Science.gov

Sample records for pulpwood

  1. Pulpwood Harvesting: A Curriculum Guide. Preliminary Draft 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, R. J., Ed.

    A brief introductory section contains the rationale for the course, the curriculum framework, a curriculum paradigm which indicates the approximate time ranges for each section, and notes on use of the guide. The guide itself is divided into units and subunits covering the following areas: Orientation to Pulpwood Harvesting; Tree Identification;…

  2. Southern pulpwood harvesting productivity and cost changes between 1979 and 1987. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.R.; Cubbage, F.W.; Stokes, B.J.; Jakes, P.J.

    1994-05-16

    The Southern U.S. pulpwood harvesting industry experienced substantial changes in productivity and logging costs from 1979 to 1987. The research measures physical and economic changes in southern timber harvesting and the degree of industry shifting between different levels of harvesting mechanization.

  3. Career Oriented Mathematics, Teacher's Manual. [Includes Scale; Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason; Textiles; Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood; and Lumber Yard Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This manual is designed for teachers using units in the Career Oriented Mathematics Program titled: (1) Scale, (2) Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason, (3) Textiles, (4) Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood, and (5) Lumber Yard Employee. Lesson plans, masters for dittos and transparencies, and problem solutions are…

  4. Improved method of in vitro regeneration in Leucaena leucocephala - a leguminous pulpwood tree species.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Noor M; Arha, Manish; Nookaraju, A; Gupta, Sushim K; Srivastava, Sameer; Yadav, Arun K; Kulkarni, Pallavi S; Abhilash, O U; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Singh, Somesh; Tatkare, Rajeshri; Chinnathambi, Kannan; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2009-10-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast growing multipurpose legume tree used for forage, leaf manure, paper and pulp. Lignin in Leucaena pulp adversely influences the quality of paper produced. Developing transgenic Leucaena with altered lignin by genetic engineering demands an optimized regeneration system. The present study deals with optimization of regeneration system for L. leucocephala cv. K636. Multiple shoot induction from the cotyledonary nodes of L. leucocephala was studied in response to cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) and N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) supplemented in half strength MS (½-MS) medium and also their effect on in vitro rooting of the regenerated shoots. Multiple shoots were induced from cotyledonary nodes at varied frequencies depending on the type and concentration of cytokinin used in the medium. TDZ was found to induce more number of shoots per explant than BA, with a maximum of 7 shoots at an optimum concentration of 0.23 µM. Further increase in TDZ concentration resulted in reduced shoot length and fasciation of the shoots. Liquid pulse treatment of the explants with TDZ did not improve the shoot production further but improved the subsequent rooting of the shoots that regenerated. Regenerated shoots successfully rooted on ½-MS medium supplemented with 0.54 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooted shoots of Leucaena were transferred to coco-peat and hardened plantlets showed ≥ 90 % establishment in the green house.

  5. Localization and attempted quantification of various functional groups on pulpwood fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klash, A.; Ncube, E.; Meincken, M.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution of different free chemical functional groups on wood and pulp fibres has been determined by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with chemically modified tips. Because these functional groups show a higher affinity to similar groups on the substrate surface during scanning, AFM images determined with an additional digital pulsed-force mode (DPFM) controller allow the distribution of the chemical components to be imaged and to a degree also to be quantified. The investigated tip coatings showed a different sensitivity towards the major chemical components present in wood fibres, determined on spin-coated films and on wood fibres. A clear distinction between cellulose and lignin was possible in both cases. This technique could therefore be used to differentiate between cellulose and lignin present on pulp fibre surfaces and confirm the successful removal of lignin by pulping.

  6. Career Oriented Mathematics, Student's Manual. [Includes Scale; Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason; Textiles; Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood; and Lumber Yard Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This volume includes student manuals for five units in the Career Oriented Mathematics Program, which was developed to improve mathematical abilities and attitudes of secondary students by presenting the material in a job-relevant context. The units are titled: (1) Scale, (2) Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason, (3) Textiles, (4) Being…

  7. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions... and bark products and logs and pulpwood with bark attached, as well as cut trees (e.g.,...

  8. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Special forest products do not include sawtimber, pulpwood, non-sawlog material removed in log form, cull logs, small roundwood, house logs, telephone poles, derrick poles, minerals, animals, animal...

