermore, 6% of TG neurons innervating M1 and/or M2 innervated both M1 and M2. These findings suggest that satellite cell activation following tooth pulp inflammation and innervation of multiple tooth pulps by single TG neurons may be involved in the enhancement of the activity of TG neurons innervating adjacent non-inflamed teeth that also show enhancement of TRPV1 expression in TG neurons, resulting in the ectopic persistent tooth

  12. CARS study of linewidths of the Q-branch of hydrogen molecules at high temperatures in a pulsed high-pressure H{sub 2}-O{sub 2} combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Vereschagin, Konstantin A; Vereschagin, Alexey K; Smirnov, Valery V; Stelmakh, O M; Fabelinskii, V I; Clauss, W; Klimenko, D N; Oschwald, M

    2005-03-31

    The results of measurements of individual line widths of the Q-branch of a hydrogen molecule and the corresponding coefficients of broadening caused by collisions with water molecules at T = 2700 K in a repetitively pulsed high-pressure (50-200 atm) hydrogen-oxygen combustion chamber are presented. CARS spectra of individual Q{sub 1}-Q{sub 7} hydrogen lines, pressure pulses, and the broadband CARS spectra of the entire Q-branch of hydrogen are recorded simultaneously during a single laser pulse. The shape of line profiles was analysed using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The temperature in the volume being probed was determined from the 'broadband' CARS spectra. The entire body of the experimental results gives information on the spectral linewidths, temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber during CARS probing. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Comparison of the Booster Interface Temperature in Stainless Steel (SS) V-Channel versus the Aluminum (Al) Y-Channel Primer Chamber Assemblies (PCAs). Volume 1; Technical Assessment Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Technical Fellow for Propulsion, requested a technical assessment of the performance improvement achieved by the introduction of the stainless steel (SS) V-channel compared to the aluminum (Al) Y-channel Primer Chamber Assembly (PCA) design. The SS V-channel PCA was developed for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project. The principle focus of the assessment was to measure the transient temperature at the booster interface with both designs. This document contains the findings of the assessment.

  14. [Effects of pulpal inflammation on the activities of periodontal mechanoreceptive afferent fibers].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2010-06-01

    Response properties of periodontal single afferents were investigated in cats with inflammatory irritant-induced pulpitis. A deep dentin cavity was prepared on the right mandibular canine in order to apply an inflammatory agent and small fiber excitant, allyl-isothiocyanate (mustard oil: MO), and single afferents innervating the canine periodontal mechanoreceptor were dissected from the mandibular nerve bundle by examining impulse responses while applying mechanical stimuli to the tip of the crown. Evoked impulses by mechanical stimuli were increased in number for 15 minutes with MO application to the pulp when compared with those with mineral oil. The mechanoreceptive thresholds of single nerve fibers were decreased after the MO application to the pulp when compared with those with mineral oil. These results suggest that the alteration of responses in the periodontal afferent fiber, or the peripheral sensitization, can be produced by MO-induced pulpal inflammation probably due to the axon reflex mechanism in the furcating branches of nerve fibers innervating both the tooth pulp and periodontal ligament.

  15. Effect of iontophoretical application of NK1 receptor antagonists on pulpal blood flow in cats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyung; Chu, Wan-sik; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Ahn, Dong-Kuk; Kim, Sung Kyo

    2005-09-01

    The influence of NK1 receptor antagonists applied iontophoretically on pulpal blood flow (PBF) was investigated. Along with substance P (SP, 0.8 approximately 20.0 ng/kg) administration to the canine pulp through the catheterized lingual artery, two NK1 receptor antagonists, [D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-SP and [D-Pro2,D-Phe7,D-Trp9]-SP (0.2 approximately 3.4 mM) were applied iontophoretically (cathodal current, 0.02 approximately 0.1 mA, 1 min) to the prepared class V dentinal cavity of ipsilateral teeth in 11 generally anesthetized cats. A paired t-test showed that SP administration caused significant increases of PBF (p < 0.05) without changing systemic blood pressure, and that SP and SP antagonist administration caused significantly less increase of PBF than in control of SP and 0.9% saline administration (p < 0.05). These data provide evidence that the iontophoretic application of NK1 receptor antagonists effectively attenuates SP-induced vasodilatation and show the possibility of their use in the control of neurogenic inflammation in the dental pulp.

  16. Experimental orthodontic tooth movement and extensive root resorption: periodontal and pulpal changes.

    PubMed

    Tripuwabhrut, Polbhat; Brudvik, Pongsri; Fristad, Inge; Rethnam, Sivakami

    2010-12-01

    Previous studies have reported changes both in dental pulp and in periodontal ligament (PDL) following orthodontic tooth movement. However, pulpal changes following extensive root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement have not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate inflammatory changes, both in the dental pulp and in the compressed PDL, after experimentally induced extensive root resorption. Extensive root resorption was induced in rats by the activation and re-activation of orthodontic force, with a short intervening period of no force application. The distribution of immune cells, nerve fibres and blood vessels was studied immunohistochemically using antibodies against CD68-immunoreactive (IR) cells, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Ia-expressing cells, CD43-IR cells, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), and laminin. In the compressed PDL of experimental first molars, significantly increased density of CD68-IR cells and MHC class II Ia-expressing cells were found, whereas the density of CD43-IR cells were unchanged when compared with control second molars. In the compressed PDL, there was an increased density of blood vessels, but no sprouting of nerve fibres. In the dental pulp, however, no increased density of immune cells or sprouting of nerve fibres was recorded. In conclusion, inflammation after extensive root resorption was confined to the compressed PDL, whereas the dental pulp was unaffected.

  17. Pulpal therapy for primary teeth: formocresol vs electrosurgery: a clinical study.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Nancy; Reyes, Eleida; Mazzaoui, Soraya; Morón, Alexis

    2003-01-01

    Post-operative clinical and x-ray findings on 80 primary molars were evaluated. These molars had undergone pulpal therapy by 2 techniques: pulpotomy with formocresol and with electrosurgery. The sample was selected from children between the ages of 4 and 7. A criterion for inclusion was each child must have at least 2 primary molars with pulp exposed by caries. Experimental molars with 1 or more of the following clinical or radiographic signs and symptoms were excluded: mobility, sensitivity to percussion, the presence of fistulae, groove drainage, apical or internal resorption, fetid smell and compromised furcation. Also excluded were patients previously diagnosed with diabetes, cardiopathy and renal alterations. Initially, a dinical and radiographic examination was carried out, followed by another at 1, 3 and 6 months after application of the techniques. No significant differences were found at the end of the period. However, electrosurgery had an advantage: it was faster to apply and dispensed with the use of formocresol. Further research is suggested, using larger samples and shorter evaluation periods.

  18. Improved Bakeout Chambers Within Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kenneth R.; Taylor, Daniel M.; Lane, Robert W.; Cortez, Maximo G.; Anderson, Mark R.

    1995-01-01

    Improved bakeout chamber incorporates hardware features that, in conjunction with improved bakeout procedure, reduce spurious contamination and increase accuracy of contamination measurements. When operated according to revised bakeout procedure, they yield measurements of contamination on vacuum-bake test articles more accurate than available previously, and potential for post-bake recontamination of vacuum-baked articles reduced. These chambers improved versions of one described in "Bakeout Chamber Within Vacuum Chamber" (NPO-18959). By enclosing test article in enclave and keeping walls of enclave hotter than test article during bakeout, one prevents condensation of contaminants on inner walls of enclave.

  19. Emulsion Chamber Technology Experiment (ECT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    The experimental objective of Emulsion Chamber Technology (ECT) was to develop space-borne emulsion chamber technology so that cosmic rays and nuclear interactions may subsequently be studied at extremely high energies with long exposures in space. A small emulsion chamber was built and flown on flight STS-62 of the Columbia in March 1994. Analysis of the several hundred layers of radiation-sensitive material has shown excellent post-flight condition and suitability for cosmic ray physics analysis at much longer exposures. Temperature control of the stack was 20 +/-1 C throughout the active control period and no significant deviations of temperature or pressure in the chamber were observed over the entire mission operations period. The unfortunate flight attitude of the orbiter (almost 90% Earth viewing) prevented any significant number of heavy particles (Z greater than or equal to 10) reaching the stack and the inverted flow of shower particles in the calorimeter has not allowed evaluation of absolute primary cosmic ray-detection efficiency nor of the practical time limits of useful exposure of these calorimeters in space to the level of detail originally planned. Nevertheless, analysis of the observed backgrounds and quality of the processed photographic and plastic materials after the flight show that productive exposures of emulsion chambers are feasible in low orbit for periods of up to one year or longer. The engineering approaches taken in the ECT program were proven effective and no major environmental obstacles to prolonged flight are evident.

  20. Simulation of Layered Magma Chambers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorn, Richard Grant

    1991-01-01

    The principles of magma addition and liquid layering in magma chambers can be demonstrated by dissolving colored crystals. The concepts of density stratification and apparent lack of mixing of miscible liquids is convincingly illustrated with hydrous solutions at room temperature. The behavior of interstitial liquids in "cumulus" piles…

  1. Simulation of Layered Magma Chambers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorn, Richard Grant

    1991-01-01

    The principles of magma addition and liquid layering in magma chambers can be demonstrated by dissolving colored crystals. The concepts of density stratification and apparent lack of mixing of miscible liquids is convincingly illustrated with hydrous solutions at room temperature. The behavior of interstitial liquids in "cumulus" piles…

  2. Calculation of gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber and in the air-gas channel of a gas-turbine unit by data of acceptance tests in accordance with ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyuk, A. G.; Karpunin, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a high accuracy method enabling performance of the calculation of real values of the initial temperature of a gas turbine unit (GTU), i.e., the gas temperature at the outlet of the combustion chamber, in a situation where manufacturers do not disclose this information. The features of the definition of the initial temperature of the GTU according to ISO standards were analyzed. It is noted that the true temperatures for high-temperature GTUs is significantly higher than values determined according to ISO standards. A computational procedure for the determination of gas temperatures in the air-gas channel of the gas turbine and cooling air consumptions over blade rims is proposed. As starting equations, the heat balance equation and the flow mixing equation for the combustion chamber are assumed. Results of acceptance GTU tests according to ISO standards and statistical dependencies of required cooling air consumptions on the gas temperature and the blade metal are also used for calculations. An example of the calculation is given for one of the units. Using a developed computer program, the temperatures in the air-gas channel of certain GTUs are calculated, taking into account their design features. These calculations are performed on the previously published procedure for the detailed calculation of the cooled gas turbine subject to additional losses arising because of the presence of the cooling system. The accuracy of calculations by the computer program is confirmed by conducting verification calculations for the GTU of the Mitsubishi Comp. and comparing results with published data of the company. Calculation data for temperatures were compared with the experimental data and the characteristics of the GTU, and the error of the proposed method is estimated.

  3. Effects of Immediate Dentin Sealing and Pulpal Pressure on Resin Cement Bond Strength and Nanoleakage.

    PubMed

    Santana, V B; de Alexandre, R S; Rodrigues, J A; Ely, C; Reis, A F

    2016-01-01

    The object of this study was to evaluate the simulated pulpal pressure (SPP) and immediate dentin sealing technique (IDS) effects on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and nanoleakage of interfaces produced by different luting agents. Two self-adhesive luting agents (RelyX Unicem [UC] and Clearfil SA Luting [SA]) and two conventional luting agents (Rely X ARC [RX] and Panavia F [PF]) were evaluated. Eighty human molars were divided in four groups according to luting agents. Each group was subdivided according to SPP (with or without) and dentin sealing (immediate or delayed) using Clearfil SE Bond (n=5). After IDS was performed, specimens were stored in water for seven days before luting procedures. Composite blocks were luted according to the manufacturers' instructions. One half of the specimens were subjected to 15 cm H2O of hydrostatic pressure for 24 hours before cementation procedures and continued for 24 hours afterward. Then, restored teeth were sectioned into beams and tested in tension. Two additional teeth per group were prepared for nanoleakage evaluation with scanning electron microscopy. Bond strength data were statistically analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and Tukey test. μTBS of RX decreased when it was subjected to SPP without IDS. However, in the same conditions, μTBS of UC increased. The IDS prevented negative influence of SPP on μTBS of RX and PF; however, a decrease in μTBS of SA and UC was observed. Except for RX, IDS increased μTBS for all resin cements. Independent of SPP, the IDS technique obtained higher μTBS for PF, SA, and UC and did not influence RX μTBS.

  4. Human pulpal blood flow in different root formation stages measured with transmitted-light plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Ganbold, Khongorzul; Kakino, Satoko; Ikeda, Hideharu; Miyashin, Michiyo

    2017-11-01

    To determine the pulp vitality after traumatic injury, dentists often use pulp sensitivity tests, which can be ambiguous in young permanent teeth with incomplete root formation. Transmitted-light plethysmography (TLP) is a non-invasive objective method that uses a 525-nm LED to detect blood volume change in the pulp. The present study aimed (1) to investigate pulpal blood flow with TLP and optical characteristics in healthy permanent maxillary incisors in different root formation stages, and (2) to assess the influences of body growth of the children and tooth color on the TLP amplitude. Seventy-eight fully erupted maxillary central incisors were divided into four groups, according to the root formation stages. Group 1: root with wide-open apex, Group 2: root completed in length with open apex, Group 3: root with half-closed apex, Group 4: root with complete formation. The TLP amplitude, optical density, electric pulp testing, and cervical tooth color measurements of each group were compared using a one-way analysis of variance followed by the Bonferroni method. The correlation between the weights/heights of children and TLP amplitudes was analyzed using Pearson coefficient. The TLP amplitude was significantly higher in Group 3 than in the other groups. The amplitude was correlated with the weights/heights of children, but not with the tooth color. Optical density and electric sensitivity increased with tooth maturation. The amplitude of TLP and optical density may be affected by growth and development in children and indicate changes in the vascular dynamics of the pulp and hard tissue maturation during root formation stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Histological observations of pulpal replacement tissue in immature dog teeth after revascularization of infected pulps.

    PubMed

    Saoud, Tarek Mohamed A; Zaazou, Ashraf; Nabil, Ahmed; Moussa, Sybel; Aly, Hanaa Mohamed; Okazaki, Katsushi; Rosenberg, Paul A; Lin, Louis M

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have examined the nature of tissue formed in the canals of immature necrotic teeth, following revascularization in animals and humans. While speculations have been made that regeneration of the pulp tissue might take place in the canal, the tissue has been found to be cementum-like, bone-like, and periodontal ligament-like. The purpose of this study was to histologically examine the tissue in the root canals in immature dog teeth that had been artificially infected and then revascularized. Two 4- to 5-month-old mongrel dogs with immature teeth were used in the study. In one dog, four maxillary and four mandibular anterior teeth, and in another dog, four maxillary and five mandibular anterior teeth were used in the experiment. Pulp infection was artificially induced in the immature teeth. Revascularization was performed on all teeth by disinfecting the root canals with sodium hypochlorite irrigation and triple antibiotic intracanal dressing, completed with induction of intracanal bleeding, and sealed with an MTA plug. The access cavity was restored with silver amalgam. The animals were sacrificed 3 months after revascularization procedures. The revascularized teeth and surrounding periodontal tissues were removed and prepared for histological examination. Besides cementum-like, bone-like, and periodontal ligament-like tissues formed in the canals, residual remaining pulp tissue was observed in two revascularized teeth. In four teeth, ingrowth of alveolar bone into the canals was seen; presence of bone in the root canals has the potential for ankylosis. Within the limitation of this study, it can be concluded that residual pulp tissue can remain in the canals after revascularization procedures of immature teeth with artificially induced pulp infection. This can lead to the misinterpretation that true pulpal regeneration has occurred. Ingrowth of apical bone into the root canals undergoing revascularization can interfere with normal tooth eruption if

  6. Effect of full crown preparation on pulpal blood flow in man.

    PubMed

    Sukapattee, Marisa; Wanachantararak, Sitthichai; Sirimaharaj, Varisara; Vongsavan, Noppakun; Matthews, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    To determine if full crown preparation causes an increase in pulpal blood flow (PBF), indicating inflammation, in human subjects. The experiments were carried out on 35 intact, mandibular posterior teeth in 13 subjects: 32 were abutments for 16 fixed bridges that replaced first molars; the other 3 were first premolars adjacent to abutment teeth that served as un-operated controls. Crown preparations were made using an air-rotor with water-spray under regional block anaesthesia (4% articaine with epinephrine 1:100,000). PBF was recorded with a laser Doppler flow meter (LDF) before and after administering the anaesthetic, with the LDF probe on the buccal enamel. PBF was then recorded from the abutment teeth with the probe on buccal dentine after preparing the buccal surfaces of both teeth, after completing the crown preparations, and after 1 and 7days. PBF was also recorded from the buccal enamel of the control teeth on each occasion. The mean±S.D. PBF values before and after anaesthesia were 2.63±2.13 and 2.42±2.38P.U. respectively, which were not significantly different (Paired t-test). The mean values for the abutment teeth after buccal preparation, after complete crown preparation, and after 1 and 7days were 5.20±2.49, 4.53±2.52, 4.92±2.98 and 5.48±2.65P.U. respectively. The 4 values for each tooth were not significantly different (two-way RM ANOVA). In the control group, the values under all six conditions were not significantly different. Regional block anaesthesia produced no change in PBF, nor did full-crown preparation, neither immediately after the procedure nor 1 and 7days later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. CONTINUOUS ROTATION SCATTERING CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Verba, J.W.; Hawrylak, R.A.

    1963-08-01

    An evacuated scattering chamber for use in observing nuclear reaction products produced therein over a wide range of scattering angles from an incoming horizontal beam that bombards a target in the chamber is described. A helically moving member that couples the chamber to a detector permits a rapid and broad change of observation angles without breaching the vacuum in the chamber. Also, small inlet and outlet openings are provided whose size remains substantially constant. (auth)

  8. Woodstove for heated air forced into a secondary combustion chamber and method of operating same

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.E.; Spolek, G.A.; Wasser, J.H.; Butts, N.L.

    1991-04-16

    This patent describes a woodstove comprising a primary combustion chamber for receiving a load of wood fuel, a secondary combustion chamber in fluid flow relation with the primary chamber, fan means for forcing air from outside the woodstove into the secondary chamber, the air from outside the woodstove forced into the secondary chamber being heated prior to entering the secondary chamber, and means for controlling the fan means in response to the temperature of gases in the secondary chamber.

  9. Neutron Detection via Bubble Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, David V.; Ely, James H.; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Bond, Leonard J.; Collar, J. I.; Flake, Matthew; Knopf, Michael A.; Pitts, W. K.; Shaver, Mark W.; Sonnenschein, Andrew; Smart, John E.; Todd, Lindsay C.

    2005-10-06

    The results of a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) exploratory research project investigating the feasibility of fast neutron detection using a suitably prepared and operated, pressure-cycled bubble chamber are described. The research was conducted along two parallel paths. Experiments with a slow pressure-release Halon chamber at the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago showed clear bubble nucleation sensitivity to an AmBe neutron source and insensitivity to the 662 keV gammas from a 137Cs source. Bubble formation was documented via high-speed (1000 frames/sec) photography, and the acoustic signature of bubble formation was detected using a piezo-electric transducer element mounted on the base of the chamber. The chamber’s neutron sensitivity as a function of working fluid temperature was mapped out. The second research path consisted of the design, fabrication, and testing of a fast pressure-release Freon-134a chamber at PNNL. The project concluded with successful demonstrations of the PNNL chamber’s AmBe neutron source sensitivity and 137Cs gamma insensitivity. The source response tests of the PNNL chamber were documented with high-speed photography.

  10. Evaluation of temperature increase during in-office bleaching.

    PubMed

    Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Soares, Ana Flávia; Pangrazio, Eugenio Gabriel Kegler; Wang, Linda; Ishikiriama, Sergio Kiyoshi; Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga Soares

    2016-04-01

    The use of light sources in the bleaching process reduces the time required and promotes satisfactory results. However, these light sources can cause an increase in the pulp temperature. Objective The purpose of the present study was to measure the increase in intrapulpal temperature induced by different light-activated bleaching procedures with and without the use of a bleaching gel. Material and Methods A human maxillary central incisor was sectioned 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction. A K-type thermocouple probe was introduced into the pulp chamber. A 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel was applied to the vestibular tooth surface. The light units used were a conventional halogen, a hybrid light (only LED and LED/Laser), a high intensity LED, and a green LED light. Temperature increase values were compared by two-way ANOVA and Tukey´s tests (p<0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences in temperature increases between the different light sources used and between the same light sources with and without the use of a bleaching gel. The presence of a bleaching gel generated an increase in intra-pulpal temperature in groups activated with halogen light, hybrid light, and high intensity LED. Compared to the other light sources, the conventional halogen lamp applied over the bleaching gel induced a significant increase in temperature (3.83±0.41°C). The green LED unit with and without gel application did not produce any significant intrapulpal temperature variations. Conclusion In the present study, the conventional halogen lamp caused the highest increase in intrapulpal temperature, and the green LED caused the least. There was an increase in temperature with all lights tested and the maximum temperature remained below the critical level (5.5°C). The addition of a bleaching gel led to a higher increase in intrapulpal temperatures.

  11. Evaluation of temperature increase during in-office bleaching

    PubMed Central

    MONDELLI, Rafael Francisco Lia; SOARES, Ana Flávia; PANGRAZIO, Eugenio Gabriel Kegler; WANG, Linda; ISHIKIRIAMA, Sergio Kiyoshi; BOMBONATTI, Juliana Fraga Soares

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of light sources in the bleaching process reduces the time required and promotes satisfactory results. However, these light sources can cause an increase in the pulp temperature. Objective The purpose of the present study was to measure the increase in intrapulpal temperature induced by different light-activated bleaching procedures with and without the use of a bleaching gel. Material and Methods A human maxillary central incisor was sectioned 2 mm below the cementoenamel junction. A K-type thermocouple probe was introduced into the pulp chamber. A 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching gel was applied to the vestibular tooth surface. The light units used were a conventional halogen, a hybrid light (only LED and LED/Laser), a high intensity LED, and a green LED light. Temperature increase values were compared by two-way ANOVA and Tukey´s tests (p<0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences in temperature increases between the different light sources used and between the same light sources with and without the use of a bleaching gel. The presence of a bleaching gel generated an increase in intra-pulpal temperature in groups activated with halogen light, hybrid light, and high intensity LED. Compared to the other light sources, the conventional halogen lamp applied over the bleaching gel induced a significant increase in temperature (3.83±0.41°C). The green LED unit with and without gel application did not produce any significant intrapulpal temperature variations. Conclusion In the present study, the conventional halogen lamp caused the highest increase in intrapulpal temperature, and the green LED caused the least. There was an increase in temperature with all lights tested and the maximum temperature remained below the critical level (5.5°C). The addition of a bleaching gel led to a higher increase in intrapulpal temperatures. PMID:27119761

  12. Laser-induced temperature changes in dentine.

    PubMed

    Keller, O R; Weber, F E; Grätz, K W; Baltensperger, M M; Eyrich, G K

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the temperature rise and potential thermal damage caused during ablation of human dentine using a super pulsed carbon dioxide laser of 9.6-microm wavelength, equipped with a water-cooling spray and scanner system. There have been no reports on thermal effects of super pulsed CO2 laser of 9.6 microm wavelength on human dentine recently. Two different types of samples were investigated to yield data most consistent with a typical clinical situation. Human dentine slices and crown segments were studied at a drilling depth of 1.0 +/- 0.1 mm and 2.5 +/- 0.5 mm, respectively. A control group treated with a conventional hand piece was compared to four laser groups with settings varying from 2 to 8 W. In the laser group demonstrating the highest elevation in temperature of the four studied, dentine slices lased at 2 W for 15 sec showed a mean temperature rise of less than 1.68 degrees C at an ablation rate of 0.86 +/- 0.08 mm. Conventional drilling with a comparable ablation rate of 0.76 +/- 0.59 mm resulted in a mean rise of 2.87 degrees C. The laser groups of crown segments revealed a constant decrease in temperature. SEM observations were lacking the typical morphological changes seen in earlier studies, specifically extensive melting, charring or cracking. A maximum rise of mean temperature to 1.68 degrees C in closest vicinity to the pulpal chamber and the morphological unaltered dentine surfaces demonstrate the safe and tissue preserving character of the superpulsed 9.6 microm CO2 laser. The laser caused an even lower temperature rise than conventional drilling. Moreover, the laser showed acceptable efficacy with ablation rates that did not significantly differ from the conventional dental drill.

  13. Pulpal safety of a 9.6-μm TEA CO2 laser used for caries prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodis, Harold E.; Fried, Daniel; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2002-06-01

    Lasers are used for several procedures involving hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity. Included in those procedures is the use of the CO2 laser to alter the surface structure of tooth enamel to render it more resistant to caries. A new 9.6micrometers wavelength TEA CO2 laser (Argu Photonics, Jpiter, FL) has been investigated as a device that can be used for this procedure without harming the dental pulp. Erupted, caries and restoration free third molars (n=24) were used in the experiment. Teeth were irradiated at an incident fluence of 1.5J/cm2 and a repetition rate of 10Hz and a spot size 1mm in diameter. At the low and high settings, 200 to 400 pulses were delivered at 12mJ per pulse for a total energy of 2.4 or 4.8J delivered for 20 or 40 seconds respectively. Other teeth were subjected to a sham dental procedure (positive control) or no procedure (negative control). Prior to testing, radiographs were taken of all teeth, and they were tested pulpally using heat, cold and electricity to determine vitality. The teeth were removed either immediately or at one week or one month after testing. They were bioprepared and examined histologically for signs of inflammation. Only one tooth developed symptoms of sensitivity to cold for 10 days following exposure to the high power level. The sensitivity was of fleeting duration and was judged to be reversible pulpitis. All teeth tested responded normally at pretesting and pre-extraction time periods. Histological examination disclosed no indication of an inflammatory response in the pulp tissue. All sections appeared normal with no changes seen in the normal pulpal morphology. We conclude that the 9.6 micrometers wavelength laser causes no pulpal damage at the energy levels used and can be used safely for caries prevention treatments.

  14. Ionization-chamber smoke detector system

    DOEpatents

    Roe, Robert F.

    1976-10-19

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system is designed to reduce false alarms caused by fluctuations in ambient temperature. Means are provided for periodically firing the gas discharge triode and each time recording the triggering voltage required. A computer compares each triggering voltage with its predecessor. The computer is programmed to energize an alarm if the difference between the two compared voltages is a relatively large value indicative of particulates in the measuring chamber and to disregard smaller differences typically resulting from changes in ambient temperature.

  15. Marginal ridge fracture resistance, microleakage and pulpal response to glass ionomer/glass cermet partial tunnel restorations.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, N T; Munshi, A K; Shetty, T R

    1997-01-01

    Sixty sound premolars which were to be extracted for orthodontic treatment purposes were restored either with glass ionomer cement or glass cermet cements after partial tunnel preparation, and prior to the extraction after a time interval of 30 and 60 days respectively. The teeth were then subjected to marginal ridge fracture resistance, microleakage study using dye penetration and histological evaluation of the pulpal response to these materials. Both the materials exhibited increase in marginal ridge fracture resistance at 60 days, with minimal degree of microleakage and were biologically compatible with the dental pulp.

  16. Spectrophotometric evaluation of peroxide penetration into the pulp chamber from whitening strips and gel: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Ramesh; Wadhwani, KK

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate pulp chamber penetration of different concentration of hydrogen peroxide. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisor teeth were taken and grouped into five (n = 10). All teeth were cut approximately 3 mm apical to the cemento-enamel junction. Pulp was removed and the pulp chamber filled with acetate buffer. Buccal crown surfaces of teeth in the experimental groups were subjected to whitening strip and paint on whitener gel. Control group teeth were exposed to distilled water. The acetate buffer solution in each tooth was then transferred to a glass test tube after 30 min. Leuco-crystal violet dye and enzyme horse radish peroxidase were added. The optical density of resultant blue color in the tubes was measured by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The values were converted into microgram equivalents of hydrogen peroxide. Results: The results were evaluated statistically using nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test. Whitening strip showed the lowest pulpal peroxide penetration whereas paint on whitener gel showed highest pulpal peroxide penetration. Conclusion: This study demonstrate that peroxide is readily penetrate into the pulp chamber of teeth. PMID:23716964

  17. The effect of long-term supplementation of vitamin C on pulpal blood flow in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Amatyakul, Supathra; Chakraphan, Daroonwan; Chotpaibulpan, Siriporn; Patumraj, Suthiluk

    2003-01-01

    To examine the effect of vitamin C on blood flow in diabetic dental pulp, the animal model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (i.v. injection of STZ 55 mg/kg BW) was used. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into 3 groups: non-diabetes (CON), diabetes (STZ), and diabetes supplemented by vitamin C (STZ+Vit C). Vitamin C was supplemented by drinking water (1 g/l). At 12 weeks (wks) and 24 wks after the STZ injection, the laser Doppler flow-meter (Model ALF 21, USA) was used to measure pulpal blood flow (PBF) while the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg BW). The experimental results showed that at 12 and 24 wks after the STZ injection, hyperglycemia hypertension and loss of body weight were significantly developed. Simultaneously, decreased plasma vitamin C level was demonstrated significantly in STZ rats. The reduction of pulpal blood flow (PBF) in the lower incisors was observed in STZ rats at both monitored time points. Interestingly, the supplementation of vitamin C for 24 wks restored PBF. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that long-term supplementation of vitamin C, a natural antioxidant, could markedly prevent the diabetic-induced reduction in PBF.

