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Sample records for pulpwood

  1. Pulpwood - 1976

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1977-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material. Cross-boundary shipments are traced by exchanging information with neighboring experiment stations that conduct similar canvasses. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing insulation board and hardboard were...

  2. Southern pulpwood production, 1997

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    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, the South's production of pulpwood increased 11 percent to 75.9 million cords. Roundwood production increased to 54.2 million cords and accounted for 71 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue increased to 21.7 million cords. Alabama leads the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity. Currently, 103 mills...

  3. Southern pulpwood production, 1994

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    Tony G. Johnson; Michael Howell

    1996-01-01

    The South's production of pulpwood increased 2 percent to 68.5 million cords. Roundwood production increased to 47.8 million cords and accounted for 70 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of residue increased 3 percent to 20.7 million cords. Alabama leads the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity. Currently 104 mills'...

  4. Southern pulpwood production, 1995

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, the South's production of pulpwood increased 6 percent to 72.7 million cords. Roundwood production increased to 52.0 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 20.7 million cords. Alabama leads the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity. Currently, 105...

  5. Southern pulpwood production, 1999

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the South's production of pulpwood declined 5 percent to 71.1 million cords. Roundwood production dropped to 49.2 million cords and accounted for 69 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 21.9 million cords. Alabama continues to lead the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity....

  6. Southern pulpwood production, 1996

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the South's production of pulpwood decreased 6 percent to 68.5 million cords. Roundwood production decreased to 49.6 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined to 19.0 million cords. Alabama leads the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity. Currently, 105 mills...

  7. Southern pulpwood production, 1998

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, the South's production of pulpwood declined 2 percent to 74.7 million cords. Roundwood production dropped to 52.7 million cords and accounted for 71 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue increased to 21.9 million cords. Alabama leads the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity. Currently, 103 mills are...

  8. Southern pulpwood production, 1961

    Treesearch

    Vernon L. Robinson; Agnes C. Nichols

    1962-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production reached 24,230,728 cords in 1961--60 percent of the Nations total. Significant increases were noted in the consumption of hardwood and residues. But pine roundwood remained virtually unchanged for the third consecutive year.

  9. Southern pulpwood production, 1981

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1982-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production has remained almost constant for the past 3 years. In 1981, production totaled 54.3 million cords with softwood roundwood accounting for about 50 percent, hardwood roundwood 18 percent, and mill byproducts 32 percent.

  10. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1992

    Treesearch

    Patrick E. Miller

    1994-01-01

    The average price in the Midsouth for a cord of roundwood pulpwood increased 5.1 percent from $56.39 in 1991 to $59.29 in 1992. The average delivered price for a green ton of chipped residues was $27.30, an increase of 6.1 percent. In 1992, expenditures for Midsouth pulpwood increased 14.0 percent to $2.2 million. Real prices continued to rise for both softwood and...

  11. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1988

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, the average price per cord of Midsouth roundwood pulpwood was $49.21, an increase of approximately 4 percent since 1987. The average price per green ton of chipped residues fell 3 percent to $20.99. The total expenditure by Midsouth pulpmills for pulpwood increased about one-half percent to $1,569 million in 1988. However, the real prices, in terms of...

  12. Southern pulpwood production, 2005

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2007-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production was 64.0 million cords in 2005, up from 63.8 million cords in 2004. Roundwood production declined 2 percent to 46.2 million cords in 2005 and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue increased 6 percent to 17.8 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.2 million cords. In 2005,...

  13. Southern pulpwood production, 2002

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2004-01-01

    In 2002, the South's production of pulpwood showed a slight increase: from 63.5 million cords in 2001 to 63.8 million cords. Roundwood production dropped to 42.1 million cords and accounted for 66 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue increased 2 percent to 21.7 million cords. Alabama continued to lead the South in total production and...

  14. Southern pulpwood production, 2001

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2003-01-01

    In 2001, the South’s production of pulpwood declined 5 percent to 63.5 million cords. Roundwood production dropped to 42.3 million cords and accounted for 67 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined 5 percent to 21.2 million cords. Alabama continued to lead the South in total production and number of mills. In 2001, 94 mills were...

  15. Southern pulpwood production, 2000

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the South’s production of pulpwood declined 6 percent to 66.6 million cords. Roundwood production dropped to 44.4 million cords and accounted for 67 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue increased 2 percent to 22.3 million cords. Alabama continued to lead the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity. In 2000...

  16. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1987

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the average price per cord of Midsouth pulpwood was $47.47, an increase of less than 1 percent from the 1988 price. The average price per green ton of chipped residues decreased less than 1 percent to $2164. The average price of other residues remained at $10.25 per green ton. The total expenditure for pulpwood in the Midsouth increased approximately 1...

  17. Southern pulpwood production, 2011

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2013-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood declined from 65.5 million cords in 2010 to 62.7 million cords in 2011. Roundwood production decreased by 878,000 cords to 50.1 million cords and accounted for 80 percent of the South’s total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 14 percent to 12.6 million cords in 2011. Georgia and Alabama led the South in total...

  18. Southern pulpwood production, 2003

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2005-01-01

    The South’s production of pulpwood declined from 63.8 million cords in 2002 to 61.3 million cords in 2003. Roundwood production increased 5 percent to 44.3 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue dropped 22 percent to 17.0 million cords. Georgia led the South in total production at 9.7 million cords. In 2003...

  19. Southern pulpwood production, 1970

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beltz

    1971-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production climbed to 42,152,410 cords in 1970, exceeding last year’s record by 3 percent. This increase is smaller than those of recent years. Pulping capacity also rose 3 percent to 83,316 tons per day, and four mills are currently under construction. Of the 119 mills processing southern pulpwood, 107 were located within the region.

  20. Southern pulpwood production, 2004

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, the South's production of pulpwood increased from 61.3 million cords in 2003 to 63.8 million cords. Roundwood production increased 6 percent to 47.0 million cords and accounted for 74 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined 1 percent to 16.8 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.2 million cords....

  1. Southern pulpwood production, 2006

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Carolyn D. Steppleton

    2008-01-01

    The South's production of pulpwood increased from 64.0 million cords in 2005 to 64.7 million cords in 2006. Roundwood production increased 123,300 cords to 46.3 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue increased 3 percent to 18.3 million cords. Alabama led the South in total production at 10.5 million...

  2. Southern pulpwood production, 1986

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, Southern pulpwood production increased 6 percent, to 60.6 million cords; roundwood production increased 9 percent, to 40.4 million cords; and wood residue production increased 2 percent, to 20.1 million cords. Since 1977, roundwood production has been increasing while wood residue production has leveled off. Hardwoods have been capturing a larger proportion...

  3. Southern pulpwood production, 1977

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Bellamy

    1978-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production increased 3 percent in 1977 to 48.9 million cords. Roundwood production increased slightly while use of plant byproducts rose 9 percent. The use of plant byproducts continues to increase and now contributes 34 percent of the total. Pulping capacity increased to 100,894 tons per day.

  4. Southern pulpwood production, 1960

    Treesearch

    Joe F. Christopher; E. Martha Nelson

    1961-01-01

    1960's Pulpwood harvest in the south reached an all-time high of 23.551.000 cords-57 percent of the Nation's total. At year's end. the South had 81 pulpmills with a total daily capacity of more than 50.000 tons. Seven mills outside the South also were using wood grown within the region.

  5. Southern pulpwood production, 1972

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1973-01-01

    The South harvested a record 44,279,487 cords of pulpwood in 1972. Roundwood and residue use expanded in both softwoods and hardwoods for a total gain of 6 percent over 1971. Daily pulping capacity of the region's 109 mills was 88,124 tons, an increase of 1 percent.

  6. Southern pulpwood production, 1985

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1987-01-01

    Total pulpwood production in the South declined 3 percent since 1984. After a record high of 58.7 million cords in 1984, only 56.9 million cords were produced during a 1985 (Table 1). Production \\tof softwood roundwood, hardwood roundwood and hardwood resudiues declined, whereas production of softwood residues remained constant. Three pulpmills closed during the year,...

  7. Southern pulpwood production, 1979

    Treesearch

    Thomas R. Bellamy; Cecil C. Hutchins

    1979-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the South rose a modest 7 percent in 1979 to 54 million cords. Of the increase, 55 percent was from roundwood and 45 percent was from plant byproducts. Pulping capacity of the 115 mills in the South also rose 7 percent to over 110,000 tons per day.

  8. Southern pulpwood production, 1974

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1975-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production in 1974 reached a record high of 49,102,144 cords, a 4-percent increase over the previous year. Daily pulping capacity at the 114 southern pulpmills rose 3 per- cent to 94,982 tons; the increase resulted from expansion of existing facilities and the opening of three new mills.

  9. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Treesearch

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  10. Southern pulpwood production, 1987

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1989-01-01

    More than 62 million cords of pulpwood were consumed by 106 pulpmills operating in the South during 1987. This was a 3-percent increase over 1986. Mill capacity increased by almost 3 percent to 123,189 tons per day. One pulpmill was added during 1987 and one was under construction.

  11. Southern pulpwood production, 1976

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1977-01-01

    Total southern pulpwood production in 1976 amounted to 47.4 million cords (table 1). This is an increase of 5 million cords or 12 percent more than the previous year and less than 2 million cords below the 1974 record output. Softwood residues accounted for 52 percent of the increase, and hardwood roundwood added another 22 percent to the total gain.

  12. Southern pulpwood production, 1990

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage; Patrick E. Miller

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, Southern pulpwood production exceeded 65 million cords, roundwood production increased 9 percent to 45.6 million cords, and wood residue production increased 2 percent to 19.4 million cords. The pulping capacity of the 103 Southern pulpmills was 129,290 tons per day. One pulpmill was under construction.

  13. Southern pulpwood production, 1992

    Treesearch

    Patrick E. Miller

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, southern pulpwood production increased 4 percent to 67.9 million cords. Roundwood production increased 1 percent to 47.3 million cords, and wood residue production increased 12 percent to 20.7 million cords. One pulpmill changed processes, reducing the number to 103. The pulping capacity of the 103 southern pulpmills was 133,400 tons per day. No new...

  14. Southern pulpwood production, 1963

    Treesearch

    Herbert Knight; Agnes C. Nicholas

    1964-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south climbed to a fifth consecutive all-time high of 26,590,997 cords in 1963-60 percent of the nation's total. At year's end, the 81 southern pulpmills had a daily pulping capacity exceeding 54,000 tons. Nine additional mills from outside the region drew wood from the south in 1963.

  15. Southern pulpwood production, 1980

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1980-01-01

    Total southern pulpwood production in 1980 was 54.5 million cords, an amount comparable to the 54.3 million cords reported in 1979. This slower growth is in marked contrast to the 3 to 12 percent growth which occurred in the years since 1975 (fig. 1). Softwood roundwood continues to be the most important contributor to annual production.

  16. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1989

    Treesearch

    John S. Vissage

    1992-01-01

    In 1989, the average delivered price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $49.92, an increase of less than 2 percent since 1988. The average delivered price for a green ton of chipped residues increased about 3 percent to $21.70. The total pulpwood expenditure for Midsouth pulpmills increased about 6 percent to $1,658.5 million in 1989. In terms of 1980 dollars,...

  17. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1990

    Treesearch

    Patrick E. Miller

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the average delivered price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $52.95, an increase of 5.7 percent since 1989. The average delivered price for a green ton of chipped residues increased about 3.7 percent to $22.51. The total pulpwood expenditure for Midsouth pulpmills increased 13 percent to $1,883 million in 1990. In terms of 1981 dollars, real prices fell...

  18. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1983

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1985-01-01

    The average price per cord for Midsouth roundwood pulpwood increased less than 1 percent to $48.38 in 1983. The average price for a green ton of chipped mill residues fell 9.3 percent to $23.34. Sawdust prices averaged $13.04 per green ton, a 42.2 percent increase over 1982 prices. Prices for rail delivery of wood fiber continue to be slightly lower than truck...

  19. Southern pulpwood production, 1967

    Treesearch

    Noel D. Cost

    1967-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south leveled off slightly in 1968 but still established another record high of 33,651,100 cords—63 percent of the Nation’s total. Significant gains were noted in the use of residues, whereas roundwood production showed a light decrease for the first time in 10 years. At the year’s end, there were 92 mills in the operation of the South with a...

  20. Southern pulpwood production, 1968

    Treesearch

    Roy C. Beltz

    1969-01-01

    Southern forests yielded 37,075,355 cords of pulpwood in 1968, shattering the 1967 record by 10 percent (fig. 1 ) . Roundwood production, which declined slightly in 1967, rose 9 percent in 1968 to 29,500,697 cords. The use of plant residues for pulp climbed 17 percent to a record 7,574,658 cord-equivalents. About 75 percent of the 3.4 million cord increase was in pine-...

  1. Southern pulpwood production, 1966

    Treesearch

    Dwane D. Van Hooser; Joe F. Christopher

    1967-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the South rose 7 percent in 1966, to 33,061,243 cords. This is the highest output on record and the ninth consecutive increase in annual production. Pine round-wood accounted for 57 percent of the increase, and residues or byproducts from other wood-using industries, 26 percent. The remainder was due to an increase in the harvest of hard-wood...

  2. Southern pulpwood production, 1964

    Treesearch

    Joe F. Christopher

    1965-01-01

    In 1964, for the sixth consecutive year, pulpwood production in the South established a new record. Gains in 11 of the 12 States raised the total 8 percent above that of 1963. The cordage increases were largest in Alabama and Georgia. These two States also led in volume harvested; together they accounted for more than a third of the 1964 total. All but three of the...

  3. Southern pulpwood production, 1958

    Treesearch

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1959-01-01

    The pulp industry in the south is now larger than in all other parts. of the Nation combined. In the years since 1946, construction of 2S new mills and the expansion of existing mills has more than doubled plant capacity. The annual cut of pulpwood bolts has increased proportionately, and a new source of raw material has been developed from the coarse residues at...

  4. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1971

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1973-01-01

    An annual report based upon canvasses of pulpwood production in the Northeast, containing data about pulpwood production from roundwood in the 14 Northeastern States by counties and species groups, and pulpwood chip production from plant residues. Comparisons are made with the previous year's production data. Trends in pulpwood production for the past 9 years are...

  5. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1972

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1973-01-01

    An annual report based upon canvasses of pulpwood production in the Northeast, containing data about pulpwood production from roundwood in the 14 Northeastern States by counties and species groups, and pulpwood chip production from plant residues. Comparisons are made with the previous year's production data. Trends in pulpwood production for the past 10 years are...

  6. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1997

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Douglas M. Griffith

    1999-01-01

    This report presents data on pulpwood production and consumption for the 13 Northeastern States for 1997. Tables contain data on pulpwood production and consumption from roundwood by county, and pulpwood chip production from manufacturing residues by state. Trends in pulpwood production are shown graphically.

  7. Weighted south-wide average pulpwood prices

    Treesearch

    James E. Granskog; Kevin D. Growther

    1991-01-01

    Weighted average prices provide a more accurate representation of regional pulpwood price trends when production volumes valy widely by state. Unweighted South-wide average delivered prices for pulpwood, as reported by Timber Mart-South, were compared to average annual prices weighted by each state's pulpwood production from 1977 to 1986. Weighted average prices...

  8. Pulpwood production in the Northeast--1989

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Richard H. Widmann

    1991-01-01

    This annual report contains 1989 information compiled from a canvass of all pulpmills that use pulpwood produced in the 14 Northeastern states. Contains data about pulpwood production and consumption from roundwood by county and species groups, and pulpwood chip production from manufacturing residues by state. Comparisons are made with the previous year's data....

  9. The impact of Pulpwood Rail Freight Costs on the Minnesota-Wisconsin Pulpwood Market

    Treesearch

    David C. Lothner

    1976-01-01

    Transportation costs affect the marketing and utilization of pulpwood. Their impact on the procurement and utilization of pulpwood often prove difficult to measure because deriving an average annual measure of the transportation cost is difficult. This note, by means of a simple index method for measuring regional interstate pulpwood rail freight costs, illustrates...

  10. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1965

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; David R. Dickson

    1967-01-01

    Pulpwood production continued to rise in 1965, for the third straight year. Production of all forms of pulpwood in the 14 Northeastern States' totaled 5,122,800 cords in 1965. By comparison, the 1964 production of pulpwood for all 14 states amounted to approximately 4,579,000 cords. The 1965 total is a gain of nearly 543,800 cords-12 percent over 1964 production...

  11. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, by county, 1969.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1970-01-01

    Presents 1969 pulpwood production and receipt data for the Lake States and Central States. Pulpwood production for the Lake State given by species for each county, and production by Forest Survey Unit is compared to that of previous years. Also discusses production and use of mixed hardwood pulpwood since 1946. For the Central States, 1969 pulpwood production and...

  12. Pulpwood Production in the Northeast: 1991, 1992 and 1993

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Richard H. Widmann

    1996-01-01

    This report contains information for the years 1991-93 compiled from canvass of all pulpmills that use pulpwood produced in the 14 Northeastern States. Included are data on pulpwood production and consumption from roundwood by county and on pulpwood chip production from manufacturing residues by state. Trends in pulpwood production are shown graphically.

  13. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1996.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    1998-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production decreased 1%--from 9.6 million cords in 1995 to 9.5 million cords in 1996. Central States pulpwood production decreased 26%--from 528 thousand cords in 1995 to 393 thousand cords in 1996. Plains States pulpwood production was 110 thousand cords, a decrease of 4% from 1995. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for...

  14. Lake States Roundwood Pulpwood Markets: A Short-Term Outlook

    Treesearch

    David C. Lothner

    1974-01-01

    Recent changes in the behavios of factors influencing the Lake States roundwood pulpwood market indicate there is potential for change within the pulpwood market. Softwood roundwood pulpwood production could increase at an annual rate of near 2 percent, while all roundwood pulpwood production could moderate to an average annual rate of near 1 percent over the short-...

  15. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    1994-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production increased to 9.4 million cords in 1993. Central States pulpwood production decreased 19%--from 356 thousand cords in 1992 to 288 thousand cords in 1993. Plains States pulpwood production was 114 thousand cords. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  16. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    1996-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production increased 4%--from 9.4 million cords to 9.7 million cords. Central States pulpwood production increased 16%--from 288 thousand cords in 1993 to 333 thousand cords in 1994. Plains States pulpwood production was 111 thousand cords. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  17. Pulpwood Production in the Northeast--1994, 1995, and 1996

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Richard H. Widmann

    1998-01-01

    This report contains information for the years 1994-96 compiled from canvass of all pulpmills that use pulpwood produced in the 13 Northeastern States. It contains data on pulpwood production and consumption from roundwood by county and on pulpwood chip production from manufacturing residues by state. Trends in pulpwood production are shown graphically.

  18. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1995.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    1996-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production decreased 2%--from 9.7 million cords in 1994 to 9.6 million cords in 1995. Central States pulpwood production increased 59%--from 333 thousand cords in 1994 to 528 thousand cords in 1995. Plains States pulpwood production was 115 thousand cords in 1995, an increase of 4% from 1994. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species...

  19. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1964

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley

    1967-01-01

    This is a report on the second in a series of annual surveys of pulpwood production in the 12 Northeastern States - Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and West Virginia.

  20. Pulpwood production in the Northeast--1986

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Richard H. Widmann

    1988-01-01

    This annual report contains 1986 information compiled from a canvass of all pulpmills that use pulpwood produced in the 14 Northeastern states. In 1986 total production reached 8,952,400 cords. This was up by 2 percent since 1985. Roundwood production was 6,602,400 cords whereas pulpwood from residues was 2,350,000 cords. Each of these increased from the previous year...

  1. Pulpwood Production in the Lake States, by County, 1978

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1979-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the Lake States - Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin - advances from 4.74 million cords in 1977 to 4.91 millions cords in 1978. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for these three States

  2. Pulpwood Production in the Lake States by County, 1973

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1974-01-01

    This 28th annual report shows 1973 pulpwood production by county and species group in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Lake States pulpwood production rose to 4.7 million cords in 1973 from 4.3 million cords in 1972.

  3. Pulpwood production in the north central region by county, 1977.

    Treesearch

    James E Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1979-01-01

    Discusses 1977 pulpwood production and receipts and recent production in the Lake States and Central States. Shows pulpwood production in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1977 pulpwood production and receipts data by state for Central...

  4. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by county, 1974.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses 1974 pulpwood production and receipts and recent production trends in the Lake States and Central States. Gives pulpwood production in the Lake States by species for each county, and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. For the Central States, presents 1974 pulpwood production and receipt data by state, and shows four...

  5. Pulpwood production in the north central region by county, 1976.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1978-01-01

    Discusses 1976 pulpwood production and receipts and recent production in the Lake States and Central States. Shows pulpwood production in the Lake States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1976 pulpwood production and receipts data by state for the Central...

  6. Time series analysis of monthly pulpwood use in the Northeast

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones

    1980-01-01

    Time series analysis was used to develop a model that depicts pulpwood use in the Northeast. The model is useful in forecasting future pulpwood requirements (short term) or monitoring pulpwood-use activity in relation to past use patterns. The model predicted a downturn in use during 1980.

  7. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1991.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; Ronald L. Piva

    1993-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production increased to 8.6 million cords. Central States pulpwood production dropped about 9% from 374 thousand cords in 1990 to 339 thousand cords in 1991. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana.

  8. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, by county, 1968.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1969-01-01

    This report presents 1968 pulpwood production and receipt data for the Lake States and Central States. Pulpwood production for the Lake States is given by species for each county, and 1968 production by Forest Survey Unit is compared to that of previous years. For the Central States, 1968 pulpwood production and receipt data are presented by state, and four...

  9. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, by county, 1971.