  9. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to... requirements of this subpart, bark and bark products and logs and pulpwood with bark attached, as well as...

  10. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to... addition to meeting the requirements of this subpart, bark and bark products and logs and pulpwood...

  11. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions... and bark products and logs and pulpwood with bark attached, as well as cut trees (e.g.,...

  12. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions... and bark products and logs and pulpwood with bark attached, as well as cut trees (e.g.,...

  13. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  14. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  15. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  16. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  17. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  18. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... supporting frame structure of a motor vehicle. Horizontal member means the structural member of the guard... exclusively for harvesting logs or pulpwood and constructed with a skeletal frame with no means for attachment... vehicle's cargo doors, tailgate, or other permanent structures are positioned as they normally are...

  19. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supporting frame structure of a motor vehicle. Horizontal member means the structural member of the guard... exclusively for harvesting logs or pulpwood and constructed with a skeletal frame with no means for attachment... vehicle's cargo doors, tailgate, or other permanent structures are positioned as they normally are...

  20. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... supporting frame structure of a motor vehicle. Horizontal member means the structural member of the guard... exclusively for harvesting logs or pulpwood and constructed with a skeletal frame with no means for attachment... vehicle's cargo doors, tailgate, or other permanent structures are positioned as they normally are...

  1. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... supporting frame structure of a motor vehicle. Horizontal member means the structural member of the guard... exclusively for harvesting logs or pulpwood and constructed with a skeletal frame with no means for attachment... vehicle's cargo doors, tailgate, or other permanent structures are positioned as they normally are...

  2. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  3. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  4. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-03-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  5. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-06-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  6. Tree harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short rotation intensive culture tree plantations have been a major part of biomass energy concepts since the beginning. One aspect receiving less attention than it deserves is harvesting. This article describes an method of harvesting somewhere between agricultural mowing machines and huge feller-bunchers of the pulpwood and lumber industries.

  7. Smallholder tree farming in the Philippines. A comparison of two credit programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Loan financing of small landowners in the vicinity of the mill of the Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP) for pulpwood production was successful for the sponsor, but only partly successful for the participant because of typhoon damage, low purchase prices and high harvesting costs. A World Bank loan aimed at reducing fuelwood shortages for small tobacco farmers in the Ilocos region was not successful (low participation rate, high tree mortality and fire losses).

  8. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  9. Accuracy in estimation of timber assortments and stem distribution - A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, Ville; Vauhkonen, Jari; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Joensuu, Marianna; Krooks, Anssi; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Viitala, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Detailed information about timber assortments and diameter distributions is required in forest management. Forest owners can make better decisions concerning the timing of timber sales and forest companies can utilize more detailed information to optimize their wood supply chain from forest to factory. The objective here was to compare the accuracies of high-density laser scanning techniques for the estimation of tree-level diameter distribution and timber assortments. We also introduce a method that utilizes a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in timber assortment estimation. The study was conducted in Evo, Finland. Harvester measurements were used as a reference for 144 trees within a single clear-cut stand. The results showed that accurate tree-level timber assortments and diameter distributions can be obtained, using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or a combination of TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS). Saw log volumes were estimated with higher accuracy than pulpwood volumes. The saw log volumes were estimated with relative root-mean-squared errors of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. The respective accuracies for pulpwood were 60.1% and 59.3%. The differences in the bucking method used also caused some large errors. In addition, tree quality factors highly affected the bucking accuracy, especially with pulpwood volume.

  10. Stand development on reforested bottomlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the southeastern United States has markedly increased in recent years due, in part, to financial incentives provided by conservation programs. Currently > 250,000 ha of marginal farmland have been returned to hardwood forests. I observed establishment of trees and shrubs on 205 reforested bottomlands: 133 sites were planted primarily with oak species (Quercus spp.), 60 sites were planted with pulpwood producing species (Populus deltoides, Liquidambar styraciflua, or Platanus occidentalis), and 12 sites were not planted (i.e., passive regeneration). Although oak sites were planted with more species, sites planted with pulpwood species were more rapidly colonized by additional species. The density of naturally colonizing species exceeded that of planted species but density of invaders decreased rapidly with distance from forest edge. Trees were shorter in height on sites planted with oaks than on sites planted with pulpwood species but within a site, planted trees attained greater heights than did colonizing species. Thus, planted trees dominated the canopy of reforested sites as they matured. Planted species acted in concert with natural invasion to influence the current condition of woody vegetation on reforested sites. Cluster analysis of species importance values distinguished three woody vegetation conditions: (1) Populus deltoides stands (2) oak stands with little natural invasion by other tree species, and (3) stands dominated by planted or naturally invading species other than oaks. Increased diversity on reforested sites would likely result from (a) greater diversity of planted species, particularly when sites are far from existing forest edges and (b) thinning of planted trees as they attain closed canopies.