  18. Pulpal response following photo-biomodulation with a 904-nm diode laser: a double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ryan; George, Roy; Walsh, Laurence J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate pulpal responses in healthy human teeth to photo-biomodulation therapy (PBMT) with 904-nm GaAs diode laser. The study followed a double-blind split mouth design, with a randomly selected maxillary first premolar acting as a sham-irradiated control tooth, and the contralateral tooth receiving active laser treatment. Two coded but otherwise identical laser probes (Irradia™, SpectraMedics Ltd., NC, USA) were used to deliver the sham (placebo) and laser radiation, with both the operator and patient unaware of each probe's identity. The selection of teeth for sham or laser irradiation was randomised for each treatment. Pulpal responses were assessed using electric pulp testing (EPT), 2 min prior to exposure, and immediately after laser irradiation (60 s, 30 mW average power, 25 Hz pulse frequency, 3.6 J/cm(2)). Treatment effects were analysed using the Wilcoxon-signed rank test. A total of 30 participants provided written informed consent. Majority of the participants (66.7 %) demonstrated an analgesic effect following PBMT (elevated EPT scores); however, nine participants (30 %) reported the lower EPT scores than the control. Both the treatment effects (stimulation and analgesia) were significant compared to the placebo. In most individuals, PBMT of healthy teeth with a 904-nm GaAs diode laser can induce analgesia, as witnessed by elevated EPT scores. A converse effect can occur in a minority of subjects.

  19. Comparison of photopolymerization temperature increases in internal and external positions of composite and tooth cavities in real time: Incremental fillings of microhybrid composite vs. bulk filling of bulk fill composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ryan Jin-Young; Son, Sung-Ae; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Lee, In-Bog; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated temperature increases in the composite and pulpal side of dentin from incremental and bulk fillings in composite restorations. Class-1 cavities (5 mm × 4 mm × 3 mm) were prepared in ten extracted third molars, filled with composite, and restored with two separate horizontal layers of Filtek Z250 (3M ESPE) in the incremental group or a single layer of SureFil SDR Flow (Dentsply) in the bulk-fill group (n=5). After placing the specimens in a 36.5°C water bath, temperatures were measured with eight thermocouples at the bottom center (BC), middle center (MC), top center (TC), bottom corner (BE), middle corner (ME), and top corner (TE) of the cavity, at the pulpal side of the dentin within the pulp chamber (PD), and in the curing light (CL) tip during light curing at 750 mW/cm(2) for 20s and then analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's HSD tests (α=0.01). Maximum temperatures ranged from 39.0°C (PD 1st increment) to 60.0°C (MC 1st increment) in the incremental group and from 42.0°C (PD) to 74.9°C (TC) in the bulk-fill group. In the incremental group, temperatures were similar between the 1st and 2nd increments, except at MC and BC. Bulk-fill group exhibited a greater increase in temperature during composite restoration. Regardless of the filling technique, more heat was generated at the center than at the corner and at the top than at the bottom of the composite. PD temperatures increased by 3.1°C and 5.5°C in the incremental group and bulk-fill group, respectively. Although bulk fillings save clinical chair time, clinicians should be aware of the greater heat that is generated with increasing amounts of composites during polymerization, which can jeopardize the pulpal health, especially when a large and deep cavity is being restored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilizing Chamber Data for Developing and Validating Climate Change Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Controlled environment chambers (e.g. growth chambers, SPAR chambers, or open-top chambers) are useful for measuring plant ecosystem responses to climatic variables and CO2 that affect plant water relations. However, data from chambers was found to overestimate responses of C fluxes to CO2 enrichment. Chamber data may be confounded by numerous artifacts (e.g. sidelighting, edge effects, increased temperature and VPD, etc) and this limits what can be measured accurately. Chambers can be used to measure canopy level energy balance under controlled conditions and plant transpiration responses to CO2 concentration can be elucidated. However, these measurements cannot be used directly in model development or validation. The response of stomatal conductance to CO2 will be the same as in the field, but the measured response must be recalculated in such a manner to account for differences in aerodynamic conductance, temperature and VPD between the chamber and the field.

  1. Space Chambers for Crop Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Vacuum chambers, operated by McDonnell Douglas Corporation to test spacecraft, can also be used to dry water-soaked records. The drying temperature is low enough to allow paper to dry without curling or charging. Agricultural crops may also be dried using a spinoff system called MIVAC, which has proven effective in drying rice, wheat, soybeans, corn, etc. The system is energy efficient and can incorporate a sanitation process for destroying insects without contamination.

  2. Lightweight Chambers for Thrust Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Lee, Jonathan; Holmes, Richard; Zimmerman, Frank; Effinger, Mike; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has successfully applied new materials and fabrication techniques to create actively cooled thrust chambers that operate 200-400 degrees hotter and weigh 50% lighter than conventional designs. In some vehicles, thrust assemblies account for as much as 20% of the engine weight. So, reducing the weight of these components and increasing their operating range will benefit many engines and vehicle designs, including Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) concepts. Obviously, copper and steel alloys have been used successfully for many years in the chamber components of thrust assemblies. Yet, by replacing the steel alloys with Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) and/or Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials, design weights can be drastically reduced. In addition, replacing the traditional copper alloys with a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) or an advanced copper alloy (Cu-8Cr-4Nb, also known as GRCop-84) significantly increases allowable operating temperatures. Several small MMC and PMC demonstration chambers have recently been fabricated with promising results. Each of these designs included GRCop-84 for the cooled chamber liner. These units successfully verified that designs over 50% lighter are feasible. New fabrication processes, including advanced casting technology and a low cost vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process, were also demonstrated with these units. Hot-fire testing at MSFC is currently being conducted on the chambers to verify increased operating temperatures available with the GRCop-84 liner. Unique CMC chamber liners were also successfully fabricated and prepared for hot-fire testing. Yet, early results indicate these CMC liners need significantly more development in order to use them in required chamber designs. Based on the successful efforts with the MMC and PMC concepts, two full size "lightweight" chambers are currently being designed and fabricated for hot

  3. Lightweight Chambers for Thrust Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.; Lee, Jonathan; Holmes, Richard; Zimmerman, Frank; Effinger, Mike; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has successfully applied new materials and fabrication techniques to create actively cooled thrust chambers that operate 200-400 degrees hotter and weigh 50% lighter than conventional designs. In some vehicles, thrust assemblies account for as much as 20% of the engine weight. So, reducing the weight of these components and increasing their operating range will benefit many engines and vehicle designs, including Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) concepts. Obviously, copper and steel alloys have been used successfully for many years in the chamber components of thrust assemblies. Yet, by replacing the steel alloys with Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) and/or Metal Matrix Composite (MMC) materials, design weights can be drastically reduced. In addition, replacing the traditional copper alloys with a Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) or an advanced copper alloy (Cu-8Cr-4Nb, also known as GRCop-84) significantly increases allowable operating temperatures. Several small MMC and PMC demonstration chambers have recently been fabricated with promising results. Each of these designs included GRCop-84 for the cooled chamber liner. These units successfully verified that designs over 50% lighter are feasible. New fabrication processes, including advanced casting technology and a low cost vacuum plasma spray (VPS) process, were also demonstrated with these units. Hot-fire testing at MSFC is currently being conducted on the chambers to verify increased operating temperatures available with the GRCop-84 liner. Unique CMC chamber liners were also successfully fabricated and prepared for hot-fire testing. Yet, early results indicate these CMC liners need significantly more development in order to use them in required chamber designs. Based on the successful efforts with the MMC and PMC concepts, two full size "lightweight" chambers are currently being designed and fabricated for hot

  4. Theoretical Performance of Hydrogen-Oxygen Rocket Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, Gilbert K.; Tomazic, William A.; Kinney, George R.

    1961-01-01

    Data are presented for liquid-hydrogen-liquid-oxygen thrust chambers at chamber pressures from 15 to 1200 pounds per square inch absolute, area ratios to approximately 300, and percent fuel from about 8 to 34 for both equilibrium and frozen composition during expansion. Specific impulse in vacuum, specific impulse, combustion-chamber temperature, nozzle-exit temperature, characteristic velocity, and the ratio of chamber-to-nozzle-exit pressure are included. The data are presented in convenient graphical forms to allow quick calculation of theoretical nozzle performance with over- or underexpansion, flow separation, and introduction of the propellants at various initial conditions or heat loss from the combustion chamber.

  5. Multispecimen dual-beam irradiation damage chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Packan, N.H.; Buhl, R.A.

    1980-06-01

    An irradiation damage chamber that can be used to rapidly simulate fast neutron damage in fission or fusion materials has been designed and constructed. The chamber operates in conjunction with dual Van de Graaff accelerators at ORNL to simulate a wide range of irradiation conditions, including pulsed irradiation. Up to six experiments, each with up to nine 3-mm disk specimens, can be loaded into the ultrahigh vacuum chamber. Specimen holders are heated with individual electron guns, and the temperature of each specimen can be monitored during bombardment by an infrared pyrometer. Three different dose levels may be obtained during any single bombardment, and the heavy-ion flux on each of the nine specimens can be measured independently with only a brief interruption of the beam. The chamber has been in service for nearly three years, during which time approximately 250 bombardments have been successfully carried out. An appendix contains detailed procedures for operating the chamber.

  6. Cyclic fatigue analysis of rocket thrust chambers. Volume 1: OFHC copper chamber low cycle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element elasto-plastic strain analysis was performed for the throat section of a regeneratively cooled rocket combustion chamber. The analysis employed the RETSCP finite element computer program. The analysis included thermal and pressure loads, and the effects of temperature dependent material properties, to determine the strain range corresponding to the chamber operating cycle. The analysis was performed for chamber configuration and operating conditions corresponding to a hydrogen-oxygen combustion chamber which was fatigue tested to failure. The computed strain range at typical chamber operating conditions was used in conjunction with oxygen-free, high-conductivity (OHFC) copper isothermal fatigue test data to predict chamber low-cycle fatigue life.

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Utilizing Carbon Dioxide as a Pulpal Test. Part I. In Vitro Effect on Human Enamel Surface.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-21

    Rappaport, H.M. Dental vitality tests and pulp status. JADA 86(2):409-411, 1973. 6. Seltzer, S.; Bender, I.B.; and Ziontz, M. The dynamics of pulD...Haley, J. Pulpal hyperemia-a correlation of clinical and histologic data from 706 teeth. JADA 81(l):108-117, 1970. 8. Auasburger, R., and Peters, D

  8. Target chambers for gammashpere

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Falout, J.W.; Nardi, B.G.

    1995-08-01

    One of our responsibilities for Gammasphere, was designing and constructing two target chambers and associated beamlines to be used with the spectrometer. The first chamber was used with the early implementation phase of Gammasphere, and consisted of two spun-Al hemispheres welded together giving a wall thickness of 0.063 inches and a diameter of 12 inches.

  9. A soundproof pressure chamber.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, M; Kodama, A; Ozawa, H; Inoue, S

    1994-01-01

    For neurotological research we designed a soundproof pressure chamber in which pressure can be adjusted +/- 1000 mmH2O at the rate of less than 100 mmH2O per second. Noise in the chamber can be maintained under 30-35 dB while pressure is kept at a given level.

  10. High resolution drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 ..mu..m resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Chamber Clearing First Principles Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Loosmore, G

    2009-06-09

    LIFE fusion is designed to generate 37.5 MJ of energy per shot, at 13.3 Hz, for a total average fusion power of 500 MW. The energy from each shot is partitioned among neutrons ({approx}78%), x-rays ({approx}12%), and ions ({approx}10%). First wall heating is dominated by x-rays and debris because the neutron mean free path is much longer than the wall thickness. Ion implantation in the first wall also causes damage such as blistering if not prevented. To moderate the peak-pulse heating, the LIFE fusion chamber is filled with a gas (such as xenon) to reduce the peak-pulse heat load. The debris ions and majority of the x-rays stop in the gas, which re-radiates this energy over a longer timescale (allowing time for heat conduction to cool the first wall sufficiently to avoid damage). After a shot, because of the x-ray and ion deposition, the chamber fill gas is hot and turbulent and contains debris ions. The debris needs to be removed. The ions increase the gas density, may cluster or form aerosols, and can interfere with the propagation of the laser beams to the target for the next shot. Moreover, the tritium and high-Z hohlraum debris needs to be recovered for reuse. Additionally, the cryogenic target needs to survive transport through the gas mixture to the chamber center. Hence, it will be necessary to clear the chamber of the hot contaminated gas mixture and refill it with a cool, clean gas between shots. The refilling process may create density gradients that could interfere with beam propagation, so the fluid dynamics must be studied carefully. This paper describes an analytic modeling effort to study the clearing and refilling process for the LIFE fusion chamber. The models used here are derived from first principles and balances of mass and energy, with the intent of providing a first estimate of clearing rates, clearing times, fractional removal of ions, equilibrated chamber temperatures, and equilibrated ion concentrations for the chamber. These can be used

  12. The Low Temperature Chamber Testing of the Compression Ignition Engine and System of the Armoured Personnel Carrier (APC) M113A1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    34, DN600. The fuel used throughout the testing was "Arctic Grade Diesel Fuelŗ.-GP-6M Type AA (see Appendix III for fuel- engine specifications). (For fuel...watt) thermoelectric remote power system to maintain a high engine oil temperature. 2. Utilization of waste heat from a small ( 500 watt) Stirling ... engine remote power system to maintain a high engine oil temperature. 3. Utilization of waste heat from a somewhat larger (-- 2000 watt) Stirling engine

  13. Longitudinal changes of nerve conduction velocity, distal motor latency, compound motor action potential duration, and skin temperature during prolonged exposure to cold in a climate chamber.

    PubMed

    Maetzler, Walter; Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens; Zscheile, Julia; Gabor, Kai-Steffen; Lindemann, Ulrich

    2012-09-01

    Changes of nerve conduction velocity (NCV), distal motor latency (DML), compound motor action potential (CMAP) duration, and skin temperature with regard to cold have been investigated by use of ice packs or cold water baths, but not after cooling of environmental temperature which has higher ecological validity. The aim of this study was to investigate these parameters during cooled room temperature. NCV, DML, and CMAP duration of the common fibular nerve, and skin temperature were measured in 20 healthy young females during exposure to 15°C room temperature, coming from 25°C room. We found that NCV decreased and DML increased linearly during 45 min observation time, in contrast to CMAP duration and skin temperature which changes followed an exponential curve. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study investigating changes of these parameters during exposure to environmental cold. The results may pilot some new hypotheses and studies on physiological and pathological changes of the peripheral nervous system and skin to environmental cold, e.g., in elderly with peripheral neuropathies.

  14. Intermediate temperature single-chamber methane fed SOFC based on Gd doped ceria electrolyte and La 0.5Sr 0.5CoO 3- δ as cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, M.; Piñol, S.; Segarra, M.

    Single-chamber fuel cells with electrodes supported on an electrolyte of gadolinium doped ceria Ce 1- xGd xO 2- y with x = 0.2 (CGO) 200 μm thickness has been successfully prepared and characterized. The cells were fed directly with a mixture of methane and air. Doped ceria electrolyte supports were prepared from powders obtained by the acetyl-acetonate sol-gel related method. Inks prepared from mixtures of precursor powders of NiO and CGO with different particle sizes and compositions were prepared, analysed and used to obtain optimal porous anodes thick films. Cathodes based on La 0.5Sr 0.5CoO 3 perovskites (LSCO) were also prepared and deposited on the other side of the electrolyte by inks prepared with a mixture of powders of LSCO, CGO and AgO obtained also by sol-gel related techniques. Both electrodes were deposited by dip coating at different thicknesses (20-30 μm) using a commercial resin where the electrode powders were dispersed. Finally, electrical properties were determined in a single-chamber reactor where methane, as fuel, was mixed with synthetic air below the direct combustion limit. Stable density currents were obtained in these experimental conditions. Temperature, composition and flux rate values of the carrier gas were determinants for the optimization of the electrical properties of the fuel cells.

  15. Advances since the paper by Zander and Glass (1949) on the pursuit of healing methods for pulpal exposures: historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bergenholtz, Gunnar

    2005-08-01

    Clinical observations and experimental studies in humans and laboratory animals have demonstrated that healing and repair of pulpal exposures by caries, trauma, or iatrogenic causes are possible with a variety of wound treatment methods. Yet clinical trials have shown that predictable long-term pulp tissue preservation may be an elusive goal and has led to doubts about pulp capping and pulpotomy as valid clinical procedures. Nevertheless substantial knowledge has accumulated over the years on the mechanisms and the treatment factors that are important to promote/support continued vital pulp functions. This article highlights some key contributions to our current knowledge base, which have come to light during the more than 50 years since a pioneering experimental study by Zander and Glass was published in the Triple O journal.

  16. 45. AUXILIARY CHAMBER BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION DDD), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. AUXILIARY CHAMBER BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION DDD), VIEW LOOKING EAST. LEAD ENCLOSED PIPING IS DRAIN FROM BOILER CHAMBER No. 1 - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  17. A Clinical Study on the Effect of Injection Sites on Efficacy of Anesthesia and Pulpal Blood Flow in Carious Teeth.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Q H; Hong, Q C; Zhang, L; Ye, L; Huang, D M

    2017-10-04

    This randomized clinical trial evaluated the efficiency of maxillary infiltration anesthesia in carious teeth at two different injection sites and their impact on the laser Doppler recordings of pulpal blood flow (PBF) during a caries excavation procedure. The null hypothesis tested was that there are no differences in the efficiency of anesthesia and PBF reduction between maxillary infiltrations at the two injection sites. One hundred twenty patients were divided into three groups according to the degree of carious lesion of their maxillary left central incisors (moderate caries, deep caries, or no caries). Forty patients in each group randomly received infiltrations over the root apex of maxillary left central incisors (site X) or over the midpoint of the line connecting the root apexes of both maxillary left central and lateral incisors (site Y) using 0.9 mL 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline. Teeth were pulp tested at five-minute intervals after injection except for the period of cavity cutting, which was done 12 minutes after injection. The PBF changes after injection were monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. The observation period in this study was 60 minutes. Success of anesthesia was defined as no or mild pain on cavity cutting by visual analog scale recordings. Deep caries group showed significantly higher baseline PBF (p<0.05). All groups showed 100% success of anesthesia and similar duration time (p>0.05). Subgroups that had the injection at site Y showed significantly less reduction of PBF (p<0.05). Cavity-cutting procedures increased the amplitude of the PBF around the lowest value after injection. Independent of the cavity depth, carious anterior teeth anesthetized by infiltration further from the apex had significantly less reduction on the pulpal blood flow compared with teeth anesthetized by infiltration at the apex.

  18. Comparison of pulpal responses to pulpotomy and pulp capping with biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate in dogs.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Andiara; Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; Gatón-Hernández, Patrícia; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the pulpal and periapical responses of dogs' teeth after pulpotomy and pulp capping with a new tricalcium silicate-based cement (Biodentine) when compared with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) by radiographic, histopathologic, and histomicrobiological analyses. Sixty roots (30 teeth) of dogs were divided into 2 groups, Biodentine (n = 36 roots) and ProRoot MTA (control, n = 24 roots). Animals were killed after 120 days, and the teeth were subjected to histotechnical processing (hematoxylin-eosin and Brown and Brenn staining). Qualitative and quantitative histopathologic data were analyzed by Fisher exact and Mann-Whitney tests (α = 0.05). Radiographically, mineralized tissue bridge formation was observed in more specimens treated with Biodentine (96.8%) than with MTA (72.2%) (P = .02). Integrity of the lamina dura and absence of periapical bone rarefaction and root resorption (external and internal) were observed in all specimens. Histopathologic and histomicrobiological analyses revealed mineralized tissue bridge formation, pulpal vitality, odontoblast layer integrity, preserved periodontal ligament, and absence of bone or root resorption and microorganisms in both groups. Although the bridges formed at the amputation site had similar morphology, they were significantly thicker in the Biodentine group (P < .0001). Comparison between the radiographic and histopathologic results showed that radiographic visualization of more bridges in the Biodentine group was related to bridge thickness because radiographic diagnosis was flawed for bridges with thickness less than 0.5 mm. Fluorescence microscopy improved the visualization of bridge structure. Biodentine presented tissue compatibility and allowed for mineralized tissue bridge formation after pulpotomy in all specimens with similar morphology and integrity to those formed with use of MTA. Periapical radiographs failed in detecting mineralized tissue bridges with thickness less than 0.5 mm

  19. Innovative Comparison of Transient Ignition Temperature at the Booster Interface, New Stainless Steel Pyrovalve Primer Chamber Assembly "V" (PCA) Design Versus the Current Aluminum "Y" PCA Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor L.; McDougle, Stephen H.; Garcia,Roberto; Johnson, Kenneth L.; Sipes, William; Rickman, Steven; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of four spacecraft pyrovalve anomalies that occurred during ground testing was conducted by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) in 2008. In all four cases, a common aluminum (Al) primer chamber assembly (PCA) was used with dual NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) and the nearly simultaneous (separated by less than 80 microseconds) firing of both initiators failed to ignite the booster charge. The results of the assessment and associated test program were reported in AIAA Paper AIAA-2008-4798, NESC Independent Assessment of Pyrovalve Ground Test Anomalies. As a result of the four Al PCA anomalies, and the test results and findings of the NESC assessment, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) project team decided to make changes to the PCA. The material for the PCA body was changed from aluminum (Al) to stainless steel (SS) to avoid melting, distortion, and potential leakage of the NSI flow passages when the device functioned. The flow passages, which were interconnected in a Y-shaped configuration (Y-PCA) in the original design, were changed to a V-shaped configuration (V-PCA). The V-shape was used to more efficiently transfer energy from the NSIs to the booster. Development and qualification testing of the new design clearly demonstrated faster booster ignition times compared to the legacy AL Y-PCA design. However, the final NESC assessment report recommended that the SS V-PCA be experimentally characterized and quantitatively compared to the Al Y-PCA design. This data was deemed important for properly evaluating the design options for future NASA projects. This test program has successfully quantified the improvement of the SS V-PCA over the Al Y-PCA. A phase B of the project was also conducted and evaluated the effect of firing command skew and enlargement of flame channels to further assist spacecraft applications.

  20. Zero Power Warming (ZPW) Chamber Prototype Measurements, Barrow, Alaska, 2016

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shawn Serbin; Alistair Rogers; Kim Ely

    2017-02-10

    Data were collected during one season of prototyping associated with the development of a passive warming technology. An experimental chamber, the Zero Power Warming (ZPW) chamber, was fitted with apparatus to modulate venting of a field enclosure and enhance elevation of air temperature by solar radiation. The ZPW chamber was compared with a control chamber (Control) and an ambient open air plot (Ambient). The control chamber was identical to the ZPW chamber but lacked the apparatus necessary to modulate venting, the chamber vents in the control chamber were fixed open for the majority of the trial period. The three plots were located over Carex aquatilis growing in an area of moderately degraded permafrost. Chambers were placed on the same footprints that were used for a similar exercise in 2015 (no data) and therefore those plots had experienced some thaw and degradation prior to 2016. The following data were collected for 80 days at 1 minute intervals from within two chambers and an ambient plot: solar input, chamber venting, air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature (at 5, 10 and 15 cm), soil moisture, downward and upward NIR.

  1. Bio-energy generation in an affordable, single-chamber microbial fuel cell integrated with adsorption hybrid system: effects of temperature and comparison study.

    PubMed

    Tee, Pei-Fang; Abdullah, Mohammad Omar; Tan, Ivy A W; Amin, Mohamed A M; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Bujang, Kopli

    2017-05-08

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) integrated with adsorption system (MFC-AHS) is tested under various operating temperatures with palm oil mill effluent as the substrate. The optimum operating temperature for such system is found to be at ∼35°C with current, power density, internal resistance (Rin), Coulombic efficiency (CE) and maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 2.51 ± 0.2 mA, 74 ± 6 mW m(-3), 25.4 Ω, 10.65 ± 0.5% and 93.57 ± 1.2%, respectively. Maximum current density increases linearly with temperature at a rate of 0.1772 mA m(-2) °C(-1), whereas maximum power density was in a polynomial function. The temperature coefficient (Q10) is found to be 1.20 between 15°C and 35°C. Present studies have demonstrated better CE performance when compared to other MFC-AHSs. Generally, MFC-AHS has demonstrated higher COD removals when compared to standalone MFC regardless of operating temperatures. ACFF: activated carbon fiber felt; APHA: American Public Health Association; CE: Coulombic efficiency; COD: chemical oxygen demand; ECG: electrocardiogram; GAC: granular activated carbon; GFB: graphite fiber brush; MFC: microbial fuel cell; MFC-AHS: microbial fuel cell integrated with adsorption hybrid system; MFC-GG: microbial fuel cell integrated with graphite granules; POME: palm oil mill effluent; PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene; SEM: scanning electron microscope.

  2. Outgassing measurement of the aluminum alloy UHV chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyamoto, M.; Itoh, T.; Komaki, S.; Narushima, K.; Ishimaru, H.

    1986-01-01

    A large vacuum chamber (580 mm diameter) was fabricated from an aluminum alloy surface treated by a special process normally used on small chambers. The chamber was tested unbaked and baked at various temperatures, pressures, and holding periods. The chamber was filled with N2 gas, and the outgassing rate was measured after one hour. Then the ultimate pressure was measured. Outgassing rates for baked and unbaked groups were compared. It is concluded that the same surface treatment technique can be used on both large and small chambers produced by the same special extrusion process.

  3. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  4. The LIFE Dynamic Chamber System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Mark; Kane, Jave; Latkowski, Jeffery; Cook, Andrew; Divol, Laurent; Loosmore, Gwendolen; Scott, Howard; Scullard, Christian; Tabak, Max; Wilks, Scott; Moses, Gregory; Heltemes, Thad; Sacks, Ryan; Pantano, Carlos; Kramer, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Dry-wall IFE designs such as LIFE utilize Xe fill gas to protect the target chamber first wall from x-ray heating and ionic debris. A key question is how cool, settled and clean the Xe must be to permit beam propagation and target transport, and how to reach this state at a 10+ Hz shot repetition rate. Xe is at low density in the target chamber, and purified Xe is reinjected at higher density and lower temperature into the larger outer chamber. Maintenance of this density difference due to blast waves generated by implosion of the target capsules is being assessed with HYDRA and 3D VTF, and possible validation experiments are being investigated. Detailed gas response near the wall is being studied using 3D Miranda. A laboratory-scale theta pinch experiment will study cooling and beam propagation in Xe. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  5. Computation of the temperature rise at the corneal endothelium during cataract surgery by modeling of heat generation inside the anterior chamber.

    PubMed

    Buschschlüter, Steffen; Koch, Christian; von Eicken, Jörn; Höh, Helmut

    2014-10-01

    The corneal endothelium sustaining the transparency of the cornea is a vulnerable cell layer. Thermal exposure during phacoemulsification is considered to be a potential cause of post-operative cell loss. Knowledge of the temperature rise and particularly of its dependence on region and system settings could deliver useful information about a potential correlation with cell damage. However, there exists a lack of understanding of the process and location of heat generation. Analytical calculations and experiments enabled the quantification of different mechanisms acting as heat sources during phacoemulsification. Heat generation caused by viscous friction was estimated using both an analytical approach and a numerical simulation. In contrast to absorption of sound and self-heating of the probe, this effect was ascertained to be the main heat source. Calorimetric measurement of the power input verified this modeling. On the basis of these results, the local temperature distribution inside a porcine eye was computed time dependently using the finite-element method. Two different amplitude settings were compared with respect to the temperature increase at the corneal endothelium. Various conclusions on the mitigation of thermal exposure during treatment can be drawn from this finite-element simulation.

  6. Sleeve reaction chamber system

    SciTech Connect

    Northrup, M Allen; Beeman, Barton V; Benett, William J; Hadley, Dean R; Landre, Phoebe; Lehew, Stacy L; Krulevitch, Peter A

    2009-08-25

    A chemical reaction chamber system that combines devices such as doped polysilicon for heating, bulk silicon for convective cooling, and thermoelectric (TE) coolers to augment the heating and cooling rates of the reaction chamber or chambers. In addition the system includes non-silicon-based reaction chambers such as any high thermal conductivity material used in combination with a thermoelectric cooling mechanism (i.e., Peltier device). The heat contained in the thermally conductive part of the system can be used/reused to heat the device, thereby conserving energy and expediting the heating/cooling rates. The system combines a micromachined silicon reaction chamber, for example, with an additional module/device for augmented heating/cooling using the Peltier effect. This additional module is particularly useful in extreme environments (very hot or extremely cold) where augmented heating/cooling would be useful to speed up the thermal cycling rates. The chemical reaction chamber system has various applications for synthesis or processing of organic, inorganic, or biochemical reactions, including the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or other DNA reactions, such as the ligase chain reaction.

  7. Portable Ethylene Oxide Sterilization Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Songer, J. R.; Mathis, R. G.

    1969-01-01

    A portable ethylene oxide sterilization chamber was designed, constructed, and tested for use in the sterilization of embolectomy catheters. The unit can accommodate catheters up to 40 inches (101.6 cm) in length and can be operated for less than 4 cents per cycle. A constant concentration of 500 mg of ethylene oxide per liter of space and holding periods of 4 and 6 hr at 43 and 22 C, respectively, were adequate when tested with B. subtilis spores. The estimated cost of construction was $165.00. If temperature control is unnecessary, the cost is approximately $80.00. Images PMID:4977644

  8. Liquid rocket engine self-cooled combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Self-cooled combustion chambers are chambers in which the chamber wall temperature is controlled by methods other than fluid flow within the chamber wall supplied from an external source. In such chambers, adiabatic wall temperature may be controlled by use of upstream fluid components such as the injector or a film-coolant ring, or by internal flow of self-contained materials; e.g. pyrolysis gas flow in charring ablators, and the flow of infiltrated liquid metals in porous matrices. Five types of self-cooled chambers are considered in this monograph. The name identifying the chamber is indicative of the method (mechanism) by which the chamber is cooled, as follows: ablative; radiation cooled; internally regenerative (Interegen); heat sink; adiabatic wall. Except for the Interegen and heat sink concepts, each chamber type is discussed separately. A separate and final section of the monograph deals with heat transfer to the chamber wall and treats Stanton number evaluation, film cooling, and film-coolant injection techniques, since these subjects are common to all chamber types. Techniques for analysis of gas film cooling and liquid film cooling are presented.