    Treesearch

    James. E. Blyth

    1973-01-01

    Presents 1971 pulpwood and production and receipt data for the Lake States and Central States. Pulpwood production for the Lake States is given by species for each county, and production by Forest Survey Unit is compared with that of previous years. For the Central States, 1971 pulpwood production and receipt data are presented by State, and four production classes...

  10. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, by county, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1973-01-01

    Presents 1972 pulpwood production and receipt data for the Lake States and Central States. Pulpwood production for the Lake States is given by species for each county, and production by Forest Survey Unit is compared to that of previous years. For the Central States, 1972 pulpwood production and receipts data are presented by state, and four production classes are...

  11. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, 1973.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1975-01-01

    Presents 1973 pulpwood production and receipt data for the Lake States and Central States. Pulpwood production for the Lake States is given by species for each county, and production by Forest Survey Unit is compared with that of previous years. For the Central States, 1973 pulpwood production and receipt data are presented by state, and four production classes are...

  12. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, 1988.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; W. Brad Smith

    1990-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production climbed to a record 8.1 million cords. Central States pulpwood production dropped 1% from 1987's production of 403 thousand cords. Pulpwood production is shown by county and species group for Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana.

  13. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, by county, 1970.

    Treesearch

    James. E. Blyth

    1971-01-01

    Presents 1970 pulpwood production and receipt data for the Lake States and Central States. Pulpwood production for the Lake States is given by species for each county, and production by Forest Survey Unit is compared to that of previous years. For the Central States, 1970 pulpwood production and receipt data are presented by state, and four production classes are...

  14. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by county, 1975.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1977-01-01

    Discusses 1975 pulpwood production and receipts and recent production trends in the Lake States and Central States. Gives pulpwood production in the Lake States by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1975 pulpwood and receipts data by state for the Central States, and shows four production...

  15. Lake States Pulpwood Production Drops Seven Percent, 1967

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1968-01-01

    This twenty-second annual report shows the Lake States pulpwood harvest decreased to about 4 million cords from a record high of 4 1/2 million cords in 1966. Pulpwood receipts remained high in Wisconsin but decreased in Michigan and Minnesota. Minnesota shipped 106,000 cords more to Wisconsin than in 1966. As a result, only Minnesota's 1967 pulpwood production...

  16. Opportunities for pulpwood growing investment in southeastern Ohio

    Treesearch

    David A. Gansner; Edgar T. Shaudys; Edgar T. Shaudys

    1969-01-01

    Growing hardwood trees for pulpwood offers an opportunity to overcome the objections which woodland owners have to managing their timber. Pulpwood growing is a relatively short-term venture requiring minimum investments of time, capital, and technical know-how. Also, hardwood pulpwood is likely to have reliable local market outlets in southeastern Ohio for years to...

  17. Pulpwood Prices for the Midsouth, 1982

    Treesearch

    James F. Rosson

    1984-01-01

    Average prices for roundwood, chipped residues, and saw-dust rose 4 percent from 1981 to 1982. Pulpwood price increases are due to inflation as real costs have remained stable. The price for softwood roundwood is $52.89 per cord; hardwood roundwood is $39.79 per cord.

  18. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1985

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    1987-01-01

    The 1985 annual assessment of pulpwood production and receipts for the 14 states in the Northeast Region shows that production dipped 2 percent since 1984. Roundwood production decreased 3 percent or 168,900 cords, and manufacturing residues decreased 1 percent or 30,300 cord equivalents, thereby bringing total production down to 8,807,000 cords. The consumption of...

  19. Pulpwood production in the Northern Region, 2006

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    Discusses 2006 production and receipts of pulpwood in the Northern Region. Breaks down production from four subregions: Central States, Lake States, Mid-Atlantic States, and New England States, by species group for each state and compares production with that of previous years. Production for 2006 for the Plains States by species group and product form are included....

  20. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1975

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1976-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Cross-boundary shipments are traced by exchanging information with neighboring experiment stations that conduct similar canvasses. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing insulation...

  1. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1974

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1976-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Cross-boundary shipments were traced by exchanging information with neighboring experiment stations that conduct similar canvasses. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing...

  2. Pulpwood production in the northeast: 1982

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    1983-01-01

    This annual assessment of regional pulpwood production and receipts is based on a canvass of the pulpmills in the Northeast that use roundwood or wood residue as a basic raw material for paper, insulation board, and hardboard products. The report includes a discussion and tabular data on roundwood and manufacturing residues produced and received in 14 Northeastern...

  3. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1963

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley

    1966-01-01

    Because the woodpulp industry is one of the mainstays of the forest economy of the Northeastern States, the U. S. Forest Service's Northeastern Forest Experiment Station has begun an annual survey of pulpwood production in the region. This is a report on the survey completed in 1963. The main purposes of these surveys are: (1) To determine the current magnitude...

  4. Pulpwood Production in the Lake States Counties 1963

    Treesearch

    Arthur G. Horn

    1964-01-01

    This is the fifth annual report on the pulpwood harvest in the Lakes States counties. Another record in pulpwood production was established in 1963 when the Lake States cut amounted to 3,662,300 cords--10 percent larger than the previous high of 3,342,400 cords in 1962. Pulpwood from roundwood accounted for 96 percent of the total cut; the remaining 4 percent came...

  5. Pulpwood Production in the Lake States Counties 1964

    Treesearch

    Arthur G. Horn

    1965-01-01

    This is the sixth annual report on the pulpwood harvest in the Lakes States counties. The 1964 harvest of pulpwood in the Lakes States amounted to approximately 3.628,000 cords, 1 percent less than the all-time high in 1963. Ninety-six percent of the pulpwood production was roundwood, while the remaining 4 percent was wood residue supplied by local primary wood-using...

  6. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1984

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    1986-01-01

    Pulpwood production and receipts for the 14 states in the Northeast Region reached a new high in 1984 - a 5 percent (401,600 cords) increase over 1983 production brought total production up to 9,006,600 cords. Increases in both the roundwood harvest and use of manufacturing residues accounted for the record high. Roundwood production rose 318,800 cords or 5 percent to...

  7. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1983

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    1985-01-01

    This annual assessment of the pulpwood production and receipts for the 14 states in the Northeast Region shows that in 1983 total production reached 8,673,800 cords. This was up 3 percent (221,600 cords) from 1982. The roundwood portion increased by less than 1 percent to 6,330,000 cords, whereas the residue portion rose by 10 percent to 2,343,800 cord equivalents. The...

  8. 1957 Pulpwood production in the south

    Treesearch

    J.F. McCormack

    1958-01-01

    Pulpwood production in southern states during 1957 fell slightly below the 1956 level, thus reversing a strong, long-term upward trend. Total production amounted to 19,782,600 cords, a decrease of 562,300 cords, or 2.8 percent, from the 1956 record high. At the same time, the combined pulping capacity of southern mills climbed from 38,000 tons per day in 1956 to 41,000...

  9. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1970

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1971-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing insulation board and hardboard were also included in the canvass. The statistics for production from roundwood reported in this bulletin are...

  10. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1969

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1970-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either from roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing insulation board and hardboard were also included in the canvass. The production-from-roundwood statistics reported in this bulletin are...

  11. Pulpwood Prices in the Southeast, 1981

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1982-01-01

    Expenditures for pulpwood continued to rise during 1981, but rate of growth was slower than In previous years. Monies expended totaled $1,185.7 million, an 8.3 percent increase over 1980. Softwood roundwood averaged $47.15 and hardwood $35.10 per standard cord, up 7.4 and 6.7 percent. Chip prices were $22.05 for softwood and $15.50 for hardwood per qreenton,up 11.4...

  12. Pulpwood Prices in the Southeast, 1979

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1981-01-01

    Expenditures for wood fiber in the Southeast during 1979 were $960.8 million, an increase of 8.7 percent over 1978. Price per standard cord of roundwood pulpwood was $40.65for softwood, a 12.1-percent increase, and $30.40 for hardwood, an increase of 8 percent. Green chip prices per ton averaged $17.15 for softwood and $13.05 for hardwood; they increased 7.9 and 8.8...

  13. Hardwood pulpwood stumpage price trends in the northeast.

    Treesearch

    Lloyd C. Irland; Paul E. Sendak; Richard H. Widmann

    2001-01-01

    Hardwood pulpwood consumption has increased in five leading Northeastern states from 1.2 million cords in 1963 to 4.6 million cords in 1997. A shift from the reliance on softwoods has occurred and by the mid-1970s hardwood use exceeded softwood. This increases the importance of the markets for hardwood pulpwood. These five states?Maine, New Hampshire, New York,...

  14. Buying pulpwood by weight as compared with volume measure

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Taras

    1956-01-01

    During the past few years several pulp and paper companies in the Southeast have started to purchase pulpwood by weight rather thanby volume. The trend toward buying by weight is strong and getting stronger. This conversion from volume to weight measurement of pulpwood brings up many questions. For instance, is the weight basis fair to both buyer and seller? What are...

  15. Pulpwood Chip Productions and Markets in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Eugene W. Fobes

    1966-01-01

    As a major pulp and paper production area, the Lake States is a potential market for pulpwood chips. As a producer of solid wood products, it has a considerable potential for the production of pulpwood chips from coarse sawmill residues (slabs, edgings, and trim) and other sources. Only a small amount of the available residues, however, is now being utilized. In...

  16. Lake States Pulpwood Production Plummets 413,000 Cords, 1968

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1969-01-01

    This twenty-third annual report shows that the 1968 Lake States pulpwood output dropped to about 3 1/2 million cords from about 4 million cords in 1967. Michigan's roundwood harvest dropped 198,000 cords in 1968, while the Wisconsin and Minnesota harvests each fell more than 125,000 cords. Pulpwood receipts fell 1/2 million cords below the 1967 level in...

  17. Pulpwood production and consumption in the Northeast?2001

    Treesearch

    Iris C. Baker; Bruce G. Hansen; Melody S. Akers

    2005-01-01

    This study reports a decrease in pulpwood production by more than 18 percent in the 13 Northeastern states from 1997 to 2001. Pulp production comprised 6.1 million cords of roundwood and almost 1.7 million cords of wood fiber from mill residues. Consumption of pulpwood at mills in the Northeast declined about 7.5 percent during the same period, to 8.8 million cords....

  18. Trends in Pulpwood Prices in the Southeast, 1962-1969

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1970-01-01

    Average prices paid for pulpwood bolts in the Southeast increased 5 percent in 1969 over the preceding year. Prices paid for roundwood averaged $20.90 per cord for pine and $16.35 for hardwood. Prices paid for chips averaged $8.45 per ton for pine and $6.75 for hardwood. Since 1962, average prices paid for pulpwood have increased by over 25 percent. Pulpmills...

  19. Pulpwood supply and demand : development in the South, little growth elsewhere.

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Irene. Durbak

    2002-01-01

    This long-range outlook derives from analysis of pulp and paper markets and pulpwood demands for wood panels. The analysis projects modest increases in pulpwood demand beyond 2010, with decelerating growth in paper and paperboard consumption; increased demand for pulpwood in wood panels; increased imports of pulp, paper, and paperboard; and little additional growth in...

  20. Pulpwood production and consumption in the North Central Region by county, 1966.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1967-01-01

    Pulpwood production reached a peak of 4,280,000 cords in 1966 in the Lake States, 17% above the previous record cut in 1964. This paper shows pulpwood production for 1966 by county and species for each of the Lake States and compares production by species and Forest Survey District for several previous years. Also presented are data on 1966 pulpwood production and...

  1. Pulpwood production and consumption in the North Central Region, by county, 1967.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1969-01-01

    This report presents 1967 pulpwood production and receipt data for the Lake States and Central States. Pulpwood production for the Lake States is given by species for each county, and 1967 production by Forest Survey District is compared to that of previous years. For the Central States, 1967 pulpwood production and receipt data are presented by state, and four...

  2. Lake States Pulpwood Production Hampered by Adverse Weather and Labor Shortage, 1965

    Treesearch

    Arthur G. Horn

    1966-01-01

    Demand for Lake States pulpwood gained strength in 1965, but production failed to rise. Adverse weather during part of the year and a general shortage of woods labor were deterrents to a larger harvest. The total pulpwood cut was 3,636,000 cords in 1965, representing very little change over the level of the 2 previous years. The tempo of pulpwood activities started...

  3. Southern pulpwood production, 1996. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Steppleton, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    In 1996, the South`s production of pulpwood decreased 6 percent to 68.5 million cords. Roundwood production decreased to 49.6 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue declined to 19.0 million cords. Alabama leads the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity. Currently, 105 mills are operating and drawing wood from the 13 Southern States. Southern mills` pulping capacity of 137,160 tons per day accounts for more than two-thirds of the Nation`s total pulping capacity.

  4. Southern pulpwood production, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Steppleton, C.D.

    1996-09-01

    In 1995, the South`s production of pulpwood increased 6 percent to 72.7 million cords. Roundwood production increased to 52.0 million cords and accounted for 72 percent of the total pulpwood production. The use of wood residue remained stable at 20.7 million cords. Alabama leads the South in total production, number of mills, and pulping capacity. Currently, 105 mills are operating and drawing wood from the 13 Southern States. Southern mills pulping capacity of 139,315 tons per day accounts for more than two-thirds of the nation`s total pulping capacity.

  5. Pulpwood Harvesting: A Curriculum Guide. Preliminary Draft 1973.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, R. J., Ed.

    A brief introductory section contains the rationale for the course, the curriculum framework, a curriculum paradigm which indicates the approximate time ranges for each section, and notes on use of the guide. The guide itself is divided into units and subunits covering the following areas: Orientation to Pulpwood Harvesting; Tree Identification;…

  6. Pulpwood production in southern forest survey territory, 1948

    Treesearch

    Alberti L. Tofte; William S. Stover

    1949-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the seven states of Southern Forest survey territory reached another all-time high in the 1948. Total production was 5,025,900 cords, an increase of 14 percent over 1947. Each of the seven states showed an increase (table 1).

  7. 1946 Pulpwood production by county in the southeast

    Treesearch

    James W. Cruikshank

    1947-01-01

    This statistical release presents data on 1946 pulpwood production by county in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. It is the second report of this kind published by the Forest Survey at the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, the first one covering 1945 production in the Carolinas and Virginia.

  8. Southern pulpwood production, 1991. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, M.

    1993-06-01

    In 1991, Southern pulpwood production climbed 1 percent, to 65.08 million cords. Roundwood production increased 2 percent to 46.6 million cords, and wood residue production fell 5 percent to 18.4 million cords. One new pulpmill began operating in the region. Pulping capacity of the 104 southern pulpmills was 133,331 tons per day.

  9. Status and trends of U.S. pulpwood market.

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2009-01-01

    Global trends in pulp, paper, and paperboard have deeply affected U.S. pulpwood markets since the late 1990s. Global trends included a shift of growth in paper and paperboard production from North America to Europe and Asia over the past decade. This trend was associated with generally slower growth in U.S. industrial production and displacement of growth in print...

  10. Pulpwood Production in the Lake States by County, 1977

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1978-01-01

    This 32nd annual report shows 1977 pulpwood production by county and species group in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Production in these three Lake States inched ahead to 4.74 million cords from 4.69 million cords in 1976

  11. Contents of a cord of eight-foot pulpwood.

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington; Melvin P. Twerdal

    1950-01-01

    Although the pulp and paper industry of western Washington depends chiefly on logs for its wood supply, the use of pulpwood in cordwood lengths is steadily increasing. More than 75 percent of the 20 plants in the area are equipped to handle at least a part of their consumption in cordwood form. Many plants are remodeling their facilities to utilize additional wood...

  12. Pulpwood Production in the Lake States by County, 1974

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jerold T. Hahn

    1975-01-01

    This 29th annual report shows 1974 pulpwood production by county and species group in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Production in these three Lake States climbed to 5.5 million cords in 1974 from 4.7 million cords in 1973.

  13. Pulpwood Prices in the Southeast, 1963-1968

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Cathey

    1970-01-01

    Mills in the Southeast paid record prices for pulpwood in 1968; however, price increases were beiow the previous 4-year average. Prices paid in 1968 averaged $19.85 per cord for pine bolts, $15.60 per cord for hardwood bolts, $8.10 per ton for pine chips, and $6.30 per ton for hardwood chips

  14. Trends in Southern pulpwood production, 1953-1993

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson

    1996-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production has increased more than fourfold from 16.2 million cords in 1953 to 66.3 million cords in 1993. Softwood roundwood production more than doubled in the same time period; however, softwood production expressed as a proportion of the total production dramatically declined. In contrast, hardwood roundwood production and production from residues...

  15. United States pulpwood receipts : softwood and hardwood, roundwood and residues, 1950-1989

    Treesearch

    C. Denise Ingrain; Irene Durbak; Peter Ince

    1993-01-01

    This report shows pulpwood receipts at pulp mills in the United States for the period 1950-1989. It is a compilation of published and estimated data based on information from various sources, including the American Pulpwood Association, American Paper Institute, U.S. Bureau of the Census, and the USDA Forest Service. Trends are shown in the use of hardwoods compared to...

  16. United States pulpwood receipts : softwood and hardwood, roundwood and residues, 1950-1996

    Treesearch

    C. Denise. Ingram; Peter J. Ince; Ryan L. Mehlberg

    1999-01-01

    This report shows pulpwood receipts at wood pulp mills in the United States for the period 1950 to 1996. It is an update of the General Technical Report FPL1GTR173, bUnited States Pulpwood Receipts: Softwood and Hardwood, Roundwood and Residues, 195011989,c published in 1993. This report continues as a compilation of published and estimated data based on information...

  17. Future market scenarios for pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops

    Treesearch

    Alexander N. Moiseyev; Daniel G. de la Torre Ugarte; Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    The North American Pulp And Paper (NAPAP) model and USDA POLYSYS agricultural policy analysis model were linked to project future market scenarios for pulpwood supply from agricultural short-rotation woody crops in the United States. Results suggest that pulpwood supply from fast- growing hybrid poplars and cottonwoods will become marginally economical but fairly...

  18. Interstate movement of round pulpwood in the Southeast, 1981-1985

    Treesearch

    Edgar L. Davenport

    1988-01-01

    From 1981 to 1985, pulpmills in the Southeast consumed 92,7 million cords of roundwood pulpwood, 2-8 million cords more than were produced in the region. The region's peak year for production and consumption during this period was 1984, when more than 18.6 million cords were produced and consumption totaled 19.1 million cords of roundwood pulpwood. Interstate...

  19. Pulpwood resources of western Oregon and western Washington (from inventory and growth phase of forest survey).

    Treesearch

    H.J. Andrews; R.W. Cowlin; F.L. Moravets; W.H. Meyer

    1935-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given to the possibility of making the United States permanently self sufficient in its paper, pulp, and pulpwood requirements. A steady increase in consumption of paper and other wood-cellulose products, accompanied by a corresponding increase in imports of paper, pulp, and pulpwood, has aroused considerable interest in the quantity of...

  20. Pulpwood production and consumption in the North Central Region by county, 1965.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth

    1966-01-01

    Lake States pulpwood production in 1965 was 3,636,000 cords, a minor increase of 8,000 cords from 1964 and only 26,000 cords less than the record production of 1963. This paper shows pulpwood production for 1965 by county and species for each of the Lake States and compares production by species and Forest Survey District for several previous years. Also presented...

  1. Advance information on the supply of pulpwood in survey unit #1

    Treesearch

    L.F. Eldredge; Southern Forest Survey Staff

    1935-01-01

    This report presents information concerning the quantity of pulpwood in survey unit #1, Florida. The geographic location of this unit which includes twenty-one counties in the northeastern part of the state is shown in Figure 1. The boundary of the Ocala National Forest. The data given in this release are preliminary and are subject to correction and modification when...

  2. Southern pulpwood harvesting productivity and cost changes between 1979 and 1987. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, D.R.; Cubbage, F.W.; Stokes, B.J.; Jakes, P.J.

    1994-05-16

    The Southern U.S. pulpwood harvesting industry experienced substantial changes in productivity and logging costs from 1979 to 1987. The research measures physical and economic changes in southern timber harvesting and the degree of industry shifting between different levels of harvesting mechanization.

  3. Southern pulpwood harvesting productivity and cost changes between 1979 and 1987.

    Treesearch

    Douglas R. Carter; Frederick W. Cubbage; Bryce J. Stokes; Pamela J. Jakes

    1994-01-01

    The Southern U.S. pulpwood harvesting industry experienced substantial changes in productivity and logging costs from 1979 to 1987. This research measures physical and economic changes in southern timber harvesting and the degree of industry shifting between different levels of harvesting mechanization.

  4. Projecting county pulpwood production with historical production and macro-economic variables

    Treesearch

    Consuelo Brandeis; Dayton M. Lambert

    2014-01-01

    We explored forecasting of county roundwood pulpwood produc-tion with county-vector autoregressive (CVAR) and spatial panelvector autoregressive (SPVAR) methods. The analysis used timberproducts output data for the state of Florida, together with a set ofmacro-economic variables. Overall, we found the SPVAR specifica-tion produced forecasts with lower error rates...

  5. Hybrid poplar pulpwood and lumber from a reclaimed strip-mine

    Treesearch

    Walter H. Davidson

    1979-01-01

    A 2-acre hybrid poplar planting on a reclaimed strip-mine was harvested at age 16. The commercial clearcut yielded 90 tons of pulpwood and 9,400 board feet of lumber. This is equal to a growth rate of approximately 2 cords per acre per year. Selected physical properties of the hybrid poplars were compared with those of other commercial eastern species.