  11. Field testing of the FMC ft-180ca in appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A new FMC steel-tracked skidder was used to haul pulpwood and sawlogs to landings in a clear-felled area in Virginia. An average skid of 363.6 m took 14.9 minutes, wtih an average volume of 2.9 cubic m. The main advantage of the skidder is its ability to operate on steep slopes (here with an uphill gradient of up to 44%) with minumium effect on the skid road. Analysis indicated an hourly cost of $49.58 ($5.93/cubic m).

  12. Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In terms of volume of wood used, pulp mills dominate Wisconsin's forest industry, but sawmills far outnumber any other category. There were 323 mills of all types operating in Wisconsin in 1990. Wisconsin is divided into five Survey Units. Industrial roundwood production rose from 328.7 million cubic feet in 1988 to 342.6 million cubic feet in 1990. Pulpwood accounted for 66 percent of the industrial roundwood production in 1990. In 1990, 83 percent of the total growing-stock removals due to harvest came from aspen, red oak, hard maple, red pine, white birch, jack pine, and soft maple.

  13. Profile of the lumber and wood products industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The lumber and wood products industry includes establishments engaged in cutting timber and pulpwood; sawmills, lath mills, shingle mills, cooperage stock mills (wooden casks or tubs), planing mills, plywood mills; and establishments engaged in manufacturing finished articles made entirely or mainly of wood or related materials such as reconstituted wood panel products manufacturers. The categorization corresponds to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 24 established by Department of Commerce`s Bureau of the Census to track the flow of goods and services within the economy. In this profile, the industry`s processes are divided into four general groups: logging timber; producing lumber; panel products and wood preserving.

  14. Grand Marais Harbor, Cook County, Minnesota, Operation and Maintenance Activities, Environment Assessment Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    the Ojibway, who called the harbor "great pond". Later the French voyageurs gave the harbor the name it now carries. Interpreted literally, Grand...Marais means "great swamp" but in the special vocabu- lary of the voyageurs , "usrais" referred to a harbor-of-refuge or a protected cove. " 2.621 The...total commerce for Grand Marais Harbor consisted of logs and pulpwood. Commerce reached a peak of over 78,000 tons in 1958, then diminished somewhat

  15. History of Prisoner of War Utilization by the United States Army, 1776-1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-06-24

    Md. 33 3. Nazi Prisoners of War Arriving in New York __---------125 4. Prisoners of War Employed at a Paper Mill in Texas --------- 132 5. Prisoners of...for an em- ployment program. A farmer in Texas wanted to use a "few thou- sand" to plant crops.4 3 In California, the Inyo Good Road Club and the...to Col C. S. Urwiller, Asst Dir, PW Div, 23 Jun 44, sub: Memorandum on Prisoner of War pulpwood operations in Lufkin , Tex., area. PMGO 253.5 Gen. P/W#2

  16. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Lamers, Patrick; Jacobson, Jacob; Mohammad, Roni; Wright, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  17. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  18. Quantifying logging residue - before the fact

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Tree biomass estimation, which is being integrated into the U.S. Forest Service Renewable Resources Evaluation Program, will give foresters the ability to estimate the amount of logging residues they might expect from harvested treetops and branches and residual rough, rotten, and small trees before the actual harvest. With planning, and increased demand for such timber products as pulpwood and fuelwood, product recovery could be increased by up to 43 percent in softwood stands and 99% in hardwoods. Recovery levels affect gross product receipts and site preparation costs. An example of product recovery and residue generation is presented for three harvesting options in Pennsylvania hardwood stands. Under the whole-tree harvesting option, 46% more product was recovered than in single product harvesting, and logging residue levels were reduced by 58%.

  19. Timber assessment market model (1993): Structure, projections and policy simulations. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.M.; Haynes, R.W.