  9. Characteristic and performance of a simple thoron chamber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, C; Zhuo, W; Chen, B; Zhang, H

    2010-10-01

    For calibration and intercomparison experiments, a thoron chamber with an inner volume of 300 l was designed based on a programmable constant temperature and humidity testing device in this work. The commercial lantern mantles enriched with (232)Th were used as the (220)Rn source and the mantles were set in 3×3×3 points of lattice style inside the chamber. Experimental studies showed that (220)Rn concentrations in the chamber could be easily controlled and adjusted from about 0.5 to 80 kBq m(-3) through manual settings of the relative humidity and temperature, and the spatial distribution of (220)Rn in the chamber was fairly homogeneous.

  10. Improved Rhenium Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, John Scott

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-cooled bipropellant thrust chambers are being considered for ascent/ descent engines and reaction control systems on various NASA missions and spacecraft, such as the Mars Sample Return and Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Currently, iridium (Ir)-lined rhenium (Re) combustion chambers are the state of the art for in-space engines. NASA's Advanced Materials Bipropellant Rocket (AMBR) engine, a 150-lbf Ir-Re chamber produced by Plasma Processes and Aerojet Rocketdyne, recently set a hydrazine specific impulse record of 333.5 seconds. To withstand the high loads during terrestrial launch, Re chambers with improved mechanical properties are needed. Recent electrochemical forming (EL-Form"TM") results have shown considerable promise for improving Re's mechanical properties by producing a multilayered deposit composed of a tailored microstructure (i.e., Engineered Re). The Engineered Re processing techniques were optimized, and detailed characterization and mechanical properties tests were performed. The most promising techniques were selected and used to produce an Engineered Re AMBR-sized combustion chamber for testing at Aerojet Rocketdyne.

  11. Target Chamber Manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  12. Cryogenic Chamber for Servo-Hydraulic Materials Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, John J.; Tuttle, James

    2009-01-01

    A compact cryogenic test chamber can be cooled to approximately 5 to 6 Kelvin for materials testing. The system includes a temperature controller and multiple sensors to measure specimen temperature at different locations. The testing chamber provides a fast and easy method to perform materials testing at lower than liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The purpose of the chamber is to cool a composite lap shear specimen to approximately 20 K so that tensile test force and displacement data may be acquired at this cryogenic temperature range.

  13. Thrust chamber material technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrus, J. S.; Bordeau, R. G.

    1989-03-01

    This report covers work performed at Pratt & Whitney on development of copper-based materials for long-life, reusable, regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chambers. The program approached the goal of enhanced cyclic life through the application of rapid solidification to alloy development, to introduce fine dispersions to strengthen and stabilize the alloys at elevated temperatures. After screening of alloy systems, copper-based alloys containing Cr, Co, Hf, Ag, Ti, and Zr were processed by rapid-solidification atomization in bulk quantities. Those bulk alloys showing the most promise were characterized by tensile testing, thermal conductivity testing, and elevated-temperature, low-cycle fatigue (LFC) testing. Characterization indicated that Cu- 1.1 percent Hf exhibited the greatest potential as an improved-life thrust chamber material, exhibiting LCF life about four times that of NASA-Z. Other alloys (Cu- 0.6 percent Zr, and Cu- 0.6 percent Zr- 1.0 percent Cr) exhibited promise for use in this application, but needed more development work to balance properties.

  14. Thrust chamber material technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrus, J. S.; Bordeau, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    This report covers work performed at Pratt & Whitney on development of copper-based materials for long-life, reusable, regeneratively cooled rocket engine thrust chambers. The program approached the goal of enhanced cyclic life through the application of rapid solidification to alloy development, to introduce fine dispersions to strengthen and stabilize the alloys at elevated temperatures. After screening of alloy systems, copper-based alloys containing Cr, Co, Hf, Ag, Ti, and Zr were processed by rapid-solidification atomization in bulk quantities. Those bulk alloys showing the most promise were characterized by tensile testing, thermal conductivity testing, and elevated-temperature, low-cycle fatigue (LFC) testing. Characterization indicated that Cu- 1.1 percent Hf exhibited the greatest potential as an improved-life thrust chamber material, exhibiting LCF life about four times that of NASA-Z. Other alloys (Cu- 0.6 percent Zr, and Cu- 0.6 percent Zr- 1.0 percent Cr) exhibited promise for use in this application, but needed more development work to balance properties.

  15. Filament wound rocket motor chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design, analysis, fabrication and testing of a Kevlar-49/HBRF-55A filament wound chamber is reported. The chamber was fabricated and successfully tested to 80% of the design burst pressure. Results of the data reduction and analysis from the hydrotest indicate that the chamber design and fabrication techniques used for the chamber were adequate and the chamber should perform adequately in a static test.

  16. Automated soil gas monitoring chamber

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Nelson T.; Riggs, Jeffery S.

    2003-07-29

    A chamber for trapping soil gases as they evolve from the soil without disturbance to the soil and to the natural microclimate within the chamber has been invented. The chamber opens between measurements and therefore does not alter the metabolic processes that influence soil gas efflux rates. A multiple chamber system provides for repetitive multi-point sampling, undisturbed metabolic soil processes between sampling, and an essentially airtight sampling chamber operating at ambient pressure.

  17. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical ports ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (beam passes through the window at left), positioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  18. Variable oven chamber heating level

    SciTech Connect

    Minasov, A.M.; Sergeev, S.S.; Likhogyb, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Changes in oven chambers were developed to prevent the uneven heating of a charge in a coke oven. The changes basically altered the heat flow to a charge into the upper section upon a variation in the shrinkage properties of a charge. The engineering modifications are described and illustrated. A damper placed in a converted door is sufficiently easily shifted in the vertical plane and is firmly fixed in the upper position. The distribution of temperatures in the upper part of coke cake is changed within the limits of 80/sup 0/C, depending on the location of the damper in the converted door. When the damper is in the lower position, heating of the upper part of the coke cake increases, and the difference in the temperatures of the coke relative to height is decreased, and vice versa.

  19. Improved wire chamber

    DOEpatents

    Atac, M.

    1987-05-12

    An improved gas mixture for use with proportional counter devices, such as Geiger-Mueller tubes and drift chambers. The improved gas mixture provides a stable drift velocity while eliminating wire aging caused by prior art gas mixtures. The new gas mixture is comprised of equal parts argon and ethane gas and having approximately 0.25% isopropyl alcohol vapor. 2 figs.

  20. Parmitano with MDCA chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-24

    ISS036-E-025481 (24 July 2013) --- European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano, Expedition 36 flight engineer, works on the Multi-User Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) Chamber Insert Assembly (CIA) at a maintenance work station in the Harmony node of the International Space Station.

  1. Metabolic simulation chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R. G.; Hendricks, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    Metabolic simulation combustion chamber was developed as subsystem for breathing metabolic simulator. Entire system is used for evaluation of life support and resuscitation equipment. Metabolism subsystem simulates a human by consuming oxygen and producing carbon dioxide. Basic function is to simulate human metabolic range from rest to hard work.

  2. Flame-Test Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental chamber provides controlled environment for observation and measurement of flames propagating in expanding plume of flammable air/fuel mixture under atmospheric conditions. Designed to evaluate quenching capability of screen-type flame arresters in atmospheric vents of fuel cargo tanks aboard marine cargo vessels.

  3. Liquid Wall Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-02-24

    The key feature of liquid wall chambers is the use of a renewable liquid layer to protect chamber structures from target emissions. Two primary options have been proposed and studied: wetted wall chambers and thick liquid wall (TLW) chambers. With wetted wall designs, a thin layer of liquid shields the structural first wall from short ranged target emissions (x-rays, ions and debris) but not neutrons. Various schemes have been proposed to establish and renew the liquid layer between shots including flow-guiding porous fabrics (e.g., Osiris, HIBALL), porous rigid structures (Prometheus) and thin film flows (KOYO). The thin liquid layer can be the tritium breeding material (e.g., flibe, PbLi, or Li) or another liquid metal such as Pb. TLWs use liquid jets injected by stationary or oscillating nozzles to form a neutronically thick layer (typically with an effective thickness of {approx}50 cm) of liquid between the target and first structural wall. In addition to absorbing short ranged emissions, the thick liquid layer degrades the neutron flux and energy reaching the first wall, typically by {approx}10 x x, so that steel walls can survive for the life of the plant ({approx}30-60 yrs). The thick liquid serves as the primary coolant and tritium breeding material (most recent designs use flibe, but the earliest concepts used Li). In essence, the TLW places the fusion blanket inside the first wall instead of behind the first wall.

  4. Effect of Using Electric Current during Dentin Bonding Agent Application on Microleakage under Simulated Pulpal Pressure Condition

    PubMed Central

    Gharizadeh, Naghmeh; Kaviani, Azita; Nik, Samaneh

    2010-01-01

    Background: The use of electric current during application of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems has been recently introduced to decrease microleakage. This study investigated the effects of an electric field produced by an experimental device for the application of a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive on moist dentin surface. Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human premolars were used for this study. In order to simulate real conditions, the pulpal pressure was set to 35 cm H2O for all the specimens. The teeth were divided into two groups: in group I, etch-and-rinse system (Single Bond) was applied with electric current while group II, etch-and-rinse system (Single Bond) was applied without electric current. Specimens were prepared for dye penetration test. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The results showed that group I had less microleakage scores compared to group II (P = 0.047). Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, it could be concluded that using electric current for applying adhesive systems had a significant effect on reducing microleakage. PMID:21448443

  5. Evaluation of pulpal response of deciduous teeth after direct pulp capping with bioactive glass and mineral trioxide aggregate

    PubMed Central

    Haghgoo, Roza; Ahmadvand, Motahare

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulpal response of primary teeth after direct pulp capping (DPC) with two biocompatible materials namely mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and bioactive glass (BAG). Settings and Design: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 22 healthy primary canine teeth scheduled for extraction for orthodontic reasons were selected. The teeth were divided into two groups of 11 and underwent DPC. The exposure sites were randomly capped with MTA or BAG in the two groups. After 2 months, the teeth were extracted and prepared for histopathologic evaluation. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: In the BAG group, inflammation was seen in three patients; internal resorption and abscess were not seen at all. In the MTA group, inflammation was seen in one patient and internal resorption and abscess were not seen in any patient. Fisher's exact test showed no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). Dentinal bridge formation was noted in five patients in the BAG group and six patients in the MTA group. No significant difference was observed between the BAG and MTA groups using Chi-square analysis (P = 0.67). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, MTA and BAG can be used for DPC of primary teeth. PMID:27630497

  6. Is Climate Simulation in Growth Chambers Necessary?

    Treesearch

    Z.M. Wang; K.H. Johnsen; M.J. Lechowicz

    1999-01-01

    In the expression of their genetic potential as phenotypes, trees respond to environmental cues such as photoperiod, temperature and soil and atmospheric water. However, growth chamber experiments often utilize simple and standard environmental conditions that might not provide these important environmental signals. We conducted a study to compare seedling growth in...

  7. Heat-barrier coatings for combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, H. W.

    1970-01-01

    Arc-plasma-sprayed layered coating of graded Inconel and zirconia protects film-coolant ring below injector plate of rocket engine combustion chamber. Interfacial temperature is designed for minimum buildup of stress and to avoid melting of the metal phase in the graded layers.

  8. Miniature reaction chamber and devices incorporating same

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2000-10-17

    The present invention generally relates to miniaturized devices for carrying out and controlling chemical reactions and analyses. In particular, the present invention provides devices which have miniature temperature controlled reaction chambers for carrying out a variety of synthetic and diagnostic applications, such as PCR amplification, nucleic acid hybridization, chemical labeling, nucleic acid fragmentation and the like.

  9. Comsol Simulations as a Tool in Validating a Measurement Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakka, Antti; Sairanen, Hannu; Heinonen, Martti; Högström, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) is developing a temperature-humidity calibration system for radiosondes. The target minimum air temperature and dew-point temperature are -80° C and -90° C, respectively. When operating in this range, a major limiting factor is the time of stabilization which is mainly affected by the design of the measurement chamber. To find an optimal geometry for the chamber, we developed a numerical simulation method taking into account heat and mass transfer in the chamber. This paper describes the method and its experimental validation using two stainless steel chambers with different geometries. The numerical simulation was carried out using Comsol Multiphysics simulation software. Equilibrium states of dry air flow at -70° C with different inlet air flow rates were used to determine the geometry of the chamber. It was revealed that the flow is very unstable despite having relatively small Reynolds number values. Humidity saturation abilities of the new chamber were studied by simulating water vapor diffusion in the chamber in time-dependent mode. The differences in time of humidity stabilization after a step change were determined for both the new chamber model and the MIKES Relative Humidity Generator III (MRHG) model. These simulations were used as a validation of the simulation method along with experimental measurements using a spectroscopic hygrometer. Humidity saturation stabilization simulations proved the new chamber to be the faster of the two, which was confirmed by experimental measurements.

  10. MRI-compatible incubation chamber for cell culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Schwenzer, Nina F; Grönewäller, Eckart F; Rodegerdts, Enno; Kehlbach, Rainer; Duda, Stephan H; Claussen, Claus D

    2006-01-01

    To develop an incubation chamber that is compatible with MRI, while avoiding sources of error due to the experimental setup. Two identical and gas-tight chambers were constructed of Plexiglas. The temperature and the CO(2) concentration were adjustable. Temperature variations within and between both chambers were measured. The pH values of the cell culture media were measured under different environmental settings. For each environment a colony formation test was carried out. The homogeneity of the magnetic field inside the chambers was estimated by phantom tests. The temperature variations within the chambers were <0.3 degrees C, and the variation between the chambers was on average <0.05 degrees C. After eight hours the pH values of the cell culture media were 7.47 and 7.48 in the reference and measurement chambers, respectively; 7.41 in the CO(2) incubator; and 8.73 in ambient air. In colony formation tests the survival fraction in the Plexiglas chamber was comparable to that in the CO(2) incubator. No distortions of the magnetic field from the incubation chamber were observed. The incubation system presented can provide the conditions of a CO(2) incubator without alteration of the magnetic flux density.

  11. The Role of Temperature in the Action of Mepivacaine

    PubMed Central

    Dabarakis, Nikolaos; Tsirlis, Anastasios; Parisis, Nikolaos; Tsoukalas, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    The role of temperature in the action of local anesthetics was studied in 20 healthy young volunteers with plain 3% mepivacaine injected periapically twice in their maxillary first premolar, the first time with the solution at a temperature of 20°C and the second time at 4°C. The pulpal response was measured with a pulp tester every minute. The onset of pulp anesthesia was found to be of no statistical difference between 20°C and 4°C. On the other hand, mepivacaine at a temperature of 4°C was found to have a statistically significant longer duration of action. Our conclusion is that the drop in temperature of mepivacaine from 20°C to 4°C provides a longer duration of pulpal anesthesia. PMID:17175822

  12. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-06-27

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  13. Multi-chamber deposition system

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Richard L.; Jeffrey, Frank R.; Westerberg, Roger K.

    1989-10-17

    A system for the simultaneous deposition of different coatings onto a thin web within a large volume vacuum chamber is disclosed which chamber is provided with a plurality of deposition chambers in which the different layers are deposited onto the film as its moves from a supply roll to a finished take-up roll of coated web. The deposition chambers provided within the large vacuum chamber are provided with separate seals which minimize back diffusion of any dopant gas from adjacent deposition chambers.

  14. Combustor with fuel preparation chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelina, Joseph (Inventor); Myers, Geoffrey D. (Inventor); Srinivasan, Ram (Inventor); Reynolds, Robert S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An annular combustor having fuel preparation chambers mounted in the dome of the combustor. The fuel preparation chamber comprises an annular wall extending axially from an inlet to an exit that defines a mixing chamber. Mounted to the inlet are an air swirler and a fuel atomizer. The air swirler provides swirled air to the mixing chamber while the atomizer provides a fuel spray. On the downstream side of the exit, the fuel preparation chamber has an inwardly extending conical wall that compresses the swirling mixture of fuel and air exiting the mixing chamber.

  15. 44. AUXILIARY CHAMBER BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION CCC), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. AUXILIARY CHAMBER BETWEEN CHAMBER AND CONCRETE ENCLOSURE (LOCATION CCC), LOOKING NORTHEAST SHOWING DRAIN PIPE FROM SUMP - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  16. 72. VISITOR'S CENTER, MODEL OF BOILER CHAMBER, AUXILIARY CHAMBER, REACTOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. VISITOR'S CENTER, MODEL OF BOILER CHAMBER, AUXILIARY CHAMBER, REACTOR AND CANAL (LOCATION T) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  17. Visual-Inspection Probe For Cryogenic Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, Steve; Valenzuela, James; Yoshinaga, Jay

    1990-01-01

    Visual-inspection probe that resembles borescope enables observer at ambient temperature to view objects immersed in turbulent flow of liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, or other cryogenic fluid. Design of probe fairly conventional, except special consideration given to selection of materials and to thermal expansion to provide for expected range of operating temperatures. Penetrates wall of cryogenic chamber to provide view of interior. Similar probe illuminates scene. View displayed on video monitor.

  18. Visual-Inspection Probe For Cryogenic Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, Steve; Valenzuela, James; Yoshinaga, Jay

    1990-01-01

    Visual-inspection probe that resembles borescope enables observer at ambient temperature to view objects immersed in turbulent flow of liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, or other cryogenic fluid. Design of probe fairly conventional, except special consideration given to selection of materials and to thermal expansion to provide for expected range of operating temperatures. Penetrates wall of cryogenic chamber to provide view of interior. Similar probe illuminates scene. View displayed on video monitor.

  19. Fire environmental test chamber: its design and development

    Treesearch

    Clifford J. Auvil

    1973-01-01

    The Fire Environmental Test Chamber at the Forest Fire Laboratory, Riverside, California, can duplicate under controlled conditions the key factors that affect the flammability of wildland fuels. Within certain limits, it can produce air flow, solar radiation, temperatures, and relative humidity. First developed in 1962, the test chamber has since then undergoneseveral...

  20. Combustion chamber struts can be effectively transpiration cooled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, G. H.

    1966-01-01

    Vapor-deposited sintering technique increases the feasible temperature range of transpiration-cooled structural members in combustion chambers. This technique produces a porous mass of refractory metal wires around a combustion chamber structural member. This mass acts as a transpiration-cooled surface for a thick-walled tube.

  1. MPD thrust chamber flow dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-08-01

    Flow within the thrust chamber of a Magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet is examined experimentally and modeled with a 2-D magnetohydrodynamic code. Two quasi-steady MPD thrusters are considered under the same input conditions of current (21 kA) and total mass flow rate (0.006 kg/s, argon + 1.5 percent hydrogen). The arcjets have the same basic design, consisting of a central cathode, 3.8 cm diameter and 5 cm long, separated from a coaxial anode of equal length by a uniform gap of 2.3 cm. Two different mass injection arrangements are used (100 percent at mid-radius, and 50 percent at the cathode base, with the remainder at mid-radius). A new spectroscopic analysis procedure is developed that allows distributions of radial speed, heavy particle temperature and turbulent speed to be extracted from chordal measurements of light emission by the two species in the plasma flow. Good qualitative (and reasonable quantitative) agreement exists with distributions calculated by the MHD code, indicating that flow within the thrust chamber expands from an electromagnetically pumped plasma base (vs a pumped jet off the cathode tip). The significant variation of internal flow dynamics with mass injector arrangement implies the need for extensive experimentally validated code modeling in order to evaluate the potential performance of MPD thrusters.

  2. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  3. Aerosol chamber study of optical constants and N2O5 uptake on supercooled H2SO4/H2O/HNO3 solution droplets at polar stratospheric cloud temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert; Naumann, Karl-Heinz; Mangold, Alexander; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schurath, Ulrich

    2005-09-15

    The mechanism of the formation of supercooled ternary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O/HNO(3) solution (STS) droplets in the polar winter stratosphere, i.e., the uptake of nitric acid and water onto background sulfate aerosols at T < 195 K, was successfully mimicked during a simulation experiment at the large coolable aerosol chamber AIDA of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Supercooled sulfuric acid droplets, acting as background aerosol, were added to the cooled AIDA vessel at T = 193.6 K, followed by the addition of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. N(2)O(5), the product of the gas phase reaction between O(3) and NO(2), was then hydrolyzed in the liquid phase with an uptake coefficient gamma(N(2)O(5)). From this experiment, a series of FTIR extinction spectra of STS droplets was obtained, covering a broad range of different STS compositions. This infrared spectra sequence was used for a quantitative test of the accuracy of published infrared optical constants for STS aerosols, needed, for example, as input in remote sensing applications. The present findings indicate that the implementation of a mixing rule approach, i.e., calculating the refractive indices of ternary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O/HNO(3) solution droplets based on accurate reference data sets for the two binary H(2)SO(4)/H(2)O and HNO(3)/H(2)O systems, is justified. Additional model calculations revealed that the uptake coefficient gamma(N(2)O(5)) on STS aerosols strongly decreases with increasing nitrate concentration in the particles, demonstrating that this so-called nitrate effect, already well-established from uptake experiments conducted at room temperature, is also dominant at stratospheric temperatures.

  4. Test chamber for low-background IR focal plane testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staller, Craig; Capps, Richard W.; Butler, Douglas; Moss, Nancy; Norwood, Wynn

    1989-01-01

    A unique and versatile vacuum chamber has been designed for JPL's IR Focal Plane Technology Group. This chamber is equipped with multiple ports for cryogen and electrical vacuum feedthroughs, pumping units, vacuum gages, sources, and detector camera heads. The design incorporates a liquid-nitrogen-cooled optical table and radiation shield for low-background IR detector testing. Focal planes can be tested at temperatures ranging from 300 K to that of liquid helium. This paper describes the design and construction of this low-background IR focal plane test chamber and discusses some of its distinctive features. An analysis of the test chamber's performance is also presented.

  5. Performance of a transpiration-regenerative cooled rocket thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valler, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis, design, fabrication, and testing of a liquid rocket engine thrust chamber which is gas transpiration cooled in the high heat flux convergent portion of the chamber and water jacket cooled (simulated regenerative) in the barrel and divergent sections of the chamber are described. The engine burns LOX-hydrogen propellants at a chamber pressure of 600 psia. Various transpiration coolant flow rates were tested with resultant local hot gas wall temperatures in the 800 F to 1400 F range. The feasibility of transpiration cooling with hydrogen and helium, and the use of photo-etched copper platelets for heat transfer and coolant metering was successfully demonstrated.

  6. Multiwire proportional chamber development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doolittle, R. F.; Pollvogt, U.; Eskovitz, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The development of large area multiwire proportional chambers, to be used as high resolution spatial detectors in cosmic ray experiments is described. A readout system was developed which uses a directly coupled, lumped element delay-line whose characteristics are independent of the MWPC design. A complete analysis of the delay-line and the readout electronic system shows that a spatial resolution of about 0.1 mm can be reached with the MWPC operating in the strictly proportional region. This was confirmed by measurements with a small MWPC and Fe-55 X-rays. A simplified analysis was carried out to estimate the theoretical limit of spatial resolution due to delta-rays, spread of the discharge along the anode wire, and inclined trajectories. To calculate the gas gain of MWPC's of different geometrical configurations a method was developed which is based on the knowledge of the first Townsend coefficient of the chamber gas.

  7. Crystals in magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, M.

    2011-12-01

    Differentiation processes in igneous systems are one way in which the diversity of igneous rocks is produced. Traditionally, magmatic diversity is considered as variations in the overall chemical composition, such as basalt and rhyolite, but I want to extend this definition to include textural diversity. Such textural variations can be manifested as differences in the amount of crystalline (and immiscible liquid) phases and in the origin and identity of such phases. One important differentiation process is crystal-liquid separation by floatation or decantation, which clearly necessitates crystals in the magma. Hence, it is important to determine if magmas in chambers (sensu lato) have crystals. The following discussion is framed in generalities - many exceptions occur. Diabase (dolerite) dykes are a common, widespread result of regional mafic magmatism. The rims of most diabase dykes have few or no phenocrysts and crystals in the cores are commonly thought to have crystallized in place. Hence, this major mafic magmatic source did not have crystals, although compositional diversity of these dykes is commonly explained by crystal-liquid separation. This can be resolved if crystallisation was on the walls on the magma chamber. Similarly, most flood basalts are low in crystals and separation of those that are present cannot always explain the observed compositional diversity. Crystal-rich flows do occur, for example the 'Giant Plagioclase Basalts' of the Deccan series, but the crystals are thought to form or accumulate in a crystal-rich zone beneath the roof of the chamber - the rest of the chamber probably has few crystals. Some magmas from Hawaii contain significant amounts of olivine crystals, but most of these are deformed and cannot have crystallised in the chamber. In this case the crystals are thought to grow as the magma passes through a decollement zone. They may have grown on the walls or been trapped by filters. Basaltic andesite ignimbrites generally have

  8. Electrostatic Levitator Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Optical prots ring the Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) vacuum chamber to admit light from the heating laser (the beam passes through the window at left), poisitioning lasers (one port is at center), and lamps (such as the deuterium arc lamp at right), and to allow diagnostic instruments to view the sample. The ESL uses static electricity to suspend an object (about 2-3 mm in diameter) inside a vacuum chamber while a laser heats the sample until it melts. This lets scientists record a wide range of physical properties without the sample contacting the container or any instruments, conditions that would alter the readings. The Electrostatic Levitator is one of several tools used in NASA's microgravity materials science program.

  9. Digital optical spark chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenson, Paul; Tuska, Evelyn

    1989-01-01

    The authors constructed and tested a prototype digital readout system for optical spark chambers using a linear, solid-state charge-coupled-device detector array. Position resolution of 0.013 mm (sigma) over a 25-cm field of view has been demonstrated. It is concluded that this technique should permit the construction of economical, lightweight and low-power trajectory hodoscopes for use in cosmic-ray instrumentation on balloons and in spacecraft.

  10. Combustion chamber noise suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.M.

    1986-08-19

    A combustion chamber is described for a hot fog generating machine comprising a hollow cylindrical combustion chamber shell having a closure plate at one end and outlet means at the opposite end for directing hot combustion gasses to a fogging nozzle, air inlet means disposed adjacent the outlet means, fuel inlet means and ignition means mounted in the closure plate and liner means disposed concentrically within the cylindrical combustion chamber for controlling the flow of air and combustion gasses within the shell. The liner means includes a liner base having a frustroconical configuration with the smaller diameter end thereof disposed in communication with the outlet means and with the larger diameter end thereof disposed in spaced relation to the shell, circumferentially spaced, longitudinally extending fins extending outwardly from the liner base intermediate the liner base and the shell, a cylindrical liner midsection having circumferentially spaced fins extending outwardly therefrom between the midsection and the shell with the fins supporting the midsection on the larger diameter end of the liner base.

  11. A new plant chamber facility PLUS coupled to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2015-11-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been build and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees are mixed with synthetic air and are transferred to the SAPHIR chamber where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important enviromental parameters (e.g. temperature, PAR, soil RH etc.) are well-controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leafes of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to FEP Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces only to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 LED panels which have an emission strength up to 800 μmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light and temperature dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus Ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus Ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental set up and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  12. A new plant chamber facility, PLUS, coupled to the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohaus, T.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Wegener, R.; Yu, Z.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.

    2016-03-01

    A new PLant chamber Unit for Simulation (PLUS) for use with the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) has been built and characterized at the Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Germany. The PLUS chamber is an environmentally controlled flow-through plant chamber. Inside PLUS the natural blend of biogenic emissions of trees is mixed with synthetic air and transferred to the SAPHIR chamber, where the atmospheric chemistry and the impact of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) can be studied in detail. In PLUS all important environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil relative humidity (RH)) are well controlled. The gas exchange volume of 9.32 m3 which encloses the stem and the leaves of the plants is constructed such that gases are exposed to only fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon film and other Teflon surfaces to minimize any potential losses of BVOCs in the chamber. Solar radiation is simulated using 15 light-emitting diode (LED) panels, which have an emission strength up to 800 µmol m-2 s-1. Results of the initial characterization experiments are presented in detail. Background concentrations, mixing inside the gas exchange volume, and transfer rate of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through PLUS under different humidity conditions are explored. Typical plant characteristics such as light- and temperature- dependent BVOC emissions are studied using six Quercus ilex trees and compared to previous studies. Results of an initial ozonolysis experiment of BVOC emissions from Quercus ilex at typical atmospheric concentrations inside SAPHIR are presented to demonstrate a typical experimental setup and the utility of the newly added plant chamber.

  13. High temperature acoustic levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system is described for acoustically levitating an object within a portion of a chamber that is heated to a high temperature, while a driver at the opposite end of the chamber is maintained at a relatively low temperature. The cold end of the chamber is constructed so it can be telescoped to vary the length (L sub 1) of the cold end portion and therefore of the entire chamber, so that the chamber remains resonant to a normal mode frequency, and so that the pressure at the hot end of the chamber is maximized. The precise length of the chamber at any given time, is maintained at an optimum resonant length by a feedback loop. The feedback loop includes an acoustic pressure sensor at the hot end of the chamber, which delivers its output to a control circuit which controls a motor that varies the length (L) of the chamber to a level where the sensed acoustic pressure is a maximum.

