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Sample records for pulsatile flow phantom

  1. A Pulsatile Flow Phantom for Image-Guided HIFU Hemostasis of Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaby, Robyn; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-01

    A pulsatile flow phantom for studying ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis in a controlled environment has been developed. An ex vivo porcine carotid artery was attached to the phantom and embedded in a visually and ultrasonically transparent gel. Heparinized porcine blood was pumped through the phantom. Power-Doppler and B-mode ultrasound were used to remotely target the HIFU focus to the site of a needle puncture. In nine trials, complete hemostasis was achieved after an average HIFU application of 55 +/- 34 seconds. The vessels remained patent after treatment. With this phantom, it will be possible to do controlled studies of ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis.

  2. Easy Pulsatile Phantom for Teaching and Validation of Flow Measurements in Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rominger, M. B.; Müller-Stuler, E.-M.; Pinto, M.; Becker, A. S.; Martini, K.; Frauenfelder, T.; Klingmüller, V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To build a simple model to teach and validate non-pulsatile and pulsatile flow quantification in ultrasound. Materials and Methods: The setting consists of the following connected components: (1) medical syringe pump producing an adjustable constant flow (ml/min), (2) modulator modifying constant flow to a reproducible pulsatile flow, (3) water tank containing a diagonal running silicone tube (0.5 mm inner diameter), and (4) a fixated ultrasound probe (L9 Linear Array 9 MHz, GE Logiq E9) measuring the flow inside the tube. Commercially available microbubbles suspended with physiological saline solution were used for ultrasonic visibility. Spectral Doppler of different flow profiles is performed. Results: The syringe pump produces an adjustable, constant flow and serves as the reference standard. The filling volume of the tube system is 1.2 ml. Microbubbles are very well detected by ultrasound and can be used as an easy and clean blood mimicking substance. The modulator generates different physiological and pathological flow profiles. Velocities are similar to those found within human blood vessels. Thus, it is possible to train and validate flow measurements in ultrasound. Conclusion: The model produces non-pulsatile and various pulsatile flow profiles and allows validation of flow measurements. The compact size permits easy and economic setup for flow measurements in research, skills lab and continuing education.

  3. Pulsatile flow characterization in a vessel phantom with elastic wall using ultrasonic particle image velocimetry technique: the impact of vessel stiffness on flow dynamics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ming; Niu, Lili; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek; Zhou, Qifa; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to experimentally investigate the impact of vessel stiffness on the flow dynamics of pulsatile vascular flow. Vessel phantoms with elastic walls were fabricated using polyvinyl alcohol cryogel to result in stiffness ranging from 60.9 to 310.3 kPa and tested with pulsatile flows using a flow circulation set-up. Two-dimensional instantaneous and time-dependent flow velocity and shear rate vector fields were measured using ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (EchoPIV). The waveforms of peak velocities measured by EchoPIV were compared with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler spectrum, and the measuring accuracy was validated. The cyclic vessel wall motion and flow pressure were obtained as well. The results showed that vessel stiffening influenced the waveforms resulting from vessel wall distension and flow pressure, and the fields of flow velocity and shear rate. The stiffer vessel had smaller inner diameter variation, larger pulse pressure and median pressure. The velocity and shear rate maximized at peak systole for all vessels. The results showed a decrease in wall shear stress for a stiffer vessel, which can initiate the atherosclerotic process. Our study elucidates the impact of vessel stiffness on several flow dynamic parameters, and also demonstrates the EchoPIV technique to be a useful and powerful tool in cardiovascular research.

  4. Fractality of pulsatile flow in speckle images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, M.; Kenjeres, S.; Urbach, H. P.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2016-05-01

    The scattering of coherent light from a system with underlying flow can be used to yield essential information about dynamics of the process. In the case of pulsatile flow, there is a rapid change in the properties of the speckle images. This can be studied using the standard laser speckle contrast and also the fractality of images. In this paper, we report the results of experiments performed to study pulsatile flow with speckle images, under different experimental configurations to verify the robustness of the techniques for applications. In order to study flow under various levels of complexity, the measurements were done for three in-vitro phantoms and two in-vivo situations. The pumping mechanisms were varied ranging from mechanical pumps to the human heart for the in vivo case. The speckle images were analyzed using the techniques of fractal dimension and speckle contrast analysis. The results of these techniques for the various experimental scenarios were compared. The fractal dimension is a more sensitive measure to capture the complexity of the signal though it was observed that it is also extremely sensitive to the properties of the scattering medium and cannot recover the signal for thicker diffusers in comparison to speckle contrast.

  5. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  6. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  7. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  8. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  9. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  10. Cardiac flow measurement by ultrafast CT: validation of continuous and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ludman, P F; Darby, M; Tomlinson, N; Poole-Wilson, P A; Rees, S

    1992-01-01

    To gauge the accuracy of ultrafast CT in measuring cardiac output and myocardial perfusion in humans, measurements of continuous and pulsatile flow were made in a large asymmetrical phantom. The variation in the relationship between Hounsfield number and contrast concentration was assessed in a human thorax phantom. Radiopaque contrast medium was injected during perfusion of the phantom at a range of flow rates between 1.5 and 8 L/min. The phantom was scanned in two modes (50 and 100 ms) during continuous and pulsatile flow and with the phantom surrounded by air and by water. Flow in the tubes was calculated using indicator dilution theory, and flow in the tissue-equivalent chamber was calculated by applying first-pass distribution principles. The standard deviation of the difference between calculated and measured flow varied from 0.2 to 0.6 L/min, giving 95% limits of agreement from 0.4 to 1.2 L/min. The constant (K) relating Hounsfield unit number to iodine concentration varied widely both in different locations within the phantom and under different scan conditions (17.2-27.6 HU/mg I). Within a human thorax phantom, K varied from 14.15 to 23.18 HU/mg I and was dependent on location within the thorax phantom, the scan mode, and the cross-sectional diameter of the phantom. These data suggest that though the ultrafast CT scanner can measure continuous and pulsatile flow accurately in tubes, precise measurements of cardiac output in humans will require K to be assessed for each subject. Measurements of flow in tissue should be possible. PMID:1522275

  11. Study on the effect of steady, simple pulsatile and physiological pulsatile flows through a stenosed artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, P.; Mandal, D. K.; Manna, N. K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, the comparison of steady, simple pulsatile flow and physiological pulsatile flow on flow reversal zone and hemodynamic wall parameters [wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI)] for the progression of the disease, atherosclerosis has been investigated numerically. The governing equations have been solved by finite volume method. For the numerical analysis, Womersley number, Reynolds number and percentage of restriction are taken as 10, 100 and 50 % respectively. From this study it is revealed that the separated flow from the stenosis strongly depends on inlet flow situations, the maximum chance of deposition of plaque material due to streamline contour is higher at time step t* = 0.75 for simple pulsatile flow and at time step t* = 0 for physiological pulsatile flow and this chance is lower in case of steady flow. The effect of WSS on the disease is higher in physiological pulsatile flow compared to steady as well as simple pulsatile flow. The maximum possibility of initiation as well as progression for atherosclerosis in arterial wall due to high WSS takes place at t* = 0.25 for physiological pulsatile flow. OSI indicates same length of separation for two cases of transient flow, but the rate of cyclic departure of WSS is higher in case of physiological pulsatile flow.

  12. Defining pulsatility during continuous-flow ventricular assist device support.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Kevin G; Koenig, Steven C; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CVADs) have gained widespread use as an effective clinical therapy for patients with advanced-stage heart failure. Axial and centrifugal CVADs have been successfully used as bridge-to-transplant and destination therapy. CVADs are smaller, more reliable, and less complex than the first-generation pulsatile-flow ventricular assist devices. Despite their recent clinical success, arteriovenous malformations, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic strokes, aortic valve insufficiency, and valve fusion have been reported in heart failure patients supported by CVADs. It has been hypothesized that diminished arterial pressure and flow pulsatility delivered by CVAD may be a contributing factor to these adverse events. Subsequently, the clinical significance of vascular pulsatility continues to be highly debated. Studies comparing pulsatile-flow and continuous-flow support have presented conflicting findings, largely due to variations in device operation, support duration, and the criteria used to quantify pulsatility. Traditional measurements of pulse pressure and pulsatility index are less effective at quantifying pulsatility for mechanically derived flows, particularly with the growing trend of CVAD speed modulation to achieve various pulsatile flow patterns. Kinetic measurements of energy equivalent pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy can better quantify pulsatile energies, yet technologic and conceptual challenges are impeding their clinical adaption. A review of methods for quantifying vascular pulsatility and their application as a research tool for investigating physiologic responses to CVAD support are presented. PMID:23540401

  13. Phantom-based ground-truth generation for cerebral vessel segmentation and pulsatile deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetelig, Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Sedlacik, Jan; Kording, Fabian; Werner, René

    2016-03-01

    Hemodynamic and mechanical factors of the vascular system are assumed to play a major role in understanding, e.g., initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Among those factors, cardiac cycle-related pulsatile motion and deformation of cerebral vessels currently attract much interest. However, imaging of those effects requires high spatial and temporal resolution and remains challenging { and similarly does the analysis of the acquired images: Flow velocity changes and contrast media inflow cause vessel intensity variations in related temporally resolved computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography data over the cardiac cycle and impede application of intensity threshold-based segmentation and subsequent motion analysis. In this work, a flow phantom for generation of ground-truth images for evaluation of appropriate segmentation and motion analysis algorithms is developed. The acquired ground-truth data is used to illustrate the interplay between intensity fluctuations and (erroneous) motion quantification by standard threshold-based segmentation, and an adaptive threshold-based segmentation approach is proposed that alleviates respective issues. The results of the phantom study are further demonstrated to be transferable to patient data.

  14. Effects of the pulsatile flow settings on pulsatile waveforms and hemodynamic energy in a PediVAS centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Rider, Alan R; Kunselman, Allen R; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test different pulsatile flow settings of the PediVAS centrifugal pump to seek an optimum setting for pulsatile flow to achieve better pulsatile energy and minimal backflow. The PediVAS centrifugal pump and the conventional pediatric clinical circuit, including a pediatric membrane oxygenator, arterial filter, arterial cannula, and 1/4 in circuit tubing were used. The circuit was primed with 40% glycerin water mixture. Postcannula pressure was maintained at 40 mm Hg by a Hoffman clamp. The experiment was conducted at 800 ml/min of pump flow with a modified pulsatile flow setting at room temperature. Pump flow and pressure readings at preoxygenator and precannula sites were simultaneously recorded by a data acquisition system. The results showed that backflows appeared at flow rates of 200-800 ml/min (200 ml/min increments) with the default pulsatile flow setting and only at 200 ml/min with the modified pulsatile flow setting. With an increased rotational speed difference ratio and a decreased pulsatile width, the pulsatility increased in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy and total hemodynamic energy at preoxygenator and precannula sites. Backflows seemed at preoxygenator and precannula sites at a 70% of rotational speed difference ratio. The modified pulsatile flow setting was better than the default pulsatile flow setting in respect to pulsatile energy and backflow. The pulsatile width and the rotational speed difference ratio significantly affected pulsatility. The parameter of the rotational speed difference ratio can automatically increase pulsatility with increased rotational speeds. Further studies will be conducted to optimize the pulsatile flow setting of the centrifugal pump.

  15. A novel rotary pulsatile flow pump for cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Teman, Nicholas R; Mazur, Daniel E; Toomasian, John; Jahangir, Emilia; Alghanem, Fares; Goudie, Marcus; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Haft, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that pulsatile blood flow is superior to continuous flow (CF) in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, adoption of pulsatile flow (PF) technology has been limited because of practicality and complexity of creating a consistent physiologic pulse. A pediatric pulsatile rotary ventricular pump (PRVP) was designed to address this problem. We evaluated the PRVP in an animal model and determined its ability to generate PF during CPB. The PRVP (modified peristaltic pump, with tapering of the outlet of the pump chamber) was tested in four piglets (10-12 kg). Cannulation was performed with right atrial and aortic cannulae, and pressure sensors were inserted into the femoral arteries. Pressure curves were obtained at different levels of flow and compared with both the animal's baseline physiologic function and a CF roller pump. Pressure and flow waveforms demonstrated significant pulsatility in the PRVP setup compared with CF at all tested conditions. Measurement of hemodynamic energy data, including the percentage pulsatile energy and the surplus hydraulic energy, also revealed a significant increase in pulsatility with the PRVP (p < 0.001). The PRVP creates physiologically significant PF, similar to the pulsatility of a native heart, and has the potential to be easily implemented in pediatric CPB.

  16. Collapse in High-Grade Stenosis during Pulsatile Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunichi; Tang, Dalin; Ku, David N.

    It has been hypothesized that blood flow through high grade stenotic arteries may produce conditions in which elastic flow choking may occur. The development of atherosclerotic plaque fracture may be exacerbated by the compressive stresses during collapse. This study explored the effects of pulsatile flow on stenotic flow collapse. Pulsatile flow was produced using a gear pump controlled by a digitized physiologic waveform. Upstream and downstream mean pressures and pulsatile flow rates were measured and digitized. An improved model of arterial stenosis was created using an elastomer with an incremental modulus of elasticity matched to a bovine carotid artery in the relevant range of collapse. Additionally, the model retained a very thick wall in the stenotic region similar to arterial disease. Flow choking was observed for pulsatile pressure drops close to those previously reported for steady flow. The phase difference between flow rate and pressure between upstream and downstream of the stenosis occurred by the compliance of tube and stenosis resistance. For 80% nominal stenosis by diameter and 100+/-30mmHg upstream pressure, collapse occurred for average pulsatile pressure drops of 93mmHg. Pulsatile flow experiments in this model revealed the range of conditions for the flow choking and the paradoxical collapse of the stenosis during systole with expansion during diastole. The stenosis severity was dynamic through the pulse cycle and was significantly greater under flow than the nominal severity. The results indicate that flow choking and stenotic compression may be significant in thick-walled arterial stenoses subjected to pulsatile flow.

  17. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  18. Effects of non-pulsatile flow on thrombogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Ralph; Harting, Matthew; Delgado, Reynolds; Frazier, O. Howard

    2002-11-01

    Congestive heart failure afflicts 4.5 million people in the US alone, with an average 5-year mortality of more than 50%. Among the most promising treatments for this condition are VADs (ventricular assist devices). While conventional pulsatile flow VADs are large and introduce some significant complications such as thrombosis, non-pulsatile axial flow VADs have potentially significant advantages in being smaller, with smaller thrombogenic surfaces. However, the long term effects of non-pulsatile flow on the vascular system are not well understood. We have investigated the effects of pulsatility of blood flow in the stenotic human carotid artery using unsteady, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations. We have found that permanent, low shear stagnation zones can develop distal to stenoses with non-pulsatile flow, potentially leading to thrombus formation. In contrast, systolic peak flow tends to flush out such stagnation zones. These results are consistent with observed thrombus formation in two patients who underwent implantation of a Jarvik 2000 LVAD.

  19. Combined MRI and CFD analysis of fully developed steady and pulsatile laminar flow through a bend.

    PubMed

    Weston, S J; Wood, N B; Tabor, G; Gosman, A D; Firmin, D N

    1998-01-01

    A combined MR and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study is made of flow in a simple phantom laboratory flow rig consisting of a 180 degree bend with straight entry and exit sections. The aim was to investigate the potential of the use of MRI-linked CFD simulations for in vivo use. To this end, the experiment was set up for both steady and pulsatile laminar flow conditions, with Reynolds and Dean numbers and Womersley pulsatility parameter representative of resting flow in the human aorta. The geometrical images of the pipe and the velocity images at entry to the bend were used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of the flow. The CFD results for both steady and pulsatile cases compared favorably with velocity images obtained at exit from the bend. Additional information such as pressure and wall shear stress, which either could not be measured adequately via MRI, or could not be measured at all, was also extracted from the simulation. Overall, the results were sufficiently promising to justify pursuing subsequent in vivo studies.

  20. A new method of providing pulsatile flow in a centrifugal pump: assessment of pulsatility using a mock circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Herreros, Jesús; Berjano, Enrique J; Sales-Nebot, Laura; Más, Pedro; Calvo, Irene; Mastrobuoni, Stefano; Mercé, Salvador

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential advantages of pulsatile flow as compared with continuous flow. However, to date, physiologic pumps have been technically complex and their application has therefore remained in the experimental field. We have developed a new type of centrifugal pump, which can provide pulsatile as well as continuous flow. The inner wall of a centrifugal pump is pulsed by means of a flexible membrane, which can be accurately controlled by means of either a hydraulic or pneumatic driver. The aim of this study was to assess the hydraulic behavior of the new pump in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). We conducted experiments using a mock circulatory system including a membrane oxygenator. No differences were found in the pressure-flow characteristics between the new pump and a conventional centrifugal pump, suggesting that the inclusion of the flexible membrane does not alter hydraulic performance. The value of SHE rose when systolic volume was increased. However, SHE dropped when the percentage of ejection time was reduced and also when the continuous flow (programmed by the centrifugal console) increased. Mean flow matched well with the continuous flow set by the centrifugal console, that is, the pulsatile component of the flow was exclusively controlled by the pulsatile console, and was therefore independent of the continuous flow programmed by the centrifugal console. The pulsatility of the new pump was approximately 25% of that created with a truly pulsatile pump.

  1. Fiber-Based Laser Speckle Imaging for the Detection of Pulsatile Flow

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Caitlin; Yang, Bruce Y.; Mayzel, Kent C.; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C.; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Choi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective In endodontics, a major diagnostic challenge is the accurate assessment of pulp status. In this study, we designed and characterized a fiber-based laser speckle imaging system to study pulsatile blood flow in the tooth. Study Design/Materials and Methods To take transilluminated laser speckle images of the teeth, we built a custom fiber-based probe. To assess our ability to detect changes in pulsatile flow, we performed in vitro and preliminary in vivo tests on tissue-simulating phantoms and human teeth. We imaged flow of intralipid in a glass microchannel at simulated heart rates ranging from 40 beats/minute (bpm) to 120 bpm (0.67–2.00 Hz). We also collected in vivo data from the upper front incisors of healthy subjects. From the measured raw speckle data, we calculated temporal speckle contrast versus time. With frequency-domain analysis, we identified the frequency components of the contrast waveforms. Results With our approach, we observed in vitro the presence of pulsatile flow at different simulated heart rates. We characterized simulated heart rate with an accuracy of and >98%. In the in vivo proof-of-principle experiment, we measured heart rates of 69, 90, and 57 bpm, which agreed with measurements of subject heart rate taken with a wearable, commercial pulse oximeter. Conclusions We designed, built, and tested the performance of a dental imaging probe. Data from in vitro and in vivo tests strongly suggest that this probe can detect the presence of pulsatile flow. LSI may enable endodontists to noninvasively assess pulpal vitality via direct measurement of blood flow. PMID:26202900

  2. Visualization of pulsatile flow for magnetic nanoparticle based therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzel, Andrew; Yecko, Philip

    2015-11-01

    Pulsatile flow of blood through branched, curved, stenosed, dilated or otherwise perturbed vessels is more complex than flow through a straight, uniform and rigid tube. In some magnetic hyperthermia and magnetic chemo-therapies, localized regions of magnetic nanoparticle laden fluid are deliberately formed in blood vessels and held in place by magnetic fields. The effect of localized magnetic fluid regions on blood flow and the effect of the pulsatile blood flow on such magnetic fluid regions are poorly understood and difficult to examine in vivo or by numerical simulation. We present a laboratory model that facilitates both dye tracer and particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) studies of pulsatile flow of water through semi-flexible tubes in the presence of localized magnetic fluid regions. Results on the visualization of flows over a range of Reynolds and Womersley numbers and for several different (water-based) ferrofluids are compared for straight and curved vessels and for different magnetic localization strategies. These results can guide the design of improved magnetic cancer therapies. Support from the William H. Sandholm Program of Cooper Union's Kanbar Center for Biomedical Engineering is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Page R; Edén, Patrik; Bengtsson, Hans-Uno

    2006-01-01

    Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches) of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law. PMID:16923189

  4. The dynamics of pulsatile flow in distensible model arteries.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W; Zimmer, R

    1995-12-01

    Deposits and blockages are often found in the carotid, coronary, renal and femoral arteries. This paper deals with laser-Doppler velocity measurements in models of bifurcations of the human femoral arteries. Several models were prepared for the studies: a simplified 35 degrees glass model, two elastic-silicone-rubber models with a wall thickness of 1 mm and 2 mm, and true-to-scale rigid and elastic models. These measurements give a clearer picture of how hemodynamics influences the formation of atherosclerotic plaques where there is a hardening of the arterial walls and a loss of elasticity. In addition to the effects of elasticity, the influence of the flow's pulsatility were studied. The measurements were done in steady and pulsatile flow. From the velocity measurements the shear stresses were calculated.

  5. Increased erythrocyte adhesion to VCAM-1 during pulsatile flow: Application of a microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay

    PubMed Central

    White, Jennell; Lancelot, Moira; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hines, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by microvascular occlusion mediated by adhesive interactions of sickle erythrocytes (SSRBCs) to the endothelium. Most in vitro flow adhesion assays measure SSRBC adhesion during continuous flow, although in vivo SSRBC adhesive interactions occur during pulsatile flow. Using a well-plate microfluidic flow adhesion system, we demonstrate that isolated SSRBCs adhere to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) at greater levels during pulsatile versus continuous flow. A significant increase in adhesive interactions was observed between all pulse frequencies 1 Hz to 2 Hz (60–120 beats/min) when compared to non-pulsatile flow. Adhesion of isolated SSRBCs and whole blood during pulsatile flow was unaffected by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, and exposure of SSRBCs to pulsatile flow did not affect the intrinsic adhesive properties of SSRBCs. The cell type responsible for increased adhesion of whole blood varied from patient to patient. We conclude that low flow periods of the pulse cycle allow more adhesive interactions between sickle erythrocytes and VCAM-1, and sickle erythrocyte adhesion in the context of whole blood may better reflect physiologic cellular interactions. The microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay used in this study may have applications for clinical assessment of sickle erythrocyte adhesion during pulsatile flow. PMID:24898561

  6. Estimation of pressure gradients in pulsatile flow from magnetic resonance acceleration measurements.

    PubMed

    Tasu, J P; Mousseaux, E; Delouche, A; Oddou, C; Jolivet, O; Bittoun, J

    2000-07-01

    A method for estimating pressure gradients from MR images is demonstrated. Making the usual assumption that the flowing medium is a Newtonian fluid, and with appropriate boundary conditions, the inertial forces (or acceleration components of the flow) are proportional to the pressure gradients. The technique shown here is based on an evaluation of the inertial forces from Fourier acceleration encoding. This method provides a direct measurement of the total acceleration defined as the sum of the velocity derivative vs. time and the convective acceleration. The technique was experimentally validated by comparing MR and manometer pressure gradient measurements obtained in a pulsatile flow phantom. The results indicate that the MR determination of pressure gradients from an acceleration measurement is feasible with a good correlation with the true measurements (r = 0.97). The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in the aorta of a normal volunteer. Magn Reson Med 44:66-72, 2000. PMID:10893523

  7. In vitro heart valve testing: steady versus pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Black, M M; Hose, D R; Lamb, C J; Lawford, P V; Ralph, S J

    1994-03-01

    The design of artificial heart valves has traditionally been based on the development of a prototype device which was then subjected to extensive laboratory testing in order to confirm its suitability for clinical use. In the past the in vitro assessment of a valve's performance was based principally on the measurement of parameters such as pressure difference, regurgitation and, more recently, energy losses. Such measurements can be defined as being at the 'macro' level and rarely show any clinically significant differences amongst currently available prostheses. The analytical approach to flow through heart valves has previously been hampered by difficulties experienced in solving the relevant equations of flow particularly in the case of pulsatile conditions. Computational techniques are now available which enable appropriate solutions to be obtained for these problems and consequently provide an opportunity for detailed examination of the 'micro' level of flow disturbances exhibited by the different valves. This present preliminary study is designed to illustrate the use of such an analytical approach to the flow through prosthetic valves. A single topic has been selected for this purpose which is the comparative value of steady versus pulsatile flow testing. A bileaflet valve was chosen for the analysis and a mathematical model of this valve in the aortic position of the Sheffield Pulse Duplicator was created. The theoretical analysis was carried out using a commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics package, namely, FIDAP, on a SUN MICROSYSTEMS 10-30 workstation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Pulsatility flow around a single cylinder - an experimental model of flow inside an artificial lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Bull, Joseph L.

    2004-11-01

    Pulsatile flow past a single cylinder is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry. This study aims to elucidate the effects of pulstility on the velocity field, which influences the convection-dominated transport within the fluid. The artificial lung device can be connected in parallel or series with the native lungs and may potentially be used as a bridge to transplant or for pulmonary replacement. The artificial lung consists of hollow microfibers through which gas flows and blood flows around. Blood flow through the device is pulsatile because it is driven entirely by the right heart. Steady flow over bluff bodies has been investigated in many contexts, such as heat exchangers. However, few studies have been investigated the effect of pulsatility. The effects of frequency, amplitude of pulsatility, and average flow rate on the formation of vortices after a cylinder are examined. Vortices near the cylinder are found to develop at lower Reynolds number in pulsatile flow than in steady flow. This work is supported by NIH grant R01 HL69420-01.

  9. Effect of Flow Pulsatility on Modeling the Hemodynamics in the Total Cavopulmonary Connection

    PubMed Central

    khiabani, Reza H.; Restrepo, Maria; Tang, Elaine; De Zélicourt, Diane; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Fogel, Mark; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2012-01-01

    Total Cavopulmonary Connection is the result of a series of palliative surgical repairs performed on patients with single ventricle heart defects. The resulting anatomy has complex and unsteady hemodynamics characterized by flow mixing and flow separation. Although varying degrees of flow pulsatility have been observed in vivo, non-pulsatile (time-averaged) boundary conditions have traditionally been assumed in hemodynamic modeling, and only recently have pulsatile conditions been incorporated without completely characterizing their effect or importance. In this study, 3D numerical simulations with both pulsatile and non-pulsatile boundary conditions were performed for 24 patients with different anatomies and flow boundary conditions from Georgia Tech database. Flow structures, energy dissipation rates and pressure drops were compared under rest and simulated exercise conditions. It was found that flow pulsatility is the primary factor in determining the appropriate choice of boundary conditions, whereas the anatomic configuration and cardiac output had secondary effects. Results show that the hemodynamics can be strongly influenced by the presence of pulsatile flow. However, there was a minimum pulsatility threshold, identified by defining a weighted pulsatility index (wPI), above which the influence was significant. It was shown that when wPI < 30%, the relative error in hemodynamic predictions using time-averaged boundary conditions was less than 10% compared to pulsatile simulations. In addition, when wPI <50, the relative error was less than 20%. A correlation was introduced to relate wPI to the relative error in predicting the flow metrics with non-pulsatile flow conditions. PMID:22841650

  10. Three-dimensional flow separation over a surface-mounted hemisphere in pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Flow separation over a surface-mounted obstacle is prevalent in numerous applications. Previous studies of 3D separation around protuberances have been limited to steady flow. In biological and geophysical flows, pulsatile conditions are frequently encountered, yet this situation has not been extensively studied. Primarily motivated by our previous studies of the flow patterns observed in various human vocal fold pathologies such as polyps, our research aimed to fill this gap in the knowledge concerning unsteady 3D flow separation. This is achieved by characterizing velocity fields surrounding the obstacle, focused primarily on the vortical flow structures and dynamics that occur around a hemispheroid in pulsatile flow. As part of this study, two-dimensional, instantaneous and phase-averaged particle image velocimetry data in both steady and pulsatile flows are presented and compared. Coherent vortical flow structures have been identified by their swirling strength. This analysis revealed flow structures with dynamics dependent on the pulsatile forcing function. A mechanism to explain the formation and observed dynamics of these flow structures based on the self-induced velocity of vortex rings interacting with the unsteady flow is proposed.

  11. Cinematics and sticking of heart valves in pulsatile flow test.

    PubMed

    Köhler, J; Wirtz, R

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the project was to develop laboratory test devices for studies of the cinematics and sticking behaviour of technical valve protheses. The second step includes testing technical valves of different types and sizes under static and dynamic conditions. A force-deflection balance was developed in order to load valve rims by static radial forces until sticking or loss of a disc (sticking- and clamping-mould point) with computer-controlled force deflection curves. A second deflection device was developed and used for prosthetic valves in the aortic position of a pulsatile mock circulation loop with simultaneous video-cinematography. The stiffness of technical valve rims varied between 0.20 (St. Jude) and about 1.0 N/micron (metal rim valves). The stiffness decreased significantly with increasing valve size. Sticking under pulsatile flow conditions was in good agreement with the static deflection measurements. Hence, valve sticking with increasing danger of thrombus formation is more likely with a less stiff valve rim. In the case of forces acting perpendicularly to the pendulum axis, the clamping mould-point of the valve can be reached, followed by disc dislodgement. PMID:1864654

  12. An experimental study of pulsatile flow through compliant tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Victoria; Savas, Omer; Saloner, David

    2006-11-01

    An experimental investigation is made into transitional behaviors and instability of oscillatory input flows through elastic tubes, a problem with applications to hemodynamics and flows in the pulmonary system. Sinusoidal input flow is driven through a compliant silicone model in a series of experiments to investigate the effects of wall motion. A novel mechanism allows active control and feedback over the pressure on the tube exterior. By comparing the pressure within and outside of the tube and modifying the exterior pressure accordingly, the tube is inflated in a controlled manner without altering the input flow. In these experiments, the tube wall is deformed sinusoidally with an amplitude of approximately ten percent of its radius. Experiments are conducted using varying values of the parameters α= a √φν and β= δx √φν where a is the tube radius, φ the angular velocity of the input flow, ν the kinematic viscosity, and δx the cross-stream averaged periodic displacement of a fluid particle undergoing pulsatile motion. For a given α, it is found that indications of conditional turbulence appear in this flow through elastic tubes at far lower values of β - and thus at lower amplitudes of oscillation - than are reported in the literature for flows through rigid tubing.

  13. Microprocessor-controlled pulsatile flow loop for hemodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T G; Hobson, R W; Pawel, H E

    1986-03-01

    Validation of spectral analytic techniques in the clinical assessment and quantitation of vascular stenoses has been aided by use of in vitro flow loops. We have used a recently developed microprocessor-controlled pulsatile flow model to examine the influence of varying stenoses on Doppler-shifted peak systolic frequencies. A nonaxisymmetric, vertically oriented stenosis was produced by extrinsic compression of latex rubber tubing 12 mm in diameter, reducing the cross-sectional area (CSA) by 25, 40, 50, 60, 70, 85, and 97%. A rolling diaphragm pump, driven through a slider-crank mechanism by a microprocessor-controlled stepper motor, generated characteristic arterial pulse waves at a rate of 75 cycles per minute. Using an 8 MHz, continuous-wave, directional Doppler velocimeter, the Doppler-shifted frequencies were recorded at the stenosis. Four sets of observations were made at each of the stenoses, and the peak systolic frequency (PSF) was determined using a spectrum analyzer. The PSF in the absence of an obstructing stenosis was 2.56 +/- 0.03 (KHz +/- SEM). This increased significantly (P less than 0.05) to 4.80 +/- 0.09 when the CSA was reduced by 50%, to 5.90 +/- 0.37 when the CSA was reduced by 60% (P less than 0.05), to 8.40 +/- 0.10 when the CSA was reduced by 70% (P less than 0.05), and to 17.84 +/- 0.89 when the CSA was reduced by 85% (P less than 0.05). These data establish the utility of this pulsatile flow model, confirming the direct relationship between the Doppler-shifted PSF and the percentage reduction in CSA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3951221

  14. Hemodialysis: evidence of enhanced molecular clearance and ultrafiltration volume by using pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Runge, T M; Briceño, J C; Sheller, M E; Moritz, C E; Sloan, L; Bohls, F O; Ottmers, S E

    1993-09-01

    We describe several in vitro experiments showing evidence that pulsatile flow hemodialysis enhances ultrafiltration volume and molecular clearance as compared with steady flow hemodialysis. A new pulsatile pump and a conventional roller pump were compared using different hollow fiber dialyzers and a simulated blood solution containing urea, aspartame and vitamin B-12 at different flow rates and configurations. Ultrafiltration volume and concentration of urea, aspartame and B-12 were measured and molecular clearance (K) calculated. Ultrafiltration volume markedly increased with pulsatile flow. After 10 min K for urea with pulsatile flow was higher in all experiments even when ultrafiltration was prevented. Clearance of aspartame and B-12 also increased with pulsatile flow. We propose three mechanisms by which pulsatile flow is more efficient than steady flow hemodialysis: greater fluid energy, avoidance of molecular channeling and avoidance of membrane layering. We hypothesize that using pulsatile flow in hemodialysis can significantly shorten the duration of dialysis sessions for most of the patients, and consequently reduce the duration of the procedure and its cost.

  15. Pulsatile flow of Casson's fluid through stenosed arteries with applications to blood flow.

    PubMed

    Chaturani, P; Samy, R P

    1986-01-01

    The effects of non-Newtonian nature of blood and pulsatility on flow through a stenosed tube have been investigated. A perturbation method is used to analyse the flow. It is of interest to note that the thickness of the viscous flow region is non-uniform (changing with axial distance). An analytic relation between viscous flow region thickness and red cell concentration has been obtained. It is important to mention that some researchers have obtained an approximate solution for the flow rate-pressure gradient equation (assuming the ratio between the yield stress and the wall shear to be very small in comparison to unity); in the present analysis, we have obtained an exact solution for this non-linear equation without making that assumption. The approximate and exact solutions compare well with one of the exact solutions. Another important result is that the mean and steady flow rates decrease as the yield stress theta increases. For the low values of the yield stress, the mean flow rate is higher than the steady flow rate, but for high values of the yield stress, the mean flow rate behaviour is of opposite nature. The critical value of the yield stress at which the flow rate behaviour changes from one type to another has been determined. Further, it seems that there exists a value of the yield stress at which flow stops for both the flows (steady and pulsatile). It is observed that the flow stop yield value for pulsatile flow is lower than the steady flow. The most notable result of pulsatility is the phase lag between the pressure gradient and flow rate, which is further influenced by the yield stress and stenosis. Another important result of pulsatility is the mean resistance to flow is greater than its steady flow value, whereas the mean value of the wall shear for pulsatile flow is equal to steady wall shear. Many standard results regarding Casson and Newtonian fluids flow, uniform tube flow and steady flow can be obtained as the special cases of the present

  16. Fluid-structure interaction for nonlinear response of shells conveying pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubaldi, Eleonora; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2016-06-01

    Circular cylindrical shells with flexible boundary conditions conveying pulsatile flow and subjected to pulsatile pressure are investigated. The equations of motion are obtained based on the nonlinear Novozhilov shell theory via Lagrangian approach. The flow is set in motion by a pulsatile pressure gradient. The fluid is modeled as a Newtonian pulsatile flow and it is formulated using a hybrid model that contains the unsteady effects obtained from the linear potential flow theory and the pulsatile viscous effects obtained from the unsteady time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A numerical bifurcation analysis employs a refined reduced order model to investigate the dynamic behavior. The case of shells containing quiescent fluid subjected to the action of a pulsatile transmural pressure is also addressed. Geometrically nonlinear vibration response to pulsatile flow and transmural pressure are here presented via frequency-response curves and time histories. The vibrations involving both a driven mode and a companion mode, which appear due to the axial symmetry, are also investigated. This theoretical framework represents a pioneering study that could be of great interest for biomedical applications. In particular, in the future, a more refined model of the one here presented will possibly be applied to reproduce the dynamic behavior of vascular prostheses used for repairing and replacing damaged and diseased thoracic aorta in cases of aneurysm, dissection or coarctation. For this purpose, a pulsatile time-dependent blood flow model is here considered by applying physiological waveforms of velocity and pressure during the heart beating period. This study provides, for the first time in literature, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model with deep insights in the nonlinear vibrations of circular cylindrical shells subjected to pulsatile pressure and pulsatile flow.

  17. In vitro pulsatility analysis of axial-flow and centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, J Ryan; Selzman, Craig H

    2013-03-01

    Recently, continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) have supplanted older, pulsatile-flow pumps, for treating patients with advanced heart failure. Despite the excellent results of the newer generation devices, the effects of long-term loss of pulsatility remain unknown. The aim of this study is to compare the ability of both axial and centrifugal continuous-flow pumps to intrinsically modify pulsatility when placed under physiologically diverse conditions. Four VADs, two axial- and two centrifugal-flow, were evaluated on a mock circulatory flow system. Each VAD was operated at a constant impeller speed over three hypothetical cardiac conditions: normo-tensive, hypertensive, and hypotensive. Pulsatility index (PI) was compared for each device under each condition. Centrifugal-flow devices had a higher PI than that of axial-flow pumps. Under normo-tension, flow PI was 0.98 ± 0.03 and 1.50 ± 0.02 for the axial and centrifugal groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Under hypertension, flow PI was 1.90 ± 0.16 and 4.21 ± 0.29 for the axial and centrifugal pumps, respectively (p = 0.01). Under hypotension, PI was 0.73 ± 0.02 and 0.78 ± 0.02 for the axial and centrifugal groups, respectively (p = 0.13). All tested CF-VADs were capable of maintaining some pulsatile-flow when connected in parallel with our mock ventricle. We conclude that centrifugal-flow devices outperform the axial pumps from the basis of PI under tested conditions.

  18. Measurement of real pulsatile blood flow using X-ray PIV technique with CO2 microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Lim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging technique has been used to investigate biofluid flows in a non-destructive manner. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of the X-ray PIV technique with CO2 microbubbles as flow tracer for measurement of pulsatile blood flows under in vivo conditions. The traceability of CO2 microbubbles in a pulsatile flow was demonstrated through in vitro experiment. A rat extracorporeal bypass loop was used by connecting a tube between the abdominal aorta and jugular vein of a rat to obtain hemodynamic information of actual pulsatile blood flows without changing the hemorheological properties. The decrease in image contrast of the surrounding tissue was also investigated for in vivo applications of the proposed technique. This technique could be used to accurately measure whole velocity field information of real pulsatile blood flows and has strong potential for hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25744850

  19. Platelet adhesion to polyurethane urea under pulsatile flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Navitsky, Michael A; Taylor, Joshua O; Smith, Alexander B; Slattery, Margaret J; Deutsch, Steven; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Manning, Keefe B

    2014-12-01

    Platelet adhesion to a polyurethane urea surface is a precursor to thrombus formation within blood-contacting cardiovascular devices, and platelets have been found to adhere strongly to polyurethane surfaces below a shear rate of approximately 500 s(-1). The aim of the current work is to determine the properties of platelet adhesion to the polyurethane urea surface as a function of time-varying shear exposure. A rotating disk system was used to study the influence of steady and pulsatile flow conditions (e.g., cardiac inflow and sawtooth waveforms) for platelet adhesion to the biomaterial surface. All experiments were conducted with the same root mean square angular rotation velocity (29.63 rad/s) and waveform period. The disk was rotated in platelet-rich bovine plasma for 2 h, with adhesion quantified by confocal microscopy measurements of immunofluorescently labeled bovine platelets. Platelet adhesion under pulsating flow was found to decay exponentially with increasing shear rate. Adhesion levels were found to depend upon peak platelet flux and shear rate, regardless of rotational waveform. In combination with flow measurements, these results may be useful for predicting regions susceptible to thrombus formation within ventricular assist devices.

  20. Description of a flow optimized oxygenator with integrated pulsatile pump.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Ralf; Schlanstein, Peter; Arens, Jutta; Graefe, Roland; Schreiber, Fabian; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2010-11-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a well-established therapy for several lung and heart diseases in the field of neonatal and pediatric medicine (e.g., acute respiratory distress syndrome, congenital heart failure, cardiomyopathy). Current ECMO systems are typically composed of an oxygenator and a separate nonpulsatile blood pump. An oxygenator with an integrated pulsatile blood pump for small infant ECMO was developed, and this novel concept was tested regarding functionality and gas exchange rate. Pulsating silicone tubes (STs) were driven by air pressure and placed inside the cylindrical fiber bundle of an oxygenator to be used as a pump module. The findings of this study confirm that pumping blood with STs is a viable option for the future. The maximum gas exchange rate for oxygen is 48mL/min/L(blood) at a medium blood flow rate of about 300mL/min. Future design steps were identified to optimize the flow field through the fiber bundle to achieve a higher gas exchange rate. First, the packing density of the hollow-fiber bundle was lower than commercial oxygenators due to the manual manufacturing. By increasing this packing density, the gas exchange rate would increase accordingly. Second, distribution plates for a more uniform blood flow can be placed at the inlet and outlet of the oxygenator. Third, the hollow-fiber membranes can be individually placed to ensure equal distances between the surrounding hollow fibers.

  1. Pulsatile Flow Across a Cylinder--An Investigation of Flow in a Total Artificial Lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chun

    2005-11-01

    The effect of pulsatility on flow across a single cylinder has been examined experimentally using particle image velocimetry. This work is motivated by the ongoing development of a total artificial lung (TAL), a device which would serve as a bridge to lung transplant. The prototype TAL consists of hollow microfibers through which oxygen-rich gas flows and blood flows around. Flow through the device is provided entirely by right heart and, therefore, is puslatile. The Peclet number of the flow is large and consequently the development of secondary flow affects the resulting gas exchange. The effects of frequency and average flow rate of pulsatile flow around a cylinder were investigated experimentally in a water tunnel and some of the results were compared with preliminary numerical results. Vortices developed behind the cylinder at lower Reynolds numbers in pulsatile flow than steady flow. The results indicate that there are critical values of the Reynolds number between 3 to 5 and Stokes numbers of 0.22, below which vortices were not observed. The findings suggest that higher Stokes and Reynolds numbers within the device could enhance vortex formation. However, this enhanced gas exchange could be at the expense of higher device resistance and increased likelihood of blood trauma. Intelligent TAL design will require consideration of these effects. This work is supported by NIH grant HL69420.

  2. Pulsatile flow into the aqueous veins: Manifestations in normal and glaucomatous eyes

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Murray; Martin, Elizabeth; Jamil, Annisa

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous outflow system is unique because nowhere else can the pattern of flow of an extravascular fluid be directly observed as it returns to the vascular system. Such observations reveal that aqueous flow both from Schlemm’s canal into the aqueous veins and from the aqueous veins into the episcleral veins is pulsatile. Pulsatile aqueous flow mechanisms are observable in vivo not only in normal and but also in glaucomatous eyes. A series of specific patterns accompany the pulsatile mixing of aqueous with blood in the episcleral veins. These directly observable patterns of pulsatile flow are synchronous with intraocular pressure (IOP) transients induced by the cardiac pulse, blinking and eye movement. Patterns of pulsatile flow are altered by events that increase IOP such as pressure on the side of the eye, tonography and water drinking. Pulsatile flow stops when IOP is reduced below its resting level, but begins again when IOP returns to the resting level. Pulsatile flow reduction probably results from the intrinsic reduction of pulse amplitude at a lower IOP, and may thus provide a passive mechanism to maintain short-term homeostasis. Thus modulation of the pulsatile flow phenomenon appears to maintain a homeostatic IOP setpoint. Visible pulsatile flow abnormalities develop in glaucoma patients. Medications that reduce IOP through improvement in outflow do so through pulsatile flow mechanisms. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that cyclic stresses in outflow tissues alter signaling pathways, cytoskeletal responses, extracellular matrix composition and cytokine secretion. How physiologic pulse transients orchestrate cellular responses and how cellular responses identified in the laboratory may in turn regulate pulsatile aqueous outflow is unknown. Linkage of laboratory and in vivo observations await an improved understanding of how cellular and extracellular structures within the outflow system are able to generate an aqueous pulse wave. The purpose of the

  3. The effect of flow acceleration on the cyclic variation of blood echogenicity under pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Liao, Chen-Chih; Lee, Po-Yang; Shih, Cho-Chiang

    2013-04-01

    It has been shown that the echogenicity of blood varies during a flow cycle under pulsatile flow both in vitro and in vivo. In general, the echogenicity of flowing whole blood increases during the early systole phase and then reduces to a minimum at late diastole. While it has been postulated that this cyclic variation is associated with the dynamics of erythrocyte aggregation, the mechanisms underlying this increasing echogenicity with flow velocity remain uncertain. The effect of flow acceleration has also been proposed as an explanation for this phenomenon, but no specific experiments have been conducted to test this hypothesis. In addition, the influence of ultrasonic attenuation on the cyclic variation of echogenicity requires clarification. In the present study, a Couette flow system was designed to simulate blood flowing with different acceleration patterns, and the flow velocity, attenuation, and backscattering coefficient were measured synchronously from 20%- and 40%-hematocrit porcine whole blood and erythrocyte suspensions using 35-MHz ultrasound transducers. The results showed ultrasonic attenuation exerted only minor effects on the echogenicity of blood under pulsatile flow conditions. Cyclic variations of echogenicity were clearly observed for whole blood with a hematocrit of 40%, but no variations were apparent for erythrocyte suspensions. The echogenicity did not appear to be enhanced when instantaneous acceleration was applied to flowing blood in any case. These findings show that flow acceleration does not promote erythrocyte aggregation, even when a higher peak velocity is applied to the blood. Comparison of the results obtained with different accelerations revealed that the cyclic variation in echogenicity observed during pulsatile blood flow may be jointly attributable to the effect of shear rate and the distribution of erythrocyte on aggregation.

  4. Local anaesthetic techniques and pulsatile ocular blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B.; Hee, W.; Ling, R.; Broadway, D.; Beigi, B.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To compare pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) and intraocular pressure (IOP) between eyes of patients receiving either peribulbar (with and without balloon compression) or subconjunctival local anaesthesia (LA).
METHODS—30 eyes of 30 patients undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification were investigated in a study of parallel group design. Ten patients had peribulbar LA and 10 minutes compression with a Honan's balloon (group A). A further 10 patients who received peribulbar LA alone (group B) acted as controls for the effects of balloon compression. Ten other patients were given subconjunctival LA (group C). POBF and IOP were measured using a modified Langham pneumatonometer. Three measurements were made in each eye, the first recording immediately before LA, the second 1 minute after, and the third 10 minutes after LA.
RESULTS—No significant change in POBF or IOP was recorded in eyes receiving subconjunctival LA. In the peribulbar groups (A and B), there was a drop in median POBF of 252 and 138 µl/min respectively 1 minute after LA, which was statistically significant in both groups (p<0.01). By 10 minutes, POBF tended to return to baseline levels, but remained significantly reduced in group B (p<0.05). In addition, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in IOP (mean drop of 4.82 mm Hg) in group A following peribulbar LA with balloon compression.
CONCLUSIONS—POBF was significantly reduced after peribulbar LA but was unchanged after subconjunctival LA. Balloon compression reduced IOP and improved POBF following peribulbar LA. The findings may have clinical implications in patients with compromised ocular circulation or significant glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

 PMID:11049951

  5. An Ultrasound Simulation Model for the Pulsatile Blood Flow Modulated by the Motion of Stenosed Vessel Wall.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghui; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Kexin; Gao, Lian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ultrasound simulation model for pulsatile blood flow, modulated by the motion of a stenosed vessel wall. It aims at generating more realistic ultrasonic signals to provide an environment for evaluating ultrasound signal processing and imaging and a framework for investigating the behaviors of blood flow field modulated by wall motion. This model takes into account fluid-structure interaction, blood pulsatility, stenosis of the vessel, and arterial wall movement caused by surrounding tissue's motion. The axial and radial velocity distributions of blood and the displacement of vessel wall are calculated by solving coupled Navier-Stokes and wall equations. With these obtained values, we made several different phantoms by treating blood and the vessel wall as a group of point scatterers. Then, ultrasound echoed signals from oscillating wall and blood in the axisymmetric stenotic-carotid arteries were computed by ultrasound simulation software, Field II. The results show better consistency with corresponding theoretical values and clinical data and reflect the influence of wall movement on the flow field. It can serve as an effective tool not only for investigating the behavior of blood flow field modulated by wall motion but also for quantitative or qualitative evaluation of new ultrasound imaging technology and estimation method of blood velocity. PMID:27478840

  6. An Ultrasound Simulation Model for the Pulsatile Blood Flow Modulated by the Motion of Stenosed Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Kexin; Gao, Lian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ultrasound simulation model for pulsatile blood flow, modulated by the motion of a stenosed vessel wall. It aims at generating more realistic ultrasonic signals to provide an environment for evaluating ultrasound signal processing and imaging and a framework for investigating the behaviors of blood flow field modulated by wall motion. This model takes into account fluid-structure interaction, blood pulsatility, stenosis of the vessel, and arterial wall movement caused by surrounding tissue's motion. The axial and radial velocity distributions of blood and the displacement of vessel wall are calculated by solving coupled Navier-Stokes and wall equations. With these obtained values, we made several different phantoms by treating blood and the vessel wall as a group of point scatterers. Then, ultrasound echoed signals from oscillating wall and blood in the axisymmetric stenotic-carotid arteries were computed by ultrasound simulation software, Field II. The results show better consistency with corresponding theoretical values and clinical data and reflect the influence of wall movement on the flow field. It can serve as an effective tool not only for investigating the behavior of blood flow field modulated by wall motion but also for quantitative or qualitative evaluation of new ultrasound imaging technology and estimation method of blood velocity. PMID:27478840

  7. Visualization and finite element analysis of pulsatile flow in models of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, T; Matsuzawa, T; Homma, T

    1989-01-01

    Pulsatile flows in glass models simulating fusiform and lateral saccular aneurysms were investigated by a flow visualization method. When resting fluid starts to flow, the initial fluid motion is practically irrotational. After a short period of time, the flow began to separate from the proximal wall of the aneurysm. Then the separation bubble or vortex grew rapidly in size and filled the whole area of the aneurysm circumferentially. During this period of time, the center of the vortex moved from the proximal end to the distal point of the aneurysm. The transient reversal flow, for instance, which may occur at the end of the ejection period, passed between the wall of the aneurysm and the centrally located vortex. When the rate and pulsatile frequency of flow were high, the vortex broke down into highly disturbed flow (or turbulence) at the distal portion of the aneurysm. The same effect was observed when the length of the aneurysm was increased. A reduction in pulsatile amplitude made the flow pattern close to that in steady flow. A finite element analysis was made to obtain velocity and pressure fields in pulsatile flow through a tube with an axisymmetric expansion. Calculations were performed with the pulsatile flows used in the visualization experiment in order to study the effects of change in the pulsatile wave form by keeping the time-mean Reynolds number and Womersley's parameter unchanged. Calculated instantaneous patterns of velocity field and stream lines agreed well with the experimental results. The appearance and disappearance of the vortex in the dilated portion and its development resulted in complex distributions of pressure and shear fields. Locally minimum and maximum values of wall shear stress occurred at points just upstream and downstream of the distal end of the expansion when the flow rate reached its peak. PMID:2605323

  8. Flow dynamics in anatomical models of abdominal aortic aneurysms: computational analysis of pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Finol, Ender A; Amon, Cristina H

    2003-01-01

    Blood flow in human arteries is dominated by time-dependent transport phenomena. In particular, in the abdominal segment of the aorta under a patient's average resting conditions, blood exhibits laminar flow patterns that are influenced by secondary flows induced by adjacent branches and in irregular vessel geometries. The flow dynamics becomes more complex when there is a pathological condition that causes changes in the normal structural composition of the vessel wall, for example, in the presence of an aneurysm. An aneurysm is an irreversible dilation of a blood vessel accompanied by weakening of the vessel wall. This work examines the importance of hemodynamics in the characterization of pulsatile blood flow patterns in individual Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) models. These patient-specific computational models have been developed for the numerical simulation of the momentum transport equations utilizing the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the spatial and temporal discretization. We characterize pulsatile flow dynamics in AAAs for average resting conditions by means of identifying regions of disturbed flow and quantifying the disturbance by evaluating wall pressure and wall shear stresses at the aneurysm wall. PMID:14515766

  9. Measurement of wall shear stress in a pulsatile pipe flow system using micro-pillar shear sensor (MPS3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghav, Vrishank; Garcia, Christine; Gnanamanickam, Ebenezer; Yoganathan, Ajit; GT-Embry-Riddle Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The measurement of unsteady wall shear stress (WSS) in a pulsatile flow system is quite a challenge in experimental fluid mechanics. Recent developments in micro fabrication techniques have resulted in a novel measurement technique called the micro-pillar shear stress sensor (MPS3). It is a micro-pillar mounted on the surface of interest, which deflects an amount proportional to the shear stress it experiences. This technique has been widely used, validated and applied to measure turbulent WSS in several flow configurations. In this work, the MPS3 technique is used to measure WSS for a pulsatile fully developed pipe flow. The main objective here is to validate this technique for pulsatile pipe flow applications. For this purpose the WSS measurements obtained are compared with those obtained from analytical womersley solutions of the pulsatile flow system in the laminar flow regime. Statistical metrics will be used to better understand the measured WSS through the time period of the pulsatile flow.

  10. High-speed visualization of disturbed pathlines in axial flow ventricular assist device under pulsatile conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Kormos, Robert L.; Antaki, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate potentially pro-thrombotic flow patterns within an axial flow ventricular assist device under clinically relevant pulsatile hemodynamic conditions. Methods A transparent replica of the HeartMate-II was visualized using a high speed camera at both low and high frame rates (125 and 3000 fps). Three steady-state conditions were studied: nominal (4.5 lpm), low flow (3.0 lpm) and high flow (6.0 lpm). Time-varying conditions were introduced with external pulsatile pump which modulated the flow rate by approximately +/−50% of the mean, corresponding to a pulsatility index of 1.0. Results At nominal and high flow rates, the path lines within the upstream region were generally stable, well attached, and streamlined. As the flow rate was reduced below 3.8 lpm, a rapid transition to a chaotic velocity field occurred exhibiting a large toroidal vortex adjacent to the upstream bearing. The pathlines in the downstream stator section were consistently chaotic for all hemodynamic conditions investigated. It was common to observe tracer particles trapped within recirculation bubbles and drawn retrograde, causing repeated contact with the bearing surfaces. The addition of pulsatility caused the flow field to become periodically chaotic during the diastolic portion of the cardiac cycle depending on the instantaneous flow rate and acceleration. Conclusion The contribution of pulsatility by the native heart may induce a periodic disturbance to an otherwise stable flow field within an axial flow VAD, particularly during the diastolic and decelerating portion of the cardiac cycle. Potentially pro-thrombotic flow features were found to occur periodically in the region of the upstream bearing. PMID:26208892

  11. Beyond the Virtual Intracranial Stenting Challenge 2007: non-Newtonian and flow pulsatility effects.

    PubMed

    Cavazzuti, Marco; Atherton, Mark; Collins, Michael; Barozzi, Giovanni

    2010-09-17

    The Virtual Intracranial Stenting Challenge 2007 (VISC'07) is becoming a standard test case in computational minimally invasive cerebrovascular intervention. Following views expressed in the literature and consistent with the recommendations of a report, the effects of non-Newtonian viscosity and pulsatile flow are reported. Three models of stented cerebral aneurysms, originating from VISC'07 are meshed and the flow characteristics simulated using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. We conclude that non-Newtonian and pulsatile effects are important to include in order to discriminate more effectively between stent designs.

  12. Clinical evaluation of pulsatile flow mode of Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Uesugi, H; Nishinaka, T; Uwabe, K; Aomi, S; Endo, M; Koyanagi, H; Oshiyama, H; Nogawa, A; Akutsu, T

    1997-07-01

    The Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump system possesses an automatic priming function in which the motor repeatedly stops and runs intermittently to eliminate air bubbles in the circuit through the micropores of the hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator. By modifying this mechanism, we have developed a pulsatile flow mode. In this mode, maximum and minimum pump rotational speeds can be independently set every 20 rpm in the range of 0 to 3,000 rpm. The duration of the pump run at maximum and minimum speeds can also be independently set every 0.1 s in the range of 0.2 to 15 s. In a clinical trial, after obtaining the desired flow rate, 2.4 L/min/m2 in nonpulsatile flow mode, a pulsatile flow mode of 60 cycles/min (with 1 cycle being maximum speed for 0.4 s and minimum speed for 0.6 s) was obtained by adding and subtracting 500 rpm to and from the rotational speed in nonpulsatile flow mode. Pulse pressures in the femoral artery and in the circuit just proximal to the perfusion cannula (6.5 mm Sarns high flow cannula with metal tip) were measured in 5 patients who underwent pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and compared to pulse pressures obtained by intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) in 3 patients and by the pulsatile mode of the 3M Delphin pump in 3 patients. The platelet count, free hemoglobin, and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) were measured and compared with measurements from another 5 patients who underwent nonpulsatile CPB. Although the pulse pressure measured in the circuit was 180 mm Hg on average, the pressure in the femoral artery was only 15 to 40 mm Hg with a mean of 20 mm Hg. In the same patients, 60 to 80 mm Hg pulse pressure was obtained with IABP. The pulse pressure obtained with the Delphin pump was not more than that obtained with the Terumo pump. There were no significant differences in percents of preoperative levels of platelet counts (pulsatile, 87.6 +/- 15.8% and nonpulsatile, 72.4 +/- 40.6%), free

  13. Clinical evaluation of pulsatile flow mode of Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Uesugi, H; Nishinaka, T; Uwabe, K; Aomi, S; Endo, M; Koyanagi, H; Oshiyama, H; Nogawa, A; Akutsu, T

    1997-07-01

    The Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump system possesses an automatic priming function in which the motor repeatedly stops and runs intermittently to eliminate air bubbles in the circuit through the micropores of the hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator. By modifying this mechanism, we have developed a pulsatile flow mode. In this mode, maximum and minimum pump rotational speeds can be independently set every 20 rpm in the range of 0 to 3,000 rpm. The duration of the pump run at maximum and minimum speeds can also be independently set every 0.1 s in the range of 0.2 to 15 s. In a clinical trial, after obtaining the desired flow rate, 2.4 L/min/m2 in nonpulsatile flow mode, a pulsatile flow mode of 60 cycles/min (with 1 cycle being maximum speed for 0.4 s and minimum speed for 0.6 s) was obtained by adding and subtracting 500 rpm to and from the rotational speed in nonpulsatile flow mode. Pulse pressures in the femoral artery and in the circuit just proximal to the perfusion cannula (6.5 mm Sarns high flow cannula with metal tip) were measured in 5 patients who underwent pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and compared to pulse pressures obtained by intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) in 3 patients and by the pulsatile mode of the 3M Delphin pump in 3 patients. The platelet count, free hemoglobin, and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) were measured and compared with measurements from another 5 patients who underwent nonpulsatile CPB. Although the pulse pressure measured in the circuit was 180 mm Hg on average, the pressure in the femoral artery was only 15 to 40 mm Hg with a mean of 20 mm Hg. In the same patients, 60 to 80 mm Hg pulse pressure was obtained with IABP. The pulse pressure obtained with the Delphin pump was not more than that obtained with the Terumo pump. There were no significant differences in percents of preoperative levels of platelet counts (pulsatile, 87.6 +/- 15.8% and nonpulsatile, 72.4 +/- 40.6%), free

  14. Gaseous micro-emboli activity during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults: pulsatile flow versus nonpulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Dodonov, Mikhail; Milano, Aldo; Onorati, Francesco; Dal Corso, Bruno; Menon, Tiziano; Ferrarini, Daniele; Tessari, Maddalena; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has a risk of cerebral injury, with an important role of gaseous micro-emboli (GME) coming from the CPB circuit. Pulsatile perfusion is supposed to perform specific conditions for supplementary GME activity. We aimed to determine whether pulsatile CPB augments production and delivery of GME and evaluate the role of different events in GME activity during either type of perfusion. Twenty-four patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery at the University of Verona were divided equally into two groups-pulsatile perfusion (PP) group and nonpulsatile perfusion (NP) group. The circuit included a JostraHL-20 roller pump set in pulsatile or nonpulsatile mode, an open Sorin Synthesis membrane oxygenator with integrated screen-type arterial filter, and phosphorylcholine-coated tubes. Hemodynamic flow evaluation was performed in terms of energy equivalent pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). GME were counted by means of a GAMPT BCC200 bubble counter (GAMPT, Zappendorf, Germany) with two probes placed at postpump and postarterial filter positions. Results were evaluated in terms of GME number, GME volume, number of over-ranged GME from both probes, and series of filtering indexes. In PP mode, the pump produced and delivered along the circuit significantly higher amounts of SHE than in NP mode. At the venous postpump site, GME number was significantly higher during PP but no difference was found in terms of GME volume or number of over-ranged bubbles. No significant difference in GME number, GME volume, or number of over-ranges was found at the postarterial filter site. Filtering indexes were similar between the two groups. Neither type of perfusion was shown to contribute to excessive GME production during the most important perfusionist manipulation. Pulsatility leads to GME increment by splitting and size diminishing of the existing bubbles but not by additional gas production. PP augmented GME number at the

  15. Alkaline phosphatase in osteoblasts is down-regulated by pulsatile fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that interstitial fluid flow plays a role in the bone remodeling response to mechanical loading. The fluid flow-induced expression of three proteins (collagen, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase) involved in bone remodeling was investigated. Rat calvarial osteoblasts subjected to pulsatile fluid flow at an average shear stress of 5 dyne/cm2 showed decreased alkaline phosphatase (AP) mRNA expression after only 1 hour of flow. After 3 hours of flow, AP mRNA levels had decreased to 30% of stationary control levels and remained at this level for an additional 5 hours of flow. Steady flow (4 dyne/cm2 fluid shear stress), in contrast, resulted in a delayed and less dramatic decrease in AP mRNA expression to 63% of control levels after 8 hours of flow. The reduced AP mRNA expression under pulsatile flow conditions was followed by reduced AP enzyme activity after 24 hours. No changes in collagen or osteopontin mRNA expression were detected over 8 hours of pulsatile flow. This is the first time fluid flow has been shown to affect gene expression in osteoblasts.

  16. An Investigation of Pulsatile Flow Past Two Cylinders as a Model of Blood Flow in an Artificial Lung.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Khanafer, Khalil M; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B; Bull, Joseph L

    2011-07-01

    Pulsatile flow across two circular cylinders with different geometric arrangements is studied experimentally using the particle image velocimetry method and numerically using the finite element method. This investigation is motivated the need to optimize gas transfer and fluid mechanical impedance for a total artificial lung, in which the right heart pumps blood across a bundle of hollow microfibers. Vortex formation was found to occur at lower Reynolds numbers in pulsatile flow than in steady flow, and the vortex structure depends strongly on the geometric arrangement of the cylinders and on the Reynolds and Stokes numbers. PMID:21701672

  17. An Investigation of Pulsatile Flow Past Two Cylinders as a Model of Blood Flow in an Artificial Lung

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-chun; Khanafer, Khalil M.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bull, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsatile flow across two circular cylinders with different geometric arrangements is studied experimentally using the particle image velocimetry method and numerically using the finite element method. This investigation is motivated the need to optimize gas transfer and fluid mechanical impedance for a total artificial lung, in which the right heart pumps blood across a bundle of hollow microfibers. Vortex formation was found to occur at lower Reynolds numbers in pulsatile flow than in steady flow, and the vortex structure depends strongly on the geometric arrangement of the cylinders and on the Reynolds and Stokes numbers. PMID:21701672

  18. Cyclic variations of high-frequency ultrasonic backscattering from blood under pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2009-08-01

    It was shown previously that ultrasonic scattering from whole blood varies during the flow cycle under pulsatile flow both in vitro and in vivo. It has been postulated that the cyclic variations of the backscattering signal are associated with red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in flowing whole blood. To obtain a better understanding of the relationship between blood backscattering and RBC aggregation behavior for pulsatile flowing blood, the present study used high-frequency ultrasound to characterize blood properties. The backscattering signals from both whole blood and an RBC suspension at different peak flow velocities (from 10 to 30 cm/s) and hematocrits (20% and 40%) under pulsatile flow (stroke rate of 20 beats/min) were measured with 3 single-element transducers at frequencies of 10, 35, and 50 MHz in a mock flow loop. To avoid the frequency response problem of a Doppler flowmeter, the integrated backscatter (IB) and flow velocity as functions of time were calculated directly using RF signals from flowing blood. The experimental results showed that cyclic variations of the IB curve were clearly observed at a low flow velocity and a hematocrit of 40% when using 50 MHz ultrasound, and that these variations became weaker as the peak flow velocity increased. However, these cyclic variations were detected only at 10 cm/s when using 10 MHz ultrasound. These results demonstrate that a high flow velocity can stop the formation of rouleaux and that a high hematocrit can promote RBC aggregation to produce cyclic variations of the backscattering signal under pulsatile flow. In addition, slight cyclic variations of the IB curve for an RBC suspension were observed at 35 and 50 MHz. Furthermore, the peak of the IB curve from whole blood led the peak of the velocity waveform when using high-frequency ultrasound, which could be explained by the assumption that a rapid flow can promote RBC aggregation under pulsatile flow. Together, the experimental results showed that the

  19. SU-D-18C-04: The Feasibility of Quantifying MRI Contrast Agent in Pulsatile Flowing Blood Using DCE-MRI

    SciTech Connect

    N, Gwilliam M; J, Collins D; O, Leach M; R, Orton M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of accurately quantifying the concentration of MRI contrast agent (CA) in pulsatile flowing blood by measuring its T{sub 1}, as is common for the purposes of obtaining a patientspecific arterial input function (AIF). Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) - MRI and pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling is widely used to produce measures of vascular function but accurate measurement of the AIF undermines their accuracy. A proposed solution is to measure the T{sub 1} of blood in a large vessel using the Fram double flip angle method during the passage of a bolus of CA. This work expands on previous work by assessing pulsatile flow and the changes in T{sub 1} seen with a CA bolus. Methods: A phantom was developed which used a physiological pump to pass fluid of a known T{sub 1} (812ms) through the centre of a head coil of a clinical 1.5T MRI scanner. Measurements were made using high temporal resolution sequences suitable for DCE-MRI and were used to validate a virtual phantom that simulated the expected errors due to pulsatile flow and bolus of CA concentration changes typically found in patients. Results: : Measured and virtual results showed similar trends, although there were differences that may be attributed to the virtual phantom not accurately simulating the spin history of the fluid before entering the imaging volume. The relationship between T{sub 1} measurement and flow speed was non-linear. T{sub 1} measurement is compromised by new spins flowing into the imaging volume, not being subject to enough excitations to have reached steady-state. The virtual phantom demonstrated a range of recorded T{sub 1} for various simulated T{sub 1} / flow rates. Conclusion: T{sub 1} measurement of flowing blood using standard DCE-MRI sequences is very challenging. Measurement error is non-linear with relation to instantaneous flow speed. Optimising sequence parameters and lowering baseline T{sub 1} of blood should be considered.

  20. Evaluation of pulsatile and nonpulsatile flow in capillaries of goat skeletal muscle using intravital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Tyml, K; Menkis, A H; Novick, R J; Mckenzie, F N

    1994-11-01

    It is commonly believed that pulsatile flow generated by the pumping action of the heart is dampened out by the time it reaches the microcirculation. In clinical practice, most of the cardiopulmonary bypass pumps and ventricular assist devices are nonpulsatile. To test the hypothesis that pulsatile flow generated by the heart does exist at the microvascular level, intravital microscopy of a large animal model (goat) was developed to visualize and to videorecord the surface microcirculation of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle from the right forelimb. Density of perfused capillaries and red blood cell velocity in capillaries were measured in five goats during pulsatile perfusion provided by the heart and during a subsequent 3-hr period of nonpulsatile perfusion provided by a centrifugal ventricular assist device (Centrimed, Sarns 3M) that bypassed the heart. Throughout the experiment, the heart rate, innominate artery mean blood pressure, and flow remained unchanged. During the pulsatile regimen, velocities showed regular fluctuations that coincided with the period of the cardiac cycle (range of periods: 0.5-0.8 sec). The peak velocity amplitudes (range: 0.25-0.55 mm/sec) correlated directly with the amplitude of the pulse pressure. During the nonpulsatile regimen, no such correlations were seen. During pulsatile flow and during the 3-hr nonpulsatile period, capillary density remained stable at 24 capillaries/mm of test line but there were significant increases in red cell velocity, from 0.8 to 1.2 mm/sec (P < 0.05), and in coefficient of variation of velocity (used as an index of flow heterogeneity), from 19 to 34% (P < 0.05). We conclude that (1) pulsatility exists in the capillary bed and that it directly correlates with the pumping action of the heart and (2) nonpulsatile flow produced by the ventricular assist device does not cause an acute deterioration in microvascular perfusion. We interpret the increase in heterogeneity of flow as an early sign of

  1. Field-induced self-assembled ferrofluid aggregation in pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Ranjan; Zellmer, Brian; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2005-09-01

    Ferrofluid aggregation and dispersion occurs at several length scales in pulsatile flow applications, e.g., in ferrofluidic pumps, valves, and biomedical applications such as magnetic drug targeting. Because of a yet limited understanding, ferrohydrodynamic investigations involving laboratory-scale studies in idealized geometries are of considerable use. We have injected a ferrofluid into a pulsatile host flow and produced field-induced dissolution (aggregation) using external magnets. A comparison is made with ferrofluid aggregation in a steady flow. Subsequently, the accumulation and dispersion of the ferrofluid aggregates in pulsatile flow are characterized by analyzing their size, mean position, and the flow frequency spectrum. The maximum aggregate size Amax, time to form it tmax, and the aggregate half-life thalf are found to scale according to the relations Amax∝Re-0.71, tmax∝Re-2.1, and thalf∝Re-2.2. While the experiments are conducted at a macroscopic length scale for useful experimental resolution, the results also enable an understanding of the micro- and mesoscale field-assisted self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles.

  2. Vortex propagation around a wall-mounted obstacle in pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-11-01

    Wall-mounted obstacles are prevalent in nature and engineering applications. Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. Despite their prevalence, studies of wall-mounted obstacles have been restricted to steady (constant velocity) freestream flow. In biological and geophysical applications, pulsatile flow is much more common, yet effects of pulsatility on the wake of a wall-mounted obstacle remain to be extensively studied. This study aims to characterize the complex physics produced in this unsteady, separated flow. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel with a set of rotating vanes, which produce the pulsatile inflow waveform. Instantaneous and phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) results acquired around a hemispherical obstacle are presented and compared. A mechanism based on self-induced vortex propagation, analogous to that in vortex rings, is proposed to explain the observed dynamics of coherent structures. Predictions of the propagation velocity based on analytical expressions for vortex rings in a viscous fluid are compared to the experimentally measured propagation velocity. Effects of the unsteady boundary layer on the observed physics are explored. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  3. Clinical effectiveness of centrifugal pump to produce pulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y John; van Oeveren, Willem; Mungroop, Hubert E; Epema, Anne H; den Hamer, Inez J; Keizer, Jorrit J; Leuvenink, Ron P; Mariani, Massimo A; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Although the centrifugal pump has been widely used as a nonpulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), little is known about its performance as a pulsatile pump for CPB, especially on its efficacy in producing hemodynamic energy and its clinical effectiveness. We performed a study to evaluate whether the Rotaflow centrifugal pump produces effective pulsatile flow during CPB and whether the pulsatile flow in this setting is clinically effective in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients undergoing CPB for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated to a pulsatile perfusion group (n = 16) or a nonpulsatile perfusion group (n = 16). All patients were perfused with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump. In the pulsatile group, the centrifugal pump was adjusted to the pulsatile mode (60 cycles/min) during aortic cross-clamping, whereas in the nonpulsatile group, the pump was kept in its nonpulsatile mode during the same period of time. Compared with the nonpulsatile group, the pulsatile group had a higher pulse pressure (P < 0.01) and a fraction higher energy equivalent pressure (EEP, P = 0.058). The net gain of pulsatile flow, represented by the surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), was found much higher in the CPB circuit than in patients (P < 0.01). Clinically, there was no difference between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups with regard to postoperative acute kidney injury, endothelial activation, or inflammatory response. Postoperative organ function and the duration of hospital stay were similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, pulsatile CPB with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump is associated with a small gain of EEP and SHE, which does not seem to be clinically effective in adult cardiac surgical patients.

  4. Fluid particle motion and Lagrangian velocities for pulsatile flow through a femoral artery branch model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization study using selective dye injection and frame by frame analysis of a movie provided qualitative and quantitative data on the motion of marked fluid particles in a 60 degree artery branch model for simulation of physiological femoral artery flow. Physical flow features observed included jetting of the branch flow into the main lumen during the brief reverse flow period, flow separation along the main lumen wall during the near zero flow phase of diastole when the core flow was in the downstream direction, and inference of flow separation conditions along the wall opposite the branch later in systole at higher branch flow ratios. There were many similarities between dye particle motions in pulsatile flow and the comparative steady flow observations.

  5. An experimental study of pressure losses in pulsatile flows through rigid and pulsating stenosis.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, R; Degani, D; Gutfinger, C; Milo, S

    1984-11-01

    The time-dependent pressure curves of a pulsatile flow across rigid and pulsating stenoses were investigated experimentally in a laboratory simulator of the outflow tract of the heart right ventricle. The experiments were performed within the range of physiological conditions of frequency and flow rate. The experimental setup consisted of a closed flow system which was operated by a pulsatile pump, and a test chamber which enabled checking different modes of stenosis. Rigid constrictions were simulated by means of axisymmetric blunt-ended annular plugs with moderate-to-severe area reductions. The pulsating stenosis consisted of a short starling resistor device operated by a pulsating external pressure which was synchronized by the pulsatile flow. It was found that the shape of the time-dependent pressure curve upstream of the stenosis was different in the case of rigid stenosis than in the pulsating one. Potential clinical applications of the work may relate to diagnosis of the type of stenosis in the congenital heart disease known as Tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:6513525

  6. Orientation-independent rapid pulsatile flow measurement using dual-angle Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lindsy M; Gu, Shi; Jenkins, Michael W; Rollins, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Doppler OCT (DOCT) can provide blood flow velocity information which is valuable for investigation of microvascular structure and function. However, DOCT is only sensitive to motion parallel with the imaging beam, so that knowledge of flow direction is needed for absolute velocity determination. Here, absolute volumetric flow is calculated by integrating velocity components perpendicular to the B-scan plane. These components are acquired using two illumination beams with a predetermined angular separation, produced by a delay encoded technique. This technology enables rapid pulsatile flow measurement from single B-scans without the need for 3-D volumetric data or knowledge of blood vessel orientation. PMID:24575344

  7. Pulsatile flow of power-law fluid model for blood flow under periodic body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Chaturani, P; Palanisamy, V

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed to study the pulsatile flow of a power-law fluid through rigid circular tubes under the influence of a periodic body acceleration. Numerical solutions have been obtained by using finite difference method. The accuracy of the numerical procedure has been checked by comparing the obtained numerical results with other numerical and analytical solutions. It is found that the agreement between them is quite good. Interaction of non-Newtonian nature of fluid with the body acceleration has been investigated by using the physiological data for two particular cases (coronary and femoral arteries). The axial velocity, fluid acceleration, wall shear stress and instantaneous volume flow rate have been computed and their variations with different parameters have been analyzed. The following important observations have been made: (i) The velocity and acceleration profiles can have more than one maxima, this is in contrast with usual parabolic profiles where they have only one maximum at the axis. As n increases, the maxima shift towards the axis; (ii) For the flow with no body acceleration, the amplitude of both, wall shear and flow rate, increases with n, whereas for the flow with body acceleration, the amplitude of wall shear (flow rate) increases (decreases) as n increases; (iii) In the absence of body acceleration, pseudoplastic (dilatant) fluids, with low frequency pulsations, have higher (lower) value of maximum flow rate Qmax than Newtonian fluids, whereas for high frequencies, opposite behavior has been observed; for flow with body acceleration pulsations gives higher (lower) value of Qmax for pseudoplastic (dilatant) fluids than Newtonian fluids.

  8. Modelling of pulsatile blood flow in arterial trees of retinal vasculature.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, P; He, S; Xu, H

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents a numerical investigation of the pulsatile blood flow in the detailed arterial vasculatures of a mouse retina using the mathematical model based on frequency domain incorporating an appropriate outlet boundary impedance at the end of the terminal vessels of the arterial trees. The viscosity in the vessels was evaluated considering the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect, the plasma skimming effect and in vivo viscosity effect in the microcirculation. Comparative studies of the pulsatile circulation were carried out for cases of rigid vessels, constant viscosity, zero and non-zero outlet boundary impedances. In addition, the dependence of the oscillating input impedance at the inlet of the arterial trees on angular frequencies of the oscillation and vessel elasticises was also studied. The study shows that the pressure wave continues in the pre-capillary vessels throughout the retina. In elastic vessels, the amplitude of oscillatory velocity and wall shear stress in larger vessels and in vessels at the periphery region of the retina is amplified. The pulsatile blood flow is significantly influenced by the outlet boundary (or load) impedance which simulates the effect of the capillary and venous vasculatures. The oscillating input impedance at the inlet of the arterial trees is also found to be dependent on the angular frequency and the Young modulus of the vessel segment. Insights into the potential variations of the dynamic responses of the system under retinal pathological condition of arteriosclerosis may be inferred from the findings of the present study.

  9. Numerical investigation of pulsatile flow in endovascular stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, A.; Piomelli, U.; Vlachos, P.

    2013-09-01

    The flow in a plane channel with two idealized stents (one Λ-shaped, the other X-shaped) is studied numerically. A periodic pressure gradient corresponding to one measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery was used to drive the flow. Two Reynolds numbers were examined, one (Re = 80) corresponding to resting conditions, the other (Re = 200) to exercise. The stents were implemented by an immersed boundary method. The formation and migration of vortices that had been observed experimentally was also seen here. In the previous studies, the compliance mismatch between stent and vessel was conjectured to be the reason for this phenomenon. However, in the present study we demonstrate that the vortices form despite the fact that the walls were rigid. Flow visualization and quantitative analysis lead us to conclude that this process is due to the stent wires that generate small localized recirculation regions that, when they interact with the near-wall flow reversal, result in the formation of these vortical structures. The recirculation regions grow and merge when the imposed waveform produces near-wall flow reversal, forming coherent quasi-spanwise vortices, that migrate away from the wall. The flow behavior due to the stents was compared with an unstented channel. The geometric characteristics of the Λ-stent caused less deviation of the flow from an unstented channel than the X-stent. Investigating the role of advection and diffusion indicated that at Re = 80 advection has negligible contribution in the transport mechanism. Advection plays a role in the generation of streamwise vortices created for both stents at both Reynolds numbers. The effect of these vortices on the near-wall flow behavior is more significant for the Λ-stent compared to the X-stent and at Re = 200 with respect to Re = 80. Finally, it was observed that increasing the Reynolds number leads to early vortex formation and the creation of the vortex in a stented channel is coincident with

  10. Impact of the postpump resistance on pressure-flow waveform and hemodynamic energy level in a neonatal pulsatile centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Haines, Nikkole; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the impact of different postpump resistances on pulsatile pressure-flow waveforms and hemodynamic energy output in a mock extracorporeal system. The circuit was primed with a 40% glycerin-water mixture, and a PediVAS centrifugal pump was used. The pre- and postpump pressures and flow rates were monitored via a data acquisition system. The postpump resistance was adjusted using a Hoffman clamp at the outlet of the pump. Five different postpump resistances and rotational speeds were tested with nonpulsatile (NP: 5000 RPM) and pulsatile (P: 4000 RPM) modes. No backflow was found when using pulsatile flow. With isoresistance, increased arterial resistances decreased pump flow rates (NP: from 1,912 ml/min to 373 ml/min; P: from 1,485 ml/min to 288 ml/min), increased postpump pressures (NP: from 333 mm Hg to 402 mm Hg; P: from 223 mm Hg to 274 mm Hg), and increased hemodynamic energy output with pulsatile mode. Pump flow rate correlated linearly with rotational speed (RPMs) of the pump, whereas postpump pressures and hemodynamic energy outputs showed curvilinear relationships with RPMs. The maximal pump flow rate also increased from 618 ml/min to 4,293 ml/min with pulsatile mode and from 581 ml/min to 5,665 ml/min with nonpulsatile mode. Results showed that higher postpump resistance reduced the pump flow range, and increased postpump pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy output with pulsatile mode. Higher rotational speeds also generated higher pump flow rates, postpump pressures, and increased pulsatility.

  11. A nonlinear analysis of pulsatile flow in arteries.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, S. C.; Atabek, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    An approximate numerical method for calculating flow profiles in arteries is developed. The theory takes into account the nonlinear terms of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the nonlinear behaviour and large deformations of the arterial wall. Through the locally measured values of the pressure, pressure gradient, and pressure-radius function, the velocity distribution and wall shear at a given location along the artery can be determined. The computed results agree well with the corresponding experimental data.

  12. A High Performance Pulsatile Pump for Aortic Flow Experiments in 3-Dimensional Models.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Rafeed A; Atlasman, Victor; Pathangey, Girish; Pracht, Nicholas; Adrian, Ronald J; Frakes, David H

    2016-06-01

    Aortic pathologies such as coarctation, dissection, and aneurysm represent a particularly emergent class of cardiovascular diseases. Computational simulations of aortic flows are growing increasingly important as tools for gaining understanding of these pathologies, as well as for planning their surgical repair. In vitro experiments are required to validate the simulations against real world data, and the experiments require a pulsatile flow pump system that can provide physiologic flow conditions characteristic of the aorta. We designed a newly capable piston-based pulsatile flow pump system that can generate high volume flow rates (850 mL/s), replicate physiologic waveforms, and pump high viscosity fluids against large impedances. The system is also compatible with a broad range of fluid types, and is operable in magnetic resonance imaging environments. Performance of the system was validated using image processing-based analysis of piston motion as well as particle image velocimetry. The new system represents a more capable pumping solution for aortic flow experiments than other available designs, and can be manufactured at a relatively low cost. PMID:26983961

  13. Time-resolved X-ray PIV measurements of hemodynamic information of real pulsatile blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    X-ray imaging technique has been used to visualize various bio-fluid flow phenomena as a nondestructive manner. To obtain hemodynamic information related with circulatory vascular diseases, a time-resolved X-ray PIV technique with high temporal resolution was developed. In this study, to embody actual pulsatile blood flows in a circular conduit without changes in hemorheological properties, a bypass loop is established by connecting a microtube between the jugular vein and femoral artery of a rat. Biocompatible CO2 microbubbles are used as tracer particles. After mixing with whole blood, CO2 microbubbles are injected into the bypass loop. Particle images of the pulsatile blood flows in the bypass loop are consecutively captured by the time-resolved X-ray PIV system. The velocity field information are obtained with varying flow rate and pulsataility. To verify the feasibility of the use of CO2 microbubbles under in vivo conditions, the effects of the surrounding-tissues are also investigated, because these effects are crucial for deteriorating the image contrast of CO2 microbubbles. Therefore, the velocity information of blood flows in the abdominal aorta are obtained to demonstrate the visibility and usefulness of CO2 microbubbles under ex vivo conditions. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  14. Pulsatile flow of blood using a modified second-grade fluid model

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran, P.X.

    2008-07-01

    We study the unsteady pulsatile flow of blood in an artery, where the effects of body acceleration are included. The blood is modeled as a modified second-grade fluid where the viscosity and the normal stress coefficients depend on the shear rate. It is assumed that the blood near the wall behaves as a Newtonian fluid, and in the core as a non-Newtonian fluid. This phenomenon is also known as the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect. The equations are made dimensionless and solved numerically.

  15. A comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian models for pulsatile blood flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Iqbal; Labropulu, Fotini; Langdon, Chris; Schwark, Justin

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical modeling of blood flows in the arteries is an important and challenging problem. This study compares several non-Newtonian blood models with the Newtonian model in simulating pulsatile blood flow through two three-dimensional models of an arterial stenosis and an aneurysm. Four non-Newtonian blood models, namely the Power Law, the Casson, the Carreau, and the Generalized Power Law, as well as the Newtonian model of blood viscosity, are used to investigate the flow effects induced by these different blood constitutive equations. The aim of this study is three-fold: firstly, to investigate the variation in wall shear stress in an artery with a stenosis or aneurysm at different flow rates and degrees of severity; secondly, to compare the various blood models and hence quantify the differences between the models and judge their significance; and lastly, to determine whether the use of the Newtonian blood model is appropriate over a wide range of shear rates.

  16. Pulsatile unsteady flow of blood through porous medium in a stenotic artery under the influence of transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Bansal, Kuldip; Bansal, Seema

    2012-09-01

    The periodic nature of the cardiac cycle induces a pulsatile, unsteady flow within the circulatory system. The pulsatile model of blood flow provides data to analyse the physiological situation in close proximity. The distribution of fatty cholesterol and artery-clogging blood clots in the lumen of the coronary artery is assumed as a porous medium. A mathematical model for pulsatile flow through an stenosed artery filled with porous medium in the presence of transverse static magnetic field has been formulated under the consideration of hematocrit dependent viscosity of blood that governed by Einstein equation. The velocity profile, volume flux, pressure gradient and wall shear stress are obtained and the effects of magnetic number, Darcy number, Womersely number are computed and represented through graphs.

  17. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Formation Over A Separated Flow Region Under Steady And Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salek, M. Mehdi; Martinuzzi, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Several researchers have observed that the formation, morphology and susceptibility of bacterial biofilms are affected by the local hydrodynamic condition and, in particular, shear stresses acting on the fluid-biofilm interface. A backwards facing step (BFS) experimental model has been widely utilized as an in vitro model to examine and characterize the effect of flow separation and recirculation zones comparable to those present within various medical devices as well as those observed in vivo. The specific geometry of BFS covers a vide range of flow features observed in physiological or environmental conditions. The hypothesis of this study is that the flow behavior and structures can effectively contribute to the transport and attachment of cells and affecting the morphology of adhered colonies as well as suspended structures (i.e. biofilm streamers). Hence, the formation of the recirculation region occurring within a backward facing step (BFS) under steady and pulsatile conditions as well as three-dimensional flow structures arising close to the side walls are investigated to correlate to biofilms behavior. This hypothesis is investigated using a backward facing step incorporated into a flow cell under steady and pulsatile flow regimes to study the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) UC18 as the study microorganism.

  18. The Importance of dQ/dt on the Flow Field in a Turbodynamic Pump With Pulsatile Flow

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Fangjun; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Antaki, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid dynamic analysis of turbodynamic blood pumps (TBPs) is often conducted under steady flow conditions. However, the preponderance of clinical applications for ventricular assistance involves unsteady, pulsatile flow—due to the residual contractility of the native heart. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the importance of pulsatility and the associated time derivative of the flow rate (dQ/dt) on hemodynamics within a clinical-scale TBP. This was accomplished by performing flow visualization studies on a transparent model of a centrifugal TBP interposed within a cardiovascular simulator with controllable heart rate and stroke volume. Particle image velocimetry triggered to both the rotation angle of the impeller and phase of the cardiac cycle was used to quantify the velocity field in the outlet volute and in between the impeller blades for 16 phases of the cardiac cycle. Comparison of the unsteady flow fields to corresponding steady conditions at the same (instantaneous) flow rates revealed marked differences. In particular, deceleration of flow was found to promote separation within the outlet diffuser, while acceleration served to stabilize the velocity field. The notable differences between the acceleration and deceleration phases illustrated the prominence of inertial fluid forces. These studies emphasize the importance of dQ/dt as an independent variable for thorough preclinical validation of TBPs intended for use as a ventricular assist device. PMID:19775268

  19. Heart-beat-phase-coherent Doppler optical coherence tomography for measuring pulsatile ocular blood flow.

    PubMed

    Schmoll, Tilman; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a Doppler OCT (DOCT) platform that is fully synchronized with the heart-beat via a pulse oximeter. The system allows reconstructing heart-beat-phase-coherent quantitative DOCT volumes. The method is to acquire a series of DOCT volumes and to record the pulse in parallel. The heartbeat data is used for triggering the start of each DOCT volume acquisition. The recorded volume series is registered to the level of capillaries using a cross-volume registration. The information of the pulse phase is used to rearrange the tomograms in time, to obtain a series of phase coherent DOCT volumes over a pulse. We present Doppler angle independent quantitative evaluation of the absolute pulsatile blood flow within individual retinal vessels as well as of the total retinal blood flow over a full heartbeat cycle.

  20. Numerical Study of Turbulent Pulsatile Blood Flow through Stenosed Artery Using Fluid-Solid Interaction.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Saghafian, Mohsen; Sadeghi, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent pulsatile blood flow through stenosed arteries considering the elastic property of the wall is investigated numerically. During the numerical model validation both standard k-ε model and RNG K-ε model are used. Compared with the RNG K-ε model, the standard K-ε model shows better agreement with previous experimental results and is better able to show the reverse flow region. Also, compared with experimental data, the results show that, up to 70% stenosis, the flow is laminar and for 80% stenosis the flow becomes turbulent. Assuming laminar or turbulent flow and also rigid or elastic walls, the results are compared with each other. The investigation of time-averaged shear stress and the oscillatory shear index for 80% stenosis show that assuming laminar flow will cause more error than assuming a rigid wall. The results also show that, in turbulent flow compared with laminar flow, the importance of assuming a flexible artery wall is more than assuming a rigid artery wall.

  1. Numerical Study of Turbulent Pulsatile Blood Flow through Stenosed Artery Using Fluid-Solid Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Saghafian, Mohsen; Sadeghi, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent pulsatile blood flow through stenosed arteries considering the elastic property of the wall is investigated numerically. During the numerical model validation both standard k-ε model and RNG K-ε model are used. Compared with the RNG K-ε model, the standard K-ε model shows better agreement with previous experimental results and is better able to show the reverse flow region. Also, compared with experimental data, the results show that, up to 70% stenosis, the flow is laminar and for 80% stenosis the flow becomes turbulent. Assuming laminar or turbulent flow and also rigid or elastic walls, the results are compared with each other. The investigation of time-averaged shear stress and the oscillatory shear index for 80% stenosis show that assuming laminar flow will cause more error than assuming a rigid wall. The results also show that, in turbulent flow compared with laminar flow, the importance of assuming a flexible artery wall is more than assuming a rigid artery wall. PMID:26448782

  2. Generating a Pulsatile Pulmonary Flow after Fontan Operation by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoreyshi, Mostafa

    2011-03-01

    This study considers blood flow in total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) morphology, which is created in Fontan surgical procedure in patients with single ventricle heart disease. Ordinary process of TCPC operation reduces pulmonary blood flow pulsatility; because of right ventricle being bypassed. This phenomenon causes a lot of side effects for patients. A cardiac surgeon has suggested that keeping main pulmonary artery (MPA) partially open, would increase pulmonary flow pulsations. MPA gets closed in ordinary TCPC operation. The purpose of current study is to verify the effects of keeping MPA partially open on pulmonary flow pulsations, by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). 3D geometry is reconstructed from CT Angiography (CTA) scan of a patient who has undergone an ordinary TCPC procedure. The stenosed MPA or pulmonary stenosis (PS) is virtually added to the original geometry. Flow field is studied in six different models in which average antegrade flow (AF) -coming through PS- increases gradually. Results show that adding AF increases flow pulsations in both pulmonary arteries. Moreover, power loss increases with respect to average AF. We conclude that adding AF is an impressive way to increase pulsations of pulmonary flow, but energy losses should be considered too.

  3. Assessment of blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries with 7-T quantitative flow MRI.

    PubMed

    Bouvy, W H; Geurts, L J; Kuijf, H J; Luijten, P R; Kappelle, L J; Biessels, G J; Zwanenburg, J J M

    2016-09-01

    Thus far, blood flow velocity measurements with MRI have only been feasible in large cerebral blood vessels. High-field-strength MRI may now permit velocity measurements in much smaller arteries. The aim of this proof of principle study was to measure the blood flow velocity and pulsatility of cerebral perforating arteries with 7-T MRI. A two-dimensional (2D), single-slice quantitative flow (Qflow) sequence was used to measure blood flow velocities during the cardiac cycle in perforating arteries in the basal ganglia (BG) and semioval centre (CSO), from which a mean normalised pulsatility index (PI) per region was calculated (n = 6 human subjects, aged 23-29 years). The precision of the measurements was determined by repeated imaging and performance of a Bland-Altman analysis, and confounding effects of partial volume and noise on the measurements were simulated. The median number of arteries included was 14 in CSO and 19 in BG. In CSO, the average velocity per volunteer was in the range 0.5-1.0 cm/s and PI was 0.24-0.39. In BG, the average velocity was in the range 3.9-5.1 cm/s and PI was 0.51-0.62. Between repeated scans, the precision of the average, maximum and minimum velocity per vessel decreased with the size of the arteries, and was relatively low in CSO and BG compared with the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery. The precision of PI per region was comparable with that of M1. The simulations proved that velocities can be measured in vessels with a diameter of more than 80 µm, but are underestimated as a result of partial volume effects, whilst pulsatility is overestimated. Blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries have been measured directly in vivo for the first time, with moderate to good precision. This may be an interesting metric for the study of haemodynamic changes in aging and cerebral small vessel disease. © 2015 The Authors NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of Pulsatile and Continuous Flow on Yes-Associated Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chitragari, Gautham; Shalaby, Sherif Y.; Sumpio, Brandon J.; Sumpio, Bauer E.

    2014-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a mechanosignaling protein that relays mechanical information to the nucleus by changing its level of phosphorylation. We hypothesize that different flow patterns show differential effect on phosphorylated YAP (pYAP) (S127) and total YAP and could be responsible for flow dependent localization of atherosclerosis. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) seeded on fibronectin-coated glass slides were exposed to continuous forward flow (CFF) and pulsatile forward flow (PFF) using a parallel plate flow chamber system for 30 minutes. Cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted to detect the levels of phosphorylated YAP and total YAP. HUVECs exposed to both PFF and CFF showed a mild decrease in the levels of both pYAP (S127) and total YAP. While the levels of pYAP (S127) decreased to 87.85 and 85.21% of static control with PFF and CFF, respectively, the levels of total YAP significantly decreased to 91.31 and 92.27% of static control. No significant difference was seen between CFF and PFF on their effect on pYAP (S127), but both conditions resulted in a significant decrease in total YAP at 30 minutes. The results of this experiment show that the possible effect of different types of flow on YAP is not induced before 30 minutes. Experiments exposing endothelial cells to various types of flow for longer duration of time could help to elucidate the role of YAP in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:25317030

  5. Effect of pulsatile and continuous flow on yes-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Chitragari, Gautham; Shalaby, Sherif Y; Sumpio, Brandon J; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2014-09-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a mechanosignaling protein that relays mechanical information to the nucleus by changing its level of phosphorylation. We hypothesize that different flow patterns show differential effect on phosphorylated YAP (pYAP) (S127) and total YAP and could be responsible for flow dependent localization of atherosclerosis. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) seeded on fibronectin-coated glass slides were exposed to continuous forward flow (CFF) and pulsatile forward flow (PFF) using a parallel plate flow chamber system for 30 minutes. Cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted to detect the levels of phosphorylated YAP and total YAP. HUVECs exposed to both PFF and CFF showed a mild decrease in the levels of both pYAP (S127) and total YAP. While the levels of pYAP (S127) decreased to 87.85 and 85.21% of static control with PFF and CFF, respectively, the levels of total YAP significantly decreased to 91.31 and 92.27% of static control. No significant difference was seen between CFF and PFF on their effect on pYAP (S127), but both conditions resulted in a significant decrease in total YAP at 30 minutes. The results of this experiment show that the possible effect of different types of flow on YAP is not induced before 30 minutes. Experiments exposing endothelial cells to various types of flow for longer duration of time could help to elucidate the role of YAP in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  6. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Carlos R; Miranda, Rafaela Morais; Cunha, Patricia LT; M Kanadani, Tereza Cristina; Dorairaj, Syril

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Glaucomatous neuropathy can be a consequence of insufficient blood supply, increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), or other risk factors that diminish the ocular blood flow. To determine the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in normal and systemic hypertensive patients. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study and underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including slit lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, stereoscopic fundus examination, and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) measurements. The OPP was calculated as being the medium systemic arterial pressure (MAP) less the IOP. Only right eye values were considered for calculations using Student’s t-test. Results: The mean age of the patients was 57.5 years (36-78), and 68.5% were women. There was a statistically significant difference in the OPP of the normal and systemic hypertensive patients (p < 0.05). The difference in the OPP between these groups varied between 8.84 and 17.9 mm Hg. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that although the systemic hypertensive patients have a higher OPP in comparison to normal patients, this increase does not mean that they also have a higher OBF (as measured by POBF tonograph). This may be caused by chronic changes in the vascular network and in the blood hemodynamics in patients with systemic hypertension. How to cite this article: Kanadani FN, Figueiredo CR, Miranda RM, Cunha PLT, Kanadani TCM, Dorairaj S. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):16-19. PMID:26997827

  7. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Methods Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was performed before and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ECC commencement. To eliminate bias induced by hematocrit and plasma, all blood samples were adjusted to a hematocrit of 45% using baseline plasma. Blood viscoelasticity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, arterial blood gas analysis, central venous O2 saturation, and lactate were measured. Results The blood viscosity and aggregation index decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC and then remained low during ECC in both groups, but blood elasticity did not change during ECC. Blood viscosity, blood elasticity, plasma viscosity, and the aggregation index were not significantly different in the groups at any time. Hematocrit decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC in both groups due to dilution by the priming solution used. Conclusion After ECC, blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation were not different in the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups in the adult dog model. Furthermore, pulsatile flow did not have a more harmful effect on blood viscoelasticity or RBC aggregation than nonpulsatile flow. PMID:27298790

  8. Pulsatile flow of blood and heat transfer with variable viscosity under magnetic and vibration environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shit, G. C.; Majee, Sreeparna

    2015-08-01

    Unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer characteristics in the neighborhood of an overlapping constricted artery have been investigated in the presence of magnetic field and whole body vibration. The laminar flow of blood is taken to be incompressible and Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity depending upon temperature with an aim to provide resemblance to the real situation in the physiological system. The unsteady flow mechanism in the constricted artery is subjected to a pulsatile pressure gradient arising from systematic functioning of the heart and from the periodic body acceleration. The numerical computation has been performed using finite difference method by developing Crank-Nicolson scheme. The results show that the volumetric flow rate, skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are significantly altered in the downstream of the constricted region. The axial velocity profile, temperature and flow rate increases with increase in temperature dependent viscosity, while the opposite trend is observed in the case of skin-friction and flow impedance.

  9. A viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction model for carotid arteries under pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongjie; Wood, Nigel B; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a fluid-structure interaction model (FSI) incorporating viscoelastic wall behaviour is developed and applied to an idealized model of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow. The shear and bulk moduli of the arterial wall are described by Prony series, where the parameters can be derived from in vivo measurements. The aim is to develop a fully coupled FSI model that can be applied to realistic arterial geometries with normal or pathological viscoelastic wall behaviour. Comparisons between the numerical and analytical solutions for wall displacements demonstrate that the coupled model is capable of predicting the viscoelastic behaviour of carotid arteries. Comparisons are also made between the solid only and FSI viscoelastic models, and the results suggest that the difference in radial displacement between the two models is negligible.

  10. Verification of a computational cardiovascular system model comparing the hemodynamics of a continuous flow to a synchronous valveless pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Gohean, Jeffrey R.; George, Mitchell J.; Pate, Thomas D.; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G.; Smalling, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to utilize a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device to continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous, pulsatile, valveless, dual piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared to measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared to the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device. PMID:23438771

  11. Stress analysis in a layered aortic arch model under pulsatile blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Watanabe, Masahiro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    Background Many cardiovascular diseases, such as aortic dissection, frequently occur on the aortic arch and fluid-structure interactions play an important role in the cardiovascular system. Mechanical stress is crucial in the functioning of the cardiovascular system; therefore, stress analysis is a useful tool for understanding vascular pathophysiology. The present study is concerned with the stress distribution in a layered aortic arch model with interaction between pulsatile flow and the wall of the blood vessel. Methods A three-dimensional (3D) layered aortic arch model was constructed based on the aortic wall structure and arch shape. The complex mechanical interaction between pulsatile blood flow and wall dynamics in the aortic arch model was simulated by means of computational loose coupling fluid-structure interaction analyses. Results The results showed the variations of mechanical stress along the outer wall of the arch during the cardiac cycle. Variations of circumferential stress are very similar to variations of pressure. Composite stress in the aortic wall plane is high at the ascending portion of the arch and along the top of the arch, and is higher in the media than in the intima and adventitia across the wall thickness. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that circumferential stress in the aortic wall is directly associated with blood pressure, supporting the clinical importance of blood pressure control. High stress in the aortic wall could be a risk factor in aortic dissections. Our numerical layered aortic model may prove useful for biomechanical analyses and for studying the pathogeneses of aortic dissection. PMID:16630365

  12. On the Evolution of Pulsatile Flow Subject to a Transverse Impulse Body Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Labbio, Giuseppe; Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-11-01

    In the event of an unexpected abrupt traffic stop or car accident, automotive passengers will experience an abrupt body deceleration. This may lead to tearing or dissection of the aortic wall known as Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR). BTAR is the second leading cause of death in automotive accidents and, although quite frequent, the mechanisms leading to BTAR are still not clearly identified, particularly the contribution of the flow field. As such, this work is intended to provide a fundamental framework for the investigation of the flow contribution to BTAR. In this fundamental study, pulsatile flow in a three-dimensional, straight pipe of circular cross-section is subjected to a unidirectional, transverse, impulse body force applied on a strictly bounded volume of fluid. These models were simulated using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. The evolution of fluid field characteristics was investigated during and after the application of the force. The application of the force significantly modified the flow field. The force induces a transverse pressure gradient causing the development of secondary flow structures that dissipate the energy added by the acceleration. Once the force ceases to act, these structures are carried downstream and gradually dissipate their excess energy.

  13. Phantom with pulsatile arteries to investigate the influence of blood vessel depth on pulse oximeter signal strength.

    PubMed

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Santha, Hunor

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a three-layer head phantom with artificial pulsating arteries at five different depths (1.2 mm, 3.7 mm, 6.8 mm, 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm). The structure enables formation of spatially and temporally varying tissue properties similar to those of living tissues. In our experiment, pressure pulses were generated in the arteries by an electronically controlled pump. The physical and optical parameters of the layers and the liquid in the artificial arteries were similar to those of real tissues and blood. The amplitude of the pulsating component of the light returning from the phantom tissues was measured at each artery depth mentioned above. The build-up of the in-house-developed pulse oximeter used for performing the measurements and the physical layout of the measuring head are described. The radiant flux generated by the LED on the measuring head was measured to be 1.8 mW at 910 nm. The backscattered radiant flux was measured, and found to be 0.46 nW (0.26 ppm), 0.55 nW (0.31 ppm), and 0.18 nW (0.10 ppm) for the 1.2 mm, 3.7 mm and 6.8 mm arteries, respectively. In the case of the 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm arteries, useful measurement data were not obtained owing to weak signals. We simulated the phantom with the arteries at the above-mentioned five depths and at two additional ones (2.5 mm and 5.3 mm in depth) using the Monte Carlo method. The measurement results were verified by the simulation results. We concluded that in case of 11 mm source-detector separation the arteries at a depth of about 2.5 mm generate the strongest pulse oximeter signal level in a tissue system comprising three layers of thicknesses: 1.5 mm (skin), 5.0 mm (skull), and >50 mm (brain).

  14. Direct numerical simulation of a pulsatile flow in a coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailon-Cuba, Jorge; Hayenga, Heather; Leonardi, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    A direct numerical simulation of the blood flow in a coronary artery has been performed. A pulsatile, turbulent flow, inside a branchless, rigid cylindrical artery with non-slip conditions has been considered. The blood is assumed to be a Newtonian fluid. As a fundamental component of the coronary geometry, several cross-sectional shapes of the arterial lumen, as a function of the streamwise coordinate-z, are being included using the immersed boundary method, with a simple transversal wavy wall, as the most simple case. A preliminary set of simulations has being run, with two time varying flow rate functions. Results include flow velocities, pressure gradients and wall shear stress (WSS) distribution, and their comparison with other CFD and experimental results. In particular, WSS is important due to the significant role that it plays in the early formation of coronary artery disease (CAD). It has been found that waviness on the wall increases the instantaneous streamwise velocity, w (y) , and its fluctuations, (y) , and more drastically the WSS. The numerical simulations were performed on the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) under Grant No. CTS070066.

  15. Complex flow patterns in a real-size intracranial aneurysm phantom: phase contrast MRI compared with particle image velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, P; Guédon, A; Poelma, C; Schneiders, J; Rutten, M C M; Marquering, H A; Majoie, C B; VanBavel, E; Nederveen, A J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the flow patterns measured by high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional phase contrast MRI in a real-size intracranial aneurysm phantom. Retrospectively gated three-dimensional phase contrast MRI was performed in an intracranial aneurysm phantom at a resolution of 0.2 × 0.2 × 0.3 mm(3) in a solenoid rat coil. Both steady and pulsatile flows were applied. The phase contrast MRI measurements were compared with particle image velocimetry measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulations. A quantitative comparison was performed by calculating the differences between the magnitude of the velocity vectors and angles between the velocity vectors in corresponding voxels. Qualitative analysis of the results was executed by visual inspection and comparison of the flow patterns. The root-mean-square errors of the velocity magnitude in the comparison between phase contrast MRI and computational fluid dynamics were 5% and 4% of the maximum phase contrast MRI velocity, and the medians of the angle distribution between corresponding velocity vectors were 16° and 14° for the steady and pulsatile measurements, respectively. In the phase contrast MRI and particle image velocimetry comparison, the root-mean-square errors were 12% and 10% of the maximum phase contrast MRI velocity, and the medians of the angle distribution between corresponding velocity vectors were 19° and 15° for the steady and pulsatile measurements, respectively. Good agreement was found in the qualitative comparison of flow patterns between the phase contrast MRI measurements and both particle image velocimetry measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulations. High-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional phase contrast MRI can accurately measure complex flow patterns in an intracranial aneurysm phantom.

  16. Computational solution of the velocity and wall shear stress distribution inside a left carotid artery under pulsatile flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Nurullah; Turmuş, Hakan

    2014-08-01

    Stroke is still one of the leading causes for death after heart diseases and cancer in all over the world. Strokes happen because an artery that carries blood uphill from the heart to the head is clogged. Most of the time, as with heart attacks, the problem is atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries, calcified buildup of fatty deposits on the vessel wall. In this study, the fluid dynamic simulations were done in a left carotid bifurcation under the pulsatile flow conditions computationally. Pulsatile flow waveform is given in the paper. In vivo geometry and boundary conditions were obtained from a patient who has stenosis located at external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) of his common carotid artery (CCA). The location of critical flow fields such as low wall shear stress (WSS), stagnation regions and separation regions were detected near the highly stenosed region and at branching region.

  17. Computational study of pulsatile blood flow in prototype vessel geometries of coronary segments

    PubMed Central

    Chaniotis, A.K.; Kaiktsis, L.; Katritsis, D.; Efstathopoulos, E.; Pantos, I.; Marmarellis, V.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of wall shear stress (WSS) in prototype vessel geometries of coronary segments are investigated via numerical simulation, and the potential association with vascular disease and specifically atherosclerosis and plaque rupture is discussed. In particular, simulation results of WSS spatio-temporal distributions are presented for pulsatile, non-Newtonian blood flow conditions for: (a) curved pipes with different curvatures, and (b) bifurcating pipes with different branching angles and flow division. The effects of non-Newtonian flow on WSS (compared to Newtonian flow) are found to be small at Reynolds numbers representative of blood flow in coronary arteries. Specific preferential sites of average low WSS (and likely atherogenesis) were found at the outer regions of the bifurcating branches just after the bifurcation, and at the outer-entry and inner-exit flow regions of the curved vessel segment. The drop in WSS was more dramatic at the bifurcating vessel sites (less than 5% of the pre-bifurcation value). These sites were also near rapid gradients of WSS changes in space and time – a fact that increases the risk of rupture of plaque likely to develop at these sites. The time variation of the WSS spatial distributions was very rapid around the start and end of the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle, when strong fluctuations of intravascular pressure were also observed. These rapid and strong changes of WSS and pressure coincide temporally with the greatest flexion and mechanical stresses induced in the vessel wall by myocardial motion (ventricular contraction). The combination of these factors may increase the risk of plaque rupture and thrombus formation at these sites. PMID:20400349

  18. Flow characteristics past jellyfish and St. Vincent valves in the aortic position under physiological pulsatile flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Morsi, Y S; Sakhaeimanesh, A A

    2000-07-01

    Thrombus formation and hemolysis have been linked to the dynamic flow characteristics of heart valve prostheses. To enhance our understanding of the flow characteristics past the aortic position of a Jellyfish (JF) valve in the left ventricle, in vitro laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were carried out under physiological pulsatile flow conditions. The hemodynamic performance of the JF valve was then compared with that of the St. Vincent (SV) valve. The comparison was given in terms of mean systolic pressure drop, back flow energy losses, flow velocity, and shear stresses at various locations downstream of both valves and at cardiac outputs of 3.5 L/min, 4.5 L/min, and 6.5 L/min respectively. The results indicated that both valves created disturbed flow fields with elevated levels of turbulent shear stress as well as higher levels of turbulence in the immediate vicinity of the valve and up to 1 diameter of the pipe (D) downstream of the valve. At a location further downstream, the JF valve showed better flow characteristics than the SV in terms of velocity profiles and turbulent shear stresses. The closure volume of the SV valve was found to be 2.5 times higher than that of the JF valve. Moreover, the total back flow losses and mean systolic pressure drop also were found to be higher in the SV than the JF valve.

  19. Optical Imaging of Flow Pattern and Phantom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galland, Pierre A.; Liang, X.; Wang, L.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.; Breisacher, K.

    1999-01-01

    Time-resolved optical imaging technique has been used to image the spatial distribution of small droplets and jet sprays in a highly scattering environment. The snake and ballistic components of the transmitted pulse are less scattered, and contain direct information about the sample to facilitate image formation as opposed to the diffusive components which are due to multiple collisions as a light pulse propagates through a scattering medium. In a time-gated imaging scheme, these early-arriving, image-bearing components of the incident pulse are selected by opening a gate for an ultrashort period of time and a shadowgram image is detected. Using a single shot cooled CCD camera system, the formation of water droplets is monitored as a function of time. Picosecond time-gated image of drop in scattering cells, spray droplets as a function of let speed and gas pressure, and model calcification samples consisted of calcium carbonate particles of irregular shapes ranging in size from 0. 1 to 1.5 mm affixed to a microscope slide have been measured. Formation produced by an impinging jet will be further monitored using a CCD with 1 kHz framing illuminated with pulsed light. The desired image resolution of the fuel droplets is on the 20 pm scale using early light through a highly scattering medium. A 10(exp -6)m displacement from a jet spray with a flow speed of 100 m/sec introduced by the ns grating pulse used in the imaging is negligible. Early ballistic/snake light imaging offers nondestructive and noninvasive method to observe the spatial distribution of hidden objects inside a highly scattering environment for space, biomedical, and materials applications. In this paper, the techniques we will present are time-resolved K-F transillumination imaging and time-gated scattered light imaging. With a large dynamic range and high resolution, time-gated early light imaging has the potential for improving rocket/aircraft design by determining jets shape and particle sizes

  20. Elimination of motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts using blade sequences in lumbar spine MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Glotsos, Dimitrios; Roka, Violeta; Koutsiaris, Aristotle G; Batsikas, Georgios; Sakkas, Georgios K; Tsagkalis, Antonios; Notaras, Ioannis; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Vassiou, Katerina

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of T2 turbo spin echo (TSE) axial and sagittal BLADE sequences in reducing or even eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts in lumbar spine MRI examinations. Forty four patients, who had routinely undergone a lumbar spine examination, participated in the study. The following pairs of sequences with and without BLADE were compared: a) T2 TSE Sagittal (SAG) in thirty two cases, and b) T2 TSE Axial (AX) also in thirty two cases. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed based on measurements in different normal anatomical structures and examination of seven characteristics, respectively. The qualitative analysis was performed by experienced radiologists. Also, the presence of image motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts was evaluated. Based on the results of the qualitative analysis for the different sequences and anatomical structures, the BLADE sequences were found to be significantly superior to the conventional ones in all the cases. The BLADE sequences eliminated the motion artifacts in all the cases. In our results, it was found that in the examined sequences (sagittal and axial) the differences between the BLADE and conventional sequences regarding the elimination of motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts were statistically significant. In all the comparisons, the T2 TSE BLADE sequences were significantly superior to the corresponding conventional sequences regarding the classification of their image quality. In conclusion, this technique appears to be capable of potentially eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts in lumbar spine MR images and producing high quality images in collaborative and non-collaborative patients.

  1. Neurocognitive function in patients with ventricular assist devices: a comparison of pulsatile and continuous blood flow devices.

    PubMed

    Zimpfer, Daniel; Wieselthaler, Georg; Czerny, Martin; Fakin, Richard; Haider, Dominik; Zrunek, Philipp; Roethy, Wilfried; Schima, Heinz; Wolner, Ernst; Grimm, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The effect of successful ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation on neurocognitive function in terminal heart failure is uncertain. Additionally, the different impact of continuous versus pulsatile blood flow devices is unknown. A total of 29 patients (mean age 53 years), surviving implantation of a ventricular assist device as bridge to transplantation were prospectively followed (continuous flow: Micromed DeBakey, n = 11; pulsatile flow: Thoratec and Novacor, n = 18). Normative data were obtained in 40 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (mean age 54 years). Neurocognitive function was objectively measured by means of cognitive P300 auditory evoked potentials before operation (baseline), at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge, and at the 8-week and 12-week follow-up. Before implantation of the VAD, cognitive P300 evoked potentials were impaired (prolonged) compared with age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (p < 0.001). After successful VAD implantation, P300 evoked potentials markedly improved compared with before operation (ICU discharge, p = 0.007; 8-week follow-up, p = 0.022; 12-week follow-up, p < 0.0001). Importantly, there was no difference between continuous and pulsatile VADs (before operation, p = 0.676; ICU discharge, p = 0.736; 8-week follow-up, p = 0.911 and 12-week follow-up, p = 0.397; respectively). Nevertheless, P300 peak latencies did not fully normalize at 12-week follow-up compared with healthy subjects (p = 0.012). Successful VAD implantation improves neurocognitive impairment in patients with terminal heart failure. Importantly, this effect is independent of the type of VAD (pulsatile vs. continuous blood flow). PMID:16436886

  2. Mass Transfer in a Rigid Tube With Pulsatile Flow and Constant Wall Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Moschandreou, T. E.; Ellis, C. G.; Goldman, D.

    2011-01-01

    An approximate-analytical solution method is presented for the problem of mass transfer in a rigid tube with pulsatile flow. For the case of constant wall concentration, it is shown that the generalized integral transform (GIT) method can be used to obtain a solution in terms of a perturbation expansion, where the coefficients of each term are given by a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. Truncating the system at some large value of the parameter N, an approximate solution for the system is obtained for the first term in the perturbation expansion, and the GIT-based solution is verified by comparison to a numerical solution. The GIT approximate-analytical solution indicates that for small to moderate nondimensional frequencies for any distance from the inlet of the tube, there is a positive peak in the bulk concentration C1b due to pulsation, thereby, producing a higher mass transfer mixing efficiency in the tube. As we further increase the frequency, the positive peak is followed by a negative peak in the time-averaged bulk concentration and then the bulk concentration C1b oscillates and dampens to zero. Initially, for small frequencies the relative Sherwood number is negative indicating that the effect of pulsation tends to reduce mass transfer. There is a band of frequencies, where the relative Sherwood number is positive indicating that the effect of pulsation tends to increase mass transfer. The positive peak in bulk concentration corresponds to a matching of the phase of the pulsatile velocity and the concentration, respectively, where the unique maximum of both occur for certain time in the cycle. The oscillatory component of concentration is also determined radially in the tube where the concentration develops first near the wall of the tube, and the lobes of the concentration curves increase with increasing distance downstream until the concentration becomes fully developed. The GIT method proves to be a working approach to solve the first

  3. Arterial stiffness, pressure and flow pulsatility and brain structure and function: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary F; van Buchem, Mark A; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gotal, John D; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Kjartansson, Ólafur; Garcia, Melissa; Aspelund, Thor; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2011-11-01

    Aortic stiffness increases with age and vascular risk factor exposure and is associated with increased risk for structural and functional abnormalities in the brain. High ambient flow and low impedance are thought to sensitize the cerebral microcirculation to harmful effects of excessive pressure and flow pulsatility. However, haemodynamic mechanisms contributing to structural brain lesions and cognitive impairment in the presence of high aortic stiffness remain unclear. We hypothesized that disproportionate stiffening of the proximal aorta as compared with the carotid arteries reduces wave reflection at this important interface and thereby facilitates transmission of excessive pulsatile energy into the cerebral microcirculation, leading to microvascular damage and impaired function. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated carotid pressure and flow, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, brain magnetic resonance images and cognitive scores in participants in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study who had no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or dementia (n = 668, 378 females, 69-93 years of age). Aortic characteristic impedance was assessed in a random subset (n = 422) and the reflection coefficient at the aorta-carotid interface was computed. Carotid flow pulsatility index was negatively related to the aorta-carotid reflection coefficient (R = -0.66, P<0.001). Carotid pulse pressure, pulsatility index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were each associated with increased risk for silent subcortical infarcts (hazard ratios of 1.62-1.71 per standard deviation, P<0.002). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was associated with higher white matter hyperintensity volume (0.108 ± 0.045 SD/SD, P = 0.018). Pulsatility index was associated with lower whole brain (-0.127 ± 0.037 SD/SD, P<0.001), grey matter (-0.079 ± 0.038 SD/SD, P = 0.038) and white matter (-0.128 ± 0.039 SD/SD, P<0.001) volumes. Carotid-femoral pulse

  4. Linearity of pulsatile pressure-flow relations in the embryonic chick vascular system.

    PubMed

    Yoshigi, M; Keller, B B

    1996-10-01

    The calculation and modeling of vascular input impedance are based on the assumption that pressure and flow are linearly related in the frequency domain. However, this assumption has not been proven for the embryonic circulation. Therefore, we investigated the linearity of pulsatile pressure flow relations in vivo with acute alterations in cycle length. We simultaneously measured dorsal aortic pressure with a servonull system and flow velocity with a 20-MHz pulsed-Doppler system in stage 24 chick embryos (n = 38). Cycle length was acutely altered using thermal probe(s) applied to the sinus venosus. We determined the impedance spectra at several cycle lengths for each embryo and a reference curve from a three-element Windkessel model with the use of nonlinear curve fitting. We then assessed the scatter of experimental impedance along the reference curve as a measure of linearity in the frequency domain. We found that mean vascular resistance did not change after thermal probe applications (P > .20 for each), indicating that acute alterations in cycle length did not alter peripheral vascular properties. Superpositioned impedance spectra showed minimal scatter along the model impedance from 0 to 6 Hz. Goodness of fit values (R2) were near unity (.94 to .97) and were similar for all interventions (P > .07 for Fisher's z, by F test). Above 6 Hz, both modulus and phase spectra exhibited significant scatter (P < .05, by F test). Experimental impedance spectra tended to have a fluctuation and a phase-zero crossover, indicating significant wave reflection in the embryonic circulation. Thus, the embryonic vascular system can be approximated as a linear system from 0 to 6 Hz, the range in which the majority (96.0 +/- 0.18%) of hydraulic energy is dissipated.

  5. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)--which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)--which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498 mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332 mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24 min at a gas supersaturation of 620 kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24 min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration.

  6. Osteoblasts respond to pulsatile fluid flow with short-term increases in PGE(2) but no change in mineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauman, E. A.; Satcher, R. L.; Keaveny, T. M.; Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    Although there is no consensus as to the precise nature of the mechanostimulatory signals imparted to the bone cells during remodeling, it has been postulated that deformation-induced fluid flow plays a role in the mechanotransduction pathway. In vitro, osteoblasts respond to fluid shear stress with an increase in PGE(2) production; however, the long-term effects of fluid shear stress on cell proliferation and differentiation have not been examined. The goal of this study was to apply continuous pulsatile fluid shear stresses to osteoblasts and determine whether the initial production of PGE(2) is associated with long-term biochemical changes. The acute response of bone cells to a pulsatile fluid shear stress (0.6 +/- 0.5 Pa, 3.0 Hz) was characterized by a transient fourfold increase in PGE(2) production. After 7 days of static culture (0 dyn/cm(2)) or low (0.06 +/- 0.05 Pa, 0.3 Hz) or high (0.6 +/- 0.5 Pa, 3.0 Hz) levels of pulsatile fluid shear stress, the bone cells responded with an 83% average increase in cell number, but no statistical difference (P > 0.53) between the groups was observed. Alkaline phosphatase activity per cell decreased in the static cultures but not in the low- or high-flow groups. Mineralization was also unaffected by the different levels of applied shear stress. Our results indicate that short-term changes in PGE(2) levels caused by pulsatile fluid flow are not associated with long-term changes in proliferation or mineralization of bone cells.

  7. The occurrence of the Coanda effect in pulsatile flow through static models of the human vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Erath, Byron D; Plesniak, Michael W

    2006-08-01

    Pulsatile flow through a one-sided diffuser and static divergent vocal-fold models is investigated to ascertain the relevance of viscous-driven flow asymmetries in the larynx. The models were 7.5 times real size, and the flow was scaled to match Reynolds and Strouhal numbers, as well as the translaryngeal pressure drop. The Reynolds number varied from 0-2000, for flow oscillation frequencies corresponding to 100 and 150 Hz life-size. Of particular interest was the development of glottal flow skewing by attachment to the bounding walls, or Coanda effect, in a pulsatile flow field, and its impact on speech. The vocal folds form a divergent passage during phases of the phonation cycle when viscous effects such as flow separation are important. It was found that for divergence angles of less than 20 degrees, the attachment of the flow to the vocal-fold walls occurred when the acceleration of the forcing function was zero, and the flow had reached maximum velocity. For a divergence angle of 40 degrees, the fully separated central jet never attached to the vocal-fold walls. Inferences are made regarding the impact of the Coanda effect on the sound source contribution in speech. PMID:16938987

  8. Basic study of intrinsic elastography: Relationship between tissue stiffness and propagation velocity of deformation induced by pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Ryo; Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Arakawa, Mototaka; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-07-01

    We proposed an estimation method for a tissue stiffness from deformations induced by arterial pulsation, and named this proposed method intrinsic elastography (IE). In IE, assuming that the velocity of the deformation propagation in tissues is closely related to the stiffness, the propagation velocity (PV) was estimated by spatial compound ultrasound imaging with a high temporal resolution of 1 ms. However, the relationship between tissue stiffness and PV has not been revealed yet. In this study, the PV of the deformation induced by the pulsatile pump was measured by IE in three different poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) phantoms of different stiffnesses. The measured PV was compared with the shear wave velocity (SWV) measured by shear wave imaging (SWI). The measured PV has trends similar to the measured SWV. These results obtained by IE in a healthy male show the possibility that the mechanical properties of living tissues could be evaluated by IE.

  9. Quantitative flow phantom for contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, Melissa L.; Kempston, Michael P.; Mainprize, James G.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2007-03-01

    The use of contrast agents can help to overcome a lack of intrinsic radiographic contrast between malignant and benign breast tissue by taking advantage of the properties of tumour angiogenesis. Studies of contrast-enhanced mammography have demonstrated increased lesion conspicuity and have shown that this technique provides information on contrast uptake kinetics. It has been suggested that malignant and benign lesions can be differentiated in part by their uptake kinetics, so this additional data may lead to more accurate diagnoses. Tomosynthesis is a 3D x-ray imaging technique that permits lesion depth localization and increased conspicuity in comparison with 2D x-ray projection techniques. This modality, used in combination with contrast agents, promises to be a sensitive method of breast cancer detection. To develop the technique of contrast-enhanced breast tomosynthesis, a dynamic flow phantom has been constructed to provide the same types of imaging challenges anticipated in the clinical setting. These challenges include a low-contrast tumour space, relevant temporal contrast agent uptake and washout profiles, and a need for quantitative analysis of enhancement levels. The design of a flow phantom will be presented that includes a dynamic tumour space, a background that masks the tumour space in images without contrast enhancement, and flow characteristics that simulate tumour contrast agent uptake and washout kinetics. The system is calibrated to relate signal to concentration of the contrast agent using a well plate filled with iodinated water. Iodine detectability in the flow phantom is evaluated in terms of the signal-difference-to-noise ratio for various tomosynthesis image acquisition parameters including number of acquired angular views, angular extent, and reconstruction voxel size.

  10. Pulsatile flow in the aorta of the LVAD supported heart studied using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyedi, Zahra

    Currently many patients die because of the end-stage heart failure, mainly due to the reduced number of donor heart transplant organs. Studies show that a permanent left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a battery driven pump which is surgically implanted, increased the survival rate of patients with end-stage heart failure and improved considerably their quality of life. The inlet conduit of the LVAD is attached to the left ventricle and the outflow conduit anastomosed to the ascending aorta. The purpose of LVAD support is to help a weakened heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. However LVAD can cause some alterations of the natural blood flow. When your blood comes in contact with something that isn't a natural part of your body blood clots can occur and disrupt blood flow. Aortic valve integrity is vital for optimal support of left ventricular assist LVAD. Due to the existence of high continuous transvalvular pressure on the aortic valve, the opening frequency of the valve is reduced. To prevent the development of aortic insufficiency, aortic valve closure during LVAD implantation has been performed. However, the closed aortic valve reduces wash out of the aortic root, which causes blood stagnation and potential thrombus formation. So for this reason, there is a need to minimize the risks of occurring blood clot, by having more knowledge about the flow structure in the aorta during LVAD use. The current study focuses on measuring the flow field in the aorta of the LVAD assisted heart with two different types of aortic valve (Flat and Finned) using the SDSU cardiac simulator. The pulsatile pump that mimics the natural pulsing action of the heart also added to the system. The flow field is visualized using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, The fluid mechanics of aorta has been studied when LVAD conduit attached to two different locations (proximal and distal to the aortic valve) with pump speeds of 8,000 to 10,000 revolutions per minute (RPM

  11. Pulsatile flow and simple flow control method during weaning period in centrifugal pump: toward more expanded usage in open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Koyanagi, H; Endo, M; Suzuki, S; Oshiyama, H; Nojiri, C; Fukasawa, H; Akutsu, T

    1994-09-01

    To expand the usage of the centrifugal pump (CP) in open heart surgery, we performed two studies. In the first, we evaluated pulsatile flow in the CP. In vitro pump performance of the Terumo Capiox pump (TCP) and the Sarns Delphin pump (SDP) and increase of free hemoglobin (mg/dl) after driving 6 h were investigated using bovine blood. A roller pump (RP) was used as a comparison. Equally effective pulsatile flow was obtained in both CPs. Hemolysis was less severe in TCP (120 mg/dl) than SDP (210 mg/dl) and RP (320 mg/dl). In the second study, we evaluated a simple flow control method. Flow rate was easily controlled with step-wise clamping of 3-pronged tubing (Triple-flow) without changing rotational speed, regardless of afterload. Fluctuation of flow was much less with this method than with the rotational speed change method. The use of pulsatile flow of TCP, with its minimum increase of hemolysis and the easier flow control method during the weaning process, may expand the usage of CP in open heart surgery.

  12. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of pulsatile flow within a layered and stenotic aorta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-qi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Tian-tian; Yang, Qing-shan

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the hemodynamic characteristics of blood flow and stress distribution in a layered and stenotic aorta are investigated. By introducing symmetrical and unsymmetrical stenosis, the influence of stenosis morphology and stenotic ratio on the coupled dynamic responses of aorta is clarified. In the analysis, the in-vivo pulsatile waveforms and fully fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the layered elastic aorta and the blood are considered. The results show that the fluid domain is abnormal in the stenotic aorta, and the whirlpool forms at the obstructed and downstream unobstructed regions. The maximum wall shear stresses appear at the throat of the stenosis. Downstream region appears low and oscillated shear stresses. In addition, along with the increase of the stenotic ratio, the amplitude of the maximum shear stress will be intensively increased and localized, and the sensitivity is also increased. In the aorta with unsymmetrical stenosis, the Von Mises stresses reach the peak value at the side with the surface protuberance, but they are reduced at the side with no protuberance. The sign variation of the layer interface shear stresses near the throat indicates the variation of the shear direction which increases the opportunity of shear damage at the transition plane. Moreover, the shear stress levels at the fluid-solid and intima-media interfaces are higher than that at the media-adventitia interface. The unsymmetrical stenosis causes higher stresses at the side with the surface protuberance than symmetrical one, but lower at the side with no protuberance. These results provide an insight in the influence of the stenosis, as well as its morphology, on the pathogenesis and pathological evolution of some diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and aortic dissection.

  13. Pulsatile ocular blood flow in asymmetric exudative age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S.; Cheng, C.; Lee, A.; Lee, F.; Chou, J. C.; Hsu, W.; Liu, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Decreased perfusion or increased vascular resistance of the choroidal vessels had been proposed as the vascular pathogenesis for age related macular degeneration (AMD). This study planned to answer the question whether pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) was different in patients with asymmetric exudative AMD between eyes with drusen, choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), or disciform scar.
METHODS—37 patients with asymmetric exudative AMD were enrolled in this observational case series study. POBF were measured in both eyes of each subject. Eyes with high myopia, anisometropia, recent laser treatment, and glaucoma were excluded.
RESULTS—After adjusting for ocular perfusion pressure, intraocular pressure, and pulse rate, multivariate regression analysis with generalised estimating equation showed POBF was significantly higher in eyes with CNV (1217 (SD 476) µl/min) than the contralateral eyes with drusen (1028 (385) µl/min) (p = 0.024). Eyes with disciform scar had lower POBF than the contralateral eyes with drusen (999 (262) µl/min and 1278 (341) µl/min, respectively, p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the POBF and the lesion size of the CNV.
CONCLUSION—The POBF in eyes with drusen was lower than their fellow eyes with CNV, but higher than their fellow eyes with disciform scar. This finding suggests that haemodynamic differences between fellow eyes in individuals are relevant to the development of CNV and the formation of disciform scar. Further studies on the follow up patients might shed light on the pathogenesis of exudative AMD.

 PMID:11734510

  14. New understanding of the role of cerebrospinal fluid: offsetting of arterial and brain pulsation and self-dissipation of cerebrospinal fluid pulsatile flow energy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung Jay; Yoon, Soo Han; Kang, Jae-Kyu

    2011-06-01

    Many theories have been postulated to date regarding the mechanisms involved in the absorption of the intracranial arterial blood flow energy in the intracranial space, but it is as yet nor clearly defined. The blood flow energy that is transmitted from the heart formulates the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatile flow, and is known to constitute the major energy of the CSF flow, while the bulk flow carries only small energy. The intracranial space that is enclosed in a solid cranium and is an isolate system as in the Monroe-Kellie doctrine, and the authors propose to re-analyze the Monroe-Kellie doctrine concept in terms of energy transfer and dissipation of the Windkessel effect. We propose that the large blood flow energy that initiates in the heart is transferred in order of precedence to the arteries, arterioles, brain parenchyma, and finally to CSF within the cranium, in which the energy is confined and unable to be transferred, so that the final transfer of energy to the CSF pulsatile flow is self-dissipated in terms of direction and chronology in CSF pulsatile flow. In order for the CSF pulsatile flow that is transferred from arterial blood flow energy to be dissipated in the intracranial space, this cannot be explained with bulk flow energy in any perspective, since the pulsatile flow kinetic energy is greater than the bulk flow kinetic energy by at least a 100-fold. The pulsatile flow energy within the closed intracranial space cannot be transferred and is confined, as postulated by the Monroe-Kellie doctrine, and therefore the authors propound that the pulsatile flow dissipates by itself. The dissipation of the CSF pulsatile flow kinetic energy will be in all directions in a diffuse and random manner, and is offset by the CSF flow energy vector due to the CSF mixing process. Such energy dissipation will lead to maintenance of low CSF flow energy, which will result in maintaining low intracranial pressure (ICP), and sufficient brain perfusion. It is our

  15. Simultaneous assessment of red blood cell aggregation and oxygen saturation under pulsatile flow using high-frequency photoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of photoacoustic (PA) imaging for assessing the correlation between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and the oxygen saturation (sO2) in a simulated pulsatile blood flow system. For the 750 and 850 nm illuminations, the PA amplitude (PAA) increased and decreased as the mean blood flow velocity decreased and increased, respectively, at all beat rates (60, 120 and 180 bpm). The sO2 also cyclically varied, in phase with the PAA for all beat rates. However, the linear correlation between the sO2 and the PAA at 850 nm was stronger than that at 750 nm. These results suggest that the sO2 can be correlated with RBC aggregation induced by decreased mean shear rate in pulsatile flow, and that the correlation is dependent on the optical wavelength. The hemodynamic properties of blood flow assessed by PA imaging may be used to provide a new biomarker for simultaneous monitoring blood viscosity related to RBC aggregation, oxygen delivery related to the sO2 and their clinical correlation. PMID:27446705

  16. Simultaneous assessment of red blood cell aggregation and oxygen saturation under pulsatile flow using high-frequency photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the feasibility of photoacoustic (PA) imaging for assessing the correlation between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and the oxygen saturation (sO2) in a simulated pulsatile blood flow system. For the 750 and 850 nm illuminations, the PA amplitude (PAA) increased and decreased as the mean blood flow velocity decreased and increased, respectively, at all beat rates (60, 120 and 180 bpm). The sO2 also cyclically varied, in phase with the PAA for all beat rates. However, the linear correlation between the sO2 and the PAA at 850 nm was stronger than that at 750 nm. These results suggest that the sO2 can be correlated with RBC aggregation induced by decreased mean shear rate in pulsatile flow, and that the correlation is dependent on the optical wavelength. The hemodynamic properties of blood flow assessed by PA imaging may be used to provide a new biomarker for simultaneous monitoring blood viscosity related to RBC aggregation, oxygen delivery related to the sO2 and their clinical correlation. PMID:27446705

  17. Numerical and experimental studies on pulsatile flow in aneurysms arising laterally from a curved parent vessel at various angles.

    PubMed

    Liou, Tong-Miin; Li, Yi-Chen; Juan, Wei-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Both numerical and experimental studies have been performed to characterize the fluid flow inside the lateral aneurysms arising from the curved parent vessels at various angles gamma. The implicit solver was based on the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible laminar flow. Solutions were generated by a cell-center finite-volume method that used second order upwind and second order center flux difference splitting for the convection and diffusion term, respectively. The second order Crank-Nicolson method was used in the time integration term while the SIMPLEC algorithm was adopted to handle the pressure-velocity coupling. Complementarily, the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was used to measure the velocity fields. The conditions selected were to simulate an internal carotid artery with a diameter of 5 mm by similarity rules. The values of gamma explored were 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 135 degrees. Pulsatile flow with Wormersley number 3.9 and Reynolds numbers varying from 350 to 850 was considered. The computed results are firstly verified by the PTV measured ones. Discussion of the results is in terms of pulsatile main and secondary velocity vector fields, inflow rates into the aneurysm, and the distributions of wall shear stress and static pressure. It is found that among the angles examined gamma=45( composite function) is the riskiest angle from a fluid dynamics point of view and the aneurysmal dome is at risk.

  18. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  19. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  20. Application of double-layered skin phantoms for optical flow imaging during laser tattoo treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeong-il; Song, Woosub; Kim, Hyejin; Kang, Hyun Wook

    2016-05-01

    The feasible application of double-layered skin phantoms was evaluated to identify artificial blood flow with a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system for laser tattoo treatments. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used to fabricate the artificial phantoms with flow channels embedded. A double-integrating sphere system with an inverse adding-doubling method quantified both the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients for epidermis and dermis phantoms. Both OCT and caliper measurements confirmed the double-layered phantom structure (epidermis = 136 ± 17 µm vs. dermis = 3.0 ± 0.1 mm). The DOCT method demonstrated that high flow rates were associated with high image contrast, visualizing the position and the shape of the flow channel. Application of the channel-embedded skin phantoms in conjunction with DOCT can be a reliable technique to assess dynamic variations in the blood flow during and after laser tattoo treatments.

  1. Development of a xenon/computed tomography cerebral blood flow quality assurance phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Good, W.F.; Gur, D.; Herron, J.M.; Kennedy, W.H.

    1987-09-01

    A simple, easy to use, quality assurance and performance test phantom was developed for the xenon/computed tomography (CT) cerebral blood flow method. The phantom combines an inhalation system which allows for the simulation of xenon buildup or washout in the arterial blood as well as a multisection translatable cylinder in which several sections can be scanned during a preselected protocol to simulate the CT enhancement in brain tissue during a study. The phantom and scanning protocol are described and their use is demonstrated. The results compare favorably to the theoretically expected fast, intermediate, and slow flow values designed into the phantom.

  2. Pulsatile Flow through Annular Space Bounded by Outer Porous Cylinder and an Inner Cylinder of Permeable Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Keimanesh, M.; Rajvanshi, S. C.; Wasu, S.

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the problem of pulsatile flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through annular space bounded by an outer porous cylinder and an inner cylinder of permeable material. The coupled flow has been analyzed by solving Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and Darcy's equation in the porous region. Beaver-Joseph slip-condition has been used at the free fluid-permeable medium interface. The similarity transformation for the governing equations gives a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are analytically solved by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The analytical solutions have been obtained in the form of a series. An admissible interval for the convergence of the series solutions has been indicated. Graphical results are presented to show the influence of different parameters on velocity profiles, pressure drop, and skin friction. Comparison between the solutions obtained by the HAM and the numerical solution shows good agreement.

  3. 2D Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Human Ventricle System Based on Fluid-Solid Interaction and Pulsatile Flow.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Framanzad, F; Zamanian, Behnam; Seddighi, A S; Moosavi, M H; Najarian, S; Bastani, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Many diseases are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. Therefore, understanding the hydrodynamics of CSF flow and intracranial pressure is helpful for obtaining deeper knowledge of pathological processes and providing better treatments. Furthermore, engineering a reliable computational method is promising approach for fabricating in vitro models which is essential for inventing generic medicines. A Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI)model was constructed to simulate CSF flow. An important problem in modeling the CSF flow is the diastolic back flow. In this article, using both rigid and flexible conditions for ventricular system allowed us to evaluate the effect of surrounding brain tissue. Our model assumed an elastic wall for the ventricles and a pulsatile CSF input as its boundary conditions. A comparison of the results and the experimental data was done. The flexible model gave better results because it could reproduce the diastolic back flow mentioned in clinical research studies. The previous rigid models have ignored the brain parenchyma interaction with CSF and so had not reported the back flow during the diastolic time. In this computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, the CSF pressure and flow velocity in different areas were concordant with the experimental data.

  4. 2D Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Human Ventricle System Based on Fluid-Solid Interaction and Pulsatile Flow.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Framanzad, F; Zamanian, Behnam; Seddighi, A S; Moosavi, M H; Najarian, S; Bastani, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Many diseases are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. Therefore, understanding the hydrodynamics of CSF flow and intracranial pressure is helpful for obtaining deeper knowledge of pathological processes and providing better treatments. Furthermore, engineering a reliable computational method is promising approach for fabricating in vitro models which is essential for inventing generic medicines. A Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI)model was constructed to simulate CSF flow. An important problem in modeling the CSF flow is the diastolic back flow. In this article, using both rigid and flexible conditions for ventricular system allowed us to evaluate the effect of surrounding brain tissue. Our model assumed an elastic wall for the ventricles and a pulsatile CSF input as its boundary conditions. A comparison of the results and the experimental data was done. The flexible model gave better results because it could reproduce the diastolic back flow mentioned in clinical research studies. The previous rigid models have ignored the brain parenchyma interaction with CSF and so had not reported the back flow during the diastolic time. In this computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, the CSF pressure and flow velocity in different areas were concordant with the experimental data. PMID:25337330

  5. The design and fabrication of two portal vein flow phantoms by different methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yunker, Bryan E. Lanning, Craig J.; Shandas, Robin; Hunter, Kendall S.; Chen, S. James

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This study outlines the design and fabrication techniques for two portal vein flow phantoms. Methods: A materials study was performed as a precursor to this phantom fabrication effort and the desired material properties are restated for continuity. A three-dimensional portal vein pattern was created from the Visual Human database. The portal vein pattern was used to fabricate two flow phantoms by different methods with identical interior surface geometry using computer aided design software tools and rapid prototyping techniques. One portal flow phantom was fabricated within a solid block of clear silicone for use on a table with Ultrasound or within medical imaging systems such as MRI, CT, PET, or SPECT. The other portal flow phantom was fabricated as a thin walled tubular latex structure for use in water tanks with Ultrasound imaging. Both phantoms were evaluated for usability and durability. Results: Both phantoms were fabricated successfully and passed durability criteria for flow testing in the next project phase. Conclusions: The fabrication methods and materials employed for the study yielded durable portal vein phantoms.

  6. An efficient approach to study the pulsatile blood flow in femoral and coronary arteries by Differential Quadrature Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Seiyed E.; Hatami, M.; Hatami, J.; Sahebi, S. A. R.; Ganji, D. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, flow analysis for a non-Newtonian third grade blood in coronary and femoral arteries is simulated numerically. Blood is considered as the third grade non-Newtonian fluid under periodic body acceleration motion and pulsatile pressure gradient. Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) and Crank Nicholson Method (CNM) are used to solve the Partial Differential Equation (PDE) governing equation by which a good agreement between them was observed in the results. The influences of some physical parameters such as amplitude, lead angle and body acceleration frequency on non-dimensional velocity and profiles are considered. For instance, the results show that increasing the amplitude, Ag, and reducing the lead angle of body acceleration, ϕ, make higher velocity profiles in the center line of both arteries.

  7. Pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous blood vessels using a third grade non-Newtonian fluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile.

  8. Pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous blood vessels using a third grade non-Newtonian fluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile. PMID:26792174

  9. High-frequency photoacoustic imaging of erythrocyte aggregation and oxygen saturation: probing hemodynamic relations under pulsatile blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging to study the shear rate dependent relationship between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in a simulated blood flow system. The PA signal amplitude increased during the formation of aggregates and cyclically varied at intervals corresponding to the beat rate (30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 bpm) for all optical wavelengths of illumination (750 and 850 nm).The SO2 also cyclically varied in phase with the PA signal amplitude for all beat rates. In addition, the mean blood flow velocity cyclically varied at the same interval of beat rate, and the shear rate (i.e. the radial gradient of flow velocity) also cyclically varied. On the other hand, the phase of the cyclic variation in the shear rate was reversed compared to that in the PA signal amplitude. This study indicates that RBC aggregation induced by periodic changes in the shear rate can be correlated with the SO2 under pulsatile blood flow. Furthermore, PA imaging of flowing blood may be capable of providing a new biomarker for the clinical application in terms of monitoring blood viscosity, oxygen delivery and their correlation.

  10. Non-Newtonian perspectives on pulsatile blood-analog flows in a 180° curved artery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk, Stevin; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Fuchs, Laszlo; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-07-01

    Complex, unsteady fluid flow phenomena in the arteries arise due to the pulsations of the heart that intermittently pumps the blood to the extremities of the body. The many different flow waveform variations observed throughout the arterial network are a result of this process and a function of the vessel properties. Large scale secondary flow structures are generated throughout the aortic arch and larger branches of the arteries. An experimental 180° curved artery test section with physiological inflow conditions was used to validate the computational methods implemented in this study. Good agreement of the secondary flow structures is obtained between experimental and numerical studies of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid under steady-state and pulsatile, carotid artery flow rate waveforms. Multiple vortical structures, some of opposite rotational sense to Dean vortices, similar to Lyne-type vortices, were observed to form during the systolic portion of the pulse. Computational tools were used to assess the effect of blood-analog fluid rheology (i.e., Newtonian versus non-Newtonian). It is demonstrated that non-Newtonian, blood-analog fluid rheology results in shear layer instabilities that alter the formation of vortical structures during the systolic deceleration and onwards during diastole. Additional vortices not observed in the Newtonian cases appear at the inside and outside of the bend at various times during the pulsation. The influence of blood-analog shear-thinning viscosity decreases mean pressure losses in contrast to the Newtonian blood analog fluid.

  11. Turbulence detection in a stenosed artery bifurcation by numerical simulation of pulsatile blood flow using the low-Reynolds number turbulence model.

    PubMed

    Ghalichi, Farzan; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    The pulsatile blood flow in a partially blocked artery is significantly altered as the flow regime changes through the cardiac cycle. This paper reports on the application of a low-Reynolds turbulence model for computation of physiological pulsatile flow in a healthy and stenosed carotid artery bifurcation. The human carotid artery was chosen since it has received much attention because atherosclerotic lesions are frequently observed. The Wilcox low-Re k-omega turbulence model was used for the simulation since it has proven to be more accurate in describing transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Using the FIDAP finite element code a validation showed very good agreement between experimental and numerical results for a steady laminar to turbulent flow transition as reported in a previous publication by the same authors. Since no experimental or numerical results were available in the literature for a pulsatile and turbulent flow regime, a comparison between laminar and low-Re turbulent calculations was made to further validate the turbulence model. The results of this study showed a very good agreement for velocity profiles and wall shear stress values for this imposed pulsatile laminar flow regime. To explore further the medical aspect, the calculations showed that even in a healthy or non-stenosed artery, small instabilities could be found at least for a portion of the pulse cycle and in different sections. The 40% and 55% diameter reduction stenoses did not significantly change the turbulence characteristics. Further results showed that the presence of 75% stenoses changed the flow properties from laminar to turbulent flow for a good portion of the cardiac pulse. A full 3D simulation with this low-Re-turbulence model, coupled with Doppler ultrasound, can play a significant role in assessing the degree of stenosis for cardiac patients with mild conditions.

  12. A fluid--structure interaction finite element analysis of pulsatile blood flow through a compliant stenotic artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathe, M.; Kamm, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    A new model is used to analyze the fully coupled problem of pulsatile blood flow through a compliant, axisymmetric stenotic artery using the finite element method. The model uses large displacement and large strain theory for the solid, and the full Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid. The effect of increasing area reduction on fluid dynamic and structural stresses is presented. Results show that pressure drop, peak wall shear stress, and maximum principal stress in the lesion all increase dramatically as the area reduction in the stenosis is increased from 51 to 89 percent. Further reductions in stenosis cross-sectional area, however, produce relatively little additional change in these parameters due to a concomitant reduction in flow rate caused by the losses in the constriction. Inner wall hoop stretch amplitude just distal to the stenosis also increases with increasing stenosis severity, as downstream pressures are reduced to a physiological minimum. The contraction of the artery distal to the stenosis generates a significant compressive stress on the downstream shoulder of the lesion. Dynamic narrowing of the stenosis is also seen, further augmenting area constriction at times of peak flow. Pressure drop results are found to compare well to an experimentally based theoretical curve, despite the assumption of laminar flow.

  13. In vitro pulsatile flow visualization on extracardiac conduits for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction: qualitative considerations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S M; Chang, Q; Guo, Y R; Guo, J Q

    1998-05-01

    Valved homograft conduits play an important role in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction for the surgical treatment of complex congenital heart disease. An excellent immediate rather than long-term outcome could be obtained. The hemodynamics for late failure, however, remained unclear. In vitro pulsatile flow visualization was not conducted before. A simplified right heart duplicator system was set up and driven under physiologic conditions. Polystyrene of 0.18 mm in diameter was applied as the tracing particle. Flow characteristics of models of normal pulmonary circulation as well as pulmonary artery atresia with the RVOT reconstructed utilizing valved and non-valved extracardiac conduits were observed. Flow patterns in the normal pulmonary circulatory model were mainly of axial flow associated with small scope of flow disturbances. A single vortex in the right ventricle was noted in diastole. In the pulmonary artery atresia model, a couple of vortexes were found in the right ventricle, a secondary flow in the main pulmonary artery, and a stronger secondary flow than in the normal pulmonary circulatory model in the two branches in both systole and diastole. A secondary flow was found in the proximal, an axial flow was observed in the distal portion of the extracardiac conduit with normal bioprosthetic valves and a secondary flow was observed in the entire conduit with stenotic bioprosthetic valves. The secondary flow intensity became stronger with the development of the stenosis. Severe insufficiency occurred in the bileaflet ceramic tilting-disc prosthesis during the entire cardiac circle, i.e., the prosthesis was in a maximum open position. Severe reverse flow could be found in the extracardiac conduit in the deceleration phase. Concavity of the crank shaft was found by examination to be filled with tracing particles and the prosthesis became stuck. Model of RVOT reconstruction with non-valved conduit yielded reverse flow inside the

  14. TU-A-12A-09: Absolute Blood Flow Measurement in a Cardiac Phantom Using Low Dose CT

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate a first pass analysis technique to measure absolute flow from low dose CT images in a cardiac phantom. This technique can be combined with a myocardial mass assignment to yield absolute perfusion using only two volume scans and reduce the radiation dose to the patient. Methods: A four-chamber cardiac phantom and perfusion chamber were constructed from poly-acrylic and connected with tubing to approximate anatomical features. The system was connected to a pulsatile pump, input/output reservoirs and power contrast injector. Flow was varied in the range of 1-2.67 mL/s with the pump operating at 60 beats/min. The system was imaged once a second for 14 seconds with a 320-row scanner (Toshiba Medical Systems) using a contrast-enhanced, prospective-gated cardiac perfusion protocol. Flow was calculated by the following steps: subsequent images of the perfusion volume were subtracted to find the contrast entering the volume; this was normalized by an upstream, known volume region to convert Hounsfield (HU) values to concentration; this was divided by the subtracted images time difference. The technique requires a relatively stable input contrast concentration and no contrast can leave the perfusion volume before the flow measurement is completed. Results: The flow calculated from the images showed an excellent correlation with the known rates. The data was fit to a linear function with slope 1.03, intercept 0.02 and an R{sup 2} value of 0.99. The average root mean square (RMS) error was 0.15 mL/s and the average standard deviation was 0.14 mL/s. The flow rate was stable within 7.7% across the full scan and served to validate model assumptions. Conclusion: Accurate, absolute flow rates were measured from CT images using a conservation of mass model. Measurements can be made using two volume scans which can substantially reduce the radiation dose compared with current dynamic perfusion techniques.

  15. Fluid Dynamic Characterization of a Polymeric Heart Valve Prototype (Poli-Valve) tested under Continuous and Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Francesco; Serrani, Marta; Bagnoli, Paola; Brubert, Jacob; Stasiak, Joanna; Moggridge, Geoff D.; Costantino, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Only mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses are currently commercially available. The former show longer durability but require anticoagulant therapy, the latter display better fluid dynamic behaviour but do not have adequate durability. New Polymeric Heart Valves (PHVs) could potentially combine the haemodynamic properties of biological valves with the durability of mechanical valves. This work presents a hydrodynamic evaluation of two groups of newly developed supra-annular tri-leaflet prosthetic heart valves made from styrenic block copolymers (SBC): Poli-Valves. Methods Two types of Poli-Valves made of SBC differing in polystyrene fraction content were tested under continuous and pulsatile flow conditions as prescribed by ISO 5840 Standard. An ad - hoc designed pulse duplicator allowed the valve prototypes to be tested at different flow rates and frequencies. Pressure and flow were recorded; pressure drops, effective orifice area (EOA), and regurgitant volume were computed to assess the valve’s behaviour. Results Both types Poli-Valves met the minimum requirements in terms of regurgitation and EOA as specified by ISO 5840 Standard. Results were compared with five mechanical heart valves (MHVs) and five tissue heart valves (THVs), currently available on the market. Conclusion Based on these results, polymeric heart valves based on styrenic block copolymers, as Poli-Valves are, can be considered as promising alternative for heart valve replacement in near future. PMID:26689146

  16. Fabrication of rigid and flexible refractive-index-matched flow phantoms for flow visualisation and optical flow measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoghegan, P. H.; Buchmann, N. A.; Spence, C. J. T.; Moore, S.; Jermy, M.

    2012-05-01

    A method for the construction of both rigid and compliant (flexible) transparent flow phantoms of biological flow structures, suitable for PIV and other optical flow methods with refractive-index-matched working fluid is described in detail. Methods for matching the in vivo compliance and elastic wave propagation wavelength are presented. The manipulation of MRI and CT scan data through an investment casting mould is described. A method for the casting of bubble-free phantoms in silicone elastomer is given. The method is applied to fabricate flexible phantoms of the carotid artery (with and without stenosis), the carotid artery bifurcation (idealised and patient-specific) and the human upper airway (nasal cavity). The fidelity of the phantoms to the original scan data is measured, and it is shown that the cross-sectional error is less than 5% for phantoms of simple shape but up to 16% for complex cross-sectional shapes such as the nasal cavity. This error is mainly due to the application of a PVA coating to the inner mould and can be reduced by shrinking the digital model. Sixteen per cent variation in area is less than the natural patient to patient variation of the physiological geometries. The compliance of the phantom walls is controlled within physiologically realistic ranges, by choice of the wall thickness, transmural pressure and Young's modulus of the elastomer. Data for the dependence of Young's modulus on curing temperature are given for Sylgard 184. Data for the temperature dependence of density, viscosity and refractive index of the refractive-index-matched working liquid (i.e. water-glycerol mixtures) are also presented.

  17. Pulsatile blood flow in human bone assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry and the interpretation of photoplethysmographic signals.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Tchernin, David; Hyacinthe, Jean-Noël; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Richiardi, Jonas

    2013-03-01

    Human bone blood flow, mean blood speed and the number of moving red blood cells were assessed (in arbitrary units), as a function of time, during one cardiac cycle. The measurements were obtained non-invasively on five volunteers by laser-Doppler flowmetry at large interoptode spacing. The investigated bones included: patella, clavicle, tibial diaphysis and tibial malleolus. As hypothesized, we found that in all bones the number of moving cells remains constant during cardiac cycles. Therefore, we concluded that the pulsatile nature of blood flow must be completely determined by the mean blood speed and not by changes in blood volume (vessels dilation). Based on these results, it is finally demonstrated using a mathematical model (derived from the radiative transport theory) that photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulsations observed by others in the literature, cannot be generated by oscillations in blood oxygen saturation, which is physiologically linked to blood speed. In fact, possible oxygen saturation changes during pulsations decrease the amplitude of PPG pulsations due to specific features of the PPG light source. It is shown that a variation in blood oxygen saturation of 3% may induce a negative change of ∼1% in the PPG signal. It is concluded that PPG pulsations are determined by periodic 'positive' changes of the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue and/or the absorption coefficient at constant blood volume. No explicit experimental PPG measurements have been performed. As a by-product of this study, an estimation of the arterial pulse wave velocity obtained from the analysis of the blood flow pulsations give a value of 7.8 m s(-1) (95% confidence interval of the sample mean distribution: [6.7, 9.5] m s(-1)), which is perfectly compatible with data in the literature. We hope that this note will contribute to a better understanding of PPG signals and to further develop the domain of the vascular physiology of human bone.

  18. Experimental studies of pulsatile flows through compliant tubes undergoing forced wall motion: Applications to hemodynamics and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Victoria Carolyn Savedge

    higher Sexl-Womersley number, and imposed physiological wall motion is found to introduce reverse flow near the wall that is not present if the tube is instead allowed to move freely. Additionally, work done in stented coronary geometries showed reduced wall shear stress downstream of simulated drug-eluting stents as opposed to traditional stents, suggesting a possible mechanism of complication. In the second series of experiments, sinusoidal input flow is driven through a compliant silicone model in a series of experiments to investigate the effects of wall motion. In these experiments, the tube wall is deformed sinusoidally with an amplitude of approximately ten percent of its radius. Experiments are conducted using varying values of the parameters alpha and b=Dxnn where Deltax is the cross-stream averaged periodic displacement of a fluid particle undergoing pulsatile motion. The transitional behavior of these flows is analyzed via their energy spectra, and their stability and wall shear stress behaviors are examined under varied offsets between the timing of the wall motion waveform and the flow rate waveform. At the lowest value of beta studied, namely beta = 240, it was found that the energy spectrum was independent of phase for alpha = 10.6, whereas for smaller values of alpha or higher values of beta, a strong phase-dependence was observed in the energy spectrum of the flow, with the energy values peaking twice with each wave period. This continuously unstable behavior at high alpha is found to be in good agreement with the locations of instability predicted by applying the Fjortoft condition to an elastic tube flow theory. Additionally, in experiments conducted with a phase offset between the sinusoidal input flow and the sinusoidal wall motion, it was found that wall shear stress oscillates in phase with the wall motion, and that the distinct two-peak cycle of the energy spectrum is disrupted as the offset grows.

  19. Effect of Body Acceleration on Pulsatile Flow of Micropolar Fluid through an Irregular Arterial Stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Ilyani; Amin, Norsarahaida

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of body acceleration together with surface irregularities on blood flow in artery. Prolonged exposure to high level unintended acceleration may cause serious health problems in the cardiovascular system. The situations like riding in vehicles, flying in airplanes and fast body movements during sport activities can lead to the impairment of certain physiological functions. A micropolar model of blood flow through an irregular arterial stenosis is considered. The governing equations involving unsteady nonlinear two-dimensional partial differential equations are solved employing finite difference scheme. Computational results on the velocity profiles and the flow characteristics are presented.

  20. Left ventricular oxygen consumption and organ blood flow distribution during pulsatile ventricular assist.

    PubMed

    Pantalos, G M; Marks, J D; Riebman, J B; Everett, S D; Burns, G L; Burton, N A; DePaulis, R

    1988-01-01

    One goal of left ventricular assistance is the reduction of left ventricular myocardial oxygen consumption while delivering adequate organ blood flow. The effect of assist device operation control mode and uptake cannulation method on the achievement of this goal was studied in six acutely prepared calves with healthy hearts. All combinations of left ventricular assistance significantly reduced the myocardial oxygen consumption; the reduction was independent of control mode. During ventricular assistance, regional organ blood flow distribution and myocardial endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio were not different from values during the control, unassisted condition. Regardless of the left ventricular assist device uptake method or operational control mode, significant reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption was achieved while maintaining organ blood flow distribution.

  1. Viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump for a total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Yurimoto, Terumi; Hara, Shintaro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    Estimation of pressure and flow has been an important subject for developing implantable artificial hearts. To realize real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow for a total artificial heart, we propose the table estimation method with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump in which systolic high flow and diastolic low flow phased are generated. The table estimation method utilizes three kinds of tables: viscosity, pressure and flow tables. Viscosity is estimated from the characteristic that differential value in motor speed between systolic and diastolic phases varies depending on viscosity. Potential of this estimation method was investigated using mock circulation system. Glycerin solution diluted with salty water was used to adjust viscosity of fluid. In verification of this method using continuous flow data, fairly good estimation could be possible when differential pulse width modulation (PWM) value of the motor between systolic and diastolic phases was high. In estimation under quasi-pulsatile condition, inertia correction was provided and fairly good estimation was possible when the differential PWM value was high, which was not different from the verification results using continuous flow data. In the experiment of real-time estimation applying moving average method to the estimated viscosity, fair estimation could be possible when the differential PWM value was high, showing that real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow would be possible with this novel estimation method when the differential PWM value would be set high.

  2. Viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump for a total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Yurimoto, Terumi; Hara, Shintaro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    Estimation of pressure and flow has been an important subject for developing implantable artificial hearts. To realize real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow for a total artificial heart, we propose the table estimation method with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump in which systolic high flow and diastolic low flow phased are generated. The table estimation method utilizes three kinds of tables: viscosity, pressure and flow tables. Viscosity is estimated from the characteristic that differential value in motor speed between systolic and diastolic phases varies depending on viscosity. Potential of this estimation method was investigated using mock circulation system. Glycerin solution diluted with salty water was used to adjust viscosity of fluid. In verification of this method using continuous flow data, fairly good estimation could be possible when differential pulse width modulation (PWM) value of the motor between systolic and diastolic phases was high. In estimation under quasi-pulsatile condition, inertia correction was provided and fairly good estimation was possible when the differential PWM value was high, which was not different from the verification results using continuous flow data. In the experiment of real-time estimation applying moving average method to the estimated viscosity, fair estimation could be possible when the differential PWM value was high, showing that real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow would be possible with this novel estimation method when the differential PWM value would be set high. PMID:27022734

  3. Investigation of the effects of dynamic change in curvature and torsion on pulsatile flow in a helical tube.

    PubMed

    Selvarasu, N K C; Tafti, Danesh K

    2012-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death in the world, making the understanding of hemodynamics and the development of treatment options imperative. The effect of motion of the coronary artery due to the motion of the myocardium is not extensively studied. In this work, we focus our investigation on the localized hemodynamic effects of dynamic changes in curvature and torsion. It is our objective to understand and reveal the mechanism by which changes in curvature and torsion contribute towards the observed wall shear stress distribution. Such adverse hemodynamic conditions could have an effect on circumferential intimal thickening. Three-dimensional spatiotemporally resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of pulsatile flow with moving wall boundaries were carried out for a simplified coronary artery with physiologically relevant flow parameters. A model with stationary walls is used as the baseline control case. In order to study the effect of curvature and torsion variation on local hemodynamics, this baseline model is compared to models where the curvature, torsion, and both curvature and torsion change. The simulations provided detailed information regarding the secondary flow dynamics. The results suggest that changes in curvature and torsion cause critical changes in local hemodynamics, namely, altering the local pressure and velocity gradients and secondary flow patterns. The wall shear stress (WSS) varies by a maximum of 22% when the curvature changes, by 3% when the torsion changes, and by 26% when both the curvature and torsion change. The oscillatory shear stress (OSI) varies by a maximum of 24% when the curvature changes, by 4% when the torsion changes, and by 28% when both the curvature and torsion change. We demonstrate that these changes are attributed to the physical mechanism associating the secondary flow patterns to the production of vorticity (vorticity flux) due to the wall movement. The secondary flow patterns

  4. Multi-time-lag PIV analysis of steady and pulsatile flows in a sidewall aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillot, P.; Brina, O.; Ouared, R.; Lovblad, K. O.; Pereira, V. Mendes; Farhat, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of inflow waveform on the hemodynamics of a real-size idealized sidewall intracranial aneurysm (IA) model was investigated using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). For this purpose, we implemented an error analysis based on several PIV measurements with different time lags to ensure high precision of velocity fields measured in both the IA and the parent artery. The relative error measured in the main part of the circulating volume was <1 % despite the three orders of magnitude difference of parent artery and IA dome velocities. Moreover, important features involved in IA evolution were potentially emphasized from the qualitative and quantitative flow pattern comparison resulting from steady and unsteady inflows. In particular, the flow transfer in IA and the vortical structure were significantly modified when increasing the number of harmonics for a typical physiological flow, in comparison with quasi-steady conditions.

  5. On the characterization of a non-Newtonian blood analog and its response to pulsatile flow downstream of a simplified stenosis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E

    2014-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to investigate the influence of a non-Newtonian blood analog of aqueous xanthan gum on flow separation in laminar and transitional environments and in both steady and pulsatile flow. Initial steady pressure drop measurements in laminar and transitional flow for a Newtonian analog showed an extension of laminar behavior to Reynolds number (Re) ~ 2900 for the non-Newtonian case. On a macroscale level, this showed good agreement with porcine blood. Subsequently, PIV was used to measure flow patterns and turbulent statistics downstream of an axisymmetric stenosis in the aqueous xanthan gum solution and for a Newtonian analog at Re ~ 520 and Re ~ 1250. The recirculation length for the non-Newtonian case was reduced at Re ~ 520 resultant from increased viscosity at low shear strain rates. At Re ~ 1250, peak turbulent intensities and turbulent shear stresses were dampened by the non-Newtonian fluid in close proximity to the blockage outlet. Although the non-Newtonian case's recirculation length was increased at peak pulsatile flow, turbulent shear stress was found to be elevated for the Newtonian case downstream from the blockage, suggesting shear layer fragmentation and radial transport. Our findings conclude that the xanthan gum elastic polymer prolongs flow stabilization, which in turn emphasizes the importance of non-Newtonian blood characteristics on the resulting flow patterns in such cardiovascular environments. PMID:23975383

  6. Change in Pulsatile Cerebral Arterial Pressure and Flow Waves as a Therapeutic Strategy?

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ok; Adji, Audrey; O'Rourke, Michael F; Avolio, Alberto P; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    While intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial pressure and transcranial middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAFV) are often monitored in unconscious patients following stroke or head injury, the value of waveform indices has not been fully established. We retrospectively analysed the data of eight adults (aged 19-36 years) with closed head injury who had spontaneous and repeated episodes of elevated ICP (i.e. "plateau waves"). MCAFV was measured using transcranial Doppler, ICP using a Codman catheter and radial artery pressure using cannulation. Ascending aortic pressure (AAP) was generated from the radial artery using SphygmoCor(TM). Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as AAP - ICP in the time domain.During the period of increased ICP, ICP and cerebral flow velocity amplitude increased significantly compared with the basal condition, while cerebral mean flow decreased. Amplitude of the secondary peak in ICP, AAP and MCAFV waveform became apparent.An increase in the amplitude of ICP, AAP and MCAFV waves can be attributed to the greater prominence of reflected waves from the lower body, which was apparent in pulse waveform analysis. Arterial vasodilators such as nitrates reduce reflected pressure waves from the lower body and, by decreasing the amplitude of AAP, ICP and MCAFV, may be as beneficial for the cerebral circulation as they are for the left ventricle of the heart.

  7. Development of a dynamic flow imaging phantom for dynamic contrast-enhanced CT

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, B.; Keller, H.; Coolens, C.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast enhanced CT (DCE-CT) studies with modeling of blood flow and tissue perfusion are becoming more prevalent in the clinic, with advances in wide volume CT scanners allowing the imaging of an entire organ with sub-second image frequency and sub-millimeter accuracy. Wide-spread implementation of perfusion DCE-CT, however, is pending fundamental validation of the quantitative parameters that result from dynamic contrast imaging and perfusion modeling. Therefore, the goal of this work was to design and construct a novel dynamic flow imaging phantom capable of producing typical clinical time-attenuation curves (TACs) with the purpose of developing a framework for the quantification and validation of DCE-CT measurements and kinetic modeling under realistic flow conditions. Methods: The phantom is based on a simple two-compartment model and was printed using a 3D printer. Initial analysis of the phantom involved simple flow measurements and progressed to DCE-CT experiments in order to test the phantoms range and reproducibility. The phantom was then utilized to generate realistic input TACs. A phantom prediction model was developed to compute the input and output TACs based on a given set of five experimental (control) parameters: pump flow rate, injection pump flow rate, injection contrast concentration, and both control valve positions. The prediction model is then inversely applied to determine the control parameters necessary to generate a set of desired input and output TACs. A protocol was developed and performed using the phantom to investigate image noise, partial volume effects and CT number accuracy under realistic flow conditionsResults: This phantom and its surrounding flow system are capable of creating a wide range of physiologically relevant TACs, which are reproducible with minimal error between experiments ({sigma}/{mu} < 5% for all metrics investigated). The dynamic flow phantom was capable of producing input and output TACs using

  8. Wall-less Flow Phantom for High-Frequency Ultrasound Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kenwright, David A.; Laverick, Nicola; Anderson, Tom; Moran, Carmel M.; Hoskins, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    There are currently very few test objects suitable for high-frequency ultrasound scanners that can be rapidly manufactured, have appropriate acoustic characteristics and are suitably robust. Here we describe techniques for the creation of a wall-less flow phantom using a physically robust konjac and carrageenan-based tissue-mimicking material. Vessel dimensions equivalent to those of mouse and rat arteries were achieved with steady flow, with the vessel at a depth of 1.0 mm. We then employed the phantom to briefly investigate velocity errors using pulsed wave Doppler with a commercial preclinical ultrasound system. This phantom will provide a useful tool for testing preclinical ultrasound imaging systems. PMID:25542496

  9. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Pulsatile Newtonian Blood Flow through a Multiple Stenosed Artery.

    PubMed

    Changdar, Satyasaran; De, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    An appropriate nonlinear blood flow model under the influence of periodic body acceleration through a multiple stenosed artery is investigated with the help of finite difference method. The arterial segment is simulated by a cylindrical tube filled with a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid described by the Navier-Stokes equation. The nonlinear equation is solved numerically with the proper boundary conditions and pressure gradient that arise from the normal functioning of the heart. Results are discussed in comparison with the existing models. PMID:27347534

  10. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Pulsatile Newtonian Blood Flow through a Multiple Stenosed Artery

    PubMed Central

    Changdar, Satyasaran; De, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    An appropriate nonlinear blood flow model under the influence of periodic body acceleration through a multiple stenosed artery is investigated with the help of finite difference method. The arterial segment is simulated by a cylindrical tube filled with a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid described by the Navier-Stokes equation. The nonlinear equation is solved numerically with the proper boundary conditions and pressure gradient that arise from the normal functioning of the heart. Results are discussed in comparison with the existing models. PMID:27347534

  11. A Novel Analytical Approach to Pulsatile Blood Flow in the Arterial Network.

    PubMed

    Flores, Joaquín; Alastruey, Jordi; Corvera Poiré, Eugenia

    2016-10-01

    Haemodynamic simulations using one-dimensional (1-D) computational models exhibit many of the features of the systemic circulation under normal and diseased conditions. We propose a novel linear 1-D dynamical theory of blood flow in networks of flexible vessels that is based on a generalized Darcy's model and for which a full analytical solution exists in frequency domain. We assess the accuracy of this formulation in a series of benchmark test cases for which computational 1-D and 3-D solutions are available. Accordingly, we calculate blood flow and pressure waves, and velocity profiles in the human common carotid artery, upper thoracic aorta, aortic bifurcation, and a 20-artery model of the aorta and its larger branches. Our analytical solution is in good agreement with the available solutions and reproduces the main features of pulse waveforms in networks of large arteries under normal physiological conditions. Our model reduces computational time and provides a new approach for studying arterial pulse wave mechanics; e.g.,  the analyticity of our model allows for a direct identification of the role played by physical properties of the cardiovascular system on the pressure waves.

  12. Wall shear stress variations and unsteadiness of pulsatile blood-like flows in 90-degree bifurcations.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Stevin; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; Fuchs, Laszlo

    2013-09-01

    Complex and slow interaction of different mechanical and biochemical processes in hemodynamics is believed to govern atherogenesis. Over the last decades studies have shown that fluid mechanical factors such as the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and WSS gradients can play an important role in the pathological changes of the endothelium. This study provides further indications that the effects of fluid mechanical aspects are correlated with the diseased regions of the larger arteries. Unsteady high temporal WSS gradients (TWSSG), a function of the shear-thinning property of the non-Newtonian viscosity, move with the separation bubble. Red Blood Cell (RBC) dilution due to the secondary flows determines the magnitudes of the WSS and TWSSG. The results indicate that the focal nature of the TWSSG may have implications on the response of the endothelium.

  13. Design of a pulsatile flow facility to evaluate thrombogenic potential of implantable cardiac devices.

    PubMed

    Arjunon, Sivakkumar; Ardana, Pablo Hidalgo; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Madhani, Shalv; Foster, Brent; Glezer, Ari; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-04-01

    Due to expensive nature of clinical trials, implantable cardiac devices should first be extensively characterized in vitro. Prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), an important class of these devices, have been shown to be associated with thromboembolic complications. Although various in vitro systems have been designed to quantify blood-cell damage and platelet activation caused by nonphysiological hemodynamic shear stresses in these PHVs, very few systems attempt to characterize both blood damage and fluid dynamics aspects of PHVs in the same test system. Various numerical modeling methodologies are also evolving to simulate the structural mechanics, fluid mechanics, and blood damage aspects of these devices. This article presents a completely hemocompatible small-volume test-platform that can be used for thrombogenicity studies and experimental fluid mechanics characterization. Using a programmable piston pump to drive freshly drawn human blood inside a cylindrical column, the presented system can simulate various physiological and pathophysiological conditions in testing PHVs. The system includes a modular device-mounting chamber, and in this presented case, a 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regents® mechanical heart valve (MHV) in aortic position was used as the test device. The system was validated for its capability to quantify blood damage by measuring blood damage induced by the tester itself (using freshly drawn whole human blood). Blood damage levels were ascertained through clinically relevant assays on human blood while fluid dynamics were characterized using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a blood-mimicking fluid. Blood damage induced by the tester itself, assessed through Thrombin-anti-Thrombin (TAT), Prothrombin factor 1.2 (PF1.2), and hemolysis (Drabkins assay), was within clinically accepted levels. The hydrodynamic performance of the tester showed consistent, repeatable physiological pressure and flow conditions. In addition, the

  14. Finite Element Simulation of Two-Dimensional Pulsatile Blood Flow Through a Stenosed Artery in the Presence of External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohamadi, Haleh; Imani, Mohsen

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces the impact of external magnetic field on blood flow patterns in a stenosis artery. Considering the fatty deposited lump, arterial walls as porous media, and pulsatile inflow base on human-heart-beating rate closes our model to the actual stenosis blood artery. In this study, by solving transient fluid dynamic equations in coupled porous and free media, the velocity, temperature, and shear stress distribution along the lump are investigated. The results show that applying 105 magnetic field intensity (MnF) creates two vortexes on the lumps' edges and 15X (16.6X) higher shear stress (temperature) in the stenosis region.

  15. Time-resolved OCT-μPIV: a new microscopic PIV technique for noninvasive depth-resolved pulsatile flow profile acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Menon, Prahlad G.; Kowalski, William; Pekkan, Kerem

    2013-01-01

    In vivo acquisition of endothelial wall shear stress requires instantaneous depth-resolved whole-field pulsatile flow profile measurements in microcirculation. High-accuracy, quantitative and non- invasive velocimetry techniques are essential for emerging real-time mechano-genomic investigations. To address these research needs, a novel biological flow quantification technique, OCT-μPIV, was developed utilizing high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) integrated with microscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV). This technique offers the unique advantage of simultaneously acquiring blood flow profiles and vessel anatomy along arbitrarily oriented sagittal planes. The process is instantaneous and enables real-time 3D flow reconstruction without the need for computationally intensive image processing compared to state-of-the-art velocimetry techniques. To evaluate the line-scanning direction and speed, four sets of parametric synthetic OCT-μPIV data were generated using an in-house code. Based on this investigation, an in vitro experiment was designed at the fastest scan speed while preserving the region of interest providing the depth-resolved velocity profiles spanning across the width of a micro-fabricated channel. High-agreement with the analytical flow profiles was achieved for different flow rates and seed particle types and sizes. Finally, by employing blood cells as non-invasive seeding particles, in vivo embryonic vascular velocity profiles in multiple vessels were measured in the early chick embryo. The pulsatile flow frequency and peak velocity measurements were also acquired with OCT-μPIV, which agreed well with previous reported values. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this technique to conduct practical microfluidic and non-invasive in vivo studies for embryonic blood flows.

  16. Time-resolved OCT-μPIV: a new microscopic PIV technique for noninvasive depth-resolved pulsatile flow profile acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Menon, Prahlad G.; Kowalski, William; Pekkan, Kerem

    2012-12-01

    In vivo acquisition of endothelial wall shear stress requires instantaneous depth-resolved whole-field pulsatile flow profile measurements in microcirculation. High-accuracy, quantitative and non- invasive velocimetry techniques are essential for emerging real-time mechano-genomic investigations. To address these research needs, a novel biological flow quantification technique, OCT-μPIV, was developed utilizing high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) integrated with microscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV). This technique offers the unique advantage of simultaneously acquiring blood flow profiles and vessel anatomy along arbitrarily oriented sagittal planes. The process is instantaneous and enables real-time 3D flow reconstruction without the need for computationally intensive image processing compared to state-of-the-art velocimetry techniques. To evaluate the line-scanning direction and speed, four sets of parametric synthetic OCT-μPIV data were generated using an in-house code. Based on this investigation, an in vitro experiment was designed at the fastest scan speed while preserving the region of interest providing the depth-resolved velocity profiles spanning across the width of a micro-fabricated channel. High-agreement with the analytical flow profiles was achieved for different flow rates and seed particle types and sizes. Finally, by employing blood cells as non-invasive seeding particles, in vivo embryonic vascular velocity profiles in multiple vessels were measured in the early chick embryo. The pulsatile flow frequency and peak velocity measurements were also acquired with OCT-μPIV, which agreed well with previous reported values. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this technique to conduct practical microfluidic and non-invasive in vivo studies for embryonic blood flows.

  17. Flowing microbubble manipulation in blood vessel phantom using ultrasonic standing wave with stepwise frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Aiwei; Min, Yu; Wan, Mingxi

    2013-10-01

    An approach was demonstrated to gather, fix, and controllably shift flowing microbubbles in a blood vessel phantom. An ultrasonic standing wave field was generated by the superposition of the emission of a 5 MHz conventional transducer and the reflection from a bone surface. The acoustic radiation force gathered flowing microbubbles into the nodes, fixed some accumulated microbubble clusters in the flow condition, and shifted microbubbles to target site with stepwise frequency. The resolution of microbubble shift was approximately 4 μm, and the low acoustic pressure range was from 4 to 16 kPa to avoid microbubble rupture.

  18. Central Pulsatile Pressure and Flow Relationship in the Time and Frequency Domain to Characterise Hydraulic Input to the Brain and Cerebral Vascular Impedance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ok; O'Rourke, Michael F; Adji, Audrey; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-01-01

    In the time domain, pulsatile flow and pressure can be characterised as the ratio of the late systolic boost of flow or pressure to the pulse amplitude so as to estimate the hydraulic input to the brain. While vascular impedance has been widely used to represent the load presented to the heart by the systemic circulation, it has not been applied to the cerebral circulation.We set out to study the relationship between the pressure and the flow augmentation index (AIx) in the time domain and to determine cerebral vascular impedance using aortic blood pressure and cerebral blood flow waveforms in the frequency domain. Twenty-four young subjects (aged 21-39 years) were recruited; aortic pressure was derived using SphygmoCor from radial pressure. Flow waveforms were recorded from the middle cerebral artery. In three subjects, we performed the Valsalva manoeuvre to investigate their response to physiological intervention. There was a linear relationship between flow and pressure AIx, and cerebral impedance values were similar to those estimated for low resistance vascular beds. Substantial change in pressure and flow wave contour was observed during the Valsalva manoeuvre; however, the relationship in both the time and the frequency domains were unchanged. This confirms that aortic pressure and cerebral flow waveform can be used to study cerebral impedance. PMID:27165927

  19. Objective pulsatile tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario A; Casas, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Tinnitus is the usually unwanted perception of sound, in most cases there is no genuine physical source of sound. Less than 10% of tinnitus patients suffer from pulsatile tinnitus. Objective Pulsatile tinnitus can also be the first indication of dural arteriovenous fistula, so examination for such vascular origin must be performed. PMID:26733223

  20. Objective pulsatile tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario A; Casas, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Tinnitus is the usually unwanted perception of sound, in most cases there is no genuine physical source of sound. Less than 10% of tinnitus patients suffer from pulsatile tinnitus. Objective Pulsatile tinnitus can also be the first indication of dural arteriovenous fistula, so examination for such vascular origin must be performed.

  1. Simultaneous Estimation of Bidirectional Particle Flow and Relative Flux using MUSIC-OCT: Phantom Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Siavash

    2014-01-01

    In an optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan from a living tissue, red blood cells (RBCs) are the major source of backscattering signal from moving particles within microcirculatory system. Measuring the concentration and velocity of RBC particles allows assessment of RBC flux and flow, respectively, to assess tissue perfusion and oxygen/nutrition exchange rates within micro-structures. In this paper, we propose utilizing spectral estimation techniques to simultaneously quantify bi-directional particle flow and relative flux by spectral estimation of the received OCT signal from moving particles within capillary tubes embedded in tissue mimicking phantoms. The proposed method can be directly utilized for in vivo quantification of capillaries and microvessels. Compared to the existing methods in the literature that can either quantify flow direction or power, our proposed method allows simultaneous flow (velocity) direction and relative flux (power) estimation. PMID:25327449

  2. Simultaneous estimation of bidirectional particle flow and relative flux using MUSIC-OCT: phantom studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2014-11-01

    In an optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan from a living tissue, red blood cells (RBCs) are the major source of backscattering signal from moving particles within microcirculatory system. Measuring the concentration and velocity of RBC particles allows assessment of RBC flux and flow, respectively, to assess tissue perfusion and oxygen/nutrition exchange rates within micro-structures. In this paper, we propose utilizing spectral estimation techniques to simultaneously quantify bi-directional particle flow and relative flux by spectral estimation of the received OCT signal from moving particles within capillary tubes embedded in tissue mimicking phantoms. The proposed method can be directly utilized for in vivo quantification of capillaries and microvessels. Compared to the existing methods in the literature that can either quantify flow direction or power, our proposed method allows simultaneous flow (velocity) direction and relative flux (power) estimation.

  3. Blood flow contrast enhancement in optical coherence tomography using microbubbles: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, Homa; Demidov, Valentin; Karshafian, Raffi; Douplik, Alexandre; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2016-03-01

    In this study gas microbubbles are investigated as intravascular OCT contrast agents. Agar+Intralipid scattering tissue-like phantoms with two embedded microtubes were fabricated to model vascular blood flow. One was filled with human blood, and the other with a mixture of human blood and microbubbles. Swept-source structural and speckle variance OCT images, as well as speckle decorrelation times, were evaluated under both stationary and flow conditions. Faster decorrelation times and higher image contrast were detected in the presence of microbubbles in all experiments, and the effect was largest for speckle variance OCT ~2.3x greater contrast under flow conditions. The feasibility of utilizing microbubbles for tissue hemodynamic investigations and for microvasculature contrast enhancement in OCT angiography thus appears promising.

  4. Very different performance of the power Doppler modalities of several ultrasound machines ascertained by a microvessel flow phantom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) subclinical disease activity can be detected with ultrasound (US), especially using power Doppler US (PDUS). However, PDUS may be highly dependent on the type of machine. This could create problems both in clinical trials and in daily clinical practice. To clarify how the PDUS signal differs between machines we created a microvessel flow phantom. Methods The flow phantom contained three microvessels (150, 1000, 2000 microns). A syringe pump was used to generate flows. Five US machines were used. Settings were optimised to assess the lowest detectable flow for each US machine. Results The minimal detectable flow velocities showed very large differences between the machines. Only two of the machines may be able to detect the very low flows in the capillaries of inflamed joints. There was no clear relation with price. One of the lower-end machines actually performed best in all three vessel sizes. Conclusions We created a flow phantom to test the sensitivity of US machines to very low flows in small vessels. The sensitivity of the power Doppler modalities of 5 different machines was very different. The differences found between the machines are probably caused by fundamental differences in processing of the PD signal or internal settings inaccessible to users. Machines considered for PDUS assessment of RA patients should be tested using a flow phantom similar to ours. Within studies, only a single machine type should be used. PMID:24286540

  5. Full dimensional computer simulations to study pulsatile blood flow in vessels, aortic arch and bifurcated veins: Investigation of blood viscosity and turbulent effects.

    PubMed

    Sultanov, Renat A; Guster, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We report computational results of blood flow through a model of the human aortic arch and a vessel of actual diameter and length. A realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Calculations for bifurcation type vessels are also carried out and presented. Different mathematical methods for numerical solution of the fluid dynamics equations have been considered. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated together with turbulence effects. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of three different geometries are presented: for pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and the widely used method in the literature: a simple Newtonian approximation. A significant increase of the strain rate and, as a result, the wall shear stress distribution, is found in the region of the aortic arch. Turbulent effects are found to be important, particularly in the case of bifurcation vessels. PMID:19964834

  6. Stability of echogenic liposomes as a blood pool ultrasound contrast agent in a physiologic flow phantom.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Haworth, Kevin J; Huang, Shao-Ling; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2012-11-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP) are multifunctional ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) with a lipid shell encapsulating both air and an aqueous core. ELIP are being developed for molecular imaging and image-guided therapeutic delivery. Stability of the echogenicity of ELIP in physiologic conditions is crucial to their successful translation to clinical use. In this study, we determined the effects of the surrounding media's dissolved air concentration, temperature transition and hydrodynamic pressure on the echogenicity of a chemically modified formulation of ELIP to promote stability and echogenicity. ELIP samples were diluted in porcine plasma or whole blood and pumped through a pulsatile flow system with adjustable hydrodynamic pressures and temperature. B-mode images were acquired using a clinical diagnostic scanner every 5 s for a total duration of 75 s. Echogenicity in porcine plasma was assessed as a function of total dissolved gas saturation. ELIP were added to plasma at room temperature (22 °C) or body temperature (37 °C) and pumped through a system maintained at 22 °C or 37 °C to study the effect of temperature transitions on ELIP echogenicity. Echogenicity at normotensive (120/80 mmHg) and hypertensive pressures (145/90 mmHg) was measured. ELIP were echogenic in plasma and whole blood at body temperature under normotensive to hypertensive pressures. Warming of samples from room temperature to body temperature did not alter echogenicity. However, in plasma cooled rapidly from body temperature to room temperature or in degassed plasma, ELIP lost echogenicity within 20 s at 120/80 mmHg. The stability of echogenicity of a modified ELIP formulation was determined in vitro at body temperature, physiologic gas concentration and throughout the physiologic pressure range. However, proper care should be taken to ensure that ELIP are not cooled rapidly from body temperature to room temperature as they will lose their echogenic properties. Further in

  7. Fluid structure interaction simulation in three-layered aortic aneurysm model under pulsatile flow: comparison of wrapping and stenting.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Ueda, Hiroshi; Gang, Li; Okada, Hiroshi

    2013-04-26

    One treatment method for aortic aneurysm is the invasive insertion of a stent into the aneurysm. Another method is wrapping the aneurysm using newly developed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material. A virtual stented aneurysm model and a wrapped aneurysm model were created to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fluid-structure interaction analyses. The flow velocity and pressure distribution as well as the deformation and wall stress were investigated. Stenting significantly changed the blood flow pattern and the vortexes in the aneurysm. Wrapping increased the thickness of the aneurysm wall and increased the strength of the vessel wall. The maximum von Mises stress in the stented model was found to be 220,494 Pa and 228,218 Pa at the time of peak flow and peak pressure, respectively. This was reduced by 37.8% and 36.7% to 137,200 and 144,354 Pa, respectively, in the wrapped model. Our results provide information that may improve the understanding of the biomechanics of stenting and wrapping. PMID:23477789

  8. Fluid structure interaction simulation in three-layered aortic aneurysm model under pulsatile flow: comparison of wrapping and stenting.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Ueda, Hiroshi; Gang, Li; Okada, Hiroshi

    2013-04-26

    One treatment method for aortic aneurysm is the invasive insertion of a stent into the aneurysm. Another method is wrapping the aneurysm using newly developed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material. A virtual stented aneurysm model and a wrapped aneurysm model were created to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fluid-structure interaction analyses. The flow velocity and pressure distribution as well as the deformation and wall stress were investigated. Stenting significantly changed the blood flow pattern and the vortexes in the aneurysm. Wrapping increased the thickness of the aneurysm wall and increased the strength of the vessel wall. The maximum von Mises stress in the stented model was found to be 220,494 Pa and 228,218 Pa at the time of peak flow and peak pressure, respectively. This was reduced by 37.8% and 36.7% to 137,200 and 144,354 Pa, respectively, in the wrapped model. Our results provide information that may improve the understanding of the biomechanics of stenting and wrapping.

  9. Dual-beam optical coherence tomography system for quantification of flow velocity in capillary phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, S. M.; Silien, C.; Leahy, M. J.

    2012-03-01

    -c) of interference fluctuations between these positions is performed computationally, yielding a transit time for particle flow. This paper summarises the findings of the c-c db-Sd-OCT technique for absolute velocity estimation within capillary phantoms of various sizes using IntralipidTM solution to emulate red blood corpuscles (RBCs) and related blood constituents, driven by a calibrated syringe flow pump. The findings of the preliminary experimentation reveal the technique to be capable of estimating absolute velocity values with a maximum error difference of 0.077 mm s-1 using Bland Altman plots. Application of this technique and rigorous testing of the c-c db-Sd-OCT method with biological samples will be the focus of future work.

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Renal Function After Adult Cardiac Surgery With Pulsatile Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Nam, Myung Ji; Lim, Choon Hak; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Yong Hwi; Choi, Hyuk; Son, Ho Sung; Lim, Hae Ja; Sun, Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether pulsatile perfusion during cardiac surgery has a lesser effect on renal dysfunction than nonpulsatile perfusion after cardiac surgery in randomized controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used to identify available articles published before April 25, 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of pulsatile perfusion on postoperative renal functions, as determined by creatinine clearance (CrCl), serum creatinine (Cr), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and the incidences of acute renal insufficiency (ARI) and acute renal failure (ARF). Nine studies involving 674 patients that received pulsatile perfusion and 698 patients that received nonpulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were considered in the meta-analysis. Stratified analysis was performed according to effective pulsatility or unclear pulsatility of the pulsatile perfusion method in the presence of heterogeneity. NGAL levels were not significantly different between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups. However, patients in the pulsatile group had a significantly higher CrCl and lower Cr levels when the analysis was restricted to studies on effective pulsatile flow (P < 0.00001, respectively). The incidence of ARI was significantly lower in the pulsatile group (P < 0.00001), but incidences of ARF were similar. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that the use of pulsatile flow during CPB results in better postoperative renal function.

  11. Assessment of subgrid-scale models with a large-eddy simulation-dedicated experimental database: The pulsatile impinging jet in turbulent cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baya Toda, Hubert; Cabrit, Olivier; Truffin, Karine; Bruneaux, Gilles; Nicoud, Franck

    2014-07-01

    Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in complex geometries and industrial applications like piston engines, gas turbines, or aircraft engines requires the use of advanced subgrid-scale (SGS) models able to take into account the main flow features and the turbulence anisotropy. Keeping this goal in mind, this paper reports a LES-dedicated experiment of a pulsatile hot-jet impinging a flat-plate in the presence of a cold turbulent cross-flow. Unlike commonly used academic test cases, this configuration involves different flow features encountered in complex configurations: shear/rotating regions, stagnation point, wall-turbulence, and the propagation of a vortex ring along the wall. This experiment was also designed with the aim to use quantitative and nonintrusive optical diagnostics such as Particle Image Velocimetry, and to easily perform a LES involving a relatively simple geometry and well-controlled boundary conditions. Hence, two eddy-viscosity-based SGS models are investigated: the dynamic Smagorinsky model [M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. Cabot, "A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model," Phys. Fluids A 3(7), 1760-1765 (1991)] and the σ-model [F. Nicoud, H. B. Toda, O. Cabrit, S. Bose, and J. Lee, "Using singular values to build a subgrid-scale model for large eddy simulations," Phys. Fluids 23(8), 085106 (2011)]. Both models give similar results during the first phase of the experiment. However, it was found that the dynamic Smagorinsky model could not accurately predict the vortex-ring propagation, while the σ-model provides a better agreement with the experimental measurements. Setting aside the implementation of the dynamic procedure (implemented here in its simplest form, i.e., without averaging over homogeneous directions and with clipping of negative values to ensure numerical stability), it is suggested that the mitigated predictions of the dynamic Smagorinsky model are due to the dynamic constant, which strongly depends on the mesh resolution

  12. A novel anthropomorphic flow phantom for the quantitative evaluation of prostate DCE-MRI acquisition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Silvin P.; Browne, Jacinta E.; Meaney, James F.; Smith, David S.; Fagan, Andrew J.

    2016-10-01

    A novel anthropomorphic flow phantom device has been developed, which can be used for quantitatively assessing the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners to accurately measure signal/concentration time-intensity curves (CTCs) associated with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. Modelling of the complex pharmacokinetics of contrast agents as they perfuse through the tumour capillary network has shown great promise for cancer diagnosis and therapy monitoring. However, clinical adoption has been hindered by methodological problems, resulting in a lack of consensus regarding the most appropriate acquisition and modelling methodology to use and a consequent wide discrepancy in published data. A heretofore overlooked source of such discrepancy may arise from measurement errors of tumour CTCs deriving from the imaging pulse sequence itself, while the effects on the fidelity of CTC measurement of using rapidly-accelerated sequences such as parallel imaging and compressed sensing remain unknown. The present work aimed to investigate these features by developing a test device in which ‘ground truth’ CTCs were generated and presented to the MRI scanner for measurement, thereby allowing for an assessment of the DCE-MRI protocol to accurately measure this curve shape. The device comprised a four-pump flow system wherein CTCs derived from prior patient prostate data were produced in measurement chambers placed within the imaged volume. The ground truth was determined as the mean of repeat measurements using an MRI-independent, custom-built optical imaging system. In DCE-MRI experiments, significant discrepancies between the ground truth and measured CTCs were found for both tumorous and healthy tissue-mimicking curve shapes. Pharmacokinetic modelling revealed errors in measured K trans, v e and k ep values of up to 42%, 31%, and 50% respectively, following a simple variation of the parallel imaging factor and number of signal averages in the acquisition

  13. Heating in vascular tissue and flow-through tissue phantoms induced by focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinlan

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can be used to control bleeding, both from individual blood vessels as well as from gross damage to the capillary bed. This process, called acoustic hemostasis, is being studied in the hope that such a method would ultimately provide a lifesaving treatment during the so-called "golden hour", a brief grace period after a severe trauma in which prompt therapy can save the life of an injured person. Thermal effects play a major role in occlusion of small vessels and also appear to contribute to the sealing of punctures in major blood vessels. However, aggressive ultrasound-induced tissue heating can also impact healthy tissue and can lead to deleterious mechanical bioeffects. Moreover, the presence of vascularity can limit one's ability to elevate the temperature of blood vessel walls owing to convective heat transport. In an effort to better understand the heating process in tissues with vascular structure we have developed a numerical simulation that couples models for ultrasound propagation, acoustic streaming, ultrasound heating and blood cooling in Newtonian viscous media. The 3-D simulation allows for the study of complicated biological structures and insonation geometries. We have also undertaken a series of in vitro experiments, in non-uniform flow-through tissue phantoms, designed to provide a ground truth verification of the model predictions. The calculated and measured results were compared over a range of values for insonation pressure, insonation time, and flow rate; we show good agreement between predictions and measurements. We then conducted a series of simulations that address two limiting problems of interest: hemostasis in small and large vessels. We employed realistic human tissue properties and considered more complex geometries. Results show that the heating pattern in and around a blood vessel is different for different vessel sizes, flow rates and for varying beam orientations relative to the flow axis

  14. The effects of pulmonary circulation pulsatility on the impedance cardiogram.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Goto, T; Terasaki, H; Hayashida, Y; Morioka, T

    1983-11-01

    To study the effects of pulmonary blood flow on the impedance cardiogram, the pattern of pulmonary blood flow was alternated from pulsatile to non pulsatile, or the reverse, using our extracorporeal bypass-method on anaesthetized dogs. The thoracic impedance cardiogram was recorded from band electrodes placed around the neck and upper abdomen. During nonpulsatile pulmonary blood flow, the height of the diastolic phase of the delta Z wave was lower than that during pulsatile pulmonary blood flow. The area under the impedance curve decreased during nonpulsatile pulmonary blood flow. This appeared to be more obvious as the pulmonary arterial flow was reduced. The results suggest that the pulmonary blood flow might have substantial effects on the impedance cardiogram.

  15. Rotary pumps and diminished pulsatility: do we need a pulse?

    PubMed

    Soucy, Kevin G; Koenig, Steven C; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been successfully used as a bridge to heart transplant and destination therapy (DT) for congestive heart failure (HF) patients. Recently, continuous flow VAD (CVAD) has emerged as an attractive clinical option for long-term mechanical support of HF patients, with bridge-to-transplant outcomes comparable with pulsatile flow VAD (PVAD). Continuous flow VADs are smaller, more reliable, and less complex than the first-generation PVAD. Despite the widespread clinical use, CVAD support has been associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic strokes, and aortic valve insufficiency. Speculation that diminished arterial pressure pulsatility associated with continuous flow devices may be contributing to these complications has sparked much debate over CVAD support. Studies comparing pulsatile flow and continuous flow (CF) support have presented conflicting findings, and the relevance to CVAD as DT is uncertain due to variations in device operation, support duration, and the criteria used to quantify pulsatility. Currently, there is interest in developing control algorithms for CVAD to increase the delivered pulsatility as a strategy to mitigate adverse event risks associated with CVAD therapy. There may also be the added benefit of specific control strategies for managing CVAD therapy, potentially improving the rate of myocardial recovery and successful weaning of mechanical circulatory support. PMID:23820272

  16. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents. PMID:25754367

  17. Angiographic analysis for phantom simulations of endovascular aneurysm treatments with a new fully retrievable asymmetric flow diverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoganand, Aradhana; Wood, Rachel P.; Jimenez, Carlos; Siddiqui, Adnan; Snyder, Kenneth; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.; Baier, Robert; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2015-03-01

    Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) is the main diagnostic tool for intracranial aneurysms (IA) flow-diverter (FD) assisted treatment. Based on qualitative contrast flow evaluation, interventionists decide on subsequent steps. We developed a novel fully Retrievable Asymmetric Flow-Diverter (RAFD) which allows controlled deployment, repositioning and detachment achieve optimal flow diversion. The device has a small low porosity or solid region which is placed such that it would achieve maximum aneurysmal in-jet flow deflection with minimum impairment to adjacent vessels. We tested the new RAFD using a flow-loop with an idealized and a patient specific IA phantom in carotid-relevant physiological conditions. We positioned the deflection region at three locations: distally, center and proximally to the aneurysm orifice and analyzed aneurysm dome flow using DSA derived maps for mean transit time (MTT) and bolus arrival times (BAT). Comparison between treated and untreated (control) maps quantified the RAFD positioning effect. Average MTT, related to contrast presence in the aneurysm dome increased, indicating flow decoupling between the aneurysm and parent artery. Maximum effect was observed in the center and proximal position (~75%) of aneurysm models depending on their geometry. BAT maps, correlated well with inflow jet direction and magnitude. Reduction and jet dispersion as high as about 50% was observed for various treatments. We demonstrated the use of DSA data to guide the placement of the RAFD and showed that optimum flow diversion within the aneurysm dome is feasible. This could lead to more effective and a safer IA treatment using FDs.

  18. Arterial tree asymmetry reduces cerebral pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Vrselja, Zvonimir; Brkic, Hrvoje; Curic, Goran

    2015-11-01

    With each heartbeat, pressure wave (PW) propagates from aorta toward periphery. In cerebral circulation, at the level of circle of Willis (CW), four arteries and four PWs converge. Since the interference is an elemental property of the wave, PWs interfere at the level of CW. We hypothesize that the asymmetry of brain-supplying arteries (that join to form CW) creates phase difference between the four PWs that interfere at the level of CW and reduce downstream cerebral pulsatility. To best of our knowledge, the data about the sequence of PWs' arrival into the cerebral circulation is lacking. Evident imperfect bilateral symmetry of the vessels results with different path length of brain-supplying arteries, hence, PWs should arrive into the head at different times. The probabilistic calculation shows that asynchronous arrival is more probable than synchronous. The importance of PWs for the cerebral circulation is highlighted by the observation that barotrauma protection mechanisms are more influenced by the crest of PW (pulse pressure) than by the mean arterial pressure. In addition, an increased arterial pulsatility is associated with several brain pathologies. We created simple computational models of four converging arteries and found that asynchronous arrival of the PWs results with lower maximum pressure, slower rate of pressure amplification and lower downstream pulsatility. In analogy, the asynchronous arrival of the pressure waves into the cerebral circulation should decrease blood flow pulsatility and lower transmission of kinetic energy on arterial wall. We conclude that asynchronous arrival of PWs into the cerebral circulation influences cerebral hemodynamics and represents a physiological necessity.

  19. Comparative imaging study in ultrasound, MRI, CT, and DSA using a multimodality renal artery phantom

    SciTech Connect

    King, Deirdre M.; Fagan, Andrew J.; Moran, Carmel M.; Browne, Jacinta E.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: A range of anatomically realistic multimodality renal artery phantoms consisting of vessels with varying degrees of stenosis was developed and evaluated using four imaging techniques currently used to detect renal artery stenosis (RAS). The spatial resolution required to visualize vascular geometry and the velocity detection performance required to adequately characterize blood flow in patients suffering from RAS are currently ill-defined, with the result that no one imaging modality has emerged as a gold standard technique for screening for this disease. Methods: The phantoms, which contained a range of stenosis values (0%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 85%), were designed for use with ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, x-ray computed tomography, and x-ray digital subtraction angiography. The construction materials used were optimized with respect to their ultrasonic speed of sound and attenuation coefficient, MR relaxometry (T{sub 1},T{sub 2}) properties, and Hounsfield number/x-ray attenuation coefficient, with a design capable of tolerating high-pressure pulsatile flow. Fiducial targets, incorporated into the phantoms to allow for registration of images among modalities, were chosen to minimize geometric distortions. Results: High quality distortion-free images of the phantoms with good contrast between vessel lumen, fiducial markers, and background tissue to visualize all stenoses were obtained with each modality. Quantitative assessments of the grade of stenosis revealed significant discrepancies between modalities, with each underestimating the stenosis severity for the higher-stenosed phantoms (70% and 85%) by up to 14%, with the greatest discrepancy attributable to DSA. Conclusions: The design and construction of a range of anatomically realistic renal artery phantoms containing varying degrees of stenosis is described. Images obtained using the main four diagnostic techniques used to detect RAS were free from artifacts and exhibited adequate contrast

  20. Acoustic characterization of a new trisacryl contrast agent. Part II: Flow phantom study and in vivo quantification.

    PubMed

    Lavisse, Sonia; Peronneau, Pierre; Rouffiac, Valerie; Paci, Angelo; Vigouroux, Julie; Opolon, Paule; Roche, Alain; Lassau, Nathalie

    2008-03-01

    The biocompatible trisacryl particles (TMP) are made of a cross-linked acrylic copolymer. Their inherent acoustic properties, studied for a contrast agent application, have been previously demonstrated in a in vitro Couette device. To measure their acoustic behaviour under circulating blood conditions, the TMP backscatter enhancement was further evaluated on a home-made flow phantom at different TMP doses (0.12-15.6 mg/ml) suspended in aqueous and blood media, and in nude mice (aorta and B16 grafted melanoma). Integrated backscatter (IB) was measured by spectral analysis of the Doppler signals recorded from an ultrasound system (Aplio) combined with a 12-MHz probe. Doppler phantom experiments revealed a maximal IB of 17+/-0.88 dB and 7.5+/-0.7 dB in aqueous and blood media, respectively. IB measured on mice aorta, in pulsed Doppler mode, confirmed a constant maximal value of 7.29+/-1.72 dB over the first minutes after injection of a 7.8 mg/ml TMP suspension. Following the injection, a 60% enhancement of intratumoral vascularization detection was observed in power Doppler mode. A preliminary histological study revealed inert presence of some TMP in lungs 8 and 16 days after injection. Doppler phantom experiments on whole blood allowed to anticipate the in vivo acoustic behaviour. Both protocols demonstrated TMP effectiveness in significantly increasing Doppler signal intensity and intratumoral vascularization detection. However, it was also shown that blood conditions seemed to shadow the TMP contrast effect, as compared to in vitro observations. These results encourage further investigations on the specific TMP targeting and on their bio-distribution in the different tissues.

  1. Angiographic analysis for phantom simulations of endovascular aneurysm treatments with a new fully retrievable asymmetric flow diverter

    PubMed Central

    Yoganand, Aradhana; Wood, Rachel P.; Jimenez, Carlos; Siddiqui, Adnan; Snyder, Kenneth; Nagesh, S.V. Setlur; Bednarek, D.R.; Rudin, S; Baier, Robert; Ionita, Ciprian N

    2015-01-01

    Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) is the main diagnostic tool for intracranial aneurysms (IA) flow-diverter (FD) assisted treatment. Based on qualitative contrast flow evaluation, interventionists decide on subsequent steps. We developed a novel fully Retrievable Asymmetric Flow-Diverter (RAFD) which allows controlled deployment, repositioning and detachment achieve optimal flow diversion. The device has a small low porosity or solid region which is placed such that it would achieve maximum aneurysmal in-jet flow deflection with minimum impairment to adjacent vessels. We tested the new RAFD using a flow-loop with an idealized and a patient specific IA phantom in carotid-relevant physiological conditions. We positioned the deflection region at three locations: distally, center and proximally to the aneurysm orifice and analyzed aneurysm dome flow using DSA derived maps for mean transit time (MTT) and bolus arrival times (BAT). Comparison between treated and untreated (control) maps quantified the RAFD positioning effect. Average MTT, related to contrast presence in the aneurysm dome increased, indicating flow decoupling between the aneurysm and parent artery. Maximum effect was observed in the center and proximal position (~75%) of aneurysm models depending on their geometry. BAT maps, correlated well with inflow jet direction and magnitude. Reduction and jet dispersion as high as about 50% was observed for various treatments. We demonstrated the use of DSA data to guide the placement of the RAFD and showed that optimum flow diversion within the aneurysm dome is feasible. This could lead to more effective and a safer IA treatment using FDs. PMID:26869741

  2. Effect of swirling inlet condition on the flow field in a stenosis phantom model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Hojin; Lee, Sang Joon; CenterBiofluid; Biomimic Research Team

    2013-11-01

    The spiral blood flow effect in an axisymmetric stenosis model was experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry velocity field measurement technique and streakline flow visualization. Spiral inserts with two different helical pitches (10D and 10/3D) were installed upstream of the stenosis to induce swirling flows. Results show that the spiral flow significantly reduces the length of recirculation flow and provokes early breakout of turbulent transition, but variation of swirling intensity does not induce significant changes of turbulence intensity. The present results about the spiral flow effects through the stenosis will contribute in achieving better understanding of the hemodynamic characteristics of atherosclerosis and in discovering better diagnosis procedures and clinical treatments.

  3. Advanced 3D mesh manipulation in stereolithographic files and post-print processing for the manufacturing of patient-specific vascular flow phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Ryan P.; Chand, Arpita; Vidiyala, Sowmya; Arechavala, Stacie M.; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    Complex vascular anatomies can cause the failure of image-guided endovascular procedures. 3D printed patient-specific vascular phantoms provide clinicians and medical device companies the ability to preemptively plan surgical treatments, test the likelihood of device success, and determine potential operative setbacks. This research aims to present advanced mesh manipulation techniques of stereolithographic (STL) files segmented from medical imaging and post-print surface optimization to match physiological vascular flow resistance. For phantom design, we developed three mesh manipulation techniques. The first method allows outlet 3D mesh manipulations to merge superfluous vessels into a single junction, decreasing the number of flow outlets and making it feasible to include smaller vessels. Next we introduced Boolean operations to eliminate the need to manually merge mesh layers and eliminate errors of mesh self-intersections that previously occurred. Finally we optimize support addition to preserve the patient anatomical geometry. For post-print surface optimization, we investigated various solutions and methods to remove support material and smooth the inner vessel surface. Solutions of chloroform, alcohol and sodium hydroxide were used to process various phantoms and hydraulic resistance was measured and compared with values reported in literature. The newly mesh manipulation methods decrease the phantom design time by 30 - 80% and allow for rapid development of accurate vascular models. We have created 3D printed vascular models with vessel diameters less than 0.5 mm. The methods presented in this work could lead to shorter design time for patient specific phantoms and better physiological simulations.

  4. CFD modeling of pulsatile hemodynamics in the total cavopulmonary connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobaer, S. M. Tareq; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique

    2016-07-01

    Total cavopulmonary connection is a blood flow pathway which is created surgically by an operation known as Fontan procedure, performed on children with single ventricle heart defects. Recent studies have shown that the hemodynamics in the connection can be strongly influenced by the presence of pulsatile flow. The aim of this paper is model the pulsatile flow patterns, and to calculate the vorticity field and power losses in an idealized 1.5D offset model of Total Cavopulmonary Connection. A three-dimensional polyhedral mesh was constructed for the numerical simulation. The rheological properties of blood were considered as Newtonian, and flow in the connection was assumed to be laminar. The results demonstrated complex flow patterns in the connection. The outcomes of the simulation showed reasonable agreement with the results available in the literature for a similar model.

  5. Transverse flow measurement using photoacoustic Doppler bandwidth broadening: phantom and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    In photoacoustic (PA) imaging of microvascular networks, the transverse component of the blood flow that is perpendicular to the acoustic probing beam is usually dominant. We propose a new method to measure the transverse flow, based on the Doppler bandwidth broadening. The bandwidth broadening is inversely proportional to the transit time spent by the absorbers passing through the focus. Because the photoacoustic signal in one A-scan has a wide band, multiple successive A-scans are used to estimate the relatively small signal variance. Then the bandwidth broadening can be calculated from the standard derivation of the Doppler spectrum. By exploiting the pulse excitation and bidirectional raster motor scanning, threedimensional structural and flow information can be obtained simultaneously. From a flow of a suspension of carbon particles (diameter: 6 μm), transverse flow speeds from 0 to 2.5 mm/s were measured using optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy. The bandwidth broadening at each speed was in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. The blood flow in a mouse brain was also imaged.

  6. A wall-less poly(vinyl alcohol) cryogel flow phantom with accurate scattering properties for transcranial Doppler ultrasound propagation channels analysis.

    PubMed

    Weir, Alexander J; Sayer, Robin; Cheng-Xiang Wang; Parks, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Medical phantoms are frequently required to verify image and signal processing systems, and are often used to support algorithm development for a wide range of imaging and blood flow assessments. A phantom with accurate scattering properties is a crucial requirement when assessing the effects of multi-path propagation channels during the development of complex signal processing techniques for Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound. The simulation of physiological blood flow in a phantom with tissue and blood equivalence can be achieved using a variety of techniques. In this paper, poly (vinyl alcohol) cryogel (PVA-C) tissue mimicking material (TMM) is evaluated in conjunction with a number of potential scattering agents. The acoustic properties of the TMMs are assessed and an acoustic velocity of 1524ms(-1), an attenuation coefficient of (0:49) × 10(-4)fdBm(1)Hz(-1), a characteristic impedance of (1.72) × 10(6)Kgm(-2)s(-1) and a backscatter coefficient of (1.12) × 10(-28)f(4)m(-1)Hz(-4)sr(-1) were achieved using 4 freeze-thaw cycles and an aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) scattering agent. This TMM was used to make an anatomically realistic wall-less flow phantom for studying the effects of multipath propagation in TCD ultrasound.

  7. Early detection of microstructural white matter changes associated with arterial pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Todd A D; Bateman, Grant A; Levi, Christopher R; Parsons, Mark W; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini

    2013-01-01

    Increased cerebral blood flow pulsatility is common in vascular dementia and is associated with macrostructural damage to cerebral white matter or leukoaraiosis (LA). In this study, we examine whether cerebral blood flow pulsatility is associated with macrostructural and microstructural changes in cerebral white matter in older adults with no or mild LA and no evidence of dementia. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of the microstructural integrity of white matter, and radial diffusivity (RaD), a measure sensitive to the integrity of myelin. When controlling for age, increased arterial pulsation was associated with deterioration in both measures of white matter microstructure but not LA severity. A stepwise multiple linear regression model revealed that arterial pulsatility index was the strongest predictor of FA (R = 0.483, adjusted R (2) = 0.220), followed by LA severity, but not age. These findings suggest that arterial pulsatility may provide insight into age-related reduction in white matter FA. Specifically, increased arterial pulsatility may increase perivascular shear stress and lead to accumulation of damage to perivascular oligodendrocytes, resulting in microstructural changes in white matter and contributing to proliferation of LA over time. Changes in cerebral blood flow pulsatility may therefore provide a sensitive index of white matter health that could facilitate the early detection of risk for perivascular white matter damage and the assessment of the effectiveness of preventative treatment targeted at reducing pulsatility.

  8. Use of a novel diagonal pump in an in vitro neonatal pulsatile extracorporeal life support circuit.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Alissa; Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2014-01-01

    One approach with the potential to improve morbidity and mortality rates following extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is the use of pulsatile perfusion. Currently, no ECLS pumps used in the United States can produce pulsatile flow. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate a novel diagonal pump used in Europe to determine whether it provides physiological pulsatility in a neonatal model. The ECLS circuit consisted of a Medos Deltastream DP3 diagonal pump, a Hilite 800LT polymethylpentene diffusion membrane oxygenator, and arterial/venous tubing. A 300-mL pseudopatient was connected to the circuit using an 8Fr arterial cannula and a 10Fr venous cannula. A clamp maintained constant pressure entering the pseudopatient. Trials (64 total) were conducted in nonpulsatile and pulsatile modes at flow rates of 200 mL/min to 800 mL/min. Flow and pressure data were collected using a custom-based data acquisition system. The Deltastream DP3 pump was capable of producing an adequate quality of pulsatility. Pulsatile flow produced increased mean arterial pressure, energy equivalent pressure (EEP), and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) at all flow rates compared to nonpulsatile flow. Pressure drop across the cannula accounted for the majority of pressure loss in the circuit. The greatest loss of SHE and total hemodynamic energy occurred across the arterial cannula due to its small diameter. The Deltastream DP3 pump produced physiological pulsatile flow without backflow while providing EEP and SHE to our neonatal pseudopatient. Further experiments are necessary to determine the impact of this pulsatile pump in an in vivo model prior to clinical use.

  9. Use of computational fluid dynamics in the design of dynamic contrast enhanced imaging phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, Prasanna; Freed, Melanie; Myers, Matthew R.

    2013-09-01

    6 s of wash-in. This time was cut in half by the final CFD-derived strategy of flow pulsing. Driving the pump with a 25% duty cycle pulsatile waveform produced a nearly uniform concentration in the phantom in just a few seconds under typical conditions. Comparisons with published x-ray measurements using tumor-enhancement curves for both benign and malignant breast lesions showed a difference of approximately 4% between the CFD predictions and measurements of the contrast-agent concentration averaged over the lesion volume. The techniques derived using CFD optimization can be used in future phantom designs, including as starting points for future CFD phantom studies employing new lesion geometries and tumor-enhancement curves.

  10. Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202

  11. The quantification of hemodynamic parameters downstream of a Gianturco Zenith stent wire using newtonian and non-newtonian analog fluids in a pulsatile flow environment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E

    2012-11-01

    Although deployed in the vasculature to expand vessel diameter and improve blood flow, protruding stent struts can create complex flow environments associated with flow separation and oscillating shear gradients. Given the association between magnitude and direction of wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial phenotype expression, accurate representation of stent-induced flow patterns is critical if we are to predict sites susceptible to intimal hyperplasia. Despite the number of stents approved for clinical use, quantification on the alteration of hemodynamic flow parameters associated with the Gianturco Z-stent is limited in the literature. In using experimental and computational models to quantify strut-induced flow, the majority of past work has assumed blood or representative analogs to behave as Newtonian fluids. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption. We present here the experimental quantification of flow through a Gianturco Z-stent wire in representative Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog environments using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fluid analogs were circulated through a closed flow loop at physiologically appropriate flow rates whereupon PIV snapshots were acquired downstream of the wire housed in an acrylic tube with a diameter characteristic of the carotid artery. Hemodynamic parameters including WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and Reynolds shear stresses (RSS) were measured. Our findings show that the introduction of the stent wire altered downstream hemodynamic parameters through a reduction in WSS and increases in OSI and RSS from nonstented flow. The Newtonian analog solution of glycerol and water underestimated WSS while increasing the spatial coverage of flow reversal and oscillatory shear compared to a non-Newtonian fluid of glycerol, water, and xanthan gum. Peak RSS were increased with the Newtonian fluid, although peak values were similar upon a doubling of flow rate. The introduction of the

  12. The quantification of hemodynamic parameters downstream of a Gianturco Zenith stent wire using newtonian and non-newtonian analog fluids in a pulsatile flow environment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E

    2012-11-01

    Although deployed in the vasculature to expand vessel diameter and improve blood flow, protruding stent struts can create complex flow environments associated with flow separation and oscillating shear gradients. Given the association between magnitude and direction of wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial phenotype expression, accurate representation of stent-induced flow patterns is critical if we are to predict sites susceptible to intimal hyperplasia. Despite the number of stents approved for clinical use, quantification on the alteration of hemodynamic flow parameters associated with the Gianturco Z-stent is limited in the literature. In using experimental and computational models to quantify strut-induced flow, the majority of past work has assumed blood or representative analogs to behave as Newtonian fluids. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption. We present here the experimental quantification of flow through a Gianturco Z-stent wire in representative Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog environments using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fluid analogs were circulated through a closed flow loop at physiologically appropriate flow rates whereupon PIV snapshots were acquired downstream of the wire housed in an acrylic tube with a diameter characteristic of the carotid artery. Hemodynamic parameters including WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and Reynolds shear stresses (RSS) were measured. Our findings show that the introduction of the stent wire altered downstream hemodynamic parameters through a reduction in WSS and increases in OSI and RSS from nonstented flow. The Newtonian analog solution of glycerol and water underestimated WSS while increasing the spatial coverage of flow reversal and oscillatory shear compared to a non-Newtonian fluid of glycerol, water, and xanthan gum. Peak RSS were increased with the Newtonian fluid, although peak values were similar upon a doubling of flow rate. The introduction of the

  13. Comparison of phantom and computer-simulated MR images of flow in a convergent geometry: implications for improved two-dimensional MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Siegel, J M; Oshinski, J N; Pettigrew, R I; Ku, D N

    1995-01-01

    The signal loss that occurs in regions of disturbed flow significantly decreases the clinical usefulness of MR angiography in the imaging of diseased arteries. This signal loss is most often attributed to turbulent flow; but on a typical MR angiogram, the signal is lost in the nonturbulent upstream region of the stenosis as well as in the turbulent downstream region. In the current study we used a flow phantom with a forward-facing step geometry to model the upstream region. The flow upstream of the step was convergent, which created high levels of convective acceleration. This region of the flow field contributes to signal loss at the constriction, leading to overestimation of the area of stenosis reduction. A computer program was designed to simulate the image artifacts that would be caused by this geometry in two-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography. Simulated images were compared with actual phantom images and the flow artifacts were highly correlated. The computer simulation was then used to test the effects of different orders of motion compensation and of fewer pixels per diameter, as would be present in MR angiograms of small arteries. The results indicated that the computational simulation of flow artifacts upstream of the stenosis provides an important tool in the design of optimal imaging sequences for the reduction of signal loss.

  14. Reduced Pulsatility Induces Periarteritis in Kidney: Role of the Local Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Ootaki, Chiyo; Yamashita, Michifumi; Ootaki, Yoshio; Kamohara, Keiji; Weber, Stephan; Klatte, Ryan S.; Smith, William A.; Massiello, Alex L.; Emancipator, Steven N.; Golding, Leonard A.R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2008-01-01

    Background The need for pulsatility in the circulation during long-term mechanical support has been a subject of debate. We compared histological changes in calf renal arteries subjected to various degrees of pulsatile circulation in vivo. We addressed the hypothesis that the local reninangiotensin system (RAS) may be implicated in these histological changes. Methods and Results Sixteen calves were implanted with devices giving differing degrees of pulsatile circulation: six had a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD); six had a continuous flow right ventricular assist device (RVAD); and four had a pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH). Six other calves were histological and immunohistochemical controls. In the LVAD group, the pulsatility index was significantly lower (0.28 ± 0.07 LVAD vs 0.56 ± 0.08 RVAD, vs 0.53 ± 0.10 TAH; p < 0.01), and we observed severe periarteritis in all cases in the LVAD group. The number of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-positive cells and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-positive cells in periarterial areas was significantly higher in the LVAD group (AT1R: 350 ± 139 LVAD vs 8 ± 6 RVAD, vs 3 ± 2 TAH, vs 3 ± 2 in control; p < 0.001 and ACE: 325 ± 59 LVAD vs 6 ± 4 RVAD, vs 6 ± 5 TAH, vs 3 ± 1 control; p < 0.001). Conclusions The reduced pulsatility produced by a continuous flow LVAD implantation induced severe periarteritis in the kidney. The local RAS was upregulated in the inflammatory cells only in the continuous flow LVAD group. ULTAMINI-ABSTRACT We compared histological changes in calf renal arteries subjected to various degrees of pulsatile circulation; continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD), continuous flow right ventricular assist device, pulsatile total artificial heart and control. We observed severe periarteritis, and upregulation of local renin angiotensin system only in the LVAD group. The necessity of maintaining pulsatility in the systemic circulation during long

  15. Numerical modeling of hemodynamics with pulsatile impeller pump support.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney

    2010-08-01

    There is significant interest in the development and application of variable speed impeller-pump type ventricular assist devices designed to generate pulsatile blood flow. However, no study has so far been carried out to investigate the systemic cardiovascular response to various aspects of pump motion. In this article, a numerical model is constructed for the simulation of the cardiovascular response in the heart failure condition under representative cases of pulsatile impeller pump support. The native cardiovascular model is based on a previously validated model, and the impeller pump is modeled by directly fitting the pressure-flow curves that describe the pump characteristics. The model developed is applied to study circulatory dynamics under different degrees of phase shift and pulsation ratio in the pump motion profile. The characteristic variables are discussed as criteria for the evaluation of system response for comparison of the pulsatile flows. Simulation results show that a constant pump speed is the most efficient work mode for the rotary pump, and with the application of either a phase shift of 75% and a pulsation ratio of 0.5, or a phase shift of 42% and a pulsation ratio of 0.55, it is possible to generate arterial pulse pressure with the maximal magnitude of about 28 mmHg. However, this is achieved at the cost of reduced cardiac output and pump efficiency.

  16. Pulsed-injection method for blood flow velocity measurement in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C G; Plewes, D B

    1986-08-01

    The pulsed-injection method for measuring the velocity of blood flow in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography is described. With this technique, contrast material is injected at a pulsing frequency as high as 15 Hz, so that two or more boluses can be imaged simultaneously. The velocity of flow is determined by measuring the spacing between the boluses and multiplying it by the pulsing frequency. Results of tests with phantoms correlate well with flow measurements obtained with a graduated cylinder for velocities ranging from 8 to 60 cm/sec. The potential of the method for time-dependent velocity measurement has been demonstrated with simulated pulsatile flows. PMID:3523598

  17. Shear stress and circumferential stretch by pulsatile flow direct vascular endothelial lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells in engineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwa; Heo, Su-Jin; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Shin, Ji Won; Park, So Hee; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the response of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the dynamic biomechanical vascular environment is important for vascular regeneration. Native vessel biomechanical stimulation in vitro is thought to be the most important contributor to successful endothelial differentiation of MSCs. However, the appropriate biomechanical stimulation conditions for differentiating MSCs into ECs have not been fully investigated. To accomplish an in vivo-like loading environment, a loading system was designed to apply flow induced stress and induce hMSC differentiation in vascular cells. Culturing MSCs on tubular scaffolds under flow-induced shear stress (2.5 dyne/cm(2)) for 4 days results in increased mRNA levels of EC markers (vWF, CD31, VE-cadherin and E-selectin) after one day. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of 2.5 dyne/cm(2) shear stress followed by 3% circumferential stretch for 3 days, and an additional 5% circumferential stretch for 4 days on hMSC differentiation into ECs. EC marker protein levels showed a significant increase after applying 5% stretch, while SMC markers were not present at levels sufficient for detection. Our results demonstrate that the expression of several hMSC EC markers cultured on double-layered tubular scaffolds were upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels with the application of fluid shear stress and cyclic circumferential stretch.

  18. Shear stress and circumferential stretch by pulsatile flow direct vascular endothelial lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells in engineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwa; Heo, Su-Jin; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Shin, Ji Won; Park, So Hee; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the response of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the dynamic biomechanical vascular environment is important for vascular regeneration. Native vessel biomechanical stimulation in vitro is thought to be the most important contributor to successful endothelial differentiation of MSCs. However, the appropriate biomechanical stimulation conditions for differentiating MSCs into ECs have not been fully investigated. To accomplish an in vivo-like loading environment, a loading system was designed to apply flow induced stress and induce hMSC differentiation in vascular cells. Culturing MSCs on tubular scaffolds under flow-induced shear stress (2.5 dyne/cm(2)) for 4 days results in increased mRNA levels of EC markers (vWF, CD31, VE-cadherin and E-selectin) after one day. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of 2.5 dyne/cm(2) shear stress followed by 3% circumferential stretch for 3 days, and an additional 5% circumferential stretch for 4 days on hMSC differentiation into ECs. EC marker protein levels showed a significant increase after applying 5% stretch, while SMC markers were not present at levels sufficient for detection. Our results demonstrate that the expression of several hMSC EC markers cultured on double-layered tubular scaffolds were upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels with the application of fluid shear stress and cyclic circumferential stretch. PMID:26800691

  19. Tissue Pulsatility Imaging of Cerebral Vasoreactivity during Hyperventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kucewicz, John C.; Dunmire, Barbrina; Giardino, Nicholas D.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Paun, Marla; Dager, Stephen R.; Beach, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue Pulsatility Imaging (TPI) is an ultrasonic technique that is being developed at the University of Washington to measure tissue displacement or strain due to blood flow over the cardiac and respiratory cycles. This technique is based in principle on plethysmography, an older non-ultrasound technology for measuring expansion of a whole limb or body part due to perfusion. TPI adapts tissue Doppler signal processing methods to measure the “plethysmographic” signal from hundreds or thousands of sample volumes in an ultrasound image plane. This paper presents a feasibility study to determine if TPI can be used to assess cerebral vasoreactivity. Ultrasound data were collected transcranially through the temporal acoustic window from four subjects before, during, and after voluntary hyperventilation. In each subject, decreases in tissue pulsatility during hyperventilation were observed that were statistically correlated with the subject’s end-tidal CO2 measurements. PMID:18336991

  20. Three-dimensional shape construction of pulsatile tissue from ultrasonic movies for assistance of clinical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Hikari; Yamada, Masayoshi; Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2010-02-01

    Three-dimensional shape of pulsatile tissue due to blood flow, which is one of key diagnostic features in ischemia, has been constructed from 2D ultrasonic movies for assisting clinical diagnosis. The 2D ultrasonic movies (640x480pixels/frame, 8bits/pixel, 33ms/frame) were taken with a conventional ultrasonic apparatus and an ultrasonic probe, while measuring the probe orientations with a compact tilt-sensor. The 2D images of pulsatile strength were obtained from each 2D ultrasonic movie by evaluating a heartbeat-frequency component calculated by Fourier transform of a series of pixel values sampled at each pixel. The 2D pulsatile images were projected into a 3D domain to obtain a 3D grid of pulsatile strength according to the probe orientations. The 3D shape of pulsatile tissue was constructed by determining the iso-surfaces of appropriate strength in the 3D grid. The shapes of pulsatile tissue examined in neonatal crania clearly represented the 3D structures of several arteries such as middle cerebral artery, which is useful for diagnosis of ischemic diseases. Since our technique is based on feature extraction in tissue dynamics, it is also useful for homogeneous tissue, for which conventional 3D ultrasonogram is unsuitable due to unclear tissue boundary.

  1. Gosling's Doppler pulsatility index revisited.

    PubMed

    Michel, E; Zernikow, B

    1998-05-01

    In Doppler sonography, the physiological meaning of Gosling's pulsatility index (PI) as a measure of downstream resistance is still under dispute. We deliver the theoretical derivation of its physiological significance. We present a mathematical model based on the linked theories of critical closing pressure (CCP) and cerebrovascular impedance, verified in preterm neonates. Mathematical transformation results in a series of equations interrelating several physiological parameters. Instead of indicating cerebrovascular resistance, PI is linked to the ratio of cerebrovascular impedances at the heart rate and at zero frequency. Next to arterial blood pressure, CCP is the principal determinant of PI. PI is identical to the ratio of the alternate and the direct component of the effective driving force. Thus, PI has no distinctive physiological meaning by itself. At present, our model is confined to physiological conditions where the lowest velocity is the end diastolic, and always more than zero.

  2. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of intra-aortic balloon and control systems for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for intra-aortic balloon and control systems for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. Final order.

    PubMed

    2013-12-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify intra-aortic balloon and control system (IABP) devices when indicated for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for IABPs when indicated for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. PMID:24383147

  3. Hemodynamic responses to continuous versus pulsatile mechanical unloading of the failing left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Carlo R; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Litwak, Kenneth N; Sobieski, Michael; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2010-01-01

    Debate exists regarding the merits and limitations of continuous versus pulsatile flow mechanical circulatory support. To characterize the hemodynamic differences between each mode of support, we investigated the acute effects of continuous versus pulsatile unloading of the failing left ventricle in a bovine model. Heart failure was induced in male calves (n = 14). During an acute study, animals were instrumented through thoracotomy for hemodynamic measurement. A continuous flow (n = 8) and/or pulsatile flow (n = 8) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was implanted and studied during maximum support ( approximately 5 L/min) and moderate support ( approximately 2-3 L/min) modes. Pulse pressure (PP), surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), and (energy equivalent pressure [EEP]/mean aortic pressure (MAP) - 1) x 100% were derived to characterize hemodynamic energy profiles during the different support modes. Standard hemodynamic parameters of cardiac performance were also derived. Data were analyzed by repeated measures one-way analysis of variance within groups and unpaired Student's t-tests across groups. During maximum and moderate continuous unloading, PP, SHE, and (EEP/MAP - 1) x 100% were significantly decreased compared with baseline and compared with pulsatile unloading. As a result, continuous unloading significantly altered left ventricular peak systolic pressure, aortic systolic and diastolic pressure, +/-dP/dt, and rate x pressure product, whereas pulsatile unloading preserved a normal profile of physiologic values. As continuous unloading increased, the pressure-volume relationship collapsed, and the aortic valve remained closed. In contrast, as pulsatile unloading increased, a comparable decrease in left ventricular volumes was noted. However, a normal range of left ventricular pressures was preserved. Continuous unloading deranged the physiologic profile of myocardial and vascular hemodynamic energy utilization, whereas pulsatile unloading preserved more

  4. Investigation of new flow modifying endovascular image-guided interventional (EIGI) techniques in patient-specific aneurysm phantoms (PSAPs) using optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, J. R.; Rangwala, H. S.; Ionita, C. N.; Dohatcu, A. C.; Lee, J. W.; Bednarek, D. R.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Rudin, S.

    2008-03-01

    Effective minimally invasive treatment of cerebral bifurcation aneurysms is challenging due to the complex and remote vessel morphology. An evaluation of endovascular treatment in a phantom involving image-guided deployment of new asymmetric stents consisting of polyurethane patches placed to modify blood flow into the aneurysm is reported. The 3D lumen-geometry of a patient-specific basilar-artery bifurcation aneurysm was derived from a segmented computed-tomography dataset. This was used in a stereolithographic rapid-prototyping process to generate a mold which was then used to create any number of exact wax models. These models in turn were used in a lost-wax technique to create transparent elastomer patient-specific aneurysm phantoms (PSAP) for evaluating the effectiveness of asymmetric-stent deployment for flow modification. Flow was studied by recording real-time digitized video images of optical dye in the PSAP and its feeding vessel. For two asymmetric stent placements: through the basilar into the right-posterior communicating artery (RPCA) and through the basilar into the left-posterior communicating artery (LPCA), the greatest deviation of flow streamlines away from the aneurysm occurred for the RPCA stent deployment. Flow was also substantially affected by variations of inflow angle into the basilar artery, resulting in alternations in washout times as derived from time-density curves. Evaluation of flow in the PSAPs with real-time optical imaging can be used to determine new EIGI effectiveness and to validate computational-fluid-dynamic calculations for EIGI-treatment planning.

  5. A Pulsatile Cardiovascular Computer Model for Teaching Heart-Blood Vessel Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kenneth; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a model which gives realistic predictions of pulsatile pressure, flow, and volume events in the cardiovascular system. Includes computer oriented laboratory exercises for veterinary and graduate students; equations of the dynamic and algebraic models; and a flow chart for the cardiovascular teaching program. (JN)

  6. In vitro performance of a perfusion and oxygenation optical sensor using a unique liver phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; Ericson, M. N.; Wilson, Mark A.; McShane, Michael J.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-03-01

    Between the years 1999 and 2008, on average 2,052 people died per year on the waiting list for liver transplants. Monitoring perfusion and oxygenation in transplanted organs in the 7 to 14 days period post-transplant can enhance graft and patient survival rates, and resultantly increase the availability of organs. In this work, we present in vitro results using a unique liver phantom that support the ability of our sensor to detect perfusion changes in the portal vein at low levels (50 mL/min . 4.5% of normal level). Our sensor measures diffuse reflection from three wavelengths (735, 805 and 940 nm) around the hemoglobin isobestic point (805 nm) to determine perfusion and oxygenation separately. To assess the sensitivity of our sensor to flow changes in the low range, we used two peristaltic pumps to pump a dye solution mimicking the optical properties of oxygenated blood, at various rates, through a PDMS based phantom mimicking the optical properties of liver tissue. The collected pulsatile signal increased by 120% (2.2X) for every 100 mL/min flow rise for all three wavelengths in the range 50 to 500 mL/min. In addition, we used different dye mixtures to mimic oxygenation changes at constant perfusion/flow levels. The optical properties of the dye mixtures mimic oxygen saturations ranging between 0 and 100%. The sensor was shown to be sensitive to changes in oxygen saturations above 50%.

  7. [Hematologic and endocrinologic effects of pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass using a centrifugal pump].

    PubMed

    Komoda, T; Maeta, H; Imawaki, S; Shiraishi, Y; Tanaka, S

    1992-06-01

    The effects of pulsatile and nonpulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with of centrifugal pump (Sarns) and membrane oxygenator, on blood cells, hemodynamics, and hormonal response were studied. In the pulsatile group (group P) in which pulsatile flow was generated by centrifugal pump and a 20 Fr arterial cannula was used, hemolysis and reduction of platelet count during CPB were more marked than in the nonpulsatile group (group NP), in which the same type of circuit was used. When the 20 Fr arterial cannula was replaced with a 24 Fr cannula (group Pc), the rate of hemolysis during CPB was significantly reduced compared with that in group P (p less than 0.05). The rate of rise in plasma free hemoglobin from 10 to 70 minutes CPB in group Pc was 15.0 mg/dl/hr, this value did not exceed that in either group NP or in group Pr, in which a roller pump rather than centrifugal pump was used to generate pulsatile flow. These findings show that pulsatile CPB with a centrifugal pump produces no deleterious hematologic effect in clinical use. The rise in the level of angiotensin II in group P was significantly smaller than that in group NP (p less than 0.05), and the rise in plasma renin activity and levels of angiotensin I, adrenalin and noradrenaline were smaller than those in group NP, although these differences were no significance. These findings indicate that the centrifugal pump generates pulsatile flow effectively, although not so effectively as to prevent the rise in peripheral vascular resistance. During CPB, there was no change in levels of thyroid hormones, including free T3, free T4 and reverse T3, in either pulsatile groups P and Pc or nonpulsatile group. TSH level in group Pc was significantly elevated in contrast with that in the nonpulsatile group (p less than 0.05), in which no change in TSH level was seen. It is suggested that pulsatile perfusion using a centrifugal pump might maintain sufficient hypothalamic-pituitary function to permit

  8. A new approach to generate arbitrary pulsatile pressure wave forms in mechanical circulatory support systems.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Amin; Hexamer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile pressure/flow wave forms reproduction of blood in mechanical circulatory systems are still an open topic. Regarding the periodic behavior of pulsatile hemodynamics, a repetitive control algorithm was adopted as a potential methodology for rotary blood pumps. The developed algorithm was tested on a mock system including an oxygenator, a resistance, and a compliance. The post-oxygenator pressure served as the feedback of the control system. Initially, a model of the whole system was developed in order to use repetitive control algorithm. Then the performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated in three different scenarios. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method was able to accurately reproduce any pattern of pulsatile pressure. Moreover, it demonstrated an acceptable robustness in terms of model uncertainty and nonlinearity.

  9. A new imaging technique on strength and phase of pulsatile tissue-motion in brightness-mode ultrasonogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2007-03-01

    A new imaging technique has been developed for observing both strength and phase of pulsatile tissue-motion in a movie of brightness-mode ultrasonogram. The pulsatile tissue-motion is determined by evaluating the heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a series of pixel value as a function of time at each pixel in a movie of ultrasonogram (640x480pixels/frame, 8bit/pixel, 33ms/frame) taken by a conventional ultrasonograph apparatus (ATL HDI5000). In order to visualize both the strength and the phase of the pulsatile tissue-motion, we propose a pulsatile-phase image that is obtained by superimposition of color gradation proportional to the motion phase on the original ultrasonogram only at which the motion strength exceeds a proper threshold. The pulsatile-phase image obtained from a cranial ultrasonogram of normal neonate clearly reveals that the motion region gives good agreement with the anatomical shape and position of the middle cerebral artery and the corpus callosum. The motion phase is fluctuated with the shape of arteries revealing local obstruction of blood flow. The pulsatile-phase images in the neonates with asphyxia at birth reveal decreases of the motion region and increases of the phase fluctuation due to the weakness and local disturbance of blood flow, which is useful for pediatric diagnosis.

  10. A new pulsatile total artificial heart using a single centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Imachi, K; Chinzei, T; Abe, Y; Mabuchi, K; Imanishi, K; Yonezawa, T; Kouno, A; Ono, T; Atsumi, K; Isoyama, T

    1991-01-01

    A new pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH) system, combining a single centrifugal pump (CFP) with two three-way valves, was developed. One port of each three-way valve was connected to the inlet and outlet of a CFP, respectively. The other two ports of each valve ware connected to the right and left atrium, pulmonary artery, and aorta. The CFP can perfuse the pulmonary and systemic circulation alternately with pulsatile flow. A prototype system composed of a Sarns' CFP and solenoid valves was connected to a mock circulatory system resulting in 1) a pulsatile TAH that could be produced with a single CFP, 2) 5 L/min of pulsatile output with a normal flow wave form that can be obtained alternately on the right and left side by switching the solenoid valves, and 3) flow balance between the left and the right that could be controlled easily by the length of switching duration. This new system could be miniaturized and is feasible for a totally implantable TAH.

  11. Feasibility of Pump Speed Modulation for Restoring Vascular Pulsatility with Rotary Blood Pumps.

    PubMed

    Ising, Mickey S; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C; Giridharan, Guruprasad A

    2015-01-01

    Continuous flow (CF) left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) diminish vascular pressure pulsatility, which may be associated with clinically reported adverse events including gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic valve insufficiency, and hemorrhagic stroke. Three candidate CF LVAD pump speed modulation algorithms designed to augment aortic pulsatility were evaluated in mock flow loop and ischemic heart failure (IHF) bovine models by quantifying hemodynamic performance as a function of mean pump speed, modulation amplitude, and timing. Asynchronous and synchronous copulsation (high revolutions per minute [RPM] during systole, low RPM during diastole) and counterpulsation (low RPM during systole, high RPM during diastole) algorithms were tested for defined modulation amplitudes (±300, ±500, ±800, and ±1,100 RPM) and frequencies (18.75, 37.5, and 60 cycles/minute) at low (2,900 RPM) and high (3,200 RPM) mean LVAD speeds. In the mock flow loop model, asynchronous, synchronous copulsation, and synchronous counterpulsation algorithms each increased pulse pressure (ΔP = 931%, 210%, and 98% and reduced left ventricular external work (LVEW = 20%, 22%, 16%). Similar improvements in vascular pulsatility (1,142%) and LVEW (40%) were observed in the IHF bovine model. Asynchronous modulation produces the largest vascular pulsatility with the advantage of not requiring sensor(s) for timing pump speed modulation, facilitating potential clinical implementation. PMID:26102173

  12. Effects of Thoratec pulsatile ventricular assist device timing on the abdominal aortic wave intensity pattern.

    PubMed

    Jahren, Silje Ekroll; Amacher, Raffael; Weber, Alberto; Most, Henriette; Flammer, Shannon Axiak; Traupe, Tobias; Stoller, Michael; de Marchi, Stefano; Vandenberghe, Stijn

    2014-10-15

    Arterial waves are seen as possible independent mediators of cardiovascular risks, and the wave intensity analysis (WIA) has therefore been proposed as a method for patient selection for ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. Interpreting measured wave intensity (WI) is challenging, and complexity is increased by the implantation of a VAD. The waves generated by the VAD interact with the waves generated by the native heart, and this interaction varies with changing VAD settings. Eight sheep were implanted with a pulsatile VAD (PVAD) through ventriculoaortic cannulation. The start of PVAD ejection was synchronized to the native R wave and delayed between 0 and 90% of the cardiac cycle in 10% steps or phase shifts (PS). Pressure and velocity signals were registered, with the use of a combined Doppler and pressure wire positioned in the abdominal aorta, and used to calculate the WI. Depending on the PS, different wave interference phenomena occurred. Maximum unloading of the left ventricle (LV) coincided with constructive interference and maximum blood flow pulsatility, and maximum loading of the LV coincided with destructive interference and minimum blood flow pulsatility. We believe that noninvasive WIA could potentially be used clinically to assess the mechanical load of the LV and to monitor the peripheral hemodynamics such as blood flow pulsatility and risk of intestinal bleeding.

  13. Pulsatile neck mass: A rare cause

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dattatreya P. V.; Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Nanjappa, Manjunath C.

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old female presented with a pulsatile neck mass. On evaluation, she was found to have right cervical aortic arch, which is a rare anomaly. We highlight the conventional and Computed tomography angiography features of this vascular anomaly. PMID:23626449

  14. A meta-analysis of pulmonary function with pulsatile perfusion in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Choon-Hak; Nam, Myung-Ji; Lee, Ji-Sung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Hye-Won; Lee, Hye-Won; Sun, Kyung

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pulsatile or nonpulsatile perfusion had a greater effect on pulmonary dysfunction in randomized controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used to identify available articles published before April 13, 2013. A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of pulsatile perfusion on postoperative pulmonary function, intubation time, and the lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays. Eight studies involving 474 patients who received pulsatile perfusion and 496 patients who received nonpulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were considered in the meta-analysis. Patients receiving pulsatile perfusion had a significantly greater PaO2 /FiO2 ratio 24 h and 48 h post-operation (P < 0.00001, both) and significantly lower chest radiograph scores at 24 h and 48 h post-operation (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.001, respectively) compared with patients receiving nonpulsatile perfusion. The incidence of noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory insufficiency was significantly lower (P < 0.00001), and intubation time and ICU and hospital stays were shorter (P = 0.004, P < 0.00001, and P < 0.00001, respectively) in patients receiving pulsatile perfusion during CPB compared with patients receiving nonpulsatile perfusion. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that the use of pulsatile flow during CPB results in better postoperative pulmonary function and shorter ICU and hospital stays.

  15. Pulsatile diastolic increase and systolic decrease in arterial blood pressure: their mechanism of production and physiological role.

    PubMed

    Mandoki, Juan José; Casa-Tirao, Beatriz; Molina-Guarneros, Juan Arcadio; Jiménez-Orozco, Fausto Alejandro; García-Mondragón, María Juana; Maldonado-Espinoza, Amelia

    2013-08-01

    The diastolic pulsatile increase in arterial blood pressure is shown to occur earlier in the aorta than in other arteries. It is thus not a reflection of the systolic pressure wave, as has been generally assumed, but an independent pressure wave produced by the sequential contraction of the arterial tree. Conversely, a systolic pulsatile decrease in the rate of blood pressure rise is also produced by an active relaxation of the arterial tree. Simultaneously with the pulsatile changes in arterial blood pressure, there are corresponding changes in arterial blood flow. All these cyclic changes are reflex responses to decreasing diastolic and increasing systolic baroreceptor firing rates, respectively. The two reflexes contribute, together with the known compliance of the large arteries and the great arteriolar blood flow resistance, to the steadiness of capillary blood flow throughout the systolic and the much longer-lasting diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle.

  16. Non-dimensional physics of pulsatile cardiovascular networks and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Berk; Pekkan, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, there exist a variety of cardiovascular circulation networks in which the energetic ventricular load has both steady and pulsatile components. Steady load is related to the mean cardiac output (CO) and the haemodynamic resistance of the peripheral vascular system. On the other hand, the pulsatile load is determined by the simultaneous pressure and flow waveforms at the ventricular outlet, which in turn are governed through arterial wave dynamics (transmission) and pulse decay characteristics (windkessel effect). Both the steady and pulsatile contributions of the haemodynamic power load are critical for characterizing/comparing disease states and for predicting the performance of cardiovascular devices. However, haemodynamic performance parameters vary significantly from subject to subject because of body size, heart rate and subject-specific CO. Therefore, a 'normalized' energy dissipation index, as a function of the 'non-dimensional' physical parameters that govern the circulation networks, is needed for comparative/integrative biological studies and clinical decision-making. In this paper, a complete network-independent non-dimensional formulation that incorporates pulsatile flow regimes is developed. Mechanical design variables of cardiovascular flow systems are identified and the Buckingham Pi theorem is formally applied to obtain the corresponding non-dimensional scaling parameter sets. Two scaling approaches are considered to address both the lumped parameter networks and the distributed circulation components. The validity of these non-dimensional number sets is tested extensively through the existing empirical allometric scaling laws of circulation systems. Additional validation studies are performed using a parametric numerical arterial model that represents the transmission and windkessel characteristics, which are adjusted to represent different body sizes and non-dimensional haemodynamic states. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed non

  17. Visualization of multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agents using ultrasound contrast sequences: an experimental study in a tissue mimicking flow phantom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agent (CA) with target specific potential was recently developed and tested for its acoustic properties in a single element transducer setup. Since the developed polymeric CA has different chemical composition than the commercially available CAs, there is an interest to study its acoustic response when using clinical ultrasound systems. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the acoustic response by studying the visualization capability and shadowing effect of three polymer-shelled CAs when using optimized sequences for contrast imaging. Methods The acoustic response of three types of the multimodal CA was evaluated in a tissue mimicking flow phantom setup by measuring contrast to tissue ratio (CTR) and acoustic shadowing using five image sequences optimized for contrast imaging. The measurements were performed over a mechanical index (MI) range of 0.2-1.2 at three CA concentrations (106, 105, 104 microbubbles/ml). Results The CTR-values were found to vary with the applied contrast sequence, MI and CA. The highest CTR-values were obtained when a contrast sequence optimized for higher MI imaging was used. At a CA concentration of 106 microbubbles/ml, acoustic shadowing was observed for all contrast sequences and CAs. Conclusions The CAs showed the potential to enhance ultrasound images generated by available contrast sequences. A CA concentration of 106 MBs/ml implies a non-linear relation between MB concentration and image intensity. PMID:23987142

  18. In vitro hemodynamic evaluation of a novel pulsatile extracorporeal life support system: impact of perfusion modes and circuit components on energy loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Clark, Joseph B; Ündar, Akif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of every component of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) circuit on hemodynamic energy transmission in terms of energy equivalent pressure (EEP), total hemodynamic energy (THE), and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) under nonpulsatile and pulsatile modes in a novel ECLS system. The ECLS circuit consisted of i-cor diagonal pump and console (Xenios AG, Heilbronn, Germany), an iLA membrane ventilator (Xenios AG), an 18 Fr femoral arterial cannula, a 23/25 Fr femoral venous cannula, and 3/8-in ID arterial and venous tubing. The circuit was primed with lactated Ringer's solution and human whole blood (hematocrit 33%). All trials were conducted under room temperature at the flow rates of 1-4 L/min (1 L/min increments). The pulsatile flow settings were set at pulsatile frequency of 75 beats per minute and differential speed values of 1000-4000 rpm (1000 rpm increments). Flow and pressure data were collected using a custom-based data acquisition system. EEP was significantly higher than mean arterial pressure in all experimental conditions under pulsatile flow (P < 0.01). THE was also increased under pulsatile flow compared with the nonpulsatile flow (P < 0.01). Under pulsatile flow conditions, SHE was significantly higher and increased differential rpm resulted in significantly higher SHE (P < 0.01). There was no SHE generated under nonpulsatile flow. Energy loss depending on the circuit components was almost similar in both perfusion modes at all different flow rates. The pressure drops across the oxygenator were 3.8-24.9 mm Hg, and the pressure drops across the arterial cannula were 19.3-172.6 mm Hg at the flow rates of 1-4 L/min. Depending on the pulsatility setting, i-cor ECLS system generates physiological quality pulsatile flow without increasing the mean circuit pressure. The iLA membrane ventilator is a low-resistance oxygenator, and allows more hemodynamic energy to be delivered

  19. A hemodynamic evaluation of the Levitronix Pedivas centrifugal pump and Jostra Hl-20 roller pump under pulsatile and nonpulsatile perfusion in an infant CPB model.

    PubMed

    Ressler, Noel; Rider, Alan R; Kunselman, Allen R; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Wang, Shigang; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    The hemodynamic comparison of the Jostra HL-20 and the Levitronix PediVAS blood pumps is the focus this study, where pressure-flow waveforms and hemodynamic energy values are analyzed in the confines of a pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass circuit.The pseudo pediatric patient was perfused with flow rates between 500 and 900 ml/min (100 ml/min increments) under pulsatile and nonpulsatile mode. The Levitronix continuous flow pump utilized a customized controller to engage in pulsatile perfusion with equivalent pulse settings to the Jostra HL-20 roller pump. Hemodynamic measurements and waveforms were recorded at the precannula location, while the mean arterial pressure was maintained at 40 mm Hg for each test. Glycerin water was used as the blood analog circuit perfusate. At each flow rate 24 trials were conducted yielding a total of 120 experiments (n=60 pulsatile and n=60 nonpulsatile).Under nonpulsatile perfusion the Jostra roller pump produced small values for surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) due to its inherent pulsatility, while the Levitronix produced values of essentially zero for SHE. When switching to pulsatile perfusion, the SHE levels for both the Jostra and Levitronix pump made considerable increases. In comparing the two pumps under pulsatile perfusion, the Levitronix PediVAS produced significantly more surplus and total hemodynamic energy than did the Jostra roller pump each pump flow rate.The study suggests that the Levitronix PediVAS centrifugal pump has the capability of achieving quality pulsatile waveforms and delivering more SHE to the pseudo patient than the Jostra HL-20 roller pump. Further studies are warranted to investigate the Levitronix under bovine blood studies and with various pulsatile settings.

  20. A pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass system that prevents negative pressure at the membrane oxygenator.

    PubMed

    Komoda, T; Maeta, H; Imawaki, S; Shiraishi, Y; Arioka, I; Fukunaga, S; Tanaka, S; Nasu, N

    1993-01-01

    Negative pressure is a problem in pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To avoid this, the authors designed a pulsatile CPB system containing a Sarns centrifugal pump (CP) and a Univox membrane oxygenator, in which the inertial flow is not obstructed by the CP. In both an in vitro study and a clinical study, negative pressure was not observed in the arterial line of the CPB circuit when this system was used. When a roller pump (RP) was used, however, instead of a CP, negative pressure did occur. In a clinical study using this system, mean pulse pressure was 36 mmHg and hemolysis, expressed as the rate of rise in plasma free hemoglobin from 10 to 70 min of CPB, was 26.2 mg/dl/hr, which did not exceed that seen with a pulsatile CPB using an RP instead of a CP. The hemolysis seen in the study caused no clinical problems. Thus, pulsatile CPB using a CP and Univox membrane oxygenator should be considered for clinical use to prevent the occurrence of negative pressure.

  1. Flap raising on pulsatile perfused cadaveric tissue: a novel method for surgical teaching and exercise.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fichter, Andreas; Braun, Christian; Bauer, Florian; Humbs, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Exercising flap raising procedures on cadavers is considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practise. To improve teaching and create conditions as realistic as possible, a perfusion device was developed providing pulsatile flow through the vessels of different donor sites. A plastic bag filled with red stained tab water was placed into a pump, which was driven by an electric motor. The bag was set under rhythmic compression with variable frequency and pressure. The pedicles of the radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, rectus abdominis, fibular and iliac crest flap were cannulated at the origin from their source arteries. Flap raising was performed under pulsatile perfusion in 15 fresh bodies and subsequently in 6 Thiel-embalmed cadavers during a flap raising course. We regularly observed staining of the skin and skin bleeding in fresh bodies and less reliable in embalmed cadavers. All flap pedicles showed pulsatile movements, and the radial pulse became palpable. Most perforators of the anterolateral thigh and osteocutaneous fibular flap could be identified by their pulse. Bleeding from bony tissue and venous return was seldom observed. We conclude that pulsatile perfusion of cadaveric tissue creates more realistic conditions for flap raising and improves teaching for beginners and advanced surgeons.

  2. Recent technologies in pulsatile drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepika; Raturi, Richa; Jain, Vikas; Bansal, Praveen; Singh, Ranjit

    2011-01-01

    Pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) have attracted attraction because of their multiple benefits over conventional dosage forms. They deliver the drug at the right time, at the right site of action and in the right amount, which provides more benefit than conventional dosages and increased patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body, and the drug is released rapidly and completely as a pulse after a lag time. These products follow the sigmoid release profile characterized by a time period. These systems are beneficial for drugs with chronopharmacological behavior, where nocturnal dosing is required, and for drugs that show the first-pass effect. This review covers methods and marketed technologies that have been developed to achieve pulsatile delivery. Marketed technologies, such as PulsincapTM, Diffucaps®, CODAS®, OROS® and PULSYSTM, follow the above mechanism to render a sigmoidal drug release profile. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcers, cardiovascular ailments, arthritis and attention deficit syndrome in children and hypercholesterolemia. Pulsatile drug delivery systems have the potential to bring new developments in the therapy of many diseases. PMID:23507727

  3. Evolution of vortical structures in a curved artery model with non-Newtonian blood-analog fluid under pulsatile inflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Steady flow and physiological pulsatile flow in a rigid 180° curved tube are investigated using particle image velocimetry. A non-Newtonian blood-analog fluid is used, and in-plane primary and secondary velocity fields are measured. A vortex detection scheme ( d 2-method) is applied to distinguish vortical structures. In the pulsatile flow case, four different vortex types are observed in secondary flow: deformed-Dean, Dean, Wall and Lyne vortices. Investigation of secondary flow in multiple cross sections suggests the existence of vortex tubes. These structures split and merge over time during the deceleration phase and in space as flow progresses along the 180° curved tube. The primary velocity data for steady flow conditions reveal additional vortices rotating in a direction opposite to Dean vortices—similar to structures observed in pulsatile flow—if the Dean number is sufficiently high.

  4. GnRH Pulsatility, the Pituitary Response and Reproductive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Webster, Nicholas J.G.

    2015-01-01

    GnRH plays an essential role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. In mammals, the pattern of gonadotropin secretion includes both pulse and surge phases, which are regulated independently. The pulsatile release of GnRH and LH plays an important role in the development of sexual function and in the normal regulation of the menstrual cycle. The importance of GnRH pulsatility was established in a series of classic studies. Fertility is impaired when GnRH pulsatility is inhibited by chronic malnutrition, excessive caloric expenditure, or aging. A number of reproductive disorders in women with including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypothlamic amenorrhea, hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are also associated with disruption of the normal pulsatile GnRH secretion. Despite these findings, the molecular mechanisms of this pulsatile GnRH regulation are not well understood. Here, we review recent studies about GnRH pulsatility, signaling and transcriptional response, and its implications for disease. PMID:19609045

  5. Power consumption of rotary blood pumps: pulsatile versus constant-speed mode.

    PubMed

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Cotter, Chris; Bourque, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the power consumption of a HeartMate III rotary blood pump based on in vitro experiments performed in a cardiovascular simulator. To create artificial-pulse mode, we modulated the pump speed by decreasing the mean speed by 2000 rpm for 200 ms and then increasing speed by 4000 rpm (mean speeds plus 2000 rpm) for another 200 ms, creating a square waveform shape. The HeartMate III was connected to a cardiovascular simulator consisting of a hydraulic pump system to simulate left ventricle pumping action, arterial and venous compliance chambers, and an adjustable valve for peripheral resistance to facilitate the desired aortic pressure. The simulator operated based on Suga's elastance model to mimic the Starling response of the heart, thereby reproducing physiological blood flow and pressure conditions. We measured the instantaneous total electrical current and voltage of the pump to evaluate its power consumption. The aim was to answer these fundamental questions: (i) How does pump speed modulation affect pump power consumption? (ii) How does the power consumption vary in relation to external pulsatile flow? The results indicate that speed modulation and external pulsatile flow both moderately increase the power consumption. Increasing the pump speed reduces the impact of external pulsatile flow.

  6. Pulsatile blood velocity in human arteries displayed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, D.A.; Crooks, L.; Hoenninger, J. III.; Arakawa, M.; Watts, J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors describe a new method for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of flowing protons which can illustrate relative blood velocity in the arteries supplying the brain. The magnetic gradient pulse sequence was synchronized to the cardiac cycle at 100-msec. increments to check pulsatile blood flow perpendicular to the image plane. The magnitude of the signal increased with the velocity of blood in major arteries flowing in the direction of the spatially offset refocusing plane. The blood velocity in the vertebral and internal carotid arteries varied as a function of the phase of the cardiac cycle, and the velocity profiles across the vascular lumina were compatible with laminar flow.

  7. In vitro performance analysis of a novel pulsatile diagonal pump in a simulated pediatric mechanical circulatory support system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pump performance of the third-generation Medos diagonal pump, the Deltastream DP3, on hemodynamic profile and pulsatility in a simulated pediatric mechanical circulatory support (MCS) system. The experimental circuit consisted of a Medos Deltastream DP3 pump head and console (MEDOS Medizintechnik AG, Stolberg, Germany), a 14-Fr Terumo TenderFlow Pediatric arterial cannula and a 20-Fr Terumo TenderFlow Pediatric venous return cannula (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), and 3 ft of tubing with an internal diameter of in. for both arterial and venous lines. Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 250 mL/min to 1000 mL/min (250-mL/min increments) and rotational speeds ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm (1000-rpm increments) using human blood (hematocrit 40%). The postcannula pressure was maintained at 60 mm Hg by a Hoffman clamp. Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a Labview-based acquisition system. The pump provided adequate nonpulsatile and pulsatile flow, created more hemodynamic energy under pulsatile mode, and generated higher positive and negative pressures when the inlet and outlet of the pump head, respectively, were clamped. After the conversion from nonpulsatile to pulsatile mode, the flow rates and the rotational speeds increased. In conclusion, the novel Medos Deltastream DP3 diagonal pump is able to supply the required flow rate for pediatric MCS, generate adequate quality of pulsatility, and provide surplus hemodynamic energy output in a simulated pediatric MCS system.

  8. 4D-Flow validation, numerical and experimental framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Kurt; Liu, Haining; Canton, Gador; Aliseda, Alberto; Yuan, Chun

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a group of assessment metrics of new 4D MRI flow sequences, an imaging modality that allows for visualization of three-dimensional pulsatile flow in the cardiovascular anatomy through time-resolved three-dimensional blood velocity measurements from cardiac-cycle synchronized MRI acquisition. This is a promising tool for clinical assessment but lacks a robust validation framework. First, 4D-MRI flow in a subject's stenotic carotid bifurcation is compared with a patient-specific CFD model using two different boundary condition methods. Second, Particle Image Velocimetry in a patient-specific phantom is used as a benchmark to compare the 4D-MRI in vivo measurements and CFD simulations under the same conditions. Comparison of estimated and measureable flow parameters such as wall shear stress, fluctuating velocity rms, Lagrangian particle residence time, will be discussed, with justification for their biomechanics relevance and the insights they can provide on the pathophysiology of arterial disease: atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Lastly, the framework is applied to a new sequence to provide a quantitative assessment. A parametric analysis on the carotid bifurcation pulsatile flow conditions will be presented and an accuracy assessment provided.

  9. Physiologic benefits of pulsatile perfusion during mechanical circulatory support for the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure in adults.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yulong; Karkhanis, Tushar; Wang, Shigang; Rider, Alan; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; El Banayosy, Aly; Undar, Akif

    2010-07-01

    A growing population experiencing heart failure (100,000 patients/year), combined with a shortage of donor organs (less than 2200 hearts/year), has led to increased and expanded use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices. MCS devices have successfully improved clinical outcomes, which are comparable with heart transplantation and result in better 1-year survival than optimal medical management therapies. The quality of perfusion provided during MCS therapy may play an important role in patient outcomes. Despite demonstrated physiologic benefits of pulsatile perfusion, continued use or development of pulsatile MCS devices has been widely abandoned in favor of continuous flow pumps owing to the large size and adverse risks events in the former class, which pose issues of thrombogenic surfaces, percutaneous lead infection, and durability. Next-generation MCS device development should ideally implement designs that offer the benefits of rotary pump technology while providing the physiologic benefits of pulsatile end-organ perfusion.

  10. Detection and measurement of retinal blood vessel pulsatile motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di; Frost, Shaun; Vignarajan, Janardhan; An, Dong; Tay-Kearney, Mei-Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogi

    2016-03-01

    Retinal photography is a non-invasive and well-accepted clinical diagnosis of ocular diseases. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of retinal images is crucial in ocular diseases related clinical application. Pulsatile properties caused by cardiac rhythm, such as spontaneous venous pulsation (SVP) and pulsatile motion of small arterioles, can be visualized by dynamic retinal imaging techniques and provide clinical significance. In this paper, we aim at vessel pulsatile motion detection and measurement. We proposed a novel approach for pulsatile motion measurement of retinal blood vessels by applying retinal image registration, blood vessel detection and blood vessel motion detection and measurement on infrared retinal image sequences. The performance of the proposed methods was evaluated on 8 image sequences with 240 images. A preliminary result has demonstrated the good performance of the method for blood vessel pulsatile motion observation and measurement.

  11. The effect of the pulsatile electromagnetic field in children suffering from bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Sadlonova, J; Korpas, J; Salat, D; Miko, L; Kudlicka, J

    2003-01-01

    From the bibliography it is well known that pulsatile electromagnetic field has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. It causes vasodilatation, myorelaxation, hyper-production of connective tissue and activation of the cell membrane. Therefore our aim was to study the possible therapeutic effect of pulsatile electromagnetic field in asthmatic children. Forty-two children participating in this study were divided in two groups. The 1st group consisting of 21 children (11 females, 10 males, aged 11.8 +/- 0.4 yr) was treated by pulsatile electromagnetic field and pharmacologically. The 2nd group served as control, consisting also of 21 children (11 females, 10 males, aged 11.7 +/- 0.3 yr) and was treated only pharmacologically. Therapeutic effect of the pulsatile electromagnetic field was assessed on the basis of pulmonary tests performed by means of a Spirometer 100 Handi (Germany). The indexes FVC, IVC, ERV, IRV, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, MEF75,50,25, PEF, PIF and the changes of the flow-volume loop were also registered. The pulsatile electromagnetic field was applied by means of the device MTU 500H, Therapy System (Brno, Czech Republic) for 5 days, two times daily for 30 minutes (magnetic induction: 3 mT, frequency: 4 Hz as recommended by the manufacturer). The results in children of the 1st group showed an improvement of FVC of about 70 ml, IVC of about 110 ml, FEV1 of about 80 ml, MEF75 of about 30 ml, PEF of about 480 ml, PIF of about 550 ml. The increases of ERV, IRV and FEV1/FVC and decreases of MEF25,50 were statistically insignificant. The results in the 2nd group were less clear. The flow-volume loop showed a mild improvement in 14 children. This improvement in the 2nd group was less significant. The clinical status of children and their mood became better. We believe that the pulsatile electro-magnetotherapy in children suffering from asthma is effective. On the basis of our results we can recommend it as a complementary therapy. PMID:14708875

  12. Pulsatile dynamics in the yeast proteome.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Chiraj K; Cai, Long; Lin, Yihan; Rahbar, Kasra; Elowitz, Michael B

    2014-09-22

    The activation of transcription factors in response to environmental conditions is fundamental to cellular regulation. Recent work has revealed that some transcription factors are activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization, rather than at a constant level, even in a constant environment [1-12]. In such cases, signals control the mean activity of the transcription factor by modulating the frequency, duration, or amplitude of these pulses. Although specific pulsatile transcription factors have been identified in diverse cell types, it has remained unclear how prevalent pulsing is within the cell, how variable pulsing behaviors are between genes, and whether pulsing is specific to transcriptional regulators or is employed more broadly. To address these issues, we performed a proteome-wide movie-based screen to systematically identify localization-based pulsing behaviors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen examined all genes in a previously developed fluorescent protein fusion library of 4,159 strains [13] in multiple media conditions. This approach revealed stochastic pulsing in ten proteins, all transcription factors. In each case, pulse dynamics were heterogeneous and unsynchronized among cells in clonal populations. Pulsing is the only dynamic localization behavior that we observed, and it tends to occur in pairs of paralogous and redundant proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that pulsatile dynamics play a pervasive role in yeast and may be similarly prevalent in other eukaryotic species.

  13. Active acromegaly enhances spontaneous parathyroid hormone pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Cimino, Vincenzo; De Menis, Ernesto; Bonadonna, Stefania; Bugari, Giovanna; De Marinis, Laura; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Giustina, Andrea

    2006-06-01

    In healthy subjects, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted in a dual fashion, with low-amplitude and high-frequency pulses superimposed on tonic secretion. These 2 components of PTH secretion seem to have different effects on target organs. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether growth hormone excess in acromegaly may modify the spontaneous pulsatility of PTH. Five male patients with newly diagnosed active acromegaly and 8 healthy subjects were evaluated by 3-minute blood sampling for 6 hours. Plasma PTH concentrations were evaluated by multiparameter deconvolution analysis. Plasma PTH release profiles were also subjected to an approximate entropy (ApEn) estimate, which provides an ensemble measure of the serial regularity or orderliness of the release process. In acromegalic patients, baseline serum PTH values were not significantly different from those measured in the healthy subjects, as well as tonic PTH secretion rate, number of bursts, fractional pulsatile PTH secretion, and ApEn ratio. Conversely, PTH pulse half-duration was significantly longer in acromegalic patients vs healthy subjects (11.8+/-0.95 vs 6.9+/-1.6 minutes; P=.05), whereas PTH pulse mass showed a tendency (P=.06) to be significantly greater in acromegalic patients. These preliminary data suggest that growth hormone excess may affect PTH secretory dynamics in patients with acromegaly. Potentially negative bone effects of the modifications of PTH secretory pattern in acromegaly should be investigated.

  14. Pulsatile Tinnitus with a Dural Arterio-Venous Fistula Diagnosed by Computed Tomography-Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Byun, Jaeyong; Park, Moonsuh

    2013-01-01

    A 43 year-old female patient suffered the sudden onset of pulsatile tinnitus in the left ear 2 months ago. The tinnitus did not subside spontaneously and remained unchanged. The patient had no history of head trauma or surgery of the head and neck. The character of the tinnitus was pulsatile, and it was synchronous with the heart beat. Audiologic examinations were performed and all of the results were normal. Computed tomography with angiography was performed and evidence of an arterio-venous fistula (AVF) was found. 4-vessel angiography was performed to confirm the dural AVF between the external carotid artery and sigmoid sinus. Embolization of the feeder-vessels was done under a fluoroscope and 70% of the fistula flow was controlled after embolization and the tinnitus totally subsided during the embolization. PMID:24653921

  15. Phantom Crossing DGP Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Koichi; Komiya, Zen

    2010-08-12

    We propose a phantom crossing Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model. In our model, the effective equation of state of the DGP gravity crosses the phantom divide line. We demonstrate crossing of the phantom divide does not occur within the framework of the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner. By extending their model, we construct a model that realizes crossing of the phantom divide. DGP models can account for late-time acceleration of the universe without dark energy. Phantom Crossing DGP model is more compatible with recent observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) than the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner.

  16. Somatosensory Pulsatile Tinnitus Syndrome: Somatic Testing Identifies a Pulsatile Tinnitus Subtype That Implicates the Somatosensory System

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert Aaron; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Melcher, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A new tinnitus syndrome is described: high-pitched, cardiac-synchronous tinnitus, whose pulsations are suppressed by strong contractions or compressions of the neck and jaw muscles (somatic testing). 14 cases, 6 non-lateralized and 8 unilateral, are reported. In the non-lateralized cases, onset was bilateral. In the one intermittent case, while her tinnitus was absent her pulsatile tinnitus could be induced by somatic testing. No etiology was found from physical examination, imaging, or ancillary testing. Because these cases of pulsatile tinnitus can be both induced and suppressed by activation of the somatosensory system of the head or upper lateral neck, we propose that this syndrome is occurring from (a) cardiac synchronous somatosensory activation of the central auditory pathway or (b) failure of the somatosensory-auditory central nervous system interactions to suppress cardiac somatosounds. PMID:18632767

  17. Pulsatile LHRH therapy in patients with oligozoospermia and disturbed LH pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Aulitzky, W; Frick, J; Hadziselimovic, F

    1989-08-01

    Pulsatile administration of LHRH can drive the pituitary to secrete LH and FSH in a pattern that closely mimics the physiological pattern of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. As there is evidence that infertility in some men is due to dysfunction of this axis, 14 men with reported infertility of more than 2 years duration were treated by long-term pulsatile LHRH therapy. They were 24-42 years of age, with variable degrees of oligozoospermia, elevated FSH levels but normal LH and testosterone levels. The number of endogenous LH pulses/24 h was less than eight in all 14 subjects. The degree of testicular damage was assessed semi-thin sections prepared from biopsies of both testes. Scores for spermatogonia per seminiferous tubule (SPT) were calculated from the actual number of Ad-spermatogonia/tubule. Patients were grouped according to sperm density and SPT score (groups I-III). Pulsatile LHRH therapy was administered by means of a portable infusion pump; 4 micrograms LHRH were administered subcutaneously every 120 min for a period of 6 months. This treatment restored the normal pattern of LH secretion to 12 LH pulses/24 h in all patients. A statistically significant decrease of mean FSH levels to normal, and an increase of mean LH levels was observed in most of the 14 patients. Testosterone values did not change in any group. Marked improvement of the sperm count was observed in eight out of 14 patients (groups I and II) and three pregnancies were reported during the treatment periods. These results suggest that some states of male infertility are due to hormonal dysregulation and that these patients may benefit from pulsatile LHRH therapy.

  18. Real-time visualization of pulsatile tissue-motion in B-mode ultrasonogram for assistance in bedside diagnosis of ischemic diseases of neonatal cranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, M.; Yamada, M.; Nakamori, N.; Kitsunezuka, Y.

    2008-03-01

    By developing a real-time visualization system, pulsatile tissue-motion caused by artery pulsation of blood flow has been visualized continuously from a video stream of ultrasonogram in brightness mode. The system concurrently executes the three processes: (1) capturing an input B-mode video stream (640×480 pixels/frame, 30 fps) into a ring buffer of 256 frames, (2) detecting intensity and phase of pulsatile tissue-motion at each pixel from a heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a series of pixel value through the latest 64 frames as a function of time, and (3) generating an output video-stream of pulsatile-phase image, in which the motion phase is superimposed as color gradation on an input video-stream when the motion intensity exceeds a proper threshold. By optimizing the visualization software with the streaming SIMD extensions, the pulsatile-phase image has been continuously updated at more than 10 fps, which was enough to observe pulsatile tissue-motion in real time. Compared to the retrospective technique, the real-time visualization had clear advantages not only in enabling bedside observation and quick snapshot of pulsatile tissue-motion but also in giving useful feedback to probe handling for avoiding unwanted motion-artifacts, which may strongly assist pediatricians in bedside diagnosis of ischemic diseases.

  19. Experimental validation of numerical simulations on a cerebral aneurysm phantom model

    PubMed Central

    Seshadhri, Santhosh; Janiga, Gábor; Skalej, Martin; Thévenin, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of cerebral aneurysms, found in roughly 5% of the population and associated in case of rupture to a high mortality rate, is a major challenge for neurosurgery and neuroradiology due to the complexity of the intervention and to the resulting, high hazard ratio. Improvements are possible but require a better understanding of the associated, unsteady blood flow patterns in complex 3D geometries. It would be very useful to carry out such studies using suitable numerical models, if it is proven that they reproduce accurately enough the real conditions. This validation step is classically based on comparisons with measured data. Since in vivo measurements are extremely difficult and therefore of limited accuracy, complementary model-based investigations considering realistic configurations are essential. In the present study, simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been compared with in situ, laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements in the phantom model of a cerebral aneurysm. The employed 1:1 model is made from transparent silicone. A liquid mixture composed of water, glycerin, xanthan gum and sodium chloride has been specifically adapted for the present investigation. It shows physical flow properties similar to real blood and leads to a refraction index perfectly matched to that of the silicone model, allowing accurate optical measurements of the flow velocity. For both experiments and simulations, complex pulsatile flow waveforms and flow rates were accounted for. This finally allows a direct, quantitative comparison between measurements and simulations. In this manner, the accuracy of the employed computational model can be checked. PMID:24265876

  20. Non-dimensional physics of pulsatile cardiovascular networks and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Berk; Pekkan, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, there exist a variety of cardiovascular circulation networks in which the energetic ventricular load has both steady and pulsatile components. Steady load is related to the mean cardiac output (CO) and the haemodynamic resistance of the peripheral vascular system. On the other hand, the pulsatile load is determined by the simultaneous pressure and flow waveforms at the ventricular outlet, which in turn are governed through arterial wave dynamics (transmission) and pulse decay characteristics (windkessel effect). Both the steady and pulsatile contributions of the haemodynamic power load are critical for characterizing/comparing disease states and for predicting the performance of cardiovascular devices. However, haemodynamic performance parameters vary significantly from subject to subject because of body size, heart rate and subject-specific CO. Therefore, a 'normalized' energy dissipation index, as a function of the 'non-dimensional' physical parameters that govern the circulation networks, is needed for comparative/integrative biological studies and clinical decision-making. In this paper, a complete network-independent non-dimensional formulation that incorporates pulsatile flow regimes is developed. Mechanical design variables of cardiovascular flow systems are identified and the Buckingham Pi theorem is formally applied to obtain the corresponding non-dimensional scaling parameter sets. Two scaling approaches are considered to address both the lumped parameter networks and the distributed circulation components. The validity of these non-dimensional number sets is tested extensively through the existing empirical allometric scaling laws of circulation systems. Additional validation studies are performed using a parametric numerical arterial model that represents the transmission and windkessel characteristics, which are adjusted to represent different body sizes and non-dimensional haemodynamic states. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed non

  1. Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the

  2. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, P.C.; Gordon, N.R.; Simmons, K.L.

    1993-11-30

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an ``authentic lung tissue`` or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  3. Lung pair phantom

    DOEpatents

    Olsen, Peter C.; Gordon, N. Ross; Simmons, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a material and method of making the material that exhibits improved radiation attenuation simulation of real lungs, i.e., an "authentic lung tissue" or ALT phantom. Specifically, the ALT phantom is a two-part polyurethane medium density foam mixed with calcium carbonate, potassium carbonate if needed for K-40 background, lanthanum nitrate, acetone, and a nitrate or chloride form of a radionuclide. This formulation is found to closely match chemical composition and linear attenuation of real lungs. The ALT phantom material is made according to established procedures but without adding foaming agents or preparing thixotropic concentrate and with a modification for ensuring uniformity of density of the ALT phantom that is necessary for accurate simulation. The modification is that the polyurethane chemicals are mixed at a low temperature prior to pouring the polyurethane mixture into the mold.

  4. Numerical investigation of three patterns of motion in an electromagnetic pulsatile VAD.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Zahra Hashemi; Oscuii, Hanieh Niroomand

    2014-01-01

    Hemolysis and thrombus formation which are critical concerns in designing a long-term implantable ventricular assist device (VAD) have impeded the widespread use of VADs. In this study, thus, the three-dimensional fluid domain of blood flow in a small bichamber positive displacement VAD (25 ml) with a magnetically levitated moving pusher plate was simulated by the means of a finite element package called ADINA. To optimize the function of the pump for minimizing shear stress induced blood damage, three different driver patterns (linear, sinusoidal, and Guyton's pulse) were investigated. The first pattern produced a constant flow, whereas the two others created pulsatile flows. The flow pattern and the distribution of shear stress of each pattern were observed for comparison. It was revealed that the three types of motions may induce less than 0.06% red blood cell damage. Moreover, in comparison to the other patterns not only did the sinusoidal motion of the pusher plate cause less risk of hemolysis, but in comparison to the linear pattern, it produced a pulsatile flow which reduced the stagnation areas in chambers, lowering the probability of thrombosis. In addition, this motion eliminates the probability of cavitations as compared with the Guyton's pulse pattern.

  5. Optimum Heart Rate to Minimize Pulsatile External Cardiac Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2011-11-01

    The workload on the left ventricle is composed of steady and pulsatile components. Clinical investigations have confirmed that an abnormal pulsatile load plays an important role in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and progression of LVH to congestive heart failure (CHF). The pulsatile load is the result of the complex dynamics of wave propagation and reflection in the compliant arterial vasculature. We hypothesize that aortic waves can be optimized to reduce the left ventricular (LV) pulsatile load. We used an in-vitro experimental approach to investigate our hypothesis. A unique hydraulic model was used for in-vitro experiments. This model has physical and dynamical properties similar to the heart-aorta system. Different compliant models of the artificial aorta were used to test the hypothesis under various aortic rigidities. Our results indicate that: i) there is an optimum heart rate that minimizes LV pulsatile power (this is in agreement with our previous computational study); ii) introducing an extra reflection site at the specific location along the aorta creates constructive wave conditions that reduce the LV pulsatile power.

  6. Stability of phantom wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2005-06-15

    It has recently been shown that traversable wormholes may be supported by phantom energy. In this work phantom wormhole geometries are modeled by matching an interior traversable wormhole solution, governed by the equation of state p={omega}{rho} with {omega}<-1, to an exterior vacuum spacetime at a finite junction interface. The stability analysis of these phantom wormholes to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium solutions is carried out. A master equation dictating the stability regions is deduced, and by separating the cases of a positive and a negative surface energy density, it is found that the respective stable equilibrium configurations may be increased by strategically varying the wormhole throat radius. The first model considered, in the absence of a thin shell, is that of an asymptotically flat phantom wormhole spacetime. The second model constructed is that of an isotropic pressure phantom wormhole, which is of particular interest, as the notion of phantom energy is that of a spatially homogeneous cosmic fluid, although it may be extended to inhomogeneous spherically symmetric spacetimes.

  7. Quantum phantom cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    DaPbrowski, Mariusz P.; Kiefer, Claus; Sandhoefer, Barbara

    2006-08-15

    We apply the formalism of quantum cosmology to models containing a phantom field. Three models are discussed explicitly: a toy model, a model with an exponential phantom potential, and a model with phantom field accompanied by a negative cosmological constant. In all these cases we calculate the classical trajectories in configuration space and give solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in quantum cosmology. In the cases of the toy model and the model with exponential potential we are able to solve the Wheeler-DeWitt equation exactly. For comparison, we also give the corresponding solutions for an ordinary scalar field. We discuss, in particular, the behavior of wave packets in minisuperspace. For the phantom field these packets disperse in the region that corresponds to the big-rip singularity. This thus constitutes a genuine quantum region at large scales, described by a regular solution of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. For the ordinary scalar field, the big-bang singularity is avoided. Some remarks on the arrow of time in phantom models as well as on the relation of phantom models to loop quantum cosmology are given.

  8. User-guided automated segmentation of time-series ultrasound images for measuring vasoreactivity of the brachial artery induced by flow mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehgal, Chandra M.; Kao, Yen H.; Cary, Ted W.; Arger, Peter H.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2005-04-01

    Endothelial dysfunction in response to vasoactive stimuli is closely associated with diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension and congestive heart failure. The current method of using ultrasound to image the brachial artery along the longitudinal axis is insensitive for measuring the small vasodilatation that occurs in response to flow mediation. The goal of this study is to overcome this limitation by using cross-sectional imaging of the brachial artery in conjunction with the User-Guided Automated Boundary Detection (UGABD) algorithm for extracting arterial boundaries. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was performed on rigid plastic tubing, on elastic rubber tubing phantoms with steady and pulsatile flow, and on the brachial artery of a healthy volunteer undergoing reactive hyperemia. The area of cross section of time-series images was analyzed by UGABD by propagating the boundary from one frame to the next. The UGABD results were compared by linear correlation with those obtained by manual tracing. UGABD measured the cross-sectional area of the phantom tubing to within 5% of the true area. The algorithm correctly detected pulsatile vasomotion in phantoms and in the brachial artery. A comparison of area measurements made using UGABD with those made by manual tracings yielded a correlation of 0.9 and 0.8 for phantoms and arteries, respectively. The peak vasodilatation due to reactive hyperemia was two orders of magnitude greater in pixel count than that measured by longitudinal imaging. Cross-sectional imaging is more sensitive than longitudinal imaging for measuring flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery, and thus may be more suitable for evaluating endothelial dysfunction.

  9. Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tabata, Yuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2016-04-01

    Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues has been examined in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies by characterizing pulsatile intensities with different regions of interest (ROIs). The pulsatile tissue, which is a key point in pediatric diagnosis of brain tissue, was detected from a heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a time-variation of 64 samples of echo intensity at each pixel in a movie fragment. The averages of pulsatile intensity and power were evaluated in two ROIs: common fan-shape and individual cranial-shape. The area of pulsatile region was also evaluated as the number of pixels where the pulsatile intensity exceeds a proper threshold. The extracranial pulsatile region was found mainly in the sections where mirror image was dominant echo artifact. There was significant difference of pulsatile area between two ROIs especially in the specific sections where mirror image was included, suggesting the suitability of cranial-shape ROI for statistical study on pulsatile tissues in brain. The normalized average of pulsatile power in the cranial-shape ROI exhibited most similar tendency to the normalized pulsatile area which was treated as a conventional measure in spite of its requirement of thresholding. It suggests the potential of pulsatile power as an alternative measure for pulsatile area in further statistical study of pulsatile tissues because it was neither affected by echo artifacts nor threshold.

  10. Phantom energy traversable wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2005-04-15

    It has been suggested that a possible candidate for the present accelerated expansion of the Universe is 'phantom energy'. The latter possesses an equation of state of the form {omega}{identical_to}p/{rho}<-1, consequently violating the null energy condition. As this is the fundamental ingredient to sustain traversable wormholes, this cosmic fluid presents us with a natural scenario for the existence of these exotic geometries. 'Note, however, that the notion of phantom energy is that of a homogeneously distributed fluid. Nevertheless, it can be extended to inhomogeneous spherically symmetric spacetimes, and it is shown that traversable wormholes may be supported by phantom energy. Because of the fact of the accelerating Universe, macroscopic wormholes could naturally be grown from the submicroscopic constructions that originally pervaded the quantum foam. One could also imagine an advanced civilization mining the cosmic fluid for phantom energy necessary to construct and sustain a traversable wormhole. In this context, we investigate the physical properties and characteristics of traversable wormholes constructed using the equation of state p={omega}{rho}, with {omega}<-1. We analyze specific wormhole geometries, considering asymptotically flat spacetimes and imposing an isotropic pressure. We also construct a thin shell around the interior wormhole solution, by imposing the phantom energy equation of state on the surface stresses. Using the 'volume integral quantifier' we verify that it is theoretically possible to construct these geometries with vanishing amounts of averaged null energy condition violating phantom energy. Specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity and time are also deduced from the traversability conditions for a particular wormhole geometry. These phantom energy traversable wormholes have far-reaching physical and cosmological implications. For instance, an advanced civilization may use these geometries to induce closed timelike

  11. Measuring pulsatile forces on the human cranium.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Cory S; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Midha, Rajiv; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    The cyclic stresses in the cranium caused by pulsation of the brain play an important role in the design of materials for cranioplasty, as well as craniofacial development. However, these stresses have never been quantified. In this study, the force in the epidural space against the cranium was measured intraoperatively in 10 patients using a miniature force probe. Heart and ventilatory rates computed from the force tracing correlated closely with the corresponding measured values in the patients, confirming that the forces measured were indeed a result of brain pulsation. The mean outward systolic normal and tangential stresses were 54.2 kilo-Pascals (kPa) and 345.4 kPa, respectively. The systolic shear stress was 199.8 kPa. Through mechanotransduction, these stresses play a role in cranial development. The calculated yield stress of a cranioplasty repair was 0.4 MPa, which is within one order of magnitude of the known strength of common calcium-phosphate cements. This indicates a possible relation of these pulsatile forces and occult failure of calcium-phosphate cement cranioplasties through material fatigue.

  12. The leicester Doppler phantom--a digital electronic phantom for ultrasound pulsed Doppler system testing.

    PubMed

    Gittins, John; Martin, Kevin

    2010-04-01

    Doppler flow and string phantoms have been used to assess the performance of ultrasound Doppler systems in terms of parameters such as sensitivity, velocity accuracy and sample volume registration. However, because of the nature of their construction, they cannot challenge the accuracy and repeatability of modern digital ultrasound systems or give objective measures of system performance. Electronic Doppler phantoms are able to make use of electronically generated test signals, which may be controlled precisely in terms of frequency, amplitude and timing. The Leicester Electronic Doppler Phantom uses modern digital signal processing methods and field programmable gate array technology to overcome some of the limitations of previously described electronic phantoms. In its present form, it is able to give quantitative graphical assessments of frequency response and range gate characteristics, as well as measures of dynamic range and velocity measurement accuracy. The use of direct acoustic coupling eliminates uncertainties caused by Doppler beam effects, such as intrinsic spectral broadening, but prevents their evaluation.

  13. Encoding and decoding mechanisms of pulsatile hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Walker, J J; Terry, J R; Tsaneva-Atanasova, K; Armstrong, S P; McArdle, C A; Lightman, S L

    2010-12-01

    Ultradian pulsatile hormone secretion underlies the activity of most neuroendocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and gonadal (HPG) axes, and this pulsatile mode of signalling permits the encoding of information through both amplitude and frequency modulation. In the HPA axis, glucocorticoid pulse amplitude increases in anticipation of waking, and, in the HPG axis, changing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse frequency is the primary means by which the body alters its reproductive status during development (i.e. puberty). The prevalence of hormone pulsatility raises two crucial questions: how are ultradian pulses encoded (or generated) by these systems, and how are these pulses decoded (or interpreted) at their target sites? We have looked at mechanisms within the HPA axis responsible for encoding the pulsatile mode of glucocorticoid signalling that we observe in vivo. We review evidence regarding the 'hypothalamic pulse generator' hypothesis, and describe an alternative model for pulse generation, which involves steroid feedback-dependent endogenous rhythmic activity throughout the HPA axis. We consider the decoding of hormone pulsatility by taking the HPG axis as a model system and focussing on molecular mechanisms of frequency decoding by pituitary gonadotrophs.

  14. First In Vivo Results of a Novel Pediatric Oxygenator with an Integrated Pulsatile Pump.

    PubMed

    Stang, Katharina; Borchardt, Ralf; Neumann, Bernd; Kurz, Julia; Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Greiner, Tim O; Fahrner, Christine; Schenk, Martin; Schlensak, Christian; Schubert, Maria; Lausberg, Henning; Herold, Sabine; Schlanstein, Peter C; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta; Wendel, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a pivotal bridge to recovery for cardiopulmonary failure in children. Besides its life-saving quality, it is often associated with severe system-related complications, such as hemolysis, inflammation, and thromboembolism. Novel oxygenator and pump systems may reduce such ECMO-related complications. The ExMeTrA oxygenator is a newly designed pediatric oxygenator with an integrated pulsatile pump minimizing the priming volume and reducing the surface area of blood contact. The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of this new ExMeTrA (expansion mediated transport and accumulation) oxygenator in an animal model. During 6 h of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in pigs, parameters of the hemostatic system including coagulation, platelets and complement activation, and flow rates were investigated. A nonsignificant trend in C3 consumption, thrombin-antithrombin-III (TAT) complex formation and a slight trend in hemolysis were detected. During the ECC, the blood flow was constantly at 500 ml/min using only flexible silicone tubes inside the oxygenator as pulsatile pump. Our data clearly indicate that the hemostatic markers were only slightly influenced by the ExMeTrA oxygenator. Additionally, the oxygenator showed a constant quality of blood flow. Therefore, this novel pediatric oxygenator shows the potential to be used in pediatric and neonatal support with ECMO. PMID:26098176

  15. In vivo assessment of a new method of pulsatile perfusion based on a centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Herreros, Jesús; Ubilla, Matías; Berjano, Enrique J; Vila-Nuñez, Juan E; Páramo, José A; Sola, Josu; Mercé, Salvador

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess platelet dysfunction and damage to organs after extracorporeal circulation using a pump based on a new method that adds a pulsatile flow to the continuous flow provided by a centrifugal pump. The continuous component of the total flow (2-3 L/min) is created by a Bio-Pump centrifugal pump, while the pulsatile component is created by the pulsating of an inner membrane pneumatically controlled by an intra-aortic counterpulsation balloon console (systolic volume of 37.5 mL in an asynchronous way with a frequency of 60 bpm). Six pigs were subjected to a partial cardiopulmonary bypass lasting 180 min and were sacrificed 60 min after extracorporeal circulation was suspended. The hematological study included the measurement of hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocytes, and platelet function. The new pump did not significantly alter either platelet count or platelet function. In contrast, hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly reduced during extracorporeal circulation (approximately 5% P = 0.011, and 2 g/dL P = 0.01, respectively). The leukocyte count during extracorporeal circulation showed a tendency to decrease, but this was not significant. In general, the short-term use of the new pump (4 h) did not cause any serious morphological damage to the heart, lung, kidney, or liver. The results suggest that the hemodynamic performance of the new pump is similar to a conventional centrifugal pump and could therefore be appropriate for use in extracorporeal circulation.

  16. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile administration restores luteinizing hormone pulsatility and normal testosterone levels in males with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, P; Lagoguey, M; Brailly, S; Schaison, G

    1985-02-01

    Hyperprolactinemia in men is frequently associated with hypogonadism. Normalization of serum PRL levels is generally associated with an increase in serum testosterone (T) to normal. To determine the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of hyperprolactinemia on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, we studied the effect of intermittent pulsatile GnRH administration on LH pulsatility and T levels in four men with prolactinomas. All patients had high PRL values (100-3000 ng/ml), low LH (mean +/- SEM, 2.2 +/- 0.1 mIU/ml), and low T values (2.3 +/- 0.3 ng/ml), with no other apparent abnormality of pituitary function. GnRH was administered iv using a pump delivering a bolus dose of 10 micrograms every 90 min for 12 days. No LH pulses were detected before treatment. Pulsatile GnRH administration resulted in a significant increase in basal LH levels (6.7 +/- 0.6 mIU/ml; P less than 0.001) and restored LH pulsatility. In addition, T levels increased significantly to normal values in all patients (7.8 +/- 0.4 ng/ml; P less than 0.001) and were normal or supranormal as long as the pump was in use, although PRL levels remained elevated. These data, therefore, suggest that hyperprolactinemia produces hypogonadism primarily by interfering with pulsatile GnRH release.

  17. The Phantom brane revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahni, Varun

    2016-07-01

    The Phantom brane is based on the normal branch of the DGP braneworld. It possesses a phantom-like equation of state at late times, but no big-rip future singularity. In this braneworld, the cosmological constant is dynamically screened at late times. Consequently it provides a good fit to SDSS DR11 measurements of H(z) at high redshifts. We obtain a closed system of equations for scalar perturbations on the brane. Perturbations of radiation, matter and the Weyl fluid are self-consistently evolved until the present epoch. We find that the late time growth of density perturbations on the brane proceeds at a faster rate than in ΛCDM. Additionally, the gravitational potentials φ, Ψ evolve differently on the brane than in ΛCDM, for which φ = Ψ. On the Brane, by contrast, the ratio φ/Ψ exceeds unity during the late matter dominated epoch (z ≤ 50). These features emerge as smoking gun tests of phantom brane cosmology and allow predictions of this scenario to be tested against observations of galaxy clustering and large scale structure. The phantom brane also displays a pole in its equation of state, which provides a key test of this dark energy model.

  18. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  19. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    SciTech Connect

    Divkovic, Gabriela; Jenne, Juergen W.

    2005-03-28

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy.

  20. In Vitro MRV-based Hemodynamic Study of Complex Helical Flow in a Patient-specific Jugular Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Haraldsson, Henrik; Saloner, David

    2014-11-01

    Neurointerventional Radiologists are frequently requested to evaluate the venous side of the intracranial circulation for a variety of conditions including: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency thought to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis; sigmoid sinus diverticulum which has been linked to the presence of pulsatile tinnitus; and jugular vein distension which is related to cardiac dysfunction. Most approaches to evaluating these conditions rely on structural assessment or two dimensional flow analyses. This study was designed to investigate the highly complex jugular flow conditions using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV). A jugular phantom was fabricated based on the geometry of the dominant jugular in a tinnitus patient. Volumetric three-component time-resolved velocity fields were obtained using 4D PC-MRI -with the protocol enabling turbulence acquisition- and the patient-specific pulsatile waveform. Flow was highly complex exhibiting regions of jet, high swirling strength, and strong helical pattern with the core originating from the focal point of the jugular bulb. Specifically, flow was analyzed for helicity and the level of turbulence kinetic energy elevated in the core of helix and distally, in the post-narrowing region.

  1. In-vitro validation of a novel model-based approach to the measurement of arterial blood flow waveforms from dynamic digital x-ray images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, Kawal; Lambrou, Tryphon; Seifalian, Alexander M.; Hawkes, David J.

    2002-04-01

    We have developed a waveform shape model-based algorithm for the extraction of blood flow from dynamic arterial x-ray angiographic images. We have carried out in-vitro validation of this technique. A pulsatile physiological blood flow circuit was constructed using an anthropomorphic cerebral vascular phantom to simulate the cerebral arterial circulation with whole blood as the fluid. Instantaneous recording of flow from an electromagnetic flow meter (EMF) provided the gold standard measurement. Biplane dynamic digital x-ray images of the vascular phantom with injection of contrast medium were acquired at 25 fps using a PC frame capture card with calibration using a Perspex cube. Principal component analysis was used to construct a shape model by collecting 434 flow waveforms from the EMF under varying flow conditions. Blood flow waveforms were calculated from the angiographic data by using our previous concentration-distance curve matching (ORG) algorithm and by using the new model-based (MB) algorithm. Both instantaneous and mean flow values calculated using the MB algorithm showed greater correlation, less bias, and lower variability than those calculated using the ORG algorithm when compared to the EMF values. We have successfully demonstrated that use of a priori waveform shape information can improve flow measurements from dynamic x-ray angiograms.

  2. Regular phantom black holes.

    PubMed

    Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C

    2006-06-30

    We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.

  3. Tissue-like phantoms

    DOEpatents

    Frangioni, John V.; De Grand, Alec M.

    2007-10-30

    The invention is based, in part, on the discovery that by combining certain components one can generate a tissue-like phantom that mimics any desired tissue, is simple and inexpensive to prepare, and is stable over many weeks or months. In addition, new multi-modal imaging objects (e.g., beads) can be inserted into the phantoms to mimic tissue pathologies, such as cancer, or merely to serve as calibration standards. These objects can be imaged using one, two, or more (e.g., four) different imaging modalities (e.g., x-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence) simultaneously.

  4. Stress phase angle depicts differences in arterial stiffness: phantom and in vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Lili; Meng, Long; Xu, Lisheng; Liu, Jia; Wang, Qiwen; Xiao, Yang; Qian, Ming; Zheng, Hairong

    2015-06-01

    The endothelial cells (ECs) lining of a blood vessel wall are exposed to both the wall shear stress (WSS) of blood flow and the circumferential strain (CS) of pulsing artery wall motion. Both WSS and CS keep involved in the modulation of ECs’ biochemical response and function and the temporal phase angle between the two is called stress phase angle (SPA). Previous studies at the cellular level have indicated that SPA is highly negative at sites that are prone to atherosclerosis, and hypothesized that large SPA may contribute to atherogenesis. Till now, there is no experimental data to support this hypothesis, probably due to the lack of a proper tool for measuring WSS and CS simultaneously and real time. In this study, a non-invasive ultrasonic biomechanics method was utilized to quantitatively calculate the SPA and experimentally evaluate the role of SPA in predicting early atherosclerosis. Three silicon tubes with a stiffness of 1.15, 3.62, 9.38 MPa were assembled in a pulsatile flow circuit and the values of SPA were measured to be -101.86 ± 3.65°,-170.19 ± 17.77° and -260.63 ± 18.62°, respectively. For the PVA-c phantoms, stiffness was 162.45, 235.68 and 374.24 kPa, the SPA corresponding to -170.32 ± 17.55°,-207.56 ± 10.78° and -261.08 ± 10.90°, respectively. Both phantom studies results demonstrated that SPA was highly negative in stiffer arteries. Further, experiments were taken in healthy living rats as control group (n = 3), atherosclerotic model group (n = 3), and drug treated group (n = 3), and the results showed that SPA was most negative in the model group, and SPA was least negative in the control group. Together, this study suggested that highly negative SPA appeared to be a prominent mechanical feature of vessels prone to atherosclerotic disease.

  5. A case of Takayasu's arteritis with pulsatile neck mass

    PubMed Central

    Karimifar, Mansoor; Karimifar, Mozhgan; Salimi, Fereshteh; Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2011-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA), also known as pulseless disease or occlusive thromboaortopathy, is a form of vasculitis of unknown cause that chiefly affects the aorta and its major branches, most frequently in young women. We describe an 18-year-old female with a soft and pulsatile mass in the left side of her neck. PMID:22973373

  6. Case of a non-pulsatile groin swelling.

    PubMed

    Razif, M A Mohamed; Rajasingam, V; Abdullah, B J J

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of a non-pulsatile groin swelling in a 38 years old male drug addict without the typical clinical signs of an aneurysm. Ultrasound revealed a left femoral artery pseudo-aneurysm. He was surgically treated and the vessels were ligated without revascularisation.

  7. Nonlinear analysis and prediction of pulsatile hormone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Prank, K. |; Kloppstech, M.; Nowlan, S.J.; Harms, H.M.; Brabant, G.; Hesch, R.; Sejnowski, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    Pulsatile hormone secretion is observed in almost every hormonal system. The frequency of episodic hormone release ranges from approximately 10 to 100 pulses in 24 hours. This temporal mode of secretion is an important feature of intercellular information transfer in addition to a dose-response dependent regulation. It has been demonstrated in a number of experiments that changes in the temporal pattern of pulsatile hormone secretion specifically regulate cellular and organ function and structure. Recent evidence links osteoporosis, a disease characterized by loss of bone mass and structure, to changes in the dynamics of pulsatile parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In our study we applied nonlinear and linear time series prediction to characterize the secretory dynamics of PTH in both healthy human subjects and patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic patients appear to lack periods of high predictability found in normal humans. In contrast to patients with osteoporosis patients with hyperparathyroidism, a condition which despite sometimes reduced bone mass has a preserved bone architecture, show periods of high predictability of PTH secretion. Using stochastic surrogate data sets which match certain statistical properties of the original time series significant nonlinear determinism could be found for the PTH time series of a group of healthy subjects. Using classical nonlinear analytical techniques we could demonstrate that the irregular pattern of pulsatile PTH secretion in healthy men exhibits characteristics of deterministic chaos. Pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy subjects seems to be a first example of nonlinear determinism in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Bedside assistance in freehand ultrasonic diagnosis by real-time visual feedback of 3D scatter diagram of pulsatile tissue-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, M.; Kawata, K.; Nakamori, N.; Kitsunezuka, Y.

    2011-03-01

    By real-time visual feedback of 3D scatter diagram of pulsatile tissue-motion, freehand ultrasonic diagnosis of neonatal ischemic diseases has been assisted at the bedside. The 2D ultrasonic movie was taken with a conventional ultrasonic apparatus (ATL HDI5000) and ultrasonic probes of 5-7 MHz with the compact tilt-sensor to measure the probe orientation. The real-time 3D visualization was realized by developing an extended version of the PC-based visualization system. The software was originally developed on the DirectX platform and optimized with the streaming SIMD extensions. The 3D scatter diagram of the latest pulsatile tissues has been continuously generated and visualized as projection image with the ultrasonic movie in the current section more than 15 fps. It revealed the 3D structure of pulsatile tissues such as middle and posterior cerebral arteries, Willis ring and cerebellar arteries, in which pediatricians have great interests in the blood flow because asphyxiated and/or low-birth-weight neonates have a high risk of ischemic diseases such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and periventricular leukomalacia. Since the pulsatile tissue-motion is due to local blood flow, it can be concluded that the system developed in this work is very useful to assist freehand ultrasonic diagnosis of ischemic diseases in the neonatal cranium.

  9. Multi-Modality Phantom Development

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Jennifer S.; Peng, Qiyu; Moses, William W.

    2009-03-20

    Multi-modality imaging has an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment of a large number of diseases, particularly if both functional and anatomical information are acquired and accurately co-registered. Hence, there is a resulting need for multi modality phantoms in order to validate image co-registration and calibrate the imaging systems. We present our PET-ultrasound phantom development, including PET and ultrasound images of a simple prostate phantom. We use agar and gelatin mixed with a radioactive solution. We also present our development of custom multi-modality phantoms that are compatible with PET, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), MRI and CT imaging. We describe both our selection of tissue mimicking materials and phantom construction procedures. These custom PET-TRUS-CT-MRI prostate phantoms use agargelatin radioactive mixtures with additional contrast agents and preservatives. We show multi-modality images of these custom prostate phantoms, as well as discuss phantom construction alternatives. Although we are currently focused on prostate imaging, this phantom development is applicable to many multi-modality imaging applications.

  10. Optimization of the circuit configuration of a pulsatile ECLs: an in vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Lee, Jung Joo; Fang, Yong Hu; Moon, Ki Chul; Ahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Hye Won; Sun, Kyung

    2005-01-01

    An extracorporeal life support system (ECLS) with a conventional membrane oxygenator requires a driving force for the blood to pass through hollow fiber membranes. We hypothesized that if a gravity-flow hollow fiber membrane oxygenator is installed in the circuit, the twin blood sacs of a pulsatile ECLS (the Twin-Pulse Life Support, T-PLS) can be placed downstream of the membrane oxygenator. This would increase pump output by doubling pulse rate at a given pumpsetting rate while maintaining effective pulsatility. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal circuit configuration for T-PLS with respect to energy and pump output. Animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups in a total cardiopulmonary bypass model. In the serial group, a conventional membrane oxygenator was located between the twin blood sacs of the T-PLS. In the parallel group, the twin blood sacs were placed downstream of the gravity-flow membrane oxygenator. Energy equivalent pressure (EEP), surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) and pump output were collected at the different pump-setting rates of 30, 40, and 50 beats per minute (BPM). At a given pump-setting rate the pulse rate doubled in the parallel group. Percent changes of mean arterial pressure to EEP were 13.0 +/- 1.7, 12.0 +/- 1.9, and 7.6 +/- 0.9% in the parallel group, while 22.5 +/- 2.4, 23.2 +/- 1.9, and 21.8 +/- 1.4 in the serial group at 30, 40, and 50 BPM of pump-setting rates. SHE at each pump setting rate was 20,131 +/- 1408, 21,739 +/- 2470, and 15,048 +/- 2108 erg/ cm3 in the parallel group, while 33,968 +/- 3001, 38,232 +/- 3281, 37,964 +/- 2693 erg/cm3 in the serial group. Pump output was higher in the parallel circuit at 40, and 50 BPM pump-setting rates (3.1 +/- 0.2, 3.7 +/- 0.2 L/min vs. 2.2 +/- 0.1 and 2.5 +/- 0.1 L/min, respectively, p =0.01). Either parallel or serial circuit configuration of T-PLS generates effective pulsatility. As for the pump out, the parallel circuit configuration provides higher flow than the

  11. Microfluidics based phantoms of superficial vascular network

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Long; Roman, Patrick A.; Mathews, Scott A.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2012-01-01

    Several new bio-photonic techniques aim to measure flow in the human vasculature non-destructively. Some of these tools, such as laser speckle imaging or Doppler optical coherence tomography, are now reaching the clinical stage. Therefore appropriate calibration and validation techniques dedicated to these particular measurements are therefore of paramount importance. In this paper we introduce a fast prototyping technique based on laser micromachining for the fabrication of dynamic flow phantoms. Micro-channels smaller than 20 µm in width can be formed in a variety of materials such as epoxies, plastics, and household tape. Vasculature geometries can be easily and quickly modified to accommodate a particular experimental scenario. PMID:22741081

  12. Chronic pulsatile shear stress alters insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) binding protein release in vitro.

    PubMed

    Elhadj, Selim; Akers, R Michael; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly

    2003-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a potent smooth muscle cell mitogen indicated to have a role in vascular disease. IGF-I stimulates proliferation via receptor activation but its activity is mediated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Since hemodynamics have been linked to vascular proliferative disorders, we studied how pulsatile low (5 +/- 2 dynes/cm2) and high (23 +/- 8 dynes/cm2) shear stresses impacted IGFBP metabolism in bovine aortic endothelial cells using the Cellmax capillary system. We modeled the pulsatile flow in our system using the Womersley model for flow inside a rigid tube and harmonic analysis revealed that the flow was sinusoidal with a frequency of approximately 0.3 Hz for both shear stress treatments. Laminar flow was confirmed and the phase lag between the pressure and the flow found to be insignificant. Thus, our study provides a necessary characterization of this in vitro system as well as an investigation into how shear impacts the IGF axis. We found a significant difference in IGFBP distribution between treatments and, given that IGFBPs regulate IGF-I activity and that IGF-I-independent activities have been suggested for IGFBP-3, suggest that shear stress may indirectly regulate IGF-I activity, and, by extension, the effect of IGF-I on vascular pathologies. PMID:12627824

  13. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for ovulatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Santoro, N; Elzahr, D

    1993-09-01

    Pulsatile GnRH remains a physiologic method of inducing ovulation that is effective and safer than other parenteral preparations. Its lower rate of acceptance in the United States stands in curious contrast to its widespread usage in other countries as a second-line (postclomiphene) technique of choice for ovulation induction. In a high-technology era such as ours, women who may benefit from pulsatile GnRH therapy should not be forgotten. By far the most favorable results are obtained in women with primary or secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea. In such women, pregnancy rates appear comparable to those achieved with exogenous gonadotropins with a much lower risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation. These positive aspects, combined with the decreased need for clinical monitoring and the increased sense of control imparted to the patient, lead to the conclusion that women with uncomplicated hypothalamic-pituitary disorders are the ideal patient group to consider for therapy. The application of pulsatile GnRH therapy to other groups of women relies on limited data. By all means, women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who have not ovulated or conceived after other forms of treatment should be considered because reasonable pregnancy salvage can be obtained. We have noted a first-cycle successful pregnancy after failure of exogenous gonadotropins, with or without a superimposed GnRH agonist, and even in vitro fertilization with multiple embryo transfers. Before such invasive, high-technology procedures are entertained, it would appear prudent to consider this simple alternative in women with an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary axis, as seen in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Other ovulatory defects also may be amenable to treatment with pulsatile GnRH, but their practical usefulness will await further clinical study.

  14. Ultrasonic Calibration Wire Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-24

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory annular array scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present example data sets, preliminary reconstructions, example metadata, and MATLAB codes to read the data.

  15. Arterial pulsatility as an index of cerebral microangiopathy in diabetes type 2.

    PubMed

    Agha, M S; Alboudi, A

    2014-01-09

    Transcranial doppler is an inexpensive, non-invasive investigation. This study assessed its validity in determining cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Flow velocity and pulsatility index were measured in the middle cerebral, basilar and intracranial internal carotid arteries of a sample of 141 diabetic patients with no other risk factors, and 132 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 73 with complicated and 68 with uncomplicated diabetes. There was a statistically significant difference between the complicated diabetes and control groups for the 3 arteries and most indices. The differences between the uncomplicated diabetes patients and the controls were also statistically significant but less strongly. Transcranial doppler may be useful in early diagnosis of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. A Phantom Tissue System for the Calibration of Perfusion Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Mudaliar, Ashvinikumar V.; Ellis, Brent E.; Ricketts, Patricia L.; Lanz, Otto I.; Scott, Elaine P.; Diller, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    A convenient method for testing and calibrating surface perfusion sensors has been developed. A phantom tissue model is used to simulate the nondirectional blood flow of tissue perfusion. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was constructed in Fluent® to design the phantom tissue and validate the experimental results. The phantom perfusion system was used with a perfusion sensor based on clearance of thermal energy. A heat flux gage measures the heat flux response of tissue when a thermal event (convective cooling) is applied. The blood perfusion and contact resistance are estimated by a parameter estimation code. From the experimental and analytical results, it was concluded that the probe displayed good measurement repeatability and sensitivity. The experimental perfusion measurements in the tissue were in good agreement with those of the CFD models and demonstrated the value of the phantom tissue system. PMID:19045509

  17. Pulsatile Fluid Shear in Bone Remodeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frangos, John A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to elucidate the sensitivity to transients in fluid shear stress in bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is clearly a function of the local mechanical environment which includes interstitial fluid flow. Traditionally, load-induced remodeling has been associated with low frequency (1-2 Hz) signals attributed to normal locomotion. McLeod and Rubin, however, demonstrated in vivo remodeling events associated with high frequency (15-30 Hz) loading. Likewise, other in vivo studies demonstrated that slowly applied strains did not trigger remodeling events. We therefore hypothesized that the mechanosensitive pathways which control bone maintenance and remodeling are differentially sensitive to varying rates of applied fluid shear stress.

  18. Pulsatile compared with nonpulsatile perfusion using a centrifugal pump for cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary artery bypass grafting. Effects on systemic haemodynamics, oxygenation, and inflammatory response parameters.

    PubMed

    Driessen, J J; Dhaese, H; Fransen, G; Verrelst, P; Rondelez, L; Gevaert, L; van Becelaere, M; Schelstraete, E

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of pulsatile or nonpulsatile flow delivery with a centrifugal pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in two randomized groups of 19 patients each. All patients received a standard anaesthetic and surgical protocol. Pulsatile perfusion during CPB was created by accelerating the baseline pump speed of the Sarns centrifugal pump at a rate of 50 cycles per minute. Measurements included perioperative systemic haemodynamics and oxygen exchange, total haemolytic complement (CH50), polymorphonuclear (neutrophil) granulocyte (PMN) count and plasma granulocyte elastase bound to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (E-alpha 1-PI). Laboratory measurements were corrected for haemodilution. During and after CPB there were only a few significant differences between the groups in systemic haemodynamics and oxygenation, i.e. a lower mean arterial blood pressure after the end of CPB in the nonpulsatile group (65 mmHg, SD = 11 vs 76 mmHg, SD = 11) and a lower SvO2 during rewarming on CPB in the nonpulsatile group (62%, SD = 8 vs 67%, SD = 8). The decrease in percentage of PMNs in the total white blood cell count during CPB was greater in the nonpulsatile group than in the pulsatile group (from 61 to 46% vs 63 to 53% of prebypass value). The steep increase of PMN count at the end of CPB and postoperatively was comparable in both groups. The maximal decrease of CH50 levels, occurring after surgery, was significantly higher in the nonpulsatile group (70% SD = 15 vs 79%, SD = 16, of baseline value), suggesting a greater complement activation. E-alpha 1-PI levels increased significantly in both groups during and after CPB with higher peak levels, obtained at one hour after admission to an intensive care unit, in the nonpulsatile group (316 micrograms/l, SD = 102) than in the pulsatile group (247 micrograms/l, SD = 106). There was a partly inverse correlation between the peak postoperative elastase levels and

  19. Automatic Synthesis of Anthropomorphic Pulmonary CT Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Carretero, Daniel; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Diaz Cacio, Mario; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    The great density and structural complexity of pulmonary vessels and airways impose limitations on the generation of accurate reference standards, which are critical in training and in the validation of image processing methods for features such as pulmonary vessel segmentation or artery–vein (AV) separations. The design of synthetic computed tomography (CT) images of the lung could overcome these difficulties by providing a database of pseudorealistic cases in a constrained and controlled scenario where each part of the image is differentiated unequivocally. This work demonstrates a complete framework to generate computational anthropomorphic CT phantoms of the human lung automatically. Starting from biological and image-based knowledge about the topology and relationships between structures, the system is able to generate synthetic pulmonary arteries, veins, and airways using iterative growth methods that can be merged into a final simulated lung with realistic features. A dataset of 24 labeled anthropomorphic pulmonary CT phantoms were synthesized with the proposed system. Visual examination and quantitative measurements of intensity distributions, dispersion of structures and relationships between pulmonary air and blood flow systems show good correspondence between real and synthetic lungs (p > 0.05 with low Cohen’s d effect size and AUC values), supporting the potentiality of the tool and the usefulness of the generated phantoms in the biomedical image processing field. PMID:26731653

  20. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  1. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  2. Control volume based hydrocephalus research; a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Benjamin; Voorhees, Abram; Madsen, Joseph; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a complex spectrum of neurophysiological disorders involving perturbation of the intracranial contents; primarily increased intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume and intracranial pressure are observed. CSF dynamics are highly coupled to the cerebral blood flows and pressures as well as the mechanical properties of the brain. Hydrocephalus, as such, is a very complex biological problem. We propose integral control volume analysis as a method of tracking these important interactions using mass and momentum conservation principles. As a first step in applying this methodology in humans, an in vitro phantom is used as a simplified model of the intracranial space. The phantom's design consists of a rigid container filled with a compressible gel. Within the gel a hollow spherical cavity represents the ventricular system and a cylindrical passage represents the spinal canal. A computer controlled piston pump supplies sinusoidal volume fluctuations into and out of the flow phantom. MRI is used to measure fluid velocity and volume change as functions of time. Independent pressure measurements and momentum flow rate measurements are used to calibrate the MRI data. These data are used as a framework for future work with live patients and normal individuals. Flow and pressure measurements on the flow phantom will be presented through the control volume framework.

  3. Defects in pulsatile LH release in normally menstruating runners.

    PubMed

    Cumming, D C; Vickovic, M M; Wall, S R; Fluker, M R

    1985-04-01

    Intense physical exercise has been associated with reproductive dysfunction and menstrual cycles may be abnormal in a majority of women with a heavy training load. To determine whether training influenced pulsatile LH release, we measured LH pulse frequency, LH pulse amplitude and area under the curve over six hours during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in four sedentary women and six eumenorrheic women runners with a training volume of at least 32 km per week. All three LH variables were significantly lower in runners than in controls. These data suggest that there is a central inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in eumenorrheic runners.

  4. Organosilicon phantom for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avigo, Cinzia; Di Lascio, Nicole; Armanetti, Paolo; Kusmic, Claudia; Cavigli, Lucia; Ratto, Fulvio; Meucci, Sandro; Masciullo, Cecilia; Cecchini, Marco; Pini, Roberto; Faita, Francesco; Menichetti, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technique. Although commercially available photoacoustic imaging systems currently exist, the technology is still in its infancy. Therefore, the design of stable phantoms is essential to achieve semiquantitative evaluation of the performance of a photoacoustic system and can help optimize the properties of contrast agents. We designed and developed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantom with exceptionally fine geometry; the phantom was tested using photoacoustic experiments loaded with the standard indocyanine green dye and compared to an agar phantom pattern through polyethylene glycol-gold nanorods. The linearity of the photoacoustic signal with the nanoparticle number was assessed. The signal-to-noise ratio and contrast were employed as image quality parameters, and enhancements of up to 50 and up to 300%, respectively, were measured with the PDMS phantom with respect to the agar one. A tissue-mimicking (TM)-PDMS was prepared by adding TiO2 and India ink; photoacoustic tests were performed in order to compare the signal generated by the TM-PDMS and the biological tissue. The PDMS phantom can become a particularly promising tool in the field of photoacoustics for the evaluation of the performance of a PA system and as a model of the structure of vascularized soft tissues.

  5. Phantom stars and topology change

    SciTech Connect

    DeBenedictis, Andrew; Garattini, Remo; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2008-11-15

    In this work, we consider time-dependent dark-energy star models, with an evolving parameter {omega} crossing the phantom divide {omega}=-1. Once in the phantom regime, the null energy condition is violated, which physically implies that the negative radial pressure exceeds the energy density. Therefore, an enormous negative pressure in the center may, in principle, imply a topology change, consequently opening up a tunnel and converting the dark-energy star into a wormhole. The criteria for this topology change are discussed and, in particular, we consider a Casimir energy approach involving quasilocal energy difference calculations that may reflect or measure the occurrence of a topology change. We denote these exotic geometries consisting of dark-energy stars (in the phantom regime) and phantom wormholes as phantom stars. The final product of this topological change, namely, phantom wormholes, have far-reaching physical and cosmological implications, as in addition to being used for interstellar shortcuts, an absurdly advanced civilization may manipulate these geometries to induce closed timelike curves, consequently violating causality.

  6. Organosilicon phantom for photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Avigo, Cinzia; Di Lascio, Nicole; Armanetti, Paolo; Kusmic, Claudia; Cavigli, Lucia; Ratto, Fulvio; Meucci, Sandro; Masciullo, Cecilia; Cecchini, Marco; Pini, Roberto; Faita, Francesco; Menichetti, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is an emerging technique. Although commercially available photoacoustic imaging systems currently exist, the technology is still in its infancy. Therefore, the design of stable phantoms is essential to achieve semiquantitative evaluation of the performance of a photoacoustic system and can help optimize the properties of contrast agents. We designed and developed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantom with exceptionally fine geometry; the phantom was tested using photoacoustic experiments loaded with the standard indocyanine green dye and compared to an agar phantom pattern through polyethylene glycol-gold nanorods. The linearity of the photoacoustic signal with the nanoparticle number was assessed. The signal-tonoiseratio and contrast were employed as image quality parameters, and enhancements of up to 50 and up to 300%, respectively, were measured with the PDMS phantom with respect to the agar one. A tissue-mimicking (TM)-PDMS was prepared by adding TiO2 and India ink; photoacoustic tests were performed in order to compare the signal generated by the TM-PDMS and the biological tissue. The PDMS phantom can become a particularly promising tool in the field of photoacoustics for the evaluation of the performance of a PA system and as a model of the structure of vascularized soft tissues.

  7. Phantom black holes and sigma models

    SciTech Connect

    Azreg-Aienou, Mustapha; Clement, Gerard; Fabris, Julio C.; Rodrigues, Manuel E.

    2011-06-15

    We construct static multicenter solutions of phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory from null geodesics of the target space, leading to regular black holes without spatial symmetry for certain discrete values of the dilaton coupling constant. We also discuss the three-dimensional gravitating sigma models obtained by reduction of phantom Einstein-Maxwell, phantom Kaluza-Klein and phantom Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion theories. In each case, we generate by group transformations phantom charged black hole solutions from a neutral seed.

  8. Performance assessment of an opto-fluidic phantom mimicking porcine liver parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; McShane, Michael J.; Nance Ericson, M.; Wilson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. An implantable, optical oxygenation and perfusion sensor to monitor liver transplants during the two-week period following the transplant procedure is currently being developed. In order to minimize the number of animal experiments required for this research, a phantom that mimics the optical, anatomical, and physiologic flow properties of liver parenchyma is being developed as well. In this work, the suitability of this phantom for liver parenchyma perfusion research was evaluated by direct comparison of phantom perfusion data with data collected from in vivo porcine studies, both using the same prototype perfusion sensor. In vitro perfusion and occlusion experiments were performed on a single-layer and on a three-layer phantom perfused with a dye solution possessing the absorption properties of oxygenated hemoglobin. While both phantoms exhibited response patterns similar to the liver parenchyma, the signal measured from the multilayer phantom was three times higher than the single layer phantom and approximately 21 percent more sensitive to in vitro changes in perfusion. Although the multilayer phantom replicated the in vivo flow patterns more closely, the data suggests that both phantoms can be used in vitro to facilitate sensor design. PMID:22894521

  9. Performance assessment of an opto-fluidic phantom mimicking porcine liver parenchyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; King, Travis J.; Long, Ruiqi; McShane, Michael J.; Nance Ericson, M.; Wilson, Mark A.; Coté, Gerard L.

    2012-07-01

    An implantable, optical oxygenation and perfusion sensor to monitor liver transplants during the two-week period following the transplant procedure is currently being developed. In order to minimize the number of animal experiments required for this research, a phantom that mimics the optical, anatomical, and physiologic flow properties of liver parenchyma is being developed as well. In this work, the suitability of this phantom for liver parenchyma perfusion research was evaluated by direct comparison of phantom perfusion data with data collected from in vivo porcine studies, both using the same prototype perfusion sensor. In vitro perfusion and occlusion experiments were performed on a single-layer and on a three-layer phantom perfused with a dye solution possessing the absorption properties of oxygenated hemoglobin. While both phantoms exhibited response patterns similar to the liver parenchyma, the signal measured from the multilayer phantom was three times higher than the single layer phantom and approximately 21 percent more sensitive to in vitro changes in perfusion. Although the multilayer phantom replicated the in vivo flow patterns more closely, the data suggests that both phantoms can be used in vitro to facilitate sensor design.

  10. Hypothyroidism affects pulsatile LH secretion in pubertal orchiectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Maia, A L; Favaretto, A L; Carvaho, T L; Rodrigues, J A; Iazigi, N

    1995-08-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of hypothyroidism on the pituitary-testicular axis in rats rendered hypothyroid on the beginning of puberty. Rats were treated with propylthiouracil for 8 weeks and killed for determination of hormonal status and body parameters. For determination of pulsatile LH secretion other animals were orchiectomized two weeks before sampling. Analysis of the results led us to conclude that although the absolute weight of sex organs tended to decrease in hypothyroid animals, the relative weights were equal or higher than control, suggesting that the development of these organs were not affected by hypothyroidism; the androgenic activity of hypothyroid rat testes were preserved; basal plasma levels of pituitary hormones were similar in control and hypothyroid groups; the pulsatile LH secretion showed a decrease in the number of pulses, nadir mean and total LH secretion in hypothyroid animals. Our results demonstrate that although hypothalamic-pituitary axis of hypothyroid pubertal rats displays an abnormal pulsation LH release, no evidences of abnormalities in the reproductive system functions were found.

  11. Prediction and control of neural responses to pulsatile electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Luke J.; Sly, David James; O'Leary, Stephen John

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to predict and control the probability of firing of a neuron in response to pulsatile electrical stimulation of the type delivered by neural prostheses such as the cochlear implant, bionic eye or in deep brain stimulation. Using the cochlear implant as a model, we developed an efficient computational model that predicts the responses of auditory nerve fibers to electrical stimulation and evaluated the model's accuracy by comparing the model output with pooled responses from a group of guinea pig auditory nerve fibers. It was found that the model accurately predicted the changes in neural firing probability over time to constant and variable amplitude electrical pulse trains, including speech-derived signals, delivered at rates up to 889 pulses s-1. A simplified version of the model that did not incorporate adaptation was used to adaptively predict, within its limitations, the pulsatile electrical stimulus required to cause a desired response from neurons up to 250 pulses s-1. Future stimulation strategies for cochlear implants and other neural prostheses may be enhanced using similar models that account for the way that neural responses are altered by previous stimulation.

  12. Mathematical modeling of CSF pulsatile hydrodynamics based on fluid-solid interaction.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Bastani, Dariush; Najarian, Siamak; Ganji, Fariba; Farmanzad, Farhad; Seddighi, Amir Saeed

    2010-06-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) is derived from cerebral blood pressure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory dynamics and can be affected in the course of many diseases. Computer analysis of the ICP time pattern plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of those diseases. This study proposes the application of Linninger et al.'s [IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 557-565, Apr. 2005] fluid-solid interaction model of CSF hydrodynamic in ventricular system based on our clinical data from a group of patients with brain parenchyma tumor. The clinical experiments include the arterial blood pressure (ABP), venous blood pressure, and ICP in the subarachnoid space (SAS). These data were used as inputs to the model that predicts the intracranial dynamic phenomena. In addition, the model has been modified by considering CSF pulsatile production rate as the major factor of CSF motion. The approximations of ventricle enlargement, CSF pressure distribution in the ventricular system and CSF velocity magnitude in the aqueduct and foramina were obtained in this study. The observation of reversal flow in the CSF flow pattern due to brain tissue compression is another finding in our investigation. Based on the experimental results, no existence of large transmural pressure differences were found in the brain system. The measured pressure drop in the ventricular system was less than 5 Pa. Moreover, the CSF flow pattern, ICP distribution, and velocity magnitude were in good agreement with the published models and CINE (phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging) experiments, respectively.

  13. A Pulsatile Bioreactor for Conditioning of Tissue-Engineered Cardiovascular Constructs under Endoscopic Visualization

    PubMed Central

    König, Fabian; Hollweck, Trixi; Pfeifer, Stefan; Reichart, Bruno; Wintermantel, Erich; Hagl, Christian; Akra, Bassil

    2012-01-01

    Heart valve disease (HVD) is a globally increasing problem and accounts for thousands of deaths yearly. Currently end-stage HVD can only be treated by total valve replacement, however with major drawbacks. To overcome the limitations of conventional substitutes, a new clinical approach based on cell colonization of artificially manufactured heart valves has been developed. Even though this attempt seems promising, a confluent and stable cell layer has not yet been achieved due to the high stresses present in this area of the human heart. This study describes a bioreactor with a new approach to cell conditioning of tissue engineered heart valves. The bioreactor provides a low pulsatile flow that grants the correct opening and closing of the valve without high shear stresses. The flow rate can be regulated allowing a steady and sensitive conditioning process. Furthermore, the correct functioning of the valve can be monitored by endoscope surveillance in real-time. The tubeless and modular design allows an accurate, simple and faultless assembly of the reactor in a laminar flow chamber. It can be concluded that the bioreactor provides a strong tool for dynamic pre-conditioning and monitoring of colonized heart valve prostheses physiologically exposed to shear stress. PMID:24955628

  14. A Pulsatile Bioreactor for Conditioning of Tissue-Engineered Cardiovascular Constructs under Endoscopic Visualization.

    PubMed

    König, Fabian; Hollweck, Trixi; Pfeifer, Stefan; Reichart, Bruno; Wintermantel, Erich; Hagl, Christian; Akra, Bassil

    2012-07-19

    Heart valve disease (HVD) is a globally increasing problem and accounts for thousands of deaths yearly. Currently end-stage HVD can only be treated by total valve replacement, however with major drawbacks. To overcome the limitations of conventional substitutes, a new clinical approach based on cell colonization of artificially manufactured heart valves has been developed. Even though this attempt seems promising, a confluent and stable cell layer has not yet been achieved due to the high stresses present in this area of the human heart. This study describes a bioreactor with a new approach to cell conditioning of tissue engineered heart valves. The bioreactor provides a low pulsatile flow that grants the correct opening and closing of the valve without high shear stresses. The flow rate can be regulated allowing a steady and sensitive conditioning process. Furthermore, the correct functioning of the valve can be monitored by endoscope surveillance in real-time. The tubeless and modular design allows an accurate, simple and faultless assembly of the reactor in a laminar flow chamber. It can be concluded that the bioreactor provides a strong tool for dynamic pre-conditioning and monitoring of colonized heart valve prostheses physiologically exposed to shear stress.

  15. Low abundances of synthetics lipids in phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Luna, A. E.; Santiago-Alvarado, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Flores-Gil, A.; Aguilar-Soto, J.; Delgado-Atencio, J. A.

    2012-03-01

    Phantoms simulate optical characteristics of tissues. Phantoms use to mimic light distributions in living tissue. Several Phantoms compositions made of silicone, polyester, polyurethane, and epoxy resin have been described in the literature. These kinds of phantoms have the problem of long time preservation. In this work, we describe the fabrication and characterization of phantoms with low concentrations of synthetic lipid using Raman spectroscopy. We fabricate four phantoms made of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These phantoms have synthetic lipid content of cholesterol and triglycerides. The size of our phantoms is 1 x 1 cm and 5 mm of thickness.We used the point-to-point mapping technique. Finally, we compared advantages and performance of made PDMS and gelatin phantoms.

  16. A comparison of methods for analyzing time series of pulsatile hormone data.

    PubMed

    Carlson, N E; Horton, K W; Grunwald, G K

    2013-11-20

    Many endocrine systems are regulated by pulsatile hormones - hormones that are secreted intermittently in boluses rather than continuously over time. To study pulsatile secretion, blood is drawn every few minutes for an extended period. The result is a time series of hormone concentrations for each individual. The goal is to estimate pulsatile hormone secretion features such as frequency, location, duration, and amount of pulsatile and non-pulsatile secretion and compare these features between groups. Various statistical approaches to analyzing these data have been proposed, but validation has generally focused on one hormone. Thus, we lack a broad understanding of each method's performance. By using simulated data with features seen in reproductive and stress hormones, we investigated the performance of three recently developed statistical approaches for analyzing pulsatile hormone data and compared them to a frequently used deconvolution approach. We found that methods incorporating a changing baseline modeled both constant and changing baseline shapes well; however, the added model flexibility resulted in a slight increase in bias in other model parameters. When pulses were well defined and baseline constant, Bayesian approaches performed similar to the existing deconvolution method. The increase in computation time of Bayesian approaches offered improved estimation and more accurate quantification of estimation variation in situations where pulse locations were not clearly identifiable. Within the class of deconvolution models for fitting pulsatile hormone data, the Bayesian approach with a changing baseline offered adequate results over the widest range of data.

  17. Eigenbreasts for statistical breast phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Tward, Daniel J.; Ketcha, M.; Ratnanather, J. T.; Miller, M. I.; Park, Subok; Segars, W. P.; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2016-03-01

    To facilitate rigorous virtual clinical trials using model observers for breast imaging optimization and evaluation, we demonstrated a method of defining statistical models, based on 177 sets of breast CT patient data, in order to generate tens of thousands of unique digital breast phantoms. In order to separate anatomical texture from variation in breast shape, each training set of breast phantoms were deformed to a consistent atlas compressed geometry. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then performed on the shape-matched breast CT volumes to capture the variation of patient breast textures. PCA decomposes the training set of N breast CT volumes into an N-1-dimensional space of eigenvectors, which we call eigenbreasts. By summing weighted combinations of eigenbreasts, a large ensemble of different breast phantoms can be newly created. Different training sets can be used in eigenbreast analysis for designing basis models to target sub-populations defined by breast characteristics, such as size or density. In this work, we plan to generate ensembles of 30,000 new phantoms based on glandularity for an upcoming virtual trial of lesion detectability in digital breast tomosynthesis. Our method extends our series of digital and physical breast phantoms based on human subject anatomy, providing the capability to generate new, unique ensembles consisting of tens of thousands or more virtual subjects. This work represents an important step towards conducting future virtual trials for tasks-based assessment of breast imaging, where it is vital to have a large ensemble of realistic phantoms for statistical power as well as clinical relevance.

  18. Measurement of pulsatile motion with millisecond resolution by MRI.

    PubMed

    Souchon, Rémi; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Salomir, Rares; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    We investigated a technique based on phase-contrast cine MRI combined with deconvolution of the phase shift waveforms to measure rapidly varying pulsatile motion waveforms. The technique does not require steady-state displacement during motion encoding. Simulations and experiments were performed in porcine liver samples in view of a specific application, namely the observation of transient displacements induced by acoustic radiation force. Simulations illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of the methods. For experimental validation, the waveforms were acquired with an ultrafast ultrasound scanner (Supersonic Imagine Aixplorer), and the rates of decay of the waveforms (relaxation time) were compared. With bipolar motion-encoding gradient of 8.4 ms, the method was able to measure displacement waveforms with a temporal resolution of 1 ms over a time course of 40 ms. Reasonable agreement was found between the rate of decay of the waveforms measured in ultrasound (2.8 ms) and in MRI (2.7-3.3 ms).

  19. Altered pulsatile gonadotropin signaling in nutritional deficiency in the male.

    PubMed

    Bergendahl, M; Veldhuis, J D

    1995-07-01

    Reproduction cannot occur without adequate nutrition. Diets that are nutritionally inadequate delay and disrupt the pubertal development of the reproductive processes of immature experimental animals and humans, and impair the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adults. Although there is a general understanding of the linkages between nutrition and reproduction, there is a lack of detailed knowledge of the exact mechanisms that couple these two systems. The major effects of malnutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis reported in the literature are, for the most part, manifested as reduced gonadotropin secretion. Malnutrition results in decreased circulating gonadotropin concentrations. These changes in the reproductive system are associated with impaired gonadal function and subsequent secondary sex organ atrophy and lead, ultimately, to poor reproduction. Decreased hypothalamic release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been proposed as the most important etiologic factor for the fasting-induced suppression of pituitary-testicular function. In the human, hypogonadism and infertility develop in both sexes during chronic malnutrition. Most studies on the effects of malnutrition on the reproductive hormones have been performed in women, perhaps because malnutrition in women is promptly accompanied by amenorrhea, whereas in men hypogonadism develops gradually and becomes clinically evident only during more severe malnutrition. With the advent of sensitive assays for measuring reproductive hormones and of modern computerized methods for analyzing the pulsatile secretion of these hormones, however, the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis has been scrutinized and it has, indeed, been observed that this system is disturbed even during acute malnutrition. Here, we review the effects of malnutrition on reproductive function, especially on the pulsatile pattern of LH secretion, in humans and in experimental animals.

  20. Hippocampal Fast Glutamatergic Transmission Is Transiently Regulated by Corticosterone Pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Pasricha, Natasha; Smeets, Johanna A S; Kerkhofs, Amber; Mikasova, Lenka; Karst, Henk; Groc, Laurent; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that corticosteroid hormones (such as corticosterone) are released in ultradian pulses as a natural consequence of pituitary-adrenal interactions. All organs, including the brain, are thus exposed to pulsatile changes in corticosteroid hormone level, important to ensure full genomic responsiveness to stress-induced surges. However, corticosterone also changes neuronal excitability through rapid non-genomic pathways, particularly in the hippocampus. Potentially, background excitability of hippocampal neurons could thus be changed by pulsatile exposure to corticosteroids. It is currently unknown, though, how neuronal activity alters during a sequence of corticosterone pulses. To test this, hippocampal cells were exposed in vitro to four consecutive corticosterone pulses with a 60 min inter-pulse interval. During the pulses we examined four features of hippocampal signal transfer by the main excitatory transmitter glutamate-i.e., postsynaptic responses to spontaneous release of presynaptic vesicles, postsynaptic GluA2-AMPA receptor dynamics, basal (evoked) field responses, and synaptic plasticity, using a set of high resolution imaging and electrophysiological approaches. We show that the first pulse of corticosterone causes a transient increase in miniature EPSC frequency, AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity, while basal evoked field responses are unaffected. This pattern is not maintained during subsequent applications: responses become more variable, attenuate or even reverse over time, albeit with different kinetics for the various experimental endpoints. This may indicate that the beneficial effect of ultradian pulses on transcriptional regulation in the hippocampus is not consistently accompanied by short-term perturbations in background excitability. In general, this could be interpreted as a means to keep hippocampal neurons responsive to incoming signals related to environmental challenges. PMID:26741493

  1. Mass Transport and Shear Stress as Mediators of Flow Effects on Atherosclerotic Plaque Origin and Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorder, Riley; Aliseda, Alberto

    2009-11-01

    The carotid artery bifurcation (CAB) is one of the leading site for atherosclerosis, a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the developed world. The specific mechanisms by which perturbed flow at the bifurcation and in the carotid bulge promotes plaque formation and growth are not fully understood. Shear stress, mass transport, and flow residence times are considered dominant factors. Shear stress causes restructuring of endothelial cells at the arterial wall which changes the wall's permeability. Long residence times are associated with enhanced mass transport through increased diffusion of lipids and white blood cells into the arterial wall. Although momentum and mass transfer are traditionally coupled by correlations similar to Reynolds Analogy, the complex flow patterns present in this region due to the pulsatile, transitional, detached flow associated with the complex geometry makes the validity of commonly accepted assumptions uncertain. We create solid models of the CAB from MRI or ultrasound medical images, build flow phantoms on clear polyester resin and use an IOR matching, blood mimicking, working fluid. Using PIV and dye injection techniques the shear stress and scalar transport are experimentally investigated. Our goal is to establish a quantitative relationship between momentum and mass transfer under a wide range of physiologically normal and pathological conditions.

  2. Anatomically correct deformable colon phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, James A.; Barton, Michael D.; Davis, Brynmor J.; Bieszczad, Jerry; Meunier, Norm L.; Brown, Nathan W.; Kynor, David B.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a technique to build a soft-walled colon phantom that provides realistic lumen anatomy in computed tomography (CT) images. The technique begins with the geometry of a human colon measured during CT colonography (CTC). The three-dimensional air-filled colonic lumen is segmented and then replicated using stereolithography (SLA). The rigid SLA model includes large-scale features (e.g., haustral folds and tenia coli bands) down to small-scale features (e.g., a small pedunculated polyp). Since the rigid model represents the internal air-filled volume, a highly-pliable silicone polymer is painted onto the rigid model. This thin layer of silicone, when removed, becomes the colon wall. Small 3 mm diameter glass beads are affixed to the outer wall. These glass beads show up with high intensity in CT scans and provide a ground truth for evaluating performance of algorithms designed to register prone and supine CTC data sets. After curing, the silicone colon wall is peeled off the rigid model. The resulting colon phantom is filled with air and submerged in a water bath. CT images and intraluminal fly-through reconstructions from CTC scans of the colon phantom are compared against patient data to demonstrate the ability of the phantom to simulate a human colon.

  3. The pulsatility volume index: an indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on fast magnetic resonance imaging of cardiac and respiratory pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Evans, Karleyton C; Bhat, Himanshu; Keil, Boris; Rosen, Bruce R; Boas, David A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-05-13

    The influence of cardiac activity on the viscoelastic properties of intracranial tissue is one of the mechanisms through which brain-heart interactions take place, and is implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Cerebrovascular disease risk is not fully explained by current risk factors, including arterial compliance. Cerebrovascular compliance is currently estimated indirectly through Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of blood velocity changes. In order to meet the need for novel cerebrovascular disease risk factors, we aimed to design and validate an MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on direct endogenous measures of blood volume changes. We implemented a fast non-gated two-dimensional MRI pulse sequence based on echo-planar imaging (EPI) with ultra-short repetition time (approx. 30-50 ms), which stepped through slices every approximately 20 s. We constrained the solution of the Bloch equations for spins moving faster than a critical speed to produce an endogenous contrast primarily dependent on spin volume changes, and an approximately sixfold signal gain compared with Ernst angle acquisitions achieved by the use of a 90° flip angle. Using cardiac and respiratory peaks detected on physiological recordings, average cardiac and respiratory MRI pulse waveforms in several brain compartments were obtained at 7 Tesla, and used to derive a compliance indicator, the pulsatility volume index (pVI). The pVI, evaluated in larger cerebral arteries, displayed significant variation within and across vessels. Multi-echo EPI showed the presence of significant pulsatility effects in both S0 and [Formula: see text] signals, compatible with blood volume changes. Lastly, the pVI dynamically varied during breath-holding compared with normal breathing, as expected for a compliance indicator. In summary, we characterized and performed an initial validation of a novel MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance, which might prove useful

  4. The pulsatility volume index: an indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on fast magnetic resonance imaging of cardiac and respiratory pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Evans, Karleyton C; Bhat, Himanshu; Keil, Boris; Rosen, Bruce R; Boas, David A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-05-13

    The influence of cardiac activity on the viscoelastic properties of intracranial tissue is one of the mechanisms through which brain-heart interactions take place, and is implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Cerebrovascular disease risk is not fully explained by current risk factors, including arterial compliance. Cerebrovascular compliance is currently estimated indirectly through Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of blood velocity changes. In order to meet the need for novel cerebrovascular disease risk factors, we aimed to design and validate an MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on direct endogenous measures of blood volume changes. We implemented a fast non-gated two-dimensional MRI pulse sequence based on echo-planar imaging (EPI) with ultra-short repetition time (approx. 30-50 ms), which stepped through slices every approximately 20 s. We constrained the solution of the Bloch equations for spins moving faster than a critical speed to produce an endogenous contrast primarily dependent on spin volume changes, and an approximately sixfold signal gain compared with Ernst angle acquisitions achieved by the use of a 90° flip angle. Using cardiac and respiratory peaks detected on physiological recordings, average cardiac and respiratory MRI pulse waveforms in several brain compartments were obtained at 7 Tesla, and used to derive a compliance indicator, the pulsatility volume index (pVI). The pVI, evaluated in larger cerebral arteries, displayed significant variation within and across vessels. Multi-echo EPI showed the presence of significant pulsatility effects in both S0 and [Formula: see text] signals, compatible with blood volume changes. Lastly, the pVI dynamically varied during breath-holding compared with normal breathing, as expected for a compliance indicator. In summary, we characterized and performed an initial validation of a novel MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance, which might prove useful

  5. Development of a polymer bileaflet valve to realize a low-cost pulsatile blood pump.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iijima, Kazuo; Inoue, Akira; Imachi, Kou; Ye, Chun Xiu

    2003-01-01

    The final goal of this study is to realize a low-cost pulsatile blood pump especially for patients with acute heart failure or postoperative low cardiac output syndrome. In support of the pump, two types of polymer bileaflet valves with different configuration of the valve seats were developed. Influence of the leaflet thickness on the hydrodynamics of the prototype was preliminarily investigated among 70 microm, 100 microm, and 150 microm. As to the valves with the thinner leaflets, buckling of the leaflets was observed, which induced a large amount of regurgitation at valve closure. However, by thickening the leaflet to 150 microm, the mean flow of the prototype and the second model could be successfully comparable to the Medtronic-Hall valve. Moreover, accelerated fatigue tests showed that reinforcement of the valve seat with the additional spokes in the second model extended the durability by four times as compared with the prototype, equivalent to an in vivo duration of over one month. PMID:12534717

  6. Imaging CDMAM phantom with tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Baorui; Smith, Andy; Ruth, Chris; Jing, Zhenxue

    2008-03-01

    We studied the use of the mammography contrast detail phantom (CDMAM) with tomosynthesis to evaluate the performance of our system as well as to explore the application of CDMAM in 3D breast imaging. The system was Hologic's 1st generation tomosynthesis machine. CDMAM phantom plus PMMA slabs were imaged at 3 cm, 5 cm, 7 cm, and 9 cm PMMA-equivalent thickness with 11 projections per scan and the scan angle selected from 0, 15 and 28 degrees. CDMAM images were reconstructed using the back projection method, and were scored with the CDCOM automatic analysis program. The threshold thickness of each disk size was obtained with psychometric curve fitting. We first studied errors and variability associated with the results when different numbers of images were used in contrast detail analysis, then studied factors that affected CDMAM results in tomosynthesis, including the x-ray dose, the scan angle, the in-plane reconstruction pixel size, the slice-to-slice step size, the location of the CDMAM inside the PMMA slabs, and the scatter effect. This paper will present results of CDMAM performance of our tomosynthesis system, as well as their dependence on the various factors, and the comparison with 2D mammography. Additionally we will discuss the novel processing and analysis methods developed during this study, and make proposals to modify the CDMAM phantom and the CDCOM analysis program to optimize the method for 3D tomosynthesis.

  7. Unsteady entrance flow development in a straight tube.

    PubMed

    He, X; Ku, D N

    1994-08-01

    The entrance conditions for pulsatile flow are important in the understanding blood flow out of the heart and in developing regions at branches. The pulsatile entrance flow was solved using a spectral element simulation of the full unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. A mean Reynolds number of 200 and a range of Womersley parameters from 1.8 to 12.5 was used for a sinusoidal inlet flow waveform 1 + sin (omega t). Variations in the entrance length were observed during the pulsatile cycle. The amplitude of the entrance length variation decreased with an increase in the Womersley parameter. The phase lag between the entrance length and the inlet flow waveform increased for Womersley parameter alpha up to 5.0 and decreased for alpha larger than 5.0. For low alpha, the maximum entrance length during pulsatile flow was approximately the same as the steady entrance length for the peak flow. For high varies; is directly proportional to, the pulsatile entrance length was more uniform during the cycle and tended to the entrance length for the mean flow. The wall shear rate reached its far downstream value after only about half of the entrance length and also exhibited a dependence on alpha. The results quantify the entrance conditions typically encountered in studies of the arterial system. PMID:7799639

  8. Design and implementation of a smartphone-based portable ultrasound pulsed-wave Doppler device for blood flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Lee, Po-Yang; Chen, Pay-Yu; Liu, Ting-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Blood flow measurement using Doppler ultrasound has become a useful tool for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases and as a physiological monitor. Recently, pocket-sized ultrasound scanners have been introduced for portable diagnosis. The present paper reports the implementation of a portable ultrasound pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler flowmeter using a smartphone. A 10-MHz ultrasonic surface transducer was designed for the dynamic monitoring of blood flow velocity. The directional baseband Doppler shift signals were obtained using a portable analog circuit system. After hardware processing, the Doppler signals were fed directly to a smartphone for Doppler spectrogram analysis and display in real time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of this system for medical ultrasound Doppler signal processing. A Couette flow phantom, consisting of two parallel disks with a 2-mm gap, was used to evaluate and calibrate the device. Doppler spectrograms of porcine blood flow were measured using this stand-alone portable device under the pulsatile condition. Subsequently, in vivo portable system verification was performed by measuring the arterial blood flow of a rat and comparing the results with the measurement from a commercial ultrasound duplex scanner. All of the results demonstrated the potential for using a smartphone as a novel embedded system for portable medical ultrasound applications. PMID:22293750

  9. Pulsatile instability in rapid directional solidification - Strongly-nonlinear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, G. J.; Braun, R. J.; Brattkus, K.; Davis, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the rapid directional solidification of a dilute binary alloy, analysis reveals that, in addition to the cellular mode of Mullins and Sekerka (1964), there is an oscillatory instability. For the model analyzed by Merchant and Davis (1990), the preferred wavenumber is zero; the mode is one of pulsation. Two strongly nonlinear analyses are performed that describe this pulsatile mode. In the first case, nonequilibrium effects that alter solute rejection at the interface are taken asymptotically small. A nonlinear oscillator equation governs the position of the solid-liquid interface at leading order, and amplitude and phase evolution equations are derived for the uniformly pulsating interface. The analysis provides a uniform description of both subcritical and supercritical bifurcation and the transition between the two. In the second case, nonequilibrium effects that alter solute rejection are taken asymptotically large, and a different nonlinear oscillator equation governs the location of the interface to leading order. A similar analysis allows for the derivation of an amplitude evolution equation for the uniformly pulsating interface. In this case, the bifurcation is always supercritical. The results are used to make predictions about the characteristics of solute bands that would be frozen into the solid.

  10. Effects of hydrocortisone on pulsatile pituitary glycoprotein secretion.

    PubMed

    Samuels, M H; Luther, M; Henry, P; Ridgway, E C

    1994-01-01

    During states of stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function can be suppressed. One putative mediator of this stress response may be glucocorticoids, which have widespread effects on thyroid and gonadal function. To characterize dynamic pituitary glycoprotein secretion during glucocorticoid administration, 24-h TSH, LH, FSH, and alpha-subunit pulses were measured in 10 healthy young subjects on 3 occasions: 1) at baseline, 2) during infusions of 100 mg hydrocortisone (HC) over 24 h, and 3) during infusions of 300 mg HC over 24 h. These HC infusions led to serum cortisol levels similar to the endogenous cortisol levels seen in moderate and severe stress. Both HC infusions had profound rapid effects on TSH levels, decreasing TSH pulse amplitude by 60% and abolishing the nocturnal TSH surge. However, TSH pulse frequency was unaltered. In contrast, HC infusions did not change mean or pulsatile LH, FSH, or alpha-subunit secretion. These results suggest that stress levels of cortisol acutely suppress TSH secretion at the pituitary level, with little effect on the TSH pulse generator. On the other hand, the effects of stress and/or hypercortisolism on the gonadal axis may require higher cortisol levels, more prolonged exposure, or other mediators of the stress response.

  11. MRXCAT: Realistic numerical phantoms for cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Computer simulations are important for validating novel image acquisition and reconstruction strategies. In cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), numerical simulations need to combine anatomical information and the effects of cardiac and/or respiratory motion. To this end, a framework for realistic CMR simulations is proposed and its use for image reconstruction from undersampled data is demonstrated. Methods The extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) anatomical phantom framework with various motion options was used as a basis for the numerical phantoms. Different tissue, dynamic contrast and signal models, multiple receiver coils and noise are simulated. Arbitrary trajectories and undersampled acquisition can be selected. The utility of the framework is demonstrated for accelerated cine and first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging using k-t PCA and k-t SPARSE. Results MRXCAT phantoms allow for realistic simulation of CMR including optional cardiac and respiratory motion. Example reconstructions from simulated undersampled k-t parallel imaging demonstrate the feasibility of simulated acquisition and reconstruction using the presented framework. Myocardial blood flow assessment from simulated myocardial perfusion images highlights the suitability of MRXCAT for quantitative post-processing simulation. Conclusion The proposed MRXCAT phantom framework enables versatile and realistic simulations of CMR including breathhold and free-breathing acquisitions. PMID:25204441

  12. Psychophysical correlates of phantom limb experience.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, J

    1992-01-01

    Phantom limb phenomena were correlated with psychophysiological measures of peripheral sympathetic nervous system activity measured at the amputation stump and contralateral limb. Amputees were assigned to one of three groups depending on whether they reported phantom limb pain, non-painful phantom limb sensations, or no phantom limb at all. Skin conductance and skin temperature were recorded continuously during two 30 minute sessions while subjects continuously monitored and rated the intensity of any phantom limb sensation or pain they experienced. The results from both sessions showed that mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the stump than the contralateral limb in the groups with phantom limb pain and non-painful phantom limb sensations, but not among subjects with no phantom limb at all. In addition, stump skin conductance responses correlated significantly with the intensity of non-painful phantom limb paresthesiae but not other qualities of sensation or pain. Between-limb measures of pressure sensitivity were not significantly different in any group. The results suggest that the presence of a phantom limb, whether painful or painless, is related to the sympathetic-efferent outflow of cutaneous vasoconstrictor fibres in the stump and stump neuromas. The hypothesis of a sympathetic-efferent somatic-afferent mechanism involving both sudomotor and vasoconstrictor fibres is proposed to explain the relationship between stump skin conductance responses and non-painful phantom limb paresthesiae. It is suggested that increases in the intensity of phantom limb paresthesiae follow bursts of sympathetic activity due to neurotransmitter release onto apposing sprouts of large diameter primary afferents located in stump neuromas, and decreases correspond to periods of relative sympathetic inactivity. The results of the study agree with recent suggestions that phantom limb pain is not a unitary syndrome, but a symptom class with each class subserved by

  13. Experiments On Flow In A Coronary Artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug-Yon; Liem, Timothy K.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on simulated flow of blood in atherosclerotic human coronary artery. Experiments performed on polyurethane cast made from S-shaped coronary artery of cadaver. Sucrose solution with viscosity of blood pumped through cast at physiologically realistic rates, and flow made pulsatile by mechanism alternately compressing and releasing elastic tube just upstream of cast.

  14. Initial testing of a 3D printed perfusion phantom using digital subtraction angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Rachel P.; Khobragade, Parag; Ying, Leslie; Snyder, Kenneth; Wack, David; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2015-03-01

    Perfusion imaging is the most applied modality for the assessment of acute stroke. Parameters such as Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF), Cerebral Blood volume (CBV) and Mean Transit Time (MTT) are used to distinguish the tissue infarct core and ischemic penumbra. Due to lack of standardization these parameters vary significantly between vendors and software even when provided with the same data set. There is a critical need to standardize the systems and make them more reliable. We have designed a uniform phantom to test and verify the perfusion systems. We implemented a flow loop with different flow rates (250, 300, 350 ml/min) and injected the same amount of contrast. The images of the phantom were acquired using a Digital Angiographic system. Since this phantom is uniform, projection images obtained using DSA is sufficient for initial validation. To validate the phantom we measured the contrast concentration at three regions of interest (arterial input, venous output, perfused area) and derived time density curves (TDC). We then calculated the maximum slope, area under the TDCs and flow. The maximum slope calculations were linearly increasing with increase in flow rate, the area under the curve decreases with increase in flow rate. There was 25% error between the calculated flow and measured flow. The derived TDCs were clinically relevant and the calculated flow, maximum slope and areas under the curve were sensitive to the measured flow. We have created a systematic way to calibrate existing perfusion systems and assess their reliability.

  15. Unifying phantom inflation with late-time acceleration: scalar phantom-non-phantom transition model and generalized holographic dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.

    2006-08-01

    The unifying approach to early-time and late-time universe based on phantom cosmology is proposed. We consider gravity-scalar system which contains usual potential and scalar coupling function in front of kinetic term. As a result, the possibility of phantom-non-phantom transition appears in such a way that universe could have effectively phantom equation of state at early time as well as at late time. In fact, the oscillating universe may have several phantom and non-phantom phases. Role in each of two phase and can be absorbed into the redefinition of the scalar field. Right on the transition point, however, the factor cannot be absorbed into the redefinition and play the role to connect two phases smoothly. Holographic dark energy where infrared cutoff is identified with combination of FRW parameters: Hubble constant, particle and future horizons, cosmological constant and universe life-time (if finite). Depending on the specific choice of the model the number of interesting effects occur: the possibility to solve the coincidence problem, crossing of phantom divide and unification of early-time inflationary and late-time accelerating phantom universe. The bound for holographic entropy which decreases in phantom era is also discussed.

  16. Vortices in by-pass graft flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, S. I.; Bosioc, A.; Totorean, A.; Stanciu, R.; Bernad, E. S.

    2013-10-01

    Curved channel flows and branching of fluid flow are used in many industrial applications to provide compactness and high heat and mass-transfer rates so as to enhance mixing in laminar flow regimes. Branchings of fluid flow are extremely common throughout the human body and involve various complex geometrical configurations and flow conditions associated with different ranges of Reynolds numbers, pulsatility and wall flexibility. Branchings greatly affect the fluid dynamics and are common sites of disease in human cardiac circulation.

  17. Non-invasive estimation of static and pulsatile intracranial pressure from transcranial acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Levinsky, Alexandra; Papyan, Surik; Weinberg, Guy; Stadheim, Trond; Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a method for estimation of non-invasive ICP (nICP) from transcranial acoustic (TCA) signals mixed with head-generated sounds estimate the static and pulsatile invasive ICP (iICP). For that purpose, simultaneous iICP and mixed TCA signals were obtained from patients undergoing continuous iICP monitoring as part of clinical management. The ear probe placed in the right outer ear channel sent a TCA signal with fixed frequency (621 Hz) that was picked up by the left ear probe along with acoustic signals generated by the intracranial compartment. Based on a mathematical model of the association between mixed TCA and iICP, the static and pulsatile nICP values were determined. Total 39 patients were included in the study; the total number of observations for prediction of static and pulsatile iICP were 5789 and 6791, respectively. The results demonstrated a good agreement between iICP/nICP observations, with mean difference of 0.39 mmHg and 0.53 mmHg for static and pulsatile ICP, respectively. In summary, in this cohort of patients, mixed TCA signals estimated the static and pulsatile iICP with rather good accuracy. Further studies are required to validate whether mixed TCA signals may become useful for measurement of nICP. PMID:26997563

  18. Neutron dosimetry in solid water phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Benites-Rengifo, Jorge Luis; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2014-11-07

    The neutron spectra, the Kerma and the absorbed dose due to neutrons were estimated along the incoming beam in a solid water phantom. Calculations were carried out with the MCNP5 code, where the bunker, the phantom and the model of the15 MV LINAC head were modeled. As the incoming beam goes into the phantom the neutron spectrum is modified and the dosimetric values are reduced.

  19. Neutron dosimetry in solid water phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benites-Rengifo, Jorge Luis; Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene

    2014-11-01

    The neutron spectra, the Kerma and the absorbed dose due to neutrons were estimated along the incoming beam in a solid water phantom. Calculations were carried out with the MCNP5 code, where the bunker, the phantom and the model of the15 MV LINAC head were modeled. As the incoming beam goes into the phantom the neutron spectrum is modified and the dosimetric values are reduced.

  20. A new kind of auxiliary heart in insects: functional morphology and neuronal control of the accessory pulsatile organs of the cricket ovipositor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In insects, the pumping of the dorsal heart causes circulation of hemolymph throughout the central body cavity, but not within the interior of long body appendages. Hemolymph exchange in these dead-end structures is accomplished by special flow-guiding structures and/or autonomous pulsatile organs (“auxiliary hearts”). In this paper accessory pulsatile organs for an insect ovipositor are described for the first time. We studied these organs in females of the cricket Acheta domesticus by analyzing their functional morphology, neuroanatomy and physiological control. Results The lumen of the four long ovipositor valves is subdivided by longitudinal septa of connective tissue into efferent and afferent hemolymph sinuses which are confluent distally. The countercurrent flow in these sinuses is effected by pulsatile organs which are located at the bases of the ovipositor valves. Each of the four organs consists of a pumping chamber which is compressed by rhythmically contracting muscles. The morphology of the paired organs is laterally mirrored, and there are differences in some details between the dorsal and ventral organs. The compression of the pumping chambers of each valve pair occurs with a left-right alternating rhythm with a frequency of 0.2 to 0.5 Hz and is synchronized between the dorsal and ventral organs. The more anteriorly located genital chamber shows rhythmical lateral movements simultaneous to those of the ovipositor pulsatile organs and probably supports the hemolymph exchange in the abdominal apex region. The left-right alternating rhythm is produced by a central pattern generator located in the terminal ganglion. It requires no sensory feedback for its output since it persists in the completely isolated ganglion. Rhythm-modulating and rhythm-resetting interneurons are identified in the terminal ganglion. Conclusion The circulatory organs of the cricket ovipositor have a unique functional morphology. The pumping apparatus at the base

  1. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072) between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  2. Phantom perception: voluntary and involuntary nonretinal vision.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joel; Westbrook, Fred

    2015-05-01

    Hallucinations, mental imagery, synesthesia, perceptual filling-in, and many illusions are conscious visual experiences without a corresponding retinal stimulus: what we call 'phantom perception'. Such percepts show that our experience of the world is not solely determined by direct sensory input. Some phantom percepts are voluntary, whereas others are involuntarily, occurring automatically. Here, by way of review, we compare and contrast these two types of phantom perception and their neural representations. We propose a dichotomous framework for phantom vision, analogous to the subtypes of attention: endogenous and exogenous. This framework unifies findings from different fields and species, providing a guide to study the constructive nature of conscious sensory perception.

  3. Phantom perception: voluntary and involuntary nonretinal vision.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joel; Westbrook, Fred

    2015-05-01

    Hallucinations, mental imagery, synesthesia, perceptual filling-in, and many illusions are conscious visual experiences without a corresponding retinal stimulus: what we call 'phantom perception'. Such percepts show that our experience of the world is not solely determined by direct sensory input. Some phantom percepts are voluntary, whereas others are involuntarily, occurring automatically. Here, by way of review, we compare and contrast these two types of phantom perception and their neural representations. We propose a dichotomous framework for phantom vision, analogous to the subtypes of attention: endogenous and exogenous. This framework unifies findings from different fields and species, providing a guide to study the constructive nature of conscious sensory perception. PMID:25863415

  4. The phantom limb in dreams.

    PubMed

    Brugger, Peter

    2008-12-01

    Mulder and colleagues [Mulder, T., Hochstenbach, J., Dijkstra, P. U., Geertzen, J. H. B. (2008). Born to adapt, but not in your dreams. Consciousness and Cognition, 17, 1266-1271.] report that a majority of amputees continue to experience a normally-limbed body during their night dreams. They interprete this observation as a failure of the body schema to adapt to the new body shape. The present note does not question this interpretation, but points to the already existing literature on the phenomenology of the phantom limb in dreams. A summary of published investigations is complemented by a note on phantom phenomena in the dreams of paraplegic patients and persons born without a limb. Integration of the available data allows the recommendation for prospective studies to consider dream content in more detail. For instance, "adaptation" to the loss of a limb can also manifest itself by seeing oneself surrounded by amputees. Such projective types of anosognosia ("transitivism") in nocturnal dreams should also be experimentally induced in normally-limbed individuals, and some relevant techniques are mentioned.

  5. Transorbital therapy delivery: phantom testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Martha-Conley; Atuegwu, Nkiruka; Mawn, Louise; Galloway, Robert L.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a combined image-guided and minimally invasive system for the delivery of therapy to the back of the eye. It is composed of a short 4.5 mm diameter endoscope with a magnetic tracker embedded in the tip. In previous work we have defined an optimized fiducial placement for accurate guidance to the back of the eye and are now moving to system testing. The fundamental difficulty in testing performance is establishing a target in a manner which closely mimics the physiological task. We have to have a penetrable material which obscures line of sight, similar to the orbital fat. In addition we need to have some independent measure of knowing when a target has been reached to compare to the ideal performance. Lastly, the target cannot be rigidly attached to the skull phantom since the optic nerve lies buried in the orbital fat. We have developed a skull phantom with white cloth stellate balls supporting a correctly sized globe. Placed in the white balls are red, blue, orange and yellow balls. One of the colored balls has been soaked in barium to make it bright on CT. The user guides the tracked endoscope to the target as defined by the images and tells us its color. We record task accuracy and time to target. We have tested this with 28 residents, fellows and attending physicians. Each physician performs the task twice guided and twice unguided. Results will be presented.

  6. Formulation and process optimization of multiparticulate pulsatile system delivered by osmotic pressure-activated rupturable membrane.

    PubMed

    Hung, Sheng-Feng; Hsieh, Chien-Ming; Chen, Ying-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a multiparticulate pulsatile drug delivery system activated by a rupturable controlled-release membrane (Eudragit(®) RS) via osmotic pressure (with NaCl as the osmogent) was developed and characterized for omeprazole, omeprazole sodium, and propranolol HCl which have different water solubilities. Multiparticulates in pellet form for incorporation with or without the osmogent were manufactured by three methods and then used to coat a polymeric membrane. Results demonstrated that drug/osmogent-containing pellets manufactured by the extrusion/spheronization method with incorporation of the osmogent were optimal. The lag time (tL) to initiate pulsatile release is regulated by tL=l(2)/(6×D), which is dependent on the coating levels (l(2)) and plasticizer content (D). The pulsatile release pattern was found to be dependent on the osmotic pressure (osmogent), drug solubility, and mechanical properties of the polymeric membrane (elasticity and toughness). Omeprazole with lower water solubility could not generate sufficient osmotic pressure to create a crack in the membrane to activate pulsatile release, whereas the two other model drugs with higher solubilities could. But adsorption of omeprazole sodium on Eudragit(®) RS via charge-charge interactions led the its incomplete release. Finally, with 4% osmogent of NaCl added, a lag time in a range from 0 to 12h proportionally regulated by varying both the membrane thickness and plasticizer level initiated the complete pulsatile release of propranolol HCl. In conclusion, a multiparticulate pulsatile drug delivery system activated by a rupturable controlled-release membrane via osmotic pressure was successfully developed, and clinical applications of chronotherapy with drugs like propranolol HCl are expected.

  7. Simulation of a pulsatile total artificial heart: Development of a partitioned Fluid Structure Interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Simon J.; Kaufmann, Tim A. S.; Büsen, Martin R.; Laumen, Marco; Linde, Torsten; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Due to a shortage in donor organs artificial hearts can be a bridge to transplantation or even serve as a destination therapy for patients with terminal heart insufficiency. A pusher plate driven pulsatile membrane pump, the Total Artificial Heart (TAH) ReinHeart, is currently under development at the Institute of Applied Medical Engineering of RWTH Aachen University.This paper presents the methodology of a fully coupled three-dimensional time-dependent Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation of the TAH using a commercial partitioned block-Gauss-Seidel coupling package. Partitioned coupling of the incompressible fluid with the slender flexible membrane as well as a high fluid/structure density ratio of about unity led inherently to a deterioration of the stability (‘artificial added mass instability’). The objective was to conduct a stable simulation with high accuracy of the pumping process. In order to achieve stability, a combined resistance and pressure outlet boundary condition as well as the interface artificial compressibility method was applied. An analysis of the contact algorithm and turbulence condition is presented. Independence tests are performed for the structural and the fluid mesh, the time step size and the number of pulse cycles. Because of the large deformation of the fluid domain, a variable mesh stiffness depending on certain mesh properties was specified for the fluid elements. Adaptive remeshing was avoided. Different approaches for the mesh stiffness function are compared with respect to convergence, preservation of mesh topology and mesh quality. The resulting mesh aspect ratios, mesh expansion factors and mesh orthogonalities are evaluated in detail. The membrane motion and flow distribution of the coupled simulations are compared with a top-view recording and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, respectively, of the actual pump.

  8. Behavioral treatment of pulsatile tinnitus and headache following traumatic head injury. Objective polygraphic assessment of change.

    PubMed

    Hegel, M T; Martin, J B

    1998-10-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is a disorder that can be extremely disabling. Nonetheless, it has not been well-researched in the fields of psychology or behavioral therapy. This article describes the evaluation and behavioral treatment of a gentleman with pulsatile tinnitus. The evaluation included polygraphic assessment of vasomotor and electromyographic function both before and after treatment. The results show that the combination of lifestyle modifications and specific behavioral interventions were successful in modifying not only self-report indices of functioning, but also the underlying physiology related to the disorder. The potential role of the various treatment components and the value of including polygraphic assessment for informing treatment and evaluating outcome are discussed.

  9. [The role of pulsatile LHRH therapy in women: the treatment of delayed puberty and of hypothalamic amenorrhea].

    PubMed

    Giusti, M; Cavagnaro, P; Traverso, L; Torre, R

    1990-11-01

    The importance of gonadotropin pulsatility for normal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function is well known. The most important aim of exogenous LHRH administration, given in females with delayed puberty or hypothalamic amenorrhea is to physiologically restore LH pulsatility to a more physiologic way as possible. In fact, a variable degree of LHRH endogenous defect is present in these conditions. Moreover, exogenous LHRH pulsatile administration is able to restore normal pubertal development until menarche appears and normal ovulatory cycles occur and pregnancy is induced. We reported our experience and review the literature regarding the importance and use of LHRH pulsatile therapy in delayed puberty and hypothalamic amenorrhea. We have also evaluated the data for various administration routes, the choice of patients, response to therapy and the possible diagnostic use of pulsatile LHRH with regard to the differential diagnosis of delayed puberty.

  10. Kerr-like phantom wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Galaxia; Matos, Tonatiuh; García, Nadiezhda Montelongo

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study a Kerr-like wormhole with an scalar field with opposite sign as source (Phantom). It has three parameters: mass, angular momentum and scalar field charge. This space-time has a naked ring singularity, otherwise it is regular everywhere. The main feature of this wormhole is that the mouth of the throat lies on a sphere of the same radius as the ring singularity and apparently does not allow any observer to reach the singularity, it behaves like an anti-horizon. After analyzing the geodesics of the wormhole we find that an observer can go through the wormhole without troubles, but the equator presents an infinite potential barrier which does not allow any geodesic from reaching the throat. From an analysis of the Riemann tensor we obtain that the tidal forces are small and could allow the wormhole to be traversable, from the north pole, for an observer like a human being.

  11. Wormholes supported by a phantom energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sushkov, Sergey

    2005-02-15

    We extend the notion of phantom energy, which is generally accepted for homogeneously distributed matter with w<-1 in the universe, on inhomogeneous spherically symmetric spacetime configurations. A spherically symmetric distribution of phantom energy is shown to be able to support the existence of static wormholes. We find an exact solution describing a static spherically symmetric wormhole with phantom energy and show that a spatial distribution of the phantom energy is mainly restricted by the vicinity of the wormhole's throat. The maximal size of the spherical region, surrounding the throat and containing the most part of the phantom energy, depends on the equation-of-state parameter w and cannot exceed some upper limit.

  12. Enceladus' 101 Geysers: Phantoms? Hardly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porco, C.; Nimmo, F.; DiNino, D.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery by the Cassini mission of present-day geysering activity capping the southern hemisphere of Saturn's moon Enceladus (eg, Porco, C. C. et al. Science 311, 1393, 2006) and sourced within a subsurface body of liquid water (eg, Postberg, F. et al. Nature 459, 1098, 2009; Porco, C.C. et al. AJ 148, 45, 2014, hereafter PEA], laced with organic compounds (eg, Waite, J.H. et al. Science 311, 1419, 2006), has been a significant one, with far-reaching astrobiological implications. In an extensive Cassini imaging survey of the moon's south polar terrain (SPT), PEA identified 101 distinct, narrow jets of small icy particles erupting, with varying strengths, from the four major fractures crossing the SPT. A sufficient spread in stereo angles of the 107 images used in that work allowed (in some cases, many) pair-wise triangulations to be computed; precise surface locations were derived for 98 jets. Recently, it has been claimed (Spitale, J.N. et al. Nature 521, 57, 2015) that the majority of the geysers are not true discrete jets, but are "phantoms" that appear in shallow-angle views of a dense continuous curtain of material with acute bends in it. These authors also concluded that the majority of the eruptive material is not in the form of jets but in the form of fissure-style 'curtain' eruptions. We argue below the contrary, that because almost all the moon's geysers were identified by PEA using multiple images with favorable viewing geometries, the vast majority of them, and likely all, are discrete jets. Specifically, out of 98 jets, no fewer than 90 to 95 were identified with viewing geometries that preclude the appearance of phantoms. How the erupting solids (i.e., icy particles) that are seen in Cassini images are partitioned between jets and inter-jet curtains is still an open question.

  13. Microfabrication of polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to simulate tumor hypoxia and vascular anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Ren, Wenqi; Yu, Zelin; Dong, Erbao; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a microfluidic approach to simulate tumor hypoxia and vascular anomaly. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantoms with embedded microchannel networks were fabricated by a soft lithography process. A dialysis membrane was sandwiched between two PDMS slabs to simulate the controlled mass transport and oxygen metabolism. A tortuous microchannel network was fabricated to simulate tumor microvasculature. A dual-modal multispectral and laser speckle imaging system was used for oxygen and blood flow imaging in the tumor-simulating phantom. The imaging results were compared with those of the normal vasculature. Our experiments demonstrated the technical feasibility of simulating tumor hypoxia and vascular anomalies using the proposed PDMS phantom. Such a phantom fabrication technique may be potentially used to calibrate optical imaging devices, to study the mechanisms for tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis, and to optimize the drug delivery strategies.

  14. Microfabrication of polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to simulate tumor hypoxia and vascular anomaly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang; Ren, Wenqi; Yu, Zelin; Dong, Erbao; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a microfluidic approach to simulate tumor hypoxia and vascular anomaly. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantoms with embedded microchannel networks were fabricated by a soft lithography process. A dialysis membrane was sandwiched between two PDMS slabs to simulate the controlled mass transport and oxygen metabolism. A tortuous microchannel network was fabricated to simulate tumor microvasculature. A dual-modal multispectral and laser speckle imaging system was used for oxygen and blood flow imaging in the tumor-simulating phantom. The imaging results were compared with those of the normal vasculature. Our experiments demonstrated the technical feasibility of simulating tumor hypoxia and vascular anomalies using the proposed PDMS phantom. Such a phantom fabrication technique may be potentially used to calibrate optical imaging devices, to study the mechanisms for tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis, and to optimize the drug delivery strategies. PMID:26456687

  15. Compact and extended objects from self-interacting phantom fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Makhmudov, Arislan; Urazalina, Ainur; Singleton, Douglas; Scott, John

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we investigate localized and extended objects for gravitating, self-interacting phantom fields. The phantom fields come from two scalar fields with a "wrong-sign" (negative) kinetic energy term in the Lagrangian. This study covers several solutions supported by these phantom fields: phantom balls, traversable wormholes, phantom cosmic strings, and "phantom" domain walls. These four systems are solved numerically, and we try to draw out general, interesting features in each case.

  16. 3D printed cardiac phantom for procedural planning of a transcatheter native mitral valve replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzo, Richard L.; O'Hara, Ryan P.; Iyer, Vijay; Hansen, Rose; Meess, Karen M.; Nagesh, S. V. Setlur; Rudin, Stephen; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Springer, Michael; Ionita, Ciprian N.

    2016-03-01

    3D printing an anatomically accurate, functional flow loop phantom of a patient's cardiac vasculature was used to assist in the surgical planning of one of the first native transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) procedures. CTA scans were acquired from a patient about to undergo the first minimally-invasive native TMVR procedure at the Gates Vascular Institute in Buffalo, NY. A python scripting library, the Vascular Modeling Toolkit (VMTK), was used to segment the 3D geometry of the patient's cardiac chambers and mitral valve with severe stenosis, calcific in nature. A stereolithographic (STL) mesh was generated and AutoDesk Meshmixer was used to transform the vascular surface into a functioning closed flow loop. A Stratasys Objet 500 Connex3 multi-material printer was used to fabricate the phantom with distinguishable material features of the vasculature and calcified valve. The interventional team performed a mock procedure on the phantom, embedding valve cages in the model and imaging the phantom with a Toshiba Infinix INFX-8000V 5-axis Carm bi-Plane angiography system. Results: After performing the mock-procedure on the cardiac phantom, the cardiologists optimized their transapical surgical approach. The mitral valve stenosis and calcification were clearly visible. The phantom was used to inform the sizing of the valve to be implanted. Conclusion: With advances in image processing and 3D printing technology, it is possible to create realistic patientspecific phantoms which can act as a guide for the interventional team. Using 3D printed phantoms as a valve sizing method shows potential as a more informative technique than typical CTA reconstruction alone.

  17. Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements

    PubMed Central

    Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer. PMID:20059246

  18. Dynamic eye phantom for retinal oximetry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2009-11-01

    Measurements of oxygen saturation and flow in the retina can yield information about eye health and the onset of eye pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy. Recently, we developed a multiaperture camera that uses the division of the retinal image into several wavelength-sensitive subimages to compute retinal oxygen saturation. The calibration of such instruments is particularly difficult due to the layered structure of the eye and the lack of alternative measurement techniques. For this purpose, we realize an in vitro model of the human eye composed of a lens, the retina vessel, and three layers: the choroid, the retinal pigmented epithelium, and the sclera. The retinal vessel is modeled with a microtube connected to a micropump and a hemoglobin reservoir in a closed circulatory system. Hemoglobin oxygenation in the vessel could be altered using a reversible fuel cell. The sclera is represented by a Spectralon slab. The optical properties of the other layers are mimicked using titanium dioxide as a scatterer, ink as an absorber, and epoxy as a supporting structure. The optical thickness of each layer of the eye phantom is matched to each respective eye layer.

  19. A statistically defined anthropomorphic software breast phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Beverly A.; Reiser, Ingrid; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: Digital anthropomorphic breast phantoms have emerged in the past decade because of recent advances in 3D breast x-ray imaging techniques. Computer phantoms in the literature have incorporated power-law noise to represent glandular tissue and branching structures to represent linear components such as ducts. When power-law noise is added to those phantoms in one piece, the simulated fibroglandular tissue is distributed randomly throughout the breast, resulting in dense tissue placement that may not be observed in a real breast. The authors describe a method for enhancing an existing digital anthropomorphic breast phantom by adding binarized power-law noise to a limited area of the breast. Methods: Phantoms with (0.5 mm){sup 3} voxel size were generated using software developed by Bakic et al. Between 0% and 40% of adipose compartments in each phantom were replaced with binarized power-law noise ({beta} = 3.0) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 volumetric glandular fraction. The phantoms were compressed to 7.5 cm thickness, then blurred using a 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 boxcar kernel and up-sampled to (0.1 mm){sup 3} voxel size using trilinear interpolation. Following interpolation, the phantoms were adjusted for volumetric glandular fraction using global thresholding. Monoenergetic phantom projections were created, including quantum noise and simulated detector blur. Texture was quantified in the simulated projections using power-spectrum analysis to estimate the power-law exponent {beta} from 25.6 Multiplication-Sign 25.6 mm{sup 2} regions of interest. Results: Phantoms were generated with total volumetric glandular fraction ranging from 3% to 24%. Values for {beta} (averaged per projection view) were found to be between 2.67 and 3.73. Thus, the range of textures of the simulated breasts covers the textures observed in clinical images. Conclusions: Using these new techniques, digital anthropomorphic breast phantoms can be generated with a variety of glandular fractions

  20. Effect of blood flow parameters on flow patterns at arterial bifurcations--studies in models.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W

    1990-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are found primarily at arterial bends and bifurcations. Flow disturbances at these anatomic sites play a major role in atherogenesis. How hemodynamic factors such as vessel geometry, the pulsatile nature of blood flow, vessel wall elasticity and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of blood influence the flow field at these sites must be clarified. We have performed fundamental studies using a birefringent solution in a simplified rigid 90 degree T-bifurcation and pulsatile flow. The velocity distribution was measured with a laser Doppler anemometer. Flow in an elastic abdominal aorta model has been visualized using magnetic resonance imaging. In both flow studies, zones with negative velocity were found. These model measurements demonstrate that no flow parameter can be neglected. Further detailed studies are necessary to examine the interaction between fluid dynamic and cellular surface properties. PMID:2404201

  1. Pulsatile protein release from monodisperse liquid-core microcapsules of controllable shell thickness

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yujie; Pack, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pulsatile delivery of proteins, in which release occurs over a short time after a period of little or no release, is desirable for many applications. This paper investigates the effect of biodegradable polymer shell thickness on pulsatile protein release from biodegradable polymer microcapsules. Methods Using precision particle fabrication (PPF) technology, monodisperse microcapsules were fabricated encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a liquid core surrounded by a drug-free poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) shell of uniform, controlled thickness from 14 to 19 μm. Results When using high molecular weight PLG (Mw 88 kDa), microparticles exhibited the desired core-shell structure with high BSA loading and encapsulation efficiency (55-65%). These particles exhibited very slow release of BSA for several weeks followed by rapid release of 80-90% of the encapsulated BSA within seven days. Importantly, with increasing shell thickness the starting time of the pulsatile release could be controlled from 25 to 35 days. Conclusions Biodegradable polymer microcapsules with precisely controlled shell thickness provide pulsatile release with enhanced control of release profiles. PMID:24831313

  2. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone presenting with pulsatile tinnitus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone is an unusual but distinct disease entity. The most common presenting symptoms are otalgia, otorrhea, hearing loss, facial palsy, and vertigo. We describe here what we believe to be the first reported case of a patient presenting with persistent pulsatile tinnitus. The clinical features, radiological and histopathologic findings, and treatment outcomes of the patient are presented. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman of Chinese Han origin presented with complaints of left-sided pulsatile tinnitus and progressive hearing loss for several years. Clinical evaluations revealed a reddish mass behind the intact tympanic membrane, and a moderately severe conductive hearing loss in the left ear. The computed tomographic imaging of the temporal bone demonstrated a slightly ill-defined left middle ear soft tissue mass involving the posterior portion of the mesotympanum and epitympanum, and the mastoid antrum. The patient underwent surgical excision of the lesion which subsequently resolved her symptoms. Postoperative pathology was consistent with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Conclusions An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone can present clinically with pulsatile tinnitus and masquerade as venous hum or vascular tumors of the middle ear; therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of pulsatile tinnitus. PMID:23787119

  3. Phase-contrast cine MR imaging of normal aqueductal CSF flow. Effect of aging and relation to CSF void on modulus MR.

    PubMed

    Barkhof, F; Kouwenhoven, M; Scheltens, P; Sprenger, M; Algra, P; Valk, J

    1994-03-01

    Cine phase-contrast MR imaging was used to study pulsatile CSF flow in the aqueduct in 11 young controls (mean age 30 years) and 9 old controls (mean age 69 years). A high-resolution gradient echo technique and an oblique imaging plane, perpendicular to the aqueduct, was used to avoid volume averaging. Phantom studies confirmed that the technique was accurate. Aqueductal velocity and flux in old controls was higher than in young controls, but the differences were not significant. For all controls together, the averaged peak velocity was 4.2 +/- 1.5 cm/s in rostral and -7.8 +/- 4.9 cm/s in caudal direction; for the flux it was 0.16 +/- 0.10 cm3/s in rostral and -0.29 +/- 0.19 cm3/s in caudal direction. Phase-contrast measurements were significantly related to flow-void on modulus MR images, but not with ventricular size or cortical atrophy. The present technique avoids underestimation of aqueductal flow, and therefore reveals higher aqueductal velocity and flux values than previous studies. Factors other than age or atrophy seem to determine aqueductal CSF flow.

  4. Biomimetic phantom for cardiac diffusion MRI

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Irvin; Zhou, Feng‐Lei; Hubbard Cristinacce, Penny L.; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used to characterize cardiac tissue microstructure, necessitating the use of physiologically relevant phantoms for methods development. Existing phantoms are generally simplistic and mostly simulate diffusion in the brain. Thus, there is a need for phantoms mimicking diffusion in cardiac tissue. Materials and Methods A biomimetic phantom composed of hollow microfibers generated using co‐electrospinning was developed to mimic myocardial diffusion properties and fiber and sheet orientations. Diffusion tensor imaging was carried out at monthly intervals over 4 months at 9.4T. 3D fiber tracking was performed using the phantom and compared with fiber tracking in an ex vivo rat heart. Results The mean apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy of the phantom remained stable over the 4‐month period, with mean values of 7.53 ± 0.16 × 10‐4 mm2/s and 0.388 ± 0.007, respectively. Fiber tracking of the 1st and 3rd eigenvectors generated analogous results to the fiber and sheet‐normal direction respectively, found in the left ventricular myocardium. Conclusion A biomimetic phantom simulating diffusion in the heart was designed and built. This could aid development and validation of novel diffusion MRI methods for investigating cardiac microstructure, decrease the number of animals and patients needed for methods development, and improve quality control in longitudinal and multicenter cardiac diffusion MRI studies. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;43:594–600. PMID:26213152

  5. Galactic dark matter in the phantom field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Hsun; Yang, Kwei-Chou

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the possibility that the galactic dark matter exists in a scenario where the phantom field is responsible for the dark energy. We obtain the statically and spherically approximate solution for this kind of galaxy system with a supermassive black hole at its center. The solution of the metric functions is satisfied with gtt=-grr-1. Constrained by the observation of the rotational stars moving in circular orbits with nearly constant tangential speed in a spiral galaxy, the background of the phantom field which is spatially inhomogeneous has an exponential potential. To avoid the well-known quantum instability of the vacuum at high frequencies, the phantom field defined in an effective theory is valid only at low energies. Under this assumption, we further investigate the following properties. The absorption cross section of the low-energy S-wave excitations of the phantom field into the central black hole is shown to be the horizontal area of the central black hole. Because the infalling phantom particles have a total negative energy, the accretion of the phantom energy is related to the decrease of the black hole mass, which is estimated to be much less than a solar mass in the lifetime of the Universe. Using a simple model with the cold dark matter very weakly coupled to the “low-frequency” phantom particles that are generated from the background, we show that these two densities can be quasistable in the galaxy.

  6. Partial volume simulation in software breast phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feiyu; Pokrajac, David; Shi, Xiquan; Liu, Fengshan; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Bakic, Predrag R.

    2012-03-01

    A modification to our previous simulation of breast anatomy is proposed, in order to improve the quality of simulated projections generated using software breast phantoms. Anthropomorphic software breast phantoms have been used for quantitative validation of breast imaging systems. Previously, we developed a novel algorithm for breast anatomy simulation, which did not account for the partial volume (PV) of various tissues in a voxel; instead, each phantom voxel was assumed to contain single tissue type. As a result, phantom projection images displayed notable artifacts near the borders between regions of different materials, particularly at the skin-air boundary. These artifacts diminished the realism of phantom images. One solution is to simulate smaller voxels. Reducing voxel size, however, extends the phantom generation time and increases memory requirements. We achieved an improvement in image quality without reducing voxel size by the simulation of PV in voxels containing more than one simulated tissue type. The linear x-ray attenuation coefficient of each voxel is calculated by combining attenuation coefficients proportional to the voxel subvolumes occupied by the various tissues. A local planar approximation of the boundary surface is employed, and the skin volume in each voxel is computed by decomposition into simple geometric shapes. An efficient encoding scheme is proposed for the type and proportion of simulated tissues in each voxel. We illustrate the proposed methodology on phantom slices and simulated mammographic projections. Our results show that the PV simulation has improved image quality by reducing quantization artifacts.

  7. The reference phantoms: voxel vs polygon.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Yeom, Y S; Nguyen, T T; Wang, Z J; Kim, H S; Han, M C; Lee, J K; Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N; Bolch, W E; Lee, C; Chung, B S

    2016-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference male and female adult phantoms, described in Publication 110, are voxel phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography scans of a male and a female patient, respectively. The voxel in-plane resolution and the slice thickness, of the order of a few millimetres, are insufficient for proper segmentation of smaller tissues such as the lens of the eye, the skin, and the walls of some organs. The calculated doses for these tissues therefore present some limitations, particularly for weakly penetrating radiation. Similarly, the Publication 110 phantoms cannot represent 8-40-µm-thick target regions in respiratory or alimentary tract organs. Separate stylised models have been used to represent these tissues for calculation of the ICRP reference dose coefficients (DCs). ICRP Committee 2 recently initiated a research project, the ultimate goal of which is to convert the Publication 110 phantoms to a high-quality polygon-mesh (PM) format, including all source and target regions, even those of the 8-40-µm-thick alimentary and respiratory tract organs. It is expected that the converted phantoms would lead to the same or very similar DCs as the Publication 110 reference phantoms for penetrating radiation and, at the same time, provide more accurate DCs for weakly penetrating radiation and small tissues. Additionally, the reference phantoms in the PM format would be easily deformable and, as such, could serve as a starting point to create phantoms of various postures for use, for example, in accidental dose calculations. This paper will discuss the current progress of the phantom conversion project and its significance for ICRP DC calculations.

  8. New ANSI standard for thyroid phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, Michael W.; Bolch, Wesley E.; Fulmer, Philip C.; Jue, Tracy M.; McCurdy, David E.; Pillay, Mike; Xu, X. George

    2015-08-01

    Here, a new ANSI standard titled “Thyroid Phantom Used in Occupational Monitoring” (Health Physics Society 2014) has been published. The standard establishes the criteria for acceptable design, fabrication, or modeling of a phantom suitable for calibrating in vivo monitoring systems to measure photon-emitting radionuclides deposited in the thyroid. The current thyroid phantom standard was drafted in 1973 (ANSI N44.3-1973), last reviewed in 1984, and a revision of the standard to cover a more modern approach was deemed warranted.

  9. Computer analysis of mammography phantom images (CAMPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Dev P.

    1997-05-01

    Computer analysis of mammography phantom images (CAMPI) is a method for objective and precise measurements of phantom image quality in mammography. This investigation applied CAMPI methodology to the Fischer Mammotest Stereotactic Digital Biopsy machine. Images of an American College of Radiology phantom centered on the largest two microcalcification groups were obtained on this machine under a variety of x-ray conditions. Analyses of the images revealed that the precise behavior of the CAMPI measures could be understood from basic imaging physics principles. We conclude that CAMPI is sensitive to subtle image quality changes and can perform accurate evaluations of images, especially of directly acquired digital images.

  10. Comparison of the standard roller pump and a pulsatile centrifugal pump for extracorporeal circulation during routine coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Driessen, J J; Fransen, G; Rondelez, L; Schelstraete, E; Gevaert, L

    1991-01-01

    The present prospective study compared the standard nonpulsatile twin roller pump with the Sarns centrifugal pump, in the pulsatile mode, as arterial pumps for extracorporeal circulation during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in two consecutive groups of 25 patients receiving a standard anaesthetic and surgical protocol. The investigated parameters included haemodynamic profiles, oxygen exchange, blood gas and acid-base homeostasis, haematology, coagulation and complement consumption. With comparable settings for pump flow, gas flow and delivered oxygen concentrations, there was no difference between the groups in the main haemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, a tenfold lower dose of sodium nitroprusside was required to keep systemic vascular resistance within physiologic limits during CPB in the centrifugal group (C group) compared with the roller group (R group). During rewarming oxygen extraction was higher in the C group than in the R group. During the first eight hours after CPB no differences in haemodynamics, oxygenation parameters and pulmonary shunt between the groups were observed. During, as well as after, CPB there was no significant difference in blood gas and acid-base homeostasis between either group. Average postoperative blood loss via chest tubes, total transfusions of blood products, haemoglobin and coagulation did not differ between the two groups. However, the white blood cell count, corrected for changes in haematocrit, decreased during the early phase of CPB in the R group, but not in the C group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Non-pulsatile subjective tinnitus without hearing loss may be caused by undetectable sounds originating from venous system of the brain.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Devrim; Caylan, Refik

    2008-08-01

    Tinnitus is a common otologic symptom, which can interfere with the daily activities of life. Subjective tinnitus is perception of sound only heard by the patient. The most common type of tinnitus is non-pulsatile subjective tinnitus (NST), which is believed to originate from auditory pathway, mostly from central nervous system. This hypothesis proposes that an important percentage of NST cases are actually misdiagnosed venous type tinnitus cases. Recent studies have demonstrated that dural-jugular system is dominant only in the horizontal body position. Jugular flow is at maximum during this position possibly making any noise generated within the dural-jugular system louder. As body assumes more vertical positions it gradually leaves its function to the extrajugular venous system of the brain. When there is an objective and/or a pulsating sound it is easier to suspect a vascular etiology and diagnose it clinically or radiologically. However, if a vascular pathology causes a non-pulsatile complaint that can not be heard by the examiner or can not be detected clinically or radiologically, it is bound to be misdiagnosed as central tinnitus. Most NST cases experience their symptoms especially at night. Night time usually allows the combination of silent ambience and horizontal body position to take place. We believe that in some NST cases, especially those without hearing loss (HL), the main cause of tinnitus is venous in origin.

  12. Biological factors in plasma from diabetes mellitus patients enhance hyperglycaemia and pulsatile shear stress-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, X F; Yu, J Q; Dalan, R; Liu, A Q; Luo, K Q

    2014-05-01

    People suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are prone to an array of vascular complications leading to end organ damage. The hallmark of these vascular complications is endothelium dysfunction, which is caused by endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. Although the endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by hyperglycaemia and fluid shear stress has been studied, the effects of biological factors in the blood of DM patients on EC integrity have not been reported in the in vitro models that mimic the physiological pulsatile nature of the vascular system. This study reports the development of a hemodynamic lab-on-a-chip system to investigate this issue. The pulsatile flow was applied to a monolayer of endothelial cells expressing a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor that changes colour from green to blue in response to caspase-3 activation during apoptosis. Plasma samples from healthy volunteers and DM patients were compared to identify biological factors that are critical to endothelial disruption. Three types of microchannels were designed to simulate the blood vessels under healthy and partially blocked pathological conditions. The results showed that EC apoptosis rates increased with increasing glucose concentration and levels of shear stress. The rates of apoptosis further increased by a factor of 1.4-2.3 for hyperglycaemic plasma under all dynamic conditions. Under static conditions, little difference was detected in the rate of EC apoptosis between experiments using plasma from DM patients and glucose medium, suggesting that the effects of hyperglycaemia and biological factors on the induction of EC apoptosis are all shear flow-dependent. A proteomics study was then conducted to identify biological factors, demonstrating that the levels of eight proteins, including haptoglobin and clusterin, were significantly down-regulated, while six proteins, including apolipoprotein C-III, were significantly up-regulated in the plasma of DM patients

  13. Custom molded thermal MRg-FUS phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eames, Matthew D. C.; Snell, John W.; Hananel, Arik; Kassell, Neal F.

    2012-11-01

    This article describes a method for creating custom-molded thermal phantoms for use with MR-guided focused ultrasound systems. The method is defined here for intracranial applications, though it may be modified for other anatomical targets.

  14. VOXMAT: Hybrid Computational Phantom for Dose Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Akkurt, Hatice; Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) computational phantoms have been the standard for assessing the radiation dose due to internal and external exposure over the past three decades. In these phantoms, the body surface and each organ are approximated by mathematical equations; hence, some of the organs are not necessarily realistic in their shape. Over the past two decades, these phantoms have been revised and updated: some of the missing internal organs have been added and the locations of the existing organs have been revised (e.g., thyroid). In the original phantom, only three elemental compositions were used to describe all body tissues. Recently, the compositions of the organs have been updated based on ICRP-89 standards. During the past decade, phantoms based on CT scans were developed for use in dose assessment. Although their shapes are realistic, some computational challenges are noted; including increased computational times and increased memory requirements. For good spatial resolution, more than several million voxels are used to represent the human body. Moreover, when CT scans are obtained, the subject is in a supine position with arms at the side. In some occupational exposure cases, it is necessary to evaluate the dose with the arms and legs in different positions. It will be very difficult and inefficient to reposition the voxels defining the arms and legs to simulate these exposure geometries. In this paper, a new approach for computational phantom development is presented. This approach utilizes the combination of a mathematical phantom and a voxelized phantom for the representation of the anatomy.

  15. Development of realistic physical breast phantoms matched to virtual breast phantoms based on human subject data

    SciTech Connect

    Kiarashi, Nooshin; Nolte, Adam C.; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Ghate, Sujata V.; Segars, William P.; Nolte, Loren W.; Samei, Ehsan; and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Physical phantoms are essential for the development, optimization, and evaluation of x-ray breast imaging systems. Recognizing the major effect of anatomy on image quality and clinical performance, such phantoms should ideally reflect the three-dimensional structure of the human breast. Currently, there is no commercially available three-dimensional physical breast phantom that is anthropomorphic. The authors present the development of a new suite of physical breast phantoms based on human data. Methods: The phantoms were designed to match the extended cardiac-torso virtual breast phantoms that were based on dedicated breast computed tomography images of human subjects. The phantoms were fabricated by high-resolution multimaterial additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology. The glandular equivalency of the photopolymer materials was measured relative to breast tissue-equivalent plastic materials. Based on the current state-of-the-art in the technology and available materials, two variations were fabricated. The first was a dual-material phantom, the Doublet. Fibroglandular tissue and skin were represented by the most radiographically dense material available; adipose tissue was represented by the least radiographically dense material. The second variation, the Singlet, was fabricated with a single material to represent fibroglandular tissue and skin. It was subsequently filled with adipose-equivalent materials including oil, beeswax, and permanent urethane-based polymer. Simulated microcalcification clusters were further included in the phantoms via crushed eggshells. The phantoms were imaged and characterized visually and quantitatively. Results: The mammographic projections and tomosynthesis reconstructed images of the fabricated phantoms yielded realistic breast background. The mammograms of the phantoms demonstrated close correlation with simulated mammographic projection images of the corresponding virtual phantoms. Furthermore, power

  16. Conversion of ICRP male reference phantom to polygon-surface phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Jeong, Jong Hwi

    2013-10-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms, developed based on computed tomography images of human bodies, provide much more realism of human anatomy than the previously used MIRD5 (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) mathematical phantoms. It has been, however, realized that the ICRP reference phantoms have some critical limitations showing a considerable amount of holes for the skin and wall organs mainly due to the nature of voxels of which the phantoms are made, especially due to their low voxel resolutions. To address this problem, we are planning to develop the polygon-surface version of ICRP reference phantoms by directly converting the ICRP reference phantoms (voxel phantoms) to polygon-surface phantoms. The objective of this preliminary study is to see if it is indeed possible to construct the high-quality polygon-surface phantoms based on the ICRP reference phantoms maintaining identical organ morphology and also to identify any potential issues, and technologies to address these issues, in advance. For this purpose, in the present study, the ICRP reference male phantom was roughly converted to a polygon-surface phantom. Then, the constructed phantom was implemented in Geant4, Monte Carlo particle transport code, for dose calculations, and the calculated dose values were compared with those of the original ICRP reference phantom to see how much the calculated dose values are sensitive to the accuracy of the conversion process. The results of the present study show that it is certainly possible to convert the ICRP reference phantoms to surface phantoms with enough accuracy. In spite of using relatively less resources (<2 man-months), we were able to construct the polygon-surface phantom with the organ masses perfectly matching the ICRP reference values. The analysis of the calculated dose values also implies that the dose values are indeed not very sensitive to the detailed morphology of the organ models in the phantom

  17. A dosimetry intercomparison phantom for intraoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Armoogum, Kris; Watson, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) using very low kV x-rays is a promising new treatment modality and has proven to be effective for managing breast and neurological tumours. We have treated in excess of 75 patients using four Zeiss Intrabeam x-ray sources (XRS). To date there has been no published data of any dosimetric intercomparison of this type of x-ray source used at other cancer centres worldwide. This paper describes the design of a simple dosimetry intercomparison phantom for use with these very low kV x-ray sources. A prototype polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) phantom has been manufactured, the dimensions of which were determined by the dimensions of the XRS, the beam energy and the attenuating properties of PMMA. The phantom is used in conjunction with Gafchromic XR Type-R film (GC-XRR) and its purpose is to measure the absorbed dose at a fixed distance from the effective point source at the tip of the XRS. The utility of this phantom is further enhanced through the use of an interlock, which eliminates the need to use the mobile gantry. We have used this phantom to conduct a qualitative dosimetric intercomparison of four Zeiss Intrabeam x-ray sources with positive results. This phantom is low cost, easy to manufacture, simple to use and could be adopted as a standard method of dosimetric intercomparison for Intrabeam x-ray sources as this mode of IORT becomes more widespread. PMID:18705612

  18. A nonlinear elasticity phantom containing spherical inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Theo Z.; Madsen, Ernest L.; Frank, Gary R.; Jiang, Jingfeng; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton O.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    The strain image contrast of some in vivo breast lesions changes with increasing applied load. This change is attributed to differences in the nonlinear elastic properties of the constituent tissues suggesting some potential to help classify breast diseases by their nonlinear elastic properties. A phantom with inclusions and long-term stability is desired to serve as a test bed for nonlinear elasticity imaging method development, testing, etc. This study reports a phantom designed to investigate nonlinear elastic properties with ultrasound elastographic techniques. The phantom contains four spherical inclusions and was manufactured from a mixture of gelatin, agar and oil. The phantom background and each of the inclusions has distinct Young’s modulus and nonlinear mechanical behavior. This phantom was subjected to large deformations (up to 20%) while scanning with ultrasound, and changes in strain image contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between inclusion and background, as a function of applied deformation, were investigated. The changes in contrast over a large deformation range predicted by the finite element analysis (FEA) were consistent with those experimentally observed. Therefore, the paper reports a procedure for making phantoms with predictable nonlinear behavior, based on independent measurements of the constituent materials, and shows that the resulting strain images (e.g., strain contrast) agrees with that predicted with nonlinear FEA. PMID:22772074

  19. Reference Ranges for Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index during the Menstrual Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Guedes-Martins, Luís; Gaio, Rita; Saraiva, Joaquim; Cerdeira, Sofia; Matos, Liliana; Silva, Elisabete; Macedo, Filipe; Almeida, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyclic endometrial neoangiogenesis contributes to changes in local vascular patterns and is amenable to non-invasive assessment with Doppler sonography. We hypothesize that the uterine artery (UtA) impedance, measured by its pulsatility index (PI), exhibits a regular pattern during the normal menstrual cycle. Therefore, the main study objective was to derive normative new day-cycle-based reference ranges for the UtA-PI during the entire cycle from days 1 to 34 according to the isolated time effect and potential confounders such as age and parity. Methods From January 2009 to December 2012, a cross-sectional study of 1,821 healthy women undergoing routine gynaecological ultrasound was performed. The Doppler flow of the right and left UtA-PI was studied transvaginally by colour and pulsed Doppler imaging. The mean right and left values and the presence or absence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch were recorded. Reference intervals for the PI according to the cycle day were generated by classical linear regression. Results The majority of patients (97.5%) presented unilateral or bilateral UtA notches. The crude 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves of the UtA-PI at 1–34 days of the normal menstrual cycle were derived. In all curves, a progressive significant decrease occurred during the first 13 days, followed by an increase and recovery in the UtA-PI. The adjusted 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves for the effects of age and parity were also obtained. These two conditions generated an approximately identical UtA-PI pattern during the cycle, except with small but significant reductions at the temporal extremes. Conclusions The median, 5th, and the 95th percentiles of the UtA-PI decrease during the first third of the menstrual cycle and recover to their initial values during the last two thirds of the cycle. The rates of decrease and recovery depend significantly on age and parity. PMID:25742286

  20. Pregnancy following combined growth hormone--pulsatile GnRH treatment in a patient with hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Volpe, A; Coukos, G; Artini, P G; Silferi, M; Petraglia, F; Boghen, M; D'Ambrogio, G D; Genazzani, A R

    1990-04-01

    A patient with hypothalamic amenorrhoea and a poor response in terms of pituitary growth hormone (GH) to acute administration of growth hormone-releasing factor has been treated with pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) combined with GH to induce ovulation. GH was administered daily until signs of ovulation were detected. The luteal phase was supported by pulsatile GnRH only. Combined treatment gave an improved follicular recruitment, higher plasma levels of 17 beta-oestradiol and an earlier ovulation, compared to the previous cycle with pulsatile GnRH only. The result was a twin pregnancy which ended with the birth of two healthy male babies. The role of GH in potentiating the ovarian response to gonadotrophins, as well as the GH secretion abnormalities associated with dysfunctions of the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis, might provide a rationale for combined GH and pulsatile GnRH treatment in such patients.

  1. Reproducibility of aortic pulsatility measurements from ECG-gated abdominal CTA in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, Joel G.; Wentz, Robert J.; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Siddiki, Hassan; Nielson, Theresa

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated abdominal CT angiography with reconstruction of multiple, temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets has been proposed for measuring aortic pulsatility. The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to segment the aorta from surrounding structures from CTA datasets across cardiac phases, calculate registered centerlines and measurements of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with AAA, and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements. Methods: ECG-gated CTA was performed with a temporal resolution of 165 ms, reconstructed to 1 mm slices ranging at 14 cardiac phase points. Data sets were obtained from 17 patients on which two such scans were performed 6 to 12 months apart. Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of centerlines between phases was performed, followed by calculation of cross-sectional areas and regional and local pulsatility. Results: Pulsatility calculations for the supraceliac region were very reproducible between earlier and later scans of the same patient, with average differences less than 1% for pulsatility values ranging from 2% to 13%. Local radial pulsatilities were also reproducible to within ~1%. Aneurysm volume changes between scans can also be quantified. Conclusion: Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of temporally resolved CTA datasets permit measurements of regional changes in cross-sectional area over the course of the cardiac cycle (i.e., regional aortic pulsatility). These measurements are reproducible between scans 6-12 months apart, with differences in aortic areas reflecting both aneurysm remodeling and changes in blood pressure. Regional pulsatilities ranged from 2 to 13% but were reproducible at the 1% level.

  2. Experimental characterization of transitional unsteady flow inside graft-to-vein junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Nurullah

    1999-12-01

    Turbulent flow measurements were conducted inside an upscaled end-to-side model of a human arteriovenous graft using laser Doppler anemometry under steady and pulsatile flow conditions. This research is clinically relevant because turbulence and local fluid dynamic factors such as wall shear stress have been implicated as localization factors for intimal hyperplasia, the main cause of arteriovenous graft failure. This research is the first experimental study measuring the turbulence level and Reynolds stresses quantitatively inside an in vitro model representing an arteriovenous graft under pulsatile flow conditions. The turbulence intensity, Reynolds stresses, and mean velocities have been measured for steady and pulsatile flow. Reynolds numbers for steady flow were 1060, 1820, 2530 and 2720. The peak, mean and minimum Reynolds numbers were 2470, 1762 and 1198 for the pulsatile flow, respectively. The flow division was 90% entering from the graft inlet and 10% entering from the distal vein segment for steady flow measurements. It was 85% entering from the graft inlet and 15% entering from the distal vein segment for pulsatile flow measurements. Measurements were made thirteen axial locations in the plane of the bifurcation at the venous anastomosis. At high Reynolds numbers (>2000), the velocity profiles were blunt at the inlet of the arteriovenous graft. High turbulent fluctuations and Reynolds stresses were found in the proximal vein segment opposite to the vein side of the anastomosis for steady and pulsatile flows. Steady flow fluctuation values were 20-30% larger than pulsatile flow values for the same instantaneous Reynolds number. The highest value of the Reynolds stress was found to be 2080 and 1400 dynes/cm2 steady and pulsatile flow, respectively. A separation region was observed at the toe side of the arteriovenous graft. Strong secondary flows were found at the inlet to and inside the proximal vein segment under steady flow conditions. The results of

  3. Nanoscaffold matrices for size-controlled, pulsatile transdermal testosterone delivery: nanosize effects on the time dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Ritu; Tondwal, Shailesh; Venkatesh, K. S.; Misra, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Pulsatile transdermal testosterone (T) has applications in hormone supplementation and male contraception. Pulsatile T delivery was achieved by assembling crystalline and nanoparticulate T in nucleation-inhibiting polymer matrices of controlled porosity. Different interference patterns observed from various polymeric films containing T were due to the various particle sizes of T present in the polymer matrices. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the size and shape of T crystals. Skin-adherent films containing T nanoparticles of any size between 10-500 nm could be prepared using pharmaceutically acceptable vinylic polymers. Drug release and skin permeation profiles were studied. The dissolution-diffusion behavior of nanoparticles differed from crystalline and molecular states. Nanosize may thus be used to engineer chronopharmacologically relevant drug delivery.

  4. Differences in the Pulsatile Component of the Skin Hemodynamic Response to Verbal Fluency Tasks in the Forehead and the Fingertip

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Kawagoe, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have claimed that hemodynamic signals measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the forehead exhibit different patterns during a verbal fluency task (VFT) in various psychiatric disorders, whereas many studies have noted that NIRS signals can reflect task-related changes in skin blood flow. If such a task-related skin hemodynamic response is also observed in the fingertip, a simpler biomarker may be developed. Furthermore, determining the difference in the response pattern may provide physiological insights into the condition. We found that the magnitude of the pulsatile component in skin hemodynamic signals increased on the forehead (p < 0.001 for N = 50, p = 0.073 for N = 8) but decreased on the fingertip (p < 0.001, N = 8) during the VFT, whereas the rate in both areas increased (p < 0.02, N = 8). We also did not find a repetition effect in both the rate and the magnitude on the fingertip, whereas the effect was present in the magnitude (p < 0.02, N = 8) but not in the rate on the forehead. These results suggest that the skin vasomotor system in the forehead could have a different vessel mechanism to psychological tasks compared to the fingertip. PMID:26905432

  5. Successful Endovascular Treatment of Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by a Sigmoid Sinus Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gard, A.P.; Klopper, H.B.; Thorell, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with a sigmoid sinus aneurysm. These rare entities have only recently been described in the literature and the ideal treatment approach has not been elucidated. This report represents additional evidence in a growing body of literature that suggests that endovascular therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic alternative to surgical reconstruction of the sigmoid sinus in selected cases of intractable pulsatile tinnitus. PMID:20465881

  6. Indirect assessment of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone release in agonadal prepubertal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Suter, K J; Pohl, C R; Plant, T M

    1999-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to characterize the open-loop frequency of pulsatile GnRH release in the female rhesus monkey at an age (15-20 months) when the prepubertal restraint on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is maximally imposed. Additionally, evidence for pulsatile GnRH release in agonadal males of comparable age was also sought. Episodic LH secretion from the pituitary was used as an indirect index of GnRH discharges. In order to maximize the sensitivity of this in situ bioassay, the responsiveness of the pituitary gonadotrophs was usually first heightened by an i.v. intermittent infusion of the synthetic peptide. Monkeys (five females, three males) were castrated between 9 and 14 months of age, implanted with indwelling venous catheters, fitted with nylon jackets and housed in specialized cages that permitted remote access to the venous circulation with minimal restraint and without interruption of the light-darkness cycle. In females, LH secretion was generally assessed at 20-day intervals during alternate nighttime (1900-0200 h) and daytime (0700-1400 h) windows. In males, LH was assessed less frequently and only at night. The mean frequency of pulsatile LH release in agonadal prepubertal females was 4 pulses/7 h during the night and 2 pulses/7 h during the day. These findings indicate that, prior to puberty in the female monkey, the GnRH pulse generator operates at a relatively slow frequency and is subjected to diurnal modulation. In males, evidence for robust pulsatile GnRH release was not observed. The striking difference in activity of the GnRH pulse generator in agonadal prepubertal male and female monkeys reinforces the view that the ontogeny of the hypothalamic drive to the pituitary-gonadal axis in higher primates, including man, is sexually differentiated.

  7. Neoglycoenzyme-Gated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Toward the Design of Nanodevices for Pulsatile Programmed Sequential Delivery.

    PubMed

    Díez, Paula; Sánchez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Cristina; Gamella, María; Martínez-Ruíz, Paloma; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Pingarrón, José M; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-03-01

    We report herein the design of a stimulus-programmed pulsatile delivery system for sequential cargo release based on the use of a lactose-modified esterase as a capping agent in phenylboronic acid functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The dual-release mechanism was based on the distinct stability of the cyclic boronic acid esters formed with lactose residues and the long naturally occurring glycosylation chains in the modified neoglycoenzyme. Cargo delivery in succession was achieved using glucose and ethyl butyrate as triggers.

  8. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Kim, Juho; Ra, Gicheol; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with the spectral

  9. Gel phantom in selective laser phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yichao; Bailey, Christopher A.; Cowan, Thomas M.; Wu, Feng; Liu, Hong; Towner, Rheal A.; Chen, Wei R.

    2008-02-01

    Tissue-simulating gel phantoms have been used in selective laser photothermal interaction. The gelatin phantom provides a uniform tissue-simulating medium for analyzing thermal performance under laser radiation. The gelatin phantom gel is used particularly in measurements of thermal reactions in laser thermology. The gelatin phantom is made from gelatin and Liposyn. A special gel sphere with Indocyanine Green (ICG) laser absorption enhancement dye is embedded in normal gel to simulate the dye-enhanced tumor in normal tissue. The concentration of ICG within the dye sphere is optimized using simulation for selective phototherapy. As a first attempt, the concentration of ICG and laser power density was optimized using a temperature ratio of target tissue versus surrounding tissue. The gel thermal performance is also monitored using MRI thermology imaging technology. The thermal imaging shows in vivo, 3D temperature mapping inside the gel. The study of thermal distribution using gel phantom provides information to guide the future selective laser photothermal thermal therapy.

  10. Note on the Schwarzschild-phantom wormhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukmanova, R.; Khaibullina, A.; Izmailov, R.; Yanbekov, A.; Karimov, R.; Potapov, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown by Lobo, Parsaei and Riazi (LPR) that phantom energy with $\\omega =p_{r}/\\rho <-1$ could support phantom wormholes. Several classes of such solutions have been derived by them. While the inner spacetime is represented by asymptotically flat phantom wormhole that have repulsive gravity, it is most likely to be unstable to perturbations. Hence, we consider a situation, where a phantom wormhole is somehow trapped inside a Schwarzschild sphere across a thin shell. Applying the method developed by Garcia, Lobo and Visser (GLV), we shall exemplify that the shell can possess zones of stability depending on certain constraints. It turns out that zones corresponding to "force" constraint are more restrictive than those from the "mass" constraint. We shall also enumerate the interior energy content by using the gravitational energy integral proposed by Lynden-Bell, Katz and Bi% \\v{c}\\'ak. It turns out that, even though the interior mass is positive, the integral implies repulsive energy. This is consistent with the phantom nature of interior matter.

  11. Adjustable fetal phantom for pulse oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubán, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2009-05-01

    As the measuring head of a fetal pulse oximeter must be attached to the head of the fetus inside the mother's uterus during labor, testing, and developing of fetal pulse oximeters in real environment have several difficulties. A fetal phantom could enable evaluation of pulse oximeters in a simulated environment without the restrictions and difficultness of medical experiments in the labor room. Based on anatomic data we developed an adjustable fetal head phantom with three different tissue layers and artificial arteries. The phantom consisted of two arteries with an inner diameter of 0.2 and 0.4 mm. An electronically controlled pump produced pulse waves in the arteries. With the phantom we investigated the sensitivity of a custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter at different pulsation intensity and artery diameters. The results showed that the oximeter was capable of identifying 4% and 2% changes in diameter between the diastolic and systolic point in arteries of over 0.2 and 0.4 mm inner diameter, respectively. As the structure of the phantom is based on reported anatomic values, the results predict that the investigated custom-designed wireless pulse oximeter has sufficient sensitivity to detect the pulse waves and to calculate the R rate on the fetal head.

  12. Initial results with simultaneous analog and pulsatile stimulation of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    von Wallenberg, E L; Hochmair, E S; Hochmair-Desoyer, I J

    1990-01-01

    An improved method has been developed for the coding of speech information into adequate signals for the stimulation of the auditory nerve. It combines the periodicity principle, which has been applied in single-channel analog stimulation in the Austrian cochlear prosthesis, with the place principle by simultaneous analog stimulation on one channel and pulsatile stimulation on other channels. The second formant frequency determines the place of stimulation for the pulsatile signals. Simultaneous stimulation of several channels can cause the currents emerging from different electrodes to interact because the fluid impedance in the cochlea is small. Therefore, an important aspect of the multichannel strategy is to maintain the temporal pattern transmitted via the analog channel by adequate repetition rates and phase relationships of the pulsatile signals. The signals were processed with finite impulse response digital filters. Vowel identification tests were performed with 6 patients implanted with a 4-channel intracochlear electrode. The test material was spoken by male and female speakers. With proper timing of the pulses the improvement over the single-channel stimulation was significant at the 1% level and this difference was due to a significant increase in second formant recognition.

  13. Feasibility of endoscopic laser speckle imaging modality in the evaluation of auditory disorder: study in bone-tissue phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sungkon; Jang, Seulki; Lee, Sangyeob; Park, Jihoon; Ha, Myungjin; Radfar, Edalat; Jung, Byungjo

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of an endoscopic laser speckle imaging modality (ELSIM) in the measurement of perfusion of flowing fluid in optical bone tissue phantom(OBTP). Many studies suggested that the change of cochlear blood flow was correlated with auditory disorder. Cochlear microcirculation occurs under the 200μm thickness bone which is the part of the internal structure of the temporal bone. Concern has been raised regarding of getting correct optical signal from hard tissue. In order to determine the possibility of the measurement of cochlear blood flow under bone tissue using the ELSIM, optical tissue phantom (OTP) mimicking optical properties of temporal bone was applied.

  14. Phantom Accretion onto the Schwarzschild AdS Black Hole with Topological Defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, Ali R.; Farahani, H.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we have studied phantom energy accretion of prefect fluid onto the Schwarzschild AdS black hole with topological defect. We have obtained critical point during the accretion of fluid on the black hole where the speed of flow is equal speed of sound (Sharif and Abbas in Phantom accretion onto the Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole, 2011, arXiv:1109.1043 [gr-qc]). The critical velocities have been computed so that the speed of fluid into the black hole is less than speed of sound. Finally, we have found that the critical point is near the black hole horizon.

  15. A precedence effect resolves phantom sound source illusions in the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Norman; Elias, Damian O.; Mason, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Localizing individual sound sources under reverberant environmental conditions can be a challenge when the original source and its acoustic reflections arrive at the ears simultaneously from different paths that convey ambiguous directional information. The acoustic parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea (Diptera: Tachinidae) relies on a pair of ears exquisitely sensitive to sound direction to localize the 5-kHz tone pulsatile calling song of their host crickets. In nature, flies are expected to encounter a complex sound field with multiple sources and their reflections from acoustic clutter potentially masking temporal information relevant to source recognition and localization. In field experiments, O. ochracea were lured onto a test arena and subjected to small random acoustic asymmetries between 2 simultaneous sources. Most flies successfully localize a single source but some localize a ‘phantom’ source that is a summed effect of both source locations. Such misdirected phonotaxis can be elicited reliably in laboratory experiments that present symmetric acoustic stimulation. By varying onset delay between 2 sources, we test whether hyperacute directional hearing in O. ochracea can function to exploit small time differences to determine source location. Selective localization depends on both the relative timing and location of competing sources. Flies preferred phonotaxis to a forward source. With small onset disparities within a 10-ms temporal window of attention, flies selectively localize the leading source while the lagging source has minimal influence on orientation. These results demonstrate the precedence effect as a mechanism to overcome phantom source illusions that arise from acoustic reflections or competing sources. PMID:19332794

  16. New polymer-based phantom for photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Iwazaki, Hideaki; Ida, Taiichiro; Nishi, Taiji; Tanikawa, Yukari; Nitta, Naotaka

    2014-03-01

    We will report newly developed polymer-based phantom for photoacoustic (PA) imaging systems. Phantoms are important for performance evaluation and calibration of new modalities; however, there is no established method for making phantoms with no long-term change. We have developed skin mimicking phantoms simulating both optical and acoustic properties (i.e. optical scattering and absorption coefficients, and sound velocity). Furthermore, the phantoms are able to give accurate simulation of blood vessels by Inkjet-printing. Newly developed phantoms are consisted of castor oil included acrylic block copolymer and we can fabricate 0.8mm or less thick sheets and pile them using their self-adhesiveness.

  17. Contrast-detail phantom scoring methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jerry A; Chakrabarti, Kish; Kaczmarek, Richard; Romanyukha, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    Published results of medical imaging studies which make use of contrast detail mammography (CDMAM) phantom images for analysis are difficult to compare since data are often not analyzed in the same way. In order to address this situation, the concept of ideal contrast detail curves is suggested. The ideal contrast detail curves are constructed based on the requirement of having the same product of the diameter and contrast (disk thickness) of the minimal correctly determined object for every row of the CDMAM phantom image. A correlation and comparison of five different quality parameters of the CDMAM phantom image determined for obtained ideal contrast detail curves is performed. The image quality parameters compared include: (1) contrast detail curve--a graph correlation between "minimal correct reading" diameter and disk thickness; (2) correct observation ratio--the ratio of the number of correctly identified objects to the actual total number of objects multiplied by 100; (3) image quality figure--the sum of the product of the diameter of the smallest scored object and its relative contrast; (4) figure-of-merit--the zero disk diameter value obtained from extrapolation of the contrast detail curve to the origin (e.g., zero disk diameter); and (5) k-factor--the product of the thickness and the diameter of the smallest correctly identified disks. The analysis carried out showed the existence of a nonlinear relationship between the above parameters, which means that use of different parameters of CDMAM image quality potentially can cause different conclusions about changes in image quality. Construction of the ideal contrast detail curves for CDMAM phantom is an attempt to determine the quantitative limits of the CDMAM phantom as employed for image quality evaluation. These limits are determined by the relationship between certain parameters of a digital mammography system and the set of the gold disks sizes in the CDMAM phantom. Recommendations are made on

  18. Contrast-detail phantom scoring methodology.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jerry A; Chakrabarti, Kish; Kaczmarek, Richard; Romanyukha, Alexander

    2005-03-01

    Published results of medical imaging studies which make use of contrast detail mammography (CDMAM) phantom images for analysis are difficult to compare since data are often not analyzed in the same way. In order to address this situation, the concept of ideal contrast detail curves is suggested. The ideal contrast detail curves are constructed based on the requirement of having the same product of the diameter and contrast (disk thickness) of the minimal correctly determined object for every row of the CDMAM phantom image. A correlation and comparison of five different quality parameters of the CDMAM phantom image determined for obtained ideal contrast detail curves is performed. The image quality parameters compared include: (1) contrast detail curve--a graph correlation between "minimal correct reading" diameter and disk thickness; (2) correct observation ratio--the ratio of the number of correctly identified objects to the actual total number of objects multiplied by 100; (3) image quality figure--the sum of the product of the diameter of the smallest scored object and its relative contrast; (4) figure-of-merit--the zero disk diameter value obtained from extrapolation of the contrast detail curve to the origin (e.g., zero disk diameter); and (5) k-factor--the product of the thickness and the diameter of the smallest correctly identified disks. The analysis carried out showed the existence of a nonlinear relationship between the above parameters, which means that use of different parameters of CDMAM image quality potentially can cause different conclusions about changes in image quality. Construction of the ideal contrast detail curves for CDMAM phantom is an attempt to determine the quantitative limits of the CDMAM phantom as employed for image quality evaluation. These limits are determined by the relationship between certain parameters of a digital mammography system and the set of the gold disks sizes in the CDMAM phantom. Recommendations are made on

  19. Standard operating procedure to prepare agar phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, R. M.; Santos, T. Q.; Oliveira, D. P.; Souza, R. M.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Agar phantoms are widely used as soft tissue mimics and some preparation techniques are described in the literature. There are also standards that describe the recipe of a soft tissue mimicking material (TMM). However some details of manufacture process are not clearly defined. The standardization of the phantom's preparation can produce a metrological impact on the results of the acoustic properties measured. In this direction, this paper presents a standard operating procedure (SOP) to prepare the agar TMM described on the IEC 60601-237.

  20. Rigid diffusion phantom: acquisition and simulation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Koji; Azuma, Takashi; Mori, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging has already been a popular imaging modality for clinical researches. However, to setup an imaging protocol is not straightforward. This problem is critical issue for multi-center studies. We developed anisotropy phantoms and examined the feasibility of using water-filled arrays of channeled silicon plates. Various channel sizes were tested to optimize the diffusion and anisotropy properties. We succeeded in producing a phantom with high anisotropy (FA=0.8). However, a reason of high axial diffusivity needs further investigations.

  1. In vitro flow dynamics of four prosthetic aortic valves: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanle, D D; Harrison, E C; Yoganathan, A P; Allen, D T; Corcoran, W H

    1989-01-01

    The velocity fields downstream of four prosthetic heart valves were mapped in vitro over the entire cross-section of a model aortic root using laser Doppler anemometry. THe Björk-Shiley 60 degrees convexo-concave tilting disc valve, the Smeloff-Cutter caged ball valve, the St. Jude Medical bileaflet valve, and the Ionescu-Shiley standard bioprosthesis were examined under both steady and pulsatile flows. Velocity profiles under steady flow conditions were a good approximation for pulsatile profiles only during midsystole. The pulsatile flow characteristics of the four valves showed variation in large scale flow structures. Comparison of the valves according to pressure drop, shear stress and maximum velocities are also provided. PMID:2808443

  2. In-vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics using color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2000-04-01

    Noninvasive quantitation of blood flow in the retinal micro circulation may elucidate the progression and treatment of ocular disorders including diabetic retinopathy, age-related degeneration, and glaucoma. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography was recently introduced as a technique allowing simultaneous micron-scale resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue micro structure and blood flow in the human retina. Here, time-resolved imaging of dynamics of blood flow profiles was performed to measure cardiac pulsatility within retinal vessels. Retinal pulsatility has been shown to decrease throughout the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  3. Treatment planning for image-guided neuro-vascular interventions using patient-specific 3D printed phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, M.; O'Hara, R.; Setlur Nagesh, S. V.; Mokin, M.; Jimenez, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Bednarek, D.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C.

    2015-03-01

    Minimally invasive endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) are the preferred procedures for treatment of a wide range of vascular disorders. Despite benefits including reduced trauma and recovery time, EIGIs have their own challenges. Remote catheter actuation and challenging anatomical morphology may lead to erroneous endovascular device selections, delays or even complications such as vessel injury. EIGI planning using 3D phantoms would allow interventionists to become familiarized with the patient vessel anatomy by first performing the planned treatment on a phantom under standard operating protocols. In this study the optimal workflow to obtain such phantoms from 3D data for interventionist to practice on prior to an actual procedure was investigated. Patientspecific phantoms and phantoms presenting a wide range of challenging geometries were created. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) data was uploaded into a Vitrea 3D station which allows segmentation and resulting stereo-lithographic files to be exported. The files were uploaded using processing software where preloaded vessel structures were included to create a closed-flow vasculature having structural support. The final file was printed, cleaned, connected to a flow loop and placed in an angiographic room for EIGI practice. Various Circle of Willis and cardiac arterial geometries were used. The phantoms were tested for ischemic stroke treatment, distal catheter navigation, aneurysm stenting and cardiac imaging under angiographic guidance. This method should allow for adjustments to treatment plans to be made before the patient is actually in the procedure room and enabling reduced risk of peri-operative complications or delays.

  4. New eye phantom for ophthalmic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogli, Gessica; Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Montemurro, Francesca; Palla, Michele; Rizzo, Stanislao; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we designed and realized a new phantom able to mimic the principal mechanical, rheological, and physical cues of the human eye and that can be used as a common benchmark to validate new surgical procedures, innovative vitrectomes, and as a training system for surgeons. This phantom, in particular its synthetic humor vitreous, had the aim of reproducing diffusion properties of the natural eye and can be used as a system to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of drugs and optimization of their dose, limiting animal experiments. The eye phantom was built layer-by-layer starting from the sclera up to the retina, using low cost and easy to process polymers. The validation of the phantom was carried out by mechanical characterization of each layer, by diffusion test with commercial drugs into a purposely developed apparatus, and finally by a team of ophthalmic surgeons. Experiments demonstrated that polycaprolactone, polydimethylsiloxane, and gelatin, properly prepared, are the best materials to mimic the mechanical properties of sclera, choroid, and retina, respectively. A polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin polymeric system is the best for mimicking the viscosity of the human humor vitreous, even if the bevacizumab half-life is lower than in the human eye.

  5. New eye phantom for ophthalmic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fogli, Gessica; Orsi, Gianni; De Maria, Carmelo; Montemurro, Francesca; Palla, Michele; Rizzo, Stanislao; Vozzi, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we designed and realized a new phantom able to mimic the principal mechanical, rheological, and physical cues of the human eye and that can be used as a common benchmark to validate new surgical procedures, innovative vitrectomes, and as a training system for surgeons. This phantom, in particular its synthetic humor vitreous, had the aim of reproducing diffusion properties of the natural eye and can be used as a system to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of drugs and optimization of their dose, limiting animal experiments. The eye phantom was built layer-by-layer starting from the sclera up to the retina, using low cost and easy to process polymers. The validation of the phantom was carried out by mechanical characterization of each layer, by diffusion test with commercial drugs into a purposely developed apparatus, and finally by a team of ophthalmic surgeons. Experiments demonstrated that polycaprolactone, polydimethylsiloxane, and gelatin, properly prepared, are the best materials to mimic the mechanical properties of sclera, choroid, and retina, respectively. A polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin polymeric system is the best for mimicking the viscosity of the human humor vitreous, even if the bevacizumab half-life is lower than in the human eye. PMID:24887746

  6. A Rat Body Phantom for Radiation Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qualls, Garry D.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    To reduce the uncertainties associated with estimating the biological effects of ionizing radiation in tissue, researchers rely on laboratory experiments in which mono-energetic, single specie beams are applied to cell cultures, insects, and small animals. To estimate the radiation effects on astronauts in deep space or low Earth orbit, who are exposed to mixed field broad spectrum radiation, these experimental results are extrapolated and combined with other data to produce radiation quality factors, radiation weighting factors, and other risk related quantities for humans. One way to reduce the uncertainty associated with such extrapolations is to utilize analysis tools that are applicable to both laboratory and space environments. The use of physical and computational body phantoms to predict radiation exposure and its effects is well established and a wide range of human and non-human phantoms are in use today. In this paper, a computational rat phantom is presented, as well as a description of the process through which that phantom has been coupled to existing radiation analysis tools. Sample results are presented for two space radiation environments.

  7. Automated Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Kenneth Wesley

    The present work stems from the hypothesis that humans are inconsistent when making subjective analyses of images and that human decisions for moderately complex images may be performed by a computer with complete objectivity, once a human acceptance level has been established. The following goals were established to test the hypothesis: (1) investigate observer variability within the standard mammographic phantom evaluation process; (2) evaluate options for high-resolution image digitization and utilize the most appropriate technology for standard mammographic phantom film digitization; (3) develop a machine-based vision system for evaluating standard mammographic phantom images to eliminate effects of human variabilities; and (4) demonstrate the completed system's performance against human observers for accreditation and for manufacturing quality control of standard mammographic phantom images. The following methods and procedures were followed to achieve the goals of the research: (1) human variabilities in the American College of Radiology accreditation process were simulated by observer studies involving 30 medical physicists and these were compared to the same number of diagnostic radiologists and untrained control group of observers; (2) current digitization technologies were presented and performance test procedures were developed; three devices were tested which represented commercially available high, intermediate and low-end contrast and spatial resolution capabilities; (3) optimal image processing schemes were applied and tested which performed low, intermediate and high-level computer vision tasks; and (4) the completed system's performance was tested against human observers for accreditation and for manufacturing quality control of standard mammographic phantom images. The results from application of the procedures were as follows: (1) the simulated American College of Radiology mammography accreditation program phantom evaluation process demonstrated

  8. Depigmented Skin and Phantom Color Measurements for Realistic Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, Paul; Leachman, Sancy; Boucher, Kenneth; Ozçelik, Tunçer Burak

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that regardless of human skin phototype, areas of depigmented skin, as seen in vitiligo, are optically indistinguishable among skin phototypes. The average of the depigmented skin measurements can be used to develop the base color of realistic prostheses. Methods and Materials Data from 20 of 32 recruited vitiligo study participants. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy measurements were made from depigmented skin and adjacent pigmented skin, then compared to 66 pigmented polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to determine pigment concentrations in turbid media for making realistic facial prostheses. Results The Area Under spectral intensity Curve (AUC) was calculated for average spectroscopy measurements of pigmented sites in relation to skin phototype (p=0.0505) and depigmented skin in relation to skin phototype (p=0.59). No significant relationship exists between skin phototypes and depigmented skin spectroscopy measurements. The average of the depigmented skin measurements (AUC 19,129) was the closest match to phantom 6.4 (AUC 19,162) Conclusions Areas of depigmented skin are visibly indistinguishable per skin phototype, yet spectrometry shows that depigmented skin measurements varied and were unrelated to skin phototype. Possible sources of optical variation of depigmented skin include age, body site, blood flow, quantity/quality of collagen, and other chromophores. The average of all depigmented skin measurements can be used to derive the pigment composition and concentration for realistic facial prostheses. PMID:23750920

  9. A computational model unifies apparently contradictory findings concerning phantom pain

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Kim J.; de Lussanet, Marc H. E.; Weiss, Thomas; Puta, Christian; Wagner, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    Amputation often leads to painful phantom sensations, whose pathogenesis is still unclear. Supported by experimental findings, an explanatory model has been proposed that identifies maladaptive reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) as a cause of phantom pain. However, it was recently found that BOLD activity during voluntary movements of the phantom positively correlates with phantom pain rating, giving rise to a model of persistent representation. In the present study, we develop a physiologically realistic, computational model to resolve the conflicting findings. Simulations yielded that both the amount of reorganization and the level of cortical activity during phantom movements were enhanced in a scenario with strong phantom pain as compared to a scenario with weak phantom pain. These results suggest that phantom pain, maladaptive reorganization, and persistent representation may all be caused by the same underlying mechanism, which is driven by an abnormally enhanced spontaneous activity of deafferented nociceptive channels. PMID:24931344

  10. A computational model unifies apparently contradictory findings concerning phantom pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boström, Kim J.; de Lussanet, Marc H. E.; Weiss, Thomas; Puta, Christian; Wagner, Heiko

    2014-06-01

    Amputation often leads to painful phantom sensations, whose pathogenesis is still unclear. Supported by experimental findings, an explanatory model has been proposed that identifies maladaptive reorganization of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) as a cause of phantom pain. However, it was recently found that BOLD activity during voluntary movements of the phantom positively correlates with phantom pain rating, giving rise to a model of persistent representation. In the present study, we develop a physiologically realistic, computational model to resolve the conflicting findings. Simulations yielded that both the amount of reorganization and the level of cortical activity during phantom movements were enhanced in a scenario with strong phantom pain as compared to a scenario with weak phantom pain. These results suggest that phantom pain, maladaptive reorganization, and persistent representation may all be caused by the same underlying mechanism, which is driven by an abnormally enhanced spontaneous activity of deafferented nociceptive channels.

  11. Computerized scheme for evaluating mammographic phantom images

    SciTech Connect

    Asahara, Masaki; Kodera, Yoshie

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: The authors developed a computer algorithm to automatically evaluate images of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammography accreditation phantom. Methods: The developed algorithm consist of the edge detection of wax insert, nonuniformity correction of background, and correction for magnification and also calculate the cross-correlation coefficient by image matching technique. The algorithm additionally evaluates target shape for fibers, target contrast for speck groups, and target circularity for masses. To obtain an ideal template image without noise and spatial resolution loss, the wax insert containing the embedded test pattern was extracted from the phantom and radiographed. Two template images and ten test phantom images were prepared for this study. The results of evaluation using the algorithm outputs were compared with the averaged results of observer studies by six skilled observers. Results: In comparing the results from the algorithm outputs with the results of observers, the authors found that the computer outputs were well correlated with the evaluations by observers, and they indicate the quality of the phantom image. The correlation coefficients between results of observer studies and two outputs of computer algorithm, i.e., the cross-correlation coefficient by template matching and indices of target shape for fibers, were 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.93; hereinafter the same) and 0.85 (0.76-0.91). The correlation coefficients between observer's results and two outputs: the cross-correlation coefficient and indices of target contrast for speck groups, were 0.83 (0.79-0.86) and 0.85 (0.81-0.88) and between observer's results and two outputs: the cross-correlation coefficient and indices of target circularity for masses, were 0.90 (0.84-0.94) and 0.87 (0.77-0.92). Conclusions: Image evaluation using the ACR phantom is indispensable in quality control of a mammography system. The proposed algorithm is useful for quality control

  12. Phantom energy accretion onto black holes in a cyclic universe

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Chengyi

    2008-09-15

    Black holes pose a serious problem in cyclic or oscillating cosmology. It is speculated that, in the cyclic universe with phantom turnarounds, black holes will be torn apart by phantom energy prior to turnaround before they can create any problems. In this paper, using the mechanism of phantom accretion onto black holes, we find that black holes do not disappear before phantom turnaround. But the remanent black holes will not cause any problems due to Hawking evaporation.

  13. Phantom vibration and phantom ringing among mobile phone users: A systematic review of literature.

    PubMed

    Deb, Amrita

    2015-09-01

    The last decade has witnessed considerable interest in pathological conditions stemming from misuse or overuse of technology, a condition commonly referred to as technopathology. Of the several complaints reported, phantom vibration or phantom ringing is one that has not yet been widely explored. The objective of conducting a systematic review is to provide an understanding of the phenomena and summarize the research conducted so far. Major databases were searched and articles that matched the inclusion criteria were selected for final analysis. According to findings obtained, phantom vibration or phantom ringing was commonly experienced by mobile phone users; however, few found it bothersome and hence took no steps to eliminate it. As of now, literature in the area is limited and many aspects of the phenomena such as its prevalence across populations, causal factors, consequences, and treatment plans are yet to be studied. Also, a clinical criterion for identification of the condition needs to be formulated. With increase in the number of individuals reporting mobile phone-related problem behavior, phantom vibration, or phantom ringing may be expected to become a cause of concern for mental health professionals within some years. Finally, the need for further research is emphasized while presenting directions for future investigations.

  14. 21 CFR 892.1370 - Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1370 Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear anthropomorphic phantom is a human tissue facsimile that contains a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1370...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1370 - Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1370 Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear anthropomorphic phantom is a human tissue facsimile that contains a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1370...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1370 - Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1370 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1370 Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear anthropomorphic phantom is a human tissue facsimile that contains...

  17. 21 CFR 892.1380 - Nuclear flood source phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nuclear flood source phantom. 892.1380 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1380 Nuclear flood source phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear flood source phantom is a device that consists of a radiolucent container filled with...

  18. 21 CFR 892.1380 - Nuclear flood source phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nuclear flood source phantom. 892.1380 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1380 Nuclear flood source phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear flood source phantom is a device that consists of a radiolucent container filled with...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1380 - Nuclear flood source phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear flood source phantom. 892.1380 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1380 Nuclear flood source phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear flood source phantom is a device that consists of a radiolucent container filled with...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1370 - Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1370 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1370 Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear anthropomorphic phantom is a human tissue facsimile that contains...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1370 - Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. 892.1370 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1370 Nuclear anthropomorphic phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear anthropomorphic phantom is a human tissue facsimile that contains...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1380 - Nuclear flood source phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nuclear flood source phantom. 892.1380 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1380 Nuclear flood source phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear flood source phantom is a device that consists of a radiolucent container filled with...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1380 - Nuclear flood source phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nuclear flood source phantom. 892.1380 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1380 Nuclear flood source phantom. (a) Identification. A nuclear flood source phantom is a device that consists of a radiolucent container filled with...

  4. Frequency-Dependent Neural Activity in Patients with Unilateral Vascular Pulsatile Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Yan, Fei; Dong, Cheng; Zhang, Ling; Li, Rui; Wang, Peng; Li, Ting; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2016-01-01

    Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have shown that neurological changes are important findings in vascular pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients. Here, we utilized rs-fMRI to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in forty patients with unilateral PT and forty age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects. Two different frequency bands (slow-4, 0.027-0.073 Hz, and slow-5, 0.010-0.027 Hz, which are more sensitive to subcortical and cortical neurological signal changes, resp.) were analyzed to examine the intrinsic brain activity in detail. Compared to controls, PT patients had increased ALFF values mainly in the PCu, bilateral IPL (inferior parietal lobule), left IFG (inferior frontal gyrus), and right IFG/anterior insula and decreased ALFF values in the multiple occipital areas including bilateral middle-inferior occipital lobe. For the differences of the two frequency bands, widespread ALFF differences were observed. The ALFF abnormalities in aMPFC/ACC, PCu, right IPL, and some regions of occipital and parietal cortices were greater in the slow-5 band compared to the slow-4 band. Additionally, the THI score of PT patients was positively correlated with changes in slow-5 and slow-4 band in PCu. Pulsatile tinnitus is a disease affecting the neurological activities of multiple brain regions. Slow-5 band is more sensitive in detecting the alternations. Our results also indicated the importance of pathophysiological investigations in patients with pulsatile tinnitus in the future. PMID:27413554

  5. Frequency-Dependent Neural Activity in Patients with Unilateral Vascular Pulsatile Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Yan, Fei; Dong, Cheng; Zhang, Ling; Li, Rui; Wang, Peng; Li, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have shown that neurological changes are important findings in vascular pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients. Here, we utilized rs-fMRI to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in forty patients with unilateral PT and forty age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects. Two different frequency bands (slow-4, 0.027–0.073 Hz, and slow-5, 0.010–0.027 Hz, which are more sensitive to subcortical and cortical neurological signal changes, resp.) were analyzed to examine the intrinsic brain activity in detail. Compared to controls, PT patients had increased ALFF values mainly in the PCu, bilateral IPL (inferior parietal lobule), left IFG (inferior frontal gyrus), and right IFG/anterior insula and decreased ALFF values in the multiple occipital areas including bilateral middle-inferior occipital lobe. For the differences of the two frequency bands, widespread ALFF differences were observed. The ALFF abnormalities in aMPFC/ACC, PCu, right IPL, and some regions of occipital and parietal cortices were greater in the slow-5 band compared to the slow-4 band. Additionally, the THI score of PT patients was positively correlated with changes in slow-5 and slow-4 band in PCu. Pulsatile tinnitus is a disease affecting the neurological activities of multiple brain regions. Slow-5 band is more sensitive in detecting the alternations. Our results also indicated the importance of pathophysiological investigations in patients with pulsatile tinnitus in the future. PMID:27413554

  6. Pulsatile secretion of LH in relation to the resumption of ovarian activity post partum.

    PubMed

    Glasier, A; McNeilly, A S; Howie, P W

    1984-04-01

    Changes in the pulsatile pattern of LH secretion in relation to the resumption of ovarian activity post partum have been studied in breast feeding mothers. Basal concentrations of LH were significantly lower than normal both when ovarian activity was completely suppressed and when there was evidence of some follicular development prior to the resumption of menstruation. Once menstruation resumed basal concentrations of LH were unchanged whether ovulation occurred or not. No difference in the frequency or amplitude of pulses in LH secretion could be found at any stage post partum in either breast or bottle feeding women. FSH levels remained constant throughout the post partum period while mean concentrations of prolactin fell as ovarian activity returned to normal. However, during the period of complete suppression of ovarian activity in breast feeding women, two patterns of pulsatile secretion of LH were observed. In 76% of observation periods, basal levels of LH were lower than normal and were characterized by low frequency and low amplitude pulses of LH. In contrast, in the remaining 24% of observation periods, basal levels and pulse amplitude and frequency of LH were similar to those in the follicular phase of normal menstrual cycles in these women. Individual women showed either or both of these patterns of secretion during the period of ovarian suppression post partum. The data suggests that the failure to maintain ovarian follicular development post partum in breast feeding women may be due to: (1) a direct block of LH action at ovarian level, perhaps by the high levels of prolactin associated with lactation and/or (2) an inability of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis-as a result of the suckling stimulus and/or prolactin-to maintain pulsatile secretion of LH in the face of the negative feedback effects of the increased oestrogen secretion resulting from the initiation of follicular development.

  7. Automatic segmentation and co-registration of gated CT angiography datasets: measuring abdominal aortic pulsatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Robert; Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, J. G.; Siddiki, Hassan; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri; Spencer, Garrett; Primak, Andrew N.; Zhang, Jie; Nielson, Theresa; McCollough, Cynthia; Yu, Lifeng

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop robust, novel segmentation and co-registration software to analyze temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets, with an aim to permit automated measurement of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: We perform retrospective gated CT angiography in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Multiple, temporally overlapping, time-resolved CT angiography datasets are reconstructed over the cardiac cycle, with aortic segmentation performed using a priori anatomic assumptions for the aorta and heart. Visual quality assessment is performed following automatic segmentation with manual editing. Following subsequent centerline generation, centerlines are cross-registered across phases, with internal validation of co-registration performed by examining registration at the regions of greatest diameter change (i.e. when the second derivative is maximal). Results: We have performed gated CT angiography in 60 patients. Automatic seed placement is successful in 79% of datasets, requiring either no editing (70%) or minimal editing (less than 1 minute; 12%). Causes of error include segmentation into adjacent, high-attenuating, nonvascular tissues; small segmentation errors associated with calcified plaque; and segmentation of non-renal, small paralumbar arteries. Internal validation of cross-registration demonstrates appropriate registration in our patient population. In general, we observed that aortic pulsatility can vary along the course of the abdominal aorta. Pulsation can also vary within an aneurysm as well as between aneurysms, but the clinical significance of these findings remain unknown. Conclusions: Visualization of large vessel pulsatility is possible using ECG-gated CT angiography, partial scan reconstruction, automatic segmentation, centerline generation, and coregistration of temporally resolved datasets.

  8. cAMP mediators of pulsatile insulin secretion from glucose-stimulated single beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Barg, Sebastian; Gylfe, Erik; Tengholm, Anders

    2010-07-23

    Pulsatile insulin release from glucose-stimulated beta-cells is driven by oscillations of the Ca(2+) and cAMP concentrations in the subplasma membrane space ([Ca(2+)](pm) and [cAMP](pm)). To clarify mechanisms by which cAMP regulates insulin secretion, we performed parallel evanescent wave fluorescence imaging of [cAMP](pm), [Ca(2+)](pm), and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) in the plasma membrane. This lipid is formed by autocrine insulin receptor activation and was used to monitor insulin release kinetics from single MIN6 beta-cells. Elevation of the glucose concentration from 3 to 11 mm induced, after a 2.7-min delay, coordinated oscillations of [Ca(2+)](pm), [cAMP](pm), and PIP(3). Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly diminished the PIP(3) response when applied before glucose stimulation, but did not affect already manifested PIP(3) oscillations. The reduced PIP(3) response could be attributed to accelerated depolarization causing early rise of [Ca(2+)](pm) that preceded the elevation of [cAMP](pm). However, the amplitude of the PIP(3) response after PKA inhibition was restored by a specific agonist to the cAMP-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac. Suppression of cAMP formation with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors reduced already established PIP(3) oscillations in glucose-stimulated cells, and this effect was almost completely counteracted by the Epac agonist. In cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting Epac2, the amplitudes of the glucose-induced PIP(3) oscillations were reduced, and the Epac agonist was without effect. The data indicate that temporal coordination of the triggering [Ca(2+)](pm) and amplifying [cAMP](pm) signals is important for glucose-induced pulsatile insulin release. Although both PKA and Epac2 partake in initiating insulin secretion, the cAMP dependence of established pulsatility is mediated by Epac2.

  9. Resolution of Pulsatile Tinnitus after Venous Sinus Stenting in Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dinkin, Marc; Suurna, Maria; Hannsgen, Kelly; Bui, Xem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the role of venous sinus stenting in the treatment of pulsatile tinnitus among patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) and significant venous sinus stenosis. Subjects and Methods A written informed consent approved by the Weill Cornell institutional review board was signed and obtained from the study participants. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis who were treated with venous sinus stenting between Jan.2012-Jan.2016 were prospectively evaluated. Patients without pulsatile tinnitus were excluded. Tinnitus severity was categorized based on “Tinnitus Handicap Inventory” (THI) at pre-stent, day-0, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month and 2-year follow-up. Demographics, body-mass index (BMI), pre and post VSS trans-stenotic pressure gradient were documented. Statistical analysis performed using Pearson’s correlation, Chi-square analysis and Fischer’s exact test. Results 29 patients with a mean age of 29.5±8.5 years M:F = 1:28. Median (mean) THI pre and post stenting were: 4 (3.7) and 1 (1) respectively. Median time of tinnitus resolution post VSS was 0-days. There was significant improvement of THI (Δ Mean: 2.7 THI [95% CI: 2.3–3.1 THI], p<0.001) and transverse-distal sigmoid sinus gradient (Δ Mean: -15.3 mm Hg [95% CI: 12.7–18 mm Hg], p<0.001) post-stenting. Mean follow-up duration of 26.4±9.8 months (3–44 months). VSS was feasible in 100% patients with no procedural complications. Three-patients (10%) had recurrent sinus stenosis and tinnitus at mean follow-up of 12 months (6–30 months). Conclusion Venous sinus stenting is an effective treatment for pulsatile tinnitus in patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis. PMID:27768690

  10. Neoglycoenzyme-Gated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Toward the Design of Nanodevices for Pulsatile Programmed Sequential Delivery.

    PubMed

    Díez, Paula; Sánchez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Cristina; Gamella, María; Martínez-Ruíz, Paloma; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Pingarrón, José M; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-03-01

    We report herein the design of a stimulus-programmed pulsatile delivery system for sequential cargo release based on the use of a lactose-modified esterase as a capping agent in phenylboronic acid functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The dual-release mechanism was based on the distinct stability of the cyclic boronic acid esters formed with lactose residues and the long naturally occurring glycosylation chains in the modified neoglycoenzyme. Cargo delivery in succession was achieved using glucose and ethyl butyrate as triggers. PMID:26966914

  11. Endogenous opiates modulate the pulsatile secretion of biologically active luteinizing hormone in man.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Rogol, A D; Johnson, M L

    1983-12-01

    We studied the secretion of physiological pools of immunoreactive and biologically active luteinizing hormone in response to endogenous pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) in eugonadal men. Concentrations of immunoactive and bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined in blood drawn at 20-min intervals for 8 h in eight normal men under two conditions: (a) after placebo, in order to evaluate spontaneous LH pulsations in the basal state, and (b) after administration of the opiate-receptor antagonist, naltrexone, which is believed to amplify the pulsatile release of endogenous GNRH. Spontaneous and naltrexone-stimulated secretion of LH occurred in pulses of high biological activity, as measured in the RICT (rat interstitial cell testosterone bioassay), i.e., bioactive:immunoactive LH ratios within both spontaneous and naltrexone-stimulated LH pulses were higher than corresponding interpulse ratios (P less than 0.001). Quantitative characterization of the pulsatile release of bioactive LH revealed the following specific effects of opiate-receptor blockade: increased 8-h mean and integrated serum concentrations of bioactive LH (P less than 0.002), enhanced pulse frequency of bioactive LH release (P less than 0.001), and augmented peak amplitude of bio-LH pulses (P less than 0.01). Moreover, this increase in episodic secretion of bioactive LH was associated with increased 8-h mean and integrated serum testosterone concentrations in these men (P less than 0.05). We conclude the following: (a) LH is normally released in spontaneous pulses of high biological activity in men; (b) when the endogenous GNRH signal is amplified by opiate-receptor blockade, the pituitary gland releases more frequent bioactive LH pulses, which are of high amplitude and contain a high bioactive:immunoactive LH ratio. This increase in pulsatile release of bioactive LH quantitated in the RICT assay in vitro is reflected by acutely increased serum testosterone concentrations in vivo

  12. Pulsatile Support Mode of BJUT-II Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) has Better Hemodynamic Effects on the Aorta than Constant Speed Mode: A Primary Numerical Study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist device (LVADs), directly implanted into the ascending aorta. The pulsatile support mode is proposed to achieve better unloading performance than constant speed mode. However, the hemodynamic effects of this support mode on the aorta are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the hemodynamic effects BJUT-II VAD under pulsatile support mode on the aorta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, based on a patient-specific aortic geometric model, were conducted. Wall shear stress (WSS), averaged WSS (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and averaged helicity density (Ha) were calculated to compare the differences in hemodynamic effects between pulsatile support mode and constant speed mode. RESULTS The results show that avWSS under pulsatile support mode is significantly higher than that under constant speed mode (0.955Pa vs. 0.675Pa). Similarly, the OSI value under pulsatile mode is higher than that under constant speed mode (0.104 vs. 0.057). In addition, Ha under pulsatile mode for all selected cross-sections is larger than that under constant mode. CONCLUSIONS BJUT-II VAD, under pulsatile control mode, may prevent atherosclerosis lesions and aortic remodeling. The precise effects of pulsatile support mode on atherosclerosis and aortic remodeling need to be further studied in animal experiments. PMID:27363758

  13. Pulsatile Support Mode of BJUT-II Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) has Better Hemodynamic Effects on the Aorta than Constant Speed Mode: A Primary Numerical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist device (LVADs), directly implanted into the ascending aorta. The pulsatile support mode is proposed to achieve better unloading performance than constant speed mode. However, the hemodynamic effects of this support mode on the aorta are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the hemodynamic effects BJUT-II VAD under pulsatile support mode on the aorta. Material/Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, based on a patient-specific aortic geometric model, were conducted. Wall shear stress (WSS), averaged WSS (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and averaged helicity density (Ha) were calculated to compare the differences in hemodynamic effects between pulsatile support mode and constant speed mode. Results The results show that avWSS under pulsatile support mode is significantly higher than that under constant speed mode (0.955Pa vs. 0.675Pa). Similarly, the OSI value under pulsatile mode is higher than that under constant speed mode (0.104 vs. 0.057). In addition, Ha under pulsatile mode for all selected cross-sections is larger than that under constant mode. Conclusions BJUT-II VAD, under pulsatile control mode, may prevent atherosclerosis lesions and aortic remodeling. The precise effects of pulsatile support mode on atherosclerosis and aortic remodeling need to be further studied in animal experiments. PMID:27363758

  14. Sensitivity evaluation of DSA-based parametric imaging using Doppler ultrasound in neurovascular phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramoniam, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C. N.

    2016-03-01

    An evaluation of the relation between parametric imaging results obtained from Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) images and blood-flow velocity measured using Doppler ultrasound in patient-specific neurovascular phantoms is provided. A silicone neurovascular phantom containing internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery was embedded in a tissue equivalent gel. The gel prevented movement of the vessels when blood mimicking fluid was pumped through it to obtain Colour Doppler images. The phantom was connected to a peristaltic pump, simulating physiological flow conditions. To obtain the parametric images, water was pumped through the phantom at various flow rates (100, 120 and 160 ml/min) and 10 ml contrast boluses were injected. DSA images were obtained at 10 frames/sec from the Toshiba C-arm and DSA image sequences were input into LabVIEW software to get parametric maps from time-density curves. The parametric maps were compared with velocities determined by Doppler ultrasound at the internal carotid artery. The velocities measured by the Doppler ultrasound were 38, 48 and 65 cm/s for flow rates of 100, 120 and 160 ml/min, respectively. For the 20% increase in flow rate, the percentage change of blood velocity measured by Doppler ultrasound was 26.3%. Correspondingly, there was a 20% decrease of Bolus Arrival Time (BAT) and 14.3% decrease of Mean Transit Time (MTT), showing strong inverse correlation with Doppler measured velocity. The parametric imaging parameters are quite sensitive to velocity changes and are well correlated to the velocities measured by Doppler ultrasound.

  15. Optical phantoms with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters.

    PubMed

    Krauter, Philipp; Nothelfer, Steffen; Bodenschatz, Nico; Simon, Emanuel; Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2015-10-01

    A new epoxy-resin-based optical phantom system with adjustable subdiffusive scattering parameters is presented along with measurements of the intrinsic absorption, scattering, fluorescence, and refractive index of the matrix material. Both an aluminium oxide powder and a titanium dioxide dispersion were used as scattering agents and we present measurements of their scattering and reduced scattering coefficients. A method is theoretically described for a mixture of both scattering agents to obtain continuously adjustable anisotropy values g between 0.65 and 0.9 and values of the phase function parameter γ in the range of 1.4 to 2.2. Furthermore, we show absorption spectra for a set of pigments that can be added to achieve particular absorption characteristics. By additional analysis of the aging, a fully characterized phantom system is obtained with the novelty of g and γ parameter adjustment. PMID:26473589

  16. Phantom experiments to improve parathyroid lesion detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, Kenneth J.; Tronco, Gene G.; Tomas, Maria B.; Kunjummen, Biju D.; Siripun, Lisa; Rini, Josephine N.; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2007-12-15

    This investigation tested the hypothesis that visual analysis of iteratively reconstructed tomograms by ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) provides the highest accuracy for localizing parathyroid lesions using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT data. From an Institutional Review Board approved retrospective review of 531 patients evaluated for parathyroid localization, image characteristics were determined for 85 {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT studies originally read as equivocal (EQ). Seventy-two plexiglas phantoms using cylindrical simulated lesions were acquired for a clinically realistic range of counts (mean simulated lesion counts of 75{+-}50 counts/pixel) and target-to-background (T:B) ratios (range=2.0 to 8.0) to determine an optimal filter for OSEM. Two experienced nuclear physicians graded simulated lesions, blinded to whether chambers contained radioactivity or plain water, and two observers used the same scale to read all phantom and clinical SPECT studies, blinded to pathology findings and clinical information. For phantom data and all clinical data, T:B analyses were not statistically different for OSEM versus FB, but visual readings were significantly more accurate than T:B (88{+-}6% versus 68{+-}6%, p=0.001) for OSEM processing, and OSEM was significantly more accurate than FB for visual readings (88{+-}6% versus 58{+-}6%, p<0.0001). These data suggest that visual analysis of iteratively reconstructed MIBI tomograms should be incorporated into imaging protocols performed to localize parathyroid lesions.

  17. Development of a physical 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Carton, Ann-Katherine; Bakic, Predrag; Ullberg, Christer; Derand, Helen; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Develop a technique to fabricate a 3D anthropomorphic breast phantom with known ground truth for image quality assessment of 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems. Methods: The phantom design is based on an existing computer model that can generate breast voxel phantoms of varying composition, size, and shape. The physical phantom is produced in two steps. First, the portion of the voxel phantom consisting of the glandular tissue, skin, and Cooper's ligaments is separated into sections. These sections are then fabricated by high-resolution rapid prototyping using a single material with 50% glandular equivalence. The remaining adipose compartments are then filled using an epoxy-based resin (EBR) with 100% adipose equivalence. The phantom sections are stacked to form the physical anthropomorphic phantom. Results: The authors fabricated a prototype phantom corresponding to a 450 ml breast with 45% dense tissue, deformed to a 5 cm compressed thickness. Both the rapid prototype (RP) and EBR phantom materials are radiographically uniform. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the relative attenuation between RP and EBR phantom samples was <1% and the CoV of the signal intensity within RP and EBR phantom samples was <1.5% on average. Digital mammography and reconstructed digital breast tomosynthesis images of the authors' phantom were reviewed by two radiologists; they reported that the images are similar in appearance to clinical images, noting there are still artifacts from air bubbles in the EBR. Conclusions: The authors have developed a technique to produce 3D anthropomorphic breast phantoms with known ground truth, yielding highly realistic x-ray images. Such phantoms may serve both qualitative and quantitative performance assessments for 2D and 3D breast x-ray imaging systems.

  18. Effect of mild atherosclerosis on flow resistance in a coronary artery casting of man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Cuffel, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An in-vitro flow study was conducted in a mildly atherosclerotic main coronary artery casting of man using sugar-water solutions simulating blood viscosity. Steady flow results indicated substantial increases in pressure drop, and thus flow resistance at the same Reynolds number, above those for Poiseuille flow by 30 to 100 percent in the physiological Reynolds number range from about 100 to 400. Time-averaged pulsatile flow data showed additional 5 percent increases in flow resistance above the steady flow results. Both pulsatile and steady flow data from the casting were found to be nearly equal to those from a straight, axisymmetric model of the casting up to a Reynolds number of about 200, above which the flow resistance of the casting became gradually larger than the corresponding values from the axisymmetric model.

  19. Design and In Vitro Evaluation of Compression-coated Pulsatile Release Tablets of Losartan Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, M.; Singh, D. C. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Singh, A.

    2012-01-01

    In majority of individuals blood pressure rises in the early morning hours, which lead to serious cardiovascular complications. Formulation of pulsatile system makes it possible to deliver drug at definite period of time when symptoms of the disease condition are most critical. The purpose of the present work was to develop pulsatile release tablet of losartan potassium for chronotherapy in hypertension. The prepared system consisted of a core tablet coated with versatile and safe hydrophilic cellulosic ethers such as, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose and sodium carboxy methylcellulose to produce burst release after predetermined lag time. Various formulation factors were studied through series of test and in vitro dissolution study. It was found that core tablets containing superdisintegrant failed to produce burst drug release pattern while effervescent agent was able to do so. Results also reveal that coating composition and coating level affects lag time. Formulation containing effervescent agent in core and coated with 200 mg hydroxypropyl cellulose provide lag time of 4.5 h with 73% drug release in 6 h that followed a sigmoidal release pattern. These values were close to the desired objective of producing lag time of 5-6 h followed by fast drug release. This approach can thus provide a useful means for timed release of losartan and is helpful for patients with morning surge. PMID:23325989

  20. Elderly depression diagnostic of diabetic patients by brain tissue pulsatility imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachemi, Mélouka Elkateb; Remeniéras, Jean-pierre; Desmidt, Thomas; Camus, Vincent; Tranquart, François

    2010-01-01

    Pulsatile motion of brain parenchyma results from cardiac and breathing cycles and consists in a rapid displacement in systole, with slow diastolic recovery. Based on the vascular depression concept and recent studies where a correlation was found between cerebral haemodynamics and depression in the elderly, we emitted the hypothesis that tissue brain motion due to perfusion is correlated to elderly depression associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Tissue Pulsatlity Imaging (TPI) is a new ultrasound technique developed firstly at the University of Washington to assess the brain tissue motion. We used TPI technique to measure the brain displacement of two groups of elderly patients with diabetes as a vascular risk factor. The first group is composed of 11 depressed diabetic patients. The second group is composed of 12 diabetic patients without depressive symptoms. Transcranial acquisitions were performed with a 1.8 MHz ultrasound phased array probe through the right temporal bone window. The acquisition of six cardiac cycles was realized on each patient with a frame rate of 23 frames/s. Displacements estimation was performed by off-line analysis. A significant decrease in brain pulsatility was observed in the group of depressed patients compared to the group of non depressed patients. Mean displacement magnitude was about 44±7 μm in the first group and 68±13 μm in the second group.

  1. Biological time series analysis using a context free language: applicability to pulsatile hormone data.

    PubMed

    Dean, Dennis A; Adler, Gail K; Nguyen, David P; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for analyzing biological time-series data using a context-free language (CFL) representation that allows the extraction and quantification of important features from the time-series. This representation results in Hierarchically AdaPtive (HAP) analysis, a suite of multiple complementary techniques that enable rapid analysis of data and does not require the user to set parameters. HAP analysis generates hierarchically organized parameter distributions that allow multi-scale components of the time-series to be quantified and includes a data analysis pipeline that applies recursive analyses to generate hierarchically organized results that extend traditional outcome measures such as pharmacokinetics and inter-pulse interval. Pulsicons, a novel text-based time-series representation also derived from the CFL approach, are introduced as an objective qualitative comparison nomenclature. We apply HAP to the analysis of 24 hours of frequently sampled pulsatile cortisol hormone data, which has known analysis challenges, from 14 healthy women. HAP analysis generated results in seconds and produced dozens of figures for each participant. The results quantify the observed qualitative features of cortisol data as a series of pulse clusters, each consisting of one or more embedded pulses, and identify two ultradian phenotypes in this dataset. HAP analysis is designed to be robust to individual differences and to missing data and may be applied to other pulsatile hormones. Future work can extend HAP analysis to other time-series data types, including oscillatory and other periodic physiological signals.

  2. Nonlinear dynamics in pulsatile secretion of parathyroid hormone in normal human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Harms, Heio; Brabant, Georg; Hesch, Rolf-Dieter; Dämmig, Matthias; Mitschke, Fedor

    1995-03-01

    In many biological systems, information is transferred by hormonal ligands, and it is assumed that these hormonal signals encode developmental and regulatory programs in mammalian organisms. In contrast to the dogma of endocrine homeostasis, it could be shown that the biological information in hormonal networks is not only present as a constant hormone concentration in the circulation pool. Recently, it has become apparent that hormone pulses contribute to this hormonal pool, which modulates the responsiveness of receptors within the cell membrane by regulation of the receptor synthesis, movement within the membrane layer, coupling to signal transduction proteins and internalization. Phase space analysis of dynamic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion allowed the definition of a (in comparison to normal subjects) relatively quiet ``low dynamic'' secretory pattern in osteoporosis, and a ``high dynamic'' state in hyperparathyroidism. We now investigate whether this pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy men exhibits characteristics of nonlinear determinism. Our findings suggest that this is conceivable, although on the basis of presently available data and techniques, no proof can be established. Nevertheless, pulsatile secretion of PTH might be a first example of nonlinear deterministic dynamics in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology.

  3. Enteric-coating of pulsatile-release HPC capsules prepared by injection molding.

    PubMed

    Macchi, E; Zema, L; Maroni, A; Gazzaniga, A; Felton, L A

    2015-04-01

    Capsular devices based on hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel® LF) intended for pulsatile release were prepared by injection molding (IM). In the present work, the possibility of exploiting such capsules for the development of colonic delivery systems based on a time-dependent approach was evaluated. For this purpose, it was necessary to demonstrate the ability of molded cores to undergo a coating process and that coated systems yield the desired performance (gastric resistance). Although no information was available on the coating of IM substrates, some issues relevant to that of commercially-available capsules are known. Thus, preliminary studies were conducted on molded disks for screening purposes prior to the spray-coating of HPC capsular cores with Eudragit® L 30 D 55. The ability of the polymeric suspension to wet the substrate, spread, start penetrating and initiate hydration/swelling, as well as to provide a gastroresistant barrier was demonstrated. The coating of prototype HPC capsules was carried out successfully, leading to coated systems with good technological properties and able to withstand the acidic medium with no need for sealing at the cap/body joint. Such systems maintained the original pulsatile release performance after dissolution of the enteric film in pH 6.8 fluid. Therefore, they appeared potentially suitable for the development of a colon delivery platform based on a time-dependent approach. PMID:25585355

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect with high intensity focused ultrasound-mediated pulsatile delivery of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2012-02-01

    A pulsatile ultrasound controlled drug release platform with diclofenac-loaded alginate microcapsules (fabricated with a home-made electrostatic device, 75% embedded rate) was established to evaluate anti-inflammation efficiency. Better anti-inflammation efficiency was found using the ultrasound system and the drug delivery can be adjusted based on the programmed ultrasound cycle. The results of the in vitro study show that an approx. 30% higher drug release rate was obtained by using continuous ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 180 min), and an approx. 16% higher drug release rate was obtained by using pulsatile ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) compared to without ultrasound activation. For the in vivo study, the anti-inflammatory test with carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema shows that diclofenac-loaded microcapsules followed by ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) contributed to an 81% inhibition rate, which was significantly higher than diclofenac only (approx. 60% higher). In addition, because of their heat conducting properties, gold nanoparticles encapsulated in the diclofenac-loaded microcapsules resulted in better drug release efficiency, but tended to depress the anti-inflammation effect.

  5. Effects of oestrogen replacement on steady and pulsatile haemodynamics in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kwok-Keung; Hu, Cheng-Tao; Ou, Tein-Yuan; Yen, Mao-Hsiung; Chen, Hsing-I

    2002-07-01

    1. The effects of ovariectomy (Ovx), menopause and oestrogen replacement on the haemodynamics remain controversial. The present study employed the technique of arterial impedance analysis to measure and calculate the steady and pulsatile haemodynamics. The purpose was to determine the haemodynamic consequence of ovariectomy and oestrogen replacement. 2. Ovariectomy was carried out under anaesthesia on female Sprague Dawley rats aged 9 weeks. Oestrogen (17 beta-estradiol or E(2)) replacement started 1 week after ovariectomy for 4 weeks. Ovx increased the body weight (BW), while it greatly reduced the uterus weight. Left ventricular weight (LVW) was slightly increased, but LVW/BW ratio was slightly reduced. These changes were reversed after E(2) replacement. 3. Compared to sham group, Ovx with or without E(2) replacement did not significantly affect the systolic, mean and diastolic pressure. In Ovx, pulse pressure (PP) and heart rate were significantly increased, while stroke volume and cardiac output were slightly decreased. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was largely elevated, indicating Ovx induced systemic vasoconstriction. These changes all returned to close normal values (sham group) after E(2) replacement, except PP. 4. Ovx increased the characteristic input impedance (Zc) and pulse wave reflection, while it decreased arterial compliance. E(2) treatment reversed these changes, except Zc. 5. These results demonstrate that Ovx influences both the resistance and Windkessel functions of the artery. E(2) treatment effectively reverses most the effects of Ovx both on the steady and pulsatile haemodynamics. PMID:12110605

  6. Effects of continuous and pulsatile PTH treatments on rat bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chiming; Frei, Hanspeter Burt, Helen M.; Rossi, Fabio

    2009-03-20

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) differentiation and proliferation are controlled by numerous growth factors and hormones. Continuous parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment has been shown to decrease osteoblast differentiation, whereas pulsatile PTH increases osteoblast differentiation. However, the effects of PTH treatments on MSCs have not been investigated. This study showed continuous PTH treatment in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX) promoted osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs in vitro, as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, number of ALP expressing cells, and up-regulation of PTH receptor-1, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNA expressions. In contrast, pulsatile PTH treatment was found to suppress osteogenesis of rat MSCs, possibly by promoting the maintenance of undifferentiated cells. Additionally, the observed effects of PTH were strongly dependent on the presence of DEX. MSC proliferation however was not influenced by PTH independent of treatment regimen and presence or absence of DEX. Furthermore, our work raised the possibility that PTH treatment may modulate stem/progenitor cell activity within MSC cultures.

  7. Behaviour of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes under continuous and pulsatile tocolysis with Fenoterol.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhode, Peter; Brunke, Björn; Schröer, Heinrich; Obert, Kirstin; Schlegel, Kerstin; Sturm, Gerhard; Schulz, Klaus-Dieter; von Wichert, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the population of beta 2-receptors on lymphocytes in pregnant women with premature labor between the 29th and 34th week of pregnancy. The population of receptors on lymphocytes correlates with that on the myometrium, which is not accessible for study during pregnancy. Fourteen patients received a pulsatile tocolysis, while ten women received a continuous tocolysis with Fenoterol. Assuming an equal population of receptors in both groups before commencement of therapy, the numbers of receptors in the patients with continuous tocolysis fell to about 35% of the initial value after 72 hours. Under pulsatile tocolysis, the numbers of receptors remained unchanged for a period of three days and was still only just below 70% of the initial value by the seventh day. Our data demonstrate that continuous administration of the short-acting beta 2-agonist Fenoterol resulted in a substantial loss of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. In contrast, intermittent administration of the same beta 2-adrenergic agonist prevented the onset of receptor down-regulation in pregnant women with preterm labor. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of the decreased loss of beta 2-adrenoceptor density on the good clinical experience with intermittent tocolysis.

  8. Time controlled pulsatile transdermal delivery of nicotine: A phase I feasibility trial in male smokers.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Felix; Kummer, Oliver; Guercioni, Stefania; Imanidis, Georgios; Drewe, Juergen

    2016-06-28

    Nicotine substitution is a mainstay component in smoking cessation schemes. Current products including patches are poorly effective mainly because they do not give smokers the same pharmacokinetic profile of nicotine as cigarette consumption. This work evaluates a new computer operated delivery system for time controlled pulsatile transdermal administration of nicotine in a phase I clinical trial with twelve heavy smoking male volunteers. The device was affixed to the ventral side of the leading lower arm of the subjects and was programmed to deliver two pulses of drug within 16h with three delivery rates in a consecutive dose escalation study. Tolerability of the three increasing doses of nicotine was established. Plasma concentration of nicotine exhibited two peaks and one trough and reached therapeutically effective levels that behaved linearly with the drug load concentration of the device. In vivo input rate, delivered amount and elimination kinetics were deduced by pharmacokinetic modeling to analyze device performance. Timing, dose and duration of delivery were controlled by system operation parameters. Hence, feasibility of controlled pulsatile delivery of nicotine at predetermined intervals was demonstrated. After additional optimization, preprogrammed or on demand administration to meet individualized and circadian replacement needs should improve smoking cessation efficacy. PMID:27090163

  9. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  10. Development of a realistic, dynamic digital brain phantom for CT perfusion validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divel, Sarah E.; Segars, W. Paul; Christensen, Soren; Wintermark, Max; Lansberg, Maarten G.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2016-03-01

    Physicians rely on CT Perfusion (CTP) images and quantitative image data, including cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and bolus arrival delay, to diagnose and treat stroke patients. However, the quantification of these metrics may vary depending on the computational method used. Therefore, we have developed a dynamic and realistic digital brain phantom upon which CTP scans can be simulated based on a set of ground truth scenarios. Building upon the previously developed 4D extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom containing a highly detailed brain model, this work consisted of expanding the intricate vasculature by semi-automatically segmenting existing MRA data and fitting nonuniform rational B-spline surfaces to the new vessels. Using time attenuation curves input by the user as reference, the contrast enhancement in the vessels changes dynamically. At each time point, the iodine concentration in the arteries and veins is calculated from the curves and the material composition of the blood changes to reflect the expected values. CatSim, a CT system simulator, generates simulated data sets of this dynamic digital phantom which can be further analyzed to validate CTP studies and post-processing methods. The development of this dynamic and realistic digital phantom provides a valuable resource with which current uncertainties and controversies surrounding the quantitative computations generated from CTP data can be examined and resolved.

  11. Influence of Manufacturing Processes on the Performance of Phantom Lungs

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, Richard J.

    2008-10-01

    Chest counting is an important tool for estimating the radiation dose to individuals who have inhaled radioactive materials. Chest counting systems are calibrated by counting the activity in the lungs of phantoms where the activity in the phantom lungs is known. In the United States a commonly used calibration phantom was developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is referred to as the Livermore Torso Phantom. An important feature of this phantom is that the phantom lungs can be interchanged so that the counting system can be challenged by different combinations of radionuclides and activity. Phantom lungs are made from lung tissue substitutes whose constituents are foaming plastics and various adjuvants selected to make the lung tissue substitute similar to normal healthy lung tissue. Some of the properties of phantom lungs cannot be readily controlled by phantom lung manufacturers. Some, such as density, are a complex function of the manufacturing process, while others, such as elemental composition of the bulk plastic are controlled by the plastics manufacturer without input, or knowledge of the phantom manufacturer. Despite the fact that some of these items cannot be controlled, they can be measured and accounted for. This report describes how manufacturing processes can influence the performance of phantom lungs. It is proposed that a metric that describes the brightness of the lung be employed by the phantom lung manufacturer to determine how well the phantom lung approximates the characteristics of a human lung. For many purposes, the linear attenuation of the lung tissue substitute is an appropriate surrogate for the brightness.

  12. Enhancing 4D PC-MRI in an aortic phantom considering numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzke, Jonas; Schoch, Nicolai; Weis, Christian; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Speidel, Stefanie; Farag, Mina; Beller, Carsten J.; Heuveline, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    To date, cardiovascular surgery enables the treatment of a wide range of aortic pathologies. One of the current challenges in this field is given by the detection of high-risk patients for adverse aortic events, who should be treated electively. Reliable diagnostic parameters, which indicate the urge of treatment, have to be determined. Functional imaging by means of 4D phase contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) enables the time-resolved measurement of blood flow velocity in 3D. Applied to aortic phantoms, three dimensional blood flow properties and their relation to adverse dynamics can be investigated in vitro. Emerging "in silico" methods of numerical simulation can supplement these measurements in computing additional information on crucial parameters. We propose a framework that complements 4D PC-MRI imaging by means of numerical simulation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The framework is developed on the basis of a prototypic aortic phantom and validated by 4D PC-MRI measurements of the phantom. Based on physical principles of biomechanics, the derived simulation depicts aortic blood flow properties and characteristics. The framework might help identifying factors that induce aortic pathologies such as aortic dilatation or aortic dissection. Alarming thresholds of parameters such as wall shear stress distribution can be evaluated. The combined techniques of 4D PC-MRI and numerical simulation can be used as complementary tools for risk-stratification of aortic pathology.

  13. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  14. Stimulation of luteinizing hormone subunit gene expression by pulsatile intracerebroventricular microinjection of galanin in female rats.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, A; Zwierzchowski, L; Kochman, K

    2004-06-01

    Although galanin, which exerts its effects both at the hypothalamic and pituitary level, has been implicated as an important neuroendocrine regulator of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activity, there is a lack of data concerning its involvement in the regulation of gonadotropin subunit gene expression. To elucidate whether galanin can influence luteinizing hormone (LH) subunit mRNA content, as well as affect gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor activity, a model based on pulsatile (one pulse per hour over 5 h) galanin (1 nM) microinjections directly into the third cerebral ventricle of ovariectomized (OVX) and/or oestrogen/progesterone-pretreated rats was used. Furthermore, to determine galanin effects on GnRH-induced LH subunit mRNA synthesis, a cocktail of 1 nM GnRH and 1 nM galanin was coadministered in a pulsatile manner to OVX/steroid primed rats. Subsequently, to obtain data concerning the role of galanin receptors in the regulation of pituitary alpha (common to LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and LHbeta subunit gene expression, OVX/oestrogen/progesterone rats received microinjections of 1 nM of the receptor antagonist galantide and 1 nM of galanin. In this case, both substances were administered separately, with a 30 min lag, according to which each galantide pulse always preceded a galanin pulse. Northern-blot analysis revealed that intracerebroventricular pulsatile galanin injections were effective in stimulation of both alpha and LHbeta subunit mRNA levels and that this effect was apparently steroid-dependent. Moreover, galanin also up-regulated GnRH receptor functional parameters (affinity and maximum binding capacity) but was ineffective in potentiating GnRH-induced accumulation of both subunit mRNAs. The results from the study also indicate that galanin acts through its own receptor(s) because a receptor antagonist, galantide, significantly reduced the stimulatory effect exerted by galanin on the expression

  15. Nanoparticle-free tissue-mimicking phantoms with intrinsic scattering.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Maciej S; Popov, Alexey P; Bykov, Alexander V; Tuchin, Valery V; Jędrzejewska-Szczerska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-01

    We present an alternative to the conventional approach, phantoms without scattering nanoparticles, where scattering is achieved by the material itself: spherical cavities trapped in a silicone matrix. We describe the properties and fabrication of novel optical phantoms based on a silicone elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glycerol mixture. Optical properties (absorption coefficient µa , reduced scattering coefficient µs' , and anisotropy factor g) of the fabricated phantoms were retrieved from spectrophotometric measurements (in the 400-1100 nm wavelength range) using the inverse adding-doubling method. The internal structure of the phantoms was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the chemical composition was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Composition of the phantom material is reported along with the full characterization of the produced phantoms and ways to control their parameters. PMID:27375928

  16. Polarized light propagation through tissue and tissue phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, V; Walsh, J T JR; Maitland, D J

    2000-02-08

    We show that standard tissue phantoms can be used to mimic the intensity and polarization properties of tissue. Polarized light propagation through biologic tissue is typically studied using tissue phantoms consisting of dilute aqueous suspensions of microspheres. The dilute phantoms can empirically match tissue polarization and intensity properties. One discrepancy between the dilute phantoms and tissue exist: common tissue phantoms, such as dilute Intralipid and dilute 1-{micro}m-diameter polystyrene microsphere suspensions, depolarize linearly polarized light more quickly than circularly polarized light. In dense tissue, however, where scatterers are often located in close proximity to one another, circularly polarized light is depolarized similar to or more quickly than linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that polarized light propagates differently in dilute versus densely packed microsphere suspensions, which may account for the differences seen between polarized light propagation in common dilute tissue phantoms versus dense biologic tissue.

  17. Characterization of a phantom setup for breast conserving cancer surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwell, Jacob T.; Conley, Rebekah H.; Collins, Jarrod A.; Meszoely, Ingrid M.; Miga, Michael I.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an anatomically and mechanically representative breast phantom for the validation of breast conserving surgical therapies, specifically, in this case, image guided surgeries. Using three patients scheduled for lumpectomy and four healthy volunteers in mock surgical presentations, the magnitude, direction, and location of breast deformations was analyzed. A phantom setup was then designed to approximate such deformations in a mock surgical environment. Specifically, commercially available and custom-built polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) phantoms were used to mimic breast tissue during surgery. A custom designed deformation apparatus was then created to reproduce deformations seen in typical clinical setups of the pre- and intra-operative breast geometry. Quantitative analysis of the human subjects yielded a positive correlation between breast volume and amount of breast deformation. Phantom results reflected similar behavior with the custom-built PVA phantom outperforming the commercial phantom.

  18. Development of thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms for use in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, R. A. D.; Maia, A. F.

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms to be used in control tests of medical images in scintillation cameras. The main difference among the phantoms was the neck shape: in the first, called OSCT, it was geometrically shaped, while in the second, called OSAP, it was anthropomorphically shaped. In both phantoms, thyroid gland prototypes, which were made of acrylic and anthropomorphically shaped, were constructed to allow the simulation of a healthy thyroid and of thyroids with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Images of these thyroid anthropomorphic phantoms were obtained using iodine 131 with an activity of 8.695 MBq. The iodine 131 was chosen because it is widely used in studies of thyroid scintigraphy. The images obtained proved the effectiveness of the phantoms to simulate normal or abnormal thyroids function. These phantoms can be used in medical imaging quality control programs and, also in the training of professionals involved in the analysis of images in nuclear medicine centers.

  19. Nanoparticle-free tissue-mimicking phantoms with intrinsic scattering

    PubMed Central

    Wróbel, Maciej S.; Popov, Alexey P.; Bykov, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Jędrzejewska-Szczerska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    We present an alternative to the conventional approach, phantoms without scattering nanoparticles, where scattering is achieved by the material itself: spherical cavities trapped in a silicone matrix. We describe the properties and fabrication of novel optical phantoms based on a silicone elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glycerol mixture. Optical properties (absorption coefficient µa, reduced scattering coefficient µs', and anisotropy factor g) of the fabricated phantoms were retrieved from spectrophotometric measurements (in the 400–1100 nm wavelength range) using the inverse adding-doubling method. The internal structure of the phantoms was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the chemical composition was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. Composition of the phantom material is reported along with the full characterization of the produced phantoms and ways to control their parameters. PMID:27375928

  20. Fabricating optical phantoms to simulate skin tissue properties and microvasculatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Shuwei; Wu, Qiang; Han, Yilin; Dong, Erbao; Xu, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces novel methods to fabricate optical phantoms that simulate the morphologic, optical, and microvascular characteristics of skin tissue. The multi-layer skin-simulating phantom was fabricated by a light-cured 3D printer that mixed and printed the colorless light-curable ink with the absorption and the scattering ingredients for the designated optical properties. The simulated microvascular network was fabricated by a soft lithography process to embed microchannels in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantoms. The phantoms also simulated vascular anomalies and hypoxia commonly observed in cancer. A dual-modal multispectral and laser speckle imaging system was used for oxygen and perfusion imaging of the tissue-simulating phantoms. The light-cured 3D printing technique and the soft lithography process may enable freeform fabrication of skin-simulating phantoms that embed microvessels for image and drug delivery applications.

  1. Mathematical phantoms for evaluation of age-specific internal dose

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1980-01-01

    A series of mathematical phantoms representing children has been developed for use with photon transport codes. These phantoms, patterned after the Fisher-Snyder adult phantom, consist of simple mathematical expressions for the boundaries of the major organs and body sections. The location and shape of the organs are consistent with drawings depicting developmental anatomy, with the organ volumes assigned such that the masses at the various ages conform closely with the data presented in Reference Man. The explicit mathematical expressions for the various ages overcome the potential misrepresentation of organ sizes that occurred in phantoms derived from simple mathematical transformations of the adult phantom. Female breast tissue has been added to the phantoms, including the adult, now allowing assessment of doses to this organ.

  2. Intercostal HIFU Treatment: A Tissue Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Illing, Rowland O.; Kennedy, James E.; Haar, Gail R. ter

    2005-03-28

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) when used clinically to treat liver and kidney tumours is often directed between the ribs. This paper details the construction of a tissue phantom, incorporating ribs, and its use to assess the clinical safety of HIFU exposures. The prefocal, acoustic side-lobes of the ultrasonic beam were studied with and without rib interference, and thermocouples used to assess in-situ temperature changes. The results show that there are implications in regards to the safety of clinical treatment, should the operator be unaware of the characteristics of the transducer being used.

  3. A Novel Approach to Flurbiprofen Pulsatile Colonic Release: Formulation and Pharmacokinetics of Double-Compression-Coated Mini-Tablets.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Sateesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    A significant plan is executed in the present study to study the effect of double-compression coating on flurbiprofen core mini-tablets to achieve the pulsatile colonic delivery to deliver the drug at a specific time as per the patho-physiological need of the disease that results in improved therapeutic efficacy. In this study, pulsatile double-compression-coated tablets were prepared based on time-controlled hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M inner compression coat and pH-sensitive Eudragit S100 outer compression coat. Then, the tablets were evaluated for both physical evaluation and drug-release studies, and to prove these results, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers were conducted. From the in vitro drug-release studies, F6 tablets were considered as the best formulation, which retarded the drug release in the stomach and small intestine (3.42 ± 0.12% in 5 h) and progressively released to the colon (99.78 ± 0.74% in 24 h). The release process followed zero-order release kinetics, and from the stability studies, similarity factor between dissolution data before and after storage was found to be 88.86. From the pharmacokinetic evaluation, core mini-tablets producing peak plasma concentration (C max) was 14,677.51 ± 12.16 ng/ml at 3 h T max and pulsatile colonic tablets showed C max = 12,374.67 ± 16.72 ng/ml at 12 h T max. The area under the curve for the mini and pulsatile tablets was 41,238.52 and 72,369.24 ng-h/ml, and the mean resident time was 3.43 and 10.61 h, respectively. In conclusion, development of double-compression-coated tablets is a promising way to achieve the pulsatile colonic release of flurbiprofen.

  4. Phantom Limb Sensation (PLS) and Phantom Limb Pain (PLP) among Young Landmine Amputees

    PubMed Central

    POOR ZAMANY NEJATKERMANY, Mahtab; MODIRIAN, Ehsan; SOROUSH, Mohammadreza; MASOUMI, Mehdi; HOSSEINI, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of phantom limb sensation (PLS) and phantom limb pain (PLP) in children and young adults suffering landmine-related amputation. Materials & Methods All youths with amputation due to landmine explosions participated in this study. The proportions of patients with phantom limb sensation/pain, intensity and frequency of pain were reported. Chi square test was used to examine the relationship between variables. Comparison of PLP and PLS between upper and lower amputation was done by unpaired t-test. Results There were 38 male and 3 female with the mean age of 15.8±2.4yr. The mean interval between injury and follow-up was 90.7±39.6 months. Twelve (44.4%) upper limb amputees and 11 (26.8%) lower limb amputees had PLS. Nine (33.3%) upper limb amputees and 7 (17.1%) lower limb amputees experienced PLP. Of 27 upper limb amputees, 6 (14.6%) and among 15 lower limb amputees, 6 (14.6%) had both PLS and PLP. One case suffered amputation of upper and lower limbs and was experiencing PLS and PLP in both parts. PLS had a significant difference between the upper and lower amputated groups. Significant relationship was observed between age of casualty and duration of injury with PLP. Conclusion Phantom limb sensation and pain in young survivors of landmine explosions appear to be common, even years after amputation. PMID:27375755

  5. Infant phantom head circuit board for EEG head phantom and pediatric brain simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almohsen, Safa

    The infant's skull differs from an adult skull because of the characteristic features of the human skull during early development. The fontanels and the conductivity of the infant skull influence surface currents, generated by neurons, which underlie electroencephalography (EEG) signals. An electric circuit was built to power a set of simulated neural sources for an infant brain activity simulator. Also, in the simulator, three phantom tissues were created using saline solution plus Agarose gel to mimic the conductivity of each layer in the head [scalp, skull brain]. The conductivity measurement was accomplished by two different techniques: using the four points' measurement technique, and a conductivity meter. Test results showed that the optimized phantom tissues had appropriate conductivities to simulate each tissue layer to fabricate a physical head phantom. In this case, the best results should be achieved by testing the electrical neural circuit with the sample physical model to generate simulated EEG data and use that to solve both the forward and the inverse problems for the purpose of localizing the neural sources in the head phantom.

  6. Phantom Eye Syndrome: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Agda M.; Goiato, Marcelo C.; Pellizzer, Eduardo P.; Pesqueira, Aldiéris A.; Guiotti, Aimée M.; Gennari-Filho, Humberto; dos Santos, Daniela M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to describe the main features of phantom eye syndrome in relation to their possible causes, symptoms, treatments, and influence of eye amputation on quality of life of anophthalmic patients. For this, a bibliographical research was performed in Pubmed database using the following terms: “eye amputation,” “eye trauma,” “phantom eye syndrome,” “phantom pain,” and “quality of life,” associated or not. Thirteen studies were selected, besides some relevant references contained in the selected manuscripts and other studies hallowed in the literature. Thus, 56 articles were included in this review. The phantom eye syndrome is defined as any sensation reported by the patient with anophthalmia, originated anophthalmic cavity. In phantom eye syndrome, at least one of these three symptoms has to be present: phantom vision, phantom pain, and phantom sensations. This syndrome has a direct influence on the quality of life of the patients, and psychological support is recommended before and after the amputation of the eyeball as well as aid in the treatment of the syndrome. Therefore, it is suggested that, for more effective treatment of phantom eye syndrome, drug therapy should be associated with psychological approach. PMID:25548790

  7. Breast phantom for mammary tissue characterization by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, D. A.; Cristiano, K. L.; Gutiérrez, J. C.

    2013-11-01

    Breast cancer is a disease associated to a high morbidity and mortality in the entire world. In the study of early detection of breast cancer the development of phantom is so important. In this research we fabricate a breast phantom using a ballistic gel with special modifications to simulate a normal and abnormal human breast. Optical properties of woman breast in the near infrared region were modelled with the phantom we developed. The developed phantom was evaluated with near infrared spectroscopy in order to study its relation with breast tissue. A good optical behaviour was achieved with the model fabricated.

  8. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  9. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern phantom... performance characteristic of a nuclear medicine imaging device. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  12. Non-Gaussian statistical properties of virtual breast phantoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Craig K.; Bakic, Predrag R.; Pokrajac, David D.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Eckstein, Miguel P.; Boone, John M.

    2014-03-01

    Images derived from a "phantom" are useful for characterizing the performance of imaging systems. In particular, the modulation transfer properties of imaging detectors are traditionally assessed by physical phantoms consisting of an edge. More recently researchers have come to realize that quantifying the effects of object variability can also be accomplished with phantoms in modalities such as breast imaging where anatomical structure may be the principal limitation in performance. This has driven development of virtual phantoms that can be used in simulation environments. In breast imaging, several such phantoms have been proposed. In this work, we analyze non-Gaussian statistical properties of virtual phantoms, and compare them to similar statistics from a database of breast images. The virtual phantoms assessed consist of three classes. The first is known as clustered-blob lumpy backgrounds. The second class is "binarized" textures which typically apply some sort of threshold to a stochastic 3D texture intended to represent the distribution of adipose and glandular tissue in the breast. The third approach comes from efforts at the University of Pennsylvania to directly simulate the 3D anatomy of the breast. We use Laplacian fractional entropy (LFE) as a measure of the non-Gaussian statistical properties of each simulation. Our results show that the simulation approaches differ considerably in LFE with very low scores for the clustered-blob lumpy background to very high values for the UPenn phantom. These results suggest that LFE may have value in developing and tuning virtual phantom simulation procedures.

  13. The effects of acute exercise on pulsatile LH release in high-mileage male runners.

    PubMed

    McColl, E M; Wheeler, G D; Gomes, P; Bhambhani, Y; Cumming, D C

    1989-11-01

    Evidence suggests that acute exercise and endurance training has a suppressive effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in men and women. To determine if training and acute exercise influence the neuroendocrine regulation of the HPG axis in men we examined pulsatile LH release in six male endurance runners with a training volume of at least 80 km per week, and compared this with values in six age-matched sedentary controls. Blood samples were obtained through an indwelling i.v. cannula from the subjects at 15-min intervals for 6 h following 24 h without significant physical activity and again in the runners, following 60 min of running at a speed equivalent to 5% below the anaerobic threshold. Mean LH pulse frequency and amplitude, as well as areas under the LH pulses and total LH curve, were calculated but only the mean post-exercise area under the total LH curve area was significantly lower than basal values (P less than 0.05) following exercise compared with the resting values in runners. Other measures of LH release did not change with acute exercise. Basal and pre-exercise testosterone levels were also measured and found to be at the lower end of normal men. The mean pre-exercise serum testosterone levels were significantly higher than basal levels. Mean testosterone levels, mean pulse amplitude, and mean area under the LH curve were significantly lower in resting runners than in the controls. The data suggest that exercise induces a general lowering of LH levels but does not inhibit LH pulsatile release. An anticipatory increase in serum testosterone occurred before exercise.

  14. Selective optogenetic activation of arcuate kisspeptin neurons generates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Young; McLennan, Timothy; Czieselsky, Katja; Herbison, Allan E

    2015-10-20

    Normal reproductive functioning in mammals depends upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons generating a pulsatile pattern of gonadotropin secretion. The neural mechanism underlying the episodic release of GnRH is not known, although recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) may be involved. In the present experiments we expressed channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in the ARN kisspeptin population to test directly whether synchronous activation of these neurons would generate pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in vivo. Characterization studies showed that this strategy targeted ChR2 to 70% of all ARN kisspeptin neurons and that, in vitro, these neurons were activated by 473-nm blue light with high fidelity up to 30 Hz. In vivo, the optogenetic activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons at 10 and 20 Hz evoked high amplitude, pulse-like increments in LH secretion in anesthetized male mice. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 2 min was sufficient to generate repetitive LH pulses. In diestrous female mice, only 20-Hz activation generated significant increments in LH secretion. In ovariectomized mice, 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons were all found to evoke LH pulses. Part of the sex difference, but not the gonadal steroid dependence, resulted from differential pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. Experiments in kisspeptin receptor-null mice, showed that kisspeptin was the critical neuropeptide underlying the ability of ARN kisspeptin neurons to generate LH pulses. Together these data demonstrate that synchronized activation of the ARN kisspeptin neuronal population generates pulses of LH. PMID:26443858

  15. Selective optogenetic activation of arcuate kisspeptin neurons generates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Young; McLennan, Timothy; Czieselsky, Katja; Herbison, Allan E

    2015-10-20

    Normal reproductive functioning in mammals depends upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons generating a pulsatile pattern of gonadotropin secretion. The neural mechanism underlying the episodic release of GnRH is not known, although recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) may be involved. In the present experiments we expressed channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in the ARN kisspeptin population to test directly whether synchronous activation of these neurons would generate pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in vivo. Characterization studies showed that this strategy targeted ChR2 to 70% of all ARN kisspeptin neurons and that, in vitro, these neurons were activated by 473-nm blue light with high fidelity up to 30 Hz. In vivo, the optogenetic activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons at 10 and 20 Hz evoked high amplitude, pulse-like increments in LH secretion in anesthetized male mice. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 2 min was sufficient to generate repetitive LH pulses. In diestrous female mice, only 20-Hz activation generated significant increments in LH secretion. In ovariectomized mice, 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons were all found to evoke LH pulses. Part of the sex difference, but not the gonadal steroid dependence, resulted from differential pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. Experiments in kisspeptin receptor-null mice, showed that kisspeptin was the critical neuropeptide underlying the ability of ARN kisspeptin neurons to generate LH pulses. Together these data demonstrate that synchronized activation of the ARN kisspeptin neuronal population generates pulses of LH.

  16. Phantom black holes and critical phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Marques, Glauber T.

    2014-07-01

    We consider the two classes cosh and sinh of normal and phantom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The thermodynamics of these holes is characterized by heat capacities that may have both signs depending on the parameters of the theory. Leaving aside the normal Reissner-Nordström black hole, it is shown that only some phantom black holes of both classes exhibit critical phenomena. The two classes share a nonextremality, but special, critical point where the transition is continuous and the heat capacity, at constant charge, changes sign with an infinite discontinuity. This point yields a classification scheme for critical points. It is concluded that the two unstable and stable phases coexist on one side of the criticality state and disappear on the other side, that is, there is no configuration where only one phase exists. The sinh class has an extremality critical point where the entropy diverges. The transition from extremality to nonextremality with the charge held constant is accompanied by a loss of mass and an increase in the temperature. A special case of this transition is when the hole is isolated (microcanonical ensemble), it will evolve by emission of energy, which results in a decrease of its mass, to the final state of minimum mass and vanishing heat capacity. The Ehrenfest scheme of classification is inaccurate in this case but the generalized one due to Hilfer leads to conclude that the transition is of order less than unity. Fluctuations near criticality are also investigated.

  17. Characterization of tracked radiofrequency ablation in phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chun-Cheng R.; Miga, Michael I.; Galloway, Robert L.

    2007-10-15

    In radiofrequency ablation (RFA), successful therapy requires accurate, image-guided placement of the ablation device in a location selected by a predictive treatment plan. Current planning methods rely on geometric models of ablations that are not sensitive to underlying physical processes in RFA. Implementing plans based on computational models of RFA with image-guided techniques, however, has not been well characterized. To study the use of computational models of RFA in planning needle placement, this work compared ablations performed with an optically tracked RFA device with corresponding models of the ablations. The calibration of the tracked device allowed the positions of distal features of the device, particularly the tips of the needle electrodes, to be determined to within 1.4{+-}0.6 mm of uncertainty. Ablations were then performed using the tracked device in a phantom system based on an agarose-albumin mixture. Images of the sliced phantom obtained from the ablation experiments were then compared with the predictions of a bioheat transfer model of RFA, which used the positional data of the tracked device obtained during ablation. The model was demonstrated to predict 90% of imaged pixels classified as being ablated. The discrepancies between model predictions and observations were analyzed and attributed to needle tracking inaccuracy as well as to uncertainties in model parameters. The results suggest the feasibility of using finite element modeling to plan ablations with predictable outcomes when implemented using tracked RFA.

  18. Cosmological perturbations on the phantom brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, Satadru; Viznyuk, Alexander; Shtanov, Yuri; Sahni, Varun

    2016-07-01

    We obtain a closed system of equations for scalar perturbations in a multi-component braneworld. Our braneworld possesses a phantom-like equation of state at late times, weff < ‑1, but no big-rip future singularity. In addition to matter and radiation, the braneworld possesses a new effective degree of freedom—the `Weyl fluid' or `dark radiation'. Setting initial conditions on super-Hubble spatial scales at the epoch of radiation domination, we evolve perturbations of radiation, pressureless matter and the Weyl fluid until the present epoch. We observe a gradual decrease in the amplitude of the Weyl-fluid perturbations after Hubble-radius crossing, which results in a negligible effect of the Weyl fluid on the evolution of matter perturbations on spatial scales relevant for structure formation. Consequently, the quasi-static approximation of Koyama and Maartens provides a good fit to the exact results during the matter-dominated epoch. We find that the late-time growth of density perturbations on the brane proceeds at a faster rate than in ΛCDM. Additionally, the gravitational potentials Φ and Ψ evolve differently on the brane than in ΛCDM, for which Φ = Ψ. On the brane, by contrast, the ratio Φ/Ψ exceeds unity during the late matter-dominated epoch (z lesssim 50). These features emerge as smoking gun tests of phantom brane cosmology and allow predictions of this scenario to be tested against observations of galaxy clustering and large-scale structure.

  19. Cosmological perturbations on the phantom brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bag, Satadru; Viznyuk, Alexander; Shtanov, Yuri; Sahni, Varun

    2016-07-01

    We obtain a closed system of equations for scalar perturbations in a multi-component braneworld. Our braneworld possesses a phantom-like equation of state at late times, weff < -1, but no big-rip future singularity. In addition to matter and radiation, the braneworld possesses a new effective degree of freedom—the `Weyl fluid' or `dark radiation'. Setting initial conditions on super-Hubble spatial scales at the epoch of radiation domination, we evolve perturbations of radiation, pressureless matter and the Weyl fluid until the present epoch. We observe a gradual decrease in the amplitude of the Weyl-fluid perturbations after Hubble-radius crossing, which results in a negligible effect of the Weyl fluid on the evolution of matter perturbations on spatial scales relevant for structure formation. Consequently, the quasi-static approximation of Koyama and Maartens provides a good fit to the exact results during the matter-dominated epoch. We find that the late-time growth of density perturbations on the brane proceeds at a faster rate than in ΛCDM. Additionally, the gravitational potentials Φ and Ψ evolve differently on the brane than in ΛCDM, for which Φ = Ψ. On the brane, by contrast, the ratio Φ/Ψ exceeds unity during the late matter-dominated epoch (z lesssim 50). These features emerge as smoking gun tests of phantom brane cosmology and allow predictions of this scenario to be tested against observations of galaxy clustering and large-scale structure.

  20. Incompressible viscous flow in tubes with occlusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaxiong

    Viscous, incompressible flow in tubes with partial occlusion is investigated using numerical and experimental procedures. The study is related to the problem of atherosclerosis, one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system. One of the computational difficulties in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is the lack of pressure or vorticity boundary conditions. A finite difference approach, referred to as the interior constraint (IC) method, is proposed to resolve this difficulty. As a general numerical method, it is formulated for both the stream function-vorticity and primitive (physical) variable formulations. The procedure is explained using a one dimensional model with extensive numerical tests presented for two dimensional cases, including flow in a driven cavity and flow over a backward facing step. Results are obtained with second-order accuracy. Next, the IC method is applied to flow in a tube with an occlusion, which is used as the model for blood flow in stenosed arteries in the study of the pathology of atherosclerosis. Numerical results are obtained for both steady and pulsatile flows. Results are compared with those of SIMPLE, one of the commercially available numerical algorithms. The pulsatile flow study revealed several interesting new features. It suggested that the high shear stress is not likely to initiate atherosclerosis lesions. The recirculation region, which is a prominent feature of the unsteady flow, is more likely to cause the initiation and development of the disease. Experimental measurements for steady flow complement the numerical study and show qualitative agreement.

  1. Vesicoureteral reflux in children: a phantom study of microwave heating and radiometric thermometry of pediatric bladder.

    PubMed

    Birkelund, Yngve; Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein K; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the use of microwave heating and radiometry to safely heat urine inside a pediatric bladder. The medical application for this research is to create a safe and reliable method to detect vesicoureteral reflux, a pediatric disorder, where urine flow is reversed and flows from the bladder back up into the kidney. Using fat and muscle tissue models, we have performed both experimental and numerical simulations of a pediatric bladder model using planar dual concentric conductor microstrip antennas at 915 MHz for microwave heating. A planar elliptical antenna connected to a 500 MHz bandwidth microwave radiometer centered at 3.5 GHz was used for noninvasive temperature measurement inside tissue. Temperatures were measured in the phantom models at points during the experiment with implanted fiberoptic sensors, and 2-D distributions in cut planes at depth in the phantom with an infrared camera at the end of the experiment. Cycling between 20 s with 20 Watts power for heating, and 10 s without power to allow for undisturbed microwave radiometry measurements, the experimental results show that the target tissue temperature inside the phantom increases fast and that the radiometer provides useful measurements of spatially averaged temperature of the illuminated volume. The presented numerical and experimental results show excellent concordance, which confirms that the proposed system for microwave heating and radiometry is applicable for safe and reliable heating of pediatric bladder.

  2. Vesicouretal reflux in children: A phantom study of microwave heating and radiometric thermometry of pediatric bladder

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, Yngve; Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein K.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the use of microwave heating and radiometry to safely heat urine inside a pediatric bladder. The medical application for this research is to create a safe and reliable method to detect vesicoureteral reflux, a pediatric disorder, where urine flow is reversed and flows from the bladder back up into the kidney. Using fat and muscle tissue models, we have performed both experimental and numerical simulations of a pediatric bladder model using planar dual concentric conductor microstrip antennas at 915 MHz for microwave heating. A planar elliptical antenna connected to a 500 MHz bandwidth microwave radiometer centered at 3.5 GHz was used for non-invasive temperature measurement inside tissue. Temperatures were measured in the phantom models at points during the experiment with implanted fiberoptic sensors, and 2D distributions in cut planes at depth in the phantom with an infrared camera at the end of the experiment. Cycling between 20 second with 20 Watts power for heating, and 10 seconds without power to allow for undisturbed microwave radiometry measurements, the experimental results show that the target tissue temperature inside the phantom increases fast and that the radiometer provides useful measurements of spatially averaged temperature of the illuminated volume. The presented numerical and experimental results show excellent concordance, which confirms that the proposed system for microwave heating and radiometry is applicable for safe and reliable heating of pediatric bladder. PMID:21900069

  3. Vesicoureteral reflux in children: a phantom study of microwave heating and radiometric thermometry of pediatric bladder.

    PubMed

    Birkelund, Yngve; Klemetsen, Øystein; Jacobsen, Svein K; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo; Stauffer, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    We have investigated the use of microwave heating and radiometry to safely heat urine inside a pediatric bladder. The medical application for this research is to create a safe and reliable method to detect vesicoureteral reflux, a pediatric disorder, where urine flow is reversed and flows from the bladder back up into the kidney. Using fat and muscle tissue models, we have performed both experimental and numerical simulations of a pediatric bladder model using planar dual concentric conductor microstrip antennas at 915 MHz for microwave heating. A planar elliptical antenna connected to a 500 MHz bandwidth microwave radiometer centered at 3.5 GHz was used for noninvasive temperature measurement inside tissue. Temperatures were measured in the phantom models at points during the experiment with implanted fiberoptic sensors, and 2-D distributions in cut planes at depth in the phantom with an infrared camera at the end of the experiment. Cycling between 20 s with 20 Watts power for heating, and 10 s without power to allow for undisturbed microwave radiometry measurements, the experimental results show that the target tissue temperature inside the phantom increases fast and that the radiometer provides useful measurements of spatially averaged temperature of the illuminated volume. The presented numerical and experimental results show excellent concordance, which confirms that the proposed system for microwave heating and radiometry is applicable for safe and reliable heating of pediatric bladder. PMID:21900069

  4. [Examination of Visual Effect in Low-dose Cerebral CT Perfusion Phantom Image Using Iterative Reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Tomomi; Lee, Yongbum; Takahashi, Noriyuki; Sato, Yuichiro; Ishida, Takato; Toyoshima, Hideto

    2015-11-01

    CT perfusion (CTP) is obtained cerebrovascular circulation image for assessment of stroke patients; however, at the expense of increased radiation dose by dynamic scan. Iterative reconstruction (IR) method is possible to decrease image noise, it has the potential to reduce radiation dose. The purpose of this study is to assess the visual effect of IR method by using a digital perfusion phantom. The digital perfusion phantom was created by reconstructed filtered back projection (FBP) method and IR method CT images that had five exposure doses. Various exposure dose cerebral blood flow (CBF) images were derived from deconvolution algorithm. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and visual assessment were compared among the various exposure dose and each reconstructions. Result of low exposure dose with IR method showed, compared with FBP method, high CNR in severe ischemic area, and visual assessment was significantly improvement. IR method is useful for improving image quality of low-dose CTP. PMID:26596197

  5. Treatment Planning for Image-Guided Neuro-Vascular Interventions Using Patient-Specific 3D Printed Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Russ, M.; O’Hara, R.; Setlur Nagesh, S.V.; Mokin, M.; Jimenez, C.; Siddiqui, A.; Bednarek, D.; Rudin, S.; Ionita, C.

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive endovascular image-guided interventions (EIGIs) are the preferred procedures for treatment of a wide range of vascular disorders. Despite benefits including reduced trauma and recovery time, EIGIs have their own challenges. Remote catheter actuation and challenging anatomical morphology may lead to erroneous endovascular device selections, delays or even complications such as vessel injury. EIGI planning using 3D phantoms would allow interventionists to become familiarized with the patient vessel anatomy by first performing the planned treatment on a phantom under standard operating protocols. In this study the optimal workflow to obtain such phantoms from 3D data for interventionist to practice on prior to an actual procedure was investigated. Patient-specific phantoms and phantoms presenting a wide range of challenging geometries were created. Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA) data was uploaded into a Vitrea 3D station which allows segmentation and resulting stereo-lithographic files to be exported. The files were uploaded using processing software where preloaded vessel structures were included to create a closed-flow vasculature having structural support. The final file was printed, cleaned, connected to a flow loop and placed in an angiographic room for EIGI practice. Various Circle of Willis and cardiac arterial geometries were used. The phantoms were tested for ischemic stroke treatment, distal catheter navigation, aneurysm stenting and cardiac imaging under angiographic guidance. This method should allow for adjustments to treatment plans to be made before the patient is actually in the procedure room and enabling reduced risk of peri-operative complications or delays. PMID:26778878

  6. Comparison of different phantoms used in digital diagnostic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bor, Dogan; Unal, Elif; Uslu, Anil

    2015-09-01

    The organs of extremity, chest, skull and lumbar were physically simulated using uniform PMMA slabs with different thicknesses alone and using these slabs together with aluminum plates and air gaps (ANSI Phantoms). The variation of entrance surface air kerma and scatter fraction with X-ray beam qualities was investigated for these phantoms and the results were compared with those measured from anthropomorphic phantoms. A flat panel digital radiographic system was used for all the experiments. Considerable variations of entrance surface air kermas were found for the same organs of different designs, and highest doses were measured for the PMMA slabs. A low contrast test tool and a contrast detail test object (CDRAD) were used together with each organ simulation of PMMA slabs and ANSI phantoms in order to test the clinical image qualities. Digital images of these phantom combinations and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired in raw and clinically processed formats. Variation of image quality with kVp and post processing was evaluated using the numerical metrics of these test tools and measured contrast values from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Our results indicated that design of some phantoms may not be efficient enough to reveal the expected performance of the post processing algorithms.

  7. Tissue phantoms for multimodal approaches: Raman spectroscopy and optoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhardt-Wollweber, Merve; Suhr, Christian; Kniggendorf, Ann-Kathrin; Roth, Bernhard

    2014-03-01

    Tissue phantoms with defined, reliable and reproducible characteristics are crucial for the evaluation of biomedical imaging systems. For multimodal approaches, various demands on tissue phantoms have to be met in order to satisfy the needs of all modalities. We present and discuss a hydrogel phantom that was created for combined Raman spectroscopic and optoacoustic measurements imposing optical as well as acoustic requirements on the phantom. In this phantom, defined concentrations of carotenes should be available in an optically scattering and absorbing matrix to test and validate the capability of this combination of methods to quantify specific biomolecules in tissue. The main requirements on this phantom were tissue-like acoustic properties, scalable optical attenuation and incorporation of Raman active target molecules. We used a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel as the basic phantom material because of its suitable acoustic and optical characteristics but found that the incorporation of non-polar dyes like carotenoids in the hydrogel is difficult and the optical properties of the biomolecule are significantly altered by the hydrogel molecular environment and production procedure. We show and discuss challenges and solutions in the design process of a suitable tissue phantom.

  8. The impact of anthropometric patient-phantom matching on organ dose: A hybrid phantom study for fluoroscopy guided interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Perry B.; Geyer, Amy; Borrego, David; Ficarrotta, Kayla; Johnson, Kevin; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the benefits and limitations of patient-phantom matching for determining organ dose during fluoroscopy guided interventions. Methods: In this study, 27 CT datasets representing patients of different sizes and genders were contoured and converted into patient-specific computational models. Each model was matched, based on height and weight, to computational phantoms selected from the UF hybrid patient-dependent series. In order to investigate the influence of phantom type on patient organ dose, Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate two cardiac projections (PA/left lateral) and two abdominal projections (RAO/LPO). Organ dose conversion coefficients were then calculated for each patient-specific and patient-dependent phantom and also for a reference stylized and reference hybrid phantom. The coefficients were subsequently analyzed for any correlation between patient-specificity and the accuracy of the dose estimate. Accuracy was quantified by calculating an absolute percent difference using the patient-specific dose conversion coefficients as the reference. Results: Patient-phantom matching was shown most beneficial for estimating the dose to heavy patients. In these cases, the improvement over using a reference stylized phantom ranged from approximately 50% to 120% for abdominal projections and for a reference hybrid phantom from 20% to 60% for all projections. For lighter individuals, patient-phantom matching was clearly superior to using a reference stylized phantom, but not significantly better than using a reference hybrid phantom for certain fields and projections. Conclusions: The results indicate two sources of error when patients are matched with phantoms: Anatomical error, which is inherent due to differences in organ size and location, and error attributed to differences in the total soft tissue attenuation. For small patients, differences in soft tissue attenuation are minimal and are exceeded by inherent anatomical differences

  9. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Yi, Hou-Hui; Li, Hua-Bing; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small. On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency. Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel walls. The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  10. Phantom limb pain: a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Virani, Anila; Green, Theresa; Turin, Tanvir C

    2014-09-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a neuropathic pain condition occurring after amputation of a limb. PLP affects amputees' quality of life and results in loss of productivity and psychological distress. The origin of pain from a non-existing limb creates a challenging situation for both patients and nurses. It is imperative to provide patients and nurses with the knowledge that PLP is a real phenomenon that requires care and treatment. This knowledge will lead to reduced problems for patients by allowing them to talk about PLP and ask for help when needed. Understanding of this phenomenon will enable nurses to appreciate the unique features of this form of neuropathic pain and apply appropriate techniques to promote effective pain management. Performing accurate and frequent assessments to understand the unique characteristics of PLP, displaying a non-judgemental attitude towards patients and teaching throughout the peri-operative process are significant nursing interventions.

  11. Development of breast cancer tissue phantoms for terahertz imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Alec; Bowman, Tyler; El-Shenawee, Magda

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this work was to develop phantoms that match the refractive indices and absorption coefficients between 0.15 and 2.0 THz of the freshly excised tissues commonly found in breast tumors. Since a breast cancer tumor can contain fibrous and fatty tissues alongside the cancerous tissues, a phantom had to be developed for each. In order to match the desired properties of the tissues, oil in water emulsions were solidified using the proven phantom component TX151. The properties of each potential phantom were verified through THz time-domain spectroscopy on a TPS Spectra 3000. Using this method, phantoms for fibrous and cancerous tissue were successfully developed while a commercially available material was found which matched the optical properties of fatty tissue.

  12. Radiation Phantom with Humanoid Shape and Adjustable Thickness (RPHAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, J; Stern, R L; Levy, J; Daly, T; Hartmann-Siantar, C L; Goldberg, Z

    2003-08-11

    A new radiation phantom with humanoid shape and adjustable thickness (RPHAT) has been developed. Unlike the RANDO{reg_sign} Phantom which is a fixed thickness, this newly designed phantom has adjustable thickness to address the variable thickness of real-world patients. RPHAT allows adjustment of the body thickness by being sliced in the coronal direction (as opposed to axial). Center slices are designed such that more sections can be added or removed while maintaining the anthropomorphic shape. A prototype of the new phantom has been successfully used in a study investigating peripheral dose delivery, where the amount of scatter within the patient, and therefore the patient thickness, plays a critical role in dose deposition. This newly designed phantom is an important tool to improve the quality of radiation therapy.

  13. Phantom percepts: Tinnitus and pain as persisting aversive memory networks

    PubMed Central

    De Ridder, Dirk; Elgoyhen, Ana Belen; Romo, Ranulfo; Langguth, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    Phantom perception refers to the conscious awareness of a percept in the absence of an external stimulus. On the basis of basic neuroscience on perception and clinical research in phantom pain and phantom sound, we propose a working model for their origin. Sensory deafferentation results in high-frequency, gamma band, synchronized neuronal activity in the sensory cortex. This activity becomes a conscious percept only if it is connected to larger coactivated “(self-)awareness” and “salience” brain networks. Through the involvement of learning mechanisms, the phantom percept becomes associated to distress, which in turn is reflected by a simultaneously coactivated nonspecific distress network consisting of the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and amygdala. Memory mechanisms play a role in the persistence of the awareness of the phantom percept, as well as in the reinforcement of the associated distress. Thus, different dynamic overlapping brain networks should be considered as targets for the treatment of this disorder. PMID:21502503

  14. Simplified spinal cord phantom for evaluation of SQUID magnetospinography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Y.; Oyama, D.; Somchai, N.; Kawabata, S.; Uehara, G.

    2014-05-01

    Spinal cord functional imaging by magnetospinography (MSG) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for spinal cord diseases. However, the accuracy and spatial resolution of lesion localization by MSG have barely been evaluated in detail so far. We developed a simplified spinal cord phantom for MSG evaluation. The spinal cord phantom is composed of a cylindrical vessel filled with saline water, which acts as a model of a neck. A set of modeled vertebrae is arranged in the cylindrical vessel, which has a neural current model made from catheter electrodes. The neural current model emulates the current distribution around the activated site along the axon of the spinal cord nerve. Our MSG system was used to observe the magnetic field from the phantom; a quadrupole-like pattern of the magnetic field distribution, which is a typical distribution pattern for spinal cord magnetic fields, was successfully reproduced by the phantom. Hence, the developed spinal cord phantom can be used to evaluate MSG source analysis methods.

  15. Surgical phantom for off-pump mitral valve replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Jones, Doug L.; Campbell, Gordon; Peters, Terry M.

    2011-03-01

    Off-pump, intracardiac, beating heart surgery has the potential to improve patient outcomes by eliminating the need for cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross clamping but it requires extensive image guidance as well as the development of specialized instrumentation. Previously, developments in image guidance and instrumentation were validated on either a static phantom or in vivo through porcine models. This paper describes the design and development of a surgical phantom for simulating off-pump mitral valve replacement inside the closed beating heart. The phantom allows surgical access to the mitral annulus while mimicking the pressure inside the beating heart. An image guidance system using tracked ultrasound, magnetic instrument tracking and preoperative models previously developed for off-pump mitral valve replacement is applied to the phantom. Pressure measurements and ultrasound images confirm the phantom closely mimics conditions inside the beating heart.

  16. Voluntary control of a phantom limb.

    PubMed

    Walsh, E; Long, C; Haggard, P

    2015-08-01

    Voluntary actions are often accompanied by a conscious experience of intention. The content of this experience, and its neural basis, remain controversial. On one view, the mind just retrospectively ascribes intentions to explain the occurrence of actions that lack obvious triggering stimuli. Here, we use EEG frequency analysis of sensorimotor rhythms to investigate brain activity when a participant (CL, co-author of this paper) with congenital absence of the left hand and arm, prepared and made a voluntary action with the right or the phantom "left hand". CL reported the moment she experienced the intention to press a key. This timepoint was then used as a marker for aligning and averaging EEG. In a second condition, CL was asked to prepare the action on all trials, but then, on some trials, to cancel the action at the last moment. For the right hand, we observed a typical reduction in beta-band spectral power prior to movement, followed by beta rebound after movement. When CL prepared but then cancelled a movement, we found a characteristic EEG pattern reported previously, namely a left frontal increase in spectral power close to the time of the perceived intention to move. Interestingly, the same neural signatures of positive and inhibitory volition were also present when CL prepared and inhibited movements with her phantom left hand. These EEG signals were all similar to those reported previously in a group of 14 healthy volunteers. Our results suggest that conscious intention may depend on preparatory brain activity, and not on making, or ever having made, the corresponding physical body movement. Accounts that reduce conscious volition to mere retrospective confabulation cannot easily explain our participant's neurophenomenology of action and inhibition. In contrast, the results are consistent with the view that specific neural events prior to movement may generate conscious experiences of positive and negative volition.

  17. Using flow information to support 3D vessel reconstruction from rotational angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Waechter, Irina; Bredno, Joerg; Weese, Juergen; Barratt, Dean C.; Hawkes, David J.

    2008-07-15

    For the assessment of cerebrovascular diseases, it is beneficial to obtain three-dimensional (3D) morphologic and hemodynamic information about the vessel system. Rotational angiography is routinely used to image the 3D vascular geometry and we have shown previously that rotational subtraction angiography has the potential to also give quantitative information about blood flow. Flow information can be determined when the angiographic sequence shows inflow and possibly outflow of contrast agent. However, a standard volume reconstruction assumes that the vessel tree is uniformly filled with contrast agent during the whole acquisition. If this is not the case, the reconstruction exhibits artifacts. Here, we show how flow information can be used to support the reconstruction of the 3D vessel centerline and radii in this case. Our method uses the fast marching algorithm to determine the order in which voxels are analyzed. For every voxel, the rotational time intensity curve (R-TIC) is determined from the image intensities at the projection points of the current voxel. Next, the bolus arrival time of the contrast agent at the voxel is estimated from the R-TIC. Then, a measure of the intensity and duration of the enhancement is determined, from which a speed value is calculated that steers the propagation of the fast marching algorithm. The results of the fast marching algorithm are used to determine the 3D centerline by backtracking. The 3D radius is reconstructed from 2D radius estimates on the projection images. The proposed method was tested on computer simulated rotational angiography sequences with systematically varied x-ray acquisition, blood flow, and contrast agent injection parameters and on datasets from an experimental setup using an anthropomorphic cerebrovascular phantom. For the computer simulation, the mean absolute error of the 3D centerline and 3D radius estimation was 0.42 and 0.25 mm, respectively. For the experimental datasets, the mean absolute

  18. Comparison of a pulsatile blood pump and a peristaltic roller pump during hemoperfusion treatment in a canine model of paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Seong Wook; Kim, Jeong Chul; Lim, Ki Moo; Kim, Kyuseok; Jung, Sung Koo; Kwak, Young Ho; Shin, Sang Do; Jo, Ik Joon; Suh, Gil Joon; Min, Byoung Goo

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the treatment efficacy and the damage to the blood during hemoperfusion for treating paraquat poisoning using two blood pump mechanisms. Paraquat-poisoned animal models were prepared. A conventional hemodialysis machine, AK90, with a peristaltic roller pump and a cardiopulmonary support system, T-PLS, with a pulsatile blood pump were used during the animal experiments. A total of 12 dogs were treated with hemoperfusion using a charcoal column. Six dogs were treated with hemoperfusion and T-PLS, and the other six were treated with AK90. A paraquat dose of 30 mg/kg was administrated by an intravenous injection. Both pumps maintained blood flow rates of 125 mL/min measured by an ultrasonic flowmeter. For anticoagulation, heparin was administrated by an initial bolus (250 IU/kg) and a continuous injection (100 IU/kg/h). During the experiments, T-PLS and AK90 showed a similar toxin removal efficacy. Both devices decreased the plasma paraquat concentration to 10% of the initial dose within 4-h hemoperfusion. The two pumps showed similar hemolysis properties with acceptable levels. Although T-PLS was developed as a cardiopulmonary bypass system, it can also be used as a hemoperfusion treatment device. PMID:18638308

  19. Surgical treatment of severe chronic venous insufficiency caused by pulsatile varicose veins in a patient with tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Casian, D; Gutsu, E; Culiuc, V

    2009-04-01

    A case of severe chronic venous insufficiency caused by pulsatile varicose veins in a 46-year-old man with tricuspid regurgitation is presented. Active venous leg ulcer complicated with recurrent venous bleeding and inefficacy of conservative management serve as indications for surgical treatment. This case demonstrates the possibility of radical surgical correction of pathological venous reflux by means of saphenofemoral ligation, foam sclerotherapy and subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery.

  20. Effect of transport on pulsatile and surge secretion of LH in ewes in the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Dobson, H; Tebble, J E; Phogat, J B; Smith, R F

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in stress-induced subfertility by examining the effect of 4 h transport on surge and pulsatile LH secretion in intact ewes and ovariectomized ewes treated with steroids to induce an artificial follicular phase (model ewes). Transport caused a greater delay in the onset of the LH surge in nine intact ewes than it did in ten ovariectomized ewes (intact: 41.0 +/- 0.9 h versus 48.3 +/- 0.8 h, P < 0.02; ovariectomized model: 40.8 +/- 0.6 h versus 42.6 +/- 0.5 h, P < 0.02). Disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary endocrine balance in intact ewes may have reduced gonadotrophin stimulation of follicular oestradiol production which had an additional effect on the LH surge mechanism. In the ovariectomized model ewes, this effect was masked by the exogenous supply of oestradiol. However, in these model ewes, there was a greater suppression of maximum LH surge concentrations (intact controls: 29 +/- 4 ng ml-1 versus intact transported 22 +/- 5 ng ml-1, P < 0.02; ovariectomized model controls: 35 +/- 7 ng ml-1 versus model transported 15 +/- 2 ng ml-1, P < 0.02). Subsequent exposure to progesterone for 12 days resulted in the resumption of a normal LH profile in the next follicular phase, indicating that acute stress leads to a temporary endocrine lesion. In four intact ewes transported in the mid-follicular phase, there was a suppression of LH pulse amplitude (0.9 +/- 0.3 versus 0.3 +/- 0.02 ng ml-1, P < 0.05) but a statistically significant effect on pulse frequency was not observed (2.0 +/- 0.4 versus 1.7 +/- 0.6 pulses per 2 h). In conclusion, activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by transport in the follicular phase of intact ewes interrupts surge secretion of LH, possibly by interference with LH pulsatility and, hence, follicular oestradiol production. This disruption of gonadotrophin secretion will have a major impact on fertility.