    1996-11-01

    The 1993 timber assessment market model (TAMM) is a spatial model of the solid-wood and timber inventory elements of the U.S. forest products sector. The TAMM model provides annual projections of volumes and prices in the solidwood products and sawtimber stumpage markets and estimates of total timber harvest and inventory by geographic region for periods of up to 50 years. TAMM and its companion models that project pulpwood and fuelwood use were developed to support the quinquennial Resource Planning Act (RPA) timber assessments and assessment updates conducted by the USDA Forest Service. The report summaries the methods used to develop the various components of TAMM and the estimates of key behavioral parameters used in the TAMM structure, and also illustrates the use of TAMM with a base and several scenario projections.

  20. The technician's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Rechlin, M. )

    1993-06-01

    This article is a practical approach for Third World education from a technician's perspective on the problems of international development. Forestry technician schools should become involved in international forestry development. The major example presented in this paper is the Nepal Institute of Forestry. Historically, professional foresters in Nepal were interested in managing Nepal's forests for timber and pulpwood while villagers were interested in fuelwoods and fodder. To effectively train foresters for new jobs in which they provide advice to villagers who make forest management decisions, both the cirriculum and resulting education have to be very different. But in addition teachers have to be reeducated and textbooks, lab manuals, and field exercises must be changed. Projects such as forestry management in Nepal could prove more effective if they combined research skills and problem-solving approaches of a university with the technical perspective and applied orientation of a forestry technician school.

  1. Electrical impedance spectroscopy device for measurement of moisture gradients in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiitta, M.; Olkkonen, H.

    2002-08-01

    A prototype of the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) device for the measurement of internal moisture gradients in wood was developed. The EIS device consists of a hand-held probe connected to a control unit interfaced with a portable personal computer and a power unit. In the measurement, parallel flat electrodes of the measuring probe are laid against the wood specimen and the sine wave excitation is applied in the frequency range 1-100 kHz. The measured amplitude and phase spectral data were analyzed using the model based on constant phase elements. A spectral analysis software package was designed for measurement of subsurface transverse moisture gradients. The EIS device was tested with many types of uniform, desorption, and absorption gradients in lumber, pulpwood, and log specimens from spruce, pine, and birch. The EIS device can be easily transferred in a small case allowing field measurements.

  2. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  3. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-08

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo's old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  4. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  5. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  6. 20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of the Champion International Company which make paper on which the National Geographic Magazine is printed are located in Lawrence, Mass. This picture shows great piles of pulp-wood ready for conversion into paper for the The Geographic. Parts of these wood piles are more than 50 feet high. The cars shown in the picture are on a trestle 21 feet high. The Geographic magazines mailed in a single year, if laid side by side, would reach from Quito, Ecuador, across Colombia and Caribbean, thence across the United States and Canada, through the North Pole, and across Siberia, China, and Siam to Bangkok. It takes 33,000 miles of wrappers to mail one year's edition. It would require a bookshelf more than three and a half miles long to hold all the copies of this month's issue of The Geographic. (p.235.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  7. Anthropogenic deforestation, El Niño and the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Chua, Beng Hui; Wang, Chew Wen

    2002-06-01

    In late 1998, a novel paramyxovirus named Nipah virus, emerged in Malaysia, causing fatal disease in domestic pigs and humans with substantial economic loss to the local pig industry. Pteropid fruitbats have since been identified as a natural reservoir host. Over the last two decades, the forest habitat of these bats in Southeast Asia has been substantially reduced by deforestation for pulpwood and industrial plantation. In 1997/1998, slash-and-burn deforestation resulted in the formation of a severe haze that blanketed much of Southeast Asia in the months directly preceding the Nipah virus disease outbreak. This was exacerbated by a drought driven by the severe 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. We present data suggesting that this series of events led to a reduction in the availability of flowering and fruiting forest trees for foraging by fruitbats and culminated in unprecedented encroachment of fruitbats into cultivated fruit orchards in 1997/1998. These anthropogenic events, coupled with the location of piggeries in orchards and the design of pigsties allowed transmission of a novel paramyxovirus from its reservoir host to the domestic pig and ultimately to the human population.

  8. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; Langholtz, Matthew; Brandt, Craig; Downing, Mark; Wright, Lynn; Skog, Kenneth; Hellwinckel, Chad; Stokes, Bryce; Lebow, Patricia

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removal from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-12-04

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-01-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora. PMID:26690126

  11. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  12. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; ...