  14. Involvement of TRPA1 in the cinnamaldehyde-induced pulpal blood flow change in the feline dental pulp

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dokyung; Lee, Moon-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of TRPA1 in the cinnamaldehyde-induced pulpal blood flow (PBF) change in the feline dental pulp. Materials and Methods Mandibles of eight cats were immobilized and PBF was monitored with a laser Doppler flowmetry at the mandibular canine tooth. To evaluate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on PBF, cinnamaldehyde was injected into the pulp through the lingual artery at a constant rate for 60 seconds. As a control, a mixture of 70% ethanol and 30% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, vehicle) was used. To evaluate the involvement of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in PBF change, AP18, a specific TRPA1 antagonist, was applied into the pulp through the Class V dentinal cavity followed by cinnamaldehyde-administration 3 minutes later. The paired variables of experimental data were statistically analyzed using paired t-test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Administration of cinnamaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, intra-arterial [i.a.]) induced significant increases in PBF (p < 0.05). While administration of a TRPA1 antagonist, AP18 (2.5 - 3.0 mM, into the dentinal cavity [i.c.]) caused insignificant change of PBF (p > 0.05), administration of cinnamaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, i.a.) following the application of AP18 (2.5 - 3.0 mM, i.c.) resulted in an attenuation of PBF increase from the control level (p < 0.05). As a result, a TRPA1 antagonist, AP18 effectively inhibited the vasodilative effect of cinnamaldehyde (p < 0.05). Conclusions The result of the present study provided a functional evidence that TRPA1 is involved in the mechanism of cinnamaldehyde-induced vasodilation in the feline dental pulp. PMID:27508162

  15. Involvement of TRPA1 in the cinnamaldehyde-induced pulpal blood flow change in the feline dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dokyung; Lee, Moon-Hwan; Kim, Sung Kyo

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of TRPA1 in the cinnamaldehyde-induced pulpal blood flow (PBF) change in the feline dental pulp. Mandibles of eight cats were immobilized and PBF was monitored with a laser Doppler flowmetry at the mandibular canine tooth. To evaluate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on PBF, cinnamaldehyde was injected into the pulp through the lingual artery at a constant rate for 60 seconds. As a control, a mixture of 70% ethanol and 30% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, vehicle) was used. To evaluate the involvement of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in PBF change, AP18, a specific TRPA1 antagonist, was applied into the pulp through the Class V dentinal cavity followed by cinnamaldehyde-administration 3 minutes later. The paired variables of experimental data were statistically analyzed using paired t-test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Administration of cinnamaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, intra-arterial [i.a.]) induced significant increases in PBF (p < 0.05). While administration of a TRPA1 antagonist, AP18 (2.5 - 3.0 mM, into the dentinal cavity [i.c.]) caused insignificant change of PBF (p > 0.05), administration of cinnamaldehyde (0.5 mg/kg, i.a.) following the application of AP18 (2.5 - 3.0 mM, i.c.) resulted in an attenuation of PBF increase from the control level (p < 0.05). As a result, a TRPA1 antagonist, AP18 effectively inhibited the vasodilative effect of cinnamaldehyde (p < 0.05). The result of the present study provided a functional evidence that TRPA1 is involved in the mechanism of cinnamaldehyde-induced vasodilation in the feline dental pulp.

  16. What is the Effect of No Endodontic Debridement on Postoperative Pain for Symptomatic Teeth with Pulpal Necrosis?

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Raquel; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Fowler, Sara; Beck, Mike

    2016-03-01

    Patients without a dentist or access to care may present to emergency rooms with pain. They are often prescribed medications until they can be treated. There are no studies to show if emergency endodontic debridement is better than giving medications during this symptomatic period. The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare debridement versus no debridement on postoperative pain in emergency patients with symptomatic teeth, a pulpal diagnosis of necrosis, and a periapical radiolucency. Ninety-five patients presenting with moderate to severe pain were analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group 1 received anesthesia and endodontic debridement, and group 2 received anesthesia but no debridement. At the end of the appointment, all patients were given ibuprofen/acetaminophen. If needed, they could receive an escape medication. Patients received a 5-day diary to record their pain levels and medication taken. Success was defined as no or mild postoperative pain and no use of escape medication. Success data were analyzed using a logistic regression. Both groups had a decrease in postoperative pain and medication use over the 5 days. The debridement group had a significantly higher success rate than the no debridement group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups with respect to escape drug use. Patients receiving debridement or no debridement had a decrease in postoperative pain over the 5 days. Debridement resulted in a statistically higher success rate, but there was no significant difference in the need for escape medication. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Microshear Bond Strength of 5(th), 6(th) and 7(th) Generation Bonding Agents to Coronal Dentin Versus Dentin at Floor of Pulp Chamber: An In vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Deepa, Velagala Lakshmi; Damaraju, Bhargavi; Priyadharsini, Bollu Indira; Subbarao, Vummidisetti V; Raju, K Rama Krishna

    2014-09-01

    Lack of seal and adhesion between the final restoration and tooth structure adversely affects the results of root canal treatment. Lots of adhesive bonding agents are marketed to overcome this deficiency and achieve successful restoration. So the study compares and evaluates the micro shear bond strength of coronal dentin and pulp chamber dentin using three different generation dentin bonding systems and to know clinical efficiency for clinical use. DIFFERENT GENERATION DENTIN BONDING SYSTEMS USED WERE: (1) One bottle total etch system (XP Bond-5(th) generation), (2) Two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond-6(th) generation) and (3) All-in-one system (G Bond-7(th) generation). Thirty human mandibular molars were collected out of which sixty samples were prepared by sectioning each tooth into coronal dentin and pulpal floor dentin. They were divided into two major groups. Group I: 30 Coronal dentin samples. Group II:30 Pulpal floor dentin samples. Both the groups were further subdivided depending on the bonding agent used. Subgroup Ia:XP Bond, Subgroup Ib:Clearfil SE Bond, Subgroup Ic:G Bond, Subgroup IIa:XP Bond, Subgroup IIb:Clearfil SE Bond, Subgroup IIc:G Bond. Resin composite was bonded to these samples and tested for micro-shear bond strength. The mean bond strengths and standard deviations were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and Student's t-test (unpaired) and honestly significant difference post-hoc tests. Coronal dentin showed higher values of micro shear bond strength than the pulpal floor dentin. All-in-one system (G Bond) showed least bond strength values to both the regions coronal dentin and pulpal floor dentin. Factors affecting the shear bond strength are dependent on material (adhesive system), substrate depth and adhesive/depth interaction. Hence composition and substrate treatment should be considered for good adhesive. Chemical composition of adhesive system determines clinical successes.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Microshear Bond Strength of 5th, 6th and 7th Generation Bonding Agents to Coronal Dentin Versus Dentin at Floor of Pulp Chamber: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala Lakshmi; Damaraju, Bhargavi; Priyadharsini, Bollu Indira; Subbarao, Vummidisetti V; Raju, K Rama Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lack of seal and adhesion between the final restoration and tooth structure adversely affects the results of root canal treatment. Lots of adhesive bonding agents are marketed to overcome this deficiency and achieve successful restoration. So the study compares and evaluates the micro shear bond strength of coronal dentin and pulp chamber dentin using three different generation dentin bonding systems and to know clinical efficiency for clinical use. Materials and Methods: Different generation dentin bonding systems used were: (1) One bottle total etch system (XP Bond-5th generation), (2) Two-step self-etch system (Clearfil SE Bond-6th generation) and (3) All-in-one system (G Bond-7th generation). Thirty human mandibular molars were collected out of which sixty samples were prepared by sectioning each tooth into coronal dentin and pulpal floor dentin. They were divided into two major groups. Group I: 30 Coronal dentin samples. Group II:30 Pulpal floor dentin samples. Both the groups were further subdivided depending on the bonding agent used. Subgroup Ia:XP Bond, Subgroup Ib:Clearfil SE Bond, Subgroup Ic:G Bond, Subgroup IIa:XP Bond, Subgroup IIb:Clearfil SE Bond, Subgroup IIc:G Bond. Resin composite was bonded to these samples and tested for micro-shear bond strength. The mean bond strengths and standard deviations were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and Student’s t-test (unpaired) and honestly significant difference post-hoc tests. Results: Coronal dentin showed higher values of micro shear bond strength than the pulpal floor dentin. All-in-one system (G Bond) showed least bond strength values to both the regions coronal dentin and pulpal floor dentin. Conclusion: Factors affecting the shear bond strength are dependent on material (adhesive system), substrate depth and adhesive/depth interaction. Hence composition and substrate treatment should be considered for good adhesive. Chemical composition of adhesive system determines

  19. Multi-anode ionization chamber

    DOEpatents

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; Smith, Graham; Mahler, George J.; Vanier, Peter E.

    2010-12-28

    The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

  20. Microwave-assisted wet digestion with H2O2 at high temperature and pressure using single reaction chamber for elemental determination in milk powder by ICP-OES and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Muller, Edson I; Souza, Juliana P; Muller, Cristiano C; Muller, Aline L H; Mello, Paola A; Bizzi, Cezar A

    2016-08-15

    In this work a green digestion method which only used H2O2 as an oxidant and high temperature and pressure in the single reaction chamber system (SRC-UltraWave™) was applied for subsequent elemental determination by inductively coupled plasma-based techniques. Milk powder was chosen to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of the proposed method. Samples masses up to 500mg were efficiently digested, and the determination of Ca, Fe, K, Mg and Na was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), while trace elements (B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Residual carbon (RC) lower than 918mgL(-1) of C was obtained for digests which contributed to minimizing interferences in determination by ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Accuracy was evaluated using certified reference materials NIST 1549 (non-fat milk powder certified reference material) and NIST 8435 (whole milk powder reference material). The results obtained by the proposed method were in agreement with the certified reference values (t-test, 95% confidence level). In addition, no significant difference was observed between results obtained by the proposed method and conventional wet digestion using concentrated HNO3. As digestion was performed without using any kind of acid, the characteristics of final digests were in agreement with green chemistry principles when compared to digests obtained using conventional wet digestion method with concentrated HNO3. Additionally, H2O2 digests were more suitable for subsequent analysis by ICP-based techniques due to of water being the main product of organic matrix oxidation. The proposed method was suitable for quality control of major components and trace elements present in milk powder in consonance with green sample preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The APS ceramic chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, S.; Warner, D.

    1994-07-01

    Ceramics chambers are used in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) machines at the locations of the pulsed kicker and bumper magnets. The ceramic will be coated internally with a resistive paste. The resistance is chosen to allow the low frequency pulsed magnet field to penetrate but not the high frequency components of the circulating beam. Another design goal was to keep the power density experienced by the resistive coating to a minimum. These ceramics, their associated hardware, the coating process, and our recent experiences with them are described.

  2. Wire chambers revisited.

    PubMed

    Ott, R J

    1993-04-01

    Detectors used for radioisotope imaging have, historically, been based on scintillating crystal/photomultiplier combinations in various forms. From the rectilinear scanner through to modern gamma cameras and positron cameras, the basic technology has remained much the same. Efforts to overcome the limitations of this form of technology have foundered on the inability to reproduce the required sensitivity, spatial resolution and sensitive area at acceptable cost. Multiwire proportional chambers (MWPCs) have long been used as position-sensitive charged particle detectors in nuclear and high-energy physics. MWPCs are large-area gas-filled ionisation chambers in which large arrays of fine wires are used to measure the position of ionisation produced in the gas by the passage of charged particles. The important properties of MWPCs are high-spatial-resolution, large-area, high-count-rate performance at low cost. For research applications, detectors several metres square have been built and small-area detectors have a charged particle resolution of 0.4 mm at a count rate of several million per second. Modification is required to MWPCs for nuclear medicine imaging. As gamma rays or X-rays cannot be detected directly, they must be converted into photo- or Compton scatter electrons. Photon-electron conversion requires the use of high atomic number materials in the body of the chamber. Pressurised xenon is the most useful form of "gas only" photon-electron convertor and has been used successfully in a gamma camera for the detection of gamma rays at energies below 100 keV. This camera has been developed specifically for high-count-rate first-pass cardiac imaging. This high-pressure xenon gas MWPC is the key to a highly competitive system which can outperform scintillator-based systems. The count rate performance is close to a million counts per second and the intrinsic spatial resolution is better than the best scintillator-based camera. The MWPC camera produces quantitative

  3. Ionization chamber dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Renner, Tim R.; Nyman, Mark A.; Stradtner, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    A method for fabricating an ion chamber dosimeter collecting array of the type utilizing plural discrete elements formed on a uniform collecting surface which includes forming a thin insulating layer over an aperture in a frame having surfaces, forming a predetermined pattern of through holes in the layer, plating both surfaces of the layer and simultaneously tilting and rotating the frame for uniform plate-through of the holes between surfaces. Aligned masking and patterned etching of the surfaces provides interconnects between the through holes and copper leads provided to external circuitry.

  4. A new multi-wavelength optical-plethysmograph for quantitative determination of pulpal hemoglobin content and oxygen level using green and near-infrared LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakino, S.; Miwa, Z.; Kirimoto, A.; Ohuchi, K.; Takatani, S.; Takagi, Y.

    2007-02-01

    A new multi-wavelength optical-plethysmograph has been designed to study the relation between the transmitted optical density (OD) of the tooth vs. hemoglobin (Hb) content and oxygen saturation (SO II) of the pulpal blood using the 467, 506, 522 and 810 nm light emitting diodes (LEDs). The experimental model utilized the extracted human upper incisor where the pulp cavity was filled with the blood having various values of Hb and SO II. A resin cap was made to fit the tooth crown and optical fibers for transmission measurement. The LEDs were pulsed sequentially at 520 Hz with the pulse duration of 240 μs. The OD as a function of Hb for the isosbestic wavelengths of 506 and 522 nm increased almost linearly from 8.0 to 11.0 for Hb changing from 0.0 (saline control) to 2.5 g/dL, but beyond 2.5 g/dL no change was observed. At 810 nm, the OD increased linearly till Hb of 13.4 g/dL, but its change was much smaller with 1.0 OD per 13.4 g/dL. As for SO II, the OD at 467 nm with Hb of 1.0 g/dL that simulated the mean pulpal Hb content in vivo varied by about 1.0 for SO II changing from 100 to 40%. The OD change with respect to Hb change at 506 and 522 nm showed better sensitivity than that at 810 nm. The combination of 467 and 506 or 522 nm wavelengths can provide a noninvasive measurement of both pulpal Hb content and SO II to diagnose pulp vitality of teeth in vivo.

  5. Cooling of rocket thrust chambers with liquid oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.; Schlumberger, Julie A.

    1990-01-01

    Rocket engines using high pressure liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP-1) as the propellants have been considered for future launch vehicle propulsion. Generally, in regeneratively cooled engines, the fuel is used to cool the combustion chamber. However, hydrocarbons such as RP-1 are limited in their cooling capability at high temperatures and pressures. Therefore, LOX is being considered as an alternative coolant. However, there has been concern as to the effect on the integrity of the chamber liner if oxygen leaks into the combustion zone through fatigue cracks that may develop between the cooling passages and the hot-gas side wall. To address this concern, an investigation was previously conducted with simulated fatigue cracks upstream of the thrust chamber throat. When these chambers were tested, an unexpected melting in the throat region developed which was not in line with the simulated fatigue cracks. The current experimental program was conducted in order to determine the cause for the failure in the earlier thrust chambers and to further investigate the effects of cracks in the thrust chamber liner upstream of the throat. The thrust chambers were tested at oxygen-to-fuel mixture ratios from 1.5 to 2.86 at a nominal chamber pressure of 8.6 MPa. As a result of the test series, the reason for the failure occurring in the earlier work was determined to be injector anomalies. The LOX leaking through the simulated fatigue cracks did not affect the integrity of the chambers.

  6. Inspection of the Vacuum Chamber Dome at the Space Power Chambers

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1964-01-21

    Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center inspect the nitrogen baffle in the interior of the 22.5-foot diameter dome at the Space Power Chambers. In 1961 NASA Lewis management decided to convert the Altitude Wind Tunnel into two large test chambers and renamed the facility the Space Power Chambers. The conversion, which took over two years, included removing the tunnel’s drive fan, exhaust scoop, and turning vanes from the east end and inserting bulkheads to seal off the new chambers within the tunnel. The eastern section of the tunnel became a vacuum chamber capable of simulating 100 miles altitude. In 1962 NASA management decided to use the new vacuum chamber exclusively to study the second-stage rocket. This required significant modifications to the new tank and extensive test equipment to create a space environment. The Lewis test engineers sought to subject the Centaur to long durations in conditions that would replicate those encountered during its missions in space. The chamber was already capable of creating the vacuum of space, but the test engineers also wanted to simulate the cryogenic temperatures and solar radiation found in space. Six panels of 500-watt tungsten-iodine lamps were arranged around the Centaur to simulate the effect of the Sun’s heat. A large copper cold wall with its interior coated with heat-absorbing black paint was created specifically for these tests and assembled around the Centaur. The 42-foot-high wall had vertical ribs filled with liquid nitrogen which produced the low temperatures.

  7. Pulpal Response to Ferric Sulfate and Diode Laser When Used as Pulpotomy Agent: An In vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Sivadas, Sonia; Natarajan, Srikant; Shenoy, Ramya; Srikrishna, Suprabha Baranya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ferric sulfate and Laser has been used for conventional pulpotomy therapy. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of pulpotomies using these have been done in numerous studies but there exists few studies analysing the histologic response of pulp to laser and ferric sulfate. Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare histological changes seen in the pulp following ferric sulfate and laser pulpotomy and compare these effects. Materials and Methods This was a single blind in vivo study, consisting of 24 primary teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups based on the material to be used and subgrouped based on the time period (30 and 45 days) of evaluation. The teeth were extracted after the study period and tissue processing done and subjected to Haematoxylin and Eosin staining procedure. The tissues were evaluated for dentin bridge formation, quality of dentin formation in the bridges, location of dentin bridges, tissue reaction to the material, inflammatory cell response and necrosis. The statistical analysis was done using SPSS 20.0 software. Intragroup comparisons of the observed values were analysed using Chi-square test. Results Statistical analysis revealed non-significant difference between the two materials to produce reparative dentin and also the quality of dentin bridges formed in both the groups during both the observational periods. Majority of the samples in both ferric sulfate and laser group exhibited dentin bridge at the interface of the exposed pulp, bridging or attempting to bridge the site exposed to the pulpotomy material. The ability of the materials to evoke a foreign body and inflammatory cell responses in the pulpal tissue was not significant. All the samples of both the groups showed signs of necrosis with two samples of laser group showing severe necrosis in 45 days period. The difference between the groups in 30 days group was statistically significant. Conclusion Laser and ferric sulfate are found to be

  8. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Allard, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    The 0.152 cm thick sputtered and copper deposits were electron beam welded to wrought copper. Tensile specimens were machined from the weld assemblies and tested at room temperature. Tensile strength approached the strength of wrought material. Elongations up to 25% were measured. Sputtered aluminum was used to fill 0.157 cm wide by 0.127 cm deep grooves in thrust chamber spool piece liners. The liners were closed out by sputtering copper from post and hollow cathodes.

  9. Compact Vapor Chamber Cools Critical Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in the production of proton exchange membrane fuel cells have NASA considering their use as a power source for spacecraft and robots in future space missions. With SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center, Lancaster, Pennsylvania-based Thermacore Inc. developed strong, lightweight titanium vapor chambers to keep the fuel cells operating at optimum temperatures. The company is now selling the technology for cooling electronic components.

  10. Chamber For Testing Polymers In Oxygen Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus holds polymer specimen at constant temperature while exposing it to oxygen plasma. Copper tube (part of cooling coil) extends into plasma chamber, supporting copper block and thermoelectric module on which specimen mounted. Copper block made small - 4.4 by 3.8 by 1.6 cm - having little effect on plasma. Used to evaluate resistances of polymer materials to plasma environments, and for analysis of gases produced by attack of plasma on polymer specimen.

  11. Diogene pictorial drift chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gosset, J.

    1984-01-01

    A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive).

  12. Mush Column Magma Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    2002-12-01

    Magma chambers are a necessary concept in understanding the chemical and physical evolution of magma. The concept may well be similar to a transfer function in circuit or time series analysis. It does what needs to be done to transform source magma into eruptible magma. In gravity and geodetic interpretations the causative body is (usually of necessity) geometrically simple and of limited vertical extent; it is clearly difficult to `see' through the uppermost manifestation of the concentrated magma. The presence of plutons in the upper crust has reinforced the view that magma chambers are large pots of magma, but as in the physical representation of a transfer function, actual magma chambers are clearly distinct from virtual magma chambers. Two key features to understanding magmatic systems are that they are vertically integrated over large distances (e.g., 30-100 km), and that all local magmatic processes are controlled by solidification fronts. Heat transfer considerations show that any viable volcanic system must be supported by a vertically extensive plumbing system. Field and geophysical studies point to a common theme of an interconnected stack of sill-like structures extending to great depth. This is a magmatic Mush Column. The large-scale (10s of km) structure resembles the vertical structure inferred at large volcanic centers like Hawaii (e.g., Ryan et al.), and the fine scale (10s to 100s of m) structure is exemplified by ophiolites and deeply eroded sill complexes like the Ferrar dolerites of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The local length scales of the sill reservoirs and interconnecting conduits produce a rich spectrum of crystallization environments with distinct solidification time scales. Extensive horizontal and vertical mushy walls provide conditions conducive to specific processes of differentiation from solidification front instability to sidewall porous flow and wall rock slumping. The size, strength, and time series of eruptive behavior

  13. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Martinec, Tomas; Novak, Ondrej; Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel

    This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free) and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time). Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results - i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  14. Testing fireproof materials in a combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Martinec, Tomas; Novak, Ondrej; Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    This article deals with a prototype concept, real experiment and numerical simulation of a combustion chamber, designed for testing fire resistance some new insulating composite materials. This concept of a device used for testing various materials, providing possibility of monitoring temperatures during controlled gas combustion. As a fuel for the combustion process propane butane mixture has been used and also several kinds of burners with various conditions of inlet air (forced, free) and fuel flows were tested. The tested samples were layered sandwich materials based on various materials or foams, used as fillers in fire shutters. The temperature distribution was measured by using thermocouples. A simulation of whole concept of experimental chamber has been carried out as the non-premixed combustion process in the commercial final volume sw Pyrosim. The result was to design chamber with a construction suitable, according to the international standards, achieve the required values (temperature in time). Model of the combustion based on a stoichiometric defined mixture of gas and the tested layered samples showed good conformity with experimental results - i.e. thermal distribution inside and heat release rate that has gone through the sample.

  15. Detecting dark matter with scintillating bubble chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianjie; Dahl, C. Eric; Jin, Miaotianzi; Baxter, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Threshold based direct WIMP dark matter detectors such as the superheated bubble chambers developed by the PICO experiment have demonstrated excellent electron-recoil and alpha discrimination, excellent scalability, ease of change of target fluid, and low cost. However, the nuclear-recoil like backgrounds have been a limiting factor in their dark matter sensitivity. We present a new type of detector, the scintillating bubble chamber, which reads out the scintillation pulse of the scattering events as well as the pressure, temperature, acoustic traces, and bubble images as a conventional bubble chamber does. The event energy provides additional handle to discriminate against the nuclear-recoil like backgrounds. Liquid xenon is chosen as the target fluid in our prototyping detector for its high scintillation yield and suitable vapor pressure which simplifies detector complexity. The detector can be used as an R&D tool to study the backgrounds present in the current PICO bubble chambers or as a prototype for standalone dark matter detectors in the future. Supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0012161.

  16. Potassium Rankine cycle vapor chamber (heat pipe) radiator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrels, E. E.; Killen, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A structurally integrated vapor chamber fin (heat pipe) radiator is defined and evaluated as a potential candidate for rejecting waste heat from the potassium Rankine cycle powerplant. Several vapor chamber fin geometries, using stainless steel construction, are evaluated and an optimum is selected. A comparison is made with an operationally equivalent conduction fin radiator. Both radiators employ NaK-78 in the primary coolant loop. In addition, the Vapor Chamber Fin (VCF) radiator utilizes sodium in the vapor chambers. Preliminary designs are developed for the conduction fin and VCF concepts. Performance tests on a single vapor chamber were conducted to verify the VCF design. A comparison shows the conduction fin radiator easier to fabricate, but heavier in weight, particularly as meteoroid protection requirements become more stringent. While the analysis was performed assuming the potassium Rankine cycle powerplant, the results are equally applicable to any system radiating heat to space in the 900 to 1400 F temperature range.

  17. Cooling of High Pressure Rocket Thrust Chambers with Liquid Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. G.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental program using hydrogen and oxygen as the propellants and supercritical liquid oxygen (LOX) as the coolant was conducted at 4.14 and 8.274 MN/square meters (600 and 1200 psia) chamber pressure. Data on the following are presented: the effect of LOX leaking into the combustion region through small cracks in the chamber wall; and verification of the supercritical oxygen heat transfer correlation developed from heated tube experiments; A total of four thrust chambers with throat diameters of 0.066 m were tested. Of these, three were cyclically tested to 4.14 MN/square meters (600 psia) chamber pressure until a crack developed. One had 23 additional hot cycles accumulated with no apparent metal burning or distress. The fourth chamber was operated at 8.274 MN/square meters (1200 psia) pressure to obtain steady state heat transfer data. Wall temperature measurements confirmed the heat transfer correlation.

  18. Plant growth chamber based on space proven controlled environment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatius, R.W.; Ignatius, M.H.; Imberti, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum Devices, Inc., in conjunction with Percival Scientific, Inc., and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) have developed a controlled environment plant growth chamber for terrestrial agricultural and scientific applications. This chamber incorporates controlled environment technology used in the WCSAR ASTROCULTURE{trademark} flight unit for conducting plant research on the Space Shuttle. The new chamber, termed CERES 2010, features air humidity, temperature, and carbon dioxide control, an atmospheric contaminant removal unit, an LED lighting system, and a water and nutrient delivery system. The advanced environment control technology used in this chamber will increase the reliability and repeatability of environmental physiology data derived from plant experiments conducted in this chamber. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. An anechoic chamber facility for investigating aerodynamic noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Parthasarathy, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The aerodynamic noise facility was designed to be used primarily for investigating the noise-generating mechanisms of high-temperature supersonic and subsonic jets. The facility consists of an anechoic chamber, an exhaust jet silencer, instrumentation equipment, and an air heater with associated fuel and cooling systems. Compressed air, when needed for jet noise studies, is provided by the wind tunnel compressor facility on a continuous basis. The chamber is 8.1 m long, 5.0 m wide, and 3.0 m high. Provisions have been made for allowing outside air to be drawn into the anechoic chamber in order to replenish the air that is entrained by the jet as it flows through the chamber. Also, openings are provided in the walls and in the ceiling for the purpose of acquiring optical measurements. Calibration of the chamber for noise reflections from the wall was accomplished in octave bands between 31.2 Hz and 32 kHz.

  20. Convection and mixing in magma chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J. S.; Campbell, I. H.

    1986-08-01

    This paper reviews advances made during the last seven years in the application of fluid dynamics to problems of igneous petrology, with emphasis on the laboratory work with which the authors have been particularly involved. Attention is focused on processes in magma chambers which produce diversity in igneous rocks, such as fractional crystallization, assimilation and magma mixing. Chamber geometry, and variations in the density and viscosity of the magma within it, are shown to play a major role in determining the dynamical behaviour and the composition of the erupted or solidified products. Various convective processes are first reviewed, and in particular the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection. Two types of double-diffusive interfaces between layers of different composition and temperature are likely to occur in magma chambers. A diffusive interface forms when a layer of hot dense magma is overlain by cooler less dense magma. Heat is transported between the layers faster than composition, driving convection in both layers and maintaining a sharp interface between them. If a layer of hot slightly less dense magma overlies a layer of cooler, denser but compositionally lighter magma, a finger interface forms between them, and compositional differences are transported downwards faster than heat (when each is expressed in terms of the corresponding density changes). Processes leading to the establishment of density, compositional and thermal gradients or steps during the filling of a magma chamber are considered next. The stratification produced, and the extent of mixing between the inflowing and resident magmas, are shown to depend on the flow rate and on the relation between the densities and viscosities of the two components. Slow dense inputs of magma may mix very little with resident magma of comparable viscosity as they spread across the floor of the chamber. A similar pulse injected with high upward momentum forms a turbulent "fountain", which is a

  1. HATCH CONNECTING TEMPERED AIR CHAMBER AND HOT AIR CHAMBER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HATCH CONNECTING TEMPERED AIR CHAMBER AND HOT AIR CHAMBER OF PLENUM WITH ATTACHED DRAFT REGULATOR. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  2. Properties of corona discharge in a hot chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, H.S.

    1999-07-01

    The corona discharge system has been studied lately for its potential application to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} gas emission, where high electrical voltage (typically 50 kV) is applied to electrodes, inducing electrical breakdown in an atmospheric pressure and generating a plasma volume. One of the important issues in the corona discharge system is an effective generation of plasmas in the system. The electrical power needed for the plasma generation is one of the main operating costs of the corona discharge system. Less power consumption for plasma generation makes the corona discharge system more economical. Air pollutants are very often emitted from hot chambers such as municipal incinerators or electric power plants. It is therefore necessary to investigate influence of the chamber temperature on properties of the corona discharge system. From present work, the authors found that the critical voltage V{sub c} required for the corona-discharge breakdown is inversely proportional to the chamber temperature T. The electrical energy w{sub c} required for corona-discharge breakdown is inversely proportional to the square of the chamber temperature T. Thus, the electrical energy consumption for corona-discharge system decreases significantly as the temperature increases. The plasma generation by corona discharge in a hot chamber is much more efficient than that in a cold chamber.

  3. LRL 25-inch Bubble Chamber

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Gow, J. D.; Barrera, F.; Eckman, G.; Shand, J.; Watt, R.; Norgren, D.; Hernandez, H. P.

    1964-07-08

    The recently completed 25-inch hydrogen bubble chamber combines excellent picture quality with a fast operating cycle. The chamber has a unique optical system and is designed to take several pictures each Bevatron pulse, in conjunction with the Bevatron rapid beam ejection system.