  6. SETs: stand evaluation tools. III. composite volume and value tables for hardwood pulpwood

    Treesearch

    Paul S. DeBald; Joseph J. Mendel

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents 38 composite volume and value tables for hardwood pulpwood. Values are given for multiples of commonly used bolt lengths - 4, 5, and 8 feet - and may be applied, generally, to standing trees of all hardwood species. The volume tables resemble closely the Lake States Composite Volume Tables, but extend them to other units of measure: cubic feet, tons...

  7. Weight-Volume relationships of Aspen and Winter-Cut Black Spruce Pulpwood in Northern Minnesota

    Treesearch

    David C. Lothner; Richard M. Marden; Edwin Kallio

    1974-01-01

    Seasonal weight-volume relationships were determined for rough (bark on) aspen and black spruce 100-inch pulpwood that was delivered withing 1 week after cutting in northern Minnesota during 1971-72. For aspen, the weight of wood and bark per cubic foot of wood averaged 56 pounds in the winter and 61 pounds in the summer. This relationshipfor winter-cut black spruce...

  8. A composite cordwood volume table for pulpwood species in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    S.R. Gevorkiantz

    1945-01-01

    Because there is very little difference in the stacked unpeeled volumes of most native trees cut for pulpwood in the Lake States, a generalized cordwood table can be used. Tech. Note 202 (Aug. 1943) presented a table for trees from 6 to 14 inches d.b.h. and 1 to -7 bolts in usable height. Because of the demand for similar information for both smaller and larger trees,...

  9. Cost of thinning 50-year-old Douglas-fir for pulpwood at Voight Creek Experimental Forest.

    Treesearch

    Norman P. Worthington

    1961-01-01

    Analyses of time and cost data gathered on the Voight Creek Experimental Forest from six thinnings in a 50-year-old stand of Douglas-fir showed that average skidding distance and diameter of average tree cut were the chief factors affecting the production time in thinning these pulpwood stands. Cut per acre had negligible influence. Contractors' production...

  10. Career Oriented Mathematics, Teacher's Manual. [Includes Scale; Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason; Textiles; Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood; and Lumber Yard Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This manual is designed for teachers using units in the Career Oriented Mathematics Program titled: (1) Scale, (2) Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason, (3) Textiles, (4) Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood, and (5) Lumber Yard Employee. Lesson plans, masters for dittos and transparencies, and problem solutions are…

  11. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1991

    Treesearch

    Patrick E. Miller

    1993-01-01

    The average delivered price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood in 1991 was $56.39, an increase of 6.5 percent since 1990. Softwood roundwood averaged $58.24 and hardwoods, $50.48 per standard cord, up 2.8 and 7.9 percent, respectively. Chipped residue prices were $26.52 for softwood and $21.0l for hardwood per green ton. The expenditure for wood fiber in the Midsouth...

  12. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1986

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the average price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $47.20, a decrease of 6 percent from the 1985 price. The average price for a green ton of chipped residues also decreased, down 1 percent to $21.77. The average price for a green ton of sawdust fell to $10.25, 3 percent below the 1985 price. Between 1977 and 1986, real prices for roundwood fell, but real...

  13. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1985

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1987-01-01

    In 1985, the average price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $50.12, a decrease of less than 1 percent from the 1984 price. In contrast, the average price for a green ton of chipped residues decreased to $21.97, 14 percent below the price paid in 1984. The average price for a green ton of sawdust also fell in 1985, dropping 2 percent to $10.60. The 1985 expenditure...

  14. Midsouth Pulpwood Prices, 1984

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1986-01-01

    In 1984, the average price for a cord of Midsouth roundwood was $50.55, an increase of 4.5 percent from 1983. The average price for a green ton of chipped residues also increased, up 9.0 percent to $25.44. However, the average price for a green ton of sawdust fell 17.3 percent to $10.79. Rail delivery prices for wood fiber continue to be lower than truck delivery...

  15. Southern pulpwood production, 1984

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1986-01-01

    This publication presents the findings of 100-percent canvass of all wood-using pulpmills drawing roundwood or wood residues from the 12 southern states (fig. 1). Canvass data are compiled annually and analyzed on an alternating basis by personnel of the Forest Inventory and Analysis Units of the Southern and southeastern Forest Experiment Stations. All production...

  16. More Than Pulpwood?

    Treesearch

    John Zasada

    2001-01-01

    Several weeks ago, a gentlemen called asking for information about aspen ("popple" to some!) regeneration. He was concerned about an area that had been harvested and was not coming back as well as expected.

  17. Southern pulpwood production, 1989

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1991-01-01

    This annual publication issued in alternate years by the Southeastern and Southern Forest Experiment stations, is based on 100-percent canvass of all pulpmills in the 12 Southern States from Virginia to Texas. The movement of raw material between regions is obtained by exchanging information with other regional Experiment Stations. Roundwood volumes are recorded in...

  18. Loading productivity of untrimmed and trimmed pulpwood

    Treesearch

    Jason Thompson; John Klepac; Dana Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The increase in biomass usage for fuels and energy has required a re-examination of harvesting and transportation systems to efficiently deliver these products to market. Some biomass markets accept forest residues or whole trees (including stem wood, bark and needles) as a feedstock. Therefore, there is less need to remove limbs and tops or deconstruct the tree other...

  19. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1973

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1974-01-01

    United States consumption of paper currently stands at 640 pounds per person annually and this rate will no doubt increase if the Nation's economy booms. The pulp and paper industry is approaching a crisis similar to that of the oil industry, because they have expanded the capacity of their existing facilities to the limit and must now get on with the job of...

  20. Recent economic downturn and pulpwood markets

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. economy entered a period of slow growth in 2000, tilting toward economic recession in 2001, the first broad economic downturn in a decade. This recent downturn was associated with a recession in U.S. industrial output from 2000 through 2001. U.S. paper and paperboard production declined from 1999 to 2001, with total production 8% lower in 2001 than the...

  1. Pulpwood production in the Northeast 1968

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Neal P. Kingsley

    1969-01-01

    This report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either round wood or chips-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Mills that use woodpulp as a raw material for insulation board and hardboard were also included in the canvass. However, the canvass did not include mills that use waste paper, rags, or pulping material other...

  2. Product Recovery From Hemlock "Pulpwood" From Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Fahey

    1983-01-01

    A total of 363 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) logs from Alaska were sawn to compare recovery at a stud mill and at a dimension mill. Recovery at both mills varied by log diameters and by log scaling system. Lumber grade recovery was primarily in Stud grade at the stud mill and in Standard and Construction grade at the dimension...

  3. Southern forests as a source of pulpwood

    Treesearch

    J.W. Cruikshank

    1947-01-01

    The South, as discussed here, includes the coastal states extending from the Potomac south to Florida and west to the plains of Texas, plus the inland states of Tennessee, Arkansas, and Oklahoma. Within its boundaries lie almost the entire commercial range of the southern yellow pines and a large part of the Nation's supply of hardwoods. It contains 183 million...

  4. Southern pulpwood production and the timber supply

    Treesearch

    James W. Cruikshank

    1948-01-01

    The southern pulp and paper industry is again on the march. Practically as soon as the war was over several plants started expansion programs, and construction was started on a number of mills. Investigations and surveys now under way also indicate that additional new pulp and paper mills can be expected to locate in the South in the near Future. This is not news to...

  5. Pulpwood production in the north central region, by county, 1979.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1980-01-01

    Discusses 1979 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Inventory Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1979 production and receipts data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  6. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by County, 1984.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1986-01-01

    Discusses 1984 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1984 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  7. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, by county, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    Discusses 1980 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Inventory Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1980 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  8. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region, by county, 1981.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses 1981 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Inventory Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1980 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri and shows four...

  9. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 2000.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    2003-01-01

    Discusses 2000 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form. Includes 2000 production for the...

  10. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1999

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    2003-01-01

    Discusses 1999 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form. Includes 1999 production for the...

  11. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by County, 1983.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1985-01-01

    Discusses 1983 production and receipts and production for recent years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1983 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri and shows four production...

  12. Pulpwood production in the north central region, by county, 1982.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1984-01-01

    Discusses 1982 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1982 production and receipts data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri and shows four...

  13. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by county, 1987.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1989-01-01

    Discusses 1987 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1987 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  14. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1989.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett

    1991-01-01

    Discusses 1989 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1989 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  15. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by County, 1985.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1987-01-01

    Discusses 1985 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1985 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri and shows four...

  16. Pulpwood Production in the North-Central Region, 2004.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    2006-01-01

    Discusses 2004 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form. Includes 2004 production for the...

  17. Pulpwood production in the north central region by county, 1978.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1980-01-01

    Discusses 1978 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1978 production and receipts data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  18. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1997.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    1999-01-01

    Discusses 1997 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1997 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows...

  19. Pulpwood production in the North Central Region by county, 1986.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1988-01-01

    Discusses production and receipts for 1986 and production for recent years in the Lake and Central States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1986 production and receipts data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri, and shows four...

  20. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 2002.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    2005-01-01

    Discusses 2002 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form. Includes 2002 production for the...

  1. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 1998.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 1998 production and receipts and recent production for other years in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents 1998 production and receipt data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species...

  2. Pulpwood production in the North-Central Region, 2003

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    2005-01-01

    Discusses 2003 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Survey Unit with that of previous years. Presents production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form. Includes 2003 production for the...

  3. Pulpwood production in the north-central region, 2005

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva

    2007-01-01

    Discusses 2005 production and receipts in the Lake, Central, and Plains States. Shows Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin production by species for each county and compares production by Forest Inventory Unit with that of previous years. Production data for Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri by species group and product form are presented. Production for 2005 for the...

  4. Northeastern pulpwood, 1977 - an annual assessment of regional timber output

    Treesearch

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; David R. Dickson

    1979-01-01

    This annual assessment of regional timber output is based on a canvass of the pulpmills in the Northeast that use roundwood or wood residue as a basic raw material for paper, insulation, and hardboard products. The report includes a discussion and tabular data on roundwood and chips from plant residues produced in and received by 14 northeastern states in 1977:...

  5. Northeastern Pulpwood, 1978 - an annual assessment of regional timber output

    Treesearch

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; James T. Bones

    1980-01-01

    This annual assessment of regional timber output is based on a canvass of the pulpmills in the Northeast that use roundwood or wood residue as a basic raw material for paper, insulation, and hardboard products. The report includes a discussion and tabular data on roundwood and chips from plant residues produced in and received by the 14 northeastern states in 1978:...

  6. Northeastern pulpwood, 1979 - an annual assessment of regional timber output

    Treesearch

    Robert L., Jr. Nevel; James T. Bones

    1981-01-01

    This annual assessment of regional timber output is based on a canvass of the pulpmills in the Northeast that use roundwood or wood residue as a basic raw material for paper, insulation, and hardboard products. Contained in the report are a discussion and tabular data on roundwood and chips from plant residues produced and received in the 14 Northeastern states in 1979...

  7. Wood content of stacked 4-foot round pulpwood in Connecticut

    Treesearch

    R. H. Fenton

    1948-01-01

    Buying wood stacked in 4-foot lengths is sometimes like buying a pig in a poke. A cord is simply a pile 4 by 4 by 8 feet, or 128 cubic feet. Even though wood piled this way may stack up to the specified dimensions, the actual mount of wood in the pile may vary greatly. The species, the size of the sticks, the thickness of the bark, the crookedness of the sticks, and...

  8. Resolving the pulpwood canvass with inventory harvest information

    Treesearch

    Joseph M. McCollum; Tony G. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    The Resource Use section of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program has done a canvas of wood processing mills for timber product output (TPO) throughout the southern United States. Pulpmills in the South are canvassed on an annual basis, while all other mills (e.g., sawmills, veneer mills, etc.) are canvassed every two years. Attempts have been made to graph...

  9. Grading options for western hemlock "pulpwood" logs from southeastern Alaska.

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald; John. Dramm; Kenneth. Kilborn

    Properties and grade yield are estimated for structural lumber produced from No. 3, No. 4, and low-end No. 2 grade western hemlock logs of the type previously used primarily for the production of pulp chips. Estimates are given for production in the Structural Framing, Machine Stress Rating, and Laminating Stock grading systems. The information shows that significant...

  10. Pulpwood production and use in southern forest survey territory, 1946

    Treesearch

    William S. Stover

    1946-01-01

    The great expansion of the wood pulp and paper industry in the South is one of the major developments in the United States forest scene in recent years. Since 1936, when the current expansion started, wood-pulping capacity in the 12 southern States from Virginia to Texas has nearly quadrupled--the result of new mill construction and expansion of existing mills. About...

  11. Harvesting southern pine with taproots can extent pulpwood resource significantly

    Treesearch

    Peter Koch

    1974-01-01

    If lateral roots are first severed, southern pines can be pulled from the soil like carrots, therby adding 20 percent to the merchantable weight of each stem harvested. Morphology and chemical constituents of the taproots indicate their suitability for kraft pulping. Prototype harvesting equipment is being designed.

  12. Harvesting southern pine with taproots can extend pulpwood resource significantly

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1974-01-01

    If lateral roots are first severed, southern pines can be pulled from the soil like carrots, thereby adding 20 percent to the merchantable weight of each stem harvested. Morphology and chemical constituents of the taproots indicate their suitability for kraft pulping. Prototype harvesting equipment is being designed.

  13. Localization and attempted quantification of various functional groups on pulpwood fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klash, A.; Ncube, E.; Meincken, M.

    2009-04-01

    The distribution of different free chemical functional groups on wood and pulp fibres has been determined by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with chemically modified tips. Because these functional groups show a higher affinity to similar groups on the substrate surface during scanning, AFM images determined with an additional digital pulsed-force mode (DPFM) controller allow the distribution of the chemical components to be imaged and to a degree also to be quantified. The investigated tip coatings showed a different sensitivity towards the major chemical components present in wood fibres, determined on spin-coated films and on wood fibres. A clear distinction between cellulose and lignin was possible in both cases. This technique could therefore be used to differentiate between cellulose and lignin present on pulp fibre surfaces and confirm the successful removal of lignin by pulping.

  14. The Moisture Content and Specific Gravity of the Bark and Wood of Northern Pulpwood Species

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1972-01-01

    Much information is available on the specific gravity of wood on a dry weight over green volume and dry weight over dry volume basis. This paper presents the conventional specific gravity on a green weight over green volume basis. The relative specific gravities of bark and wood chips may be helpful in finding way to remove bark particles from chips.

  15. Improved method of in vitro regeneration in Leucaena leucocephala - a leguminous pulpwood tree species.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Noor M; Arha, Manish; Nookaraju, A; Gupta, Sushim K; Srivastava, Sameer; Yadav, Arun K; Kulkarni, Pallavi S; Abhilash, O U; Vishwakarma, Rishi K; Singh, Somesh; Tatkare, Rajeshri; Chinnathambi, Kannan; Rawal, Shuban K; Khan, Bashir M

    2009-10-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a fast growing multipurpose legume tree used for forage, leaf manure, paper and pulp. Lignin in Leucaena pulp adversely influences the quality of paper produced. Developing transgenic Leucaena with altered lignin by genetic engineering demands an optimized regeneration system. The present study deals with optimization of regeneration system for L. leucocephala cv. K636. Multiple shoot induction from the cotyledonary nodes of L. leucocephala was studied in response to cytokinins, thidiazuron (TDZ) and N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) supplemented in half strength MS (½-MS) medium and also their effect on in vitro rooting of the regenerated shoots. Multiple shoots were induced from cotyledonary nodes at varied frequencies depending on the type and concentration of cytokinin used in the medium. TDZ was found to induce more number of shoots per explant than BA, with a maximum of 7 shoots at an optimum concentration of 0.23 µM. Further increase in TDZ concentration resulted in reduced shoot length and fasciation of the shoots. Liquid pulse treatment of the explants with TDZ did not improve the shoot production further but improved the subsequent rooting of the shoots that regenerated. Regenerated shoots successfully rooted on ½-MS medium supplemented with 0.54 µM α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooted shoots of Leucaena were transferred to coco-peat and hardened plantlets showed ≥ 90 % establishment in the green house.

  16. Timber resources of New England and New York with reference to pulpwood supplies

    Treesearch

    V. L. Harper

    1947-01-01

    Pulp and paper is the most important of the wood-using industries of the Northeast. In value of product, value added by manufacture, and number of persons employed, it exceeds any other, but like all the others it is having increasing difficulties in procurement of timber supplies. Many of the pulp and paper mills have reached the stage where they are running out of...

  17. Minnesota logging utilization factors, 1975-1976--development, use, implications.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; W. Brad Smith

    1979-01-01

    Discusses Minnesota saw log and pulpwood logging utilization factors developed during 1975-1976 and their implications. Compares factors for several species groups and shows their use in estimating growing stock cut for pulpwood and saw logs.

  18. Future consumption of timber growth in northern Minnesota: 1980-2030.

    Treesearch

    Mark Rockel; Joseph Buongiorno; David C. Lothner; Edwin Kallio

    1983-01-01

    Consumption projections are reported by major species groups in Northern Minnesota for pulpwood used in pulp production and in construction board, fuelwood, and sawtimber from 1980 to 2030. Total consumption of pulpwood could grow between 97% and 116%.

  19. Career Oriented Mathematics, Student's Manual. [Includes Scale; Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason; Textiles; Being Self-Employed: Harvesting and Sale of Pulpwood; and Lumber Yard Employee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahaffey, Michael L.; McKillip, William D.

    This volume includes student manuals for five units in the Career Oriented Mathematics Program, which was developed to improve mathematical abilities and attitudes of secondary students by presenting the material in a job-relevant context. The units are titled: (1) Scale, (2) Apprenticeship: Learning to be a Cement Mason, (3) Textiles, (4) Being…

  20. Ecology and silviculture of poplar plantations

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Cees van Oosten; Daniel A. Netzer; Mark D. Coleman; C. Jeffrey Portwood

    2002-01-01

    Poplars are some of the fastest growing trees in North America and foresters have sought to capitalize on this potential since the 1940s. Interest in growing poplars has fluctuated, and objectives have shifted between producing sawlogs, pulp-wood, or more densely spaced "woodgrass" or biofuels. Currently, most poplar plantations are established for pulpwood...

  1. West Virginia timber products output: 1994

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Eric H. Wharton; Edward C. Murriner; Edward C. Murriner

    1998-01-01

    The total industrial harvest in West Virginia in 1994 was more than 165 million cubic feet, a 38-percent increase since 1987. Sawlogs accounted for 75 percent of the total and pulpwood accounted for 28 percent. During this 7-year period sawlog production increased by 44 percent to 812 million board feet. Pulpwood production reached 348,000 cords of roundwood and 334,...

  2. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Minnesota, 1973.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Steven Wilhelm; Jerold T. Hahn

    1979-01-01

    Discusses recent Minnesota forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1960 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using mill residue and its disposition.

  3. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Michigan, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Allan H. Boelter; Carl W. Danielson

    1975-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1972; production and receipts in 1972 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs ,and other roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer-log production, and compares saw log production in 1969 and 1972. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its disposition.

  4. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Wisconsin, 1973.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Eugene F. Landt; James W. Whipple; Jerold T. Hahn

    1976-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1973; production and receipts in 1973 of pulpwood, saw logs, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Shows trends in pulpwood and veneer log production and compares saw log production in 1967 and 1973. Discusses primary wood-using plant residue and its...

  5. Determining the economic feasibility of salvaging gypsy moth-killed hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Chris B. LeDoux

    1990-01-01

    Oak sawlog and pulpwood losses in stands defoliated by gypsy moths have become a critical problem for some forest landowners. The salvage of gypsy moth-killed hardwoods can become an important source of pulpwood and sawlogs. This study documents a methodology and provides guidelines to determine defoliated oak stands that are economically salvageable. Stand data from...

  6. Cordwood volume tables for second-growth Douglas-fir.

    Treesearch

    George R. Staebler; Elmer W. Shaw

    1949-01-01

    The increasing harvest of second-growth Douglas-fir for pulpwood makes cordwood volume tables, based on the conventional measures of tree diameter and height, useful tools for the pulpwood operators and forest managers seeking to determine the merchantable contents of their stands. Recent investigations in the Puget Sound vicinity into the cubic-foot content of a cord...

  7. Changes in Florida's industrial roundwood products output, 1977-1987

    Treesearch

    Edgar L. Davenport; John B. Tansey

    1990-01-01

    Nearly 480 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood products were harvested from Florida's forests during 1987, 48 percent more than in 1977. Saw logs and pulpwood were the leading roundwood products, with pulpwood accounting for 60 percent and saw logs for 30 percent of the 1987 total output. Output of all major industrial roundwood products increased between...

  8. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; James W. Whipple

    1997-01-01

    Industrial roundwood production rose from 357 million cubic feet in 1992 to 378 million cubic feet in 1994. Pulpwood accounted for 65% of total roundwood production in Wisconsin--3.1million cords in 1994. Aspen constituted 37% of the roundwood cut for pulpwood. Saw-log production rose from 588 million board feet in 1992 to 645 million board feet in 1994. Principal...

  9. Continued growth expected for wood energy despite turbulence of the economic crisis : wood energy markets, 2008-2009

    Treesearch

    Rens Hartkamp; Bengt Hillring; Warren Mabee; Olle Olsson; Kenneth Skog; Henry Spelter; Johan Vinterback; Antje Wahl

    2009-01-01

    The economic crisis has not reduced the demand for wood energy, which is expected to continue to grow. The downturn in sawmill production caused a shortage of raw material supply for wood pellet producers. With decreased demand for pulpwood-quality roundwood for wood and paper products in 2009, some pulpwood is being converted into wood energy. Economies of scale are...

  10. The hardwood chip market in 2005

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2005-01-01

    The North American Pulp and Paper industry continues to experience challenges and changes much like most other business sectors of the hardwood industry. Marketing policies and the raw material supply chain of pulpwood and chips are being affected. The issues surrounding supply for pulpwood and chips have a broad reach in affecting timber and log purchases, logging...