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removalmore » from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.« less

  13. User's manual for the TVA lumber yield and value program (LYVP). Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.P.

    1982-11-01

    The Lumber Yield and Value Program (LYVP) is complementary to the Inventory Processor. (See: A User's Manual for the TVA Forest Inventory Program, July 1979, Station Bulletin No. 230). Many of the inputs needed for the Inventory Processor are also used by LYVP. Tree grade must be supplied for LYVP, but is optional for the Inventory Processor. Data on pulpwood observations, pine sawtimber, cull trees, and growth projections are ignored by LYVP, but may be necessary for compatibility with the Inventory Processor. Output tables predict board foot volume and dollar value by species and lumber grade. Summary data are presented on both tract and per-acre basis as well as for the entire sampling unit. The lumber yields expressed in LYVP are functions of species, d.b.h. merchantable height, and tree grade; therefore, some of the inputs used for the Inventory Processor such as log rule and form class are not needed when LYVP is used independently. Lumber prices used in LYVP calculations to predict lumber values may be obtained from any reliable source. Prices used by TVA are from the Hardwood Market Report and reflect lumber values for air dried, carload lots. Stumpage prices should not be used in any LYVP calculations.

  14. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands

    PubMed Central

    Murdiyarso, D.; Hergoualc’h, K.; Verchot, L. V.

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO2 per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO2 per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N2O emissions compared to CO2 losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

  15. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  16. Peatland simulator connecting drainage, nutrient cycling, forest growth, economy and GHG efflux in boreal and tropical peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauren, Ari; Hökkä, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Palviainen, Marjo; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    Forest growth in peatlands is nutrient limited; principal source of nutrients is the decomposition of organic matter. Excess water decreases O2 diffusion and slows down the nutrient release. Drainage increases organic matter decomposition, CO2 efflux, and nutrient supply, and enhances the growth of forest. Profitability depends on costs, gained extra yield and its allocation into timber assortments, and the rate of interest. We built peatland simulator Susi to define and parameterize these interrelations. We applied Susi-simulator to compute water and nutrient processes, forest growth, and CO2 efflux of forested drained peatland. The simulator computes daily water fluxes and storages in two dimensions for a peatland forest strip located between drainage ditches. The CO2 efflux is made proportional to peat bulk density, soil temperature and O2 availability. Nutrient (N, P, K) release depends on decomposition and peat nutrient content. Growth limiting nutrient is detected by comparing the need and supply of nutrients. Increased supply of growth limiting nutrient is used to quantify the forest growth response to improved drainage. The extra yield is allocated into pulpwood and sawlogs based on volume of growing stock. The net present values of ditch cleaning operation and the gained extra yield are computed under different rates of interest to assess the profitability of the ditch cleaning. The hydrological sub-models of Susi-simulator were first parameterized using daily water flux data from Hyytiälä SMEAR II-site, after which the predictions were tested against independent hydrologic data from two drained peatland forests in Southern Finland. After verification of the hydrologic model, the CO2 efflux, nutrient release and forest growth proportionality hypothesis was tested and model performance validated against long-term forest growth and groundwater level data from 69 forested peatland sample plots in Central Finland. The results showed a clear relation between

  17. In vitro propagation of Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis.

    PubMed

    Monteuuis, Olivier; Galiana, Antoine; Goh, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis hybrids have gained an increasing interest in reafforestation programs under the humid tropical conditions, mainly for pulpwood production. This is due to their impressive growth on acid and degraded soils, as well as their capability to restore soil fertility thanks to their natural nitrogen-fixing ability. It is crucial to develop efficient methods for improving the genetic quality and the mass production of the planting stocks of these species. In this regard, in vitro micropropagation is well suited to overcome the limitations of more conventional techniques for mass propagating vegetatively selected juvenile, mature, or even transgenic genotypes. Micropropagation of A. mangium either from seeds or from explants collected from outdoors is initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA. Microshoot cultures produced by axillary budding are further developed and maintained by regular subcultures every 60 days onto fresh MS culture medium added with 2.2 μM BA + 0.1 μM NAA. This procedure enhances the organogenic capacity for shoot multiplication by axillary budding, with average multiplication rates of 3-5 every 2 months, as well as for adventitious rooting. The rooting is initiated on Schenk and Hildebrandt culture medium containing 4 μM IAA. The maintenance of shoot cultures in total darkness for 3 weeks increases the rooting rates reaching more than 70%. The hybrid A. mangium × A. auriculiformis genotypes are subcultured at 2-month intervals with an average multiplication rate of 3 and rooting rates of 95-100% on a half-strength MS basal medium containing 1.1 μM NAA. The rooted microshoots are transferred to ex vitro controlled conditions for acclimatization and further growth, prior to transfer to the field, or use as stock plants for cost-effective and true-to-type mass production by rooted cuttings.