  4. Autoignition Chamber for Remote Testing of Pyrotechnic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Maureen L.; Steward, Gerald R.; Dartez, Toby W.

    2009-01-01

    The autoignition chamber (AIC) performs by remotely heating pyrotechnic devices that can fit the inner diameter of the tube furnace. Two methods, a cold start or a hot start, can be used with this device in autoignition testing of pyrotechnics. A cold start means extending a pyrotechnic device into the cold autoignition chamber and then heating the device until autoignition occurs. A hot start means heating the autoignition chamber to a specified temperature, and then extending the device into a hot autoignition chamber until autoignition occurs. Personnel are remote from the chamber during the extension into the hot chamber. The autoignition chamber, a commercially produced tubular furnace, has a 230-V, single-phase, 60-Hz electrical supply, with a total power output of 2,400 W. It has a 6-in. (15.2-cm) inner diameter, a 12-in. (30.4-cm) outer diameter and a 12-in.- long (30.4-cm), single-zone, solid tubular furnace (element) capable of heating to temperatures up to 2,012 F (1,100 C) in air.

  5. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

    2014-12-16

    A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

  6. Structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber: Experimental and analytical validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jankovsky, Robert S.; Arya, Vinod K.; Kazaroff, John M.; Halford, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A new, structurally compliant rocket engine combustion chamber design has been validated through analysis and experiment. Subscale, tubular channel chambers have been cyclically tested and analytically evaluated. Cyclic lives were determined to have a potential for 1000 percent increase over those of rectangular channel designs, the current state of the art. Greater structural compliance in the circumferential direction gave rise to lower thermal strains during hot firing, resulting in lower thermal strain ratcheting and longer predicted fatigue lives. Thermal, structural, and durability analyses of the combustion chamber design, involving cyclic temperatures, strains, and low-cycle fatigue lives, have corroborated the experimental observations.

  7. Vapor chambers for an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Loose, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The methanol/stainless steel vapor chambers (flat-plate heat pipes) discussed in this paper were developed for use in spaceborne atmospheric cloud chambers. This application imposed stringent thermal and mechanical requirements on the design. Flatness, low thermal mass, vibration, and structural integrity requirements were achieved in addition to precision temperature uniformity and thermal transport. Heat transfer coefficients on the order of 0.34 to 0.40 W/sq cm -C were measured. The vapor chambers are capable of transporting 170 W-cm per cm of width in either the axial or side-to-side direction.

  8. Environmental chamber studies of atmospheric reactivities of volatile organic compounds: Effects of varying chamber and light source

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, W.; Luo, D.; Malkina, I.; Pierce, J.

    1995-05-01

    Photochemical oxidant models are essential tools for assessing effects of emissions changes on ground-level ozone formation. Such models are needed for predicting the ozone impacts of increased alternative fuel use. The gas-phase photochemical mechanism is an important component of these models because ozone is not emitted directly, but is formed from the gas-phase photochemical reactions of the emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) in air. The chemistry of ground level ozone formation is complex; hundreds of types of VOCs being emitted into the atmosphere, and most of their atmospheric reactions are not completely understood. Because of this, no chemical model can be relied upon to give even approximately accurate predictions unless it has been evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data. Therefore an experimental and modeling study was conducted to assess how chemical mechanism evaluations using environmental chamber data are affected by the light source and other chamber characteristics. Xenon arc lights appear to give the best artificial representation of sunlight currently available, and experiments were conducted in a new Teflon chamber constructed using such a light source. Experiments were also conducted in an outdoor Teflon Chamber using new procedures to improve the light characterization, and in Teflon chambers using blacklights. These results, and results of previous runs other chambers, were compared with model predictions using an updated detailed chemical mechanism. The magnitude of the chamber radical source assumed when modeling the previous runs were found to be too high; this has implications in previous mechanism evaluations. Temperature dependencies of chamber effects can explain temperature dependencies in chamber experiments when Ta-300{degree}K, but not at temperatures below that.

  9. Characterization of the Humidity Calibration Chamber by Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salminen, J.; Sairanen, H.; Grahn, P.; Högström, R.; Lakka, A.; Heinonen, M.

    2017-07-01

    At the Centre for Metrology MIKES of VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT MIKES), we have been developing a humidity calibration apparatus for radiosondes within an EMRP Project Metrology for Essential Climate Variables. The minimum air temperature and absolute humidity are -80°C and 2.576 × 10^{-4} g\\cdot m^{-3} (corresponding the dew-point temperature -90°C), respectively. Recent developments for the apparatus extend its pressure operation range down to 7 hPa (abs). When operating in such dry conditions, the efficiency in calibration is highly limited by the time of humidity stabilization in a measurement chamber: Because the water vapor pressure is very low, the adsorption and desorption of water molecules at the chamber walls have a significant effect on the spatial and temporal humidity differences in the chamber. Inhomogeneity in humidity field inside the calibration chamber increases calibration uncertainty. In order to understand how varying parameters such as pressure, temperature, inflow speed and geometry of chamber effect on stabilization time of humidity field, computational fluid dynamics simulations were developed using Comsol software. Velocity and pressure of fluid, water vapor diffusion, temperature as well as adsorption/desorption of water molecules on the chamber walls were included in the simulations. Adsorption and desorption constants for water on the measurement chamber wall were determined experimentally. The results show that the flow speed and the surface area are the dominant parameters affecting the stabilization time of a calibration chamber. It was also discovered that more homogenous water vapor concentration field is obtained at low pressures.

  10. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) investigation of thermal uniformity in a thermal cycling based calibration chamber for MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Xulong; Luo, Xiaobing; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Micro-electrical-mechanical system (MEMS) has become important for many industries such as automotive, home appliance, portable electronics, especially with the emergence of Internet of Things. Volume testing with temperature compensation has been essential in order to provide MEMS based sensors with repeatability, consistency, reliability, and durability, but low cost. Particularly, in the temperature calibration test, temperature uniformity of thermal cycling based calibration chamber becomes more important for obtaining precision sensors, as each sensor is different before the calibration. When sensor samples are loaded into the chamber, we usually open the door of the chamber, then place fixtures into chamber and mount the samples on the fixtures. These operations may affect temperature uniformity in the chamber. In order to study the influencing factors of sample-loading on the temperature uniformity in the chamber during calibration testing, numerical simulation work was conducted first. Temperature field and flow field were simulated in empty chamber, chamber with open door, chamber with samples, and chamber with fixtures, respectively. By simulation, it was found that opening chamber door, sample size and number of fixture layers all have effects on flow field and temperature field. By experimental validation, it was found that the measured temperature value was consistent with the simulated temperature value.

  11. Investigation of thermal and temporal responses of ionization chambers in radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    AlMasri, Hussein; Funyu, Akira; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2012-07-01

    The ionization chamber is a primary dosimeter that is used in radiation dosimetry. Generally, the ion chamber response requires temperature/pressure correction according to the ideal gas law. However, this correction does not consider the thermal volume effect of chambers. The temporal and thermal volume effects of various chambers (CC01, CC13, NACP parallel-plate, PTW) with different wall and electrode materials have been studied in a water phantom. Measurements were done after heating the water with a suitable heating system, and chambers were submerged for a sufficient time to allow for temperature equilibrium. Temporal results show that all chambers equilibrate quickly in water. The equilibration time was between 3 and 5 min for all chambers. Thermal results show that all chambers expanded in response to heating except for the PTW, which contracted. This might be explained by the differences in the volumes of all chambers and also by the difference in wall material composition of PTW from the other chambers. It was found that the smallest chamber, CC01, showed the greatest expansion. The magnitude of the expansion was ~1, 0.8, and 0.9% for CC01, CC13, and parallel-plate chambers, respectively, in the temperature range of 295-320 K. The magnitude of the detected contraction was <0.3% for PTW in the same temperature range. For absolute dosimetry, it is necessary to make corrections for the ion chamber response, especially for small ion chambers like the CC01. Otherwise, room and water phantom temperatures should remain within a close range.

  12. Three dimensional thermal analysis of rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naraghi, M. H. N.; Armstrong, E. S.

    1988-01-01

    A numerical model for the three dimensional thermal analysis of rocket thrust chambers and nozzles has been developed. The input to the model consists of the composition of the fuel/oxidant mixture and flow rates, chamber pressure, coolant entrance temperature and pressure, dimensions of the engine, materials and the number of nodes in different parts of the engine. The model allows for temperature variation in three dimensions: axial, radial and circumferential directions and by implementing an iterative scheme, it provides nodal temperature distribution, rates of heat transfer, hot gas and coolant thermal and transport properties.

  13. Subscale LOX/hydrogen testing with a modular chamber and a swirl coaxial injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra K.

    1991-01-01

    To support basic injector and chamber technology, the response of a modular calorimeter chamber to an injector with swirl coaxial elements was investigated. The tests supported both the Advanced Launch System (ALS) and the Space Shuttle Main Engine programs. Original test plans included chamber pressures up to 2250 psia, the current ALS engine criteria, but hardware limitations forced conditions to be reduced. With four different chamber configurations, a variety of data was obtained with chamber pressures ranging from 1483 psia to 1679 psia and mixture ratios from 5.24 to 6.90. The swirl coaxial injector showed good chamber wall compatibility, despite misaligned elements, and its high performance was independent of fuel. Heating rates and wall temperatures were acceptable and close to predict profiles, and after scaling to a chamber pressure of 2250 psia, heating rates remained acceptable. In addition, a chamber spool made with the vacuum plasma spray process survived hot-fire testing with no detrimental effects.

  14. The high momentum spectrometer drift chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D.; Baker, O. K.; Beaufait, J.; Bennett, C.; Bryant, E.; Carlini, R.; Kross, B.; McCauley, A.; Naing, W.; Shin, T.; Vulcan, W.

    1992-12-01

    The High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C will use planar drift chambers for charged particle track reconstruction. The chambers are constructed using well understood technology and a conventional gas mixture. Two (plus one spare) drift chambers will be constructed for this spectrometers. Each chamber will contain 6 planes of readout channels. This paper describes the chamber design and gas handling system used.

  15. Preparation and cleanliness verifications of a space simulation chamber for contamination sensitive test specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, W. R.; Moseley, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    Contamination sensitive optical devices were to be evaluated under thermal vacuum conditions. Test specifications called for an extremely clean chamber environment, ambient temperature chamber walls, and optical surface temperatures at approximately - 30 C. Chamber preparation included the replacement of diffusion pumps with cryopumps and the cleaning of the chamber walls to reduce contamination levels. Chamber cleaning using vacuum bake was tried and abandoned as time consuming and ineffective. Chemical cleaning and cleanliness verification methods were developed. Gas chromatograph analysis techniques were used extensively throughout the cleaning process to verify cleanliness levels prior to evacuating the chamber. A chamber cleanliness verification test using a thermoelectric quartz crystal microbalance and witness samples was performed to demonstrate that an appropriate cleanliness level was achieved.

  16. Neutron detection via bubble chambers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, D V; Ely, J H; Peurrung, A J; Bond, L J; Collar, J I; Flake, M; Knopf, M A; Pitts, W K; Shaver, M; Sonnenschein, A; Smart, J E; Todd, L C

    2005-01-01

    Research investigating the application of pressure-cycled bubble chambers to fast neutron detection is described. Experiments with a Halon-filled chamber showed clear sensitivity to an AmBe neutron source and insensitivity to a (137)Cs gamma source. Bubble formation was documented using high-speed photography, and a ceramic piezo-electric transducer element registered the acoustic signature of bubble formation. In a second set of experiments, the bubble nucleation response of a Freon-134a chamber to an AmBe neutron source was documented with high-speed photography.

  17. A high rate proportional chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.; Fraszer, W.; Openshaw, R.; Sheffer, G.; Salomon, M.; Dew, S.; Marans, J.; Wilson, P.

    1987-02-01

    Gas mixtures with high specific ionization allow the use of small interelectrode distances while still maintaining full efficiency. With the short electron drift distances the timing resolution is also improved. The authors have built and operated two 25 cm/sup 2/ chambers with small interelectrode distances. Also single wire detector cells have been built to test gas mixture lifetimes. Various admixtures of CF/sub 4/, DME, Isobutane, Ethane and Argon have been tested. Possible applications of such chambers are as beam profile monitors, position tagging of rare events and front end chambers in spectrometers.

  18. Endodontic applications of a short pulsed FR Nd:YAG dental laser: photovaporization of extruded pulpal tissue following traumatic fractures of two maxillary central incisors--a clinical trial repor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, Robert H., II

    1992-06-01

    Historically, many techniques have been attempted in the search for a satisfactory and consistent treatment of inflamed, painful, hyperemic pulpal tissue. Present techniques attempting to achieve profound local anesthesia in such tissue, have not been satisfactory. Local anesthesia techniques acceptable to the patient with painful hyperemic pulpal tissue, has eluded previous technology. The subsequent treatment of hyperemic tissue without sufficient anesthesia primarily involves undesirable invasive mechanical/surgical procedures. Described in this clinical trial is a technique using free running (FR) pulsed, Nd:YAG laser energy to ablate soft tooth pulpal tissue--a technique employed after conventional endodontic methods failed. A free running pulsed, FR Nd:YAG dental laser was successfully used at 20 pulses per second and 1.25 watts to photovaporize endodontic pulpal tissue (pulpectomy) to allow a conventional endodontic file to extirpate the remaining soft tissue remnants and access the root apex. Also described in this paper is the 'hot-tip' effect of contact fiber laser surgery. This clinical trial achieved the immediate, short term objective of endodontic soft tissue removal via photovaporization, without pain reported by the patient. The pulsed FR Nd:YAG dental laser used as described in this clinical report appears to be a very safe and very effective technique; offers a treatment alternative to traditional therapy that suggests high patient acceptance; and is significantly less stressful for the doctor and staff than traditional treatment options. Long-term, controlled scientific and clinical studies are necessary to establish the safety and efficacy of both the helium-neon energy for visualization and the low-watt pulsed FR Nd:YAG energy for photovaporization of soft endodontic pulpal tissue within the root canal. Research is especially needed to understand the effects of a low-watt, pulsed FR, Nd:YAG laser on the activity of osteoclasts and odontoclasts

  19. Statistical analysis of environmental variability within the CELSS breadboard project's biomass production chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutte, G. W.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Fortson, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Variability in the aerial and root environments of NASA's Breadboard Project's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) was determined. Data from two lettuce and two potato growouts were utilized. One growout of each crop was conducted prior to separating the upper and lower chambers; the other was subsequent to separation. There were little or no differences in pH, EC, or solution temperature between the upper and lower chamber or within a chamber. Variation in the aerial environment within a chamber was two to three times greater than variation between chambers for air temperature, relative humidity, and PPF. High variability in air velocity, relative to tray position, was observed. Separating the BPC had no effect on PPF, air velocity, solution temperature, pH, or EC. Separation reduced the gradient in air temperature and relative humidity between the upper and lower chambers, but increased the variability within a chamber. Variation between upper and lower chambers was within 5 percent of environmental set-points and of little or no physiological significance. In contrast, the variability within a chamber limits the capability of the BPC to generate statistically reliable data from individual tray treatments at this time.

  20. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92.110 Section 92.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the...

  1. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92.110 Section 92.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the...

  2. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92.110 Section 92.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the...

  3. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92.110 Section 92.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the...

  4. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92.110 Section 92.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the...

  5. Combined effect of smear layer characteristics and hydrostatic pulpal pressure on dentine bond strength of HEMA-free and HEMA-containing adhesives.

    PubMed

    Mahdan, Mohd Haidil Akmal; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the combined effect of smear layer characteristics with hydrostatic pulpal pressure (PP) on bond strength and nanoleakage expression of HEMA-free and -containing self-etch adhesives. Flat dentine surfaces were obtained from extracted human molars. Smear layers were created by grinding with #180- or #600-SiC paper. Three HEMA-free adhesives (Xeno V, G Bond Plus, Beautibond Multi) and two HEMA-containing adhesives (Bond Force, Tri-S Bond) were applied to the dentine surfaces under hydrostatic PP or none. Dentine bond strengths were determined using the microtensile bond test (μTBS). Data were statistically analyzed using three- and two-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc comparison test. Nanoleakage evaluation was carried out under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Coarse smear layer preparation and hydrostatic PP negatively affected the μTBS of HEMA-free and -containing adhesives, but there were no significant differences. The combined experimental condition significantly reduced μTBS of the HEMA-free adhesives, while the HEMA-containing adhesives exhibited no significant differences. Two-way ANOVA indicated that for HEMA-free adhesives, there were significant interactions in μTBS between smear layer characteristics and pulpal pressure, while for HEMA-containing adhesives, there were no significant interactions between them. Nanoleakage formation within the adhesive layers of both adhesive systems distinctly increased in the combined experimental group. The combined effect of coarse smear layer preparation with hydrostatic PP significantly reduced the μTBS of HEMA-free adhesives, while in HEMA-containing adhesives, these effects were not obvious. Smear layer characteristics and hydrostatic PP would additively compromise dentine bonding of self-etch adhesives, especially HEMA-free adhesives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Histopathological Comparison of Pulpal Response to Chitra-CPC and Formocresol used as Pulpotomy Agents in Primary Teeth: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Ratnakumari, N; Thomas, Bijimol

    2012-01-01

    Preventive measures have helped to minimize the occurrence of dental caries. However, premature loss of primary teeth on account of dental caries still remains a common problem among children. The pulpotomy technique has been the choice for treating vital primary and young permanent teeth with carious, mechanical and traumatic pulp exposures. The ideal pulpotomy medicament should be bioinductive or at least biocompatible, bactericidal and harmless to the pulp and surrounding structures. It should also promote healing of the radicular pulp and prevent bacterial microleakage with the least interference in the physiological process of root resorption. Since the best criteria for judging the effectiveness of a medicament when used for vital pulp therapy is the response that it produces in the pulp. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the response of human pulp tissue to recently developed Indian material, Sree Chitra-Calcium Phosphate Cement (Chitra-CPC) and formocresol, used as pulpotomy agent in deciduous teeth. Chitra-CPC has been compared with formocresol, taking into account that formocresol is still considered the gold standard in primary tooth pulpotomy. The study was conducted among 10 children in the age group of 8 to 12 years focusing on 20 noncarious primary canines indicated for serial extraction. Each patient received two different pulpotomy procedures-one in each of the primary canines using formocresol and the other with Chitra-CPC as pulpotomy agents. After 70 days, the teeth were extracted and subjected to histological examination. The results did not reveal statistically significant difference between the two groups. But Chitra-CPC gave more favorable results, in respect of pulpal inflammation, dentin bridge formation, quality of dentin bridge and connective tissue in dentin bridge. How to cite this article: Ratnakumari N, Thomas B. A Histopathological Comparison of Pulpal Response to Chitra- CPC and Formocresol used as

  7. A Histopathological Comparison of Pulpal Response to Chitra-CPC and Formocresol used as Pulpotomy Agents in Primary Teeth: A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Bijimol

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preventive measures have helped to minimize the occurrence of dental caries. However, premature loss of primary teeth on account of dental caries still remains a common problem among children. The pulpotomy technique has been the choice for treating vital primary and young permanent teeth with carious, mechanical and traumatic pulp exposures. The ideal pulpotomy medicament should be bioinductive or at least biocompatible, bactericidal and harmless to the pulp and surrounding structures. It should also promote healing of the radicular pulp and prevent bacterial microleakage with the least interference in the physiological process of root resorption. Since the best criteria for judging the effectiveness of a medicament when used for vital pulp therapy is the response that it produces in the pulp. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the response of human pulp tissue to recently developed Indian material, Sree Chitra-Calcium Phosphate Cement (Chitra-CPC) and formocresol, used as pulpotomy agent in deciduous teeth. Chitra-CPC has been compared with formocresol, taking into account that formocresol is still considered the gold standard in primary tooth pulpotomy. The study was conducted among 10 children in the age group of 8 to 12 years focusing on 20 noncarious primary canines indicated for serial extraction. Each patient received two different pulpotomy procedures—one in each of the primary canines using formocresol and the other with Chitra-CPC as pulpotomy agents. After 70 days, the teeth were extracted and subjected to histological examination. The results did not reveal statistically significant difference between the two groups. But Chitra-CPC gave more favorable results, in respect of pulpal inflammation, dentin bridge formation, quality of dentin bridge and connective tissue in dentin bridge. How to cite this article: Ratnakumari N, Thomas B. A Histopathological Comparison of Pulpal Response to Chitra- CPC and Formocresol

  8. Vaporization chambers and associated methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Shunn, Lee P.

    2017-02-21

    A vaporization chamber may include at least one conduit and a shell. The at least one conduit may have an inlet at a first end, an outlet at a second end and a flow path therebetween. The shell may surround a portion of each conduit and define a chamber surrounding the portion of each conduit. Additionally, a plurality of discrete apertures may be positioned at longitudinal intervals in a wall of each conduit, each discrete aperture of the plurality of discrete apertures sized and configured to direct a jet of fluid into each conduit from the chamber. A liquid may be vaporized by directing a first fluid comprising a liquid into the inlet at the first end of each conduit, directing jets of a second fluid into each conduit from the chamber through discrete apertures in a wall of each conduit and transferring heat from the second fluid to the first fluid.

  9. Cyclically controlled welding purge chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An arrangement for butt-welding cylindrical sections of large, thin-wall tanks includes a rotatable mandrel with side-by-side sets of radial position adjusters. Each set of adjusters bears on one of the tank sections adjacent the seam, to prevent the sections from sagging out-of-round. The mandrel rotates relative to the welder, so that a continuous seam is formed. A purge chamber is fixed in position behind the seam at the weld head, and is flushed with inert gas. The purge chamber includes a two-sided structure which is contiguous with the cylindrical sections and a circumferential vane to form an open-ended tube-like structure, through which the radial position adjusters pass as the mandrel and cylindrical workpiece sections rotate. The tube-like structure is formed into a chamber by a plurality of movable gates which are controlled to maintain a seal while allowing adjusters to progress through the purge chamber.

  10. The multigap resistive plate chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Zeballos, E. Cerron; Crotty, I.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Valverde, J. Lamas; Neupane, S.; Williams, M. C. S.; Zichichi, A.

    2015-02-03

    The paper describes the multigap resistive plate chamber (RPC). This is a variant of the wide gap RPC. However it has much improved time resolution, while keeping all the other advantages of the wide gap RPC design.

  11. Extra Terrestrial Environmental Chamber Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David W.

    2008-01-01

    A vacuum chamber designed to simulate the dusty environment on the Moon or Mars has been built for Goddard Space Flight Center. The path from concept to delivery is reviewed, with lessons learned and pitfalls highlighted along the way.

  12. IRIS Leaves Thermal Vacuum Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video shows the transportation of the IRIS observatory from the thermal vacuum chamber back to the clean tent for final testing and preparations for delivery to the launch site at Vandenberg A...

  13. Webb Instrument Inside Test Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-18

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument, a component of NASA James Webb Space Telescope, underwent testing inside the thermal space test chamber at the Science and Technology Facilities Council Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Space in Oxfordshire, England.

  14. Improved diffusion chamber cultures for cytokinetic analysis of antibody response

    PubMed Central

    Nettesheim, P.; Makinodan, T.; Chadwick, Carol J.

    1966-01-01

    Diffusion chambers (3×10 mm) constructed with 0.1 μ porosity filters, but not with 0.45 μ or greater porosity filters, were found to be consistently cell impermeable, with use of acryloid as the glueing agent. The filters permit free diffusion of 19S and 7S antibodies into `empty' chambers in vivo and in vitro. Pronase treatment of the chamber dissolves the clot and frees cells attached to the inner surfaces. This permits almost complete recovery of the chamber culture cells. Chamber cultures can be readily transferred from one host to another and kept in vitro at room temperature for at least 6 hours without any loss of activity. In vivo diffusion problems arise after 1 month of culture, most probably due to excessive growth of peritoneal cells on the outer surface of the filters; this limitation can be overcome by serial in vivo transfer of the chamber and wiping the outer surface at the time of transfer. The diffusion chamber culture method as described here fulfills all the prerequisites of an assay system with which one can perform precise cytokinetic analysis of antibody response. ImagesFIG. 3 PMID:5926065

  15. Light diffusing fiber optic chamber

    DOEpatents

    Maitland, Duncan J.

    2002-01-01

    A light diffusion system for transmitting light to a target area. The light is transmitted in a direction from a proximal end to a distal end by an optical fiber. A diffusing chamber is operatively connected to the optical fiber for transmitting the light from the proximal end to the distal end and transmitting said light to said target area. A plug is operatively connected to the diffusing chamber for increasing the light that is transmitted to the target area.

  16. Compound Walls For Vacuum Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed compound-wall configuration enables construction of large high-vacuum chambers without having to use thick layers of expensive material to obtain necessary strength. Walls enclose chambers more than 1 m in diameter and several kilometers long. Compound wall made of strong outer layer of structural-steel culvert pipe welded to thin layer of high-quality, low-outgassing stainless steel.

  17. Convective Regimes in Crystallizing Basaltic Magma Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A. J.; Neufeld, J. A.; Holness, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    disaggregated crystal mush. Such disaggregation may be caused by magma chamber replenishment, depending on the relative densities and temperatures of the resident and replenishing magma. If the new magma increases the Rayleigh number of either the bulk fluid or the fluid in the mushy layer, the resultant increased convective vigour may disaggregate the crystal pile.

  18. Extending the useful life of coking chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Samokhin, Yu.N.; Mukhin, V.N.; Serebryannyi, V.B.; Vatnik, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors evaluate the useful life of delayed coking unit (DCU) coking chambers and the development of engineering measures to extend this life. Results obtained in an evaluation of the remaining useful life in the example of a DCU at the Volgograd Petroleum Refinery are examined. In an investigation of the physicomechanical properties of the metal, it was found that the base metal and the cladding layer meet the requirements of the corresponding steel standards as shown. A flow chart present the scheme for evaluation of remaining useful life of DCU coking chambers. Mechanical tests were performed at 20/sup 0/C and at the working temperature (475/sup 0/C) following standard procedures. The test results shown indicate that the strength characteristics of the metal, in service for over 20 years, meet the requirements for two-layer steel. Results are presented from a test of the influence of a bandage on the stress level in the shell of a DCU coking chamber at the deformed site, by means of strain gauge measurements in a hydraulic test.

  19. University of Missouri-Rolla cloud simulation facility - Proto II chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Daniel R.; Carstens, John C.; Hagen, Donald E.; Schmitt, John L.; Kassner, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The design and supporting systems for the cooled-wall expansion cloud chamber, designated Proto II, are described. The chamber is a 10-sided vertical cylinder designed to be operated with interior wall temperatures between +40 and -40 C, and is to be utilized to study microphysical processes active in atmospheric clouds and fogs. Temperatures are measured using transistor thermometers which have a range of + or - 50 C and a resolution of about + or - 0.001 C; and pressures are measured in the chamber by a differential strain gauge pressure transducer. The methods used for temperature and pressure control are discussed. Consideration is given to the chamber windows, optical table, photographic/video, optical attenuation, Mie scattering, and the scanning system for the chamber. The system's minicomputer and humidifier, sample preparation, and chamber flushing are examined.

  20. Oxide Protective Coats for Ir/Re Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, Arthur; Tuffias, Robert H.

    2003-01-01

    An improved material system has been developed for rocket engine combustion chambers for burning oxygen/ hydrogen mixtures or novel monopropellants, which are highly oxidizing at operating temperatures. The baseline for developing the improved material system is a prior iridium/rhenium system for chambers burning nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine mixtures, which are less oxidizing. The baseline combustion chamber comprises an outer layer of rhenium that provides structural support, plus an inner layer of iridium that acts as a barrier to oxidation of the rhenium. In the improved material system, the layer of iridium is thin and is coated with a thermal fatigue-resistant refractory oxide (specifically, hafnium oxide) that serves partly as a thermal barrier to decrease the temperature and thus the rate of oxidation of the rhenium. The oxide layer also acts as a barrier against the transport of oxidizing species to the surface of the iridium. Tests in which various oxygen/hydrogen mixtures were burned in iridium/rhenium combustion chambers lined with hafnium oxide showed that the operational lifetimes of combustion chambers of the improved material system are an order of magnitude greater than those of the baseline combustion chambers.

  1. Vortex tube-assisted environmental control of hyperbaric chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Baz, A.; Gilheany, J.

    1988-12-01

    Model predictions of time histories of the temperature and humidity ratio within a hyperbaric chamber under conditions of compression and decompression are presented with and without vortex tube-assisted environmental control. The effects of ventilation and ascent and descent rates on the environment within the chamber and the power required by the environment control system, with and without vortex tube assist, are also presented. Results demonstrate that the vortex tube assist system is an effective means of more precisely controlling the environment within hyperbaric chambers with substantial savings in power. The model used incorporates a complete description of the pyschrometric properties of the humid gas mixture within the chamber, plus the sensible and latent heat loads produced by the occupants and wet porch.

  2. A hyperbaric oxygen chamber for animal experimental purposes.

    PubMed

    Djasim, U M; Spiegelberg, L; Wolvius, E B; van der Wal, K G H

    2012-02-01

    Facilities for hyperbaric oxygen therapy that are suitable for animal experimental research are scarce. In this paper, the authors introduce a hyperbaric oxygen chamber that was developed specifically for animal experimental purposes. The hyperbaric oxygen chamber was designed to meet a number of criteria regarding safety and ease of use. The hyperbaric oxygen chamber conforms to 97/23/EC (Pressure Equipment Directive), Conformity Assessment Module G Product Group 1. It provides easy access, and can be run in manual mode, semi-automatic mode and full-automatic mode. Sensors for pressure level, oxygen level, temperature, humidity and carbon dioxide level allow full control. This state-of-the-art hyperbaric oxygen chamber for animal experimental purposes permits the investigation of the biological mechanisms through which hyperbaric oxygen therapy acts at a fundamental level. Copyright © 2011 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Indian LSSC (Large Space Simulation Chamber) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brar, A. S.; Prasadarao, V. S.; Gambhir, R. D.; Chandramouli, M.