  11. Factors Affecting the Productivity of Logging Crews Using Chain Saws and Wheeled Skidders in Tree-Length Aspen

    Treesearch

    Dennis P. Bradley; Frank E. Biltonen

    1973-01-01

    Describes the productivity of selected aspen pulpwood loggers in northern Minnesota. The most important factors affecting productivity were the ratio of harvested trees per acre to total trees per acre, harvested volume per acre, and the spacing of nonharvested trees

  12. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Michigan, 1977.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Jack Zollner; W. Brad Smith

    1981-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends, timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1977, and production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated logging and primary mill residues and the disposition of mill residue.

  13. Survival and Height Growth of Tamarack Planted in Northern Wisconsin

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Jeffers

    1975-01-01

    Tamarack trees from certain seed sources survived and gew well when planted on good upland sites in northern Wisconsin. Tamarack appears to have potential for short rotation pulpwood production in the Lake States.

  14. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions... and bark products and logs and pulpwood with bark attached, as well as cut trees (e.g.,...

  15. 36 CFR 223.216 - Special Forest Products definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Special forest products do not include sawtimber, pulpwood, non-sawlog material removed in log form, cull logs, small roundwood, house logs, telephone poles, derrick poles, minerals, animals, animal...

  16. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to... requirements of this subpart, bark and bark products and logs and pulpwood with bark attached, as well as...

  17. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to... addition to meeting the requirements of this subpart, bark and bark products and logs and pulpwood...

  18. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Logs, Lumber, and Other Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-2 General prohibitions and restrictions... and bark products and logs and pulpwood with bark attached, as well as cut trees (e.g.,...

  19. Ohio timber products output - 1983

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Michael Long

    1986-01-01

    The total industrial harvest in Ohio was over 82 million cubic feet in 1983. This was up 17 percent since 1978. Sawlogs accounted for 57 percent of the total and pulpwood accounted for 36 percent. During this 5-year period, sawlog production was up 7 percent to 318.3 million board feet, and total pulpwood production was up 24 percent to 461.8 thousand cords....

  20. West Virginia timber products output--1987

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Edward C. Murriner; Edward C. Murriner

    1990-01-01

    The total industrial harvest in West Virginia was over 110 million cubic feet in 1987. This was a 24 percent increase since 1979. Sawlogs accounted for 70 percent of the total and pulpwood accounted for 21 percent. During this 8-year period, sawlog production was up by 35 percent to 563 million board feet. Pulpwood production reached 272,000 cords of roundwood and 286,...

  1. Development of an upland hardwood demonstration forest on the Mary Olive Thomas Demonstration Forest

    Treesearch

    Seth D. Hunt; John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow

    2016-01-01

    Landowners have experienced a dizzying array of timber prices over the past several years. At one time, hardwood pulpwood brought very little per ton and today it brings as much or more than pine pulpwood. In some markets in the Southeast today, oak sawtimber is bringing more than pine poles. Many landowners, who previously said they wanted their hardwood stands left...

  2. Harvesting southern pines with taproots is economic way to boost tonnage per acre 20 percent.

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1977-01-01

    At the Southern Forest Experiment Station, we've been trying to exten the pulpwood resource by bringing more of each pine tree to the mill yard. The taproot of a 15- to 30-year-old southern pine weighs about 20% as much as the merchantable stem (Table 1). Harvesting and pulping this wasted material would greatly increase pulpwood tonnage yield per acre. But is it...

  3. Harvesting southern pines with taproots is economic way to boost tonnage per acre 20 percent

    Treesearch

    P. Koch

    1977-01-01

    At the Southern Forest Experiment Station, we've been trying to extend the pulpwood resource by bringing more of each pine tree to the mill yard. The taproot of a 15- to 30-year-old southern pine weighs about 20% as much as the merchantable stem (Table I). Harvesting and pulping this wasted material would greatly increase pulpwood tonnage yield per acre. But is it...

  4. Louisiana's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, industrial roundwood output from Louisiana's forests totaled 802 million cubic feet, 28 percent more than in 1996. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 50 percent to 285 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 349 million cubic...

  5. A Bid Price Equation For Timber Sales on the Ouachita and Ozark National Forests

    Treesearch

    Michael M. Huebschmann; Thomas B. Lynch; David K. Lewis; Daniel S. Tilley; James M. Guldin

    2004-01-01

    Data from 150 timber sales on the Ouachita and Ozark National Forests in Arkansas and southeaster n Oklahoma were used to develop an equation that relates bid prices to timber sale variables. Variables used to predict the natural logarithm of the real, winning total bid price are the natural logarithms of total sawtimber volume per sale, total pulpwood volume per sale...

  6. Analyzing the feasibility of utilizing small diameter hardwood timber for solid wood products and residues

    Treesearch

    Brian Perkins; Bob Smith; Philip Araman

    2008-01-01

    The eastern hardwood forest contains small diameter timber that is often of lower quality and lower value than larger sawtimber. This small diameter hardwood timber has traditionally been utilized for pulpwood, but it can also be used for lumber and residue production. In order to increase the utilization of this resource by sawmills, a number of analyses need to be...

  7. Alternate biomass harvesting systems using conventional equipment

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; William F. Watson; I. Winston Savelle

    1985-01-01

    Three harvesting methods were field tested in two stand types. Costs and stand utilization rates were developed for a conventional harvesting system, without energy wood recovery; a two-pass roundwood and energy wood system; and a one-pass system that harvests roundwood and energy wood. The systems harvested 20-acre test blocks in two pine pulpwood plantations and in a...

  8. Joint production and substitution in timber supply: a panel data analysis

    Treesearch

    Torjus F Bolkesjo; Joseph Buongiorno; Birger Solberg

    2010-01-01

    Supply equations for sawlog and pulpwood were developed with a panel of data from 102 Norwegian municipalities, observed from 1980 to 2000. Static and dynamic models were estimated by cross-section, time-series andpanel data methods. A static model estimated by first differencing gavethe best overall results in terms of theoretical expectations, pattern ofresiduals,...

  9. Mississippi's timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Treesearch

    Michael Howell; Tony Johnson

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, industrial roundwood output from Mississippi’s forests totaled 894 million cubic feet, 13 percent less than in 2005. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 18 percent to 316 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 401 million cubic feet...

  10. Stand development and production dynamics of loblolly pine under a range of cultural treatments in north-central Florida USA

    Treesearch

    Timothy A. Martin; Eric J. Jokela

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of stand development and soil nutrient supply on processes affecting the productivity of loblolly pine (Pinux taeda L.) over a period approximately equal to a pulpwood rotation (18 years). The experiment consisted of a 2 x 2 factorial combination of complete and sustained weed control and...

  11. East Texas forest industries, 1974

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1975-01-01

    East Texas forests supplied more than 456 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1974. Pulpwood and saw logs were the major products, accounting for 83 percent of the harvest. A total of 202 primary wood-using plants were in operation in 1974.

  12. Thinning To Improve Growth And Control The Canker Decay Fungus Inonotus Hispidus In A Red Oak-Sweetgum Stand In The Mississippi Delta

    Treesearch

    James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; T. Evan Nebeker

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Thinning was applied to a 55-year-old, red oak-sweetgum (Quercus spp.-Liquidambar styraciflua L.) stand in the Delta region of western Mississippi in late summer 1997. The thinning operation was a combination of low thinning and improvement cutting to remove most of the pulpwood-sized trees as well as...

  13. Predicting segregation of wood and bark chips by differences in terminal velocities.

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos

    1973-01-01

    Presents data on length, width, thickness, moisture content, specific gravity, and terminal velocities of wood and bark chips for eight important pulpwood species. Gives differences in terminal velocities of the wood and bark chips used to predict the degree of segregation possible by air flotation.

  14. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey

    Treesearch

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  15. Alabama forest industries

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1972-01-01

    Alabama forests supplied 718 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries during 1971. Softwoods, mainly pine, made up over seven-tenths of the total. In terms of volume harvested, pulpwood was the leading product, with saw logs second. The two combined accounted for 91 percent of the roundwood produced. These are some of the major findings of a 1971 canvass of...

  16. 7 CFR 319.40-2 - General prohibitions and restrictions; relation to other regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the tree from which the regulated article was derived; (2) The country, and locality if known, where the tree from which the regulated article was derived was harvested; (3) The quantity of the... and bark products and logs and pulpwood with bark attached, as well as cut trees (e.g.,...

  17. Michigan timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Treesearch

    David E. Haugen; Brian F. Walters; Ronald J. Piva; David. Neumann

    2014-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. Program Manual for Producing Weight Scaling Conversion Tables

    Treesearch

    Gary L. Tyre; Clyde A. Fasick; Frank M. Riley; Frank O. Lege

    1973-01-01

    Three computer programs are presented which can be applied by individual firms to establish a weight-scaling information system, The first generates volume estimates from truckload weights for any combination of veneer, sawmill, and pulpwood volumes. The second provides quality-control information by tabulating differences between estimated volumes and observed check-...

  19. Oklahoma forest industries, 1978

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis; J. Greg Jones

    1978-01-01

    Oklahoma supplied 73 million cu ft of roundwood to forest industries in 1978, an increase of 13 percent since 1972, and 35 percent since 1975 (fig. 1). Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 81 percent of the roundwood produced. Veneer logs accounted for 8 percent and the remainder was mostly posts.

  20. Florida's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Tony G. Johnson; Eric Ford

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, volume of roundwood output from Florida’s forests totaled 499 million cubic feet, 4 percent less than in 1997. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased to 152 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 261 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked...

  1. Florida's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2003

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, volume of roundwood output from Florida's forests totaled 509 million cubic feet, 2 percent more than in 1999. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased to 151 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 271 million cubic feet; saw logs...

  2. Florida's timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Treesearch

    Tony Johnson; Jarek Nowak; Rhonda Mathison

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida’s forests totaled 491 million cubic feet, 10 percent more than in 2005. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased to 167 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 237 million cubic feet; saw...

  3. Florida's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1997

    Treesearch

    Michael Howell; Eric. Ford

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, volume of roundwood output from Florida's forests totaled 517 million cubic feet, 2 percent less than in 1995. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers remained stable at 162 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 288 million cubic feet; saw...

  4. Planting density and silvicultural intensity impacts on loblolly pine stand development in the western gulf coastal plain through age 8

    Treesearch

    Michael B. Kane; Dehai Zhao; John W. Rheney; Michael G. Messina; Mohd S. Rahman; Nicholas Chappell

    2012-01-01

    Commercial plantation growers need to know how planting density and cultural regime intensity affect loblolly pine plantation productivity, development and value to make sound management decisions. This knowledge is especially important given the diversity of traditional products, such as pulpwood, chip-n-saw, and sawtimber, and potential products, such as bioenergy...

  5. South Carolina's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Anne Jenkins; Daniel P. Stratton; Peter S. Bischoff

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from South Carolina’s forests totaled 622 million cubic feet, 5 percent less than in 1994. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 4 percent to 203 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 320 million cubic feet; saw logs...

  6. The annual increase of Northeastern regional timber stumpage prices: 1961 to 2002

    Treesearch

    John E. Wagner; Paul E. Sendak

    2005-01-01

    Annual percentage rates of change for Northeastern regional sawtimber and pulpwood stumpage prices were estimated for the period 1961 to 2002. In addition, we examined if there have been any changes in the annual percentage rate of change during the same period. The results showed that the real (nominal) annual percentage rates of change for hardwood sawtimber and...

  7. Hardwood chip market--was 2006 a "normal" year?

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2007-01-01

    In the context of other recent years, 2006 turned out to be a relatively "normal" year for the U.S. hardwood chip market in terms of factors that influence supply and demand; such as prevailing weather conditions, energy price trends, and pulp and paper production. Gulf Coast hurricanes and rising energy prices drove hardwood chip and pulpwood markets in 2005...

  8. Impact of stand diameter and product markets on revenue gains from multiproduct harvesting

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux

    1988-01-01

    Data from 113 sample thinning plots and a microcomputer program called APTHIN were used to demonstrate the impact of mean stand diameter and product markets on revenue gains from multiproduct versus single-product pulpwood harvests in poletimber and small sawtimber stands of Appalachian hardwoods. The analysis of revenue gains included product mix as a function of the...

  9. Gradual upturn underway in paper, paperboard and woodpulp markets

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Bernard Lombard; Eduard Akim

    2002-01-01

    This chapter explains recent trends in European, North American and Russian paper and paperboard markets, along with trends in woodpulp and fibre markets. These market trends related to pulpwood use trends which are discussed in preceding chapters in the context of overall trends in wood raw material use. This chapter also reports UNECE/FAO statistics for pulp, paper...

  10. Structural Change in Southern Softwood Stumpage Markets

    Treesearch

    Douglas R. Carter

    1998-01-01

    The potential for structural change in southern stumpage market models has impacts on not only our basic understanding of those markets, but also on harvest, inventory and price projections, and related policy. In this paper, we test for structural change in both sawtimber and pulpwood softwood stumpage markets in the U.S. South over the period 1950-1994. Test...

  11. Specific gravity relationships in plantation-grown red pine

    Treesearch

    Gregory Baker; James E. Shottafer

    1968-01-01

    Norway or red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) has been popular in Maine for forest planting because it will rapidly convert grass and weed cover to a forest floor and because it is relatively free from attack by insects and diseases. Since the first commercial thinnings consist of small-sized trees, the most logical market outlet is for pulpwood. Yield of...

  12. Tennessee's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Doug Schnabel

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, roundwood output from Tennessee’s forests was 325 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers totaled 119 million cubic feet. Seventy-three percent of the plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 189 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 121 million cubic...

  13. Side slope stability of articulated-frame logging tractors

    Treesearch

    H.G. Gibson; K.C. Elliott; S.P.E. Persson

    1971-01-01

    Many log or pulpwood transporting machines have hinged or articulated frames for steering. The articulated frame offers advantages for these machines, but the design introduces some problems in stability. We formulated and analyzed a mathematical model simulating stability of a 4-wheel-drive, articulated frame logging tractor (wheeled skidder) at static or low constant...

  14. 7 CFR 319.77-4 - Conditions for the importation of regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Gypsy Moth... inspected and found free of gypsy moth or that the trees or shrubs have been treated for gypsy moth in... of Canada where gypsy moth is not known to occur. (b) Bark and bark products and logs and pulpwood...

  15. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... supporting frame structure of a motor vehicle. Horizontal member means the structural member of the guard... exclusively for harvesting logs or pulpwood and constructed with a skeletal frame with no means for attachment... vehicle's cargo doors, tailgate, or other permanent structures are positioned as they normally are...

  16. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... supporting frame structure of a motor vehicle. Horizontal member means the structural member of the guard... exclusively for harvesting logs or pulpwood and constructed with a skeletal frame with no means for attachment... vehicle's cargo doors, tailgate, or other permanent structures are positioned as they normally are...

  17. 49 CFR 571.224 - Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... supporting frame structure of a motor vehicle. Horizontal member means the structural member of the guard... exclusively for harvesting logs or pulpwood and constructed with a skeletal frame with no means for attachment... vehicle's cargo doors, tailgate, or other permanent structures are positioned as they normally are...

  18. Main stem green and dry weights of red oak, white oak, and maple in the Appalachian region of Virginia

    Treesearch

    Richard G. Oderwald; Daniel A. Yaussy

    1980-01-01

    New emphasis has been placed on the weight of whole trees and portions of trees. Weight inventories and purchase of wood by weight are becoming increasingly common for saw logs as well as pulpwood. More information needs to be gathered on the weight of portions of tree stems, however, before weight can be a standard measurement unit. This information must also be...

  19. Pulp and paper markets peaking amid slow economy, rising input costs, and erosion of profits : markets for paper, paperboard and woodpulp, 2007-2008

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Eduard L. Akim; Bernard Lombard; Tomas Parik

    2008-01-01

    In mid-2008, pulp and paper prices were at or near historic peak levels, but global demand conditions were weakening. Industry profits were eroded in 2007 and 2008 as sharply higher energy costs led to higher prices for fuel, freight, pulpwood, recovered paper, chemicals, and other inputs. Expanding pulp and paper capacity in China is having a huge impact on paper and...

  20. Manager's handbook for black spruce in the north-central states.

    Treesearch

    William F. Johnston

    1977-01-01

    Presents the resource manager with a key for choosing silvicultural practices to manage black spruce stands, especially for pulpwood on organic soil sites. Discusses control of growth, establishment, composition, and damaging agents; also discusses managing for Christmas trees, wildlife habitat, water, and esthetics. Includes yield and growth data, and broadcast...

  1. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2.

    Treesearch

    Ted Bilek; Carl Houtman; Peter Ince

    2011-01-01

    Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) is a novel biorefining concept for pulp mills that includes hydrolysis extraction of hemicellulose wood sugars and acetic acid from pulpwood prior to pulping. The concept involves conversion of wood sugars via fermentation to fuel ethanol or other chemicals and the use of remaining solid wood material in the pulping process. This paper...

  2. A synopsis of the wood-based energy and heating industries in the northeastern United States with consideration of potential impacts on future demand for roundwood

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenback; Chuck D. Ray; Li. Ma

    2011-01-01

    The project team identified 323 facilities in the northeastern United States that input pulpwood or "energy wood." Of these, 88 are located in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia, part of the central hardwood forest region. In the 13-state northeastern region, 81 percent of the facilities that use pulp-type roundwood produce an energy-related product. For...

  3. Indiana timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2000

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Joey Gallion

    2003-01-01

    Discusses recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, and pulpwood in 2000. Reports on logging residue generated from timber harvest operations. Also reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and on disposition of mill residues.

  4. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  5. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  6. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  7. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  8. 7 CFR 301.91-2 - Regulated articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regulated articles. 301.91-2 Section 301.91-2... Regulations § 301.91-2 Regulated articles. The following are regulated articles: (a) Logs, pulpwood, branches...) Any other product, article, or means of conveyance, of any character whatsoever, not covered...

  9. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Missouri, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Shelby Jones; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, cooperage logs, charcoal wood, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  10. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Indiana, 1980.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Donald H. McGuire; W. Brad Smith

    1982-01-01

    Discusses recent Indiana forest industry trends; timber removals for industrial roundwood in 1980; and production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, veneer logs, and other industrial roundwood products. Reports on associated primary mill wood and bark residue and the disposition of mill residue.

  11. Primary forest products industry and industrial roundwood production, Michigan, 1969.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Allen H. Boelter

    1971-01-01

    Michigan loggers cut 173.8 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood products in 1969. Ninety percent was pulpwood and saw logs. Production is shifting from softwoods to hardwoods. The number of active primary wood-using mills declined rapidly from 1954 to 1969, but production per mill has expanded.

  12. The timber industries of Kentucky

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Chauncey J. Lohr

    1977-01-01

    The 1974 timber-industry survey in Kentucky showed that, since 1969: Total timber output has increased 1 percent to 98.1 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined less than ½ percent to 489 million board feet. Pulpwood production has increased 69 percent to 133 thousand cords. Veneer-log production has declined 10 percent to 6.3 million board feet....

  13. The timber industries of Ohio

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Robert B. Redett

    1976-01-01

    The 1973 timber-industry survey showed that, since the 1966 survey in Ohio: Total roundwood output has declined 14 percent to 83.2 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined 10 percent to 351 million board feet. The number of sawmills in Ohio has declined from 411 to 310. Total pulpwood production has declined 2 percent to 369 million cords. Veneer- and...

  14. Small-diameter timber utilization in Wisconsin: a case study of four counties

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Bowe; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    The state of Wisconsin has numerous forest ownership types. These include national, state, and county forests, as well as privately owned industrial and nonindustrial forests. In addition to sawlog markets, portions of the state also have substantial pulpwood markets associated with paper and panel mills. Combined, these attributes make Wisconsin a good location for...

  15. Forest management practices and the occupational safety and health administration logging standard

    Treesearch

    John R. Myers; David Elton Fosbroke

    1995-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established safety and health regulations for the logging industry. These new regulations move beyond the prior OSHA pulpwood harvesting standard by including sawtimber harvesting operations. Because logging is a major tool used by forest managers to meet silvicultural goals, managers must be aware of what...

  16. Outlook for U.S. paper and paperboard sector and wood fiber supply in North America

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    Consumption of wood fiber in pulp, paper and paperboard increased in the United States over the past century and is projected to increase well into the next century at a decelerating rate of growth. Harvest of pulpwood on forest land is the single largest source of wood fiber, followed by recycled paper and wood residues. In the past decade, wood residues declined in...

  17. Changing Markets for Hardwood Roundwood

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Albert Schuler

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, hardwood roundwood has been used to produce lumber, cabinet plywood, and veneer. Hardwoods also have been a major part of the pulpwood consumption in the northern tier of the eastern United States since the early 1960?s, while southern pines have been the predominant species used in southern tier states. However, since the 1960's there has been a...

  18. Mississippi forest industries, 1976

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1976-01-01

    Mississippi forests supplied more than 677 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1976. This is an increase of 21 percent since 1972 and an increase of 69 percent over the 1966 harvest.Softwoods, mainly pine, made up over 71 percent of the total.Saw logs and pulpwood were the major products...

  19. Response of 55-year-old lodgepole pine to thinning.

    Treesearch

    James W. Barrett

    1961-01-01

    Does lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) as old as 55 years respond to thinning? Very little research has been done to answer this question for central Oregon stands because until recently they have been considered largely unmerchantable. Now, however, this species is recognized as a good potential source of pulpwood and small saw logs, and information...