  18. Down-regulation of Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase (LlCCR) gene induces significant changes in phenotype, soluble phenolic pools and lignin in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Prashant, S; Srilakshmi Sunita, M; Pramod, S; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Anil Kumar, S; Rao Karumanchi, S; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2011-12-01

    cDNA and genomic clones of cinnamoyl CoA reductase measuring 1011 and 2992 bp were isolated from a leguminous pulpwood tree Leucaena leucocephala, named as LlCCR. The cDNA exhibited 80-85% homology both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with other known sequences. The genomic sequence contained five exons and four introns. Sense and antisense constructs of LlCCR were introduced in tobacco plants to up and down-regulate this key enzyme of lignification. The primary transformants showed a good correlation between CCR transcript levels and its activity. Most of the CCR down-regulated lines displayed stunted growth and development, wrinkled leaves and delayed senescence. These lines accumulated unusual phenolics like ferulic and sinapic acids in cell wall. Histochemical staining suggested reduction in aldehyde units and increased syringyl over guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin. Anatomical studies showed thin walled, elongated xylem fibres, collapsed vessels with drastic reduction of secondary xylem. The transmission electron microscopic studies revealed modification of ultrastructure and topochemical distribution of wall polysaccharides and lignin in the xylem fibres. CCR down-regulated lines showed increased thickness of secondary wall layers and poor lignification of S2 and S3 wall layers. The severely down-regulated line AS17 exhibited 24.7% reduction of Klason lignin with an increase of 15% holocellulose content. Contrarily, the CCR up-regulated lines exhibited robust growth, development and significant increase in lignin content. The altered lignin profiles observed in transgenic tobacco lines support a role for CCR down-regulation in improving wood properties of L. leucocephala exclusively used in the pulp and paper industry of India.

  19. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  20. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr‑1, with a range of 132–159 Mt C yr‑1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr‑1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr‑1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr‑1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  1. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  2. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  3. Age-related trends in genetic parameters for Larix kaempferi and their implications for early selection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) has been introduced in China at the end of the 19th century, and as one successful exotic species, is becoming the preferred coniferous in northern China and sub-tropical alpine region. The rotation age is about 25-28 years for L. kaempferi as pulpwood in Henan province. Waiting for even one-half rotation age for final evaluation will be inefficient due to accumulated testing costs and delayed return on investment, which suggests that selection at an early age is highly desirable for L. kaempferi improvement programs in Henan province. In this study, we determined age trends of genetic parameters and evaluated early selection efficiency for L. kaempferi in Henan province to find out the appropriate trait for early selection and its selection age. Results Growth traits of 78 clones were measured periodically from age 2 to age 15 in a clonal trial of Larix kaempferi establishted at Son town, Henan Province. The genetic variation among clones, age-age correlations, and age trends in genetic parameters for growth traits were analyzed. Variant analysis revealed that tree height (HGT) and diameter at breast (DBH) were significant (1% level) among clones at every ages. The clonal repeatability of growth traits varied year-by-year, reaching the highest levels at different ages for different traits (0.77 at age 2 for HGT, 0.70 at age 5 for DBH and 0.66 from age 8 to age 10 for volume, respectively). The age-age genetic correlations ranged from 0.904 to 1.000 for HGT, and from 0943 to 1.000 for DBH. DBH at different ages was more genetically correlated to volume-15 than HGT. At the phenotypic level, HGT was always less correlated to volume-15 than DBH. With the estimates of efficiencies of early selection, the recommendation from present study was that the optimum age of early selection was age 2 for HGT and age 5 for DBH. Conclusions Our study showed that there were significant (1% level) on growth traits among clones at every