    1988-01-01

    The Indian Space Agency has undertaken a major project to acquire in-house capability for thermal and vacuum testing of large satellites. This Large Space Simulation Chamber (LSSC) facility will be located in Bangalore and is to be operational in 1989. The facility is capable of providing 4 meter diameter solar simulation with provision to expand to 4.5 meter diameter at a later date. With such provisions as controlled variations of shroud temperatures and availability of infrared equipment as alternative sources of thermal radiation, this facility will be amongst the finest anywhere. The major design concept and major aspects of the LSSC facility are presented here.

  4. Analysis of Heat Stress and the Indoor Climate Control Requirements for Movable Refuge Chambers.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaoli; Guo, Chenxin; Lin, Yaolin; Wang, Haiqiao; Liu, Heqing

    2016-05-20

    Movable refuge chambers are a new kind of rescue device for underground mining, which is believed to have a potential positive impact on reducing the rate of fatalities. It is likely to be hot and humid inside a movable refuge chamber due to the metabolism of trapped miners, heat generated by equipment and heat transferred from outside. To investigate the heat stress experienced by miners trapped in a movable refuge chamber, the predicted heat strain (PHS) model was used to simulate the heat transfer process between the person and the thermal environment. The variations of heat stress with the temperature and humidity inside the refuge chamber were analyzed. The effects of air temperature outside the refuge chamber and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the refuge chamber shell on the heat stress inside the refuge chamber was also investigated. The relationship between the limit of exposure duration and the air temperature and humidity was numerically analyzed to determine the upper limits of temperature and humidity inside a refuge chamber. Air temperature of 32 °C and relative humidity of 70% are recommended as the design standard for internal thermal environment control of movable refuge chambers.

  5. Analysis of Heat Stress and the Indoor Climate Control Requirements for Movable Refuge Chambers

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xiaoli; Guo, Chenxin; Lin, Yaolin; Wang, Haiqiao; Liu, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Movable refuge chambers are a new kind of rescue device for underground mining, which is believed to have a potential positive impact on reducing the rate of fatalities. It is likely to be hot and humid inside a movable refuge chamber due to the metabolism of trapped miners, heat generated by equipment and heat transferred from outside. To investigate the heat stress experienced by miners trapped in a movable refuge chamber, the predicted heat strain (PHS) model was used to simulate the heat transfer process between the person and the thermal environment. The variations of heat stress with the temperature and humidity inside the refuge chamber were analyzed. The effects of air temperature outside the refuge chamber and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the refuge chamber shell on the heat stress inside the refuge chamber was also investigated. The relationship between the limit of exposure duration and the air temperature and humidity was numerically analyzed to determine the upper limits of temperature and humidity inside a refuge chamber. Air temperature of 32 °C and relative humidity of 70% are recommended as the design standard for internal thermal environment control of movable refuge chambers. PMID:27213422

  6. Changes in intrapulpal temperature after Er:YAG laser irradiation.

    PubMed

    Park, N S; Kim, K S; Kim, M E; Kim, Y S; Ahn, S W

    2007-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in temperature induced by an Er:YAG laser irradiation and to find the means to minimize potential thermal damage due to temperature rise after irradiation. Intrapulpal temperature rise was found to last after irradiation at times, although the addition of appropriate water spray during tooth ablation by Er:YAG laser produced efficient ablation with little thermal damage. To investigate intrapulpal temperature change, each extracted tooth specimen was embedded into a resin block and temperature-measuring probes were placed on the irradiated and the opposite pulpal walls. An Er:YAG laser irradiation was performed at 300 mJ/pulse and 20 Hz, with a water flow rate of 1.6 mL/min for 3 sec. Each lasing was followed by (1) no application of post-irradiation water spray, (2) post-irradiation water spray for 1 sec and (3) for 2 sec. No significant temperature change was found on the irradiated pulpal wall during Er:YAG laser, while there existed significant temperature rise on the irradiated pulpal wall after irradiation. However, the addition of water spray for 1 or 2 sec after irradiation significantly decreased intrapulpal temperature compared to no application of post-irradiation water spray. There were no significant differences between the 1- and 2-sec groups. It is suggested that the addition of water spray for 1 or more seconds after irradiation reduces post-irradiation temperature rise, possibly leading to thermal damage on the dental pulp tissue.

  7. Theoretical study of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhilin; Peng, Shuming; Meng, Dan; He, Yuehong; Wang, Heyi

    2013-10-15

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers has been theoretically studied for tritium measurements in gaseous form. A one-dimension model is introduced to establish the quantitative relationship between energy deposition rate and many factors, including carrier gas, gas pressure, wall material, chamber size, and gas temperature. Energy deposition rate has been calculated at pressure varying from 5 kPa to 500 kPa based on some approximations. It is found that energy deposition rate varies greatly for different parameters, especially at low gas pressure. For the same chamber, energy deposition rate in argon is much higher than in deuterium, as much as 70.7% higher at 5 kPa. Gold plated chamber gives highest energy deposition rate in the calculations while aluminum chamber results in the lowest. As chamber size gets smaller, β ray emitted by tritium will deposit less energy in the sensitive region of the chamber. For chambers flowing through with the same gas, energy deposition rate in a 10 L chamber is 23.9% higher than in a 0.05 L chamber at 5 kPa. Gas temperature also places slight influence on energy deposition rate, and 373 K will lead to 6.7% lower deposition rate than 233 K at 5 kPa. In addition, experiments have been performed to obtain energy deposition rate in a gold plated chamber, which show good accordance with theoretical calculations.

  8. Theoretical study of energy deposition in ionization chambers for tritium measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhilin; Peng, Shuming; Meng, Dan; He, Yuehong; Wang, Heyi

    2013-10-01

    Energy deposition in ionization chambers has been theoretically studied for tritium measurements in gaseous form. A one-dimension model is introduced to establish the quantitative relationship between energy deposition rate and many factors, including carrier gas, gas pressure, wall material, chamber size, and gas temperature. Energy deposition rate has been calculated at pressure varying from 5 kPa to 500 kPa based on some approximations. It is found that energy deposition rate varies greatly for different parameters, especially at low gas pressure. For the same chamber, energy deposition rate in argon is much higher than in deuterium, as much as 70.7% higher at 5 kPa. Gold plated chamber gives highest energy deposition rate in the calculations while aluminum chamber results in the lowest. As chamber size gets smaller, β ray emitted by tritium will deposit less energy in the sensitive region of the chamber. For chambers flowing through with the same gas, energy deposition rate in a 10 L chamber is 23.9% higher than in a 0.05 L chamber at 5 kPa. Gas temperature also places slight influence on energy deposition rate, and 373 K will lead to 6.7% lower deposition rate than 233 K at 5 kPa. In addition, experiments have been performed to obtain energy deposition rate in a gold plated chamber, which show good accordance with theoretical calculations.

  9. Desorption of the NEG-coated Aluminum Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiung, G. Y.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, C. Y.; Chan, C. K.; Chen, J. R.

    2009-03-01

    The NEG-coating, composed of ZrTiV with a lower temperature of activation, has been developed as a large surface getter pump for the aluminum (Al) chamber of small aperture and long length with a very poor conductance. However, the outgas of discharged gases, Ar or Kr, as well as the hydrocarbon molecules inside the NEG-coated Al chamber has been observed. The desorption of the so-called inert gases with heavier atomic mass residing inside the chamber results in the potential problem of higher cross section of scattering with the traveling beam hence reduces the life time seriously. To verify the outgas source of CH4, the NEG-coated Al-chamber exposed with heavy water (D2O) has been investigated. It shows the D2O and methane are the only outgases from the non-coated Al chamber exposed with D2O. However, more outgas of CDxHy, CD4, and the C2DxHy complexes have been measured in the case of NEG-coated Al chamber. Desorption of C2DxHy molecules can be reduced by exposing the NEG-coated surface with synchrotron radiation photons. The fact of beam cleaning effect verifies the source of C2DxHy molecules are produced and desorbed from the NEG film. The NEG-coated stainless steel (SS) chambers exposed with either D2O or H2O illustrate the similar results in the case of Al-chambers. The dissociation of D2O exposed on the NEG surface for both Al- and SS-chambers are confirmed. The chemical compounds of CmDx and CmDxHy are found produced and desorbed from the NEG-coated after baking and activation.

  10. Infrared Standards to Improve Chamber 7V Beam Irradiance Calibrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    form in Fig. 13. The blackbody heater is the 12-ohm winding, and the cavity- temperature sensors are the two thermistors . All control circuitry...375°K. This limitation results from use of thermistors as cavity temperature sensors . When cooled below 275°K, the thermistor resistances increase...by block n i g h e r ; infrared detection high vacuum bolometers thermistors calibration low temperature blackbody radiation vacuum chambers

  11. Promoted-Combustion Chamber with Induction Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Erin; Hagood, Richard; Lowery, Freida; Herald, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    An improved promoted-combustion system has been developed for studying the effects of elevated temperatures on the flammability of metals in pure oxygen. In prior promoted-combustion chambers, initial temperatures of metal specimens in experiments have been limited to the temperatures of gas supplies, usually near room temperature. Although limited elevated temperature promoted-combustion chambers have been developed using water-cooled induction coils for preheating specimens, these designs have been limited to low-pressure operation due to the hollow induction coil. In contrast, the improved promoted-combustion chamber can sustain a pressure up to 10 kpsi (69 MPa) and, through utilization of a solid induction coil, is capable of preheating a metal specimen up to its melting point [potentially in excess of 2,000 F (approximately equal to 1,100 C)]. Hence, the improved promoted combustion chamber makes a greater range of physical conditions and material properties accessible for experimentation. The chamber consists of a vertical cylindrical housing with an inner diameter of 8 in. (20.32 cm) and an inner height of 20.4 in. (51.81 cm). A threaded, sealing cover at one end of the housing can be unscrewed to gain access for installing a specimen. Inlet and outlet ports for gases are provided. Six openings arranged in a helical pattern in the chamber wall contain sealed sapphire windows for viewing an experiment in progress. The base of the chamber contains pressure-sealed electrical connectors for supplying power to the induction coil. The connectors feature a unique design that prevents induction heating of the housing and the pressure sealing surfaces; this is important because if such spurious induction heating were allowed to occur, chamber pressure could be lost. The induction coil is 10 in. (25.4 cm) long and is fitted with a specimen holder at its upper end. At its lower end, the induction coil is mounted on a ceramic base, which affords thermal insulation to

  12. In vivo temperature rise in anesthetized human pulp during exposure to a polywave LED light curing unit.

    PubMed

    Runnacles, Patrício; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão; Pochapski, Marcia Thais; Dos Santos, Fábio André; Coelho, Ulisses; Gomes, João Carlos; De Goes, Mário Fernando; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Rueggeberg, Frederick Allen

    2015-05-01

    This in vivo study evaluated pulp temperature (PT) rise in human premolars during exposure to a light curing unit (LCU) using selected exposure modes (EMs). After local Ethics Committee approval, intact first upper premolars, requiring extraction for orthodontic reasons, from 8 volunteers, received infiltrative and intraligamental anesthesia. The teeth (n=15) were isolated using rubber dam and a minute pulp exposure was attained. A sterile probe from a wireless, NIST-traceable, temperature acquisition system was inserted directly into the coronal pulp chamber, and real time PT (°C) was continuously monitored while the buccal surface was exposed to polywave light from a LED LCU (Bluephase 20i, Ivoclar Vivadent) using selected EMs allowing a 7-min span between each exposure: 10-s either in low (10-s/L) or high (10-s/H); 5-s-turbo (5-s/T); and 60-s-high (60-s/H) intensities. Peak PT values and PT increases from baseline (ΔT) after exposure were subjected to one-way, repeated measures ANOVAs, and Bonferroni's post hoc tests (α=0.05). Linear regression analysis was performed to establish the relationship between applied radiant exposure and ΔT. All EMs produced higher peak PT than the baseline temperature (p<0.001). The 60-s/H mode generated the highest peak PT and ΔT (p<0.001), with some teeth exhibiting ΔT higher than 5.5°C. A significant, positive relationship between applied radiant exposure and ΔT (r(2)=0.916; p<0.001) was noted. Exposing intact, in vivo anesthetized human upper premolars to a polywave LED LCU increases PT, and depending on EM and the tooth, PT increase can be higher than the critical ΔT, thought to be associated with pulpal necrosis. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Precision expansion cloud chamber for homogeneous nucleation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, John L.

    1981-11-01

    The author describes an expansion cloud chamber for the study of the nucleation of a single component vapor (homogeneous nucleation). The design draws on the many years of experience in this Center in construction of chambers for homogeneous nucleation of water. Design features of the chamber are: exact control of temperature (±0.03 ° C), pressure (±0.5 mm Hg), and automatic control of cycling. Construction features are: all construction materials are stainless steel, glass, or fluorocarbon plastics; the piston seal is a very flexible welded stainless steel bellows; the chamber can be made very clean by heating under vacuum and it is compatible with many substances, e.g., ethanol, nonane, and toluene. Performance features are: excellent repeatability of the expansion cycle over a temperature range of 45° to —15 °C and in day to day operation. Safety features are: automatic detection and warning and inerting against fire and explosion from combustible vapor in the chamber enclosure. The determination of the gas temperature at the maximum expansion is discussed as well as the importance of the ''fast'' pulse technique for the measurement of high nucleation rates.

  14. Measurement of methane emission from a landfill with flux chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, W.P.; Chou, F.S.

    1998-12-31

    Two types of flux chamber have been employed to measure the emission rate of the greenhouse gases from a landfill. For realizing the dynamic fluid characteristics of the flux chamber, this study performed the airtight and tracer-retention-time tests in the lab, besides field experiment. The results of air-tightness test show that the chamber pressure varied with both fan speed and temperature. The fan speed at 200 rpm caused no significant pressure difference at constant room temperature. A burial depth between 3 and 6 cm will provide adequate air-tightness in the field. It is recommended that the effects of temperature, fan speed, and burial depth need to be studied before measuring. The retention time distribution (RTD) curves shows that the flux chamber designed for this research can be regarded as a completely mixing chamber. The tracer recovery rate was around 81--84% with carrier gas at 6 to 18 l/min and fan speed at 200 rpm. Preliminary results of the field measurement indicate that the emission rates of methane vary in location with four peaks on the side slopes. Most of the methane (87 percent) is emitting from the side slopes. The measured amount is much less than the theoretical estimate for this landfill.

  15. 63. Interior view, kitchen chamber, north elevation. The kitchen chamber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. Interior view, kitchen chamber, north elevation. The kitchen chamber was completed in the first stages of phase III construction. The paneled wall to the fireplace's right displays a phase III molding profile. The mark between the cabinet doors and on the large lower panel indicates the former position of a partition wall. The chimney-breast paneling bears a phase I profile and might have been moved to the room when the fireplace mass in the hall was reduced. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Plasma chemistry in wire chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, J.

    1990-05-01

    The phenomenology of wire chamber aging is discussed and fundamentals of proportional counters are presented. Free-radical polymerization and plasma polymerization are discussed. The chemistry of wire aging is reviewed. Similarities between wire chamber plasma (>1 atm dc-discharge) and low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas, which have been more widely studied, are suggested. Construction and use of a system to allow study of the plasma reactions occurring in wire chambers is reported. A proportional tube irradiated by an {sup 55}Fe source is used as a model wire chamber. Condensable species in the proportional tube effluent are concentrated in a cryotrap and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Several different wire chamber gases (methane, argon/methane, ethane, argon/ethane, propane, argon/isobutane) are tested and their reaction products qualitatively identified. For all gases tested except those containing methane, use of hygroscopic filters to remove trace water and oxygen contaminants from the gas resulted in an increase in the average molecular weight of the products, consistent with results from low-pressure rf-discharge plasmas. It is suggested that because water and oxygen inhibit polymer growth in the gas phase that they may also reduce polymer deposition in proportional tubes and therefore retard wire aging processes. Mechanistic implications of the plasma reactions of hydrocarbons with oxygen are suggested. Unresolved issues in this work and proposals for further study are discussed.

  17. Plant growth chamber M design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Crop production is just one of the many processes involved in establishing long term survival of man in space. The benefits of integrating higher plants into the overall plan was recognized early by NASA through the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program. The first step is to design, construct, and operate a sealed (gas, liquid, and solid) plant growth chamber. A 3.6 m diameter by 6.7 m high closed cylinder (previously used as a hypobaric vessel during the Mercury program) is being modified for this purpose. The chamber is mounted on legs with the central axis vertical. Entrance to the chamber is through an airlock. This chamber will be devoted entirely to higher plant experimentation. Any waste treatment, food processing or product storage studies will be carried on outside of this chamber. Its primary purpose is to provide input and output data on solids, liquids, and gases for single crop species and multiple species production using different nutrient delivery systems.

  18. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  19. Design and Construction of an Inexpensive Homemade Plant Growth Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K.; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140–250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  20. A chamber for laboratory studies of atmospheric aerosols and clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narus, M. L.; Schoenfelder, N. C.; Na, Y.; Chavasse, L. A.; Disselkamp, R. S.

    1996-12-01

    A stainless-steel chamber has been constructed and interfaced to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for the purpose of studying laboratory simulated atmospheric aerosols and clouds. The chamber is cylindrical in design and is comprised of a double-walled inner assembly that resides within an outer vacuum jacket. The volume of the aerosol sample region is 28 L. By circulating refrigerated methanol between the double walls of the inner assembly, constant temperature control of the sample region can be maintained between 187 and 300 K. A study of temperature uniformity within the chamber at 291, 240, and 187 K revealed a standard deviation in temperature of 1.6 K as determined from measurements made using five copper-constantan thermocouples. Good agreement is obtained between thermocouple measured temperatures and rotational temperatures computed from infrared absorption spectra of methane gas. The chamber described here has been used to examine heterogeneous chemistry of solid powder samples. A technique of generating an aerosol sample by rapidly dispersing a solid powder in a gas is presented. The half-life of a γ-alumina aerosol sample was measured to be 25 min.

  1. Holography in small bubble chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Lecoq, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on an experiment to determine the total charm cross section at different incident momenta using the small, heavy liquid bubble chamber HOBC. Holography in liquid hydrogen is also tested using the holographic lexan bubble chamber HOLEBC with the aim of preparing a future holographic experiment in hydrogen. The high intensity tests show that more than 100 incident tracks per hologram do not cause a dramatic effect on the picture quality. Hydrogen is more favorable than freon as the bubble growth is much slower in hydrogen. An advantage of holography is to have the maximum resolution in the full volume of the bubble chamber, which allows a gain in sensitivity by a factor of 10 compared to classical optics as 100 tracks per hologram look reasonable. Holograms are not more difficult to analyze than classical optics high-resolution pictures. The results show that holography is a very powerful technique which can be used in very high resolution particle physics experiments.

  2. The CLAS drift chamber system

    SciTech Connect

    Mestayer, M.D.; Carman, D.S.; Asavaphibhop, B.

    1999-04-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on a toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  3. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications, including the treatment of medical conditions. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, hyperbaric oxygen therapy is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system that will provide controlled pressurization of the system, and provide adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the

  4. Anode-supported single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell based on cobalt-free composite cathode of Nd0.5Sr0.5Fe0.8Cu0.2O3-δ-Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9 at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jie-Wei; Zhang, Chunming; Yin, Yi-Mei; Shi, Huangang; Lin, Ye; Lu, Jun; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2015-07-01

    As a candidate of cathode material of single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell (SC-SOFC), cobalt-free mixed ionic electronic conductor (MIEC) Nd0.5Sr0.5Fe0.8Cu0.2O3-δ (NSFCu) is synthesized by sol-gel method with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and citric acid as co-complexing agents. The XRD shows NSFCu is stable after CO2 treatment and chemical compatible with SDC at high temperatures. CO2-TPD (CO2-temperature programmed desorption) demonstrates both CO2 adsorption and desorption phenomenon on NSFCu surface. However, the polarization resistances (Rp) of NSFCu and SDC (10:4 in weight) composite electrodes showed no decay in 5% CO2. Single cell using N2-O2-CH4 mixed gas (CH4 to O2 ratio = 1.5) as fuel shows maximum power density of 635 mW cm-2 at 700 °C. These results suggest that NSFCu-SDC is a promising composite cathode material for application in single-chamber solid oxide fuel cell.

  5. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  6. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  7. Double window viewing chamber assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, V. W. (Inventor); Owen, R. B. (Inventor); Elkins, B. R. (Inventor); White, W. T. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A viewing chamber which permits observation of a sample retained therein includes a pair of double window assemblies mounted in opposed openings in the walls thereof so that a light beam can directly enter and exit from the chamber. A flexible mounting arrangement for the outer windows of the window assemblies enables the windows to be brought into proper alignment. An electrical heating arrangement prevents fogging of the outer windows whereas desiccated air in the volume between the outer and inner windows prevents fogging of the latter.

  8. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  9. CHAMBERS FERRY ROADLESS AREA, TEXAS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, B.B.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and geochemical investigation of the Chambers Ferry Roadless Area, Texas was conducted. The area has probable mineral-resource potential for oil and gas and for lignite. No metallic or additional energy resources were identified in the investigation. Detailed analyses of well logs from the vicinity of the Chambers Ferry Roadless Area, in conjunction with seismic data, are necessary to determine if the subsurface stratigraphy and structure are favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas. A shallow drilling program involving coring on a close-space grid is necessary for determination of the rank and continuity of seams of lignitic sediments in the area.

  10. Space shuttle maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program. Task 11: Low epsilon stability test report data dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The stability characteristics of the like-doublet injector were defined over the range of OME chamber pressures and mixture ratios. This was accomplished by bomb testing the injector and cavity configurations in solid wall thrust chamber hardware typical of a flight contour with fuel heated to regenerative chamber outlet temperatures. It was found that stability in the 2600-2800 Hz region depends upon injector hydraulics and on chamber acoustics.

  11. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Reusable thrust chamber and injector concepts were evaluated for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine (OME). Parametric engine calculations were carried out by computer program for N2O4/amine, LOX/amine and LOX/hydrocarbon propellant combinations for engines incorporating regenerative cooled and insulated columbium thrust chambers. The calculation methods are described including the fuel vortex film cooling method of combustion gas temperature control, and performance prediction. A method of acceptance of a regeneratively cooled heat rejection reduction using a silicone oil additive was also demonstrated by heated tube heat transfer testing. Regeneratively cooled thrust chamber operation was also demonstrated where the injector was characterized for the OME application with a channel wall regenerative thrust chamber. Bomb stability testing of the demonstration chambers/injectors demonstrated recovery for the nominal design of acoustic cavities. Cavity geometry changes were also evaluated to assess their damping margin. Performance and combustion stability was demonstrated of the originally developed 10 inch diameter combustion pattern operating in an 8 inch diameter thrust chamber.

  12. Water vapor recovery from plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Newbold, D. D.; Colton, R. H.; Mccray, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of plant growth chambers (PGCs) for space missions and for bases on the moon and Mars. Key to successful development of PGCs is a system to recover and reuse the water vapor that is transpired from the leaves of the plants. A design is presented for a simple, reliable, membrane-based system that allows the recovery, purification, and reuse of the transpired water vapor through control of temperature and humidity levels in PGCs. The system is based on two membrane technologies: (1) dehumidification membrane modules to remove water vapor from the air, and (2) membrane contactors to return water vapor to the PGC (and, in doing so, to control the humidity and temperature within the PGC). The membrane-based system promises to provide an ideal, stable growth environment for a variety of plants, through a design that minimizes energy usage, volume, and mass, while maximizing simplicity and reliability.

  13. Fabrication of GRCop-84 Rocket Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, William S.; Ellis, David L.

    2005-01-01

    GRCop-84, a copper alloy, Cu-8 at% Cr-4 at% Nb developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for regeneratively cooled rocket engine liners has excellent combinations of elevated temperature strength, creep resistance, thermal conductivity and low cycle fatigue. GRCop-84 is produced from prealloyed atomized powder and has been fabricated into plate, sheet and tube forms as well as near net shapes. Fabrication processes to produce demonstration rocket combustion chambers will be presented and includes powder production, extruding, rolling, forming, friction stir welding, and metal spinning. GRCop-84 has excellent workability and can be readily fabricated into complex components using conventional powder and wrought metallurgy processes. Rolling was examined in detail for process sensitivity at various levels of total reduction, rolling speed and rolling temperature representing extremes of commercial processing conditions. Results indicate that process conditions can range over reasonable levels without any negative impact to properties.

  14. Water vapor recovery from plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Newbold, D. D.; Colton, R. H.; Mccray, S. B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of plant growth chambers (PGCs) for space missions and for bases on the moon and Mars. Key to successful development of PGCs is a system to recover and reuse the water vapor that is transpired from the leaves of the plants. A design is presented for a simple, reliable, membrane-based system that allows the recovery, purification, and reuse of the transpired water vapor through control of temperature and humidity levels in PGCs. The system is based on two membrane technologies: (1) dehumidification membrane modules to remove water vapor from the air, and (2) membrane contactors to return water vapor to the PGC (and, in doing so, to control the humidity and temperature within the PGC). The membrane-based system promises to provide an ideal, stable growth environment for a variety of plants, through a design that minimizes energy usage, volume, and mass, while maximizing simplicity and reliability.

  15. Fabrication of GRCop-84 Rocket Thrust Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, William; Ellis, David

    2006-01-01

    GRCop-84, a copper alloy, Cu-8 at% Cr-4 at% Nb developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for regenerative1y cooled rocket engine liners has excellent combinations of elevated temperature strength, creep resistance, thermal conductivity and low cycle fatigue. GRCop-84 is produced from pre-alloyed atomized powder and has been fabricated into plate, sheet and tube forms as well as near net shapes. Fabrication processes to produce demonstration rocket combustion chambers will be presented and includes powder production, extruding, rolling, forming, friction stir welding, and metal spinning. GRCop-84 has excellent workability and can be readily fabricated into complex components using conventional powder and wrought metallurgy processes. Rolling was examined in detail for process sensitivity at various levels of total reduction, rolling speed and rolling temperature representing extremes of commercial processing conditions. Results indicate that process conditions can range over reasonable levels without any negative impact to properties.

  16. Design considerations of a thermally stabilized continuous flow electrophoresis chamber 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jandebeur, T. S.

    1982-01-01

    The basic adjustable parameters of a Beckman Continouous Particle Electrophoresis (CPE) Apparatus are investigated to determine the optimum conditions for ground based operation for comparison with space experiments. The possible application of electrically insulated copper/aluminum chamber walls is evaluated as a means to thermally stabilize or equilibrate lateral temperature gradients which exist on the walls of conventional plastic chambers and which distort the rectilinear base flow of buffer through the chamber, significantly affecting sample resolution.

  17. Coupled heat transfer analysis of thrust chambers with recessed shear coaxial injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiawen; Sun, Bing

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effects of recessed lengths on combustion performance and heat loads in LOX/methane thrust chambers with shear coaxial injectors, a coupled numerical methodology is developed to solve the combustion and heat transfer in thrust chambers with regenerative cooling. In this methodology, the transcritical turbulent combustion is modeled by a validated non-adiabatic flamelet model considering real-fluid properties; turbulent flows within the thrust chamber and cooling channels are computed by a pressure-based coupled algorithm. The validation indicates that the prediction with detailed chemistry mechanism and the Chung method confirms quantitatively to literature experimental data. The results reveal that the recess causes an increase of wall heat flux in the whole thrust chamber and makes the heat flux peak in the combustion chamber moves downstream. Furthermore, both the heat flux peaks in the combustion chamber and nozzle increase first and then decrease as recessed lengths increase. Meanwhile, chamber pressure, hot-gas temperature, and the averaging heat flux of the combustion chamber wall are positively correlated with recessed lengths. However, the heat loads are more sensitive to the recessed lengths than chamber pressure and hot-gas temperature. Much attention should be paid to the protection of chamber wall.

  18. Aging in the large CDF axial drift chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Allspach, D.; Ambrose, D.; Binkley, M.; Bromberg, C.; Burkett, K.; Kephart, R.; Madrak, R.; Miao, T.; Mukherjee, A.; Roser, R.; Wagner, R.L. /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The Central Outer Tracker (COT) is a large axial drift chamber in the Collider Detector at Fermilab operating with a gas mixture that is 50/50 argon/ethane with an admixture of 1.7% isopropanol. In its first two years of operation the COT showed unexpected aging with the worst parts of the chamber experiencing a gain loss of {approx}50% for an accumulated charge of {approx}35 mC/cm. By monitoring the pulse height of hits on good tracks, it was possible to determine the gain as a function of time and location in the chamber. In addition, the currents of the high voltage supplies gave another monitor of chamber gain and its dependence on the charge deposition rate. The aging was worse on the exhaust end of the chamber consistent with polymer buildup as the gas flows through the chamber. The distribution in azimuth suggests that aging is enhanced at lower temperatures, but other factors such as gas flow patterns may be involved. Elemental and molecular analysis of the sense wires found a coating that is mostly carbon and hydrogen with a small amount of oxygen; no silicon or other contaminants were identified. High resolution electron microscope pictures of the wire surface show that the coating is smooth with small sub-micron nodules. In the course of working with the chamber gas system, we discovered a small amount of O{sub 2} is enough to reverse the aging. Operating the chamber with {approx}100 ppm of O{sub 2} reversed almost two years of gain loss in less than 10 days while accumulating {le} 2 mC/cm.

  19. Evaluation of Impinging Stream Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Bullard, Brad; Kopicz, Charles; Michaels, Scott

    2002-01-01

    for the liquid oxygen (LOX) hydrocarbon fuel (RP-1) system has been derived from the one for the gel propellant. An unlike impinging injector was employed to deliver the propellants to the chamber. MSFC is also conducting an alternative injection scheme, called the chasing injector, associated with this vortex chamber concept. In this injection technique, both propellant jets and their impingement point are in the same chamber cross-sectional plane. Long duration tests (approximately up to 15 seconds) will be conducted on the ISVC to study the thermal effects. This paper will report the progress of the subject efforts at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Thrust chamber performance and thermal wall compatibility will be evaluated. The chamber pressures, wall temperatures, and thrust will be measured as appropriate. The test data will be used to validate CFD models, which, in turn, will be used to design the optimum vortex chambers. Measurements in the previous tests showed that the chamber pressures vary significantly with radius. This is due to the existence of the vortices in the chamber flow field. Hence, the combustion efficiency may not be easily determined from chamber pressure. For this project, measured thrust data will be collected. The performance comparison will be in terms of specific impulse efficiencies. In addition to the thrust measurements, several pressure and temperature readings at various locations on the chamber head faceplate and the chamber wall will be made. The first injector and chamber were designed and fabricated based on the available data and experience gained during gel propellant system tests by the U.S. Army. The alternate injector for the ISVC was also fabricated. Hot-fire tests of the vortex chamber are about to start and are expected to complete in February of 2003 at the TS115 facility of MSFC.

  20. Evaluation of Impinging Stream Vortex Chamber Concepts for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Bullard, Brad; Kopicz, Charles; Michaels, Scott

    2002-01-01

    for the liquid oxygen (LOX) hydrocarbon fuel (RP-1) system has been derived from the one for the gel propellant. An unlike impinging injector was employed to deliver the propellants to the chamber. MSFC is also conducting an alternative injection scheme, called the chasing injector, associated with this vortex chamber concept. In this injection technique, both propellant jets and their impingement point are in the same chamber cross-sectional plane. Long duration tests (approximately up to 15 seconds) will be conducted on the ISVC to study the thermal effects. This paper will report the progress of the subject efforts at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Thrust chamber performance and thermal wall compatibility will be evaluated. The chamber pressures, wall temperatures, and thrust will be measured as appropriate. The test data will be used to validate CFD models, which, in turn, will be used to design the optimum vortex chambers. Measurements in the previous tests showed that the chamber pressures vary significantly with radius. This is due to the existence of the vortices in the chamber flow field. Hence, the combustion efficiency may not be easily determined from chamber pressure. For this project, measured thrust data will be collected. The performance comparison will be in terms of specific impulse efficiencies. In addition to the thrust measurements, several pressure and temperature readings at various locations on the chamber head faceplate and the chamber wall will be made. The first injector and chamber were designed and fabricated based on the available data and experience gained during gel propellant system tests by the U.S. Army. The alternate injector for the ISVC was also fabricated. Hot-fire tests of the vortex chamber are about to start and are expected to complete in February of 2003 at the TS115 facility of MSFC.

  1. Effect of long-term simulated pulpal pressure on the bond strength and nanoleakage of resin-luting agents with different bonding strategies.

    PubMed

    de Alexandre, R S; Santana, V B; Kasaz, A C; Arrais, C A G; Rodrigues, J A; Reis, A F

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of simulated hydrostatic pulpal pressure (SPP) on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) to dentin and nanoleakage patterns produced by self-adhesive luting agents after 12 months. Three self-adhesive luting agents (RelyX Unicem [UN], RelyX U100 [UC], and Clearfil SA Luting [SA]) and three conventional luting agents (Rely X ARC [RX], Panavia F [PF], and a two-step self-etching adhesive system [Clearfil SE Bond] associated with Panavia F [PS]) were evaluated. One hundred twenty-three human molars were abraded to expose occlusal surfaces. Resin cements were used to lute cylindrical composite blocks to the teeth either subjected or not to SPP. Sixty specimens were subjected to 15 cm H2O of SPP for 24 hours before and 24 hours or 12 months after cementation procedures. Afterward, restored teeth were serially sectioned into beams with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2) at the bonded interface and were tested in tension (cross-head speed of 1 mm/min). Failure mode was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were statistically analyzed by three-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test (p=0.05). Two additional teeth in each group were serially sectioned into 0.9-mm-thick slabs, which were submitted to a nanoleakage protocol with AgNO3 and analyzed with scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The μTBS values of the etch-and-rinse group (RX) were negatively influenced by SPP and long-term water storage with SPP. After 12 months, UC and SA presented premature failures in all specimens when submitted to SPP. SPP increased silver deposition in most groups in both evaluation times. The hydrostatic pulpal pressure effect was material dependent. The storage time without SPP did not affect bond strength. However, long-term SPP influenced the performance of the etch-and-rinse and self-adhesive cements regarding μTBS and nanoleakage pattern, except to UN.

  2. Annual Net Ecosystem Productivity of Wetlands: A Comparison of Automated and Manual Chamber Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, E. H.; Bubier, J. L.; Mosedale, A.; Crill, P. M.

    2001-05-01

    Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2) was measured in a minerotrophic poor fen in southeastern New Hampshire during the 2000 growing season using two types of chamber methods. Instantaneous CO2 flux was measured with transparent lexan and teflon static climate controlled chambers by calculating the change in headspace CO2 concentration in the chamber over time. Once per week the flux was sampled from ten manually operated chambers using a LI-COR 6200 portable photosynthesis system, which included a LI-6250 infrared gas analyzer, connected to the chambers. Ten automated chambers were installed in May of 2000, sampling CO2 flux every three hours over the diurnal cycle using a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyzer. The chambers and collars were placed throughout the fen in order to sample the range of plant communities. The manual sampling was done during the middle of the day, but the rate of photosynthesis changes depending on the amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). In order to simulate varying light levels, shrouds blocking different amounts of light were placed over each manual chamber. An opaque shroud was used to measure respiration. NEE ranged from -13.0 to 12.5 μ mol CO2/m2/s in the manual chambers and -16.2 to 11.8 μ mol CO2/m2/s in the automated chambers for the mid-summer growing season. Manual respiration fluxes were measured under higher temperature regimes and the response of respiration to temperature will be factored in when comparing the two chamber techniques. Research during the summer of 2001 will also include diurnal measurements. Growing season net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will be estimated and compared for the two chamber systems. Several models will be used to estimate the flux when the manual chambers were not being sampled. The models will be based on biomass and dominant species in each chamber, and various environmental factors including water table, pH, relative humidity, PAR, air and peat temperature

  3. Thermohydrodynamic model: Hydrothermal system, shallowly seated magma chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryukhin, A. V.

    1985-02-01

    The results of numerical modeling of heat exchange in the Hawaiian geothermal reservoir demonstrate the possibility of appearance of a hydrothermal system over a magma chamber. This matter was investigated in hydrothermal system. The equations for the conservation of mass and energy are discussed. Two possible variants of interaction between the magma chamber and the hydrothermal system were computated stationary dry magma chamber and dry magma chamber changing volume in dependence on the discharge of magma and taking into account heat exchange with the surrounding rocks. It is shown that the thermal supplying of the hydrothermal system can be ensured by the extraction of heat from a magma chamber which lies at a depth of 3 km and is melted out due to receipt of 40 cubic km of basalt melt with a temperature of 1,300 C. The initial data correspond with computations made with the model to the temperature values in the geothermal reservoir and a natural heat transfer comparable with the actually observed values.

  4. Partitioning evapotranspiration in sparsely vegetated rangeland using a portable chamber

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stannard, D.I.; Weltz, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A portable chamber was used to separate evapotranspiration (ET) from a sparse, mixed-species shrub canopy in southeastern Arizona, United States, into vegetation and soil components. Chamber measurements were made of ET from the five dominant species, and from bare soil, on 3 days during the monsoon season when the soil surface was dry. The chamber measurements were assembled into landscape ET using a simple geometric model of the vegetated land surface. Chamber estimates of landscape ET were well correlated with, but about 26% greater than, simultaneous eddy-correlation measurements. Excessive air speed inside the chamber appears to be the primary cause of the overestimate. Overall, transpiration accounted for 84% of landscape ET, and bare soil evaporation for 16%. Desert zinnia, a small (???0.1 m high) but abundant species, was the greatest water user, both per unit area of shrub and of landscape. Partitioning of ET into components varied as a function of air temperature and shallow soil moisture. Transpiration from shorter species was more highly correlated with air temperature whereas transpiration from taller species was more highly correlated with shallow soil moisture. Application of these results to a full drying cycle between rainfalls at a similar site suggests that during the monsoon, ET at such sites may be about equally partitioned between transpiration and bare soil evaporation.

  5. Low-Cost, High-Performance Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortini, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Ultramet designed and fabricated a lightweight, high-temperature combustion chamber for use with cryogenic LOX/CH4 propellants that can deliver a specific impulse of approx.355 seconds. This increase over the current 320-second baseline of nitrogen tetroxide/monomethylhydrazine (NTO/MMH) will result in a propellant mass decrease of 55 lb for a typical lunar mission. The material system was based on Ultramet's proven oxide-iridium/rhenium architecture, which has been hot-fire tested with stoichiometric oxygen/hydrogen for hours. Instead of rhenium, however, the structural material was a niobium or tantalum alloy that has excellent yield strength at both ambient and elevated temperatures. Phase I demonstrated alloys with yield strength-to-weight ratios more than three times that of rhenium, which will significantly reduce chamber weight. The starting materials were also two orders of magnitude less expensive than rhenium and were less expensive than the C103 niobium alloy commonly used in low-performance engines. Phase II focused on the design, fabrication, and hot-fire testing of a 12-lbf thrust class chamber with LOX/CH4, and a 100-lbf chamber for LOX/CH4. A 5-lbf chamber for NTO/MMH also was designed and fabricated.

  6. Nondestructive test of regenerative chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Stauffis, R.; Wood, R.

    1972-01-01

    Flat panels simulating internally cooled regenerative thrust chamber walls were fabricated by electroforming, brazing and diffusion bonding to evaluate the feasibility of nondestructive evaluation techniques to detect bonds of various strength integrities. Ultrasonics, holography, and acoustic emission were investigated and found to yield useful and informative data regarding the presence of bond defects in these structures.

  7. Chamber Music for Better Bands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael R.

    1998-01-01

    Considers why students should participate in a chamber music ensemble: (1) students develop a sense of collegiality and self-worth; (2) ensembles encourage practice time; and (3) ensembles provide flexible performance opportunities. Highlights the different aspects of creating an ensemble from the availability of faculty to selecting challenging…

  8. Hydrostatic Hyperbaric Chamber Ventilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrostatic hyperbaric chamber (HHC) represents the merger of several technologies in development for NASA aerospace applications, harnessed to directly benefit global health. NASA has significant experience developing composite hyperbaric chambers for a variety of applications. NASA also has researched the application of water-filled vessels to increase tolerance of acceleration forces. The combination of these two applications has resulted in the hydrostatic chamber, which has been conceived as a safe, affordable means of making hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) available in the developing world for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions. Specifically, HBOT is highly-desired as a possibly curative treatment for Buruli Ulcer, an infectious condition that afflicts children in sub-Saharan Africa. HBOT is simply too expensive and too dangerous to implement in the developing world using standard equipment. The HHC technology changes the paradigm. The HHC differs from standard hyperbaric chambers in that the majority of its volume is filled with water which is pressurized by oxygen being supplied in the portion of the chamber containing the patient s head. This greatly reduces the amount of oxygen required to sustain a hyperbaric atmosphere, thereby making the system more safe and economical to operate. An effort was taken to develop an HHC system to apply HBOT to children that is simple and robust enough to support transport, assembly, maintenance and operation in developing countries. This paper details the concept for an HHC ventilation and pressurization system to provide controlled pressurization and adequate washout of carbon dioxide while the subject is enclosed in the confined space during the administration of the medical treatment. The concept took into consideration operational complexity, safety to the patient and operating personnel, and physiological considerations. The simple schematic, comprised of easily acquired commercial hardware

  9. Chamber dynamic research with pulsed power

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSON,ROBERT R.; OLSON,CRAIG L.; RENK,TIMOTHY J.; ROCHAU,GARY E.; SWEENEY,MARY ANN

    2000-05-15

    In Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE), Target Chamber Dynamics (TCD) is an integral part of the target chamber design and performance. TCD includes target output deposition of target x-rays, ions and neutrons in target chamber gases and structures, vaporization and melting of target chamber materials, radiation-hydrodynamics in target chamber vapors and gases, and chamber conditions at the time of target and beam injections. Pulsed power provides a unique environment for IFE-TCD validation experiments in two important ways: they do not require the very clean conditions which lasers need and they currently provide large x-ray and ion energies.

  10. An Altitude Chamber for the Study and Calibration of Aeronautical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, J E; Kirchner, Otto E

    1925-01-01

    The design and construction of an altitude chamber, in which both pressure and temperature can be varied independently, was carried out by the NACA at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory for the purpose of studying the effects of temperature and pressure on aeronautical research instruments. Temperatures from +20c to -50c are obtained by the expansion of CO2from standard containers. The chamber can be used for the calibration of research instruments under altitude conditions simulating those up to 45,000 feet. Results obtained with this chamber have a direct application in the design and calibration of instruments used in free flight research.

  11. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of...

  12. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of platelet...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9575 - Environmental chamber for storage of platelet concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to hold platelet-rich plasma within a preselected temperature range. (b) Classification. Class II... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental chamber for storage of platelet... Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9575 Environmental chamber for storage of...

  16. In-vivo Generation of Dental Pulp-Like Tissue Using Human Pulpal Stem Cells, a Collagen Scaffold and Dentin Matrix Protein 1 Following Subcutaneous Transplantation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Rebecca S.; Alsanea, Rajaa; Fayad, Mohamed I.; Johnson, Bradford R.; Wenckus, Christopher S.; Hao, Jianjun; John, Asha S.; George, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The presence of a perforation is known to significantly compromise the outcome of endodontic treatment. One potential use of regenerative endodontic therapy may be the repair of root canal perforations. In addition to nutrients and systemic in-situ interactions, the three main components believed to be essential for tissue regeneration are: stem cells, scaffold, and growth factors. This study investigated the role of each component of the tissue engineering triad in the organization and differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) in a simulated furcal perforation site using a mouse model. Collagen served as the scaffold and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) was the growth factor. Materials were placed in simulated perforation sites in dentin slices. MTA was the control repair material. At six weeks, the animals were sacrificed and the perforation sites were evaluated by light microscopy and histological staining. Organization of newly derived pulp tissue was seen in the group containing the triad of DPSCs, a collagen scaffold, and DMP1. The other four groups did not demonstrate any apparent tissue organization. Under the conditions of the present study, it may be concluded that the triad of DPSCs, a collagen scaffold, and DMP1 can induce an organized matrix formation similar to that of pulpal tissue, which may lead to hard tissue formation. PMID:18358888

  17. Iloprost up-regulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in human dental pulp cells in vitro and enhances pulpal blood flow in vivo.

    PubMed

    Limjeerajarus, Chalida Nakalekha; Osathanon, Thanaphum; Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Pavasant, Prasit

    2014-07-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a biomolecule capable of enhancing angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. We investigated the influence of a PGI2 analogue (iloprost) on dental pulp revascularization in vitro and in vivo by using human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) and a rat tooth injury model, respectively. Iloprost stimulated the human dental pulp cell mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in a significant dose-dependent manner. This mRNA up-regulation was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with a PGI2 receptor antagonist and forskolin (a protein kinase A activator). In contrast, a protein kinase A inhibitor significantly enhanced the iloprost-induced mRNA expression of VEGF, FGF-2, and PDGF. Pretreatment with a fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor attenuated the VEGF, FGF-2, and PDGF mRNA expression, indicating opposing regulatory mechanisms. The effect of iloprost on the dental pulp was investigated in vivo by using a rat molar pulp injury model. The iloprost-treated group exhibited a significant increase in pulpal blood flow at 72 hours compared with control. The present study indicates that iloprost may be a candidate agent to promote neovascularization in dental pulp tissue, suggesting the potential clinical use of iloprost in vital pulp therapy. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of high combustion chamber pressure on rocket noise environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    The acoustical environment for a high combustion chamber pressure engine was examined in detail, using both conventional and advanced theoretical analysis. The influence of elevated chamber pressure on the rocket noise environment was established, based on increase in exit velocity and flame temperature, and changes in basic engine dimensions. Compared to large rocket engines, the overall sound power level is found to be 1.5 dB higher, if the thrust is the same. The peak Strouhal number shifted about one octave lower to a value near 0.01. Data on apparent sound source location and directivity patterns are also presented.

  19. Bubble chambers for experiments in nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGiovine, B.; Henderson, D.; Holt, R. J.; Raut, R.; Rehm, K. E.; Robinson, A.; Sonnenschein, A.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-05-01

    A bubble chamber has been developed to be used as an active target system for low energy nuclear astrophysics experiments. Adopting ideas from dark matter detection with superheated liquids, a detector system compatible with γ-ray beams has been developed. This detector alleviates some of the limitations encountered in standard measurements of the minute cross-sections of interest to stellar environments. While the astrophysically relevant nuclear reaction processes at hydrostatic burning temperatures are dominated by radiative captures, in this experimental scheme we measure the time-reversed processes. Such photodisintegrations allow us to compute the radiative capture cross-sections when transitions to excited states of the reaction products are negligible. Due to the transformation of phase space, the photodisintegration cross-sections are up to two orders of magnitude higher. The main advantage of the new target-detector system is a density several orders of magnitude higher than conventional gas targets. Also, the detector is virtually insensitive to the γ-ray beam itself, thus allowing us to detect only the products of the nuclear reaction of interest. The development and the operation as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the bubble chamber are discussed.

  20. Space station auxiliary thrust chamber technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A program to design, fabricate and test a 50 lb sub f (222 N) thruster was undertaken (Contract NAS 3-24656) to demonstrate the applicability of the reverse flow concept as an item of auxiliary propulsion for the space station. The thruster was to operate at a mixture ratio (O/F) of 4, be capable of operating for 2 million lb sub f- seconds (8.896 million N-seconds) impulse with a chamber pressure of 75 psia (52 N/square cm) and a nozzle area ratio of 40. Superimposed was also the objective of operating with a strainless steel spherical combustion chamber, which limited the wall temperature to 1700 F (1200 K), an objective specific impulse of 400 lb sub f sec/lbm (3923 N-seconds/Kg), and a demonstration of 500,000 lb sub f-seconds (2,224,000 N-seconds) of impulse. The demonstration of these objectives required a number of design iterations which eventually culminated in a very successful 1000 second demonstration, almost immediately followed by a changed program objective imposed to redesign and demonstrate at a mixture ratio (O/F) of 8. This change was made and more then 250,000 lb sub f seconds (1,112,000 N-seconds) of impulse was successfully demonstrated at a mixture ratio of 8. This document contains a description of the effort conducted during the program to design and demonstrate the thrusters involved.

  1. Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batakis, A. P.; Vogan, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A research program was conducted to generate data and develop analytical techniques to predict the performance and reliability of ceramic thermal barrier coatings in high heat flux environments. A finite element model was used to analyze the thermomechanical behavior of coating systems in rocket thrust chambers. Candidate coating systems (using a copper substrate, NiCrAlY bond coat and ZrO2.8Y2O3 ceramic overcoat) were selected for detailed study based on photomicrographic evaluations of experimental test specimens. The effects of plasma spray application parameters on the material properties of these coatings were measured and the effects on coating performance evaluated using the finite element model. Coating design curves which define acceptable operating envelopes for seleted coating systems were constructed based on temperature and strain limitations. Spray gun power levels was found to have the most significant effect on coating structure. Three coating systems were selected for study using different power levels. Thermal conductivity, strain tolerance, density, and residual stress were measured for these coatings. Analyses indicated that extremely thin coatings ( 0.02 mm) are required to accommodate the high heat flux of a rocket thrust chamber and ensure structural integrity.

  2. Reflective chamber for hardware-in-the-loop simulation of active/passive millimeter wave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sholes, W. J.; Wilsdorf, T. T.

    A unique reflective chamber has been developed at the MICOM Advanced Simulation Center for hardware-in-the-loop simulation for combined active and passive millimeter sensors. This paper describes the reasons for developing such a reflective chamber and provides results of measurement of active reflection levels and radiometric temperatures within the chamber. Utilization of this chamber in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation for a millimeter wave weapon system is described, including the computer equipment and software system for real-time control of the simulator.

  3. Denitrification associated with stream periphyton: Chamber estimates from undisrupted communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.H.; Triska, F.J.; Oremland, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Undisrupted periphyton communities from a N-rich (NO3- = 63 ??mol L-1) and pristine (NO3- = 2.9 ??mol L-1) stream were assayed for denitrifying activity (acetylene-blockage technique) in 40-L chambers incubated at in situ temperature and nutrient concentrations. Nitrous oxide formation associated with periphyton from the N-rich stream was immediate and linear (52.1 ??mol N2O m-2 h-1) in the dark, anaerobic chamber (50 kPa C2H2). In the corresponding light, aerobic chamber (50 kPa C2H2), N2O production was inhibited by 82% (9.3 ??mol N2O m-2 h-1). Nitrous oxide formation was not associated with periphyton from the pristine stream incubated in situ, either with or without NO3- amendment. Denitrification estimates made with undisrupted periphyton communities at in situ temperature and nutrient concentrations (40-L chambers) were less variable than estimates made with periphyton 'scrapings' in small flasks (room temperature). The calculated diel periphyton-associated denitrification rate based on a 14-h light-10-h dark day was 651 ??mol N2O m-2 d-1. The data suggest denitrification within periphyton mats may contribute toward removal of NO3- from N-rich fluvial environments.

  4. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  5. 21 CFR 868.5470 - Hyperbaric chamber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... than atmospheric pressure. This device does not include topical oxygen chambers for extremities (§ 878... hyperbaric chamber is a device that is intended to increase the environmental oxygen pressure to promote...

  6. Characterization and testing of a new environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskinen, A.; Yli-Pirilä, P.; Kuuspalo, K.; Sippula, O.; Jalava, P.; Hirvonen, M.-R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Virtanen, A.; Komppula, M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.

    2015-06-01

    A 29 m3 Teflon chamber, designed for studies on the aging of combustion aerosols, at the University of Eastern Finland is described and characterized. The chamber is part of a research facility, called Ilmari, where small-scale combustion devices, a dynamometer for vehicle exhaust studies, dilution systems, the chamber, and cell and animal exposure devices are located side by side under the same roof. The small surface-to-volume ratio of the chamber enables reasonably long experiment times, with particle wall loss rate constants of 0.088, 0.080, 0.045, and 0.040 h-1 for polydisperse, 50, 100, and 200 nm monodisperse aerosols, respectively. The NO2 photolysis rate can be adjusted from 0 to 0.62 min-1. The irradiance spectrum is centered at either 350 or 365 nm, and the maximum irradiance, produced by up to 160 blacklight lamps, is 29.7 W m-2, which corresponds to the ultraviolet (UV) irradiance in Central Finland at noon on a sunny day in the midsummer. The temperature inside the chamber is uniform and can be kept at 25±1 °C. The chamber is kept in an overpressure with a moving top frame, which reduces sample dilution and entrance of contamination during an experiment. The functionality of the chamber was tested with oxidation experiments of toluene, resulting in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields of 12-42%, depending on the initial conditions, such as NOx concentration and UV irradiation. The highest gaseous oxidation product yields of 12.4-19.5% and 5.8-19.5% were detected with ions corresponding to methyl glyoxal (m/z 73.029) and 4-oxo-2-pentenal (m/z 99.044), respectively. Overall, reasonable yields of SOA and gaseous reaction products, comparable to those obtained in other laboratories, were obtained.

  7. Characterization of Wall Loss in an Indoor Smog Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdell, T. M.; Smith, D. M.; Fiddler, M. N.; Sexton, K.; Bililign, S.

    2016-12-01

    Indoor smog chambers are customarily used to produce a controlled atmosphere accommodating distinctive particles. A complicating aspect of interpreting data for an experiment that incorporates the use of an indoor smog chamber is determining the wall loss of the particles and gases that make up the controlled atmosphere. To characterize the relative wall losses of different components of the test mixtures within the indoor smog chamber, experiments looking at the concentration-time series of soot and relevant gases will be performed. NOx and ozone are commonly used as these gases because they are the main gas components found in the atmosphere. The NOx and ozone will be injected into the 9.01 m3, or 9,010 L, FEP Teflon-lined indoor smog chamber individually with room lights turned off to minimize chemical reactions. A non-reactive gas, benzene, will also be injected into the chamber as a trace gas. These gases are monitored using a Gas Chromatograph, Ozone Analyzer, and NOx Analyzer. NOx or ozone should show a small-scale decay in the concentration-time series graph, indicating that there is minimal wall loss. If there is a measurable difference in decay compared to the concentration-time series graph of the benzene, then the difference is the wall loss for these gases. Wall loss decays are affected by temperature and relative humidity, which will measured. Evaluating the wall loss as it pertains to various soot particles will be the end-goal. Some concentration decay is going to occur due to dilution, which can be estimated by summing the sampling flow rates and considering the chamber volume. Benzene concentration decays larger than predicted by dilution indicates that the chamber leaks which would need to be corrected. It is important to characterize wall losses so that it can be properly accounted for in any future experiments.The authors acknowledge the support from the National Science Foundation through Grant Number NSF-AGS-1555479

  8. NASA Goddard's Acoustic Test Chamber

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    At Goddard, the engineers use the Acoustic Test Chamber, a 42-foot-tall chamber, with 6-foot-diameter speaker horns to replicate the launch environment. The horns use an altering flow of gaseous nitrogen to produce a sound level as high as 150 decibels for two-minute tests. That’s about the level of sound heard standing next to a jet engine during takeoff. The 6-foot-wide horns in this 42-foot-tall chamber can produce noise at levels as high as 150 dB. During the acoustics test, the speakers can still be heard outside of its insulated massive metal doors. Credits: NASA/Goddard/Chris Gunn NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  9. The crop growth research chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenbach, Kimberly

    1993-01-01

    The Crop Growth Research Chamber (CGRC) has been defined by CELSS principle investigators and science advisory panels as a necessary ground-based tool in the development of a regenerative life support system. The focus of CGRC research will be on the biomass production component of the CELSS system. The ground-based Crop Growth Research Chamber is for the study of plant growth and development under stringently controlled environments isolated from the external environment. The chamber has importance in three areas of CELSS activities: (1) crop research; (2) system control and integration, and (3) flight hardware design and experimentation. The laboratory size of the CGRC will be small enough to allow duplication of the unit, the conducting of controlled experiments, and replication of experiments, but large enough to provide information representative of larger plant communities. Experiments will focus on plant growth in a wide variety of environments and the effects of those environments on plant production of food, water, oxygen, toxins, and microbes. To study these effects in a closed system, tight control of the environment is necessary.

  10. Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel having the configuration of an assembly having a combustion chamber portion connected to a nozzle portion through a throat portion is wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The width of the tape is positioned at an angle of 30 to 50 deg. to the axis of the mandrel such that one edge of the tape contacts the mandrel while the other edge is spaced from the mandrel. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined to provide a frusto-conical surface extending at an angle of 15 to 30 deg. with respect to the axis of the mandrel for starting a second wrap on the mandrel to cover the throat portion. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape having its width positioned at a angle of 5 to 20 deg. from the axis of the mandrel. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined to provide a smooth outer surface. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

  11. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  12. Materials screening chamber for testing materials resistance to atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. G.; Carruth, Ralph

    1989-01-01

    A unique test chamber for exposing material to a known flux of oxygen atoms is described. The capabilities and operating parameters of the apparatus include production of an oxygen atom flux in excess of 5 x 10 to the 16th atoms/sq cm-sec, controlled heating of the sample specimen, RF circuitry to contain the plasma within a small volume, and long exposure times. Flux measurement capabilities include a calorimetric probe and a light titration system. Accuracy and limitations of these techniques are discussed. An extension to the main chamber to allow simultaneous ultraviolet and atomic oxygen exposure is discussed. The oxygen atoms produced are at thermal energies. Sample specimens are maintained at any selected temperature between ambient and 200 C, to within + or - 2 C. A representative example of measurements made using the chamber is presented.

  13. Continuous flow, explosives vapor generator and sensor chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Greg E.; Giordano, Braden C.; Sivaprakasam, Vasanthi; Ananth, Ramagopal; Hammond, Mark; Merritt, Charles D.; Tucker, John E.; Malito, Michael; Eversole, Jay D.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan

    2014-05-01

    A novel liquid injection vapor generator (LIVG) is demonstrated that is amenable to low vapor pressure explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The LIVG operates in a continuous manner, providing a constant and stable vapor output over a period of days and whose concentration can be extended over as much as three orders of magnitude. In addition, a large test atmosphere chamber attached to the LIVG is described, which enables the generation of a stable test atmosphere with controllable humidity and temperature. The size of the chamber allows for the complete insertion of testing instruments or arrays of materials into a uniform test atmosphere, and various electrical feedthroughs, insertion ports, and sealed doors permit simple and effective access to the sample chamber and its vapor.

  14. Electromagnetic pulse generation within a petawatt laser target chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, M.J.; Neely, D.; Gauoin, J.; Heathcote, R.; Patel, P.

    2004-10-01

    Recent work has been undertaken to characterize the electromagnatic pulse (EMP) generated by the high temperature high density plasma produced by a petawatt laser. This was to evaluate the susceptibility to malfunction and damage of equipment and diagnostics for the new Orion laser. EMP measurement were made using moebius loop antennas fitted inside the target chamber of the Vulcan petawatt laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. These show the EMP as a 63 MHz transient which decays from a peak magnetic field of around 4.3 A/m. A theoretical model presented assumes the EMP is produced by an impulse of 10{sup 12} electron emanating from the target, which charge the chamber wall causing it to ring at natural frequency. The theoretical model provides an estimate of the EMP measured in the Vulcan petawatt target chamber and will be used for the design of the Orion laser.

  15. Dedicated contamination experiments in the Orion laser target chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, J.; Chevalier, J.-M.; Egan, D.; Geille, A.; Jadaud, J.-P.; Quessada, J.-H.; Raffestin, D.; Rubery, M.; Treadwell, P.; Videau, L.

    2015-11-01

    The use of solid targets irradiated in a vacuum target chamber by focussed high energy, high power laser beams to study the properties of matter at high densities, pressures and temperatures are well known. An undesirable side effect of these interactions is the generation of plumes of solid, liquid and gaseous matter which move away from the target and coat or physically damage surfaces within the target chamber. The largest aperture surfaces in these chambers are usually the large, high specification optical components used to produce the extreme conditions being studied [e.g. large aperture off axis parabolas, aspheric lenses, X ray optics and planar debris shields]. In order to study these plumes and the effects that they produce a set of dedicated experiments were performed to evaluate target by product coating distributions and particle velocities by a combined diagnostic instrument that utilised metal witness plates, polymer witness plates, fibre velocimetry and low density foam particle catchers.

  16. Plasma arc heated secondary combustion chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Haun, R.; Paulson, B.; Schlienger, M.; Goerz, D.; Kerns, J.; Vernazza, J.

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes a secondary combustion chamber (SCC) for hazardous waste treatment systems that uses a plasma arc torch as the heat source. Developed under a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Retech, Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), the unit is intended primarily to handle the off-gas from a Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) system. ft is designed to heat the effluent gas which may contain volatile organic compounds, and maintain the gas temperature above 1000 C for two seconds or more. The benefits of using a plasma arc gas heater are described in comparison to a conventional fossil fuel heated SCC. Thermal design considerations are discussed. Analysis and experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness in destroying hazardous compounds and reducing the total volume of gaseous emissions.

  17. Isotopic probes for chamber-based microphysics studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, E. J.; Möhler, O.; Ebert, V.; Morong, C. P.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapor are an underutilized potential probe of processes of ice crystal nucleation and growth and cirrus cloud evolution. We discuss a new laser- based absorption spectroscopy instrument for measurement of gas-phase water isotopologues (H2O, HDO, and H218O) currently under construction for use at the AIDA aerosol and cloud chamber in Karlsruhe, Germany, the largest such facility in the world and the only one suitable for isotopic measurements. We discuss proposed chamber experiments and show how isotopic measurements can help discriminate between many current hypotheses proposed to explain observed high supersaturation in cold cirrus, which include inactivation of aerosols by glassification, growth inhibition due to aerosol coating with organic material, ice in cubic rather than hexagonal phase, unexpectedly low temperature-dependent mass accommodation coefficients, and NAT deposition on ice. Chamber experiments offer several advantages over field sampling in the atmosphere from aircraft. First, the limitations of natural isotopic ratios (1:10000 for HDO:H2O) are not a constraint in controlled chamber experiments, because chamber water can be doped to reduce the difference between concentrations of common and rare isotopologues and allow increased measurement sensitivity. Second, different water sources can be isotopically labeled, allowing explicit measurement of fluxes. The combination allows the use of isotopic probes in novel ways for understanding microphysics in cold cirrus.

  18. Development of a Dry Wall Concept for Laser IFE Chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, James P.; Martin, Carl J.

    2005-04-15

    The first wall of a laser fusion chamber will experience high heat loads pulsed at 5-10 Hz with pulse widths on the order of a few microseconds. This poses a challenging problem for dry wall designs, as the wall will be susceptible to a variety of failure modes. The primary design concept of the High Average Power Laser (HAPL) project is a ferritic steel first wall coated with tungsten armor. Due to the extreme heat loads, the armor will experience high temperatures, extensive yielding, and surface cracking. In order to evaluate the ability of this design to provide a suitable lifetime, a series of experiments to simulate chamber conditions using ions, x-rays, infrared heating, and lasers is under way. These experimental efforts have been coupled with numerical modeling to help determine likely failure modes and establish design criteria for chambers. This paper compares models for the thermomechanical effects seen in the tests to those expected in a full power chamber, in order to assess the ability of the tests to mimic the actual chamber performance. The tests are found to have some limitations, but they still offer excellent approximations of the true behavior.

  19. Gas turbine combustion chamber with air scoops

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, S.E.; Smed, J.P.

    1989-12-19

    This patent describes a gas turbine combustion chamber. It comprises: means for admission of fuel to the upstream end thereof and discharge of hot gases from the downstream end thereof, and a combustion chamber wall, having an outer surface, with apertures therethrough, and air scoops provided through the apertures to direct air into the combustion chamber.

  20. Making a Fish Tank Cloud Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The cloud chambers described here are large, made from readily available parts, simple to set up and always work. With no source in the chamber, background radiation can be observed. A large chamber means that a long rod containing a weakly radioactive material can be introduced, increasing the chance of seeing decays. Details of equipment and…

  1. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  2. A Sensitive Cloud Chamber without Radioactive Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeze, Syoji; Itoh, Akio; Oyama, Ayu; Takahashi, Haruka

    2012-01-01

    We present a sensitive diffusion cloud chamber which does not require any radioactive sources. A major difference from commonly used chambers is the use of a heat sink as its bottom plate. The result of a performance test of the chamber is given. (Contains 8 figures.)

  3. Making a Fish Tank Cloud Chamber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Frances

    2012-01-01

    The cloud chambers described here are large, made from readily available parts, simple to set up and always work. With no source in the chamber, background radiation can be observed. A large chamber means that a long rod containing a weakly radioactive material can be introduced, increasing the chance of seeing decays. Details of equipment and…

  4. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  5. EPA GAS PHASE CHEMISTRY CHAMBER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase smog chamber experiments are being performed at EPA in order to evaluate a number of current chemical mechanisms for inclusion in EPA regulatory and research models. The smog chambers are 9000 L in volume and constructed of 2-mil teflon film. One of the chambers is co...

  6. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  7. EPA GAS PHASE CHEMISTRY CHAMBER STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase smog chamber experiments are being performed at EPA in order to evaluate a number of current chemical mechanisms for inclusion in EPA regulatory and research models. The smog chambers are 9000 L in volume and constructed of 2-mil teflon film. One of the chambers is co...

  8. HOM Sensitivity in the PEP-II HER Vacuum Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, Stephen; Novokhatski, Alexander; Sullivan, Mike; /SLAC

    2010-02-10

    Synchrotron radiation is the main source of vacuum chamber heating in the PEP-II storage ring collider. This heating is reduced substantially as lattice energy is lowered. Energy scans over {Upsilon} energy states were performed by varying the high energy ring (HER) lattice energy at constant gap voltage and frequency. We observed unexpected temperature rise at particular locations when HER lattice energy was lowered from 8.6 GeV ({Upsilon}(3S)) to 8.0 GeV ({Upsilon}(2S)) while most other temperatures decreased. Bunch length measurements reveal a shorter bunch at the lower energy. The shortened bunch overheated a beam position monitoring electrode causing a vacuum breach. We explain the unexpected heating as a consequence of increased higher order mode (HOM) power generated by a shortened bunch. In this case, temperature rise helps to identify HOM sources and HOM sensitive vacuum chamber elements. Reduction of gap voltage helps to reduce this unexpected heating.

  9. Chamber B Thermal/Vacuum Chamber: User Test Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montz, Mike E.

    2012-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of Chamber B. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  10. The influence of wall resonances on the levitation of objects in a single-axis acoustic processing chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, B. B.

    1980-01-01

    Instabilities were observed in high temperature, single axis acoustic processing chambers. At certain temperatures, strong wall resonances were generated within the processing chamber itself and these transverse resonances were thought sufficient to disrupt the levitation well. These wall resonances are apparently not strong enough to cause instabilities in the levitation well.

  11. Pulpal response to nano hydroxyapatite, mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide when used as a direct pulp capping agent: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Swarup, S J; Rao, A; Boaz, K; Srikant, N; Shenoy, R

    2014-01-01

    Nano hydroxyapatite (Nano-HA) and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) because of its better qualities can be used as an alternative to calcium hydroxide in direct pulp capping procedures. The aim of the study was to compare the response of exposed human pulp to Nano-HA, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and calcium hydroxide. The study was done on 30 premolars, ranging from patients between 11-15 years. Intentional pulp capping was done using one of the experimental materials. The extracted teeth were then subjected to staining procedure and evaluated for dentin bridge and pulpal response after 15 and 30 days. Intragroup comparisons of the observed values were analyzed using Chi-square test. Nano-HA and MTA produced continuous dentin bridges. Dentin bridge that was formed in MTA group had regular pattern of dentinal tubules but no tubules were seen in the nano-HA group. Dentin bridge was not observed in Dycal group for the 15 days period in majority of the sample and by 30 days dentin bridge was observed that were both continuous and interrupted in equal number of samples. The initial inflammatory response and necrosis was more with Nano-HA and calcium hydroxide which reduced with time. MTA showed no inflammatory changes in majority of the samples in both the study periods. Necrosis was least observed in MTA group followed by Nano-HA. Vascularity increased in Nano-HA group in the initial periods which reduced with increasing time. Based on the ability of nano-HA to produce complete dentinal bridges, favorable cellular and vascular response, the material could be considered as an substitute and could be tried used as a direct pulp capping agent.

  12. Chambers Air and Space Dictionary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, P. M. B.

    This dictionary is concerned with the sciences and technologies of everything above the Earth's surface. It has been developed from the database of Chambers Science and Technology Dictionary with many new and revised definitions in this group of fast-changing subjects. The book contains some 6000 definitions, including 1500 in aeronautics, 600 in astronomy, 500 in meteorology and 400 for space and radar. The special articles, placed in separate panels, are a major feature of the dictionary. These, many of which are illustrated, supply fuller treatments of major topics within each subject.

  13. The DELPHI time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, C.; Cairanti, G.; Charpentier, P.; Clara, M.P.; Delikaris, D.; Foeth, H.; Heck, B.W.; Hilke, H.J.; Sulkowski, K.; Aubret, C.

    1989-02-01

    The central tracking device of the DELPHI Experiment at LEP is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an active volume of 2 x 1.34m in length and 2.22m in diameter. Since spring 1988 the TPC has undergone extensive tests in a cosmic ray set-up. It will be installed in the LEP tunnel by early 1989. This report covers the construction, the read-out electronics and the contribution of the TPC to the DELPHI trigger. Emphasis is given to novelties which are not used in similar detectors.

  14. Basic Aerodynamics of Combustion Chambers,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-20

    8217, tie imnrulse foree eyuilibr-um c’ the bomd’~ leye - is 173 pv-:irJ p~76vJbK 2sO) IL !-. = Zn pT -- a , bV T. z -,,r y.re C era 3oia * ~~I" onc art-=e...heat by combustion all have very large influences on the capabilities of a combustion chamber. A yellow- colored flame represents diffusion combustion in...the wakes of fuel droplets. Blue- colored flames represent gaseous combustion of evaporated vapors which have already left the fuel droplets. The

  15. Micro acoustic resonant chambers for heating/agitating/mixing (MARCHAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita M.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Grunthaner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    A variety of applications require the mixing and/or heating of a slurry made from a powder/fluid mixture. One of these applications, Sub Critical Water Extraction (SCWE), is a process where water and an environmental powder sample (sieved soil, drill cuttings, etc.) are heated in a sealed chamber to temperatures greater than 200 degrees Celsius by allowing the pressure to increase, but without reaching the critical point of water. At these temperatures, the ability of water to extract organics from solid particulate increases drastically. This paper describes the modeling and experimentation on the use of an acoustic resonant chamber which is part of an amino acid detection instrument called Astrobionibbler [Noell et al. 2014, 2015]. In this instrument we use acoustics to excite a fluid- solid fines mixture in different frequency/amplitude regimes to accomplish a variety of sample processing tasks. Driving the acoustic resonant chamber at lower frequencies can create circulation patterns in the fluid and mixes the liquid and fines, while driving the chamber at higher frequencies one can agitate the fluid and powder and create a suspension. If one then drives the chamber at high amplitude at resonance heating of the slurry occurs. In the mixing and agitating cell the particle levitation force depends on the relative densities and compressibility's of the particulate and fluid and on the kinetic and potential energy densities associated with the velocity and pressure fields [Glynne-Jones, Boltryk and Hill 2012] in the cell. When heating, the piezoelectric transducer and chamber is driven at high power in resonance where the solid/fines region is modelled as an acoustic transmission line with a large loss component. In this regime, heat is pumped into the solution/fines mixture and rapidly heats the sample. We have modeled the piezoelectric transducer/chamber/ sample using Mason's equivalent circuit. In order to assess the validity of the model we have built and

  16. Evaluation of oxide-coated iridium-rhenium chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    1994-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir-Re) provides long life operation of radiation-cooled rockets at temperatures up to 2200 C. Ceramic oxide coatings could be used to increase Ir-Re rocket lifetimes and allow operation in highly oxidizing environments. Ceramic oxide coatings promise to serve as both thermal and diffusion barriers for the iridium layer. Seven ceramic oxide-coated Ir-Re, 22-N rocket chambers were tested with gaseous hydrogen/gaseous oxygen (GHz/G02) propellants. Five chambers had thick (over 10 mils), monolithic coatings of either hafnia (HfO2) or zirconia (ZrO2). Two chambers had coatings with thicknesses less than 5 mils. One of these chambers had a thin-walled coating of ZrO2 infiltrated with sol gel HfO2. The other chamber had a coating composed of an Ir-oxide composite. The purpose of this test program was to assess the ability of the oxide coatings to withstand the thermal shock of combustion initiation, adhere under repeated thermal cycling, and operate in aggressively oxidizing environments. All of the coatings survived the thermal shock of combustion and demonstrated operation at mixture ratios up to 11. Testing the Ir-oxide composite-coated chamber included over 29 min at mixture ratio 16. The thicker walled coatings provided the larger temperature drops across the oxide layer (up to 570 C), but were susceptible to macrocracking and eventual chipping at a stress concentrator. The cracks apparently resealed during firing, under compression of the oxide layer. The thinner walled coatings did not experience the macrocracking and chipping of the chambers that was seen with the thick, monolithic coatings. However, burn-throughs in the throat region did occur in both of the thin-walled chambers at mixture ratios well above stoichiometric. The burn-throughs were probably the result of oxygen diffusion through the oxide coating that allowed the underlying Ir and Re layers to be oxidized. The results of this test program indicated that the thin-walled oxide

  17. Homogeneous nucleation rate measurements of 1-butanol in helium: a comparative study of a thermal diffusion cloud chamber and a laminar flow diffusion chamber.

    PubMed

    Brus, David; Hyvärinen, Antti-Pekka; Zdímal, Vladimír; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2005-06-01

    Isothermal homogeneous nucleation rates of 1-butanol were measured both in a thermal diffusion cloud chamber and in a laminar flow diffusion chamber built recently at the Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic. The chosen system 1-butanol-helium can be studied reasonably well in both devices, in the overlapping range of temperatures. The results were compared with those found in the literature and those measured by Lihavainen in a laminar flow diffusion chamber of a similar design. The same isotherms measured with the thermal diffusion cloud chamber occur at highest saturation ratios of the three devices. Isotherms measured with the two laminar flow diffusion chambers are reasonably close together; the measurements by Lihavainen occur at lowest saturation ratios. The temperature dependences observed were similar in all three devices. The molecular content of critical clusters was calculated using the nucleation theorem and compared with the Kelvin equation. Both laminar flow diffusion chambers provided very similar sizes slightly above the Kelvin equation, whereas the thermal diffusion cloud chamber suggests critical cluster sizes significantly smaller. The results found elsewhere in the literature were in reasonable agreement with our results.

  18. Influence of vacuum chamber impurities on the lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Suekane, Takashi; Imanishi, Katsuya; Yukiwaki, Satoshi; Wei, Hong; Nagayoshi, Kaori; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of impurities in the vacuum chamber used for the fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes on the lifetime of the fabricated devices and found a correlation between lifetime and the device fabrication time. The contact angle of the ITO substrates stored the chamber under vacuum were used to evaluate chamber cleanliness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed on Si wafers stored in the vacuum chamber before device fabrication to examine the impurities in the chamber. Surprisingly, despite the chamber and evaporation sources being at room temperature, a variety of materials were detected, including previously deposited materials and plasticizers from the vacuum chamber components. We show that the impurities, and not differences in water content, in the chamber were the source of lifetime variations even when the duration of exposure to impurities only varied before and after deposition of the emitter layer. These results suggest that the impurities floating in the vacuum chamber significantly impact lifetime values and reproducibility.

  19. Influence of vacuum chamber impurities on the lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Suekane, Takashi; Imanishi, Katsuya; Yukiwaki, Satoshi; Wei, Hong; Nagayoshi, Kaori; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of impurities in the vacuum chamber used for the fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes on the lifetime of the fabricated devices and found a correlation between lifetime and the device fabrication time. The contact angle of the ITO substrates stored the chamber under vacuum were used to evaluate chamber cleanliness. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed on Si wafers stored in the vacuum chamber before device fabrication to examine the impurities in the chamber. Surprisingly, despite the chamber and evaporation sources being at room temperature, a variety of materials were detected, including previously deposited materials and plasticizers from the vacuum chamber components. We show that the impurities, and not differences in water content, in the chamber were the source of lifetime variations even when the duration of exposure to impurities only varied before and after deposition of the emitter layer. These results suggest that the impurities floating in the vacuum chamber significantly impact lifetime values and reproducibility. PMID:27958304

  20. Tubular copper thrust chamber design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

  1. Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Subscale rocket thrust chamber tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of thin yttria stabilized zirconium oxide coatings applied to the thrust chamber hot-gas side wall. The fabrication consisted of arc plasma spraying the ceramic coating and bond coat onto a mandrell and then electrodepositing the copper thrust chamber wall around the coating. Chambers were fabricated with coatings .008, and .005 and .003 inches thick. The chambers were thermally cycled at a chamber pressure of 600 psia using oxygen-hydrogen as propellants and liquid hydrogen as the coolant. The thicker coatings tended to delaminate, early in the cyclic testing, down to a uniform sublayer which remained well adhered during the remaining cycles. Two chambers with .003 inch coatings were subjected to 1500 thermal cycles with no coating loss in the throat region, which represents a tenfold increase in life over identical chambers having no coatings. An analysis is presented which shows that the heat lost to the coolant due to the coating, in a rocket thrust chamber design having a coating only in the throat region, can be recovered by adding only one inch to the combustion chamber length.

  2. Nonlinear structural analysis of cylindrical thrust chambers using viscoplastic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, Vinod K.

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of a viscoplastic stress-strain analysis of a cylindrical thrust chamber used in experiments that were designed to simulate the SSME operating conditions. The inelastic strain was calculated by using a viscoplastic model, and a quasi-three-dimensional structural analysis was performed by using a finite element program MARC. The temperatures and pressures were calculated by using the loading cycles of experiments, and these temperatures and pressures were used in the computations. The deformed shape of the component was predicted after the end of each loading cycle. The predicted shape qualitatively replicated the deformed shape of the component as observed in experiments. The results indicate that the use of viscoplastic models for structural analysis may lead to more realistic life assessments of experimental thrust chambers.

  3. Transferring calibration coefficients from ionisation chambers used for diagnostic radiology to transmission chambers.

    PubMed

    Yoshizumi, Maíra T; Caldas, Linda V E

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the response of a double volume transmission ionisation chamber, developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, was compared to that of a commercial transmission chamber. Both ionisation chambers were tested in different X-ray beam qualities using secondary standard ionisation chambers as reference dosimeters. These standard ionisation chambers were a parallel-plate and a cylindrical ionisation chambers, used for diagnostic radiology and mammography beam qualities, respectively. The response of both transmission chambers was compared to that of the secondary standard chambers to obtain coefficients of equivalence. These coefficients allow the transmission chambers to be used as reference equipment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cryogenic Testing Chamber for Optical Mirrors with Shearing Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaeva, Alla I.; Galuza, Alexey A.

    Low temperature test units are complex and expensive instruments, often with a limited range of applications, for example, monitoring large optical system and details. Almost every project aimed at building a cooled satellite telescope requires a new test units. The original cryogenic testing chamber for measuring the shape of spherical mirrors with a diameter of up to 0.4 m and a curvature radius of up to 0.7 m in vacuum at temperature of 10 - 300 K is proposed. The optical mirrors are tested at low temperature by interferometry. The shearing interferometer is placed outside the testing chamber. The tolerances with respect to the wavefront distortions are less than wave-length/40. Main difference of our chamber from the previously reported is that all the optical components and most of the cooling system are attached to a flange, mounted on a base and to a frame with a stabilized temperature. The rigid frame is a "squirrel wheel" welded from thick-walled pipes, and coolant can circulate inside. This design excludes unintentional thermal deformations of the frame and the related mirror displacement after cooling. A two-stage cooling system includes a nitrogen vessel (the first stage) with detachable heat shields and a movable shield. A continuous-flow coolers -cocurrent exchanger (the second stage) sets the temperature of the test mirror in the range 10-300K. The test mirror is fixed on three alignment units attached to the frame via rigid thermally insulating rods. The screw alignment units are driven by modified low-power stepper motors fixed to the alignment units. The circuit which controls the motors can translate the mirror parallel or tilt it in any direction. This design allows the interference pattern to be corrected at any stage of the test. The drives can also compensate for the flexibility of the mirror mounting (without rigid rims and cold conductors), which is needed to reduce the mechanical strain. The proposed design and structure of the chamber

  5. Gas Flow Simulation in GCB Chambers Featuring Hot Gas Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Tadashi; Iwamoto, Katsuharu; Kawano, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Yasunori

    A hot gas simulation in self-blast type GCBs was performed and revised. As a result, it was foundto be important to consider the thermodynamic and transport properties of SF6-PTFE gas at high pressures and temperatures. Moreover, modelling arc diameters are also important in the chamber. They have become the main factors in determining the rise of puffer pressure in self-blast type GCBs, while they were not relevant in conventional puffer-type GCBs.

  6. The Quiescent-Chamber Type Compression-Ignition Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, H H

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of performance tests of a single-cylinder 4-stroke-cycle compression-ignition engine having a vertical disk form of combustion chamber without air flow. The number, size, and direction of the orifices of the fuel-injection nozzles used were independently varied. A table and graphs are presented showing the performance of the engine with different nozzles; results of tests at different compression ratios, boost pressures, and coolant temperatures are also included.

  7. Searching for Dark Matter with a Bubble Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Peter S.

    2010-07-29

    The Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics (COUPP) recently reported first Physics results from an engineering prototype dark matter detector consisting of a 1 liter, room temperature, heavy liquid bubble chamber. These results close the last open window in low mass spin dependent WIMP scattering for a conventional WIMP interpretation of the DAMA annual modulation signal. I will discuss these results and the detector techniques which enabled them.

  8. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  9. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-01-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  10. Design, analysis, and fabrication of oxide-coated iridium/rhenium combustion chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Q.; Tuffias, R. H.; Laferla, R.; Ghoniem, N. M.

    1993-11-01

    Iridium-coated rhenium (Ir/Re) combustion chambers provide high temperature, oxidation-resistant operation for radiation-cooled liquid-fueled rocket engines. A 22-N (5-lb(sub f)) chamber has been operated for 15 hours at 2200 C (4000 F) using nitrogen tetroxide/monomethyl hydrazine (NTO/MMH) propellant, with negligible internal erosion. The oxidation resistance of these chambers could be further increased by the addition of refractory oxide coatings, providing longer life and/or operation in more oxidizing and higher temperature environments. The oxide coatings would serve as a thermal and diffusion barrier for the iridium coating, lowering the temperature of the iridium layer while also preventing the ingress of oxygen and egress of iridium oxides. This would serve to slow the failure mechanisms of Ir/Re chambers, namely the diffusion of rhenium to the inner surface and the oxidation of iridium. Such protection could extend chamber lifetimes by tens or perhaps hundreds of hours, and allow chamber operation on stoichiometric or higher mixture ratio oxygen/hydrogen (O2/H2) propellant. Extensive thermomechanical, thermochemical, and mass transport modeling was performed as a key material/structure design tool. Based on the results of these analyses, several 22-N oxide-coated Ir/Re chambers were fabricated and delivered to NASA Lewis Research Center for hot-fire testing.

  11. Tests of anechoic chamber for aeroacoustics investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchikovskiy, V. V.; Bersenev, Yu. V.; Makashov, S. Yu.; Belyaev, I. V.; Korin, I. A.; Sorokin, E. V.; Khramtsov, I. V.; Kustov, O. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the results of qualification tests in the new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) built in 2014-2015 and evaluation of the chamber quality in aeroacoustic experiments. It describes design features of the chamber and its sound-absorption lining. The qualification tests were carried out with tonal and broadband noise sources in the frequency range 100 Hz - 20 kHz for two different cases of the source arrangement. In every case, measurements were performed in three directions by traverse microphones. Qualification tests have determined that in the chamber there is a free acoustic field within radius of 2 m for tonal noise and 3 m for broadband noise. There was also evaluated acoustic quality of the chamber by measurements of the jet noise and vortex ring noise. The results of the experiments demonstrate that PNRPU anechoic chamber allows the aeroacoustic measurements to be performed to obtain quantitative results.

  12. Neutron-chamber detectors and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fehlau, P.E.; Atwater, H.F.; Coop, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    Detector applications in Nuclear Safeguards and Waste Management have included measuring neutrons from fission and (alpha,n) reactions with well-moderated neutron proportional counters, often embedded in a slab of polyethylene. Other less-moderated geometries are useful for detecting both bare and moderated fission-source neutrons with good efficiency. The neutron chamber is an undermoderated detector design comprising a large, hollow, polyethylene-walled chamber containing one or more proportional counters. Neutron-chamber detectors are relatively inexpensive; can have large apertures, usually through a thin chamber wall; and offer very good detection efficiency per dollar. Neutron-chamber detectors have also been used for monitoring vehicles and for assaying large crates of transuranic waste. Our Monte Carlo calculations for a new application (monitoring low-density waste for concealed plutonium) illustrate the advantages of the hollow-chamber design for detecting moderated fission sources. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology

  14. The ARGUS microvertex drift chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, E.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Appuhn, R. D.; Buchmüller, J.; Kolanoski, H.; Kreimeier, B.; Lange, A.; Siegmund, T.; Walther, A.; Edwards, K. W.; Fernholz, R. C.; Kapitza, H.; MacFarlane, D. B.; O'Neill, M.; Parsons, J. A.; Prentice, J. D.; Seidel, S. C.; Tsipolitis, G.; Ball, S.; Babaev, A.; Danilov, M.; Tichomirov, I.

    1989-11-01

    The ARGUS collaboration is currently building a new microvertex drift chamber (μVDC) as an upgrade of their detector. The μVDC is optimized for B-meson physics at DORIS energies. Important design features are minimal multiple scattering for low-momentum particles and three-dimensional reconstruction of decay vertices with equal resolutions in r- φ and r- z. Vertex resolutions of 15-25 μm are expected. Prototypes of the μVDC have been tested with different gas mixtures at various pressures. Spatial resolutions as small as 20 μm were obtained using CO 2/propane at 4 bar and DME at 1 bar. New readout electronics have been developed for the μVDC aiming at low thresholds for the TDC measurements. Employing a novel idea for noise and cross-talk suppression, which is based on a discrimination against short pulses, very low threshold settings are possible.

  15. An airborne isothermal haze chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindman, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal gradient diffusion cloud chambers (TGDCC) are used to determine the concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) with critical supersaturations greater than or equal to about 0.2%. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than theoretically predicted by factors ranging between 7.9 and 9.0. The CCN concentrations measured with the airborne IHC were lower than the concentrations measured with the larger laboratory IHC's by factors ranging between 3.9 and 7.5. The bounds of the supersaturation ranges of the airborne IHC and the CSU-Mee TGDCC do not overlap. Nevertheless, the slopes of the interpolated data between the bounds agree favorably with the theoretical slopes.

  16. IFE Chamber Technology - Status and Future Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Raffray, A.R.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.; Kulcinski, G.L.; Latowski, J.F.; Najmabadi, F.; Olson, C.L.; Peterson, P.F.; Ying, A.; Yoda, M.

    2003-07-15

    Significant progress has been made on addressing critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) chambers for heavy-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including drywall (currently favored for laser IFE), wetted-wall (applicable to both laser and ion drivers), and thick-liquid-wall (favored by heavy ion and z-pinch drivers). Recent progress and remaining challenges in developing IFE chambers are reviewed.

  17. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A.; Meier, Wayne R.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  18. Free-Flow Open-Chamber Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Free-flow open-chamber electrophoresis variant of free-flow electrophoresis performed in chamber with open ends and in which velocity of electro-osmotic flow adjusted equal to and opposite mean electrophoretic velocity of sample. Particles having electrophoretic mobilities greater than mean mobility of sample particles move toward cathode, those with mobilities less move toward anode. Technique applied to separation of components of mixtures of biologically important substances. Sensitivity enhanced by use of tapered chamber.

  19. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  20. IFE Chamber Technology - Status and Future Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Raffrary, A R; Abdel-Khalik, S; Kulcinski, G; Latkowski, J F; Najmabadi, F; Olson, C L; Peterson, P F; Ying, A; Yoda, M

    2002-11-15

    Significant progress has been made on addressing critical issues for inertial fusion energy (IFE) chambers for heavy-ion, laser and Z-pinch drivers. A variety of chamber concepts are being investigated including dry-wall (currently favored for laser IFE), wetted-wall (applicable to both laser and ion drivers), and thick-liquid-wall favored by heavy ion and z-pinch drivers. Recent progress and remaining challenges in developing IFE chambers are reviewed.