  20. Lumber volume and value recovery from small-diameter black cherry, sugar maple, and red oak logs

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Matthew Scholl; Paul Blankenhorn; Chuck. Ray

    2017-01-01

    While only a very small percentage of hardwood logs sawn by conventional sawmills in the U.S. have small-end diameters less than 10 in, portable and scragg mills often saw smaller logs. With the closure of regionally important oriented strand board and pulpwood operations, small-diameter logs are considered to have no value in some markets. This study was...

  1. Applications of harvesting system simulation to timber management and utilization analyses

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux

    1990-01-01

    Applications of timber harvesting system simulation to the economic analysis of forest management and wood utilization practices are presented. These applications include estimating thinning revenue by stand age, estimating impacts of minimum merchantable tree diameter on harvesting revenue, and evaluating wood utilization alternatives relative to pulpwood quotas and...

  2. The Insulation Board Industry - An Economic Analysis

    Treesearch

    Albert T. Schuler

    1978-01-01

    An econometric model of the domestic insulation board industry was developed to identify and quantify the major factors affecting quantity consumed and price. The factors identified were housing starts, residential improvement activity, disposable personal income, productivity, pulpwood and residue prices, and power costs. Disposable personal income was the most...

  3. An Econommetric Analysis of the U.S. Hardboard Market

    Treesearch

    Albert T. Schuler

    1978-01-01

    An econometric model of U.S. hardboard consumption was developed to identify the major variables affecting hardboard consumption and price. The variables identified were housing starts, residential improvement activity, disposable personal income, hardwood plywood price, productivity, pulpwood and residue price, hardboard tariff, and power cost, Disposable personal...

  4. Harvesting minor forest products in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Thomas C. Adams

    1960-01-01

    Forests of the Pacific Northwest yield a number of secondary or so-called minor forest products. These include those smaller, side-line items of commercial value that can usually be harvested without intensive management or cultivation. They are generally only incidental to a primary use of the land for sawtimber or pulpwood production. In most cases they can be...

  5. Changes in output of industrial timber products in North Carolina, 1973-1979

    Treesearch

    Cecil C. Hutchins

    1983-01-01

    More than 534 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood products were harvested from North Carolina forests during 1979, 2 percent more than in 1976 but 7 percent less than in 1973. Saw logs and pulpwood were the leading roundwood products with 91 percent of output. Byproduct output increased from 94 million cubic feet in 973 to more than 144 million cubic feet in...

  6. Assessing specific gravity of young Eucalyptus plantation trees using a resistance drilling technique

    Treesearch

    José Tarcísio da Silva Oliveira; Xiping Wang; Graziela Baptista Vidaurre

    2017-01-01

    The resistance drilling technique has been in focus for assessing the specific gravity (SG) of young Eucalyptus trees from plantations for pulpwood production. Namely, the data of 50 34-month-old and 50 62-monthold trees from Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus urophylla clonal plantations was evaluated, while...

  7. Primary forest products industry and timber use, Iowa, 1972.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; William A. Farris

    1975-01-01

    Discusses recent Iowa forest industry trends, and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other roundwood products. Comments on outlook for Iowa forest industry and production and use of roundwood and primary wood-using plant wood and bark residue.

  8. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Treesearch

    William H. IV Reading; James W. Whipple

    2003-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, and other timber products in 1999. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of mill residues.

  9. Pine growth and plant community response to chemical vs. mechanical site preparation for establishing loblolly and slash pine

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; Zhijuan Qiu

    1995-01-01

    Chemical and mechanical site preparation methods were studied for establishing loblolly (Pinus taeda L) and slash (P. elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) pine following both integrated fuelwood-pulpwood harvesting and conventional whole-tree harvesting of pines and hardwoods in southem Alabama's Middle Coastal...

  10. South Carolina's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2001

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Richard A. Harper; Michael J. Bozzo

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, roundwood output from South Carolina's forests totaled 548 million cubic feet, 12 percent less than in 1999. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 12 percent to 172 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 270 million cubic feet; saw...

  11. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber output trends.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; James W. Whipple; Terry Mace; W. Brad Smith

    1985-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of fuelwood and other timber products in 1981. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  12. Florida's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Anne Jenkins; Tom S. Haxby

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, volume of roundwood removed from Florida's forests totaled 527 million cubic feet, 2 percent more than in 1993. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 6 percent to 162 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 321 million cubic feet;...

  13. Silvical characteristics of red spruce (Picea rubens)

    Treesearch

    Arthur C. Hart

    1959-01-01

    Red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) is not only the most important of the spruces; it is also one of the most important of all the conifers in northeastern North America. It is a tree of many uses. The paper industry relies heavily on it for pulpwood; in the variety of its other uses it rivals white pine.

  14. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2010

    Treesearch

    Brian F. Walters; Steve Vongroven; Ronald J. Piva

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, there were 417 active primary wood-using mills in Minnesota. These mills processed 238.8 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood. There was 226.1 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood harvested from Minnesota forests. The majority of roundwood harvested was pulpwood, accounting for 61 percent of the total. The harvesting of industrial roundwood...

  15. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-03-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  16. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-06-01

    This report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  17. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, third quarter 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1996-03-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  18. Production, prices, employment, and trade in northwest forest industries, fourth quarter 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, D.D.

    1995-06-01

    The report presents current information on the timber situation in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia, including data on lumber and plywood production and prices; timber harvest; employment in forest products industries; international trade in logs, pulpwood, chips, lumber, and plywood; log prices in the Pacific Northwest; volume and average prices of stumpage sold by public agencies; and other related items.

  19. Tree harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    1995-12-31

    Short rotation intensive culture tree plantations have been a major part of biomass energy concepts since the beginning. One aspect receiving less attention than it deserves is harvesting. This article describes an method of harvesting somewhere between agricultural mowing machines and huge feller-bunchers of the pulpwood and lumber industries.

  20. Georgia's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Nathan McClure; John L. Wells

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Georgia's forests totaled 1.17 billion cubic feet, 1 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 4 percent to 433 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 543 million cubic feet...

  1. Economic analysis of the gypsy moth problem in the northeast: I. applied to commercial forest stands

    Treesearch

    Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1973-01-01

    A method of calculating immediate and future losses caused by the gypsy moth is presented, using examples of pulpwood and sawtimber stands. Discounting of future losses to evaluate their cost in terms of current expenditure is explained. The effect of infestation on forest management is discussed and a format is given for considering control decisions.

  2. The Roots of Plantation Cottonwood: Their Characteristics and Properties

    Treesearch

    John K. Francis

    1985-01-01

    The root biomass and its distribution and the growth rate of roots of pulpwood-size cottonwood (Popolus deltoides) in plantations were estimated by excavation and sampling. About 27 percent of the total biomass was in root tissue. Equations for predicting stump-taproot dry weight from d.b.h. and top dry weight were derived. Lateral roots in two...

  3. Production Economics of Private Forestry: A Comparison of Industrial and Nonindustrial Forest Owners

    Treesearch

    David H. Newman; David N. Wear

    1993-01-01

    This paper compares the producrion behavior of industrial and nonindustrial private forestland owners in the southeastern U.S. using a restricted profit function. Profits are modeled as a function of two outputs, sawtimber and pulpwood. one variable input, regeneration effort. and two quasi-fixed inputs, land and growing stock. Although an identical profit function is...

  4. Ohio timber product output--1989

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Michael Long; Michael Long

    1992-01-01

    This periodic report contains 1989 information compiled from a canvass of all primary manufacturers that use roundwood harvested in Ohio. In 1989, 89 million cubic feet of roundwood was harvested in Ohio. Included in this figure is 382 million board feet of sawlogs and 361,500 cords of wood used for pulpwood.

  5. Oklahoma forest industries, 1972

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1973-01-01

    Oklahoma forests supplied more than 64 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1972. Pine made up over three-fourths of the total. In terms of volume harvested, saw logs were the leading product, with pulpwood second (fig. 1). The two combined accounted for 79 percent of the roundwood produced. Veneer logs added 11 percent and posts made up more than...

  6. Arkansas forest industries, 1977

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1980-01-01

    Arkansas forests supplied more than 516 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1977. This is an increase of 15 percent since 1971 and an increase of 32 percent over the 1968 harvest. Softwoods, mainly pine, made up almost three-fourths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 88 percent of the harvest. Veneer logs...

  7. Glaze Damage In 13- To 18-Year-Old, Natural, Even-Aged Stands of Loblolly Pines in Southeastern Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain; Michael G. Shelton

    2002-01-01

    In late December 1998, a severe winter storm deposited 2.1 inches of precipitation on the Crossett Experimental Forest in southeastern Arkansas. Ice, in the form of glaze, accumulated on needles and branches of trees, and resulted in visual damage to sapling and pulpwood-sized pines. Within 60 days after the storm, damage was assessed within naturally regenerated,...

  8. Using Eucalypts in manufacturing

    Treesearch

    William A. Dost

    1983-01-01

    Eucalypts have a number of characteristics affecting processing and utilization that distinguish them from other woods. The major current interest in the eucalypts is as a fuel. Possible demand as a chemical feedstock, for pulp-wood, panel products, lumber or round timbers should be considered in initial planning and management as a hedge against changes resulting from...

  9. South Carolina's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Richard A. Harper; Michael J. Bozzo

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, roundwood output from South Carolina's forests totaled 625 million cubic feet, 1 percent less than in 1997. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 2 percent to 197 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 324 million cubic feet; saw...

  10. Building aggregate timber supply models from individual harvest choice

    Treesearch

    Maksym Polyakov; David N. Wear; Robert Huggett

    2009-01-01

    Timber supply has traditionally been modelled using aggregate data. In this paper, we build aggregate supply models for four roundwood products for the US state of North Carolina from a stand-level harvest choice model applied to detailed forest inventory. The simulated elasticities of pulpwood supply are much lower than reported by previous studies. Cross price...

  11. Seed source variation in tracheid length and specific gravity of five-year-old jack pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    James P. King

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is widely used in Lake States reforestation because of its ability to make rapid early growth on relatively infertile sites. It is a major pulpwood producing species. Since the quality and yield of pulp are so strongly influenced by tracheid length and specific gravity, information on genetic variation in these...

  12. Feasibility of utilizing small diameter southern pine for biomass in the Virginia Coastal Plain

    Treesearch

    Nathan C. Hanzelka; M. Chad Bolding; Scott M. Barrett; Jay Sullivan

    2016-01-01

    New or retrofitted wood-fired energy plants have increased demand for woody biomass in the stateof Virginia. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) commonly serves as a feedstock for these energy plants. Pulpwood conventionally requires a minimum diameter of 4 inches diameter at breast height (DBH) for merchantability, whereas a minimum merchantable diameter...

  13. Indiana's timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; Jeff Settle

    1998-01-01

    Discusses recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of saw logs, pulpwood, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1995. Reports on harvest residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  14. Arkansas forest industries, 1971

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1973-01-01

    Arkansas forests supplied more than 451 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1971. Softwoods, mainly pine, made up more than two-thirds of the total. The timber harvest increased 15 percent during the years 1969-1971, while the number of primary wood-using plants decreased. Saw logs and pulpwood comprised 83 percent of the roundwood. Veneer logs made...

  15. Iowa timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2000.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Dennis D. Michel

    2003-01-01

    Discusses recent Iowa forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, and pulpwood in 2000. Reports on logging residue generated from timber harvest operations. Also reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood using mills and on disposition of mill residues.

  16. Indiana timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Joey Gallion

    2007-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, and pulpwood in 2005. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. Indiana timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Treesearch

    Brian F. Walters; Jeff Settle; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  18. Missouri timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2000.

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2003-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, cooperage, and other timber products in 2000. Reports in logging residue generated from other timber harvest operations. Also reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and on disposition of...

  19. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1990.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; James W. Whipple

    1993-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1990. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  20. Minnesota timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith; Rick Dahlman

    1991-01-01

    Discusses recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and disposition of mill residues.

  1. Missouri timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2003

    Treesearch

    Thomas B. Treiman; Ronald J. Piva

    2005-01-01

    Discusses recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, cooperage, and other timber products in 2003. Reports on logging residue generated from timber harvest operations. Also reports on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and on disposition of mill...

  2. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith; James W. Whipple

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  3. Michigan timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Anthony K. Weatherspoon; W. Brad Smith

    1988-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1984. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  4. Michigan timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2006

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Anthony K. Weatherspoon

    2010-01-01

    Presents recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2006. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  5. Missouri timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Missouri forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  6. Minnesota timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1990.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; Richard A. Dahlman

    1993-01-01

    Discusses recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1990. Reports on logging residue, wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and disposition of mill residues.

  7. Maryland timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2008

    Treesearch

    Brian F. Walters; Daniel R. Rider; Ronald J. Piva

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Maryland forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2008. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  8. South Dakota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Treesearch

    Ronald J. Piva; Gregory J. Josten

    2013-01-01

    Presents recent South Dakota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2009. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  9. Michigan timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1990.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; John Pilon

    1993-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1990. Exports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  10. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; James W. Whipple

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1992. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  11. Indiana timber industry --an assessment of timber product output and use, 1990.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; Robert W. Mayer

    1993-01-01

    Discusses recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1990. Reports on harvest residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  12. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1996.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; Ronald J. Piva; James W. Whipple

    2002-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends: production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1996. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of mill residues.

  13. Michigan timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1988.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith; Anthony K. Weatherspoon; John Pilon

    1990-01-01

    Discusses recent Michigan forest industry trends; production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs; and production of other timber products in 1988. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  14. Wisconsin timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; James W. Whipple; W. Brad Smith

    1989-01-01

    Discusses recent Wisconsin forest industry trends, production and receipts of pulpwood, saw logs, and veneer logs, and production of other timber products in 1986. Reports on logging residue, on timber removals, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this mill residue.

  15. Indiana timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use.

    Treesearch

    James E. Blyth; Donald H. McGuire; W. Brad Smith

    1987-01-01

    Discusses recent Indiana forest industry trends; production and receipts of saw logs; and production of pulpwood, veneer logs, and other products in 1984. Reports on logging residue, on wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills, and on disposition of this residue.

  16. Minnesota timber industry: an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Treesearch

    David E. Haugen; Keith. Jacobson

    2012-01-01

    Presents recent Minnesota forest industry trends; production and receipts of industrial roundwood; and production of saw logs, veneer logs, pulpwood, and other products in 2007. Logging residue generated from timber harvest operations is reported, as well as wood and bark residue generated at primary wood-using mills and disposition of mill residues.

  17. Production, consumption, and prices of softwood products in North America: regional time series data, 1950 to 1985.

    Treesearch

    Darius M. Adams; Kristine C. Jackson; Richard W. Haynes

    1988-01-01

    This report provides 35 years of information on softwood timber production and consumption in the United States and Canada. Included are regional time series on production and prices of softwood lumber, plywood, residues, and pulpwood; timber harvest volumes and values; production costs; and recovery factors.

  18. Ten-year height growth variation in Lake States jack pine

    Treesearch

    James P. King

    1966-01-01

    Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is one of the major pulpwood producing species in the Lake States. It is found on a variety of sites, but its outstanding characteristic is its ability to make early rapid growth on dry sandy soils.

  19. Sweetgum Management

    Treesearch

    Frank W. Shropshire; Robert L. Johnson; Daniel H. Sims

    1987-01-01

    If your forest has conditions that favor sweetgum, this bulletin can help you manage your trees for their best returns. Sweetgum grows on many different sites and in association with many other species. It is a major component within many diverse stands in the South and several States elsewhere. Markets for sweetgum lumber and pulpwood fluctuate with the economy, but...

  20. Determining the Terminal Velocity of Wood and Bark Chips

    Treesearch

    John A. Sturos

    1972-01-01

    Designing an efficient air flotation segregator to segregate bark chips from wood chips requires that the terminal velocities be determined for various pulpwood species. The technique described here uses forced air in a vertical wind tunnel with the chip initially at rest on a stationary screen; when the terminal air velocity in reached, the chip begins to float. A...

  1. Management Guide for the black spruce type in the Lake States.

    Treesearch

    William F. Johnston

    1971-01-01

    Summarizes information on: (1) soil-site relations; (2) associated vegetation; (3) methods and requirements for reproduction; (4) stand development; (5) yield and 10-year net growth; (6) damaging agents. A key to recommended management practices is given for pulpwood and Christmas tree stands, and requirements for successful broadcast burning are included.

  2. Florida's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida's forests totaled 445 million cubic feet, 13 percent less than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined to 146 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 214 million cubic feet;...

  3. Charcoal from chemi-peeled hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Fenton

    1959-01-01

    Removing bark from standing trees with sodium arsenite is an inexpensive but efficient way to produce peeled pulpwood. About 200,000 cords, principally hardwoods, are produced annually by chemi-peeling, a technique that is fast replacing old-fashioned sap-peeling as a means of debarking in the woods.

  4. Populus deltoides Bartr ex Marsh.

    Treesearch

    D. T. Cooper

    1980-01-01

    Eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides), one of the largest eastern hardwoods, is short-lived but the fastest-growing commercial forest species in North America. It grows best on moist well-drained sands or silts near streams, often in pure stands. The lightweight, rather soft wood is used primarily for core stock in manufacturing fumiture and for pulpwood. Eastern...

  5. North American pulp & paper model (NAPAP)

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Joseph Buongiorno

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the development and structure of the NAPAP model and compares it to other forest sector models. The NAPAP model was based on PELPS and adapted to describe paper and paperboard product demand, pulpwood and recovered paper supply, and production capacity and technology, with spatially dynamic market equilibria. We describe how the model predicts...

  6. Tennessee's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2001

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Robert C. Wright

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, roundwood output from Tennessee's forests was 325 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers totaled 125 million cubic feet. Seventy-one percent of the plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 182 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 127 million...

  7. High Stakes for Medium Grades

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses how the high demand for domestic and export logs, lumber, veneer, and other hardwood products might be solved by using dimension products and lesser-known species. It also discusses how the demands on U.S. hardwood forests for pulpwood and fuelwood will be filled primarily with low grade and small diameter hardwoods.

  8. Southern hardwood growth-use gap closing fast as inventories peak

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold

    1989-01-01

    The use of hardwood for pulp and paper furnish and other fiber products is steadily increasing in the U.S. Pulpwood now accounts for half of all hardwood roundwood currently harvested for industrial timber products in the Southeast. In addition to domestic consumption, hardwood exports to Europe and Asia are also expanding, and good portion of these are shipped from...

  9. Herbicide site preparation and release options for eucalyptus plantation establishment in the western gulf

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Blazier; John Johnson; Eric L. Taylor; Brad Osbon

    2012-01-01

    Cold-tolerant species of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) are increasingly grown in the Western Gulf region as short-rotation pulpwood feedstock. Operational chemical suppression of competing vegetation has been relatively costly and inefficient because it requires frequent applications of glyphosate applied via backpack sprayers. A series of studies...

  10. Alabama's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Treesearch

    Michael Howell; Jim R. Gober; J. Stephen Nix

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, roundwood output from Alabama's forests totaled 1.2 billion cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers amounted to 469 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 641 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 426 million cubic feet;...

  11. Changes in Florida's industrial roundwood products output, 1987-1989

    Treesearch

    Edgar L. Davenport

    1991-01-01

    Nearly 483 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood products were harvested from Florida's forests during 1989, approximately 3 million cubic feet more than in 1987. Pulpwood accounted for 61 percent and saw logs 29 percent of the total roundwood production. Output of byproducts dropped from 170 million cubic feet in 1987 to 161 million cubic feet in 1989. Only...

  12. Changes in North Carolina's industrial roundwood products output, 1987-1990

    Treesearch

    Edgar L. Davenport

    1992-01-01

    Over 764 million cubic feet of industrial roundwood products were harvested from North Carolina's forests during 1990, approximately 17 million cubic feet more than in 1987. Pulpwood accounted for 43 percent and saw logs 43 percent of the total roundwood production. Output of byproducts dropped from nearly 318 million cubic feet in 1987 to 295 million cubic feet...

  13. South Carolina's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 1991

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Edgar L. Davenport

    1991-01-01

    In 1991, roundwood output from South Carolina's forests totaled 508 million cubic feet, down 13 percent from 1989. Mill byproducts generated from primary processors declined an equal rate to 170 million cubic feet. Almost 100 percent of the residues were used, mostly for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood remained the leading roundwood product at 250 million cubic...

  14. Growth and yield in natural stands of slash pine and suggested management alternatives

    Treesearch

    Frank A. Bennett

    1980-01-01

    Yields are presented by stand age, site index, and stand basal area at the beginning of a growth period. Differences between these yields and those projected 20 and 50 years ago are explained partly by changing definitions of normal or full stocking and partly by changes in forest management. If only pulpwood harvesting is envisioned, fairly high stocking is needed to...

  15. Social versus biophysical availability of wood in the northern United States

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Ma Zhao; David B. Kittredge; Paul. Catanzaro

    2010-01-01

    The availability of wood, be it harvested for sawlogs, pulpwood, biomass, or other products, is constrained by social and biophysical factors. Knowing the difference between social and biophysical availability is important for understanding what can realistically be extracted. This study focuses on the wood located in family forests across the northern United States....

  16. Hybrid poplar planting in the Lake States

    Treesearch

    Paul O. Rudolf

    1948-01-01

    Poplars are among our fastest growing trees. Many of them are also relatively easy to grow from cuttings and to hybridize by means of cut flower-bearing twigs. Their wood is in demand for pulpwood, veneer for match and crate production, boxboards, and other uses. For these reasons there has been interest in many countries in selecting and breeding poplars. The tree...

  17. Trends in Harvest Cost in New Hampshire: 1964 to 1983

    Treesearch

    Donald F. Dennis; Susan B. Remington; Susan B. Remington

    1987-01-01

    Timber harvesting costs for New Hampshire from 1964 to 1983 were examined. During this period, real harvesting costs for sawtimber decreased at an average annual rate of 1.2 percent, while stumpage prices increased. Real harvesting costs for pulpwood declined at a 0.8 percent average annual rate. Harvest cost data for fuelwood were available only for 1973 to 1983....

  18. South Carolina's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Nathan Smith

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from South Carolina's forests totaled 645 million cubic feet, 13 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 10 percent to 186 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 318 million...

  19. Oklahoma's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Treesearch

    Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, roundwood output from Oklahoma's forests totaled 120 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers totaled 51 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residue was used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood were the leading roundwood product at 54 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked second at 52 million cubic feet. There...

  20. Georgia's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; John L. Wells

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, industrial roundwood output from Georgia's forests totaled 1.24 billion cubic feet, 3 percent less than in 1997. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 1 percent to 474 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 594 million cubic feet...

  1. Arkansas's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, roundwood output from Arkansas's forests totaled 749 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers were 354 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 390 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 235 million cubic feet; and...

  2. Georgia's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1997

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; John L. Wells

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, roundwood output from Georgia's forests totaled 1.28 billion cubic feet, 2 percent less than in 1995. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 1 percent to 479 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 617 million cubic feet; saw logs...

  3. Arkansas' timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2002

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, roundwood output from Arkansas’ forests totaled 680 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers were 326 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 342 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 213 million cubic feet; and veneer...

  4. Oklahoma's timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, roundwood output from Oklahoma’s forests totaled 119 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers totaled 54 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residue was used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 61 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 37 million cubic feet. There were...

  5. Oklahoma's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1996

    Treesearch

    Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, roundwood output from Oklahoma's forests totaled 113 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers was 42 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residue was used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 54 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 40 million cubic feet. There were...

  6. Arkansas' timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1999

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Tony G. Johnson; Michael Howell

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, roundwood output from Arkansas' forests totaled 692 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers were 290 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 320 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 285 million cubic feet; veneer...

  7. Oklahoma's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2002

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Michael Howell; James W. Bentley

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, roundwood output from Oklahoma’s forests totaled 126 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers totaled 50 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residue was used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 64 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 49 million cubic feet. There were...

  8. Georgia's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2001

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; John L. Wells

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, industrial roundwood output from Georgia's forests totaled 1.12 billion cubic feet, 10 percent less than in 1999. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 7 percent to 439 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 501 million cubic feet...

  9. Mississippi's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    Treesearch

    Daniel P. Stratton; Michael Howell; Randal Romedy

    1998-01-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from Mississippi's forests totaled 1.0 billion cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers was 357 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residue was used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 493 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 454 million cubic feet; veneer...

  10. Integration of Biomass Harvesting and Site Preparation

    Treesearch

    Bryce J. Stokes; William F. Watson

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the costs of various site preparation methods with various levels of harvesting Site impacts, soil compaction and disturbance were examined. Three hawesting methods rare evaluated in pine pulpwood plantation and pine sawtimber stands. The harvesting methods tested were (1) conventional - harvesting all roundwood. (2) two-pass - first...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.901-1910.999 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Transportation .109(g)(6) Use .109(g)(7) Water Gels .109(h) Bleaching: Pulp and Paper Mills .261(h) Textiles .262...), .180(b)(2), .182 Electric .306(b) Gantry .179 Locomotive .180 Overhead .179 Pulp and Paper Mills .261(c... .245 Pulp and Paper Mills .261(n) Pulpwood Logging .266(f) Safety Color Codes .149 Sanitation .149...

  12. U.S. hardwood fiber demand and supply situation : globalization and structural change

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Irene Durbak

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews demand and supply trends for hardwood fiber in the United States. The objective is to illustrate nationwide shifts in demand and supply and show how the hardwood pulpwood market reacts to those shifts at a regional level. Thus, the market situation is illustrated using an economic rationale, and trends are projected under assumptions about future...

  13. Forest research notes, Pacific Northwest Forest Experiment Station, No. 31, November 30, 1940.

    Treesearch

    P.A. Briegleb; Theodore Kachin; L.A. Isaac; Fremont McComb; T.T. Munger

    1940-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry in the Pacific Northwest is able to compete successfully in national and world markets primarily bemuse it is favored with dense stands of high-grade pulpwood in its back yard. This natural advantage need not be temporary. Here industry can obtain such stands continuously because it can grow them.

  14. Growth and performance of loblolly pine genetic planting stock through eight years

    Treesearch

    Randall J. Rousseau; Scott D. Roberts; Billy L. Herrin

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the need in the pine market is to develop higher sawtimber quality trees. The pine biomass and pulpwood market supports the low end of the product chain. However, we must improve on the quality of the southern pine for construction lumber if the southern region is expected to capture the shortfall of the sawtimber market expected in the future. Various pine...

  15. Oklahoma forest industries, 1975

    Treesearch

    Daniel F. Bertelson

    1977-01-01

    Oklahoma forests supplied 54 million cubic feet of roundwood to forest industries in 1975, a decrease of 16 percent since 1872. Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Saw logs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 83 percent of the harvest. Veneer logs accounted for 10 percent, and the remainder was made up mostly of posts (fib. 1). A total of 101 wood-...

  16. Raccoon ecological management area: partnership between Forest Service research and Mead Corporation

    Treesearch

    Daniel Yaussy; Wayne Lashbrook; Walt Smith

    1997-01-01

    The Chief of the Forest Service and the Chief Executive Officer of Mead Corporation signed a Memorandum of Understating (MOU) that created the Raccoon Ecological Management Area (REMA). This MOU designated nearly 17,000 acres as a special area to be co-managed by Mead and the Forest Service. The REMA is a working forest that continues to produce timber and pulpwood for...

  17. Georgia's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Anne Jenkins; John L. Wells

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from Georgia’s forests totaled 1.3 billion cubic feet, 7 percent more than in 1992. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 10 percent to 474 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 617 million cubic feet; saw logs ranked...

  18. Decline in the pulp and paper industry: Effects on backward-linked forest industries and local economies

    Treesearch

    Consuelo Brandeis; Zhimei Guo

    2016-01-01

    Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills consume close to 52 percent of southern roundwood, providing a  significant market to southern forest landowners. Declining numbers of pulpwood-using mills and downward trends in mill  capacity, however, present a growing challenge to the southern forest sector. Shrinking mill  capacity affects rural communities that depend on mill...

  19. Nursery Task Force update

    Treesearch

    Russ Pohl

    2007-01-01

    The Nursery Task Force was set up at the behest of the Southern Group of State Foresters in the late winter/spring of 2005. Its mission was to assess the condition of state nurseries across the South and to make recommendations to improve their viability. At the time, tree planting cost-share money was diminished; pulpwood prices were low; much of the Southeast had...

  20. Timber and industry in Arkansas since the midcentury

    Treesearch

    Herbert S. Sternitzke

    1960-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry greatly increased its capabilities. Two new multi-million dollar mills were established at Pine Bluff, and existing plants at Camden and Crossett were enlarged (fig. 1). In response to industrial expansion, the total output of pulpwood increased more than twofold--from 604,000 cords in 1950 to 1,524,000 cords in 1959. Additional expansion of...

  1. The timber industries of New Hampshire and Vermont

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Nicolas Engalichev; William G. Gove

    1974-01-01

    The 1972 timber-industry surveys showed that, since the 1959 survey in New Hampshire: Total roundwood output has declined 17 percent to 50.2 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined 22 percent to 182.0 million board feet. Pulpwood production has declined 7 percent to 200.7 thousand cords. Veneer-log production has declined 84 percent to 2.1 million board feet...

  2. The timber industries of West Virginia

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones; Ralph P., Jr. Glover

    1977-01-01

    The 1974 timber-industry survey in West Virginia showed that since 1965: Total roundwood output of industrial products has declined by 19 percent to 106.6 million cubic feet. Sawlog production has declined by 14 percent to 464 million board feet. Pulpwood production has declined by 33 percent to 214 thousand cords. Veneer-log production has declined by 38 percent to 3....

  3. Michigan timber industry--an assessment of timber product output and use, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett; John Pilon

    1997-01-01

    Industrial roundwood production rose from 346.8 million cubic feet in 1992 to 386.9 million cubic feet in 1994. Pulpwood accounted for 62% of total roundwood production in Michigan in 1994--3.0 million cords. Saw-log production rose from 632 million board feet in 1992 to 658 million board feet in 1994. Logging residue generated in 1994 was estimated to be 4.8 million...

  4. Growth and spacing in Eucalyptus-A case study from Punjab

    SciTech Connect

    Kapur, S.K.; Dogra, A.S.

    1992-12-31

    A spacing trial of Eucalyptus tereticornis Smith involving 14 different spacings in a randomized block design with four replications was started in Punjab in 1988. Analysis of data 7 years after planting shows that a spacing of 3.0 m x 3.0 m may be best for pulpwood production, although there is no significant difference between different spacings in terms of volume produced.

  5. South Carolina's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 1997

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Peter S. Bischoff

    1999-01-01

    In 1997, roundwood output from South Carolina’s forests totaled 628 million cubic feet, 1 percent more than in 1995. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 1 percent to 200 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulp-wood was the leading roundwood product at 322 million cubic feet; saw logs...

  6. Smallholder tree farming in the Philippines. A comparison of two credit programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Loan financing of small landowners in the vicinity of the mill of the Paper Industries Corporation of the Philippines (PICOP) for pulpwood production was successful for the sponsor, but only partly successful for the participant because of typhoon damage, low purchase prices and high harvesting costs. A World Bank loan aimed at reducing fuelwood shortages for small tobacco farmers in the Ilocos region was not successful (low participation rate, high tree mortality and fire losses).

  7. User's Manual for Total-Tree Multiproduct Cruise Program

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Thomas M. Burgan; Richard C. Field; Peter E. Dress

    1985-01-01

    This interactive computer program uses standard tree-cruise data to estimate the weight and volume of the total tree, saw logs, plylogs, chipping logs, pulpwood, crown firewood, and logging residue in timber stands.Input is cumulative cruise data for tree counts by d.b.h. and height. Output is in tables: board-foot volume by d.b.h.; total-tree and tree-component...

  8. Highlights from wood for structural and architectural purposes

    Treesearch

    Conor W. Boyd; Peter Koch; Herbert B. McKean; Charles R. Morchauser; Stephen B. Preston; Frederick F. Wangaard

    1977-01-01

    In 1970 the softwood and hardwood forests of the United States yielded 193 million tons (OD basis) of sawlogs, veneer logs, pulpwood, miscellaneous industrial wood, and fuel wood. By 1985, demand for such wood will likely bei n the range from 248 to 260 million tons, while supply will be about 260 million tons. By the year 2000, demand will probably be in the range...

  9. Highlights from wood for structural and architectural purposes

    Treesearch

    C.W. Boyd; P. Koch; H.B. McKean; C.R. Morschauser; S.B. Preston; F.F. Wangaard

    1977-01-01

    In 1970 the softwood and hardwood forests of the United States yielded 193 million tons (OD basis) of sawlogs, veneer logs, pulpwood, miscellaneous industrial wood, and fuel wood. By 1965, demand for such wood will likely be in the range from 248 to 260 million tons, while supply should be about 260 million tons. By the year 2000, demand will probably be in the range...

  10. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  11. Microwaving logs for energy savings and improved paper properties for mechanical pulps

    Treesearch

    C. Tim Scott; John Klungness; Mike Lentz; Eric Horn; Masood Akhtar

    2002-01-01

    High-power microwave cooking of commercial black spruce pulpwood logs was investigated as a pretreatment for mechanical pulping. Several dozen logs were treated at a variety of power levels (10 to 50 kW) and for various times (1 to 10 min). The mechanical pulping trials resulted in significant energy savings-up to 15% for the highest power level. In addition, there was...

  12. Summary of tree-breeding experiments by The Northeastern Forest Experiment Station 1947-1950

    Treesearch

    Jonathan W. Wright

    1953-01-01

    The tree-breeding work of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station has its roots in a project started in 1924 by the Oxford Paper Company of Rumford, Maine, to develop fast-growing poplars that would be suitable for pulpwood. The initial tree-breeding work in this project was done by A. B. Stout and Ernst J. Schreiner, most of it at the New York Botanical Garden and...

  13. Potential consequences of climate variability and change for the forests of the United States

    Treesearch

    Linda Joyce; John Aber; Steve McNulty; virginia Dale; Andrew Hansen; Lloyd Irland; Ron Neilson; Kenneth Skog

    2001-01-01

    Forests cover nearly one-third of the US,providing wildlife habitat, clean air and water, cultural and aesthetic values,carbon storage, recreational opportunities such as hiking,camping, fishing,and autumn leaf tours,and products that can be harvested such as timber, pulpwood,fuelwood,wild game, ferns, mushrooms,and berries. This wealth depends on forest biodiversity—...

  14. Productivity and cost of conventional understory biomass harvesting systems

    Treesearch

    Douglas E. Miller; Thomas J. Straka; Bryce J. Stokes; William Watson

    1987-01-01

    Conventional harvesting equipment was tested for removing forest understory biomass (energywood) for use as fuel. Two types of systems were tested--a one-pass system and a two-pass system. In the one-pass system, the energywood and pulpwood were harvested simultaneously. In the two-pass system, the energywood was harvested in a first pass through the stand, and the...

  15. Bolt, log, and tree grades for birch

    Treesearch

    Roswell D. Carpenter

    1969-01-01

    A birch tree is made up of a variety of round pieces of wood that can be used to manufacture many different products. To convert the tree into its best end use, it is first necessary to classify the usable round pieces into major product classes. These product classes will vary from low-quality wood suitable only for pulpwood or charcoal to high-quality wood for making...

  16. Changes in South Carolina's industrial timber products output, 1988

    Treesearch

    Edgar L. Davenport; John B. Tansey

    1990-01-01

    In 1988, roundwood output from South Carolina's forests amounted to 605.1 million cubic feet. Residue generated from plants in South Carolina increased to 205.9 million cubic feet and was mostly used for fiber and fuel. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product with 283.2 million cubic feet; saw logs was next with 253.7 million cubic feet, and then veneer logs...

  17. Opportunities to use bark polyphenols in specialty chemical markets

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hemingway

    1998-01-01

    Current forestry practice in North America is to transport pulpwood and logs from the harvest site to the mill with the bark on the wood. Approximately 18 percent of the weight of logs from conifers such as southern pine is bark. The majority of this bark is burned as hog fuel, but its fuel value is low. When compared with natural gas at an average of $2.50/MBTU or...

  18. Reconnaissance Waccamaw River Basin North Carolina and South Carolina. Flood Control and Related Purposes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    livestock are relatively minor as compared to cultivated crops. The production of timber, pulpwood, and veneer logs is also an important land use. Timber...DRAINAGE Agricultural flooding occurs primarily in the tributary watersheds. About 1000 acres of cultivated and pasture land and 50,000 acres of...non- farm use. Of the 3,200 acres of cultivated land, 2,470 acres have flooding and drainage problems. Corn and soybeans are the principle crops in

  19. System 6: making frame-quality blanks from white oak thinnings

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Philip A. Araman

    1983-01-01

    Low-grade white oak timber removed during a timber stand improvement cut on the Jefferson National Forest in Virginia was made into sawlogs, poles, 6-foot bolts, 4-foot bolts, pulpwood, and firewood. The 6-foot bolts were sawed to two cants per bolt; cants were resawed to 4/4 System 6 boards; boards were dried to 6 percent moisture content and made into frame blanks...

  20. Florida’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Jarek Nowak

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida’s forests totaled 474.6 million cubic feet, 3 percent less than in 2007. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined to 117.1 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 265.2 million cubic feet;...

  1. South Carolina's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2007

    Treesearch

    Tony G. Johnson; Tim O. Adams

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, industrial roundwood output from South Carolina’s forests totaled 613 million cubic feet, 5 percent less than in 2005. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 6 percent to 176 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 304 million cubic...

  2. North Carolina’s timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Treesearch

    Jason A. Cooper; Tony G. Johnson; Barry D. New; Clayton B. Altizer

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, industrial roundwood output from North Carolina’s forests totaled 585.1 million cubic feet, 20 percent less than in 2007. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 30 percent to 206.2 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 258.0 million...

  3. Mississippi’s timber industry—an assessment of timber product output and use, 2009

    Treesearch

    James W. Bentley; Tony G. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, industrial roundwood output from Mississippi’s forests totaled 685.0 million cubic feet, 23 percent less than in 2007. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 41 percent to 185.8 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 396.4 million cubic...

  4. Economic potential of short-rotation woody crops on agricultural land for pulp fiber production in the United States.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; Darius M. Adams; Bruce A. McCarl; Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    A model of the U.S. forestry and agricultural sectors is used to simulate the consequences of growing short-rotation woody crops on agricultural lands as a fiber source for pulp and paper production. Hybrid poplar, a short-rotation woody crop, annually produces 4 to 7 dry tons per acre of hardwood pulpwood over a 6- to 10-year rotation. When harvested, the material...

  5. Accuracy in estimation of timber assortments and stem distribution - A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, Ville; Vauhkonen, Jari; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Joensuu, Marianna; Krooks, Anssi; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Viitala, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Detailed information about timber assortments and diameter distributions is required in forest management. Forest owners can make better decisions concerning the timing of timber sales and forest companies can utilize more detailed information to optimize their wood supply chain from forest to factory. The objective here was to compare the accuracies of high-density laser scanning techniques for the estimation of tree-level diameter distribution and timber assortments. We also introduce a method that utilizes a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in timber assortment estimation. The study was conducted in Evo, Finland. Harvester measurements were used as a reference for 144 trees within a single clear-cut stand. The results showed that accurate tree-level timber assortments and diameter distributions can be obtained, using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or a combination of TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS). Saw log volumes were estimated with higher accuracy than pulpwood volumes. The saw log volumes were estimated with relative root-mean-squared errors of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. The respective accuracies for pulpwood were 60.1% and 59.3%. The differences in the bucking method used also caused some large errors. In addition, tree quality factors highly affected the bucking accuracy, especially with pulpwood volume.

  6. Stand development on reforested bottomlands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the southeastern United States has markedly increased in recent years due, in part, to financial incentives provided by conservation programs. Currently > 250,000 ha of marginal farmland have been returned to hardwood forests. I observed establishment of trees and shrubs on 205 reforested bottomlands: 133 sites were planted primarily with oak species (Quercus spp.), 60 sites were planted with pulpwood producing species (Populus deltoides, Liquidambar styraciflua, or Platanus occidentalis), and 12 sites were not planted (i.e., passive regeneration). Although oak sites were planted with more species, sites planted with pulpwood species were more rapidly colonized by additional species. The density of naturally colonizing species exceeded that of planted species but density of invaders decreased rapidly with distance from forest edge. Trees were shorter in height on sites planted with oaks than on sites planted with pulpwood species but within a site, planted trees attained greater heights than did colonizing species. Thus, planted trees dominated the canopy of reforested sites as they matured. Planted species acted in concert with natural invasion to influence the current condition of woody vegetation on reforested sites. Cluster analysis of species importance values distinguished three woody vegetation conditions: (1) Populus deltoides stands (2) oak stands with little natural invasion by other tree species, and (3) stands dominated by planted or naturally invading species other than oaks. Increased diversity on reforested sites would likely result from (a) greater diversity of planted species, particularly when sites are far from existing forest edges and (b) thinning of planted trees as they attain closed canopies.

  7. Field testing of the FMC ft-180ca in appalachia

    SciTech Connect

    Biller, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    A new FMC steel-tracked skidder was used to haul pulpwood and sawlogs to landings in a clear-felled area in Virginia. An average skid of 363.6 m took 14.9 minutes, wtih an average volume of 2.9 cubic m. The main advantage of the skidder is its ability to operate on steep slopes (here with an uphill gradient of up to 44%) with minumium effect on the skid road. Analysis indicated an hourly cost of $49.58 ($5.93/cubic m).

  8. Wisconsin timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1990. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, R.L.; Whipple, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In terms of volume of wood used, pulp mills dominate Wisconsin's forest industry, but sawmills far outnumber any other category. There were 323 mills of all types operating in Wisconsin in 1990. Wisconsin is divided into five Survey Units. Industrial roundwood production rose from 328.7 million cubic feet in 1988 to 342.6 million cubic feet in 1990. Pulpwood accounted for 66 percent of the industrial roundwood production in 1990. In 1990, 83 percent of the total growing-stock removals due to harvest came from aspen, red oak, hard maple, red pine, white birch, jack pine, and soft maple.

  9. North Carolina`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from North Carolina`s forests totaled 833 million cubic feet, 2 percent less than in 1994. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 1 percent to 301 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 398 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 332 million cubic feet; veneer logs were third at 66 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 322 in 1994 to 320 in 1995. Total receipts declined 4 percent to under 743 million cubic feet.

  10. Kentucky`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Lowe, L.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from Kentucky`s forests totaled more than 186 million cubic feet, 35 percent more than in 1986. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 84 percent to 110 million cubic feet. More than 94 percent of the plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 161 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 20 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 435 in 1986 to 401 in 1995. Total receipts increased 43 percent to almost 212 million cubic feet.

  11. Virginia`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.; Jenkins, A.; Scrivani, J.A.; Foreman, J.M.

    1997-07-01

    In 1995, roundwood output from Virginia`s forests totaled more than 455 million cubic feet, 4 percent more than in 1992. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 3 percent to 167 million cubic feet. Almost 97 percent of the plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 213 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 201 million cubic feet; composite panels were third at 21 million cubic feet. The number of primary processing plants declined from 311 in 1992 to 289 in 1995. Total receipts increased 3 percent to almost 485 million cubic feet.

  12. Profile of the lumber and wood products industry. EPA Office of Compliance sector notebook project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The lumber and wood products industry includes establishments engaged in cutting timber and pulpwood; sawmills, lath mills, shingle mills, cooperage stock mills (wooden casks or tubs), planing mills, plywood mills; and establishments engaged in manufacturing finished articles made entirely or mainly of wood or related materials such as reconstituted wood panel products manufacturers. The categorization corresponds to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code 24 established by Department of Commerce`s Bureau of the Census to track the flow of goods and services within the economy. In this profile, the industry`s processes are divided into four general groups: logging timber; producing lumber; panel products and wood preserving.

  13. History of Prisoner of War Utilization by the United States Army, 1776-1945

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-06-24

    Md. 33 3. Nazi Prisoners of War Arriving in New York __---------125 4. Prisoners of War Employed at a Paper Mill in Texas --------- 132 5. Prisoners of...for an em- ployment program. A farmer in Texas wanted to use a "few thou- sand" to plant crops.4 3 In California, the Inyo Good Road Club and the...to Col C. S. Urwiller, Asst Dir, PW Div, 23 Jun 44, sub: Memorandum on Prisoner of War pulpwood operations in Lufkin , Tex., area. PMGO 253.5 Gen. P/W#2

  14. Grand Marais Harbor, Cook County, Minnesota, Operation and Maintenance Activities, Environment Assessment Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    the Ojibway, who called the harbor "great pond". Later the French voyageurs gave the harbor the name it now carries. Interpreted literally, Grand...Marais means "great swamp" but in the special vocabu- lary of the voyageurs , "usrais" referred to a harbor-of-refuge or a protected cove. " 2.621 The...total commerce for Grand Marais Harbor consisted of logs and pulpwood. Commerce reached a peak of over 78,000 tons in 1958, then diminished somewhat

  15. Expected international demand for woody and herbaceous feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Lamers, Patrick; Jacobson, Jacob; Mohammad, Roni; Wright, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The development of a U.S. bioenergy market and ultimately ‘bioeconomy’ has primarily been investigated with a national focus. Limited attention has been given to the potential impacts of international market developments. The goal of this project is to advance the current State of Technology of a single biorefinery to the global level providing quantitative estimates on how international markets may influence the domestic feedstock supply costs. The scope of the project is limited to feedstock that is currently available and new crops being developed to be used in a future U.S. bioeconomy including herbaceous residues (e.g., corn stover), woody biomass (e.g., pulpwood), and energy crops (e.g., switchgrass). The timeframe is set to the periods of 2022, 2030, and 2040 to align with current policy targets (e.g., the RFS2) and future updates of the Billion Ton data. This particular milestone delivers demand volumes for generic woody and herbaceous feedstocks for the main (net) importing regions along the above timeframes. The regional focus of the study is the European Union (EU), currently the largest demand region for U.S. pellets made from pulpwood and forest residues. The pellets are predominantly used in large-scale power plants (>5MWel) in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), and Denmark (DK).

  16. Ecology and silviculture of poplar plantations.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanturf, John A.; Van Oosten, Cees; Netzer, Daniel A.

    2002-07-01

    D.I.; Isebrands, J.G.; Eckenwalder, J.E.; Richardson, J., eds. Poplar culture in North America, part A, chapter 5. Ottawa: NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada: 153-206. ABSTRACT. Poplars are some of the fastest growing trees in North America and foresters have sought to capitalize on this potential since the 1940s. Interest in growing poplars has fluctuated, and objectives have shifted between producing sawlogs, pulp-wood, or more densely spaced "woodgrass" or biofuels. Currently, most poplar plantations are established for pulpwood or chip production on rotations of 10 years or less, but interest in sawlog production is increasing. Sid McKnight characterized cottonwood as a prima donna species: under ideal conditions, growth rates are just short of spectacular. Just as this can be applied to all poplars, it is equally true that all poplars are demanding of good sites and careful establishment. Growing poplars in plantations is challenging, and good establishment the first year is critical to long-term success. If a grower lacks the commitment or resources to provide needed treatments at critical times, then species other than poplars should be considered. Our objective in this chapter is to provide growers with current information for establishing and tending poplar plantations, as practiced in North America. Where we have sufficient information, differences between the poplar-growing regions of the United States and Canada will be noted. Mostly information is available on eastern and black cottonwood and their hybrids.

  17. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon; Searcy, Erin; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2016-03-01

    This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for both the 2015 SOT (Hartley et al., 2015; ANL, 2016; DOE, 2016) and the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for both the 2015 SOT (Tan et al., 2015a) and the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015b). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. In the SCSA, the 2015 SOT case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015b), uses the 2015 SOT feedstock blend of pulpwood, wood residue, and construction and demolition waste (C&D). Moreover, the 2022 design case for the conversion process, as described in Tan et al. (2015a), uses the 2017 design case blend of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and C&D. The performance characteristics of this blend are consistent with those of a single woody feedstock (e.g., pine or poplar). We also examined the influence of using a single feedstock type on SCSA results for the design case. These single feedstock scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results given that the different components of the feedstock blend have varying energy and material demands for production and logistics.

  18. Biomass estimation for Virginia pine trees and stands

    SciTech Connect

    Madgwick, H.A.I.

    1980-03-01

    Stands of Virginia Pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) occur on much abandoned farm land in the Appalachian Mountains and Piedmont of Virginia. Natural stands are an important source of pulpwood, and these are being augmented by plantations. Increased intensity of utilization necessitates the estimation of component weights of the trees. Data from 501 trees from 10 stands were used to develop equations for estimating dry weight of stem wood, stem bark, total stem 1-year-old needles, total needles, live branches, and total branches of individual trees. Stand weight of stems was closely related to stand basal area and mean height. Stand live-branch weight varies inversely with stocking. Weight of 1-year-old foliage on the stands increased with stocking and site index. 13 references.

  19. Quantifying logging residue - before the fact

    SciTech Connect

    Bones, J.T.

    1982-06-01

    Tree biomass estimation, which is being integrated into the U.S. Forest Service Renewable Resources Evaluation Program, will give foresters the ability to estimate the amount of logging residues they might expect from harvested treetops and branches and residual rough, rotten, and small trees before the actual harvest. With planning, and increased demand for such timber products as pulpwood and fuelwood, product recovery could be increased by up to 43 percent in softwood stands and 99% in hardwoods. Recovery levels affect gross product receipts and site preparation costs. An example of product recovery and residue generation is presented for three harvesting options in Pennsylvania hardwood stands. Under the whole-tree harvesting option, 46% more product was recovered than in single product harvesting, and logging residue levels were reduced by 58%.

  20. Southeast`s timber industry: An assessment of timber product output and use, 1995. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T.G.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the findings of a 1995 canvass of all primary wood-using plants in the Southeast and presents changes in product output and residue use since 1992. It complements the Forest Inventory and Analysis periodic inventory of volume and removals from the timberland in Southeastern States. The canvass was conducted to determine the amount and source of wood receipts and annual timber product drain by county in 1995 and to determine interstate and cross-regional movement of industrial roundwood. Only primary wood-using mills were canvassed. Primary mills are those that process roundwood in log or bolt form or as chipped roundwood. Examples of industrial roundwood products are saw logs, pulpwood, veneer logs, poles, and logs used for composite board products.

  1. Electrical impedance spectroscopy device for measurement of moisture gradients in wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiitta, M.; Olkkonen, H.

    2002-08-01

    A prototype of the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) device for the measurement of internal moisture gradients in wood was developed. The EIS device consists of a hand-held probe connected to a control unit interfaced with a portable personal computer and a power unit. In the measurement, parallel flat electrodes of the measuring probe are laid against the wood specimen and the sine wave excitation is applied in the frequency range 1-100 kHz. The measured amplitude and phase spectral data were analyzed using the model based on constant phase elements. A spectral analysis software package was designed for measurement of subsurface transverse moisture gradients. The EIS device was tested with many types of uniform, desorption, and absorption gradients in lumber, pulpwood, and log specimens from spruce, pine, and birch. The EIS device can be easily transferred in a small case allowing field measurements.

  2. Timber assessment market model (1993): Structure, projections and policy simulations. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.M.; Haynes, R.W.

    1996-11-01

    The 1993 timber assessment market model (TAMM) is a spatial model of the solid-wood and timber inventory elements of the U.S. forest products sector. The TAMM model provides annual projections of volumes and prices in the solidwood products and sawtimber stumpage markets and estimates of total timber harvest and inventory by geographic region for periods of up to 50 years. TAMM and its companion models that project pulpwood and fuelwood use were developed to support the quinquennial Resource Planning Act (RPA) timber assessments and assessment updates conducted by the USDA Forest Service. The report summaries the methods used to develop the various components of TAMM and the estimates of key behavioral parameters used in the TAMM structure, and also illustrates the use of TAMM with a base and several scenario projections.

  3. The technician's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Rechlin, M. )

    1993-06-01

    This article is a practical approach for Third World education from a technician's perspective on the problems of international development. Forestry technician schools should become involved in international forestry development. The major example presented in this paper is the Nepal Institute of Forestry. Historically, professional foresters in Nepal were interested in managing Nepal's forests for timber and pulpwood while villagers were interested in fuelwoods and fodder. To effectively train foresters for new jobs in which they provide advice to villagers who make forest management decisions, both the cirriculum and resulting education have to be very different. But in addition teachers have to be reeducated and textbooks, lab manuals, and field exercises must be changed. Projects such as forestry management in Nepal could prove more effective if they combined research skills and problem-solving approaches of a university with the technical perspective and applied orientation of a forestry technician school.

  4. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo.

    PubMed

    Gaveau, David L A; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-08

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo's old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  5. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5–4.8 Mha (24–26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7–3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8–0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57–60% versus 15–16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development. PMID:27605501

  6. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  7. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    SciTech Connect

    Skog, K.E.

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  8. Rapid conversions and avoided deforestation: examining four decades of industrial plantation expansion in Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Sheil, Douglas; Husnayaen; Salim, Mohammad A.; Arjasakusuma, Sanjiwana; Ancrenaz, Marc; Pacheco, Pablo; Meijaard, Erik

    2016-09-01

    New plantations can either cause deforestation by replacing natural forests or avoid this by using previously cleared areas. The extent of these two situations is contested in tropical biodiversity hotspots where objective data are limited. Here, we explore delays between deforestation and the establishment of industrial tree plantations on Borneo using satellite imagery. Between 1973 and 2015 an estimated 18.7 Mha of Borneo’s old-growth forest were cleared (14.4 Mha and 4.2 Mha in Indonesian and Malaysian Borneo). Industrial plantations expanded by 9.1 Mha (7.8 Mha oil-palm; 1.3 Mha pulpwood). Approximately 7.0 Mha of the total plantation area in 2015 (9.2 Mha) were old-growth forest in 1973, of which 4.5-4.8 Mha (24-26% of Borneo-wide deforestation) were planted within five years of forest clearance (3.7-3.9 Mha oil-palm; 0.8-0.9 Mha pulpwood). This rapid within-five-year conversion has been greater in Malaysia than in Indonesia (57-60% versus 15-16%). In Indonesia, a higher proportion of oil-palm plantations was developed on already cleared degraded lands (a legacy of recurrent forest fires). However, rapid conversion of Indonesian forests to industrial plantations has increased steeply since 2005. We conclude that plantation industries have been the principle driver of deforestation in Malaysian Borneo over the last four decades. In contrast, their role in deforestation in Indonesian Borneo was less marked, but has been growing recently. We note caveats in interpreting these results and highlight the need for greater accountability in plantation development.

  9. Effects of soil type, irrigation volume and plant species on treatment of log yard run-off in lysimeters.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Maria; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Elowson, Torbjörn

    2004-09-01

    Wet storage of timber and pulpwood produces large quantities of run-off water. A study was conducted to determine the purification efficiency of soil-plant systems for log yard run-off. Sixteen 1200-l lysimeters (1.2 m deep soil columns) with clay or sand soil were planted with willow (Salix sp.) or alder (Alnus glutinosa), and irrigated with run-off from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) log yard. Drainage water was analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), phenols, total P and total N in order to determine concentrations and levels of retention. High retention of TOC, phenols and P occurred in the lysimeters, but no clear differences between willows and alder or clay and sand were identified. Lysimeters with high levels of irrigation showed greater retention than those with low levels. Soil-plant systems using willow and alder could provide an alternative for log yard run-off purification: the key requirement is to optimise irrigation rather than manipulate the plants or soils.

  10. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-12-04

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora.

  11. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    PubMed

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  12. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; ...

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removalmore » from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.« less

  13. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; Langholtz, Matthew; Brandt, Craig; Downing, Mark; Wright, Lynn; Skog, Kenneth; Hellwinckel, Chad; Stokes, Bryce; Lebow, Patricia

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removal from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.

  14. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands

    PubMed Central

    Murdiyarso, D.; Hergoualc’h, K.; Verchot, L. V.

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO2 per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO2 per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N2O emissions compared to CO2 losses remains unclear. PMID:21081702

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis of cDNA Library and Large-Scale Unigene Assembly in Japanese Red Pine (Pinus densiflora)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Le; Zhang, Shijie; Lian, Chunlan

    2015-01-01

    Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) is extensively cultivated in Japan, Korea, China, and Russia and is harvested for timber, pulpwood, garden, and paper markets. However, genetic information and molecular markers were very scarce for this species. In this study, over 51 million sequencing clean reads from P. densiflora mRNA were produced using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. It yielded 83,913 unigenes with a mean length of 751 bp, of which 54,530 (64.98%) unigenes showed similarity to sequences in the NCBI database. Among which the best matches in the NCBI Nr database were Picea sitchensis (41.60%), Amborella trichopoda (9.83%), and Pinus taeda (4.15%). A total of 1953 putative microsatellites were identified in 1784 unigenes using MISA (MicroSAtellite) software, of which the tri-nucleotide repeats were most abundant (50.18%) and 629 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag- simple sequence repeats) primer pairs were successfully designed. Among 20 EST-SSR primer pairs randomly chosen, 17 markers yielded amplification products of the expected size in P. densiflora. Our results will provide a valuable resource for gene-function analysis, germplasm identification, molecular marker-assisted breeding and resistance-related gene(s) mapping for pine for P. densiflora. PMID:26690126

  16. Recovery of above-ground woody biomass using operational modifications of conventional harvesting systems

    SciTech Connect

    Herschelman, J. W.; Domenech, D. W.

    1980-06-01

    Two harvesting systems were assembled during each of two summers to compare the operational efficiency of a whole tree harvesting system with a conventional harvesting system. Skidding of whole trees proved to be 27% more efficient than the skidding of primary stems because of operators habits of underutilizing skidder capacity. Although 5% more gals/hour were used by the whole tree system, there was a net gain of 21% more tons/gal. produced by this same system. A whole tree chipper was analyzed for its potential to process large hardwood trees for energy products. A comparison of five harvesting systems revealed that whole tree systems producing sawtimber, round pulpwood and energy chips proved most energy efficient and economically viable. A variety of machine/system factors were measured. It was determined that with certain modifications, whole tree chippers offer the best potential for processing logging residue for fuel. Forty-eight equations were developed predicting green and ovendry weights in summer and winter for whole tree weight, primary product weight, and the weight of limbs and tops for hardwood trees associated with the oak-hickory forest type in the Southern Appalachian Region based on diameter at breast height and whole tree length. Eight sawlog prediction equations were also developed based on log length, diameter small end outside bark and diameter large end outside bark. The energy efficiency of harvesting systems was studied by analyzing the equipment involved in manual and mechanized shortwood, longwood, and whole tree systems.

  17. User's manual for the TVA lumber yield and value program (LYVP). Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, T.P.

    1982-11-01

    The Lumber Yield and Value Program (LYVP) is complementary to the Inventory Processor. (See: A User's Manual for the TVA Forest Inventory Program, July 1979, Station Bulletin No. 230). Many of the inputs needed for the Inventory Processor are also used by LYVP. Tree grade must be supplied for LYVP, but is optional for the Inventory Processor. Data on pulpwood observations, pine sawtimber, cull trees, and growth projections are ignored by LYVP, but may be necessary for compatibility with the Inventory Processor. Output tables predict board foot volume and dollar value by species and lumber grade. Summary data are presented on both tract and per-acre basis as well as for the entire sampling unit. The lumber yields expressed in LYVP are functions of species, d.b.h. merchantable height, and tree grade; therefore, some of the inputs used for the Inventory Processor such as log rule and form class are not needed when LYVP is used independently. Lumber prices used in LYVP calculations to predict lumber values may be obtained from any reliable source. Prices used by TVA are from the Hardwood Market Report and reflect lumber values for air dried, carload lots. Stumpage prices should not be used in any LYVP calculations.

  18. Growth and seed production of sawtooth oak (`quercus acutissima`) 22 years after direct seeding. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Goelz, J.C.G.; Carlson, D.W.

    1997-08-01

    Sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima Carruth) was direct seeded at two locations, one with a poorly drained clay soil and the other with a well-drained silty clay loam. For comparison, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii Palmer) was direct seeded on the poorly drained clay soil. On the well-drained silty clay loam, sawtooth oak was 18 ft taller and 2.4 inches larger in d.b.h. at age 22 than on the poorly drained clay soil. On the clay, sawtooth oak grew faster than Nuttall oak, but survival was lower. Almost all sawtooth oaks were producing acorns on both sites; however, no developing acorns were found on the Nuttall oaks. Sawtooth oak is a viable alternative for planting on a wide range of Mississippi Delta forest types. Because sawtooth oak has a poorer form than Nuttal oak, its primary use is as a source of wildlife food. Sawtooth oak could be included in plantings with the multiple objectives of timber production and wildlife use because it grows well and could potentially be used for pulpwood.

  19. Rapid phytochemical analysis of birch (Betula) and poplar (Populus) foliage by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rubert-Nason, Kennedy F; Holeski, Liza M; Couture, John J; Gusse, Adam; Undersander, Daniel J; Lindroth, Richard L

    2013-02-01

    Poplar (Populus) and birch (Betula) species are widely distributed throughout the northern hemisphere, where they are foundation species in forest ecosystems and serve as important sources of pulpwood. The ecology of these species is strongly linked to their foliar chemistry, creating demand for a rapid, inexpensive method to analyze phytochemistry. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as an inexpensive, high-throughput tool for determining primary (e.g., nitrogen, sugars, starch) and secondary (e.g., tannins, phenolic glycosides) foliar chemistry of Populus and Betula species, and identifies conditions necessary for obtaining reliable quantitative data. We developed calibrations with high predictive power (residual predictive deviations ≤ 7.4) by relating phytochemical concentrations determined with classical analytical methods (e.g., spectrophotometric assays, liquid chromatography) to NIR spectra, using modified partial least squares regression. We determine that NIRS, although less sensitive and precise than classical methods for some compounds, provides useful predictions in a much faster, less expensive manner than do classical methods.

  20. Resource Management Plan for the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 6. Forest management. Addendum 1. Cost/benefit review

    SciTech Connect

    Bradburn, D.M.; Loar, J.M.; Petrich, C.H.; Jones, C.G.; Parr, P.D.; Voorhees, L.D.

    1986-03-01

    This review weighs the benefits of forest management (FM) activities on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) against the costs of those activities. The review's objectives are (1) to determine whether the FM program is cost beneficial and (2) to discover means of improving the cost effectiveness. By improving the cost effectiveness of the FM activities, the entire program can be strengthened and existing resources can be used even more effectively. Benefits may be either tangible or intangible, direct or indirect. No direct tangible benefits are credited to the FM program. Indrect tangible benefits are derived from the sale of merchantible timber, pulpwood, firewood, and hay. However, these revenues go directly to the US Treasury and thus do not offset any program costs. The other benefits are intangible. These are, in the most general terms, fire protection, disease control, research assistance, aesthetic improvements, improvements to certain wildfire habitats, reforestation, timber stand improvement, increased opportunities for research, and timber salvage. Costs for the FM program include capital and operating expenses. The annual operating budget, which is currently around $200,000, covers personnel salaries and materials but not capital equipment purchases. In general terms, the intangible costs include, but are not limited to, disturbance of soil, reduction of undisturbed areas for research, impacts on watersheds, aesthetic changes, and changes in wildlife habitats.

  1. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  2. Anthropogenic deforestation, El Niño and the emergence of Nipah virus in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kaw Bing; Chua, Beng Hui; Wang, Chew Wen

    2002-06-01

    In late 1998, a novel paramyxovirus named Nipah virus, emerged in Malaysia, causing fatal disease in domestic pigs and humans with substantial economic loss to the local pig industry. Pteropid fruitbats have since been identified as a natural reservoir host. Over the last two decades, the forest habitat of these bats in Southeast Asia has been substantially reduced by deforestation for pulpwood and industrial plantation. In 1997/1998, slash-and-burn deforestation resulted in the formation of a severe haze that blanketed much of Southeast Asia in the months directly preceding the Nipah virus disease outbreak. This was exacerbated by a drought driven by the severe 1997-1998 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. We present data suggesting that this series of events led to a reduction in the availability of flowering and fruiting forest trees for foraging by fruitbats and culminated in unprecedented encroachment of fruitbats into cultivated fruit orchards in 1997/1998. These anthropogenic events, coupled with the location of piggeries in orchards and the design of pigsties allowed transmission of a novel paramyxovirus from its reservoir host to the domestic pig and ultimately to the human population.

  3. 20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Raw Material for the Geographic Magazine. The mills of the Champion International Company which make paper on which the National Geographic Magazine is printed are located in Lawrence, Mass. This picture shows great piles of pulp-wood ready for conversion into paper for the The Geographic. Parts of these wood piles are more than 50 feet high. The cars shown in the picture are on a trestle 21 feet high. The Geographic magazines mailed in a single year, if laid side by side, would reach from Quito, Ecuador, across Colombia and Caribbean, thence across the United States and Canada, through the North Pole, and across Siberia, China, and Siam to Bangkok. It takes 33,000 miles of wrappers to mail one year's edition. It would require a bookshelf more than three and a half miles long to hold all the copies of this month's issue of The Geographic. (p.235.) - Champion-International Paper Company, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  4. Peatland simulator connecting drainage, nutrient cycling, forest growth, economy and GHG efflux in boreal and tropical peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauren, Ari; Hökkä, Hannu; Launiainen, Samuli; Palviainen, Marjo; Lehtonen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    Forest growth in peatlands is nutrient limited; principal source of nutrients is the decomposition of organic matter. Excess water decreases O2 diffusion and slows down the nutrient release. Drainage increases organic matter decomposition, CO2 efflux, and nutrient supply, and enhances the growth of forest. Profitability depends on costs, gained extra yield and its allocation into timber assortments, and the rate of interest. We built peatland simulator Susi to define and parameterize these interrelations. We applied Susi-simulator to compute water and nutrient processes, forest growth, and CO2 efflux of forested drained peatland. The simulator computes daily water fluxes and storages in two dimensions for a peatland forest strip located between drainage ditches. The CO2 efflux is made proportional to peat bulk density, soil temperature and O2 availability. Nutrient (N, P, K) release depends on decomposition and peat nutrient content. Growth limiting nutrient is detected by comparing the need and supply of nutrients. Increased supply of growth limiting nutrient is used to quantify the forest growth response to improved drainage. The extra yield is allocated into pulpwood and sawlogs based on volume of growing stock. The net present values of ditch cleaning operation and the gained extra yield are computed under different rates of interest to assess the profitability of the ditch cleaning. The hydrological sub-models of Susi-simulator were first parameterized using daily water flux data from Hyytiälä SMEAR II-site, after which the predictions were tested against independent hydrologic data from two drained peatland forests in Southern Finland. After verification of the hydrologic model, the CO2 efflux, nutrient release and forest growth proportionality hypothesis was tested and model performance validated against long-term forest growth and groundwater level data from 69 forested peatland sample plots in Central Finland. The results showed a clear relation between

  5. Water requirements of the pulp and paper industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussey, Orville D.

    1955-01-01

    Water, of varied qualities, is used for several purposes in the manufacture of pulp and paper, as a vehicle for transporting the constituents of paper in the paper machines; as process water for cooking wood chips to make pulp; as a medium for heat transfer; and for washing the pulpwood, the woodpulp, and the machines that handle the pulp. About 3,200 million gallons of water was withdrawn from surface- and ground-water sources each day during 1950 for the use of the pulp and paper industry. This is about 4 percent of the total estimated industrial withdrawal of water in the Nation The paper industry in the United States has been growing at a rapid rate. It has increased about tenfold in the last 50 years and has doubled every 15 years. The 1950 production of paper was about 24 million tons, which amounts to about 85 percent of the domestic consumption. In 1950, the pulp mills of the country produced more than 14 million tons of woodpulp, which supplied about 85 percent of the demand by the paper mills and other industries. The remainder of the fiber for paper manufacture was obtained from imported woodpulp, from reclaimed wastepaper, and from other fibers including rags and straw. The nationwide paper consumption for 1955 has been estimated at 31,700,000 tons. Woodpulp is classified according to the process by which it is made. Every woodpulp has characteristics that are carried over into the many and diverse grades of paper. Groundwood pulp is manufactured by simply grinding up wood and refining the resulting product. Soda, sulfite, and sulfate pulps are manufactured by chemically breaking down the lignin that cements the cellulose of the wood together and removing, cleaning, and sometimes bleaching the resulting fibers. Some woodpulp is produced by other methods. Sulfate-pulp mills are increasing in number and in rated daily capacity and are manufacturing more than half of the present domestic production of woodpulp. Most of the newer and larger woodpulp mills

  6. U.S. Forest Greenhouse Gas Impacts of a continued Expansion of E.U. Wood Pellet Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latta, G.; Baker, J.; Ohrel, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The United States has ambitious goals of greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions. A portion of these reductions are based on expected contributions from land use, land use change, and forestry (LULUCF). The European Union has similar goals which have resulted in a doubling of wood pellets exported from US ports destined for EU power plants over the last few years. There are potential conflicts between the GHG consequences of this pellet supply and the LULUCF contribution to US GHG goals. This study seeks to inform the discussion by modeling US forest GHG accounts using data measured on a grid of over 150,000 USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) forestland plots across the conterminous United States. Empirical yield functions are estimate from plot log volume, biomass and carbon and provide the basis for changes in forest characteristics over time. Demand data based on a spatial database of over 2,000 forest product manufacturing facilities representing 11 intermediate and 13 final solid and pulpwood products. Manufacturing and logging costs are specific to slope, log size, and volume removed along with transportation costs based on fuel prices, FIA plot, and milling locations. The resulting partial spatial equilibrium model of the US forest sector is solved annually for the period 2010 - 2030 with demand shifted by energy prices and macroeconomic indicators from the US EIA's Annual Energy Outlook for a series of potential wood pellet export targets. For each wood pellet export level simulated, figures showing historic and scenario-specific forest products production are generated. Maps of the spatial allocation of both forest harvesting and carbon fluxes are presented at the National level and detail is given in both the US North and Southeast.

  7. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  8. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Indirect Liquefaction of Blended Biomass to Produce High Octane Gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hao; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Tan, Eric; Biddy, Mary; Talmadge, Michael; Hartley, Damon S.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO also performs a supply chain sustainability analysis (SCSA). This report describes the SCSA of the production of renewable high octane gasoline (HOG) via indirect liquefaction (IDL) of lignocellulosic biomass. This SCSA was developed for the 2017 design case for feedstock logistics (INL, 2014) and for the 2022 target case for HOG production via IDL (Tan et al., 2015). The design includes advancements that are likely and targeted to be achieved by 2017 for the feedstock logistics and 2022 for the IDL conversion process. The 2017 design case for feedstock logistics demonstrated a delivered feedstock cost of $80 per dry U.S. short ton by the year 2017 (INL, 2014). The 2022 design case for the conversion process, as modeled in Tan et al. (2015), uses the feedstock 2017 design case blend of biomass feedstocks consisting of pulpwood, wood residue, switchgrass, and construction and demolition waste (C&D) with performance properties consistent with a sole woody feedstock type (e.g., pine or poplar). The HOG SCSA case considers the 2017 feedstock design case (the blend) as well as individual feedstock cases separately as alternative scenarios when the feedstock blend ratio varies as a result of a change in feedstock availability. These scenarios could be viewed as bounding SCSA results because of distinctive requirements for energy and chemical inputs for the production and logistics of different components of the blend feedstocks.

  9. From carbon sink to carbon source: extensive peat oxidation in insular Southeast Asia since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Jukka; Hooijer, Aljosja; Vernimmen, Ronald; Liew, Soo Chin; Page, Susan E.

    2017-02-01

    Tropical peatlands of the western part of insular Southeast Asia have experienced extensive land cover changes since 1990. Typically involving drainage, these land cover changes have resulted in increased peat oxidation in the upper peat profile. In this paper we provide current (2015) and cumulative carbon emissions estimates since 1990 from peat oxidation in Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo, utilizing newly published peatland land cover information and the recently agreed Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) peat oxidation emission values for tropical peatland areas. Our results highlight the change of one of the Earth’s most efficient long-term carbon sinks to a short-term emission source, with cumulative carbon emissions since 1990 estimated to have been in the order of 2.5 Gt C. Current (2015) levels of emissions are estimated at around 146 Mt C yr‑1, with a range of 132–159 Mt C yr‑1 depending on the selection of emissions factors for different land cover types. 44% (or 64 Mt C yr‑1) of the emissions come from industrial plantations (mainly oil palm and Acacia pulpwood), followed by 34% (49 Mt C yr‑1) of emissions from small-holder areas. Thus, altogether 78% of current peat oxidation emissions come from managed land cover types. Although based on the latest information, these estimates may still include considerable, yet currently unquantifiable, uncertainties (e.g. due to uncertainties in the extent of peatlands and drainage networks) which need to be focused on in future research. In comparison, fire induced carbon dioxide emissions over the past ten years for the entire equatorial Southeast Asia region have been estimated to average 122 Mt C yr‑1 (www.globalfiredata.org/_index.html). The results emphasise that whilst reducing emissions from peat fires is important, urgent efforts are also needed to mitigate the constantly high level of emissions arising from peat drainage, regardless of fire occurrence.

  10. Down-regulation of Leucaena leucocephala cinnamoyl CoA reductase (LlCCR) gene induces significant changes in phenotype, soluble phenolic pools and lignin in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Prashant, S; Srilakshmi Sunita, M; Pramod, S; Gupta, Ranadheer K; Anil Kumar, S; Rao Karumanchi, S; Rawal, S K; Kavi Kishor, P B

    2011-12-01

    cDNA and genomic clones of cinnamoyl CoA reductase measuring 1011 and 2992 bp were isolated from a leguminous pulpwood tree Leucaena leucocephala, named as LlCCR. The cDNA exhibited 80-85% homology both at the nucleotide and amino acid levels with other known sequences. The genomic sequence contained five exons and four introns. Sense and antisense constructs of LlCCR were introduced in tobacco plants to up and down-regulate this key enzyme of lignification. The primary transformants showed a good correlation between CCR transcript levels and its activity. Most of the CCR down-regulated lines displayed stunted growth and development, wrinkled leaves and delayed senescence. These lines accumulated unusual phenolics like ferulic and sinapic acids in cell wall. Histochemical staining suggested reduction in aldehyde units and increased syringyl over guaiacyl (S/G) ratio of lignin. Anatomical studies showed thin walled, elongated xylem fibres, collapsed vessels with drastic reduction of secondary xylem. The transmission electron microscopic studies revealed modification of ultrastructure and topochemical distribution of wall polysaccharides and lignin in the xylem fibres. CCR down-regulated lines showed increased thickness of secondary wall layers and poor lignification of S2 and S3 wall layers. The severely down-regulated line AS17 exhibited 24.7% reduction of Klason lignin with an increase of 15% holocellulose content. Contrarily, the CCR up-regulated lines exhibited robust growth, development and significant increase in lignin content. The altered lignin profiles observed in transgenic tobacco lines support a role for CCR down-regulation in improving wood properties of L. leucocephala exclusively used in the pulp and paper industry of India.

  11. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  12. In vitro propagation of Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis.

    PubMed

    Monteuuis, Olivier; Galiana, Antoine; Goh, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Acacia mangium and A. mangium × A. auriculiformis hybrids have gained an increasing interest in reafforestation programs under the humid tropical conditions, mainly for pulpwood production. This is due to their impressive growth on acid and degraded soils, as well as their capability to restore soil fertility thanks to their natural nitrogen-fixing ability. It is crucial to develop efficient methods for improving the genetic quality and the mass production of the planting stocks of these species. In this regard, in vitro micropropagation is well suited to overcome the limitations of more conventional techniques for mass propagating vegetatively selected juvenile, mature, or even transgenic genotypes. Micropropagation of A. mangium either from seeds or from explants collected from outdoors is initiated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA. Microshoot cultures produced by axillary budding are further developed and maintained by regular subcultures every 60 days onto fresh MS culture medium added with 2.2 μM BA + 0.1 μM NAA. This procedure enhances the organogenic capacity for shoot multiplication by axillary budding, with average multiplication rates of 3-5 every 2 months, as well as for adventitious rooting. The rooting is initiated on Schenk and Hildebrandt culture medium containing 4 μM IAA. The maintenance of shoot cultures in total darkness for 3 weeks increases the rooting rates reaching more than 70%. The hybrid A. mangium × A. auriculiformis genotypes are subcultured at 2-month intervals with an average multiplication rate of 3 and rooting rates of 95-100% on a half-strength MS basal medium containing 1.1 μM NAA. The rooted microshoots are transferred to ex vitro controlled conditions for acclimatization and further growth, prior to transfer to the field, or use as stock plants for cost-effective and true-to-type mass production by rooted cuttings.

  13. Space Radar Image of Lozere Department, Mende, France

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-01

    This is an X-band seasonal image of the central part of Lozere Departement situated south of the Massif Central in France. The image is 10 kilometers by 25 kilometers (6 miles by 15.5 miles) and is centered at approximately 44.3 degrees north latitude and 3 degrees east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994 and on October 6, 1994. The image channels have the following color assignments: red was acquired in April; green was acquired in October; and blue is the ratio of the two data sets combined. Seasonal differences in the vegetation are visible in pink, which are heaths growing in the spring. This research area features two large limestone plateaus cut by the famous Gorges du Tarn, standing in parallel with the granite mountain range known as the Cevennes Mountains nearby. Land-use consists mainly of grasslands, heaths and forests. Forest types seen in the images are Austrian pines,Scots pines, spruce, fir and beech trees. Most forests were planted at the end of the 19th century through a national reforestation program aimed at reducing the strong erosion risks in these areas. This program was so successful that today the forests are exploited for forest pulpwood and sawlogs, but also remain protected as conservation regions. The study being performed in this area will assess the potential of spaceborne radar remote sensing for temperate forest type mapping and forest resource monitoring. The combination of X-band SAR data with lower frequency data (such as the SIR-C L-band data) allows scientists to distinguish forest tree species and biomass, or areas of ground vegetation. The lessons learned from the radar images of these controlled forest regions can be applied to larger areas and naturally grown forests to help ecologists protect and maintain them. The SIR-C/X-SAR images will be investigated by scientists from the remote sensing laboratory

  14. Age-related trends in genetic parameters for Larix kaempferi and their implications for early selection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) has been introduced in China at the end of the 19th century, and as one successful exotic species, is becoming the preferred coniferous in northern China and sub-tropical alpine region. The rotation age is about 25-28 years for L. kaempferi as pulpwood in Henan province. Waiting for even one-half rotation age for final evaluation will be inefficient due to accumulated testing costs and delayed return on investment, which suggests that selection at an early age is highly desirable for L. kaempferi improvement programs in Henan province. In this study, we determined age trends of genetic parameters and evaluated early selection efficiency for L. kaempferi in Henan province to find out the appropriate trait for early selection and its selection age. Results Growth traits of 78 clones were measured periodically from age 2 to age 15 in a clonal trial of Larix kaempferi establishted at Son town, Henan Province. The genetic variation among clones, age-age correlations, and age trends in genetic parameters for growth traits were analyzed. Variant analysis revealed that tree height (HGT) and diameter at breast (DBH) were significant (1% level) among clones at every ages. The clonal repeatability of growth traits varied year-by-year, reaching the highest levels at different ages for different traits (0.77 at age 2 for HGT, 0.70 at age 5 for DBH and 0.66 from age 8 to age 10 for volume, respectively). The age-age genetic correlations ranged from 0.904 to 1.000 for HGT, and from 0943 to 1.000 for DBH. DBH at different ages was more genetically correlated to volume-15 than HGT. At the phenotypic level, HGT was always less correlated to volume-15 than DBH. With the estimates of efficiencies of early selection, the recommendation from present study was that the optimum age of early selection was age 2 for HGT and age 5 for DBH. Conclusions Our study showed that there were significant (1% level) on growth traits among clones at every

  15. Oxygen depletion and formation of toxic gases following sea transportation of logs and wood chips.

    PubMed

    Svedberg, Urban; Petrini, Caroline; Johanson, Gunnar

    2009-11-01

    Several recent accidents with fatal outcomes occurring during discharge of logs and wood chips from ships in Swedish ports indicate the need to better understand the atmospheric conditions in holds and connecting stairways. The principal aim of the present study was to assess the air levels of oxygen and toxic gases in confined spaces following sea transportation of logs and wood chips. The focus of the study was the conditions in the stairways, as this was the location of the reported accidents. Forty-one shipments of logs (pulpwood) and wood chips carried by 10 different ships were investigated before discharge in ports in northern Sweden. A full year was covered to accommodate variations due to seasonal temperature changes. The time from completion of loading to discharge was estimated to be 37-66 h (mean 46 h). Air samples were collected in the undisturbed air of altogether 76 stairways before the hatch covers were removed. The oxygen level was measured on-site by handheld direct-reading multi-gas monitors. On 16 of the shipments, air samples were additionally collected in Tedlar bags for later analysis for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mean oxygen level was 10% (n = 76) but in 17% of the samples the oxygen level was 0%. The oxygen depletion was less pronounced during the cold season. The mean CO2 and CO levels were 7.5% (n = 26) and 46 p.p.m. (n = 28), respectively. More than 90% of the hydrocarbons were explained by monoterpenes, mainly alpha-pinene (mean 41 p.p.m., (n = 26). In conclusion, the measurements show that transport of logs and wood chips in confined spaces may result in rapid and severe oxygen depletion and CO(2) formation. Thus, apparently harmless cargoes may create potentially life-threatening conditions. The oxygen depletion and CO(2) formation are seemingly primarily caused by microbiological activity, in contrast to the oxidative processes with higher CO formation that

  16. Oxygen Depletion and Formation of Toxic Gases following Sea Transportation of Logs and Wood Chips

    PubMed Central

    Svedberg, Urban; Petrini, Caroline; Johanson, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    Several recent accidents with fatal outcomes occurring during discharge of logs and wood chips from ships in Swedish ports indicate the need to better understand the atmospheric conditions in holds and connecting stairways. The principal aim of the present study was to assess the air levels of oxygen and toxic gases in confined spaces following sea transportation of logs and wood chips. The focus of the study was the conditions in the stairways, as this was the location of the reported accidents. Forty-one shipments of logs (pulpwood) and wood chips carried by 10 different ships were investigated before discharge in ports in northern Sweden. A full year was covered to accommodate variations due to seasonal temperature changes. The time from completion of loading to discharge was estimated to be 37–66 h (mean 46 h). Air samples were collected in the undisturbed air of altogether 76 stairways before the hatch covers were removed. The oxygen level was measured on-site by handheld direct-reading multi-gas monitors. On 16 of the shipments, air samples were additionally collected in Tedlar® bags for later analysis for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The mean oxygen level was 10% (n = 76) but in 17% of the samples the oxygen level was 0%. The oxygen depletion was less pronounced during the cold season. The mean CO2 and CO levels were 7.5% (n = 26) and 46 p.p.m. (n = 28), respectively. More than 90% of the hydrocarbons were explained by monoterpenes, mainly α-pinene (mean 41 p.p.m., (n = 26). In conclusion, the measurements show that transport of logs and wood chips in confined spaces may result in rapid and severe oxygen depletion and CO2 formation. Thus, apparently harmless cargoes may create potentially life-threatening conditions. The oxygen depletion and CO2 formation are seemingly primarily caused by microbiological activity, in contrast to the oxidative processes with higher CO formation that

  17. Nest survival of forest birds in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    vimns, 7%), eastern towhee (14%), indigo bunting (14%), and northern cardinal (17%) did not differ from nest success in cottonwood plantations that were coppiced from root sprouts following pulpwood harvest. Within bottomland hardwood forests, uneven-aged group-selection timber harvest reduced the combined daily nest survival of all species from 0.958 to 0.938, which reduced nest success by about 14%. Specifically, timber harvest reduced nest success of species that nest in the forest midstory and canopy, such as Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens)--from 32% before harvest to 14% after harvest. Conversely, those species that nest primarily in the shrubby understory--such as northern cardinal--were not affected by timber harvest and maintained an overall nest success of about 33%. Thus, birds nesting in the understory of bottomland hardwood forests are not adversely impacted by selective timber harvest, but there is a short-term reduction in nest success for birds that nest in the canopy and midstory.

  18. Smoke and fires from Sumatra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    than the 870,000 bpd target. Although slash-and-burn techniques, which use fire to clear land, is illegal in Indonesia, the practice is still widespread, with approximately 99% of fires in Sumatra considered to be intentionally set. This year’s early agricultural fires began in February in Riau Province, home to palm-oil and pulpwood plantations. The emergency has prompted strong government response, including a shoot-on-sight order for any suspects involved in land burning activities that resisted arrest. According to the Jakarta Post, police have named as many as 60 suspected-fire starters in Riau. Credit: NASA/GSFC/Jeff Schmaltz/MODIS Land Rapid Response Team NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  19. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    considered. The 2005 BTS did not attempt to include any wood that would normally be used for higher-valued products (e.g., pulpwood) that could potentially shift to bioenergy applications. This would have required a separate economic analysis, which was not part of the 2005 BTS. The agriculture resources in the 2005 BTS included grains used for biofuels production; crop residues derived primarily from corn, wheat, and small grains; and animal manures and other residues. The cropland resource analysis also included estimates of perennial energy crops (e.g., herbaceous grasses, such as switchgrass, woody crops like hybrid poplar, as well as willow grown under short rotations and more intensive management than conventional plantation forests). Woody crops were included under cropland resources because it was assumed that they would be grown on a combination of cropland and pasture rather than forestland. In the 2005 BTS, current resource availability was estimated at 278 million dry tons annually from forestlands and slightly more than 194 million dry tons annually from croplands. These annual quantities increase to about 370 million dry tons from forestlands and to nearly 1 billion dry tons from croplands under scenario conditions of high-yield growth and large-scale plantings of perennial grasses and woody tree crops. This high-yield scenario reflects a mid-century timescale ({approx}2040-2050). Under conditions of lower-yield growth, estimated resource potential was projected to be about 320 and 580 million dry tons for forest and cropland biomass, respectively. As noted earlier, the 2005 BTS emphasized the primary resources (agricultural and forestry residues and energy crops) because they represent nearly 80% of the long-term resource potential. Since publication of the BTS in April 2005, there have been some rather dramatic changes in energy markets. In fact, just prior to the actual publication of the BTS, world oil prices started to increase as a result of a burgeoning