  4. Oxygen Depletion and Formation of Toxic Gases following Sea Transportation of Logs and Wood Chips

    PubMed Central

    Svedberg, Urban; Petrini, Caroline; Johanson, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Several recent accidents with fatal outcomes occurring during discharge of logs and wood chips from ships in Swedish ports indicate the need to better understand the atmospheric conditions in holds and connecting stairways. The principal aim of the present study was to assess the air levels of oxygen and toxic gases in confined spaces following sea transportation of logs and wood chips. The focus of the study was the conditions in the stairways, as this was the location of the reported accidents. Forty-one shipments of logs (pulpwood) and wood chips carried by 10 different ships were investigated before discharge in ports in northern Sweden. A full year was covered to accommodate variations due to seasonal temperature changes. The time from completion of loading to discharge was estimated to be 37–66 h (mean 46 h). Air samples were collected in the undisturbed air of altogether 76 stairways before the hatch covers were removed. The oxygen level was measured on-site by handheld direct-reading multi-gas monitors. On 16 of the shipments, air samples were additionally collected in Tedlar® bags for later analysis for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mean oxygen level was 10% (n = 76) but in 17% of the samples the oxygen level was 0%. The oxygen depletion was less pronounced during the cold season. The mean CO2 and CO levels were 7.5% (n = 26) and 46 p.p.m. (n = 28), respectively. More than 90% of the hydrocarbons were explained by monoterpenes, mainly α-pinene (mean 41 p.p.m., (n = 26). In conclusion, the measurements show that transport of logs and wood chips in confined spaces may result in rapid and severe oxygen depletion and CO2 formation. Thus, apparently harmless cargoes may create potentially life-threatening conditions. The oxygen depletion and CO2 formation are seemingly primarily caused by microbiological activity, in contrast to the oxidative processes with higher CO formation that

  5. Oxygen depletion and formation of toxic gases following sea transportation of logs and wood chips.

    PubMed

    Svedberg, Urban; Petrini, Caroline; Johanson, Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    Several recent accidents with fatal outcomes occurring during discharge of logs and wood chips from ships in Swedish ports indicate the need to better understand the atmospheric conditions in holds and connecting stairways. The principal aim of the present study was to assess the air levels of oxygen and toxic gases in confined spaces following sea transportation of logs and wood chips. The focus of the study was the conditions in the stairways, as this was the location of the reported accidents. Forty-one shipments of logs (pulpwood) and wood chips carried by 10 different ships were investigated before discharge in ports in northern Sweden. A full year was covered to accommodate variations due to seasonal temperature changes. The time from completion of loading to discharge was estimated to be 37-66 h (mean 46 h). Air samples were collected in the undisturbed air of altogether 76 stairways before the hatch covers were removed. The oxygen level was measured on-site by handheld direct-reading multi-gas monitors. On 16 of the shipments, air samples were additionally collected in Tedlar bags for later analysis for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mean oxygen level was 10% (n = 76) but in 17% of the samples the oxygen level was 0%. The oxygen depletion was less pronounced during the cold season. The mean CO2 and CO levels were 7.5% (n = 26) and 46 p.p.m. (n = 28), respectively. More than 90% of the hydrocarbons were explained by monoterpenes, mainly alpha-pinene (mean 41 p.p.m., (n = 26). In conclusion, the measurements show that transport of logs and wood chips in confined spaces may result in rapid and severe oxygen depletion and CO(2) formation. Thus, apparently harmless cargoes may create potentially life-threatening conditions. The oxygen depletion and CO(2) formation are seemingly primarily caused by microbiological activity, in contrast to the oxidative processes with higher CO formation that

  6. Nest survival of forest birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    vimns, 7%), eastern towhee (14%), indigo bunting (14%), and northern cardinal (17%) did not differ from nest success in cottonwood plantations that were coppiced from root sprouts following pulpwood harvest. Within bottomland hardwood forests, uneven-aged group-selection timber harvest reduced the combined daily nest survival of all species from 0.958 to 0.938, which reduced nest success by about 14%. Specifically, timber harvest reduced nest success of species that nest in the forest midstory and canopy, such as Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)--from 32% before harvest to 14% after harvest. Conversely, those species that nest primarily in the shrubby understory--such as northern cardinal--were not affected by timber harvest and maintained an overall nest success of about 33%. Thus, birds nesting in the understory of bottomland hardwood forests are not adversely impacted by selective timber harvest, but there is a short-term reduction in nest success for birds that nest in the canopy and midstory.

  7. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning