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Sample records for pulsatile flow

  1. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  2. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  3. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  4. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  5. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  6. Study on the effect of steady, simple pulsatile and physiological pulsatile flows through a stenosed artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, P.; Mandal, D. K.; Manna, N. K.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, the comparison of steady, simple pulsatile flow and physiological pulsatile flow on flow reversal zone and hemodynamic wall parameters [wall shear stress (WSS) and oscillatory shear index (OSI)] for the progression of the disease, atherosclerosis has been investigated numerically. The governing equations have been solved by finite volume method. For the numerical analysis, Womersley number, Reynolds number and percentage of restriction are taken as 10, 100 and 50 % respectively. From this study it is revealed that the separated flow from the stenosis strongly depends on inlet flow situations, the maximum chance of deposition of plaque material due to streamline contour is higher at time step t* = 0.75 for simple pulsatile flow and at time step t* = 0 for physiological pulsatile flow and this chance is lower in case of steady flow. The effect of WSS on the disease is higher in physiological pulsatile flow compared to steady as well as simple pulsatile flow. The maximum possibility of initiation as well as progression for atherosclerosis in arterial wall due to high WSS takes place at t* = 0.25 for physiological pulsatile flow. OSI indicates same length of separation for two cases of transient flow, but the rate of cyclic departure of WSS is higher in case of physiological pulsatile flow.

  7. Defining pulsatility during continuous-flow ventricular assist device support.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Kevin G; Koenig, Steven C; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    Continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CVADs) have gained widespread use as an effective clinical therapy for patients with advanced-stage heart failure. Axial and centrifugal CVADs have been successfully used as bridge-to-transplant and destination therapy. CVADs are smaller, more reliable, and less complex than the first-generation pulsatile-flow ventricular assist devices. Despite their recent clinical success, arteriovenous malformations, gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic strokes, aortic valve insufficiency, and valve fusion have been reported in heart failure patients supported by CVADs. It has been hypothesized that diminished arterial pressure and flow pulsatility delivered by CVAD may be a contributing factor to these adverse events. Subsequently, the clinical significance of vascular pulsatility continues to be highly debated. Studies comparing pulsatile-flow and continuous-flow support have presented conflicting findings, largely due to variations in device operation, support duration, and the criteria used to quantify pulsatility. Traditional measurements of pulse pressure and pulsatility index are less effective at quantifying pulsatility for mechanically derived flows, particularly with the growing trend of CVAD speed modulation to achieve various pulsatile flow patterns. Kinetic measurements of energy equivalent pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy can better quantify pulsatile energies, yet technologic and conceptual challenges are impeding their clinical adaption. A review of methods for quantifying vascular pulsatility and their application as a research tool for investigating physiologic responses to CVAD support are presented. PMID:23540401

  8. Fractality of pulsatile flow in speckle images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, M.; Kenjeres, S.; Urbach, H. P.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2016-05-01

    The scattering of coherent light from a system with underlying flow can be used to yield essential information about dynamics of the process. In the case of pulsatile flow, there is a rapid change in the properties of the speckle images. This can be studied using the standard laser speckle contrast and also the fractality of images. In this paper, we report the results of experiments performed to study pulsatile flow with speckle images, under different experimental configurations to verify the robustness of the techniques for applications. In order to study flow under various levels of complexity, the measurements were done for three in-vitro phantoms and two in-vivo situations. The pumping mechanisms were varied ranging from mechanical pumps to the human heart for the in vivo case. The speckle images were analyzed using the techniques of fractal dimension and speckle contrast analysis. The results of these techniques for the various experimental scenarios were compared. The fractal dimension is a more sensitive measure to capture the complexity of the signal though it was observed that it is also extremely sensitive to the properties of the scattering medium and cannot recover the signal for thicker diffusers in comparison to speckle contrast.

  9. Effects of the pulsatile flow settings on pulsatile waveforms and hemodynamic energy in a PediVAS centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Rider, Alan R; Kunselman, Allen R; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test different pulsatile flow settings of the PediVAS centrifugal pump to seek an optimum setting for pulsatile flow to achieve better pulsatile energy and minimal backflow. The PediVAS centrifugal pump and the conventional pediatric clinical circuit, including a pediatric membrane oxygenator, arterial filter, arterial cannula, and 1/4 in circuit tubing were used. The circuit was primed with 40% glycerin water mixture. Postcannula pressure was maintained at 40 mm Hg by a Hoffman clamp. The experiment was conducted at 800 ml/min of pump flow with a modified pulsatile flow setting at room temperature. Pump flow and pressure readings at preoxygenator and precannula sites were simultaneously recorded by a data acquisition system. The results showed that backflows appeared at flow rates of 200-800 ml/min (200 ml/min increments) with the default pulsatile flow setting and only at 200 ml/min with the modified pulsatile flow setting. With an increased rotational speed difference ratio and a decreased pulsatile width, the pulsatility increased in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy and total hemodynamic energy at preoxygenator and precannula sites. Backflows seemed at preoxygenator and precannula sites at a 70% of rotational speed difference ratio. The modified pulsatile flow setting was better than the default pulsatile flow setting in respect to pulsatile energy and backflow. The pulsatile width and the rotational speed difference ratio significantly affected pulsatility. The parameter of the rotational speed difference ratio can automatically increase pulsatility with increased rotational speeds. Further studies will be conducted to optimize the pulsatile flow setting of the centrifugal pump.

  10. A novel rotary pulsatile flow pump for cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Teman, Nicholas R; Mazur, Daniel E; Toomasian, John; Jahangir, Emilia; Alghanem, Fares; Goudie, Marcus; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Haft, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that pulsatile blood flow is superior to continuous flow (CF) in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, adoption of pulsatile flow (PF) technology has been limited because of practicality and complexity of creating a consistent physiologic pulse. A pediatric pulsatile rotary ventricular pump (PRVP) was designed to address this problem. We evaluated the PRVP in an animal model and determined its ability to generate PF during CPB. The PRVP (modified peristaltic pump, with tapering of the outlet of the pump chamber) was tested in four piglets (10-12 kg). Cannulation was performed with right atrial and aortic cannulae, and pressure sensors were inserted into the femoral arteries. Pressure curves were obtained at different levels of flow and compared with both the animal's baseline physiologic function and a CF roller pump. Pressure and flow waveforms demonstrated significant pulsatility in the PRVP setup compared with CF at all tested conditions. Measurement of hemodynamic energy data, including the percentage pulsatile energy and the surplus hydraulic energy, also revealed a significant increase in pulsatility with the PRVP (p < 0.001). The PRVP creates physiologically significant PF, similar to the pulsatility of a native heart, and has the potential to be easily implemented in pediatric CPB.

  11. Collapse in High-Grade Stenosis during Pulsatile Flow Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunichi; Tang, Dalin; Ku, David N.

    It has been hypothesized that blood flow through high grade stenotic arteries may produce conditions in which elastic flow choking may occur. The development of atherosclerotic plaque fracture may be exacerbated by the compressive stresses during collapse. This study explored the effects of pulsatile flow on stenotic flow collapse. Pulsatile flow was produced using a gear pump controlled by a digitized physiologic waveform. Upstream and downstream mean pressures and pulsatile flow rates were measured and digitized. An improved model of arterial stenosis was created using an elastomer with an incremental modulus of elasticity matched to a bovine carotid artery in the relevant range of collapse. Additionally, the model retained a very thick wall in the stenotic region similar to arterial disease. Flow choking was observed for pulsatile pressure drops close to those previously reported for steady flow. The phase difference between flow rate and pressure between upstream and downstream of the stenosis occurred by the compliance of tube and stenosis resistance. For 80% nominal stenosis by diameter and 100+/-30mmHg upstream pressure, collapse occurred for average pulsatile pressure drops of 93mmHg. Pulsatile flow experiments in this model revealed the range of conditions for the flow choking and the paradoxical collapse of the stenosis during systole with expansion during diastole. The stenosis severity was dynamic through the pulse cycle and was significantly greater under flow than the nominal severity. The results indicate that flow choking and stenotic compression may be significant in thick-walled arterial stenoses subjected to pulsatile flow.

  12. Pulsatile blood flow in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Lasheras, Juan C.; Singel, Soeren; Varga, Chris

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the results of combined in-vitro laboratory measurements and clinical observations aimed at determining the effect that the unsteady wall shear stresses and the pressure may have on the growth and eventual rupturing of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA), a permanent bulging-like dilatation occurring near the aortic bifurcation. In recent years, new non-invasive techniques, such as stenting, have been used to treat these AAAs. However, the development of these implants, aimed at stopping the growth of the aneurysm, has been hampered by the lack of understanding of the effect that the hemodynamic forces have on the growth mechanism. Since current in-vivo measuring techniques lack the precision and the necessary resolution, we have performed measurements of the pressure and shear stresses in laboratory models. The models of the AAA were obtained from high resolution three-dimensional CAT/SCANS performed in patients at early stages of the disease. Preliminary DPIV measurements show that the pulsatile blood flow discharging into the cavity of the aneurysm leads to large spikes of pressure and wall shear stresses near and around its distal end, indicating a possible correlation between the regions of high wall shear stresses and the observed location of the growth of the aneurysm.

  13. Effects of non-pulsatile flow on thrombogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Ralph; Harting, Matthew; Delgado, Reynolds; Frazier, O. Howard

    2002-11-01

    Congestive heart failure afflicts 4.5 million people in the US alone, with an average 5-year mortality of more than 50%. Among the most promising treatments for this condition are VADs (ventricular assist devices). While conventional pulsatile flow VADs are large and introduce some significant complications such as thrombosis, non-pulsatile axial flow VADs have potentially significant advantages in being smaller, with smaller thrombogenic surfaces. However, the long term effects of non-pulsatile flow on the vascular system are not well understood. We have investigated the effects of pulsatility of blood flow in the stenotic human carotid artery using unsteady, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic simulations. We have found that permanent, low shear stagnation zones can develop distal to stenoses with non-pulsatile flow, potentially leading to thrombus formation. In contrast, systolic peak flow tends to flush out such stagnation zones. These results are consistent with observed thrombus formation in two patients who underwent implantation of a Jarvik 2000 LVAD.

  14. A new method of providing pulsatile flow in a centrifugal pump: assessment of pulsatility using a mock circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Herreros, Jesús; Berjano, Enrique J; Sales-Nebot, Laura; Más, Pedro; Calvo, Irene; Mastrobuoni, Stefano; Mercé, Salvador

    2008-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential advantages of pulsatile flow as compared with continuous flow. However, to date, physiologic pumps have been technically complex and their application has therefore remained in the experimental field. We have developed a new type of centrifugal pump, which can provide pulsatile as well as continuous flow. The inner wall of a centrifugal pump is pulsed by means of a flexible membrane, which can be accurately controlled by means of either a hydraulic or pneumatic driver. The aim of this study was to assess the hydraulic behavior of the new pump in terms of surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). We conducted experiments using a mock circulatory system including a membrane oxygenator. No differences were found in the pressure-flow characteristics between the new pump and a conventional centrifugal pump, suggesting that the inclusion of the flexible membrane does not alter hydraulic performance. The value of SHE rose when systolic volume was increased. However, SHE dropped when the percentage of ejection time was reduced and also when the continuous flow (programmed by the centrifugal console) increased. Mean flow matched well with the continuous flow set by the centrifugal console, that is, the pulsatile component of the flow was exclusively controlled by the pulsatile console, and was therefore independent of the continuous flow programmed by the centrifugal console. The pulsatility of the new pump was approximately 25% of that created with a truly pulsatile pump.

  15. Visualization of pulsatile flow for magnetic nanoparticle based therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzel, Andrew; Yecko, Philip

    2015-11-01

    Pulsatile flow of blood through branched, curved, stenosed, dilated or otherwise perturbed vessels is more complex than flow through a straight, uniform and rigid tube. In some magnetic hyperthermia and magnetic chemo-therapies, localized regions of magnetic nanoparticle laden fluid are deliberately formed in blood vessels and held in place by magnetic fields. The effect of localized magnetic fluid regions on blood flow and the effect of the pulsatile blood flow on such magnetic fluid regions are poorly understood and difficult to examine in vivo or by numerical simulation. We present a laboratory model that facilitates both dye tracer and particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) studies of pulsatile flow of water through semi-flexible tubes in the presence of localized magnetic fluid regions. Results on the visualization of flows over a range of Reynolds and Womersley numbers and for several different (water-based) ferrofluids are compared for straight and curved vessels and for different magnetic localization strategies. These results can guide the design of improved magnetic cancer therapies. Support from the William H. Sandholm Program of Cooper Union's Kanbar Center for Biomedical Engineering is gratefully acknowledged.

  16. Pulsatile blood flow, shear force, energy dissipation and Murray's Law

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Page R; Edén, Patrik; Bengtsson, Hans-Uno

    2006-01-01

    Background Murray's Law states that, when a parent blood vessel branches into daughter vessels, the cube of the radius of the parent vessel is equal to the sum of the cubes of the radii of daughter blood vessels. Murray derived this law by defining a cost function that is the sum of the energy cost of the blood in a vessel and the energy cost of pumping blood through the vessel. The cost is minimized when vessel radii are consistent with Murray's Law. This law has also been derived from the hypothesis that the shear force of moving blood on the inner walls of vessels is constant throughout the vascular system. However, this derivation, like Murray's earlier derivation, is based on the assumption of constant blood flow. Methods To determine the implications of the constant shear force hypothesis and to extend Murray's energy cost minimization to the pulsatile arterial system, a model of pulsatile flow in an elastic tube is analyzed. A new and exact solution for flow velocity, blood flow rate and shear force is derived. Results For medium and small arteries with pulsatile flow, Murray's energy minimization leads to Murray's Law. Furthermore, the hypothesis that the maximum shear force during the cycle of pulsatile flow is constant throughout the arterial system implies that Murray's Law is approximately true. The approximation is good for all but the largest vessels (aorta and its major branches) of the arterial system. Conclusion A cellular mechanism that senses shear force at the inner wall of a blood vessel and triggers remodeling that increases the circumference of the wall when a shear force threshold is exceeded would result in the observed scaling of vessel radii described by Murray's Law. PMID:16923189

  17. The dynamics of pulsatile flow in distensible model arteries.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W; Zimmer, R

    1995-12-01

    Deposits and blockages are often found in the carotid, coronary, renal and femoral arteries. This paper deals with laser-Doppler velocity measurements in models of bifurcations of the human femoral arteries. Several models were prepared for the studies: a simplified 35 degrees glass model, two elastic-silicone-rubber models with a wall thickness of 1 mm and 2 mm, and true-to-scale rigid and elastic models. These measurements give a clearer picture of how hemodynamics influences the formation of atherosclerotic plaques where there is a hardening of the arterial walls and a loss of elasticity. In addition to the effects of elasticity, the influence of the flow's pulsatility were studied. The measurements were done in steady and pulsatile flow. From the velocity measurements the shear stresses were calculated.

  18. Increased erythrocyte adhesion to VCAM-1 during pulsatile flow: Application of a microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay

    PubMed Central

    White, Jennell; Lancelot, Moira; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hines, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by microvascular occlusion mediated by adhesive interactions of sickle erythrocytes (SSRBCs) to the endothelium. Most in vitro flow adhesion assays measure SSRBC adhesion during continuous flow, although in vivo SSRBC adhesive interactions occur during pulsatile flow. Using a well-plate microfluidic flow adhesion system, we demonstrate that isolated SSRBCs adhere to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) at greater levels during pulsatile versus continuous flow. A significant increase in adhesive interactions was observed between all pulse frequencies 1 Hz to 2 Hz (60–120 beats/min) when compared to non-pulsatile flow. Adhesion of isolated SSRBCs and whole blood during pulsatile flow was unaffected by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, and exposure of SSRBCs to pulsatile flow did not affect the intrinsic adhesive properties of SSRBCs. The cell type responsible for increased adhesion of whole blood varied from patient to patient. We conclude that low flow periods of the pulse cycle allow more adhesive interactions between sickle erythrocytes and VCAM-1, and sickle erythrocyte adhesion in the context of whole blood may better reflect physiologic cellular interactions. The microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay used in this study may have applications for clinical assessment of sickle erythrocyte adhesion during pulsatile flow. PMID:24898561

  19. In vitro heart valve testing: steady versus pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Black, M M; Hose, D R; Lamb, C J; Lawford, P V; Ralph, S J

    1994-03-01

    The design of artificial heart valves has traditionally been based on the development of a prototype device which was then subjected to extensive laboratory testing in order to confirm its suitability for clinical use. In the past the in vitro assessment of a valve's performance was based principally on the measurement of parameters such as pressure difference, regurgitation and, more recently, energy losses. Such measurements can be defined as being at the 'macro' level and rarely show any clinically significant differences amongst currently available prostheses. The analytical approach to flow through heart valves has previously been hampered by difficulties experienced in solving the relevant equations of flow particularly in the case of pulsatile conditions. Computational techniques are now available which enable appropriate solutions to be obtained for these problems and consequently provide an opportunity for detailed examination of the 'micro' level of flow disturbances exhibited by the different valves. This present preliminary study is designed to illustrate the use of such an analytical approach to the flow through prosthetic valves. A single topic has been selected for this purpose which is the comparative value of steady versus pulsatile flow testing. A bileaflet valve was chosen for the analysis and a mathematical model of this valve in the aortic position of the Sheffield Pulse Duplicator was created. The theoretical analysis was carried out using a commercially available Computational Fluid Dynamics package, namely, FIDAP, on a SUN MICROSYSTEMS 10-30 workstation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Pulsatility flow around a single cylinder - an experimental model of flow inside an artificial lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Bull, Joseph L.

    2004-11-01

    Pulsatile flow past a single cylinder is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry. This study aims to elucidate the effects of pulstility on the velocity field, which influences the convection-dominated transport within the fluid. The artificial lung device can be connected in parallel or series with the native lungs and may potentially be used as a bridge to transplant or for pulmonary replacement. The artificial lung consists of hollow microfibers through which gas flows and blood flows around. Blood flow through the device is pulsatile because it is driven entirely by the right heart. Steady flow over bluff bodies has been investigated in many contexts, such as heat exchangers. However, few studies have been investigated the effect of pulsatility. The effects of frequency, amplitude of pulsatility, and average flow rate on the formation of vortices after a cylinder are examined. Vortices near the cylinder are found to develop at lower Reynolds number in pulsatile flow than in steady flow. This work is supported by NIH grant R01 HL69420-01.

  1. Effect of Flow Pulsatility on Modeling the Hemodynamics in the Total Cavopulmonary Connection

    PubMed Central

    khiabani, Reza H.; Restrepo, Maria; Tang, Elaine; De Zélicourt, Diane; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Fogel, Mark; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2012-01-01

    Total Cavopulmonary Connection is the result of a series of palliative surgical repairs performed on patients with single ventricle heart defects. The resulting anatomy has complex and unsteady hemodynamics characterized by flow mixing and flow separation. Although varying degrees of flow pulsatility have been observed in vivo, non-pulsatile (time-averaged) boundary conditions have traditionally been assumed in hemodynamic modeling, and only recently have pulsatile conditions been incorporated without completely characterizing their effect or importance. In this study, 3D numerical simulations with both pulsatile and non-pulsatile boundary conditions were performed for 24 patients with different anatomies and flow boundary conditions from Georgia Tech database. Flow structures, energy dissipation rates and pressure drops were compared under rest and simulated exercise conditions. It was found that flow pulsatility is the primary factor in determining the appropriate choice of boundary conditions, whereas the anatomic configuration and cardiac output had secondary effects. Results show that the hemodynamics can be strongly influenced by the presence of pulsatile flow. However, there was a minimum pulsatility threshold, identified by defining a weighted pulsatility index (wPI), above which the influence was significant. It was shown that when wPI < 30%, the relative error in hemodynamic predictions using time-averaged boundary conditions was less than 10% compared to pulsatile simulations. In addition, when wPI <50, the relative error was less than 20%. A correlation was introduced to relate wPI to the relative error in predicting the flow metrics with non-pulsatile flow conditions. PMID:22841650

  2. Three-dimensional flow separation over a surface-mounted hemisphere in pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Flow separation over a surface-mounted obstacle is prevalent in numerous applications. Previous studies of 3D separation around protuberances have been limited to steady flow. In biological and geophysical flows, pulsatile conditions are frequently encountered, yet this situation has not been extensively studied. Primarily motivated by our previous studies of the flow patterns observed in various human vocal fold pathologies such as polyps, our research aimed to fill this gap in the knowledge concerning unsteady 3D flow separation. This is achieved by characterizing velocity fields surrounding the obstacle, focused primarily on the vortical flow structures and dynamics that occur around a hemispheroid in pulsatile flow. As part of this study, two-dimensional, instantaneous and phase-averaged particle image velocimetry data in both steady and pulsatile flows are presented and compared. Coherent vortical flow structures have been identified by their swirling strength. This analysis revealed flow structures with dynamics dependent on the pulsatile forcing function. A mechanism to explain the formation and observed dynamics of these flow structures based on the self-induced velocity of vortex rings interacting with the unsteady flow is proposed.

  3. Cinematics and sticking of heart valves in pulsatile flow test.

    PubMed

    Köhler, J; Wirtz, R

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the project was to develop laboratory test devices for studies of the cinematics and sticking behaviour of technical valve protheses. The second step includes testing technical valves of different types and sizes under static and dynamic conditions. A force-deflection balance was developed in order to load valve rims by static radial forces until sticking or loss of a disc (sticking- and clamping-mould point) with computer-controlled force deflection curves. A second deflection device was developed and used for prosthetic valves in the aortic position of a pulsatile mock circulation loop with simultaneous video-cinematography. The stiffness of technical valve rims varied between 0.20 (St. Jude) and about 1.0 N/micron (metal rim valves). The stiffness decreased significantly with increasing valve size. Sticking under pulsatile flow conditions was in good agreement with the static deflection measurements. Hence, valve sticking with increasing danger of thrombus formation is more likely with a less stiff valve rim. In the case of forces acting perpendicularly to the pendulum axis, the clamping mould-point of the valve can be reached, followed by disc dislodgement. PMID:1864654

  4. An experimental study of pulsatile flow through compliant tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Victoria; Savas, Omer; Saloner, David

    2006-11-01

    An experimental investigation is made into transitional behaviors and instability of oscillatory input flows through elastic tubes, a problem with applications to hemodynamics and flows in the pulmonary system. Sinusoidal input flow is driven through a compliant silicone model in a series of experiments to investigate the effects of wall motion. A novel mechanism allows active control and feedback over the pressure on the tube exterior. By comparing the pressure within and outside of the tube and modifying the exterior pressure accordingly, the tube is inflated in a controlled manner without altering the input flow. In these experiments, the tube wall is deformed sinusoidally with an amplitude of approximately ten percent of its radius. Experiments are conducted using varying values of the parameters α= a √φν and β= δx √φν where a is the tube radius, φ the angular velocity of the input flow, ν the kinematic viscosity, and δx the cross-stream averaged periodic displacement of a fluid particle undergoing pulsatile motion. For a given α, it is found that indications of conditional turbulence appear in this flow through elastic tubes at far lower values of β - and thus at lower amplitudes of oscillation - than are reported in the literature for flows through rigid tubing.

  5. Microprocessor-controlled pulsatile flow loop for hemodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T G; Hobson, R W; Pawel, H E

    1986-03-01

    Validation of spectral analytic techniques in the clinical assessment and quantitation of vascular stenoses has been aided by use of in vitro flow loops. We have used a recently developed microprocessor-controlled pulsatile flow model to examine the influence of varying stenoses on Doppler-shifted peak systolic frequencies. A nonaxisymmetric, vertically oriented stenosis was produced by extrinsic compression of latex rubber tubing 12 mm in diameter, reducing the cross-sectional area (CSA) by 25, 40, 50, 60, 70, 85, and 97%. A rolling diaphragm pump, driven through a slider-crank mechanism by a microprocessor-controlled stepper motor, generated characteristic arterial pulse waves at a rate of 75 cycles per minute. Using an 8 MHz, continuous-wave, directional Doppler velocimeter, the Doppler-shifted frequencies were recorded at the stenosis. Four sets of observations were made at each of the stenoses, and the peak systolic frequency (PSF) was determined using a spectrum analyzer. The PSF in the absence of an obstructing stenosis was 2.56 +/- 0.03 (KHz +/- SEM). This increased significantly (P less than 0.05) to 4.80 +/- 0.09 when the CSA was reduced by 50%, to 5.90 +/- 0.37 when the CSA was reduced by 60% (P less than 0.05), to 8.40 +/- 0.10 when the CSA was reduced by 70% (P less than 0.05), and to 17.84 +/- 0.89 when the CSA was reduced by 85% (P less than 0.05). These data establish the utility of this pulsatile flow model, confirming the direct relationship between the Doppler-shifted PSF and the percentage reduction in CSA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3951221

  6. Hemodialysis: evidence of enhanced molecular clearance and ultrafiltration volume by using pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Runge, T M; Briceño, J C; Sheller, M E; Moritz, C E; Sloan, L; Bohls, F O; Ottmers, S E

    1993-09-01

    We describe several in vitro experiments showing evidence that pulsatile flow hemodialysis enhances ultrafiltration volume and molecular clearance as compared with steady flow hemodialysis. A new pulsatile pump and a conventional roller pump were compared using different hollow fiber dialyzers and a simulated blood solution containing urea, aspartame and vitamin B-12 at different flow rates and configurations. Ultrafiltration volume and concentration of urea, aspartame and B-12 were measured and molecular clearance (K) calculated. Ultrafiltration volume markedly increased with pulsatile flow. After 10 min K for urea with pulsatile flow was higher in all experiments even when ultrafiltration was prevented. Clearance of aspartame and B-12 also increased with pulsatile flow. We propose three mechanisms by which pulsatile flow is more efficient than steady flow hemodialysis: greater fluid energy, avoidance of molecular channeling and avoidance of membrane layering. We hypothesize that using pulsatile flow in hemodialysis can significantly shorten the duration of dialysis sessions for most of the patients, and consequently reduce the duration of the procedure and its cost.

  7. Pulsatile flow of Casson's fluid through stenosed arteries with applications to blood flow.

    PubMed

    Chaturani, P; Samy, R P

    1986-01-01

    The effects of non-Newtonian nature of blood and pulsatility on flow through a stenosed tube have been investigated. A perturbation method is used to analyse the flow. It is of interest to note that the thickness of the viscous flow region is non-uniform (changing with axial distance). An analytic relation between viscous flow region thickness and red cell concentration has been obtained. It is important to mention that some researchers have obtained an approximate solution for the flow rate-pressure gradient equation (assuming the ratio between the yield stress and the wall shear to be very small in comparison to unity); in the present analysis, we have obtained an exact solution for this non-linear equation without making that assumption. The approximate and exact solutions compare well with one of the exact solutions. Another important result is that the mean and steady flow rates decrease as the yield stress theta increases. For the low values of the yield stress, the mean flow rate is higher than the steady flow rate, but for high values of the yield stress, the mean flow rate behaviour is of opposite nature. The critical value of the yield stress at which the flow rate behaviour changes from one type to another has been determined. Further, it seems that there exists a value of the yield stress at which flow stops for both the flows (steady and pulsatile). It is observed that the flow stop yield value for pulsatile flow is lower than the steady flow. The most notable result of pulsatility is the phase lag between the pressure gradient and flow rate, which is further influenced by the yield stress and stenosis. Another important result of pulsatility is the mean resistance to flow is greater than its steady flow value, whereas the mean value of the wall shear for pulsatile flow is equal to steady wall shear. Many standard results regarding Casson and Newtonian fluids flow, uniform tube flow and steady flow can be obtained as the special cases of the present

  8. Fluid-structure interaction for nonlinear response of shells conveying pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubaldi, Eleonora; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2016-06-01

    Circular cylindrical shells with flexible boundary conditions conveying pulsatile flow and subjected to pulsatile pressure are investigated. The equations of motion are obtained based on the nonlinear Novozhilov shell theory via Lagrangian approach. The flow is set in motion by a pulsatile pressure gradient. The fluid is modeled as a Newtonian pulsatile flow and it is formulated using a hybrid model that contains the unsteady effects obtained from the linear potential flow theory and the pulsatile viscous effects obtained from the unsteady time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. A numerical bifurcation analysis employs a refined reduced order model to investigate the dynamic behavior. The case of shells containing quiescent fluid subjected to the action of a pulsatile transmural pressure is also addressed. Geometrically nonlinear vibration response to pulsatile flow and transmural pressure are here presented via frequency-response curves and time histories. The vibrations involving both a driven mode and a companion mode, which appear due to the axial symmetry, are also investigated. This theoretical framework represents a pioneering study that could be of great interest for biomedical applications. In particular, in the future, a more refined model of the one here presented will possibly be applied to reproduce the dynamic behavior of vascular prostheses used for repairing and replacing damaged and diseased thoracic aorta in cases of aneurysm, dissection or coarctation. For this purpose, a pulsatile time-dependent blood flow model is here considered by applying physiological waveforms of velocity and pressure during the heart beating period. This study provides, for the first time in literature, a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction model with deep insights in the nonlinear vibrations of circular cylindrical shells subjected to pulsatile pressure and pulsatile flow.

  9. In vitro pulsatility analysis of axial-flow and centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Stanfield, J Ryan; Selzman, Craig H

    2013-03-01

    Recently, continuous-flow ventricular assist devices (CF-VADs) have supplanted older, pulsatile-flow pumps, for treating patients with advanced heart failure. Despite the excellent results of the newer generation devices, the effects of long-term loss of pulsatility remain unknown. The aim of this study is to compare the ability of both axial and centrifugal continuous-flow pumps to intrinsically modify pulsatility when placed under physiologically diverse conditions. Four VADs, two axial- and two centrifugal-flow, were evaluated on a mock circulatory flow system. Each VAD was operated at a constant impeller speed over three hypothetical cardiac conditions: normo-tensive, hypertensive, and hypotensive. Pulsatility index (PI) was compared for each device under each condition. Centrifugal-flow devices had a higher PI than that of axial-flow pumps. Under normo-tension, flow PI was 0.98 ± 0.03 and 1.50 ± 0.02 for the axial and centrifugal groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Under hypertension, flow PI was 1.90 ± 0.16 and 4.21 ± 0.29 for the axial and centrifugal pumps, respectively (p = 0.01). Under hypotension, PI was 0.73 ± 0.02 and 0.78 ± 0.02 for the axial and centrifugal groups, respectively (p = 0.13). All tested CF-VADs were capable of maintaining some pulsatile-flow when connected in parallel with our mock ventricle. We conclude that centrifugal-flow devices outperform the axial pumps from the basis of PI under tested conditions.

  10. Measurement of real pulsatile blood flow using X-ray PIV technique with CO2 microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Seo, Seung-Jun; Lim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray imaging technique has been used to investigate biofluid flows in a non-destructive manner. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of the X-ray PIV technique with CO2 microbubbles as flow tracer for measurement of pulsatile blood flows under in vivo conditions. The traceability of CO2 microbubbles in a pulsatile flow was demonstrated through in vitro experiment. A rat extracorporeal bypass loop was used by connecting a tube between the abdominal aorta and jugular vein of a rat to obtain hemodynamic information of actual pulsatile blood flows without changing the hemorheological properties. The decrease in image contrast of the surrounding tissue was also investigated for in vivo applications of the proposed technique. This technique could be used to accurately measure whole velocity field information of real pulsatile blood flows and has strong potential for hemodynamic diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25744850

  11. Platelet adhesion to polyurethane urea under pulsatile flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Navitsky, Michael A; Taylor, Joshua O; Smith, Alexander B; Slattery, Margaret J; Deutsch, Steven; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Manning, Keefe B

    2014-12-01

    Platelet adhesion to a polyurethane urea surface is a precursor to thrombus formation within blood-contacting cardiovascular devices, and platelets have been found to adhere strongly to polyurethane surfaces below a shear rate of approximately 500 s(-1). The aim of the current work is to determine the properties of platelet adhesion to the polyurethane urea surface as a function of time-varying shear exposure. A rotating disk system was used to study the influence of steady and pulsatile flow conditions (e.g., cardiac inflow and sawtooth waveforms) for platelet adhesion to the biomaterial surface. All experiments were conducted with the same root mean square angular rotation velocity (29.63 rad/s) and waveform period. The disk was rotated in platelet-rich bovine plasma for 2 h, with adhesion quantified by confocal microscopy measurements of immunofluorescently labeled bovine platelets. Platelet adhesion under pulsating flow was found to decay exponentially with increasing shear rate. Adhesion levels were found to depend upon peak platelet flux and shear rate, regardless of rotational waveform. In combination with flow measurements, these results may be useful for predicting regions susceptible to thrombus formation within ventricular assist devices.

  12. Description of a flow optimized oxygenator with integrated pulsatile pump.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, Ralf; Schlanstein, Peter; Arens, Jutta; Graefe, Roland; Schreiber, Fabian; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2010-11-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a well-established therapy for several lung and heart diseases in the field of neonatal and pediatric medicine (e.g., acute respiratory distress syndrome, congenital heart failure, cardiomyopathy). Current ECMO systems are typically composed of an oxygenator and a separate nonpulsatile blood pump. An oxygenator with an integrated pulsatile blood pump for small infant ECMO was developed, and this novel concept was tested regarding functionality and gas exchange rate. Pulsating silicone tubes (STs) were driven by air pressure and placed inside the cylindrical fiber bundle of an oxygenator to be used as a pump module. The findings of this study confirm that pumping blood with STs is a viable option for the future. The maximum gas exchange rate for oxygen is 48mL/min/L(blood) at a medium blood flow rate of about 300mL/min. Future design steps were identified to optimize the flow field through the fiber bundle to achieve a higher gas exchange rate. First, the packing density of the hollow-fiber bundle was lower than commercial oxygenators due to the manual manufacturing. By increasing this packing density, the gas exchange rate would increase accordingly. Second, distribution plates for a more uniform blood flow can be placed at the inlet and outlet of the oxygenator. Third, the hollow-fiber membranes can be individually placed to ensure equal distances between the surrounding hollow fibers.

  13. Pulsatile Flow Across a Cylinder--An Investigation of Flow in a Total Artificial Lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chun

    2005-11-01

    The effect of pulsatility on flow across a single cylinder has been examined experimentally using particle image velocimetry. This work is motivated by the ongoing development of a total artificial lung (TAL), a device which would serve as a bridge to lung transplant. The prototype TAL consists of hollow microfibers through which oxygen-rich gas flows and blood flows around. Flow through the device is provided entirely by right heart and, therefore, is puslatile. The Peclet number of the flow is large and consequently the development of secondary flow affects the resulting gas exchange. The effects of frequency and average flow rate of pulsatile flow around a cylinder were investigated experimentally in a water tunnel and some of the results were compared with preliminary numerical results. Vortices developed behind the cylinder at lower Reynolds numbers in pulsatile flow than steady flow. The results indicate that there are critical values of the Reynolds number between 3 to 5 and Stokes numbers of 0.22, below which vortices were not observed. The findings suggest that higher Stokes and Reynolds numbers within the device could enhance vortex formation. However, this enhanced gas exchange could be at the expense of higher device resistance and increased likelihood of blood trauma. Intelligent TAL design will require consideration of these effects. This work is supported by NIH grant HL69420.

  14. Pulsatile flow into the aqueous veins: Manifestations in normal and glaucomatous eyes

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Murray; Martin, Elizabeth; Jamil, Annisa

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous outflow system is unique because nowhere else can the pattern of flow of an extravascular fluid be directly observed as it returns to the vascular system. Such observations reveal that aqueous flow both from Schlemm’s canal into the aqueous veins and from the aqueous veins into the episcleral veins is pulsatile. Pulsatile aqueous flow mechanisms are observable in vivo not only in normal and but also in glaucomatous eyes. A series of specific patterns accompany the pulsatile mixing of aqueous with blood in the episcleral veins. These directly observable patterns of pulsatile flow are synchronous with intraocular pressure (IOP) transients induced by the cardiac pulse, blinking and eye movement. Patterns of pulsatile flow are altered by events that increase IOP such as pressure on the side of the eye, tonography and water drinking. Pulsatile flow stops when IOP is reduced below its resting level, but begins again when IOP returns to the resting level. Pulsatile flow reduction probably results from the intrinsic reduction of pulse amplitude at a lower IOP, and may thus provide a passive mechanism to maintain short-term homeostasis. Thus modulation of the pulsatile flow phenomenon appears to maintain a homeostatic IOP setpoint. Visible pulsatile flow abnormalities develop in glaucoma patients. Medications that reduce IOP through improvement in outflow do so through pulsatile flow mechanisms. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that cyclic stresses in outflow tissues alter signaling pathways, cytoskeletal responses, extracellular matrix composition and cytokine secretion. How physiologic pulse transients orchestrate cellular responses and how cellular responses identified in the laboratory may in turn regulate pulsatile aqueous outflow is unknown. Linkage of laboratory and in vivo observations await an improved understanding of how cellular and extracellular structures within the outflow system are able to generate an aqueous pulse wave. The purpose of the

  15. Easy Pulsatile Phantom for Teaching and Validation of Flow Measurements in Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Rominger, M. B.; Müller-Stuler, E.-M.; Pinto, M.; Becker, A. S.; Martini, K.; Frauenfelder, T.; Klingmüller, V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To build a simple model to teach and validate non-pulsatile and pulsatile flow quantification in ultrasound. Materials and Methods: The setting consists of the following connected components: (1) medical syringe pump producing an adjustable constant flow (ml/min), (2) modulator modifying constant flow to a reproducible pulsatile flow, (3) water tank containing a diagonal running silicone tube (0.5 mm inner diameter), and (4) a fixated ultrasound probe (L9 Linear Array 9 MHz, GE Logiq E9) measuring the flow inside the tube. Commercially available microbubbles suspended with physiological saline solution were used for ultrasonic visibility. Spectral Doppler of different flow profiles is performed. Results: The syringe pump produces an adjustable, constant flow and serves as the reference standard. The filling volume of the tube system is 1.2 ml. Microbubbles are very well detected by ultrasound and can be used as an easy and clean blood mimicking substance. The modulator generates different physiological and pathological flow profiles. Velocities are similar to those found within human blood vessels. Thus, it is possible to train and validate flow measurements in ultrasound. Conclusion: The model produces non-pulsatile and various pulsatile flow profiles and allows validation of flow measurements. The compact size permits easy and economic setup for flow measurements in research, skills lab and continuing education.

  16. The effect of flow acceleration on the cyclic variation of blood echogenicity under pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Liao, Chen-Chih; Lee, Po-Yang; Shih, Cho-Chiang

    2013-04-01

    It has been shown that the echogenicity of blood varies during a flow cycle under pulsatile flow both in vitro and in vivo. In general, the echogenicity of flowing whole blood increases during the early systole phase and then reduces to a minimum at late diastole. While it has been postulated that this cyclic variation is associated with the dynamics of erythrocyte aggregation, the mechanisms underlying this increasing echogenicity with flow velocity remain uncertain. The effect of flow acceleration has also been proposed as an explanation for this phenomenon, but no specific experiments have been conducted to test this hypothesis. In addition, the influence of ultrasonic attenuation on the cyclic variation of echogenicity requires clarification. In the present study, a Couette flow system was designed to simulate blood flowing with different acceleration patterns, and the flow velocity, attenuation, and backscattering coefficient were measured synchronously from 20%- and 40%-hematocrit porcine whole blood and erythrocyte suspensions using 35-MHz ultrasound transducers. The results showed ultrasonic attenuation exerted only minor effects on the echogenicity of blood under pulsatile flow conditions. Cyclic variations of echogenicity were clearly observed for whole blood with a hematocrit of 40%, but no variations were apparent for erythrocyte suspensions. The echogenicity did not appear to be enhanced when instantaneous acceleration was applied to flowing blood in any case. These findings show that flow acceleration does not promote erythrocyte aggregation, even when a higher peak velocity is applied to the blood. Comparison of the results obtained with different accelerations revealed that the cyclic variation in echogenicity observed during pulsatile blood flow may be jointly attributable to the effect of shear rate and the distribution of erythrocyte on aggregation.

  17. Local anaesthetic techniques and pulsatile ocular blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Chang, B.; Hee, W.; Ling, R.; Broadway, D.; Beigi, B.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To compare pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) and intraocular pressure (IOP) between eyes of patients receiving either peribulbar (with and without balloon compression) or subconjunctival local anaesthesia (LA).
METHODS—30 eyes of 30 patients undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification were investigated in a study of parallel group design. Ten patients had peribulbar LA and 10 minutes compression with a Honan's balloon (group A). A further 10 patients who received peribulbar LA alone (group B) acted as controls for the effects of balloon compression. Ten other patients were given subconjunctival LA (group C). POBF and IOP were measured using a modified Langham pneumatonometer. Three measurements were made in each eye, the first recording immediately before LA, the second 1 minute after, and the third 10 minutes after LA.
RESULTS—No significant change in POBF or IOP was recorded in eyes receiving subconjunctival LA. In the peribulbar groups (A and B), there was a drop in median POBF of 252 and 138 µl/min respectively 1 minute after LA, which was statistically significant in both groups (p<0.01). By 10 minutes, POBF tended to return to baseline levels, but remained significantly reduced in group B (p<0.05). In addition, there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in IOP (mean drop of 4.82 mm Hg) in group A following peribulbar LA with balloon compression.
CONCLUSIONS—POBF was significantly reduced after peribulbar LA but was unchanged after subconjunctival LA. Balloon compression reduced IOP and improved POBF following peribulbar LA. The findings may have clinical implications in patients with compromised ocular circulation or significant glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

 PMID:11049951

  18. Visualization and finite element analysis of pulsatile flow in models of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, T; Matsuzawa, T; Homma, T

    1989-01-01

    Pulsatile flows in glass models simulating fusiform and lateral saccular aneurysms were investigated by a flow visualization method. When resting fluid starts to flow, the initial fluid motion is practically irrotational. After a short period of time, the flow began to separate from the proximal wall of the aneurysm. Then the separation bubble or vortex grew rapidly in size and filled the whole area of the aneurysm circumferentially. During this period of time, the center of the vortex moved from the proximal end to the distal point of the aneurysm. The transient reversal flow, for instance, which may occur at the end of the ejection period, passed between the wall of the aneurysm and the centrally located vortex. When the rate and pulsatile frequency of flow were high, the vortex broke down into highly disturbed flow (or turbulence) at the distal portion of the aneurysm. The same effect was observed when the length of the aneurysm was increased. A reduction in pulsatile amplitude made the flow pattern close to that in steady flow. A finite element analysis was made to obtain velocity and pressure fields in pulsatile flow through a tube with an axisymmetric expansion. Calculations were performed with the pulsatile flows used in the visualization experiment in order to study the effects of change in the pulsatile wave form by keeping the time-mean Reynolds number and Womersley's parameter unchanged. Calculated instantaneous patterns of velocity field and stream lines agreed well with the experimental results. The appearance and disappearance of the vortex in the dilated portion and its development resulted in complex distributions of pressure and shear fields. Locally minimum and maximum values of wall shear stress occurred at points just upstream and downstream of the distal end of the expansion when the flow rate reached its peak. PMID:2605323

  19. Cardiac flow measurement by ultrafast CT: validation of continuous and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ludman, P F; Darby, M; Tomlinson, N; Poole-Wilson, P A; Rees, S

    1992-01-01

    To gauge the accuracy of ultrafast CT in measuring cardiac output and myocardial perfusion in humans, measurements of continuous and pulsatile flow were made in a large asymmetrical phantom. The variation in the relationship between Hounsfield number and contrast concentration was assessed in a human thorax phantom. Radiopaque contrast medium was injected during perfusion of the phantom at a range of flow rates between 1.5 and 8 L/min. The phantom was scanned in two modes (50 and 100 ms) during continuous and pulsatile flow and with the phantom surrounded by air and by water. Flow in the tubes was calculated using indicator dilution theory, and flow in the tissue-equivalent chamber was calculated by applying first-pass distribution principles. The standard deviation of the difference between calculated and measured flow varied from 0.2 to 0.6 L/min, giving 95% limits of agreement from 0.4 to 1.2 L/min. The constant (K) relating Hounsfield unit number to iodine concentration varied widely both in different locations within the phantom and under different scan conditions (17.2-27.6 HU/mg I). Within a human thorax phantom, K varied from 14.15 to 23.18 HU/mg I and was dependent on location within the thorax phantom, the scan mode, and the cross-sectional diameter of the phantom. These data suggest that though the ultrafast CT scanner can measure continuous and pulsatile flow accurately in tubes, precise measurements of cardiac output in humans will require K to be assessed for each subject. Measurements of flow in tissue should be possible. PMID:1522275

  20. Flow dynamics in anatomical models of abdominal aortic aneurysms: computational analysis of pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Finol, Ender A; Amon, Cristina H

    2003-01-01

    Blood flow in human arteries is dominated by time-dependent transport phenomena. In particular, in the abdominal segment of the aorta under a patient's average resting conditions, blood exhibits laminar flow patterns that are influenced by secondary flows induced by adjacent branches and in irregular vessel geometries. The flow dynamics becomes more complex when there is a pathological condition that causes changes in the normal structural composition of the vessel wall, for example, in the presence of an aneurysm. An aneurysm is an irreversible dilation of a blood vessel accompanied by weakening of the vessel wall. This work examines the importance of hemodynamics in the characterization of pulsatile blood flow patterns in individual Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) models. These patient-specific computational models have been developed for the numerical simulation of the momentum transport equations utilizing the Finite Element Method (FEM) for the spatial and temporal discretization. We characterize pulsatile flow dynamics in AAAs for average resting conditions by means of identifying regions of disturbed flow and quantifying the disturbance by evaluating wall pressure and wall shear stresses at the aneurysm wall. PMID:14515766

  1. Measurement of wall shear stress in a pulsatile pipe flow system using micro-pillar shear sensor (MPS3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghav, Vrishank; Garcia, Christine; Gnanamanickam, Ebenezer; Yoganathan, Ajit; GT-Embry-Riddle Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    The measurement of unsteady wall shear stress (WSS) in a pulsatile flow system is quite a challenge in experimental fluid mechanics. Recent developments in micro fabrication techniques have resulted in a novel measurement technique called the micro-pillar shear stress sensor (MPS3). It is a micro-pillar mounted on the surface of interest, which deflects an amount proportional to the shear stress it experiences. This technique has been widely used, validated and applied to measure turbulent WSS in several flow configurations. In this work, the MPS3 technique is used to measure WSS for a pulsatile fully developed pipe flow. The main objective here is to validate this technique for pulsatile pipe flow applications. For this purpose the WSS measurements obtained are compared with those obtained from analytical womersley solutions of the pulsatile flow system in the laminar flow regime. Statistical metrics will be used to better understand the measured WSS through the time period of the pulsatile flow.

  2. High-speed visualization of disturbed pathlines in axial flow ventricular assist device under pulsatile conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Kormos, Robert L.; Antaki, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate potentially pro-thrombotic flow patterns within an axial flow ventricular assist device under clinically relevant pulsatile hemodynamic conditions. Methods A transparent replica of the HeartMate-II was visualized using a high speed camera at both low and high frame rates (125 and 3000 fps). Three steady-state conditions were studied: nominal (4.5 lpm), low flow (3.0 lpm) and high flow (6.0 lpm). Time-varying conditions were introduced with external pulsatile pump which modulated the flow rate by approximately +/−50% of the mean, corresponding to a pulsatility index of 1.0. Results At nominal and high flow rates, the path lines within the upstream region were generally stable, well attached, and streamlined. As the flow rate was reduced below 3.8 lpm, a rapid transition to a chaotic velocity field occurred exhibiting a large toroidal vortex adjacent to the upstream bearing. The pathlines in the downstream stator section were consistently chaotic for all hemodynamic conditions investigated. It was common to observe tracer particles trapped within recirculation bubbles and drawn retrograde, causing repeated contact with the bearing surfaces. The addition of pulsatility caused the flow field to become periodically chaotic during the diastolic portion of the cardiac cycle depending on the instantaneous flow rate and acceleration. Conclusion The contribution of pulsatility by the native heart may induce a periodic disturbance to an otherwise stable flow field within an axial flow VAD, particularly during the diastolic and decelerating portion of the cardiac cycle. Potentially pro-thrombotic flow features were found to occur periodically in the region of the upstream bearing. PMID:26208892

  3. Beyond the Virtual Intracranial Stenting Challenge 2007: non-Newtonian and flow pulsatility effects.

    PubMed

    Cavazzuti, Marco; Atherton, Mark; Collins, Michael; Barozzi, Giovanni

    2010-09-17

    The Virtual Intracranial Stenting Challenge 2007 (VISC'07) is becoming a standard test case in computational minimally invasive cerebrovascular intervention. Following views expressed in the literature and consistent with the recommendations of a report, the effects of non-Newtonian viscosity and pulsatile flow are reported. Three models of stented cerebral aneurysms, originating from VISC'07 are meshed and the flow characteristics simulated using commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. We conclude that non-Newtonian and pulsatile effects are important to include in order to discriminate more effectively between stent designs.

  4. Clinical evaluation of pulsatile flow mode of Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Uesugi, H; Nishinaka, T; Uwabe, K; Aomi, S; Endo, M; Koyanagi, H; Oshiyama, H; Nogawa, A; Akutsu, T

    1997-07-01

    The Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump system possesses an automatic priming function in which the motor repeatedly stops and runs intermittently to eliminate air bubbles in the circuit through the micropores of the hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator. By modifying this mechanism, we have developed a pulsatile flow mode. In this mode, maximum and minimum pump rotational speeds can be independently set every 20 rpm in the range of 0 to 3,000 rpm. The duration of the pump run at maximum and minimum speeds can also be independently set every 0.1 s in the range of 0.2 to 15 s. In a clinical trial, after obtaining the desired flow rate, 2.4 L/min/m2 in nonpulsatile flow mode, a pulsatile flow mode of 60 cycles/min (with 1 cycle being maximum speed for 0.4 s and minimum speed for 0.6 s) was obtained by adding and subtracting 500 rpm to and from the rotational speed in nonpulsatile flow mode. Pulse pressures in the femoral artery and in the circuit just proximal to the perfusion cannula (6.5 mm Sarns high flow cannula with metal tip) were measured in 5 patients who underwent pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and compared to pulse pressures obtained by intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) in 3 patients and by the pulsatile mode of the 3M Delphin pump in 3 patients. The platelet count, free hemoglobin, and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) were measured and compared with measurements from another 5 patients who underwent nonpulsatile CPB. Although the pulse pressure measured in the circuit was 180 mm Hg on average, the pressure in the femoral artery was only 15 to 40 mm Hg with a mean of 20 mm Hg. In the same patients, 60 to 80 mm Hg pulse pressure was obtained with IABP. The pulse pressure obtained with the Delphin pump was not more than that obtained with the Terumo pump. There were no significant differences in percents of preoperative levels of platelet counts (pulsatile, 87.6 +/- 15.8% and nonpulsatile, 72.4 +/- 40.6%), free

  5. Clinical evaluation of pulsatile flow mode of Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Uesugi, H; Nishinaka, T; Uwabe, K; Aomi, S; Endo, M; Koyanagi, H; Oshiyama, H; Nogawa, A; Akutsu, T

    1997-07-01

    The Terumo Capiox centrifugal pump system possesses an automatic priming function in which the motor repeatedly stops and runs intermittently to eliminate air bubbles in the circuit through the micropores of the hollow-fiber membrane oxygenator. By modifying this mechanism, we have developed a pulsatile flow mode. In this mode, maximum and minimum pump rotational speeds can be independently set every 20 rpm in the range of 0 to 3,000 rpm. The duration of the pump run at maximum and minimum speeds can also be independently set every 0.1 s in the range of 0.2 to 15 s. In a clinical trial, after obtaining the desired flow rate, 2.4 L/min/m2 in nonpulsatile flow mode, a pulsatile flow mode of 60 cycles/min (with 1 cycle being maximum speed for 0.4 s and minimum speed for 0.6 s) was obtained by adding and subtracting 500 rpm to and from the rotational speed in nonpulsatile flow mode. Pulse pressures in the femoral artery and in the circuit just proximal to the perfusion cannula (6.5 mm Sarns high flow cannula with metal tip) were measured in 5 patients who underwent pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), and compared to pulse pressures obtained by intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP) in 3 patients and by the pulsatile mode of the 3M Delphin pump in 3 patients. The platelet count, free hemoglobin, and beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) were measured and compared with measurements from another 5 patients who underwent nonpulsatile CPB. Although the pulse pressure measured in the circuit was 180 mm Hg on average, the pressure in the femoral artery was only 15 to 40 mm Hg with a mean of 20 mm Hg. In the same patients, 60 to 80 mm Hg pulse pressure was obtained with IABP. The pulse pressure obtained with the Delphin pump was not more than that obtained with the Terumo pump. There were no significant differences in percents of preoperative levels of platelet counts (pulsatile, 87.6 +/- 15.8% and nonpulsatile, 72.4 +/- 40.6%), free

  6. Gaseous micro-emboli activity during cardiopulmonary bypass in adults: pulsatile flow versus nonpulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Dodonov, Mikhail; Milano, Aldo; Onorati, Francesco; Dal Corso, Bruno; Menon, Tiziano; Ferrarini, Daniele; Tessari, Maddalena; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has a risk of cerebral injury, with an important role of gaseous micro-emboli (GME) coming from the CPB circuit. Pulsatile perfusion is supposed to perform specific conditions for supplementary GME activity. We aimed to determine whether pulsatile CPB augments production and delivery of GME and evaluate the role of different events in GME activity during either type of perfusion. Twenty-four patients who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery at the University of Verona were divided equally into two groups-pulsatile perfusion (PP) group and nonpulsatile perfusion (NP) group. The circuit included a JostraHL-20 roller pump set in pulsatile or nonpulsatile mode, an open Sorin Synthesis membrane oxygenator with integrated screen-type arterial filter, and phosphorylcholine-coated tubes. Hemodynamic flow evaluation was performed in terms of energy equivalent pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE). GME were counted by means of a GAMPT BCC200 bubble counter (GAMPT, Zappendorf, Germany) with two probes placed at postpump and postarterial filter positions. Results were evaluated in terms of GME number, GME volume, number of over-ranged GME from both probes, and series of filtering indexes. In PP mode, the pump produced and delivered along the circuit significantly higher amounts of SHE than in NP mode. At the venous postpump site, GME number was significantly higher during PP but no difference was found in terms of GME volume or number of over-ranged bubbles. No significant difference in GME number, GME volume, or number of over-ranges was found at the postarterial filter site. Filtering indexes were similar between the two groups. Neither type of perfusion was shown to contribute to excessive GME production during the most important perfusionist manipulation. Pulsatility leads to GME increment by splitting and size diminishing of the existing bubbles but not by additional gas production. PP augmented GME number at the

  7. Alkaline phosphatase in osteoblasts is down-regulated by pulsatile fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    It is our hypothesis that interstitial fluid flow plays a role in the bone remodeling response to mechanical loading. The fluid flow-induced expression of three proteins (collagen, osteopontin, and alkaline phosphatase) involved in bone remodeling was investigated. Rat calvarial osteoblasts subjected to pulsatile fluid flow at an average shear stress of 5 dyne/cm2 showed decreased alkaline phosphatase (AP) mRNA expression after only 1 hour of flow. After 3 hours of flow, AP mRNA levels had decreased to 30% of stationary control levels and remained at this level for an additional 5 hours of flow. Steady flow (4 dyne/cm2 fluid shear stress), in contrast, resulted in a delayed and less dramatic decrease in AP mRNA expression to 63% of control levels after 8 hours of flow. The reduced AP mRNA expression under pulsatile flow conditions was followed by reduced AP enzyme activity after 24 hours. No changes in collagen or osteopontin mRNA expression were detected over 8 hours of pulsatile flow. This is the first time fluid flow has been shown to affect gene expression in osteoblasts.

  8. An Investigation of Pulsatile Flow Past Two Cylinders as a Model of Blood Flow in an Artificial Lung.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Khanafer, Khalil M; Bartlett, Robert H; Hirschl, Ronald B; Bull, Joseph L

    2011-07-01

    Pulsatile flow across two circular cylinders with different geometric arrangements is studied experimentally using the particle image velocimetry method and numerically using the finite element method. This investigation is motivated the need to optimize gas transfer and fluid mechanical impedance for a total artificial lung, in which the right heart pumps blood across a bundle of hollow microfibers. Vortex formation was found to occur at lower Reynolds numbers in pulsatile flow than in steady flow, and the vortex structure depends strongly on the geometric arrangement of the cylinders and on the Reynolds and Stokes numbers. PMID:21701672

  9. An Investigation of Pulsatile Flow Past Two Cylinders as a Model of Blood Flow in an Artificial Lung

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yu-chun; Khanafer, Khalil M.; Bartlett, Robert H.; Hirschl, Ronald B.; Bull, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsatile flow across two circular cylinders with different geometric arrangements is studied experimentally using the particle image velocimetry method and numerically using the finite element method. This investigation is motivated the need to optimize gas transfer and fluid mechanical impedance for a total artificial lung, in which the right heart pumps blood across a bundle of hollow microfibers. Vortex formation was found to occur at lower Reynolds numbers in pulsatile flow than in steady flow, and the vortex structure depends strongly on the geometric arrangement of the cylinders and on the Reynolds and Stokes numbers. PMID:21701672

  10. Cyclic variations of high-frequency ultrasonic backscattering from blood under pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung

    2009-08-01

    It was shown previously that ultrasonic scattering from whole blood varies during the flow cycle under pulsatile flow both in vitro and in vivo. It has been postulated that the cyclic variations of the backscattering signal are associated with red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in flowing whole blood. To obtain a better understanding of the relationship between blood backscattering and RBC aggregation behavior for pulsatile flowing blood, the present study used high-frequency ultrasound to characterize blood properties. The backscattering signals from both whole blood and an RBC suspension at different peak flow velocities (from 10 to 30 cm/s) and hematocrits (20% and 40%) under pulsatile flow (stroke rate of 20 beats/min) were measured with 3 single-element transducers at frequencies of 10, 35, and 50 MHz in a mock flow loop. To avoid the frequency response problem of a Doppler flowmeter, the integrated backscatter (IB) and flow velocity as functions of time were calculated directly using RF signals from flowing blood. The experimental results showed that cyclic variations of the IB curve were clearly observed at a low flow velocity and a hematocrit of 40% when using 50 MHz ultrasound, and that these variations became weaker as the peak flow velocity increased. However, these cyclic variations were detected only at 10 cm/s when using 10 MHz ultrasound. These results demonstrate that a high flow velocity can stop the formation of rouleaux and that a high hematocrit can promote RBC aggregation to produce cyclic variations of the backscattering signal under pulsatile flow. In addition, slight cyclic variations of the IB curve for an RBC suspension were observed at 35 and 50 MHz. Furthermore, the peak of the IB curve from whole blood led the peak of the velocity waveform when using high-frequency ultrasound, which could be explained by the assumption that a rapid flow can promote RBC aggregation under pulsatile flow. Together, the experimental results showed that the

  11. Evaluation of pulsatile and nonpulsatile flow in capillaries of goat skeletal muscle using intravital microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, J J; Tyml, K; Menkis, A H; Novick, R J; Mckenzie, F N

    1994-11-01

    It is commonly believed that pulsatile flow generated by the pumping action of the heart is dampened out by the time it reaches the microcirculation. In clinical practice, most of the cardiopulmonary bypass pumps and ventricular assist devices are nonpulsatile. To test the hypothesis that pulsatile flow generated by the heart does exist at the microvascular level, intravital microscopy of a large animal model (goat) was developed to visualize and to videorecord the surface microcirculation of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle from the right forelimb. Density of perfused capillaries and red blood cell velocity in capillaries were measured in five goats during pulsatile perfusion provided by the heart and during a subsequent 3-hr period of nonpulsatile perfusion provided by a centrifugal ventricular assist device (Centrimed, Sarns 3M) that bypassed the heart. Throughout the experiment, the heart rate, innominate artery mean blood pressure, and flow remained unchanged. During the pulsatile regimen, velocities showed regular fluctuations that coincided with the period of the cardiac cycle (range of periods: 0.5-0.8 sec). The peak velocity amplitudes (range: 0.25-0.55 mm/sec) correlated directly with the amplitude of the pulse pressure. During the nonpulsatile regimen, no such correlations were seen. During pulsatile flow and during the 3-hr nonpulsatile period, capillary density remained stable at 24 capillaries/mm of test line but there were significant increases in red cell velocity, from 0.8 to 1.2 mm/sec (P < 0.05), and in coefficient of variation of velocity (used as an index of flow heterogeneity), from 19 to 34% (P < 0.05). We conclude that (1) pulsatility exists in the capillary bed and that it directly correlates with the pumping action of the heart and (2) nonpulsatile flow produced by the ventricular assist device does not cause an acute deterioration in microvascular perfusion. We interpret the increase in heterogeneity of flow as an early sign of

  12. Combined MRI and CFD analysis of fully developed steady and pulsatile laminar flow through a bend.

    PubMed

    Weston, S J; Wood, N B; Tabor, G; Gosman, A D; Firmin, D N

    1998-01-01

    A combined MR and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study is made of flow in a simple phantom laboratory flow rig consisting of a 180 degree bend with straight entry and exit sections. The aim was to investigate the potential of the use of MRI-linked CFD simulations for in vivo use. To this end, the experiment was set up for both steady and pulsatile laminar flow conditions, with Reynolds and Dean numbers and Womersley pulsatility parameter representative of resting flow in the human aorta. The geometrical images of the pipe and the velocity images at entry to the bend were used as boundary conditions for CFD simulations of the flow. The CFD results for both steady and pulsatile cases compared favorably with velocity images obtained at exit from the bend. Additional information such as pressure and wall shear stress, which either could not be measured adequately via MRI, or could not be measured at all, was also extracted from the simulation. Overall, the results were sufficiently promising to justify pursuing subsequent in vivo studies.

  13. Field-induced self-assembled ferrofluid aggregation in pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Ranjan; Zellmer, Brian; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2005-09-01

    Ferrofluid aggregation and dispersion occurs at several length scales in pulsatile flow applications, e.g., in ferrofluidic pumps, valves, and biomedical applications such as magnetic drug targeting. Because of a yet limited understanding, ferrohydrodynamic investigations involving laboratory-scale studies in idealized geometries are of considerable use. We have injected a ferrofluid into a pulsatile host flow and produced field-induced dissolution (aggregation) using external magnets. A comparison is made with ferrofluid aggregation in a steady flow. Subsequently, the accumulation and dispersion of the ferrofluid aggregates in pulsatile flow are characterized by analyzing their size, mean position, and the flow frequency spectrum. The maximum aggregate size Amax, time to form it tmax, and the aggregate half-life thalf are found to scale according to the relations Amax∝Re-0.71, tmax∝Re-2.1, and thalf∝Re-2.2. While the experiments are conducted at a macroscopic length scale for useful experimental resolution, the results also enable an understanding of the micro- and mesoscale field-assisted self-assembly of magnetic nanoparticles.

  14. Vortex propagation around a wall-mounted obstacle in pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian A.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-11-01

    Wall-mounted obstacles are prevalent in nature and engineering applications. Physiological flows observed in human vocal fold pathologies, such as polyps, can be modeled by flow over a wall-mounted protuberance. Despite their prevalence, studies of wall-mounted obstacles have been restricted to steady (constant velocity) freestream flow. In biological and geophysical applications, pulsatile flow is much more common, yet effects of pulsatility on the wake of a wall-mounted obstacle remain to be extensively studied. This study aims to characterize the complex physics produced in this unsteady, separated flow. Experiments were performed in a low-speed wind tunnel with a set of rotating vanes, which produce the pulsatile inflow waveform. Instantaneous and phase-averaged particle image velocimetry (PIV) results acquired around a hemispherical obstacle are presented and compared. A mechanism based on self-induced vortex propagation, analogous to that in vortex rings, is proposed to explain the observed dynamics of coherent structures. Predictions of the propagation velocity based on analytical expressions for vortex rings in a viscous fluid are compared to the experimentally measured propagation velocity. Effects of the unsteady boundary layer on the observed physics are explored. This material is based in part upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number CBET-1236351, and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).

  15. Fiber-Based Laser Speckle Imaging for the Detection of Pulsatile Flow

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Caitlin; Yang, Bruce Y.; Mayzel, Kent C.; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio C.; Wilder-Smith, Petra; Choi, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective In endodontics, a major diagnostic challenge is the accurate assessment of pulp status. In this study, we designed and characterized a fiber-based laser speckle imaging system to study pulsatile blood flow in the tooth. Study Design/Materials and Methods To take transilluminated laser speckle images of the teeth, we built a custom fiber-based probe. To assess our ability to detect changes in pulsatile flow, we performed in vitro and preliminary in vivo tests on tissue-simulating phantoms and human teeth. We imaged flow of intralipid in a glass microchannel at simulated heart rates ranging from 40 beats/minute (bpm) to 120 bpm (0.67–2.00 Hz). We also collected in vivo data from the upper front incisors of healthy subjects. From the measured raw speckle data, we calculated temporal speckle contrast versus time. With frequency-domain analysis, we identified the frequency components of the contrast waveforms. Results With our approach, we observed in vitro the presence of pulsatile flow at different simulated heart rates. We characterized simulated heart rate with an accuracy of and >98%. In the in vivo proof-of-principle experiment, we measured heart rates of 69, 90, and 57 bpm, which agreed with measurements of subject heart rate taken with a wearable, commercial pulse oximeter. Conclusions We designed, built, and tested the performance of a dental imaging probe. Data from in vitro and in vivo tests strongly suggest that this probe can detect the presence of pulsatile flow. LSI may enable endodontists to noninvasively assess pulpal vitality via direct measurement of blood flow. PMID:26202900

  16. Clinical effectiveness of centrifugal pump to produce pulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y John; van Oeveren, Willem; Mungroop, Hubert E; Epema, Anne H; den Hamer, Inez J; Keizer, Jorrit J; Leuvenink, Ron P; Mariani, Massimo A; Rakhorst, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Although the centrifugal pump has been widely used as a nonpulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), little is known about its performance as a pulsatile pump for CPB, especially on its efficacy in producing hemodynamic energy and its clinical effectiveness. We performed a study to evaluate whether the Rotaflow centrifugal pump produces effective pulsatile flow during CPB and whether the pulsatile flow in this setting is clinically effective in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients undergoing CPB for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were randomly allocated to a pulsatile perfusion group (n = 16) or a nonpulsatile perfusion group (n = 16). All patients were perfused with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump. In the pulsatile group, the centrifugal pump was adjusted to the pulsatile mode (60 cycles/min) during aortic cross-clamping, whereas in the nonpulsatile group, the pump was kept in its nonpulsatile mode during the same period of time. Compared with the nonpulsatile group, the pulsatile group had a higher pulse pressure (P < 0.01) and a fraction higher energy equivalent pressure (EEP, P = 0.058). The net gain of pulsatile flow, represented by the surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), was found much higher in the CPB circuit than in patients (P < 0.01). Clinically, there was no difference between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups with regard to postoperative acute kidney injury, endothelial activation, or inflammatory response. Postoperative organ function and the duration of hospital stay were similar in the two patient groups. In conclusion, pulsatile CPB with the Rotaflow centrifugal pump is associated with a small gain of EEP and SHE, which does not seem to be clinically effective in adult cardiac surgical patients.

  17. Fluid particle motion and Lagrangian velocities for pulsatile flow through a femoral artery branch model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization study using selective dye injection and frame by frame analysis of a movie provided qualitative and quantitative data on the motion of marked fluid particles in a 60 degree artery branch model for simulation of physiological femoral artery flow. Physical flow features observed included jetting of the branch flow into the main lumen during the brief reverse flow period, flow separation along the main lumen wall during the near zero flow phase of diastole when the core flow was in the downstream direction, and inference of flow separation conditions along the wall opposite the branch later in systole at higher branch flow ratios. There were many similarities between dye particle motions in pulsatile flow and the comparative steady flow observations.

  18. An experimental study of pressure losses in pulsatile flows through rigid and pulsating stenosis.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitz, R; Degani, D; Gutfinger, C; Milo, S

    1984-11-01

    The time-dependent pressure curves of a pulsatile flow across rigid and pulsating stenoses were investigated experimentally in a laboratory simulator of the outflow tract of the heart right ventricle. The experiments were performed within the range of physiological conditions of frequency and flow rate. The experimental setup consisted of a closed flow system which was operated by a pulsatile pump, and a test chamber which enabled checking different modes of stenosis. Rigid constrictions were simulated by means of axisymmetric blunt-ended annular plugs with moderate-to-severe area reductions. The pulsating stenosis consisted of a short starling resistor device operated by a pulsating external pressure which was synchronized by the pulsatile flow. It was found that the shape of the time-dependent pressure curve upstream of the stenosis was different in the case of rigid stenosis than in the pulsating one. Potential clinical applications of the work may relate to diagnosis of the type of stenosis in the congenital heart disease known as Tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:6513525

  19. Orientation-independent rapid pulsatile flow measurement using dual-angle Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lindsy M; Gu, Shi; Jenkins, Michael W; Rollins, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    Doppler OCT (DOCT) can provide blood flow velocity information which is valuable for investigation of microvascular structure and function. However, DOCT is only sensitive to motion parallel with the imaging beam, so that knowledge of flow direction is needed for absolute velocity determination. Here, absolute volumetric flow is calculated by integrating velocity components perpendicular to the B-scan plane. These components are acquired using two illumination beams with a predetermined angular separation, produced by a delay encoded technique. This technology enables rapid pulsatile flow measurement from single B-scans without the need for 3-D volumetric data or knowledge of blood vessel orientation. PMID:24575344

  20. Pulsatile flow of power-law fluid model for blood flow under periodic body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Chaturani, P; Palanisamy, V

    1990-01-01

    A mathematical model has been proposed to study the pulsatile flow of a power-law fluid through rigid circular tubes under the influence of a periodic body acceleration. Numerical solutions have been obtained by using finite difference method. The accuracy of the numerical procedure has been checked by comparing the obtained numerical results with other numerical and analytical solutions. It is found that the agreement between them is quite good. Interaction of non-Newtonian nature of fluid with the body acceleration has been investigated by using the physiological data for two particular cases (coronary and femoral arteries). The axial velocity, fluid acceleration, wall shear stress and instantaneous volume flow rate have been computed and their variations with different parameters have been analyzed. The following important observations have been made: (i) The velocity and acceleration profiles can have more than one maxima, this is in contrast with usual parabolic profiles where they have only one maximum at the axis. As n increases, the maxima shift towards the axis; (ii) For the flow with no body acceleration, the amplitude of both, wall shear and flow rate, increases with n, whereas for the flow with body acceleration, the amplitude of wall shear (flow rate) increases (decreases) as n increases; (iii) In the absence of body acceleration, pseudoplastic (dilatant) fluids, with low frequency pulsations, have higher (lower) value of maximum flow rate Qmax than Newtonian fluids, whereas for high frequencies, opposite behavior has been observed; for flow with body acceleration pulsations gives higher (lower) value of Qmax for pseudoplastic (dilatant) fluids than Newtonian fluids.

  1. Modelling of pulsatile blood flow in arterial trees of retinal vasculature.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, P; He, S; Xu, H

    2011-09-01

    The paper presents a numerical investigation of the pulsatile blood flow in the detailed arterial vasculatures of a mouse retina using the mathematical model based on frequency domain incorporating an appropriate outlet boundary impedance at the end of the terminal vessels of the arterial trees. The viscosity in the vessels was evaluated considering the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect, the plasma skimming effect and in vivo viscosity effect in the microcirculation. Comparative studies of the pulsatile circulation were carried out for cases of rigid vessels, constant viscosity, zero and non-zero outlet boundary impedances. In addition, the dependence of the oscillating input impedance at the inlet of the arterial trees on angular frequencies of the oscillation and vessel elasticises was also studied. The study shows that the pressure wave continues in the pre-capillary vessels throughout the retina. In elastic vessels, the amplitude of oscillatory velocity and wall shear stress in larger vessels and in vessels at the periphery region of the retina is amplified. The pulsatile blood flow is significantly influenced by the outlet boundary (or load) impedance which simulates the effect of the capillary and venous vasculatures. The oscillating input impedance at the inlet of the arterial trees is also found to be dependent on the angular frequency and the Young modulus of the vessel segment. Insights into the potential variations of the dynamic responses of the system under retinal pathological condition of arteriosclerosis may be inferred from the findings of the present study.

  2. Numerical investigation of pulsatile flow in endovascular stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, A.; Piomelli, U.; Vlachos, P.

    2013-09-01

    The flow in a plane channel with two idealized stents (one Λ-shaped, the other X-shaped) is studied numerically. A periodic pressure gradient corresponding to one measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery was used to drive the flow. Two Reynolds numbers were examined, one (Re = 80) corresponding to resting conditions, the other (Re = 200) to exercise. The stents were implemented by an immersed boundary method. The formation and migration of vortices that had been observed experimentally was also seen here. In the previous studies, the compliance mismatch between stent and vessel was conjectured to be the reason for this phenomenon. However, in the present study we demonstrate that the vortices form despite the fact that the walls were rigid. Flow visualization and quantitative analysis lead us to conclude that this process is due to the stent wires that generate small localized recirculation regions that, when they interact with the near-wall flow reversal, result in the formation of these vortical structures. The recirculation regions grow and merge when the imposed waveform produces near-wall flow reversal, forming coherent quasi-spanwise vortices, that migrate away from the wall. The flow behavior due to the stents was compared with an unstented channel. The geometric characteristics of the Λ-stent caused less deviation of the flow from an unstented channel than the X-stent. Investigating the role of advection and diffusion indicated that at Re = 80 advection has negligible contribution in the transport mechanism. Advection plays a role in the generation of streamwise vortices created for both stents at both Reynolds numbers. The effect of these vortices on the near-wall flow behavior is more significant for the Λ-stent compared to the X-stent and at Re = 200 with respect to Re = 80. Finally, it was observed that increasing the Reynolds number leads to early vortex formation and the creation of the vortex in a stented channel is coincident with

  3. Impact of the postpump resistance on pressure-flow waveform and hemodynamic energy level in a neonatal pulsatile centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Haines, Nikkole; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the impact of different postpump resistances on pulsatile pressure-flow waveforms and hemodynamic energy output in a mock extracorporeal system. The circuit was primed with a 40% glycerin-water mixture, and a PediVAS centrifugal pump was used. The pre- and postpump pressures and flow rates were monitored via a data acquisition system. The postpump resistance was adjusted using a Hoffman clamp at the outlet of the pump. Five different postpump resistances and rotational speeds were tested with nonpulsatile (NP: 5000 RPM) and pulsatile (P: 4000 RPM) modes. No backflow was found when using pulsatile flow. With isoresistance, increased arterial resistances decreased pump flow rates (NP: from 1,912 ml/min to 373 ml/min; P: from 1,485 ml/min to 288 ml/min), increased postpump pressures (NP: from 333 mm Hg to 402 mm Hg; P: from 223 mm Hg to 274 mm Hg), and increased hemodynamic energy output with pulsatile mode. Pump flow rate correlated linearly with rotational speed (RPMs) of the pump, whereas postpump pressures and hemodynamic energy outputs showed curvilinear relationships with RPMs. The maximal pump flow rate also increased from 618 ml/min to 4,293 ml/min with pulsatile mode and from 581 ml/min to 5,665 ml/min with nonpulsatile mode. Results showed that higher postpump resistance reduced the pump flow range, and increased postpump pressure and surplus hemodynamic energy output with pulsatile mode. Higher rotational speeds also generated higher pump flow rates, postpump pressures, and increased pulsatility.

  4. A nonlinear analysis of pulsatile flow in arteries.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, S. C.; Atabek, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    An approximate numerical method for calculating flow profiles in arteries is developed. The theory takes into account the nonlinear terms of the Navier-Stokes equations as well as the nonlinear behaviour and large deformations of the arterial wall. Through the locally measured values of the pressure, pressure gradient, and pressure-radius function, the velocity distribution and wall shear at a given location along the artery can be determined. The computed results agree well with the corresponding experimental data.

  5. A High Performance Pulsatile Pump for Aortic Flow Experiments in 3-Dimensional Models.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Rafeed A; Atlasman, Victor; Pathangey, Girish; Pracht, Nicholas; Adrian, Ronald J; Frakes, David H

    2016-06-01

    Aortic pathologies such as coarctation, dissection, and aneurysm represent a particularly emergent class of cardiovascular diseases. Computational simulations of aortic flows are growing increasingly important as tools for gaining understanding of these pathologies, as well as for planning their surgical repair. In vitro experiments are required to validate the simulations against real world data, and the experiments require a pulsatile flow pump system that can provide physiologic flow conditions characteristic of the aorta. We designed a newly capable piston-based pulsatile flow pump system that can generate high volume flow rates (850 mL/s), replicate physiologic waveforms, and pump high viscosity fluids against large impedances. The system is also compatible with a broad range of fluid types, and is operable in magnetic resonance imaging environments. Performance of the system was validated using image processing-based analysis of piston motion as well as particle image velocimetry. The new system represents a more capable pumping solution for aortic flow experiments than other available designs, and can be manufactured at a relatively low cost. PMID:26983961

  6. Time-resolved X-ray PIV measurements of hemodynamic information of real pulsatile blood flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    X-ray imaging technique has been used to visualize various bio-fluid flow phenomena as a nondestructive manner. To obtain hemodynamic information related with circulatory vascular diseases, a time-resolved X-ray PIV technique with high temporal resolution was developed. In this study, to embody actual pulsatile blood flows in a circular conduit without changes in hemorheological properties, a bypass loop is established by connecting a microtube between the jugular vein and femoral artery of a rat. Biocompatible CO2 microbubbles are used as tracer particles. After mixing with whole blood, CO2 microbubbles are injected into the bypass loop. Particle images of the pulsatile blood flows in the bypass loop are consecutively captured by the time-resolved X-ray PIV system. The velocity field information are obtained with varying flow rate and pulsataility. To verify the feasibility of the use of CO2 microbubbles under in vivo conditions, the effects of the surrounding-tissues are also investigated, because these effects are crucial for deteriorating the image contrast of CO2 microbubbles. Therefore, the velocity information of blood flows in the abdominal aorta are obtained to demonstrate the visibility and usefulness of CO2 microbubbles under ex vivo conditions. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  7. Pulsatile flow of blood using a modified second-grade fluid model

    SciTech Connect

    Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran, P.X.

    2008-07-01

    We study the unsteady pulsatile flow of blood in an artery, where the effects of body acceleration are included. The blood is modeled as a modified second-grade fluid where the viscosity and the normal stress coefficients depend on the shear rate. It is assumed that the blood near the wall behaves as a Newtonian fluid, and in the core as a non-Newtonian fluid. This phenomenon is also known as the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect. The equations are made dimensionless and solved numerically.

  8. A Pulsatile Flow Phantom for Image-Guided HIFU Hemostasis of Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greaby, Robyn; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-01

    A pulsatile flow phantom for studying ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis in a controlled environment has been developed. An ex vivo porcine carotid artery was attached to the phantom and embedded in a visually and ultrasonically transparent gel. Heparinized porcine blood was pumped through the phantom. Power-Doppler and B-mode ultrasound were used to remotely target the HIFU focus to the site of a needle puncture. In nine trials, complete hemostasis was achieved after an average HIFU application of 55 +/- 34 seconds. The vessels remained patent after treatment. With this phantom, it will be possible to do controlled studies of ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis.

  9. A comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian models for pulsatile blood flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husain, Iqbal; Labropulu, Fotini; Langdon, Chris; Schwark, Justin

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical modeling of blood flows in the arteries is an important and challenging problem. This study compares several non-Newtonian blood models with the Newtonian model in simulating pulsatile blood flow through two three-dimensional models of an arterial stenosis and an aneurysm. Four non-Newtonian blood models, namely the Power Law, the Casson, the Carreau, and the Generalized Power Law, as well as the Newtonian model of blood viscosity, are used to investigate the flow effects induced by these different blood constitutive equations. The aim of this study is three-fold: firstly, to investigate the variation in wall shear stress in an artery with a stenosis or aneurysm at different flow rates and degrees of severity; secondly, to compare the various blood models and hence quantify the differences between the models and judge their significance; and lastly, to determine whether the use of the Newtonian blood model is appropriate over a wide range of shear rates.

  10. Pulsatile unsteady flow of blood through porous medium in a stenotic artery under the influence of transverse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Bansal, Kuldip; Bansal, Seema

    2012-09-01

    The periodic nature of the cardiac cycle induces a pulsatile, unsteady flow within the circulatory system. The pulsatile model of blood flow provides data to analyse the physiological situation in close proximity. The distribution of fatty cholesterol and artery-clogging blood clots in the lumen of the coronary artery is assumed as a porous medium. A mathematical model for pulsatile flow through an stenosed artery filled with porous medium in the presence of transverse static magnetic field has been formulated under the consideration of hematocrit dependent viscosity of blood that governed by Einstein equation. The velocity profile, volume flux, pressure gradient and wall shear stress are obtained and the effects of magnetic number, Darcy number, Womersely number are computed and represented through graphs.

  11. Estimation of pressure gradients in pulsatile flow from magnetic resonance acceleration measurements.

    PubMed

    Tasu, J P; Mousseaux, E; Delouche, A; Oddou, C; Jolivet, O; Bittoun, J

    2000-07-01

    A method for estimating pressure gradients from MR images is demonstrated. Making the usual assumption that the flowing medium is a Newtonian fluid, and with appropriate boundary conditions, the inertial forces (or acceleration components of the flow) are proportional to the pressure gradients. The technique shown here is based on an evaluation of the inertial forces from Fourier acceleration encoding. This method provides a direct measurement of the total acceleration defined as the sum of the velocity derivative vs. time and the convective acceleration. The technique was experimentally validated by comparing MR and manometer pressure gradient measurements obtained in a pulsatile flow phantom. The results indicate that the MR determination of pressure gradients from an acceleration measurement is feasible with a good correlation with the true measurements (r = 0.97). The feasibility of the method is demonstrated in the aorta of a normal volunteer. Magn Reson Med 44:66-72, 2000. PMID:10893523

  12. Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Formation Over A Separated Flow Region Under Steady And Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salek, M. Mehdi; Martinuzzi, Robert

    2012-02-01

    Several researchers have observed that the formation, morphology and susceptibility of bacterial biofilms are affected by the local hydrodynamic condition and, in particular, shear stresses acting on the fluid-biofilm interface. A backwards facing step (BFS) experimental model has been widely utilized as an in vitro model to examine and characterize the effect of flow separation and recirculation zones comparable to those present within various medical devices as well as those observed in vivo. The specific geometry of BFS covers a vide range of flow features observed in physiological or environmental conditions. The hypothesis of this study is that the flow behavior and structures can effectively contribute to the transport and attachment of cells and affecting the morphology of adhered colonies as well as suspended structures (i.e. biofilm streamers). Hence, the formation of the recirculation region occurring within a backward facing step (BFS) under steady and pulsatile conditions as well as three-dimensional flow structures arising close to the side walls are investigated to correlate to biofilms behavior. This hypothesis is investigated using a backward facing step incorporated into a flow cell under steady and pulsatile flow regimes to study the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) UC18 as the study microorganism.

  13. The Importance of dQ/dt on the Flow Field in a Turbodynamic Pump With Pulsatile Flow

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Fangjun; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Antaki, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Fluid dynamic analysis of turbodynamic blood pumps (TBPs) is often conducted under steady flow conditions. However, the preponderance of clinical applications for ventricular assistance involves unsteady, pulsatile flow—due to the residual contractility of the native heart. This study was undertaken to demonstrate the importance of pulsatility and the associated time derivative of the flow rate (dQ/dt) on hemodynamics within a clinical-scale TBP. This was accomplished by performing flow visualization studies on a transparent model of a centrifugal TBP interposed within a cardiovascular simulator with controllable heart rate and stroke volume. Particle image velocimetry triggered to both the rotation angle of the impeller and phase of the cardiac cycle was used to quantify the velocity field in the outlet volute and in between the impeller blades for 16 phases of the cardiac cycle. Comparison of the unsteady flow fields to corresponding steady conditions at the same (instantaneous) flow rates revealed marked differences. In particular, deceleration of flow was found to promote separation within the outlet diffuser, while acceleration served to stabilize the velocity field. The notable differences between the acceleration and deceleration phases illustrated the prominence of inertial fluid forces. These studies emphasize the importance of dQ/dt as an independent variable for thorough preclinical validation of TBPs intended for use as a ventricular assist device. PMID:19775268

  14. Heart-beat-phase-coherent Doppler optical coherence tomography for measuring pulsatile ocular blood flow.

    PubMed

    Schmoll, Tilman; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2013-03-01

    We introduce a Doppler OCT (DOCT) platform that is fully synchronized with the heart-beat via a pulse oximeter. The system allows reconstructing heart-beat-phase-coherent quantitative DOCT volumes. The method is to acquire a series of DOCT volumes and to record the pulse in parallel. The heartbeat data is used for triggering the start of each DOCT volume acquisition. The recorded volume series is registered to the level of capillaries using a cross-volume registration. The information of the pulse phase is used to rearrange the tomograms in time, to obtain a series of phase coherent DOCT volumes over a pulse. We present Doppler angle independent quantitative evaluation of the absolute pulsatile blood flow within individual retinal vessels as well as of the total retinal blood flow over a full heartbeat cycle.

  15. Numerical Study of Turbulent Pulsatile Blood Flow through Stenosed Artery Using Fluid-Solid Interaction.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Saghafian, Mohsen; Sadeghi, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent pulsatile blood flow through stenosed arteries considering the elastic property of the wall is investigated numerically. During the numerical model validation both standard k-ε model and RNG K-ε model are used. Compared with the RNG K-ε model, the standard K-ε model shows better agreement with previous experimental results and is better able to show the reverse flow region. Also, compared with experimental data, the results show that, up to 70% stenosis, the flow is laminar and for 80% stenosis the flow becomes turbulent. Assuming laminar or turbulent flow and also rigid or elastic walls, the results are compared with each other. The investigation of time-averaged shear stress and the oscillatory shear index for 80% stenosis show that assuming laminar flow will cause more error than assuming a rigid wall. The results also show that, in turbulent flow compared with laminar flow, the importance of assuming a flexible artery wall is more than assuming a rigid artery wall.

  16. Numerical Study of Turbulent Pulsatile Blood Flow through Stenosed Artery Using Fluid-Solid Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jahangiri, Mehdi; Saghafian, Mohsen; Sadeghi, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    The turbulent pulsatile blood flow through stenosed arteries considering the elastic property of the wall is investigated numerically. During the numerical model validation both standard k-ε model and RNG K-ε model are used. Compared with the RNG K-ε model, the standard K-ε model shows better agreement with previous experimental results and is better able to show the reverse flow region. Also, compared with experimental data, the results show that, up to 70% stenosis, the flow is laminar and for 80% stenosis the flow becomes turbulent. Assuming laminar or turbulent flow and also rigid or elastic walls, the results are compared with each other. The investigation of time-averaged shear stress and the oscillatory shear index for 80% stenosis show that assuming laminar flow will cause more error than assuming a rigid wall. The results also show that, in turbulent flow compared with laminar flow, the importance of assuming a flexible artery wall is more than assuming a rigid artery wall. PMID:26448782

  17. Generating a Pulsatile Pulmonary Flow after Fontan Operation by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoreyshi, Mostafa

    2011-03-01

    This study considers blood flow in total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) morphology, which is created in Fontan surgical procedure in patients with single ventricle heart disease. Ordinary process of TCPC operation reduces pulmonary blood flow pulsatility; because of right ventricle being bypassed. This phenomenon causes a lot of side effects for patients. A cardiac surgeon has suggested that keeping main pulmonary artery (MPA) partially open, would increase pulmonary flow pulsations. MPA gets closed in ordinary TCPC operation. The purpose of current study is to verify the effects of keeping MPA partially open on pulmonary flow pulsations, by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). 3D geometry is reconstructed from CT Angiography (CTA) scan of a patient who has undergone an ordinary TCPC procedure. The stenosed MPA or pulmonary stenosis (PS) is virtually added to the original geometry. Flow field is studied in six different models in which average antegrade flow (AF) -coming through PS- increases gradually. Results show that adding AF increases flow pulsations in both pulmonary arteries. Moreover, power loss increases with respect to average AF. We conclude that adding AF is an impressive way to increase pulsations of pulmonary flow, but energy losses should be considered too.

  18. Assessment of blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries with 7-T quantitative flow MRI.

    PubMed

    Bouvy, W H; Geurts, L J; Kuijf, H J; Luijten, P R; Kappelle, L J; Biessels, G J; Zwanenburg, J J M

    2016-09-01

    Thus far, blood flow velocity measurements with MRI have only been feasible in large cerebral blood vessels. High-field-strength MRI may now permit velocity measurements in much smaller arteries. The aim of this proof of principle study was to measure the blood flow velocity and pulsatility of cerebral perforating arteries with 7-T MRI. A two-dimensional (2D), single-slice quantitative flow (Qflow) sequence was used to measure blood flow velocities during the cardiac cycle in perforating arteries in the basal ganglia (BG) and semioval centre (CSO), from which a mean normalised pulsatility index (PI) per region was calculated (n = 6 human subjects, aged 23-29 years). The precision of the measurements was determined by repeated imaging and performance of a Bland-Altman analysis, and confounding effects of partial volume and noise on the measurements were simulated. The median number of arteries included was 14 in CSO and 19 in BG. In CSO, the average velocity per volunteer was in the range 0.5-1.0 cm/s and PI was 0.24-0.39. In BG, the average velocity was in the range 3.9-5.1 cm/s and PI was 0.51-0.62. Between repeated scans, the precision of the average, maximum and minimum velocity per vessel decreased with the size of the arteries, and was relatively low in CSO and BG compared with the M1 segment of the middle cerebral artery. The precision of PI per region was comparable with that of M1. The simulations proved that velocities can be measured in vessels with a diameter of more than 80 µm, but are underestimated as a result of partial volume effects, whilst pulsatility is overestimated. Blood flow velocity and pulsatility in cerebral perforating arteries have been measured directly in vivo for the first time, with moderate to good precision. This may be an interesting metric for the study of haemodynamic changes in aging and cerebral small vessel disease. © 2015 The Authors NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of Pulsatile and Continuous Flow on Yes-Associated Protein

    PubMed Central

    Chitragari, Gautham; Shalaby, Sherif Y.; Sumpio, Brandon J.; Sumpio, Bauer E.

    2014-01-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a mechanosignaling protein that relays mechanical information to the nucleus by changing its level of phosphorylation. We hypothesize that different flow patterns show differential effect on phosphorylated YAP (pYAP) (S127) and total YAP and could be responsible for flow dependent localization of atherosclerosis. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) seeded on fibronectin-coated glass slides were exposed to continuous forward flow (CFF) and pulsatile forward flow (PFF) using a parallel plate flow chamber system for 30 minutes. Cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted to detect the levels of phosphorylated YAP and total YAP. HUVECs exposed to both PFF and CFF showed a mild decrease in the levels of both pYAP (S127) and total YAP. While the levels of pYAP (S127) decreased to 87.85 and 85.21% of static control with PFF and CFF, respectively, the levels of total YAP significantly decreased to 91.31 and 92.27% of static control. No significant difference was seen between CFF and PFF on their effect on pYAP (S127), but both conditions resulted in a significant decrease in total YAP at 30 minutes. The results of this experiment show that the possible effect of different types of flow on YAP is not induced before 30 minutes. Experiments exposing endothelial cells to various types of flow for longer duration of time could help to elucidate the role of YAP in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PMID:25317030

  20. Effect of pulsatile and continuous flow on yes-associated protein.

    PubMed

    Chitragari, Gautham; Shalaby, Sherif Y; Sumpio, Brandon J; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2014-09-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a mechanosignaling protein that relays mechanical information to the nucleus by changing its level of phosphorylation. We hypothesize that different flow patterns show differential effect on phosphorylated YAP (pYAP) (S127) and total YAP and could be responsible for flow dependent localization of atherosclerosis. Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) seeded on fibronectin-coated glass slides were exposed to continuous forward flow (CFF) and pulsatile forward flow (PFF) using a parallel plate flow chamber system for 30 minutes. Cell lysates were prepared and immunoblotted to detect the levels of phosphorylated YAP and total YAP. HUVECs exposed to both PFF and CFF showed a mild decrease in the levels of both pYAP (S127) and total YAP. While the levels of pYAP (S127) decreased to 87.85 and 85.21% of static control with PFF and CFF, respectively, the levels of total YAP significantly decreased to 91.31 and 92.27% of static control. No significant difference was seen between CFF and PFF on their effect on pYAP (S127), but both conditions resulted in a significant decrease in total YAP at 30 minutes. The results of this experiment show that the possible effect of different types of flow on YAP is not induced before 30 minutes. Experiments exposing endothelial cells to various types of flow for longer duration of time could help to elucidate the role of YAP in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  1. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Carlos R; Miranda, Rafaela Morais; Cunha, Patricia LT; M Kanadani, Tereza Cristina; Dorairaj, Syril

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Glaucomatous neuropathy can be a consequence of insufficient blood supply, increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), or other risk factors that diminish the ocular blood flow. To determine the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in normal and systemic hypertensive patients. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study and underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including slit lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, stereoscopic fundus examination, and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) measurements. The OPP was calculated as being the medium systemic arterial pressure (MAP) less the IOP. Only right eye values were considered for calculations using Student’s t-test. Results: The mean age of the patients was 57.5 years (36-78), and 68.5% were women. There was a statistically significant difference in the OPP of the normal and systemic hypertensive patients (p < 0.05). The difference in the OPP between these groups varied between 8.84 and 17.9 mm Hg. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that although the systemic hypertensive patients have a higher OPP in comparison to normal patients, this increase does not mean that they also have a higher OBF (as measured by POBF tonograph). This may be caused by chronic changes in the vascular network and in the blood hemodynamics in patients with systemic hypertension. How to cite this article: Kanadani FN, Figueiredo CR, Miranda RM, Cunha PLT, Kanadani TCM, Dorairaj S. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):16-19. PMID:26997827

  2. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Methods Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was performed before and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ECC commencement. To eliminate bias induced by hematocrit and plasma, all blood samples were adjusted to a hematocrit of 45% using baseline plasma. Blood viscoelasticity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, arterial blood gas analysis, central venous O2 saturation, and lactate were measured. Results The blood viscosity and aggregation index decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC and then remained low during ECC in both groups, but blood elasticity did not change during ECC. Blood viscosity, blood elasticity, plasma viscosity, and the aggregation index were not significantly different in the groups at any time. Hematocrit decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC in both groups due to dilution by the priming solution used. Conclusion After ECC, blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation were not different in the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups in the adult dog model. Furthermore, pulsatile flow did not have a more harmful effect on blood viscoelasticity or RBC aggregation than nonpulsatile flow. PMID:27298790

  3. Pulsatile flow of blood and heat transfer with variable viscosity under magnetic and vibration environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shit, G. C.; Majee, Sreeparna

    2015-08-01

    Unsteady flow of blood and heat transfer characteristics in the neighborhood of an overlapping constricted artery have been investigated in the presence of magnetic field and whole body vibration. The laminar flow of blood is taken to be incompressible and Newtonian fluid with variable viscosity depending upon temperature with an aim to provide resemblance to the real situation in the physiological system. The unsteady flow mechanism in the constricted artery is subjected to a pulsatile pressure gradient arising from systematic functioning of the heart and from the periodic body acceleration. The numerical computation has been performed using finite difference method by developing Crank-Nicolson scheme. The results show that the volumetric flow rate, skin-friction and the rate of heat transfer at the wall are significantly altered in the downstream of the constricted region. The axial velocity profile, temperature and flow rate increases with increase in temperature dependent viscosity, while the opposite trend is observed in the case of skin-friction and flow impedance.

  4. A viscoelastic fluid-structure interaction model for carotid arteries under pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongjie; Wood, Nigel B; Xu, Xiao Yun

    2015-05-01

    In this study, a fluid-structure interaction model (FSI) incorporating viscoelastic wall behaviour is developed and applied to an idealized model of the carotid artery under pulsatile flow. The shear and bulk moduli of the arterial wall are described by Prony series, where the parameters can be derived from in vivo measurements. The aim is to develop a fully coupled FSI model that can be applied to realistic arterial geometries with normal or pathological viscoelastic wall behaviour. Comparisons between the numerical and analytical solutions for wall displacements demonstrate that the coupled model is capable of predicting the viscoelastic behaviour of carotid arteries. Comparisons are also made between the solid only and FSI viscoelastic models, and the results suggest that the difference in radial displacement between the two models is negligible.

  5. Verification of a computational cardiovascular system model comparing the hemodynamics of a continuous flow to a synchronous valveless pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device

    PubMed Central

    Gohean, Jeffrey R.; George, Mitchell J.; Pate, Thomas D.; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G.; Smalling, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to utilize a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device to continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous, pulsatile, valveless, dual piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared to measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared to the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device. PMID:23438771

  6. Stress analysis in a layered aortic arch model under pulsatile blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Watanabe, Masahiro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2006-01-01

    Background Many cardiovascular diseases, such as aortic dissection, frequently occur on the aortic arch and fluid-structure interactions play an important role in the cardiovascular system. Mechanical stress is crucial in the functioning of the cardiovascular system; therefore, stress analysis is a useful tool for understanding vascular pathophysiology. The present study is concerned with the stress distribution in a layered aortic arch model with interaction between pulsatile flow and the wall of the blood vessel. Methods A three-dimensional (3D) layered aortic arch model was constructed based on the aortic wall structure and arch shape. The complex mechanical interaction between pulsatile blood flow and wall dynamics in the aortic arch model was simulated by means of computational loose coupling fluid-structure interaction analyses. Results The results showed the variations of mechanical stress along the outer wall of the arch during the cardiac cycle. Variations of circumferential stress are very similar to variations of pressure. Composite stress in the aortic wall plane is high at the ascending portion of the arch and along the top of the arch, and is higher in the media than in the intima and adventitia across the wall thickness. Conclusion Our analysis indicates that circumferential stress in the aortic wall is directly associated with blood pressure, supporting the clinical importance of blood pressure control. High stress in the aortic wall could be a risk factor in aortic dissections. Our numerical layered aortic model may prove useful for biomechanical analyses and for studying the pathogeneses of aortic dissection. PMID:16630365

  7. On the Evolution of Pulsatile Flow Subject to a Transverse Impulse Body Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Labbio, Giuseppe; Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Kadem, Lyes

    2014-11-01

    In the event of an unexpected abrupt traffic stop or car accident, automotive passengers will experience an abrupt body deceleration. This may lead to tearing or dissection of the aortic wall known as Blunt Traumatic Aortic Rupture (BTAR). BTAR is the second leading cause of death in automotive accidents and, although quite frequent, the mechanisms leading to BTAR are still not clearly identified, particularly the contribution of the flow field. As such, this work is intended to provide a fundamental framework for the investigation of the flow contribution to BTAR. In this fundamental study, pulsatile flow in a three-dimensional, straight pipe of circular cross-section is subjected to a unidirectional, transverse, impulse body force applied on a strictly bounded volume of fluid. These models were simulated using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. The evolution of fluid field characteristics was investigated during and after the application of the force. The application of the force significantly modified the flow field. The force induces a transverse pressure gradient causing the development of secondary flow structures that dissipate the energy added by the acceleration. Once the force ceases to act, these structures are carried downstream and gradually dissipate their excess energy.

  8. Direct numerical simulation of a pulsatile flow in a coronary artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailon-Cuba, Jorge; Hayenga, Heather; Leonardi, Stefano

    2014-11-01

    A direct numerical simulation of the blood flow in a coronary artery has been performed. A pulsatile, turbulent flow, inside a branchless, rigid cylindrical artery with non-slip conditions has been considered. The blood is assumed to be a Newtonian fluid. As a fundamental component of the coronary geometry, several cross-sectional shapes of the arterial lumen, as a function of the streamwise coordinate-z, are being included using the immersed boundary method, with a simple transversal wavy wall, as the most simple case. A preliminary set of simulations has being run, with two time varying flow rate functions. Results include flow velocities, pressure gradients and wall shear stress (WSS) distribution, and their comparison with other CFD and experimental results. In particular, WSS is important due to the significant role that it plays in the early formation of coronary artery disease (CAD). It has been found that waviness on the wall increases the instantaneous streamwise velocity, w (y) , and its fluctuations, (y) , and more drastically the WSS. The numerical simulations were performed on the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE) under Grant No. CTS070066.

  9. Computational solution of the velocity and wall shear stress distribution inside a left carotid artery under pulsatile flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Nurullah; Turmuş, Hakan

    2014-08-01

    Stroke is still one of the leading causes for death after heart diseases and cancer in all over the world. Strokes happen because an artery that carries blood uphill from the heart to the head is clogged. Most of the time, as with heart attacks, the problem is atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries, calcified buildup of fatty deposits on the vessel wall. In this study, the fluid dynamic simulations were done in a left carotid bifurcation under the pulsatile flow conditions computationally. Pulsatile flow waveform is given in the paper. In vivo geometry and boundary conditions were obtained from a patient who has stenosis located at external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) of his common carotid artery (CCA). The location of critical flow fields such as low wall shear stress (WSS), stagnation regions and separation regions were detected near the highly stenosed region and at branching region.

  10. Computational study of pulsatile blood flow in prototype vessel geometries of coronary segments

    PubMed Central

    Chaniotis, A.K.; Kaiktsis, L.; Katritsis, D.; Efstathopoulos, E.; Pantos, I.; Marmarellis, V.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of wall shear stress (WSS) in prototype vessel geometries of coronary segments are investigated via numerical simulation, and the potential association with vascular disease and specifically atherosclerosis and plaque rupture is discussed. In particular, simulation results of WSS spatio-temporal distributions are presented for pulsatile, non-Newtonian blood flow conditions for: (a) curved pipes with different curvatures, and (b) bifurcating pipes with different branching angles and flow division. The effects of non-Newtonian flow on WSS (compared to Newtonian flow) are found to be small at Reynolds numbers representative of blood flow in coronary arteries. Specific preferential sites of average low WSS (and likely atherogenesis) were found at the outer regions of the bifurcating branches just after the bifurcation, and at the outer-entry and inner-exit flow regions of the curved vessel segment. The drop in WSS was more dramatic at the bifurcating vessel sites (less than 5% of the pre-bifurcation value). These sites were also near rapid gradients of WSS changes in space and time – a fact that increases the risk of rupture of plaque likely to develop at these sites. The time variation of the WSS spatial distributions was very rapid around the start and end of the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle, when strong fluctuations of intravascular pressure were also observed. These rapid and strong changes of WSS and pressure coincide temporally with the greatest flexion and mechanical stresses induced in the vessel wall by myocardial motion (ventricular contraction). The combination of these factors may increase the risk of plaque rupture and thrombus formation at these sites. PMID:20400349

  11. Flow characteristics past jellyfish and St. Vincent valves in the aortic position under physiological pulsatile flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Morsi, Y S; Sakhaeimanesh, A A

    2000-07-01

    Thrombus formation and hemolysis have been linked to the dynamic flow characteristics of heart valve prostheses. To enhance our understanding of the flow characteristics past the aortic position of a Jellyfish (JF) valve in the left ventricle, in vitro laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were carried out under physiological pulsatile flow conditions. The hemodynamic performance of the JF valve was then compared with that of the St. Vincent (SV) valve. The comparison was given in terms of mean systolic pressure drop, back flow energy losses, flow velocity, and shear stresses at various locations downstream of both valves and at cardiac outputs of 3.5 L/min, 4.5 L/min, and 6.5 L/min respectively. The results indicated that both valves created disturbed flow fields with elevated levels of turbulent shear stress as well as higher levels of turbulence in the immediate vicinity of the valve and up to 1 diameter of the pipe (D) downstream of the valve. At a location further downstream, the JF valve showed better flow characteristics than the SV in terms of velocity profiles and turbulent shear stresses. The closure volume of the SV valve was found to be 2.5 times higher than that of the JF valve. Moreover, the total back flow losses and mean systolic pressure drop also were found to be higher in the SV than the JF valve.

  12. Elimination of motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts using blade sequences in lumbar spine MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Glotsos, Dimitrios; Roka, Violeta; Koutsiaris, Aristotle G; Batsikas, Georgios; Sakkas, Georgios K; Tsagkalis, Antonios; Notaras, Ioannis; Stathakis, Sotirios; Papanikolaou, Nikos; Vassiou, Katerina

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of T2 turbo spin echo (TSE) axial and sagittal BLADE sequences in reducing or even eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts in lumbar spine MRI examinations. Forty four patients, who had routinely undergone a lumbar spine examination, participated in the study. The following pairs of sequences with and without BLADE were compared: a) T2 TSE Sagittal (SAG) in thirty two cases, and b) T2 TSE Axial (AX) also in thirty two cases. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were performed based on measurements in different normal anatomical structures and examination of seven characteristics, respectively. The qualitative analysis was performed by experienced radiologists. Also, the presence of image motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts was evaluated. Based on the results of the qualitative analysis for the different sequences and anatomical structures, the BLADE sequences were found to be significantly superior to the conventional ones in all the cases. The BLADE sequences eliminated the motion artifacts in all the cases. In our results, it was found that in the examined sequences (sagittal and axial) the differences between the BLADE and conventional sequences regarding the elimination of motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts were statistically significant. In all the comparisons, the T2 TSE BLADE sequences were significantly superior to the corresponding conventional sequences regarding the classification of their image quality. In conclusion, this technique appears to be capable of potentially eliminating motion, pulsatile flow and cross-talk artifacts in lumbar spine MR images and producing high quality images in collaborative and non-collaborative patients.

  13. Neurocognitive function in patients with ventricular assist devices: a comparison of pulsatile and continuous blood flow devices.

    PubMed

    Zimpfer, Daniel; Wieselthaler, Georg; Czerny, Martin; Fakin, Richard; Haider, Dominik; Zrunek, Philipp; Roethy, Wilfried; Schima, Heinz; Wolner, Ernst; Grimm, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The effect of successful ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation on neurocognitive function in terminal heart failure is uncertain. Additionally, the different impact of continuous versus pulsatile blood flow devices is unknown. A total of 29 patients (mean age 53 years), surviving implantation of a ventricular assist device as bridge to transplantation were prospectively followed (continuous flow: Micromed DeBakey, n = 11; pulsatile flow: Thoratec and Novacor, n = 18). Normative data were obtained in 40 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (mean age 54 years). Neurocognitive function was objectively measured by means of cognitive P300 auditory evoked potentials before operation (baseline), at intensive care unit (ICU) discharge, and at the 8-week and 12-week follow-up. Before implantation of the VAD, cognitive P300 evoked potentials were impaired (prolonged) compared with age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (p < 0.001). After successful VAD implantation, P300 evoked potentials markedly improved compared with before operation (ICU discharge, p = 0.007; 8-week follow-up, p = 0.022; 12-week follow-up, p < 0.0001). Importantly, there was no difference between continuous and pulsatile VADs (before operation, p = 0.676; ICU discharge, p = 0.736; 8-week follow-up, p = 0.911 and 12-week follow-up, p = 0.397; respectively). Nevertheless, P300 peak latencies did not fully normalize at 12-week follow-up compared with healthy subjects (p = 0.012). Successful VAD implantation improves neurocognitive impairment in patients with terminal heart failure. Importantly, this effect is independent of the type of VAD (pulsatile vs. continuous blood flow). PMID:16436886

  14. Mass Transfer in a Rigid Tube With Pulsatile Flow and Constant Wall Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Moschandreou, T. E.; Ellis, C. G.; Goldman, D.

    2011-01-01

    An approximate-analytical solution method is presented for the problem of mass transfer in a rigid tube with pulsatile flow. For the case of constant wall concentration, it is shown that the generalized integral transform (GIT) method can be used to obtain a solution in terms of a perturbation expansion, where the coefficients of each term are given by a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. Truncating the system at some large value of the parameter N, an approximate solution for the system is obtained for the first term in the perturbation expansion, and the GIT-based solution is verified by comparison to a numerical solution. The GIT approximate-analytical solution indicates that for small to moderate nondimensional frequencies for any distance from the inlet of the tube, there is a positive peak in the bulk concentration C1b due to pulsation, thereby, producing a higher mass transfer mixing efficiency in the tube. As we further increase the frequency, the positive peak is followed by a negative peak in the time-averaged bulk concentration and then the bulk concentration C1b oscillates and dampens to zero. Initially, for small frequencies the relative Sherwood number is negative indicating that the effect of pulsation tends to reduce mass transfer. There is a band of frequencies, where the relative Sherwood number is positive indicating that the effect of pulsation tends to increase mass transfer. The positive peak in bulk concentration corresponds to a matching of the phase of the pulsatile velocity and the concentration, respectively, where the unique maximum of both occur for certain time in the cycle. The oscillatory component of concentration is also determined radially in the tube where the concentration develops first near the wall of the tube, and the lobes of the concentration curves increase with increasing distance downstream until the concentration becomes fully developed. The GIT method proves to be a working approach to solve the first

  15. Arterial stiffness, pressure and flow pulsatility and brain structure and function: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary F; van Buchem, Mark A; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Gotal, John D; Jonsdottir, Maria K; Kjartansson, Ólafur; Garcia, Melissa; Aspelund, Thor; Harris, Tamara B; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J

    2011-11-01

    Aortic stiffness increases with age and vascular risk factor exposure and is associated with increased risk for structural and functional abnormalities in the brain. High ambient flow and low impedance are thought to sensitize the cerebral microcirculation to harmful effects of excessive pressure and flow pulsatility. However, haemodynamic mechanisms contributing to structural brain lesions and cognitive impairment in the presence of high aortic stiffness remain unclear. We hypothesized that disproportionate stiffening of the proximal aorta as compared with the carotid arteries reduces wave reflection at this important interface and thereby facilitates transmission of excessive pulsatile energy into the cerebral microcirculation, leading to microvascular damage and impaired function. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated carotid pressure and flow, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, brain magnetic resonance images and cognitive scores in participants in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility--Reykjavik study who had no history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or dementia (n = 668, 378 females, 69-93 years of age). Aortic characteristic impedance was assessed in a random subset (n = 422) and the reflection coefficient at the aorta-carotid interface was computed. Carotid flow pulsatility index was negatively related to the aorta-carotid reflection coefficient (R = -0.66, P<0.001). Carotid pulse pressure, pulsatility index and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity were each associated with increased risk for silent subcortical infarcts (hazard ratios of 1.62-1.71 per standard deviation, P<0.002). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was associated with higher white matter hyperintensity volume (0.108 ± 0.045 SD/SD, P = 0.018). Pulsatility index was associated with lower whole brain (-0.127 ± 0.037 SD/SD, P<0.001), grey matter (-0.079 ± 0.038 SD/SD, P = 0.038) and white matter (-0.128 ± 0.039 SD/SD, P<0.001) volumes. Carotid-femoral pulse

  16. Linearity of pulsatile pressure-flow relations in the embryonic chick vascular system.

    PubMed

    Yoshigi, M; Keller, B B

    1996-10-01

    The calculation and modeling of vascular input impedance are based on the assumption that pressure and flow are linearly related in the frequency domain. However, this assumption has not been proven for the embryonic circulation. Therefore, we investigated the linearity of pulsatile pressure flow relations in vivo with acute alterations in cycle length. We simultaneously measured dorsal aortic pressure with a servonull system and flow velocity with a 20-MHz pulsed-Doppler system in stage 24 chick embryos (n = 38). Cycle length was acutely altered using thermal probe(s) applied to the sinus venosus. We determined the impedance spectra at several cycle lengths for each embryo and a reference curve from a three-element Windkessel model with the use of nonlinear curve fitting. We then assessed the scatter of experimental impedance along the reference curve as a measure of linearity in the frequency domain. We found that mean vascular resistance did not change after thermal probe applications (P > .20 for each), indicating that acute alterations in cycle length did not alter peripheral vascular properties. Superpositioned impedance spectra showed minimal scatter along the model impedance from 0 to 6 Hz. Goodness of fit values (R2) were near unity (.94 to .97) and were similar for all interventions (P > .07 for Fisher's z, by F test). Above 6 Hz, both modulus and phase spectra exhibited significant scatter (P < .05, by F test). Experimental impedance spectra tended to have a fluctuation and a phase-zero crossover, indicating significant wave reflection in the embryonic circulation. Thus, the embryonic vascular system can be approximated as a linear system from 0 to 6 Hz, the range in which the majority (96.0 +/- 0.18%) of hydraulic energy is dissipated.

  17. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)--which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)--which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498 mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332 mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24 min at a gas supersaturation of 620 kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24 min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration.

  18. Osteoblasts respond to pulsatile fluid flow with short-term increases in PGE(2) but no change in mineralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nauman, E. A.; Satcher, R. L.; Keaveny, T. M.; Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    Although there is no consensus as to the precise nature of the mechanostimulatory signals imparted to the bone cells during remodeling, it has been postulated that deformation-induced fluid flow plays a role in the mechanotransduction pathway. In vitro, osteoblasts respond to fluid shear stress with an increase in PGE(2) production; however, the long-term effects of fluid shear stress on cell proliferation and differentiation have not been examined. The goal of this study was to apply continuous pulsatile fluid shear stresses to osteoblasts and determine whether the initial production of PGE(2) is associated with long-term biochemical changes. The acute response of bone cells to a pulsatile fluid shear stress (0.6 +/- 0.5 Pa, 3.0 Hz) was characterized by a transient fourfold increase in PGE(2) production. After 7 days of static culture (0 dyn/cm(2)) or low (0.06 +/- 0.05 Pa, 0.3 Hz) or high (0.6 +/- 0.5 Pa, 3.0 Hz) levels of pulsatile fluid shear stress, the bone cells responded with an 83% average increase in cell number, but no statistical difference (P > 0.53) between the groups was observed. Alkaline phosphatase activity per cell decreased in the static cultures but not in the low- or high-flow groups. Mineralization was also unaffected by the different levels of applied shear stress. Our results indicate that short-term changes in PGE(2) levels caused by pulsatile fluid flow are not associated with long-term changes in proliferation or mineralization of bone cells.

  19. The occurrence of the Coanda effect in pulsatile flow through static models of the human vocal folds.

    PubMed

    Erath, Byron D; Plesniak, Michael W

    2006-08-01

    Pulsatile flow through a one-sided diffuser and static divergent vocal-fold models is investigated to ascertain the relevance of viscous-driven flow asymmetries in the larynx. The models were 7.5 times real size, and the flow was scaled to match Reynolds and Strouhal numbers, as well as the translaryngeal pressure drop. The Reynolds number varied from 0-2000, for flow oscillation frequencies corresponding to 100 and 150 Hz life-size. Of particular interest was the development of glottal flow skewing by attachment to the bounding walls, or Coanda effect, in a pulsatile flow field, and its impact on speech. The vocal folds form a divergent passage during phases of the phonation cycle when viscous effects such as flow separation are important. It was found that for divergence angles of less than 20 degrees, the attachment of the flow to the vocal-fold walls occurred when the acceleration of the forcing function was zero, and the flow had reached maximum velocity. For a divergence angle of 40 degrees, the fully separated central jet never attached to the vocal-fold walls. Inferences are made regarding the impact of the Coanda effect on the sound source contribution in speech. PMID:16938987

  20. Pulsatile flow in the aorta of the LVAD supported heart studied using particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyedi, Zahra

    Currently many patients die because of the end-stage heart failure, mainly due to the reduced number of donor heart transplant organs. Studies show that a permanent left ventricular assist device (LVAD), a battery driven pump which is surgically implanted, increased the survival rate of patients with end-stage heart failure and improved considerably their quality of life. The inlet conduit of the LVAD is attached to the left ventricle and the outflow conduit anastomosed to the ascending aorta. The purpose of LVAD support is to help a weakened heart to pump blood to the rest of the body. However LVAD can cause some alterations of the natural blood flow. When your blood comes in contact with something that isn't a natural part of your body blood clots can occur and disrupt blood flow. Aortic valve integrity is vital for optimal support of left ventricular assist LVAD. Due to the existence of high continuous transvalvular pressure on the aortic valve, the opening frequency of the valve is reduced. To prevent the development of aortic insufficiency, aortic valve closure during LVAD implantation has been performed. However, the closed aortic valve reduces wash out of the aortic root, which causes blood stagnation and potential thrombus formation. So for this reason, there is a need to minimize the risks of occurring blood clot, by having more knowledge about the flow structure in the aorta during LVAD use. The current study focuses on measuring the flow field in the aorta of the LVAD assisted heart with two different types of aortic valve (Flat and Finned) using the SDSU cardiac simulator. The pulsatile pump that mimics the natural pulsing action of the heart also added to the system. The flow field is visualized using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, The fluid mechanics of aorta has been studied when LVAD conduit attached to two different locations (proximal and distal to the aortic valve) with pump speeds of 8,000 to 10,000 revolutions per minute (RPM

  1. Pulsatile flow and simple flow control method during weaning period in centrifugal pump: toward more expanded usage in open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Nishida, H; Koyanagi, H; Endo, M; Suzuki, S; Oshiyama, H; Nojiri, C; Fukasawa, H; Akutsu, T

    1994-09-01

    To expand the usage of the centrifugal pump (CP) in open heart surgery, we performed two studies. In the first, we evaluated pulsatile flow in the CP. In vitro pump performance of the Terumo Capiox pump (TCP) and the Sarns Delphin pump (SDP) and increase of free hemoglobin (mg/dl) after driving 6 h were investigated using bovine blood. A roller pump (RP) was used as a comparison. Equally effective pulsatile flow was obtained in both CPs. Hemolysis was less severe in TCP (120 mg/dl) than SDP (210 mg/dl) and RP (320 mg/dl). In the second study, we evaluated a simple flow control method. Flow rate was easily controlled with step-wise clamping of 3-pronged tubing (Triple-flow) without changing rotational speed, regardless of afterload. Fluctuation of flow was much less with this method than with the rotational speed change method. The use of pulsatile flow of TCP, with its minimum increase of hemolysis and the easier flow control method during the weaning process, may expand the usage of CP in open heart surgery.

  2. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of pulsatile flow within a layered and stenotic aorta.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-qi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Tian-tian; Yang, Qing-shan

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the hemodynamic characteristics of blood flow and stress distribution in a layered and stenotic aorta are investigated. By introducing symmetrical and unsymmetrical stenosis, the influence of stenosis morphology and stenotic ratio on the coupled dynamic responses of aorta is clarified. In the analysis, the in-vivo pulsatile waveforms and fully fluid-structure interaction (FSI) between the layered elastic aorta and the blood are considered. The results show that the fluid domain is abnormal in the stenotic aorta, and the whirlpool forms at the obstructed and downstream unobstructed regions. The maximum wall shear stresses appear at the throat of the stenosis. Downstream region appears low and oscillated shear stresses. In addition, along with the increase of the stenotic ratio, the amplitude of the maximum shear stress will be intensively increased and localized, and the sensitivity is also increased. In the aorta with unsymmetrical stenosis, the Von Mises stresses reach the peak value at the side with the surface protuberance, but they are reduced at the side with no protuberance. The sign variation of the layer interface shear stresses near the throat indicates the variation of the shear direction which increases the opportunity of shear damage at the transition plane. Moreover, the shear stress levels at the fluid-solid and intima-media interfaces are higher than that at the media-adventitia interface. The unsymmetrical stenosis causes higher stresses at the side with the surface protuberance than symmetrical one, but lower at the side with no protuberance. These results provide an insight in the influence of the stenosis, as well as its morphology, on the pathogenesis and pathological evolution of some diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and aortic dissection.

  3. Pulsatile ocular blood flow in asymmetric exudative age related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S.; Cheng, C.; Lee, A.; Lee, F.; Chou, J. C.; Hsu, W.; Liu, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Decreased perfusion or increased vascular resistance of the choroidal vessels had been proposed as the vascular pathogenesis for age related macular degeneration (AMD). This study planned to answer the question whether pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) was different in patients with asymmetric exudative AMD between eyes with drusen, choroidal neovascularisation (CNV), or disciform scar.
METHODS—37 patients with asymmetric exudative AMD were enrolled in this observational case series study. POBF were measured in both eyes of each subject. Eyes with high myopia, anisometropia, recent laser treatment, and glaucoma were excluded.
RESULTS—After adjusting for ocular perfusion pressure, intraocular pressure, and pulse rate, multivariate regression analysis with generalised estimating equation showed POBF was significantly higher in eyes with CNV (1217 (SD 476) µl/min) than the contralateral eyes with drusen (1028 (385) µl/min) (p = 0.024). Eyes with disciform scar had lower POBF than the contralateral eyes with drusen (999 (262) µl/min and 1278 (341) µl/min, respectively, p<0.001). There was no significant correlation between the POBF and the lesion size of the CNV.
CONCLUSION—The POBF in eyes with drusen was lower than their fellow eyes with CNV, but higher than their fellow eyes with disciform scar. This finding suggests that haemodynamic differences between fellow eyes in individuals are relevant to the development of CNV and the formation of disciform scar. Further studies on the follow up patients might shed light on the pathogenesis of exudative AMD.

 PMID:11734510

  4. New understanding of the role of cerebrospinal fluid: offsetting of arterial and brain pulsation and self-dissipation of cerebrospinal fluid pulsatile flow energy.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung Jay; Yoon, Soo Han; Kang, Jae-Kyu

    2011-06-01

    Many theories have been postulated to date regarding the mechanisms involved in the absorption of the intracranial arterial blood flow energy in the intracranial space, but it is as yet nor clearly defined. The blood flow energy that is transmitted from the heart formulates the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatile flow, and is known to constitute the major energy of the CSF flow, while the bulk flow carries only small energy. The intracranial space that is enclosed in a solid cranium and is an isolate system as in the Monroe-Kellie doctrine, and the authors propose to re-analyze the Monroe-Kellie doctrine concept in terms of energy transfer and dissipation of the Windkessel effect. We propose that the large blood flow energy that initiates in the heart is transferred in order of precedence to the arteries, arterioles, brain parenchyma, and finally to CSF within the cranium, in which the energy is confined and unable to be transferred, so that the final transfer of energy to the CSF pulsatile flow is self-dissipated in terms of direction and chronology in CSF pulsatile flow. In order for the CSF pulsatile flow that is transferred from arterial blood flow energy to be dissipated in the intracranial space, this cannot be explained with bulk flow energy in any perspective, since the pulsatile flow kinetic energy is greater than the bulk flow kinetic energy by at least a 100-fold. The pulsatile flow energy within the closed intracranial space cannot be transferred and is confined, as postulated by the Monroe-Kellie doctrine, and therefore the authors propound that the pulsatile flow dissipates by itself. The dissipation of the CSF pulsatile flow kinetic energy will be in all directions in a diffuse and random manner, and is offset by the CSF flow energy vector due to the CSF mixing process. Such energy dissipation will lead to maintenance of low CSF flow energy, which will result in maintaining low intracranial pressure (ICP), and sufficient brain perfusion. It is our

  5. An Ultrasound Simulation Model for the Pulsatile Blood Flow Modulated by the Motion of Stenosed Vessel Wall.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghui; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Kexin; Gao, Lian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ultrasound simulation model for pulsatile blood flow, modulated by the motion of a stenosed vessel wall. It aims at generating more realistic ultrasonic signals to provide an environment for evaluating ultrasound signal processing and imaging and a framework for investigating the behaviors of blood flow field modulated by wall motion. This model takes into account fluid-structure interaction, blood pulsatility, stenosis of the vessel, and arterial wall movement caused by surrounding tissue's motion. The axial and radial velocity distributions of blood and the displacement of vessel wall are calculated by solving coupled Navier-Stokes and wall equations. With these obtained values, we made several different phantoms by treating blood and the vessel wall as a group of point scatterers. Then, ultrasound echoed signals from oscillating wall and blood in the axisymmetric stenotic-carotid arteries were computed by ultrasound simulation software, Field II. The results show better consistency with corresponding theoretical values and clinical data and reflect the influence of wall movement on the flow field. It can serve as an effective tool not only for investigating the behavior of blood flow field modulated by wall motion but also for quantitative or qualitative evaluation of new ultrasound imaging technology and estimation method of blood velocity. PMID:27478840

  6. Simultaneous assessment of red blood cell aggregation and oxygen saturation under pulsatile flow using high-frequency photoacoustics

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of photoacoustic (PA) imaging for assessing the correlation between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and the oxygen saturation (sO2) in a simulated pulsatile blood flow system. For the 750 and 850 nm illuminations, the PA amplitude (PAA) increased and decreased as the mean blood flow velocity decreased and increased, respectively, at all beat rates (60, 120 and 180 bpm). The sO2 also cyclically varied, in phase with the PAA for all beat rates. However, the linear correlation between the sO2 and the PAA at 850 nm was stronger than that at 750 nm. These results suggest that the sO2 can be correlated with RBC aggregation induced by decreased mean shear rate in pulsatile flow, and that the correlation is dependent on the optical wavelength. The hemodynamic properties of blood flow assessed by PA imaging may be used to provide a new biomarker for simultaneous monitoring blood viscosity related to RBC aggregation, oxygen delivery related to the sO2 and their clinical correlation. PMID:27446705

  7. An Ultrasound Simulation Model for the Pulsatile Blood Flow Modulated by the Motion of Stenosed Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Kexin; Gao, Lian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ultrasound simulation model for pulsatile blood flow, modulated by the motion of a stenosed vessel wall. It aims at generating more realistic ultrasonic signals to provide an environment for evaluating ultrasound signal processing and imaging and a framework for investigating the behaviors of blood flow field modulated by wall motion. This model takes into account fluid-structure interaction, blood pulsatility, stenosis of the vessel, and arterial wall movement caused by surrounding tissue's motion. The axial and radial velocity distributions of blood and the displacement of vessel wall are calculated by solving coupled Navier-Stokes and wall equations. With these obtained values, we made several different phantoms by treating blood and the vessel wall as a group of point scatterers. Then, ultrasound echoed signals from oscillating wall and blood in the axisymmetric stenotic-carotid arteries were computed by ultrasound simulation software, Field II. The results show better consistency with corresponding theoretical values and clinical data and reflect the influence of wall movement on the flow field. It can serve as an effective tool not only for investigating the behavior of blood flow field modulated by wall motion but also for quantitative or qualitative evaluation of new ultrasound imaging technology and estimation method of blood velocity. PMID:27478840

  8. Simultaneous assessment of red blood cell aggregation and oxygen saturation under pulsatile flow using high-frequency photoacoustics.

    PubMed

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the feasibility of photoacoustic (PA) imaging for assessing the correlation between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and the oxygen saturation (sO2) in a simulated pulsatile blood flow system. For the 750 and 850 nm illuminations, the PA amplitude (PAA) increased and decreased as the mean blood flow velocity decreased and increased, respectively, at all beat rates (60, 120 and 180 bpm). The sO2 also cyclically varied, in phase with the PAA for all beat rates. However, the linear correlation between the sO2 and the PAA at 850 nm was stronger than that at 750 nm. These results suggest that the sO2 can be correlated with RBC aggregation induced by decreased mean shear rate in pulsatile flow, and that the correlation is dependent on the optical wavelength. The hemodynamic properties of blood flow assessed by PA imaging may be used to provide a new biomarker for simultaneous monitoring blood viscosity related to RBC aggregation, oxygen delivery related to the sO2 and their clinical correlation. PMID:27446705

  9. Numerical and experimental studies on pulsatile flow in aneurysms arising laterally from a curved parent vessel at various angles.

    PubMed

    Liou, Tong-Miin; Li, Yi-Chen; Juan, Wei-Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Both numerical and experimental studies have been performed to characterize the fluid flow inside the lateral aneurysms arising from the curved parent vessels at various angles gamma. The implicit solver was based on the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations of incompressible laminar flow. Solutions were generated by a cell-center finite-volume method that used second order upwind and second order center flux difference splitting for the convection and diffusion term, respectively. The second order Crank-Nicolson method was used in the time integration term while the SIMPLEC algorithm was adopted to handle the pressure-velocity coupling. Complementarily, the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was used to measure the velocity fields. The conditions selected were to simulate an internal carotid artery with a diameter of 5 mm by similarity rules. The values of gamma explored were 0 degrees, 45 degrees, 90 degrees, and 135 degrees. Pulsatile flow with Wormersley number 3.9 and Reynolds numbers varying from 350 to 850 was considered. The computed results are firstly verified by the PTV measured ones. Discussion of the results is in terms of pulsatile main and secondary velocity vector fields, inflow rates into the aneurysm, and the distributions of wall shear stress and static pressure. It is found that among the angles examined gamma=45( composite function) is the riskiest angle from a fluid dynamics point of view and the aneurysmal dome is at risk.

  10. Pulsatile flow characterization in a vessel phantom with elastic wall using ultrasonic particle image velocimetry technique: the impact of vessel stiffness on flow dynamics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Ming; Niu, Lili; Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong; Abbott, Derek; Zhou, Qifa; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to experimentally investigate the impact of vessel stiffness on the flow dynamics of pulsatile vascular flow. Vessel phantoms with elastic walls were fabricated using polyvinyl alcohol cryogel to result in stiffness ranging from 60.9 to 310.3 kPa and tested with pulsatile flows using a flow circulation set-up. Two-dimensional instantaneous and time-dependent flow velocity and shear rate vector fields were measured using ultrasonic particle image velocimetry (EchoPIV). The waveforms of peak velocities measured by EchoPIV were compared with the ultrasonic pulse Doppler spectrum, and the measuring accuracy was validated. The cyclic vessel wall motion and flow pressure were obtained as well. The results showed that vessel stiffening influenced the waveforms resulting from vessel wall distension and flow pressure, and the fields of flow velocity and shear rate. The stiffer vessel had smaller inner diameter variation, larger pulse pressure and median pressure. The velocity and shear rate maximized at peak systole for all vessels. The results showed a decrease in wall shear stress for a stiffer vessel, which can initiate the atherosclerotic process. Our study elucidates the impact of vessel stiffness on several flow dynamic parameters, and also demonstrates the EchoPIV technique to be a useful and powerful tool in cardiovascular research.

  11. Pulsatile Flow through Annular Space Bounded by Outer Porous Cylinder and an Inner Cylinder of Permeable Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, M. M.; Keimanesh, M.; Rajvanshi, S. C.; Wasu, S.

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the problem of pulsatile flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid through annular space bounded by an outer porous cylinder and an inner cylinder of permeable material. The coupled flow has been analyzed by solving Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and Darcy's equation in the porous region. Beaver-Joseph slip-condition has been used at the free fluid-permeable medium interface. The similarity transformation for the governing equations gives a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are analytically solved by the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The analytical solutions have been obtained in the form of a series. An admissible interval for the convergence of the series solutions has been indicated. Graphical results are presented to show the influence of different parameters on velocity profiles, pressure drop, and skin friction. Comparison between the solutions obtained by the HAM and the numerical solution shows good agreement.

  12. 2D Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Human Ventricle System Based on Fluid-Solid Interaction and Pulsatile Flow.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Framanzad, F; Zamanian, Behnam; Seddighi, A S; Moosavi, M H; Najarian, S; Bastani, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Many diseases are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. Therefore, understanding the hydrodynamics of CSF flow and intracranial pressure is helpful for obtaining deeper knowledge of pathological processes and providing better treatments. Furthermore, engineering a reliable computational method is promising approach for fabricating in vitro models which is essential for inventing generic medicines. A Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI)model was constructed to simulate CSF flow. An important problem in modeling the CSF flow is the diastolic back flow. In this article, using both rigid and flexible conditions for ventricular system allowed us to evaluate the effect of surrounding brain tissue. Our model assumed an elastic wall for the ventricles and a pulsatile CSF input as its boundary conditions. A comparison of the results and the experimental data was done. The flexible model gave better results because it could reproduce the diastolic back flow mentioned in clinical research studies. The previous rigid models have ignored the brain parenchyma interaction with CSF and so had not reported the back flow during the diastolic time. In this computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, the CSF pressure and flow velocity in different areas were concordant with the experimental data.

  13. 2D Computational Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Human Ventricle System Based on Fluid-Solid Interaction and Pulsatile Flow.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Framanzad, F; Zamanian, Behnam; Seddighi, A S; Moosavi, M H; Najarian, S; Bastani, Dariush

    2013-01-01

    Many diseases are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. Therefore, understanding the hydrodynamics of CSF flow and intracranial pressure is helpful for obtaining deeper knowledge of pathological processes and providing better treatments. Furthermore, engineering a reliable computational method is promising approach for fabricating in vitro models which is essential for inventing generic medicines. A Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI)model was constructed to simulate CSF flow. An important problem in modeling the CSF flow is the diastolic back flow. In this article, using both rigid and flexible conditions for ventricular system allowed us to evaluate the effect of surrounding brain tissue. Our model assumed an elastic wall for the ventricles and a pulsatile CSF input as its boundary conditions. A comparison of the results and the experimental data was done. The flexible model gave better results because it could reproduce the diastolic back flow mentioned in clinical research studies. The previous rigid models have ignored the brain parenchyma interaction with CSF and so had not reported the back flow during the diastolic time. In this computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, the CSF pressure and flow velocity in different areas were concordant with the experimental data. PMID:25337330

  14. An efficient approach to study the pulsatile blood flow in femoral and coronary arteries by Differential Quadrature Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Seiyed E.; Hatami, M.; Hatami, J.; Sahebi, S. A. R.; Ganji, D. D.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, flow analysis for a non-Newtonian third grade blood in coronary and femoral arteries is simulated numerically. Blood is considered as the third grade non-Newtonian fluid under periodic body acceleration motion and pulsatile pressure gradient. Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) and Crank Nicholson Method (CNM) are used to solve the Partial Differential Equation (PDE) governing equation by which a good agreement between them was observed in the results. The influences of some physical parameters such as amplitude, lead angle and body acceleration frequency on non-dimensional velocity and profiles are considered. For instance, the results show that increasing the amplitude, Ag, and reducing the lead angle of body acceleration, ϕ, make higher velocity profiles in the center line of both arteries.

  15. Pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous blood vessels using a third grade non-Newtonian fluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile.

  16. Pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous blood vessels using a third grade non-Newtonian fluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile. PMID:26792174

  17. High-frequency photoacoustic imaging of erythrocyte aggregation and oxygen saturation: probing hemodynamic relations under pulsatile blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bok, Tae-Hoon; Hysi, Eno; Kolios, Michael C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) imaging to study the shear rate dependent relationship between red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygen saturation (SO2) in a simulated blood flow system. The PA signal amplitude increased during the formation of aggregates and cyclically varied at intervals corresponding to the beat rate (30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 bpm) for all optical wavelengths of illumination (750 and 850 nm).The SO2 also cyclically varied in phase with the PA signal amplitude for all beat rates. In addition, the mean blood flow velocity cyclically varied at the same interval of beat rate, and the shear rate (i.e. the radial gradient of flow velocity) also cyclically varied. On the other hand, the phase of the cyclic variation in the shear rate was reversed compared to that in the PA signal amplitude. This study indicates that RBC aggregation induced by periodic changes in the shear rate can be correlated with the SO2 under pulsatile blood flow. Furthermore, PA imaging of flowing blood may be capable of providing a new biomarker for the clinical application in terms of monitoring blood viscosity, oxygen delivery and their correlation.

  18. Non-Newtonian perspectives on pulsatile blood-analog flows in a 180° curved artery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk, Stevin; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Fuchs, Laszlo; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-07-01

    Complex, unsteady fluid flow phenomena in the arteries arise due to the pulsations of the heart that intermittently pumps the blood to the extremities of the body. The many different flow waveform variations observed throughout the arterial network are a result of this process and a function of the vessel properties. Large scale secondary flow structures are generated throughout the aortic arch and larger branches of the arteries. An experimental 180° curved artery test section with physiological inflow conditions was used to validate the computational methods implemented in this study. Good agreement of the secondary flow structures is obtained between experimental and numerical studies of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid under steady-state and pulsatile, carotid artery flow rate waveforms. Multiple vortical structures, some of opposite rotational sense to Dean vortices, similar to Lyne-type vortices, were observed to form during the systolic portion of the pulse. Computational tools were used to assess the effect of blood-analog fluid rheology (i.e., Newtonian versus non-Newtonian). It is demonstrated that non-Newtonian, blood-analog fluid rheology results in shear layer instabilities that alter the formation of vortical structures during the systolic deceleration and onwards during diastole. Additional vortices not observed in the Newtonian cases appear at the inside and outside of the bend at various times during the pulsation. The influence of blood-analog shear-thinning viscosity decreases mean pressure losses in contrast to the Newtonian blood analog fluid.

  19. Turbulence detection in a stenosed artery bifurcation by numerical simulation of pulsatile blood flow using the low-Reynolds number turbulence model.

    PubMed

    Ghalichi, Farzan; Deng, Xiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    The pulsatile blood flow in a partially blocked artery is significantly altered as the flow regime changes through the cardiac cycle. This paper reports on the application of a low-Reynolds turbulence model for computation of physiological pulsatile flow in a healthy and stenosed carotid artery bifurcation. The human carotid artery was chosen since it has received much attention because atherosclerotic lesions are frequently observed. The Wilcox low-Re k-omega turbulence model was used for the simulation since it has proven to be more accurate in describing transition from laminar to turbulent flow. Using the FIDAP finite element code a validation showed very good agreement between experimental and numerical results for a steady laminar to turbulent flow transition as reported in a previous publication by the same authors. Since no experimental or numerical results were available in the literature for a pulsatile and turbulent flow regime, a comparison between laminar and low-Re turbulent calculations was made to further validate the turbulence model. The results of this study showed a very good agreement for velocity profiles and wall shear stress values for this imposed pulsatile laminar flow regime. To explore further the medical aspect, the calculations showed that even in a healthy or non-stenosed artery, small instabilities could be found at least for a portion of the pulse cycle and in different sections. The 40% and 55% diameter reduction stenoses did not significantly change the turbulence characteristics. Further results showed that the presence of 75% stenoses changed the flow properties from laminar to turbulent flow for a good portion of the cardiac pulse. A full 3D simulation with this low-Re-turbulence model, coupled with Doppler ultrasound, can play a significant role in assessing the degree of stenosis for cardiac patients with mild conditions.

  20. A fluid--structure interaction finite element analysis of pulsatile blood flow through a compliant stenotic artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathe, M.; Kamm, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    A new model is used to analyze the fully coupled problem of pulsatile blood flow through a compliant, axisymmetric stenotic artery using the finite element method. The model uses large displacement and large strain theory for the solid, and the full Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid. The effect of increasing area reduction on fluid dynamic and structural stresses is presented. Results show that pressure drop, peak wall shear stress, and maximum principal stress in the lesion all increase dramatically as the area reduction in the stenosis is increased from 51 to 89 percent. Further reductions in stenosis cross-sectional area, however, produce relatively little additional change in these parameters due to a concomitant reduction in flow rate caused by the losses in the constriction. Inner wall hoop stretch amplitude just distal to the stenosis also increases with increasing stenosis severity, as downstream pressures are reduced to a physiological minimum. The contraction of the artery distal to the stenosis generates a significant compressive stress on the downstream shoulder of the lesion. Dynamic narrowing of the stenosis is also seen, further augmenting area constriction at times of peak flow. Pressure drop results are found to compare well to an experimentally based theoretical curve, despite the assumption of laminar flow.

  1. In vitro pulsatile flow visualization on extracardiac conduits for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction: qualitative considerations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, S M; Chang, Q; Guo, Y R; Guo, J Q

    1998-05-01

    Valved homograft conduits play an important role in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction for the surgical treatment of complex congenital heart disease. An excellent immediate rather than long-term outcome could be obtained. The hemodynamics for late failure, however, remained unclear. In vitro pulsatile flow visualization was not conducted before. A simplified right heart duplicator system was set up and driven under physiologic conditions. Polystyrene of 0.18 mm in diameter was applied as the tracing particle. Flow characteristics of models of normal pulmonary circulation as well as pulmonary artery atresia with the RVOT reconstructed utilizing valved and non-valved extracardiac conduits were observed. Flow patterns in the normal pulmonary circulatory model were mainly of axial flow associated with small scope of flow disturbances. A single vortex in the right ventricle was noted in diastole. In the pulmonary artery atresia model, a couple of vortexes were found in the right ventricle, a secondary flow in the main pulmonary artery, and a stronger secondary flow than in the normal pulmonary circulatory model in the two branches in both systole and diastole. A secondary flow was found in the proximal, an axial flow was observed in the distal portion of the extracardiac conduit with normal bioprosthetic valves and a secondary flow was observed in the entire conduit with stenotic bioprosthetic valves. The secondary flow intensity became stronger with the development of the stenosis. Severe insufficiency occurred in the bileaflet ceramic tilting-disc prosthesis during the entire cardiac circle, i.e., the prosthesis was in a maximum open position. Severe reverse flow could be found in the extracardiac conduit in the deceleration phase. Concavity of the crank shaft was found by examination to be filled with tracing particles and the prosthesis became stuck. Model of RVOT reconstruction with non-valved conduit yielded reverse flow inside the

  2. Fluid Dynamic Characterization of a Polymeric Heart Valve Prototype (Poli-Valve) tested under Continuous and Pulsatile Flow Conditions

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Francesco; Serrani, Marta; Bagnoli, Paola; Brubert, Jacob; Stasiak, Joanna; Moggridge, Geoff D.; Costantino, Maria Laura

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Only mechanical and biological heart valve prostheses are currently commercially available. The former show longer durability but require anticoagulant therapy, the latter display better fluid dynamic behaviour but do not have adequate durability. New Polymeric Heart Valves (PHVs) could potentially combine the haemodynamic properties of biological valves with the durability of mechanical valves. This work presents a hydrodynamic evaluation of two groups of newly developed supra-annular tri-leaflet prosthetic heart valves made from styrenic block copolymers (SBC): Poli-Valves. Methods Two types of Poli-Valves made of SBC differing in polystyrene fraction content were tested under continuous and pulsatile flow conditions as prescribed by ISO 5840 Standard. An ad - hoc designed pulse duplicator allowed the valve prototypes to be tested at different flow rates and frequencies. Pressure and flow were recorded; pressure drops, effective orifice area (EOA), and regurgitant volume were computed to assess the valve’s behaviour. Results Both types Poli-Valves met the minimum requirements in terms of regurgitation and EOA as specified by ISO 5840 Standard. Results were compared with five mechanical heart valves (MHVs) and five tissue heart valves (THVs), currently available on the market. Conclusion Based on these results, polymeric heart valves based on styrenic block copolymers, as Poli-Valves are, can be considered as promising alternative for heart valve replacement in near future. PMID:26689146

  3. Pulsatile blood flow in human bone assessed by laser-Doppler flowmetry and the interpretation of photoplethysmographic signals.

    PubMed

    Binzoni, Tiziano; Tchernin, David; Hyacinthe, Jean-Noël; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Richiardi, Jonas

    2013-03-01

    Human bone blood flow, mean blood speed and the number of moving red blood cells were assessed (in arbitrary units), as a function of time, during one cardiac cycle. The measurements were obtained non-invasively on five volunteers by laser-Doppler flowmetry at large interoptode spacing. The investigated bones included: patella, clavicle, tibial diaphysis and tibial malleolus. As hypothesized, we found that in all bones the number of moving cells remains constant during cardiac cycles. Therefore, we concluded that the pulsatile nature of blood flow must be completely determined by the mean blood speed and not by changes in blood volume (vessels dilation). Based on these results, it is finally demonstrated using a mathematical model (derived from the radiative transport theory) that photoplethysmographic (PPG) pulsations observed by others in the literature, cannot be generated by oscillations in blood oxygen saturation, which is physiologically linked to blood speed. In fact, possible oxygen saturation changes during pulsations decrease the amplitude of PPG pulsations due to specific features of the PPG light source. It is shown that a variation in blood oxygen saturation of 3% may induce a negative change of ∼1% in the PPG signal. It is concluded that PPG pulsations are determined by periodic 'positive' changes of the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue and/or the absorption coefficient at constant blood volume. No explicit experimental PPG measurements have been performed. As a by-product of this study, an estimation of the arterial pulse wave velocity obtained from the analysis of the blood flow pulsations give a value of 7.8 m s(-1) (95% confidence interval of the sample mean distribution: [6.7, 9.5] m s(-1)), which is perfectly compatible with data in the literature. We hope that this note will contribute to a better understanding of PPG signals and to further develop the domain of the vascular physiology of human bone.

  4. Experimental studies of pulsatile flows through compliant tubes undergoing forced wall motion: Applications to hemodynamics and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Victoria Carolyn Savedge

    higher Sexl-Womersley number, and imposed physiological wall motion is found to introduce reverse flow near the wall that is not present if the tube is instead allowed to move freely. Additionally, work done in stented coronary geometries showed reduced wall shear stress downstream of simulated drug-eluting stents as opposed to traditional stents, suggesting a possible mechanism of complication. In the second series of experiments, sinusoidal input flow is driven through a compliant silicone model in a series of experiments to investigate the effects of wall motion. In these experiments, the tube wall is deformed sinusoidally with an amplitude of approximately ten percent of its radius. Experiments are conducted using varying values of the parameters alpha and b=Dxnn where Deltax is the cross-stream averaged periodic displacement of a fluid particle undergoing pulsatile motion. The transitional behavior of these flows is analyzed via their energy spectra, and their stability and wall shear stress behaviors are examined under varied offsets between the timing of the wall motion waveform and the flow rate waveform. At the lowest value of beta studied, namely beta = 240, it was found that the energy spectrum was independent of phase for alpha = 10.6, whereas for smaller values of alpha or higher values of beta, a strong phase-dependence was observed in the energy spectrum of the flow, with the energy values peaking twice with each wave period. This continuously unstable behavior at high alpha is found to be in good agreement with the locations of instability predicted by applying the Fjortoft condition to an elastic tube flow theory. Additionally, in experiments conducted with a phase offset between the sinusoidal input flow and the sinusoidal wall motion, it was found that wall shear stress oscillates in phase with the wall motion, and that the distinct two-peak cycle of the energy spectrum is disrupted as the offset grows.

  5. Effect of Body Acceleration on Pulsatile Flow of Micropolar Fluid through an Irregular Arterial Stenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Ilyani; Amin, Norsarahaida

    2008-01-01

    The present study deals with the effect of body acceleration together with surface irregularities on blood flow in artery. Prolonged exposure to high level unintended acceleration may cause serious health problems in the cardiovascular system. The situations like riding in vehicles, flying in airplanes and fast body movements during sport activities can lead to the impairment of certain physiological functions. A micropolar model of blood flow through an irregular arterial stenosis is considered. The governing equations involving unsteady nonlinear two-dimensional partial differential equations are solved employing finite difference scheme. Computational results on the velocity profiles and the flow characteristics are presented.

  6. Left ventricular oxygen consumption and organ blood flow distribution during pulsatile ventricular assist.

    PubMed

    Pantalos, G M; Marks, J D; Riebman, J B; Everett, S D; Burns, G L; Burton, N A; DePaulis, R

    1988-01-01

    One goal of left ventricular assistance is the reduction of left ventricular myocardial oxygen consumption while delivering adequate organ blood flow. The effect of assist device operation control mode and uptake cannulation method on the achievement of this goal was studied in six acutely prepared calves with healthy hearts. All combinations of left ventricular assistance significantly reduced the myocardial oxygen consumption; the reduction was independent of control mode. During ventricular assistance, regional organ blood flow distribution and myocardial endocardial/epicardial blood flow ratio were not different from values during the control, unassisted condition. Regardless of the left ventricular assist device uptake method or operational control mode, significant reduction in myocardial oxygen consumption was achieved while maintaining organ blood flow distribution.

  7. Viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump for a total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Yurimoto, Terumi; Hara, Shintaro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    Estimation of pressure and flow has been an important subject for developing implantable artificial hearts. To realize real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow for a total artificial heart, we propose the table estimation method with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump in which systolic high flow and diastolic low flow phased are generated. The table estimation method utilizes three kinds of tables: viscosity, pressure and flow tables. Viscosity is estimated from the characteristic that differential value in motor speed between systolic and diastolic phases varies depending on viscosity. Potential of this estimation method was investigated using mock circulation system. Glycerin solution diluted with salty water was used to adjust viscosity of fluid. In verification of this method using continuous flow data, fairly good estimation could be possible when differential pulse width modulation (PWM) value of the motor between systolic and diastolic phases was high. In estimation under quasi-pulsatile condition, inertia correction was provided and fairly good estimation was possible when the differential PWM value was high, which was not different from the verification results using continuous flow data. In the experiment of real-time estimation applying moving average method to the estimated viscosity, fair estimation could be possible when the differential PWM value was high, showing that real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow would be possible with this novel estimation method when the differential PWM value would be set high.

  8. Viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump for a total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Yurimoto, Terumi; Hara, Shintaro; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke

    2016-09-01

    Estimation of pressure and flow has been an important subject for developing implantable artificial hearts. To realize real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow for a total artificial heart, we propose the table estimation method with quasi-pulsatile modulation of rotary blood pump in which systolic high flow and diastolic low flow phased are generated. The table estimation method utilizes three kinds of tables: viscosity, pressure and flow tables. Viscosity is estimated from the characteristic that differential value in motor speed between systolic and diastolic phases varies depending on viscosity. Potential of this estimation method was investigated using mock circulation system. Glycerin solution diluted with salty water was used to adjust viscosity of fluid. In verification of this method using continuous flow data, fairly good estimation could be possible when differential pulse width modulation (PWM) value of the motor between systolic and diastolic phases was high. In estimation under quasi-pulsatile condition, inertia correction was provided and fairly good estimation was possible when the differential PWM value was high, which was not different from the verification results using continuous flow data. In the experiment of real-time estimation applying moving average method to the estimated viscosity, fair estimation could be possible when the differential PWM value was high, showing that real-time viscosity-adjusted estimation of pressure head and pump flow would be possible with this novel estimation method when the differential PWM value would be set high. PMID:27022734

  9. Investigation of the effects of dynamic change in curvature and torsion on pulsatile flow in a helical tube.

    PubMed

    Selvarasu, N K C; Tafti, Danesh K

    2012-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death in the world, making the understanding of hemodynamics and the development of treatment options imperative. The effect of motion of the coronary artery due to the motion of the myocardium is not extensively studied. In this work, we focus our investigation on the localized hemodynamic effects of dynamic changes in curvature and torsion. It is our objective to understand and reveal the mechanism by which changes in curvature and torsion contribute towards the observed wall shear stress distribution. Such adverse hemodynamic conditions could have an effect on circumferential intimal thickening. Three-dimensional spatiotemporally resolved computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of pulsatile flow with moving wall boundaries were carried out for a simplified coronary artery with physiologically relevant flow parameters. A model with stationary walls is used as the baseline control case. In order to study the effect of curvature and torsion variation on local hemodynamics, this baseline model is compared to models where the curvature, torsion, and both curvature and torsion change. The simulations provided detailed information regarding the secondary flow dynamics. The results suggest that changes in curvature and torsion cause critical changes in local hemodynamics, namely, altering the local pressure and velocity gradients and secondary flow patterns. The wall shear stress (WSS) varies by a maximum of 22% when the curvature changes, by 3% when the torsion changes, and by 26% when both the curvature and torsion change. The oscillatory shear stress (OSI) varies by a maximum of 24% when the curvature changes, by 4% when the torsion changes, and by 28% when both the curvature and torsion change. We demonstrate that these changes are attributed to the physical mechanism associating the secondary flow patterns to the production of vorticity (vorticity flux) due to the wall movement. The secondary flow patterns

  10. Multi-time-lag PIV analysis of steady and pulsatile flows in a sidewall aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillot, P.; Brina, O.; Ouared, R.; Lovblad, K. O.; Pereira, V. Mendes; Farhat, M.

    2014-06-01

    The effect of inflow waveform on the hemodynamics of a real-size idealized sidewall intracranial aneurysm (IA) model was investigated using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). For this purpose, we implemented an error analysis based on several PIV measurements with different time lags to ensure high precision of velocity fields measured in both the IA and the parent artery. The relative error measured in the main part of the circulating volume was <1 % despite the three orders of magnitude difference of parent artery and IA dome velocities. Moreover, important features involved in IA evolution were potentially emphasized from the qualitative and quantitative flow pattern comparison resulting from steady and unsteady inflows. In particular, the flow transfer in IA and the vortical structure were significantly modified when increasing the number of harmonics for a typical physiological flow, in comparison with quasi-steady conditions.

  11. On the characterization of a non-Newtonian blood analog and its response to pulsatile flow downstream of a simplified stenosis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E

    2014-01-01

    Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to investigate the influence of a non-Newtonian blood analog of aqueous xanthan gum on flow separation in laminar and transitional environments and in both steady and pulsatile flow. Initial steady pressure drop measurements in laminar and transitional flow for a Newtonian analog showed an extension of laminar behavior to Reynolds number (Re) ~ 2900 for the non-Newtonian case. On a macroscale level, this showed good agreement with porcine blood. Subsequently, PIV was used to measure flow patterns and turbulent statistics downstream of an axisymmetric stenosis in the aqueous xanthan gum solution and for a Newtonian analog at Re ~ 520 and Re ~ 1250. The recirculation length for the non-Newtonian case was reduced at Re ~ 520 resultant from increased viscosity at low shear strain rates. At Re ~ 1250, peak turbulent intensities and turbulent shear stresses were dampened by the non-Newtonian fluid in close proximity to the blockage outlet. Although the non-Newtonian case's recirculation length was increased at peak pulsatile flow, turbulent shear stress was found to be elevated for the Newtonian case downstream from the blockage, suggesting shear layer fragmentation and radial transport. Our findings conclude that the xanthan gum elastic polymer prolongs flow stabilization, which in turn emphasizes the importance of non-Newtonian blood characteristics on the resulting flow patterns in such cardiovascular environments. PMID:23975383

  12. Change in Pulsatile Cerebral Arterial Pressure and Flow Waves as a Therapeutic Strategy?

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ok; Adji, Audrey; O'Rourke, Michael F; Avolio, Alberto P; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Marek

    2016-01-01

    While intracranial pressure (ICP), arterial pressure and transcranial middle cerebral artery flow velocity (MCAFV) are often monitored in unconscious patients following stroke or head injury, the value of waveform indices has not been fully established. We retrospectively analysed the data of eight adults (aged 19-36 years) with closed head injury who had spontaneous and repeated episodes of elevated ICP (i.e. "plateau waves"). MCAFV was measured using transcranial Doppler, ICP using a Codman catheter and radial artery pressure using cannulation. Ascending aortic pressure (AAP) was generated from the radial artery using SphygmoCor(TM). Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated as AAP - ICP in the time domain.During the period of increased ICP, ICP and cerebral flow velocity amplitude increased significantly compared with the basal condition, while cerebral mean flow decreased. Amplitude of the secondary peak in ICP, AAP and MCAFV waveform became apparent.An increase in the amplitude of ICP, AAP and MCAFV waves can be attributed to the greater prominence of reflected waves from the lower body, which was apparent in pulse waveform analysis. Arterial vasodilators such as nitrates reduce reflected pressure waves from the lower body and, by decreasing the amplitude of AAP, ICP and MCAFV, may be as beneficial for the cerebral circulation as they are for the left ventricle of the heart.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Pulsatile Newtonian Blood Flow through a Multiple Stenosed Artery.

    PubMed

    Changdar, Satyasaran; De, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    An appropriate nonlinear blood flow model under the influence of periodic body acceleration through a multiple stenosed artery is investigated with the help of finite difference method. The arterial segment is simulated by a cylindrical tube filled with a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid described by the Navier-Stokes equation. The nonlinear equation is solved numerically with the proper boundary conditions and pressure gradient that arise from the normal functioning of the heart. Results are discussed in comparison with the existing models. PMID:27347534

  14. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Pulsatile Newtonian Blood Flow through a Multiple Stenosed Artery

    PubMed Central

    Changdar, Satyasaran; De, Soumen

    2015-01-01

    An appropriate nonlinear blood flow model under the influence of periodic body acceleration through a multiple stenosed artery is investigated with the help of finite difference method. The arterial segment is simulated by a cylindrical tube filled with a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid described by the Navier-Stokes equation. The nonlinear equation is solved numerically with the proper boundary conditions and pressure gradient that arise from the normal functioning of the heart. Results are discussed in comparison with the existing models. PMID:27347534

  15. A Novel Analytical Approach to Pulsatile Blood Flow in the Arterial Network.

    PubMed

    Flores, Joaquín; Alastruey, Jordi; Corvera Poiré, Eugenia

    2016-10-01

    Haemodynamic simulations using one-dimensional (1-D) computational models exhibit many of the features of the systemic circulation under normal and diseased conditions. We propose a novel linear 1-D dynamical theory of blood flow in networks of flexible vessels that is based on a generalized Darcy's model and for which a full analytical solution exists in frequency domain. We assess the accuracy of this formulation in a series of benchmark test cases for which computational 1-D and 3-D solutions are available. Accordingly, we calculate blood flow and pressure waves, and velocity profiles in the human common carotid artery, upper thoracic aorta, aortic bifurcation, and a 20-artery model of the aorta and its larger branches. Our analytical solution is in good agreement with the available solutions and reproduces the main features of pulse waveforms in networks of large arteries under normal physiological conditions. Our model reduces computational time and provides a new approach for studying arterial pulse wave mechanics; e.g.,  the analyticity of our model allows for a direct identification of the role played by physical properties of the cardiovascular system on the pressure waves.

  16. Wall shear stress variations and unsteadiness of pulsatile blood-like flows in 90-degree bifurcations.

    PubMed

    van Wyk, Stevin; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; Fuchs, Laszlo

    2013-09-01

    Complex and slow interaction of different mechanical and biochemical processes in hemodynamics is believed to govern atherogenesis. Over the last decades studies have shown that fluid mechanical factors such as the Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and WSS gradients can play an important role in the pathological changes of the endothelium. This study provides further indications that the effects of fluid mechanical aspects are correlated with the diseased regions of the larger arteries. Unsteady high temporal WSS gradients (TWSSG), a function of the shear-thinning property of the non-Newtonian viscosity, move with the separation bubble. Red Blood Cell (RBC) dilution due to the secondary flows determines the magnitudes of the WSS and TWSSG. The results indicate that the focal nature of the TWSSG may have implications on the response of the endothelium.

  17. Design of a pulsatile flow facility to evaluate thrombogenic potential of implantable cardiac devices.

    PubMed

    Arjunon, Sivakkumar; Ardana, Pablo Hidalgo; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Madhani, Shalv; Foster, Brent; Glezer, Ari; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-04-01

    Due to expensive nature of clinical trials, implantable cardiac devices should first be extensively characterized in vitro. Prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), an important class of these devices, have been shown to be associated with thromboembolic complications. Although various in vitro systems have been designed to quantify blood-cell damage and platelet activation caused by nonphysiological hemodynamic shear stresses in these PHVs, very few systems attempt to characterize both blood damage and fluid dynamics aspects of PHVs in the same test system. Various numerical modeling methodologies are also evolving to simulate the structural mechanics, fluid mechanics, and blood damage aspects of these devices. This article presents a completely hemocompatible small-volume test-platform that can be used for thrombogenicity studies and experimental fluid mechanics characterization. Using a programmable piston pump to drive freshly drawn human blood inside a cylindrical column, the presented system can simulate various physiological and pathophysiological conditions in testing PHVs. The system includes a modular device-mounting chamber, and in this presented case, a 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regents® mechanical heart valve (MHV) in aortic position was used as the test device. The system was validated for its capability to quantify blood damage by measuring blood damage induced by the tester itself (using freshly drawn whole human blood). Blood damage levels were ascertained through clinically relevant assays on human blood while fluid dynamics were characterized using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a blood-mimicking fluid. Blood damage induced by the tester itself, assessed through Thrombin-anti-Thrombin (TAT), Prothrombin factor 1.2 (PF1.2), and hemolysis (Drabkins assay), was within clinically accepted levels. The hydrodynamic performance of the tester showed consistent, repeatable physiological pressure and flow conditions. In addition, the

  18. Finite Element Simulation of Two-Dimensional Pulsatile Blood Flow Through a Stenosed Artery in the Presence of External Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohamadi, Haleh; Imani, Mohsen

    2014-07-01

    This paper introduces the impact of external magnetic field on blood flow patterns in a stenosis artery. Considering the fatty deposited lump, arterial walls as porous media, and pulsatile inflow base on human-heart-beating rate closes our model to the actual stenosis blood artery. In this study, by solving transient fluid dynamic equations in coupled porous and free media, the velocity, temperature, and shear stress distribution along the lump are investigated. The results show that applying 105 magnetic field intensity (MnF) creates two vortexes on the lumps' edges and 15X (16.6X) higher shear stress (temperature) in the stenosis region.

  19. Time-resolved OCT-μPIV: a new microscopic PIV technique for noninvasive depth-resolved pulsatile flow profile acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Menon, Prahlad G.; Kowalski, William; Pekkan, Kerem

    2013-01-01

    In vivo acquisition of endothelial wall shear stress requires instantaneous depth-resolved whole-field pulsatile flow profile measurements in microcirculation. High-accuracy, quantitative and non- invasive velocimetry techniques are essential for emerging real-time mechano-genomic investigations. To address these research needs, a novel biological flow quantification technique, OCT-μPIV, was developed utilizing high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) integrated with microscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV). This technique offers the unique advantage of simultaneously acquiring blood flow profiles and vessel anatomy along arbitrarily oriented sagittal planes. The process is instantaneous and enables real-time 3D flow reconstruction without the need for computationally intensive image processing compared to state-of-the-art velocimetry techniques. To evaluate the line-scanning direction and speed, four sets of parametric synthetic OCT-μPIV data were generated using an in-house code. Based on this investigation, an in vitro experiment was designed at the fastest scan speed while preserving the region of interest providing the depth-resolved velocity profiles spanning across the width of a micro-fabricated channel. High-agreement with the analytical flow profiles was achieved for different flow rates and seed particle types and sizes. Finally, by employing blood cells as non-invasive seeding particles, in vivo embryonic vascular velocity profiles in multiple vessels were measured in the early chick embryo. The pulsatile flow frequency and peak velocity measurements were also acquired with OCT-μPIV, which agreed well with previous reported values. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this technique to conduct practical microfluidic and non-invasive in vivo studies for embryonic blood flows.

  20. Time-resolved OCT-μPIV: a new microscopic PIV technique for noninvasive depth-resolved pulsatile flow profile acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Yuan; Menon, Prahlad G.; Kowalski, William; Pekkan, Kerem

    2012-12-01

    In vivo acquisition of endothelial wall shear stress requires instantaneous depth-resolved whole-field pulsatile flow profile measurements in microcirculation. High-accuracy, quantitative and non- invasive velocimetry techniques are essential for emerging real-time mechano-genomic investigations. To address these research needs, a novel biological flow quantification technique, OCT-μPIV, was developed utilizing high-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT) integrated with microscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV). This technique offers the unique advantage of simultaneously acquiring blood flow profiles and vessel anatomy along arbitrarily oriented sagittal planes. The process is instantaneous and enables real-time 3D flow reconstruction without the need for computationally intensive image processing compared to state-of-the-art velocimetry techniques. To evaluate the line-scanning direction and speed, four sets of parametric synthetic OCT-μPIV data were generated using an in-house code. Based on this investigation, an in vitro experiment was designed at the fastest scan speed while preserving the region of interest providing the depth-resolved velocity profiles spanning across the width of a micro-fabricated channel. High-agreement with the analytical flow profiles was achieved for different flow rates and seed particle types and sizes. Finally, by employing blood cells as non-invasive seeding particles, in vivo embryonic vascular velocity profiles in multiple vessels were measured in the early chick embryo. The pulsatile flow frequency and peak velocity measurements were also acquired with OCT-μPIV, which agreed well with previous reported values. These results demonstrate the potential utility of this technique to conduct practical microfluidic and non-invasive in vivo studies for embryonic blood flows.

  1. SU-D-18C-04: The Feasibility of Quantifying MRI Contrast Agent in Pulsatile Flowing Blood Using DCE-MRI

    SciTech Connect

    N, Gwilliam M; J, Collins D; O, Leach M; R, Orton M

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of accurately quantifying the concentration of MRI contrast agent (CA) in pulsatile flowing blood by measuring its T{sub 1}, as is common for the purposes of obtaining a patientspecific arterial input function (AIF). Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) - MRI and pharmacokinetic (PK) modelling is widely used to produce measures of vascular function but accurate measurement of the AIF undermines their accuracy. A proposed solution is to measure the T{sub 1} of blood in a large vessel using the Fram double flip angle method during the passage of a bolus of CA. This work expands on previous work by assessing pulsatile flow and the changes in T{sub 1} seen with a CA bolus. Methods: A phantom was developed which used a physiological pump to pass fluid of a known T{sub 1} (812ms) through the centre of a head coil of a clinical 1.5T MRI scanner. Measurements were made using high temporal resolution sequences suitable for DCE-MRI and were used to validate a virtual phantom that simulated the expected errors due to pulsatile flow and bolus of CA concentration changes typically found in patients. Results: : Measured and virtual results showed similar trends, although there were differences that may be attributed to the virtual phantom not accurately simulating the spin history of the fluid before entering the imaging volume. The relationship between T{sub 1} measurement and flow speed was non-linear. T{sub 1} measurement is compromised by new spins flowing into the imaging volume, not being subject to enough excitations to have reached steady-state. The virtual phantom demonstrated a range of recorded T{sub 1} for various simulated T{sub 1} / flow rates. Conclusion: T{sub 1} measurement of flowing blood using standard DCE-MRI sequences is very challenging. Measurement error is non-linear with relation to instantaneous flow speed. Optimising sequence parameters and lowering baseline T{sub 1} of blood should be considered.

  2. Central Pulsatile Pressure and Flow Relationship in the Time and Frequency Domain to Characterise Hydraulic Input to the Brain and Cerebral Vascular Impedance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Ok; O'Rourke, Michael F; Adji, Audrey; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-01-01

    In the time domain, pulsatile flow and pressure can be characterised as the ratio of the late systolic boost of flow or pressure to the pulse amplitude so as to estimate the hydraulic input to the brain. While vascular impedance has been widely used to represent the load presented to the heart by the systemic circulation, it has not been applied to the cerebral circulation.We set out to study the relationship between the pressure and the flow augmentation index (AIx) in the time domain and to determine cerebral vascular impedance using aortic blood pressure and cerebral blood flow waveforms in the frequency domain. Twenty-four young subjects (aged 21-39 years) were recruited; aortic pressure was derived using SphygmoCor from radial pressure. Flow waveforms were recorded from the middle cerebral artery. In three subjects, we performed the Valsalva manoeuvre to investigate their response to physiological intervention. There was a linear relationship between flow and pressure AIx, and cerebral impedance values were similar to those estimated for low resistance vascular beds. Substantial change in pressure and flow wave contour was observed during the Valsalva manoeuvre; however, the relationship in both the time and the frequency domains were unchanged. This confirms that aortic pressure and cerebral flow waveform can be used to study cerebral impedance. PMID:27165927

  3. Objective pulsatile tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario A; Casas, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Tinnitus is the usually unwanted perception of sound, in most cases there is no genuine physical source of sound. Less than 10% of tinnitus patients suffer from pulsatile tinnitus. Objective Pulsatile tinnitus can also be the first indication of dural arteriovenous fistula, so examination for such vascular origin must be performed. PMID:26733223

  4. Objective pulsatile tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Yacovino, Dario A; Casas, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Tinnitus is the usually unwanted perception of sound, in most cases there is no genuine physical source of sound. Less than 10% of tinnitus patients suffer from pulsatile tinnitus. Objective Pulsatile tinnitus can also be the first indication of dural arteriovenous fistula, so examination for such vascular origin must be performed.

  5. Basic study of intrinsic elastography: Relationship between tissue stiffness and propagation velocity of deformation induced by pulsatile flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Ryo; Iwasaki, Ryosuke; Arakawa, Mototaka; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro; Saijo, Yoshifumi

    2015-07-01

    We proposed an estimation method for a tissue stiffness from deformations induced by arterial pulsation, and named this proposed method intrinsic elastography (IE). In IE, assuming that the velocity of the deformation propagation in tissues is closely related to the stiffness, the propagation velocity (PV) was estimated by spatial compound ultrasound imaging with a high temporal resolution of 1 ms. However, the relationship between tissue stiffness and PV has not been revealed yet. In this study, the PV of the deformation induced by the pulsatile pump was measured by IE in three different poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) phantoms of different stiffnesses. The measured PV was compared with the shear wave velocity (SWV) measured by shear wave imaging (SWI). The measured PV has trends similar to the measured SWV. These results obtained by IE in a healthy male show the possibility that the mechanical properties of living tissues could be evaluated by IE.

  6. Full dimensional computer simulations to study pulsatile blood flow in vessels, aortic arch and bifurcated veins: Investigation of blood viscosity and turbulent effects.

    PubMed

    Sultanov, Renat A; Guster, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    We report computational results of blood flow through a model of the human aortic arch and a vessel of actual diameter and length. A realistic pulsatile flow is used in all simulations. Calculations for bifurcation type vessels are also carried out and presented. Different mathematical methods for numerical solution of the fluid dynamics equations have been considered. The non-Newtonian behaviour of the human blood is investigated together with turbulence effects. A detailed time-dependent mathematical convergence test has been carried out. The results of computer simulations of the blood flow in vessels of three different geometries are presented: for pressure, strain rate and velocity component distributions we found significant disagreements between our results obtained with realistic non-Newtonian treatment of human blood and the widely used method in the literature: a simple Newtonian approximation. A significant increase of the strain rate and, as a result, the wall shear stress distribution, is found in the region of the aortic arch. Turbulent effects are found to be important, particularly in the case of bifurcation vessels. PMID:19964834

  7. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  8. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  9. Fluid structure interaction simulation in three-layered aortic aneurysm model under pulsatile flow: comparison of wrapping and stenting.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Ueda, Hiroshi; Gang, Li; Okada, Hiroshi

    2013-04-26

    One treatment method for aortic aneurysm is the invasive insertion of a stent into the aneurysm. Another method is wrapping the aneurysm using newly developed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material. A virtual stented aneurysm model and a wrapped aneurysm model were created to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fluid-structure interaction analyses. The flow velocity and pressure distribution as well as the deformation and wall stress were investigated. Stenting significantly changed the blood flow pattern and the vortexes in the aneurysm. Wrapping increased the thickness of the aneurysm wall and increased the strength of the vessel wall. The maximum von Mises stress in the stented model was found to be 220,494 Pa and 228,218 Pa at the time of peak flow and peak pressure, respectively. This was reduced by 37.8% and 36.7% to 137,200 and 144,354 Pa, respectively, in the wrapped model. Our results provide information that may improve the understanding of the biomechanics of stenting and wrapping. PMID:23477789

  10. Fluid structure interaction simulation in three-layered aortic aneurysm model under pulsatile flow: comparison of wrapping and stenting.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Ueda, Hiroshi; Gang, Li; Okada, Hiroshi

    2013-04-26

    One treatment method for aortic aneurysm is the invasive insertion of a stent into the aneurysm. Another method is wrapping the aneurysm using newly developed expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) material. A virtual stented aneurysm model and a wrapped aneurysm model were created to study the flow and wall dynamics by means of fluid-structure interaction analyses. The flow velocity and pressure distribution as well as the deformation and wall stress were investigated. Stenting significantly changed the blood flow pattern and the vortexes in the aneurysm. Wrapping increased the thickness of the aneurysm wall and increased the strength of the vessel wall. The maximum von Mises stress in the stented model was found to be 220,494 Pa and 228,218 Pa at the time of peak flow and peak pressure, respectively. This was reduced by 37.8% and 36.7% to 137,200 and 144,354 Pa, respectively, in the wrapped model. Our results provide information that may improve the understanding of the biomechanics of stenting and wrapping.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Renal Function After Adult Cardiac Surgery With Pulsatile Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Nam, Myung Ji; Lim, Choon Hak; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Yong Hwi; Choi, Hyuk; Son, Ho Sung; Lim, Hae Ja; Sun, Kyung

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether pulsatile perfusion during cardiac surgery has a lesser effect on renal dysfunction than nonpulsatile perfusion after cardiac surgery in randomized controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used to identify available articles published before April 25, 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of pulsatile perfusion on postoperative renal functions, as determined by creatinine clearance (CrCl), serum creatinine (Cr), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and the incidences of acute renal insufficiency (ARI) and acute renal failure (ARF). Nine studies involving 674 patients that received pulsatile perfusion and 698 patients that received nonpulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were considered in the meta-analysis. Stratified analysis was performed according to effective pulsatility or unclear pulsatility of the pulsatile perfusion method in the presence of heterogeneity. NGAL levels were not significantly different between the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups. However, patients in the pulsatile group had a significantly higher CrCl and lower Cr levels when the analysis was restricted to studies on effective pulsatile flow (P < 0.00001, respectively). The incidence of ARI was significantly lower in the pulsatile group (P < 0.00001), but incidences of ARF were similar. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that the use of pulsatile flow during CPB results in better postoperative renal function.

  12. Assessment of subgrid-scale models with a large-eddy simulation-dedicated experimental database: The pulsatile impinging jet in turbulent cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baya Toda, Hubert; Cabrit, Olivier; Truffin, Karine; Bruneaux, Gilles; Nicoud, Franck

    2014-07-01

    Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) in complex geometries and industrial applications like piston engines, gas turbines, or aircraft engines requires the use of advanced subgrid-scale (SGS) models able to take into account the main flow features and the turbulence anisotropy. Keeping this goal in mind, this paper reports a LES-dedicated experiment of a pulsatile hot-jet impinging a flat-plate in the presence of a cold turbulent cross-flow. Unlike commonly used academic test cases, this configuration involves different flow features encountered in complex configurations: shear/rotating regions, stagnation point, wall-turbulence, and the propagation of a vortex ring along the wall. This experiment was also designed with the aim to use quantitative and nonintrusive optical diagnostics such as Particle Image Velocimetry, and to easily perform a LES involving a relatively simple geometry and well-controlled boundary conditions. Hence, two eddy-viscosity-based SGS models are investigated: the dynamic Smagorinsky model [M. Germano, U. Piomelli, P. Moin, and W. Cabot, "A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model," Phys. Fluids A 3(7), 1760-1765 (1991)] and the σ-model [F. Nicoud, H. B. Toda, O. Cabrit, S. Bose, and J. Lee, "Using singular values to build a subgrid-scale model for large eddy simulations," Phys. Fluids 23(8), 085106 (2011)]. Both models give similar results during the first phase of the experiment. However, it was found that the dynamic Smagorinsky model could not accurately predict the vortex-ring propagation, while the σ-model provides a better agreement with the experimental measurements. Setting aside the implementation of the dynamic procedure (implemented here in its simplest form, i.e., without averaging over homogeneous directions and with clipping of negative values to ensure numerical stability), it is suggested that the mitigated predictions of the dynamic Smagorinsky model are due to the dynamic constant, which strongly depends on the mesh resolution

  13. The effects of pulmonary circulation pulsatility on the impedance cardiogram.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Goto, T; Terasaki, H; Hayashida, Y; Morioka, T

    1983-11-01

    To study the effects of pulmonary blood flow on the impedance cardiogram, the pattern of pulmonary blood flow was alternated from pulsatile to non pulsatile, or the reverse, using our extracorporeal bypass-method on anaesthetized dogs. The thoracic impedance cardiogram was recorded from band electrodes placed around the neck and upper abdomen. During nonpulsatile pulmonary blood flow, the height of the diastolic phase of the delta Z wave was lower than that during pulsatile pulmonary blood flow. The area under the impedance curve decreased during nonpulsatile pulmonary blood flow. This appeared to be more obvious as the pulmonary arterial flow was reduced. The results suggest that the pulmonary blood flow might have substantial effects on the impedance cardiogram.

  14. Rotary pumps and diminished pulsatility: do we need a pulse?

    PubMed

    Soucy, Kevin G; Koenig, Steven C; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Ventricular assist devices (VADs) have been successfully used as a bridge to heart transplant and destination therapy (DT) for congestive heart failure (HF) patients. Recently, continuous flow VAD (CVAD) has emerged as an attractive clinical option for long-term mechanical support of HF patients, with bridge-to-transplant outcomes comparable with pulsatile flow VAD (PVAD). Continuous flow VADs are smaller, more reliable, and less complex than the first-generation PVAD. Despite the widespread clinical use, CVAD support has been associated with gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic strokes, and aortic valve insufficiency. Speculation that diminished arterial pressure pulsatility associated with continuous flow devices may be contributing to these complications has sparked much debate over CVAD support. Studies comparing pulsatile flow and continuous flow (CF) support have presented conflicting findings, and the relevance to CVAD as DT is uncertain due to variations in device operation, support duration, and the criteria used to quantify pulsatility. Currently, there is interest in developing control algorithms for CVAD to increase the delivered pulsatility as a strategy to mitigate adverse event risks associated with CVAD therapy. There may also be the added benefit of specific control strategies for managing CVAD therapy, potentially improving the rate of myocardial recovery and successful weaning of mechanical circulatory support. PMID:23820272

  15. Arterial tree asymmetry reduces cerebral pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Vrselja, Zvonimir; Brkic, Hrvoje; Curic, Goran

    2015-11-01

    With each heartbeat, pressure wave (PW) propagates from aorta toward periphery. In cerebral circulation, at the level of circle of Willis (CW), four arteries and four PWs converge. Since the interference is an elemental property of the wave, PWs interfere at the level of CW. We hypothesize that the asymmetry of brain-supplying arteries (that join to form CW) creates phase difference between the four PWs that interfere at the level of CW and reduce downstream cerebral pulsatility. To best of our knowledge, the data about the sequence of PWs' arrival into the cerebral circulation is lacking. Evident imperfect bilateral symmetry of the vessels results with different path length of brain-supplying arteries, hence, PWs should arrive into the head at different times. The probabilistic calculation shows that asynchronous arrival is more probable than synchronous. The importance of PWs for the cerebral circulation is highlighted by the observation that barotrauma protection mechanisms are more influenced by the crest of PW (pulse pressure) than by the mean arterial pressure. In addition, an increased arterial pulsatility is associated with several brain pathologies. We created simple computational models of four converging arteries and found that asynchronous arrival of the PWs results with lower maximum pressure, slower rate of pressure amplification and lower downstream pulsatility. In analogy, the asynchronous arrival of the pressure waves into the cerebral circulation should decrease blood flow pulsatility and lower transmission of kinetic energy on arterial wall. We conclude that asynchronous arrival of PWs into the cerebral circulation influences cerebral hemodynamics and represents a physiological necessity.

  16. CFD modeling of pulsatile hemodynamics in the total cavopulmonary connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zobaer, S. M. Tareq; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique

    2016-07-01

    Total cavopulmonary connection is a blood flow pathway which is created surgically by an operation known as Fontan procedure, performed on children with single ventricle heart defects. Recent studies have shown that the hemodynamics in the connection can be strongly influenced by the presence of pulsatile flow. The aim of this paper is model the pulsatile flow patterns, and to calculate the vorticity field and power losses in an idealized 1.5D offset model of Total Cavopulmonary Connection. A three-dimensional polyhedral mesh was constructed for the numerical simulation. The rheological properties of blood were considered as Newtonian, and flow in the connection was assumed to be laminar. The results demonstrated complex flow patterns in the connection. The outcomes of the simulation showed reasonable agreement with the results available in the literature for a similar model.

  17. Early detection of microstructural white matter changes associated with arterial pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Todd A D; Bateman, Grant A; Levi, Christopher R; Parsons, Mark W; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini

    2013-01-01

    Increased cerebral blood flow pulsatility is common in vascular dementia and is associated with macrostructural damage to cerebral white matter or leukoaraiosis (LA). In this study, we examine whether cerebral blood flow pulsatility is associated with macrostructural and microstructural changes in cerebral white matter in older adults with no or mild LA and no evidence of dementia. Diffusion Tensor Imaging was used to measure fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of the microstructural integrity of white matter, and radial diffusivity (RaD), a measure sensitive to the integrity of myelin. When controlling for age, increased arterial pulsation was associated with deterioration in both measures of white matter microstructure but not LA severity. A stepwise multiple linear regression model revealed that arterial pulsatility index was the strongest predictor of FA (R = 0.483, adjusted R (2) = 0.220), followed by LA severity, but not age. These findings suggest that arterial pulsatility may provide insight into age-related reduction in white matter FA. Specifically, increased arterial pulsatility may increase perivascular shear stress and lead to accumulation of damage to perivascular oligodendrocytes, resulting in microstructural changes in white matter and contributing to proliferation of LA over time. Changes in cerebral blood flow pulsatility may therefore provide a sensitive index of white matter health that could facilitate the early detection of risk for perivascular white matter damage and the assessment of the effectiveness of preventative treatment targeted at reducing pulsatility.

  18. Use of a novel diagonal pump in an in vitro neonatal pulsatile extracorporeal life support circuit.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Alissa; Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2014-01-01

    One approach with the potential to improve morbidity and mortality rates following extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is the use of pulsatile perfusion. Currently, no ECLS pumps used in the United States can produce pulsatile flow. The objective of this experiment is to evaluate a novel diagonal pump used in Europe to determine whether it provides physiological pulsatility in a neonatal model. The ECLS circuit consisted of a Medos Deltastream DP3 diagonal pump, a Hilite 800LT polymethylpentene diffusion membrane oxygenator, and arterial/venous tubing. A 300-mL pseudopatient was connected to the circuit using an 8Fr arterial cannula and a 10Fr venous cannula. A clamp maintained constant pressure entering the pseudopatient. Trials (64 total) were conducted in nonpulsatile and pulsatile modes at flow rates of 200 mL/min to 800 mL/min. Flow and pressure data were collected using a custom-based data acquisition system. The Deltastream DP3 pump was capable of producing an adequate quality of pulsatility. Pulsatile flow produced increased mean arterial pressure, energy equivalent pressure (EEP), and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) at all flow rates compared to nonpulsatile flow. Pressure drop across the cannula accounted for the majority of pressure loss in the circuit. The greatest loss of SHE and total hemodynamic energy occurred across the arterial cannula due to its small diameter. The Deltastream DP3 pump produced physiological pulsatile flow without backflow while providing EEP and SHE to our neonatal pseudopatient. Further experiments are necessary to determine the impact of this pulsatile pump in an in vivo model prior to clinical use.

  19. The quantification of hemodynamic parameters downstream of a Gianturco Zenith stent wire using newtonian and non-newtonian analog fluids in a pulsatile flow environment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E

    2012-11-01

    Although deployed in the vasculature to expand vessel diameter and improve blood flow, protruding stent struts can create complex flow environments associated with flow separation and oscillating shear gradients. Given the association between magnitude and direction of wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial phenotype expression, accurate representation of stent-induced flow patterns is critical if we are to predict sites susceptible to intimal hyperplasia. Despite the number of stents approved for clinical use, quantification on the alteration of hemodynamic flow parameters associated with the Gianturco Z-stent is limited in the literature. In using experimental and computational models to quantify strut-induced flow, the majority of past work has assumed blood or representative analogs to behave as Newtonian fluids. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption. We present here the experimental quantification of flow through a Gianturco Z-stent wire in representative Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog environments using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fluid analogs were circulated through a closed flow loop at physiologically appropriate flow rates whereupon PIV snapshots were acquired downstream of the wire housed in an acrylic tube with a diameter characteristic of the carotid artery. Hemodynamic parameters including WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and Reynolds shear stresses (RSS) were measured. Our findings show that the introduction of the stent wire altered downstream hemodynamic parameters through a reduction in WSS and increases in OSI and RSS from nonstented flow. The Newtonian analog solution of glycerol and water underestimated WSS while increasing the spatial coverage of flow reversal and oscillatory shear compared to a non-Newtonian fluid of glycerol, water, and xanthan gum. Peak RSS were increased with the Newtonian fluid, although peak values were similar upon a doubling of flow rate. The introduction of the

  20. The quantification of hemodynamic parameters downstream of a Gianturco Zenith stent wire using newtonian and non-newtonian analog fluids in a pulsatile flow environment.

    PubMed

    Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E

    2012-11-01

    Although deployed in the vasculature to expand vessel diameter and improve blood flow, protruding stent struts can create complex flow environments associated with flow separation and oscillating shear gradients. Given the association between magnitude and direction of wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial phenotype expression, accurate representation of stent-induced flow patterns is critical if we are to predict sites susceptible to intimal hyperplasia. Despite the number of stents approved for clinical use, quantification on the alteration of hemodynamic flow parameters associated with the Gianturco Z-stent is limited in the literature. In using experimental and computational models to quantify strut-induced flow, the majority of past work has assumed blood or representative analogs to behave as Newtonian fluids. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption. We present here the experimental quantification of flow through a Gianturco Z-stent wire in representative Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog environments using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fluid analogs were circulated through a closed flow loop at physiologically appropriate flow rates whereupon PIV snapshots were acquired downstream of the wire housed in an acrylic tube with a diameter characteristic of the carotid artery. Hemodynamic parameters including WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and Reynolds shear stresses (RSS) were measured. Our findings show that the introduction of the stent wire altered downstream hemodynamic parameters through a reduction in WSS and increases in OSI and RSS from nonstented flow. The Newtonian analog solution of glycerol and water underestimated WSS while increasing the spatial coverage of flow reversal and oscillatory shear compared to a non-Newtonian fluid of glycerol, water, and xanthan gum. Peak RSS were increased with the Newtonian fluid, although peak values were similar upon a doubling of flow rate. The introduction of the

  1. Reduced Pulsatility Induces Periarteritis in Kidney: Role of the Local Renin-Angiotensin System

    PubMed Central

    Ootaki, Chiyo; Yamashita, Michifumi; Ootaki, Yoshio; Kamohara, Keiji; Weber, Stephan; Klatte, Ryan S.; Smith, William A.; Massiello, Alex L.; Emancipator, Steven N.; Golding, Leonard A.R.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2008-01-01

    Background The need for pulsatility in the circulation during long-term mechanical support has been a subject of debate. We compared histological changes in calf renal arteries subjected to various degrees of pulsatile circulation in vivo. We addressed the hypothesis that the local reninangiotensin system (RAS) may be implicated in these histological changes. Methods and Results Sixteen calves were implanted with devices giving differing degrees of pulsatile circulation: six had a continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD); six had a continuous flow right ventricular assist device (RVAD); and four had a pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH). Six other calves were histological and immunohistochemical controls. In the LVAD group, the pulsatility index was significantly lower (0.28 ± 0.07 LVAD vs 0.56 ± 0.08 RVAD, vs 0.53 ± 0.10 TAH; p < 0.01), and we observed severe periarteritis in all cases in the LVAD group. The number of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-positive cells and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-positive cells in periarterial areas was significantly higher in the LVAD group (AT1R: 350 ± 139 LVAD vs 8 ± 6 RVAD, vs 3 ± 2 TAH, vs 3 ± 2 in control; p < 0.001 and ACE: 325 ± 59 LVAD vs 6 ± 4 RVAD, vs 6 ± 5 TAH, vs 3 ± 1 control; p < 0.001). Conclusions The reduced pulsatility produced by a continuous flow LVAD implantation induced severe periarteritis in the kidney. The local RAS was upregulated in the inflammatory cells only in the continuous flow LVAD group. ULTAMINI-ABSTRACT We compared histological changes in calf renal arteries subjected to various degrees of pulsatile circulation; continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD), continuous flow right ventricular assist device, pulsatile total artificial heart and control. We observed severe periarteritis, and upregulation of local renin angiotensin system only in the LVAD group. The necessity of maintaining pulsatility in the systemic circulation during long

  2. Numerical modeling of hemodynamics with pulsatile impeller pump support.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing; Lawford, Patricia V; Hose, D Rodney

    2010-08-01

    There is significant interest in the development and application of variable speed impeller-pump type ventricular assist devices designed to generate pulsatile blood flow. However, no study has so far been carried out to investigate the systemic cardiovascular response to various aspects of pump motion. In this article, a numerical model is constructed for the simulation of the cardiovascular response in the heart failure condition under representative cases of pulsatile impeller pump support. The native cardiovascular model is based on a previously validated model, and the impeller pump is modeled by directly fitting the pressure-flow curves that describe the pump characteristics. The model developed is applied to study circulatory dynamics under different degrees of phase shift and pulsation ratio in the pump motion profile. The characteristic variables are discussed as criteria for the evaluation of system response for comparison of the pulsatile flows. Simulation results show that a constant pump speed is the most efficient work mode for the rotary pump, and with the application of either a phase shift of 75% and a pulsation ratio of 0.5, or a phase shift of 42% and a pulsation ratio of 0.55, it is possible to generate arterial pulse pressure with the maximal magnitude of about 28 mmHg. However, this is achieved at the cost of reduced cardiac output and pump efficiency.

  3. Shear stress and circumferential stretch by pulsatile flow direct vascular endothelial lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells in engineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwa; Heo, Su-Jin; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Shin, Ji Won; Park, So Hee; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the response of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the dynamic biomechanical vascular environment is important for vascular regeneration. Native vessel biomechanical stimulation in vitro is thought to be the most important contributor to successful endothelial differentiation of MSCs. However, the appropriate biomechanical stimulation conditions for differentiating MSCs into ECs have not been fully investigated. To accomplish an in vivo-like loading environment, a loading system was designed to apply flow induced stress and induce hMSC differentiation in vascular cells. Culturing MSCs on tubular scaffolds under flow-induced shear stress (2.5 dyne/cm(2)) for 4 days results in increased mRNA levels of EC markers (vWF, CD31, VE-cadherin and E-selectin) after one day. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of 2.5 dyne/cm(2) shear stress followed by 3% circumferential stretch for 3 days, and an additional 5% circumferential stretch for 4 days on hMSC differentiation into ECs. EC marker protein levels showed a significant increase after applying 5% stretch, while SMC markers were not present at levels sufficient for detection. Our results demonstrate that the expression of several hMSC EC markers cultured on double-layered tubular scaffolds were upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels with the application of fluid shear stress and cyclic circumferential stretch.

  4. Shear stress and circumferential stretch by pulsatile flow direct vascular endothelial lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells in engineered blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwa; Heo, Su-Jin; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Shin, Ji Won; Park, So Hee; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the response of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the dynamic biomechanical vascular environment is important for vascular regeneration. Native vessel biomechanical stimulation in vitro is thought to be the most important contributor to successful endothelial differentiation of MSCs. However, the appropriate biomechanical stimulation conditions for differentiating MSCs into ECs have not been fully investigated. To accomplish an in vivo-like loading environment, a loading system was designed to apply flow induced stress and induce hMSC differentiation in vascular cells. Culturing MSCs on tubular scaffolds under flow-induced shear stress (2.5 dyne/cm(2)) for 4 days results in increased mRNA levels of EC markers (vWF, CD31, VE-cadherin and E-selectin) after one day. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of 2.5 dyne/cm(2) shear stress followed by 3% circumferential stretch for 3 days, and an additional 5% circumferential stretch for 4 days on hMSC differentiation into ECs. EC marker protein levels showed a significant increase after applying 5% stretch, while SMC markers were not present at levels sufficient for detection. Our results demonstrate that the expression of several hMSC EC markers cultured on double-layered tubular scaffolds were upregulated at the mRNA and protein levels with the application of fluid shear stress and cyclic circumferential stretch. PMID:26800691

  5. Tissue Pulsatility Imaging of Cerebral Vasoreactivity during Hyperventilation

    PubMed Central

    Kucewicz, John C.; Dunmire, Barbrina; Giardino, Nicholas D.; Leotta, Daniel F.; Paun, Marla; Dager, Stephen R.; Beach, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue Pulsatility Imaging (TPI) is an ultrasonic technique that is being developed at the University of Washington to measure tissue displacement or strain due to blood flow over the cardiac and respiratory cycles. This technique is based in principle on plethysmography, an older non-ultrasound technology for measuring expansion of a whole limb or body part due to perfusion. TPI adapts tissue Doppler signal processing methods to measure the “plethysmographic” signal from hundreds or thousands of sample volumes in an ultrasound image plane. This paper presents a feasibility study to determine if TPI can be used to assess cerebral vasoreactivity. Ultrasound data were collected transcranially through the temporal acoustic window from four subjects before, during, and after voluntary hyperventilation. In each subject, decreases in tissue pulsatility during hyperventilation were observed that were statistically correlated with the subject’s end-tidal CO2 measurements. PMID:18336991

  6. Three-dimensional shape construction of pulsatile tissue from ultrasonic movies for assistance of clinical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Kawaguchi, Hikari; Yamada, Masayoshi; Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2010-02-01

    Three-dimensional shape of pulsatile tissue due to blood flow, which is one of key diagnostic features in ischemia, has been constructed from 2D ultrasonic movies for assisting clinical diagnosis. The 2D ultrasonic movies (640x480pixels/frame, 8bits/pixel, 33ms/frame) were taken with a conventional ultrasonic apparatus and an ultrasonic probe, while measuring the probe orientations with a compact tilt-sensor. The 2D images of pulsatile strength were obtained from each 2D ultrasonic movie by evaluating a heartbeat-frequency component calculated by Fourier transform of a series of pixel values sampled at each pixel. The 2D pulsatile images were projected into a 3D domain to obtain a 3D grid of pulsatile strength according to the probe orientations. The 3D shape of pulsatile tissue was constructed by determining the iso-surfaces of appropriate strength in the 3D grid. The shapes of pulsatile tissue examined in neonatal crania clearly represented the 3D structures of several arteries such as middle cerebral artery, which is useful for diagnosis of ischemic diseases. Since our technique is based on feature extraction in tissue dynamics, it is also useful for homogeneous tissue, for which conventional 3D ultrasonogram is unsuitable due to unclear tissue boundary.

  7. Gosling's Doppler pulsatility index revisited.

    PubMed

    Michel, E; Zernikow, B

    1998-05-01

    In Doppler sonography, the physiological meaning of Gosling's pulsatility index (PI) as a measure of downstream resistance is still under dispute. We deliver the theoretical derivation of its physiological significance. We present a mathematical model based on the linked theories of critical closing pressure (CCP) and cerebrovascular impedance, verified in preterm neonates. Mathematical transformation results in a series of equations interrelating several physiological parameters. Instead of indicating cerebrovascular resistance, PI is linked to the ratio of cerebrovascular impedances at the heart rate and at zero frequency. Next to arterial blood pressure, CCP is the principal determinant of PI. PI is identical to the ratio of the alternate and the direct component of the effective driving force. Thus, PI has no distinctive physiological meaning by itself. At present, our model is confined to physiological conditions where the lowest velocity is the end diastolic, and always more than zero.

  8. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of intra-aortic balloon and control systems for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for intra-aortic balloon and control systems for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. Final order.

    PubMed

    2013-12-30

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify intra-aortic balloon and control system (IABP) devices when indicated for acute coronary syndrome, cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, or complications of heart failure, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for IABPs when indicated for septic shock or pulsatile flow generation. PMID:24383147

  9. Hemodynamic responses to continuous versus pulsatile mechanical unloading of the failing left ventricle.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Carlo R; Giridharan, Guruprasad A; Litwak, Kenneth N; Sobieski, Michael; Prabhu, Sumanth D; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C

    2010-01-01

    Debate exists regarding the merits and limitations of continuous versus pulsatile flow mechanical circulatory support. To characterize the hemodynamic differences between each mode of support, we investigated the acute effects of continuous versus pulsatile unloading of the failing left ventricle in a bovine model. Heart failure was induced in male calves (n = 14). During an acute study, animals were instrumented through thoracotomy for hemodynamic measurement. A continuous flow (n = 8) and/or pulsatile flow (n = 8) left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was implanted and studied during maximum support ( approximately 5 L/min) and moderate support ( approximately 2-3 L/min) modes. Pulse pressure (PP), surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE), and (energy equivalent pressure [EEP]/mean aortic pressure (MAP) - 1) x 100% were derived to characterize hemodynamic energy profiles during the different support modes. Standard hemodynamic parameters of cardiac performance were also derived. Data were analyzed by repeated measures one-way analysis of variance within groups and unpaired Student's t-tests across groups. During maximum and moderate continuous unloading, PP, SHE, and (EEP/MAP - 1) x 100% were significantly decreased compared with baseline and compared with pulsatile unloading. As a result, continuous unloading significantly altered left ventricular peak systolic pressure, aortic systolic and diastolic pressure, +/-dP/dt, and rate x pressure product, whereas pulsatile unloading preserved a normal profile of physiologic values. As continuous unloading increased, the pressure-volume relationship collapsed, and the aortic valve remained closed. In contrast, as pulsatile unloading increased, a comparable decrease in left ventricular volumes was noted. However, a normal range of left ventricular pressures was preserved. Continuous unloading deranged the physiologic profile of myocardial and vascular hemodynamic energy utilization, whereas pulsatile unloading preserved more

  10. A Pulsatile Cardiovascular Computer Model for Teaching Heart-Blood Vessel Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Kenneth; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a model which gives realistic predictions of pulsatile pressure, flow, and volume events in the cardiovascular system. Includes computer oriented laboratory exercises for veterinary and graduate students; equations of the dynamic and algebraic models; and a flow chart for the cardiovascular teaching program. (JN)

  11. [Hematologic and endocrinologic effects of pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass using a centrifugal pump].

    PubMed

    Komoda, T; Maeta, H; Imawaki, S; Shiraishi, Y; Tanaka, S

    1992-06-01

    The effects of pulsatile and nonpulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) with of centrifugal pump (Sarns) and membrane oxygenator, on blood cells, hemodynamics, and hormonal response were studied. In the pulsatile group (group P) in which pulsatile flow was generated by centrifugal pump and a 20 Fr arterial cannula was used, hemolysis and reduction of platelet count during CPB were more marked than in the nonpulsatile group (group NP), in which the same type of circuit was used. When the 20 Fr arterial cannula was replaced with a 24 Fr cannula (group Pc), the rate of hemolysis during CPB was significantly reduced compared with that in group P (p less than 0.05). The rate of rise in plasma free hemoglobin from 10 to 70 minutes CPB in group Pc was 15.0 mg/dl/hr, this value did not exceed that in either group NP or in group Pr, in which a roller pump rather than centrifugal pump was used to generate pulsatile flow. These findings show that pulsatile CPB with a centrifugal pump produces no deleterious hematologic effect in clinical use. The rise in the level of angiotensin II in group P was significantly smaller than that in group NP (p less than 0.05), and the rise in plasma renin activity and levels of angiotensin I, adrenalin and noradrenaline were smaller than those in group NP, although these differences were no significance. These findings indicate that the centrifugal pump generates pulsatile flow effectively, although not so effectively as to prevent the rise in peripheral vascular resistance. During CPB, there was no change in levels of thyroid hormones, including free T3, free T4 and reverse T3, in either pulsatile groups P and Pc or nonpulsatile group. TSH level in group Pc was significantly elevated in contrast with that in the nonpulsatile group (p less than 0.05), in which no change in TSH level was seen. It is suggested that pulsatile perfusion using a centrifugal pump might maintain sufficient hypothalamic-pituitary function to permit

  12. A new approach to generate arbitrary pulsatile pressure wave forms in mechanical circulatory support systems.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Amin; Hexamer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile pressure/flow wave forms reproduction of blood in mechanical circulatory systems are still an open topic. Regarding the periodic behavior of pulsatile hemodynamics, a repetitive control algorithm was adopted as a potential methodology for rotary blood pumps. The developed algorithm was tested on a mock system including an oxygenator, a resistance, and a compliance. The post-oxygenator pressure served as the feedback of the control system. Initially, a model of the whole system was developed in order to use repetitive control algorithm. Then the performance of the developed algorithm was evaluated in three different scenarios. The experimental results indicated that the proposed method was able to accurately reproduce any pattern of pulsatile pressure. Moreover, it demonstrated an acceptable robustness in terms of model uncertainty and nonlinearity.

  13. A new imaging technique on strength and phase of pulsatile tissue-motion in brightness-mode ultrasonogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2007-03-01

    A new imaging technique has been developed for observing both strength and phase of pulsatile tissue-motion in a movie of brightness-mode ultrasonogram. The pulsatile tissue-motion is determined by evaluating the heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a series of pixel value as a function of time at each pixel in a movie of ultrasonogram (640x480pixels/frame, 8bit/pixel, 33ms/frame) taken by a conventional ultrasonograph apparatus (ATL HDI5000). In order to visualize both the strength and the phase of the pulsatile tissue-motion, we propose a pulsatile-phase image that is obtained by superimposition of color gradation proportional to the motion phase on the original ultrasonogram only at which the motion strength exceeds a proper threshold. The pulsatile-phase image obtained from a cranial ultrasonogram of normal neonate clearly reveals that the motion region gives good agreement with the anatomical shape and position of the middle cerebral artery and the corpus callosum. The motion phase is fluctuated with the shape of arteries revealing local obstruction of blood flow. The pulsatile-phase images in the neonates with asphyxia at birth reveal decreases of the motion region and increases of the phase fluctuation due to the weakness and local disturbance of blood flow, which is useful for pediatric diagnosis.

  14. A new pulsatile total artificial heart using a single centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Imachi, K; Chinzei, T; Abe, Y; Mabuchi, K; Imanishi, K; Yonezawa, T; Kouno, A; Ono, T; Atsumi, K; Isoyama, T

    1991-01-01

    A new pulsatile total artificial heart (TAH) system, combining a single centrifugal pump (CFP) with two three-way valves, was developed. One port of each three-way valve was connected to the inlet and outlet of a CFP, respectively. The other two ports of each valve ware connected to the right and left atrium, pulmonary artery, and aorta. The CFP can perfuse the pulmonary and systemic circulation alternately with pulsatile flow. A prototype system composed of a Sarns' CFP and solenoid valves was connected to a mock circulatory system resulting in 1) a pulsatile TAH that could be produced with a single CFP, 2) 5 L/min of pulsatile output with a normal flow wave form that can be obtained alternately on the right and left side by switching the solenoid valves, and 3) flow balance between the left and the right that could be controlled easily by the length of switching duration. This new system could be miniaturized and is feasible for a totally implantable TAH.

  15. Feasibility of Pump Speed Modulation for Restoring Vascular Pulsatility with Rotary Blood Pumps.

    PubMed

    Ising, Mickey S; Sobieski, Michael A; Slaughter, Mark S; Koenig, Steven C; Giridharan, Guruprasad A

    2015-01-01

    Continuous flow (CF) left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) diminish vascular pressure pulsatility, which may be associated with clinically reported adverse events including gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic valve insufficiency, and hemorrhagic stroke. Three candidate CF LVAD pump speed modulation algorithms designed to augment aortic pulsatility were evaluated in mock flow loop and ischemic heart failure (IHF) bovine models by quantifying hemodynamic performance as a function of mean pump speed, modulation amplitude, and timing. Asynchronous and synchronous copulsation (high revolutions per minute [RPM] during systole, low RPM during diastole) and counterpulsation (low RPM during systole, high RPM during diastole) algorithms were tested for defined modulation amplitudes (±300, ±500, ±800, and ±1,100 RPM) and frequencies (18.75, 37.5, and 60 cycles/minute) at low (2,900 RPM) and high (3,200 RPM) mean LVAD speeds. In the mock flow loop model, asynchronous, synchronous copulsation, and synchronous counterpulsation algorithms each increased pulse pressure (ΔP = 931%, 210%, and 98% and reduced left ventricular external work (LVEW = 20%, 22%, 16%). Similar improvements in vascular pulsatility (1,142%) and LVEW (40%) were observed in the IHF bovine model. Asynchronous modulation produces the largest vascular pulsatility with the advantage of not requiring sensor(s) for timing pump speed modulation, facilitating potential clinical implementation. PMID:26102173

  16. Effects of Thoratec pulsatile ventricular assist device timing on the abdominal aortic wave intensity pattern.

    PubMed

    Jahren, Silje Ekroll; Amacher, Raffael; Weber, Alberto; Most, Henriette; Flammer, Shannon Axiak; Traupe, Tobias; Stoller, Michael; de Marchi, Stefano; Vandenberghe, Stijn

    2014-10-15

    Arterial waves are seen as possible independent mediators of cardiovascular risks, and the wave intensity analysis (WIA) has therefore been proposed as a method for patient selection for ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation. Interpreting measured wave intensity (WI) is challenging, and complexity is increased by the implantation of a VAD. The waves generated by the VAD interact with the waves generated by the native heart, and this interaction varies with changing VAD settings. Eight sheep were implanted with a pulsatile VAD (PVAD) through ventriculoaortic cannulation. The start of PVAD ejection was synchronized to the native R wave and delayed between 0 and 90% of the cardiac cycle in 10% steps or phase shifts (PS). Pressure and velocity signals were registered, with the use of a combined Doppler and pressure wire positioned in the abdominal aorta, and used to calculate the WI. Depending on the PS, different wave interference phenomena occurred. Maximum unloading of the left ventricle (LV) coincided with constructive interference and maximum blood flow pulsatility, and maximum loading of the LV coincided with destructive interference and minimum blood flow pulsatility. We believe that noninvasive WIA could potentially be used clinically to assess the mechanical load of the LV and to monitor the peripheral hemodynamics such as blood flow pulsatility and risk of intestinal bleeding.

  17. Pulsatile neck mass: A rare cause

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dattatreya P. V.; Ananthakrishna, Rajiv; Nanjappa, Manjunath C.

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old female presented with a pulsatile neck mass. On evaluation, she was found to have right cervical aortic arch, which is a rare anomaly. We highlight the conventional and Computed tomography angiography features of this vascular anomaly. PMID:23626449

  18. A meta-analysis of pulmonary function with pulsatile perfusion in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Lim, Choon-Hak; Nam, Myung-Ji; Lee, Ji-Sung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Hye-Won; Lee, Hye-Won; Sun, Kyung

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pulsatile or nonpulsatile perfusion had a greater effect on pulmonary dysfunction in randomized controlled trials. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were used to identify available articles published before April 13, 2013. A meta-analysis was conducted on the effects of pulsatile perfusion on postoperative pulmonary function, intubation time, and the lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stays. Eight studies involving 474 patients who received pulsatile perfusion and 496 patients who received nonpulsatile perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were considered in the meta-analysis. Patients receiving pulsatile perfusion had a significantly greater PaO2 /FiO2 ratio 24 h and 48 h post-operation (P < 0.00001, both) and significantly lower chest radiograph scores at 24 h and 48 h post-operation (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.001, respectively) compared with patients receiving nonpulsatile perfusion. The incidence of noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory insufficiency was significantly lower (P < 0.00001), and intubation time and ICU and hospital stays were shorter (P = 0.004, P < 0.00001, and P < 0.00001, respectively) in patients receiving pulsatile perfusion during CPB compared with patients receiving nonpulsatile perfusion. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that the use of pulsatile flow during CPB results in better postoperative pulmonary function and shorter ICU and hospital stays.

  19. Pulsatile diastolic increase and systolic decrease in arterial blood pressure: their mechanism of production and physiological role.

    PubMed

    Mandoki, Juan José; Casa-Tirao, Beatriz; Molina-Guarneros, Juan Arcadio; Jiménez-Orozco, Fausto Alejandro; García-Mondragón, María Juana; Maldonado-Espinoza, Amelia

    2013-08-01

    The diastolic pulsatile increase in arterial blood pressure is shown to occur earlier in the aorta than in other arteries. It is thus not a reflection of the systolic pressure wave, as has been generally assumed, but an independent pressure wave produced by the sequential contraction of the arterial tree. Conversely, a systolic pulsatile decrease in the rate of blood pressure rise is also produced by an active relaxation of the arterial tree. Simultaneously with the pulsatile changes in arterial blood pressure, there are corresponding changes in arterial blood flow. All these cyclic changes are reflex responses to decreasing diastolic and increasing systolic baroreceptor firing rates, respectively. The two reflexes contribute, together with the known compliance of the large arteries and the great arteriolar blood flow resistance, to the steadiness of capillary blood flow throughout the systolic and the much longer-lasting diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle.

  20. Non-dimensional physics of pulsatile cardiovascular networks and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Berk; Pekkan, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, there exist a variety of cardiovascular circulation networks in which the energetic ventricular load has both steady and pulsatile components. Steady load is related to the mean cardiac output (CO) and the haemodynamic resistance of the peripheral vascular system. On the other hand, the pulsatile load is determined by the simultaneous pressure and flow waveforms at the ventricular outlet, which in turn are governed through arterial wave dynamics (transmission) and pulse decay characteristics (windkessel effect). Both the steady and pulsatile contributions of the haemodynamic power load are critical for characterizing/comparing disease states and for predicting the performance of cardiovascular devices. However, haemodynamic performance parameters vary significantly from subject to subject because of body size, heart rate and subject-specific CO. Therefore, a 'normalized' energy dissipation index, as a function of the 'non-dimensional' physical parameters that govern the circulation networks, is needed for comparative/integrative biological studies and clinical decision-making. In this paper, a complete network-independent non-dimensional formulation that incorporates pulsatile flow regimes is developed. Mechanical design variables of cardiovascular flow systems are identified and the Buckingham Pi theorem is formally applied to obtain the corresponding non-dimensional scaling parameter sets. Two scaling approaches are considered to address both the lumped parameter networks and the distributed circulation components. The validity of these non-dimensional number sets is tested extensively through the existing empirical allometric scaling laws of circulation systems. Additional validation studies are performed using a parametric numerical arterial model that represents the transmission and windkessel characteristics, which are adjusted to represent different body sizes and non-dimensional haemodynamic states. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed non

  1. In vitro hemodynamic evaluation of a novel pulsatile extracorporeal life support system: impact of perfusion modes and circuit components on energy loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Clark, Joseph B; Ündar, Akif

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of every component of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) circuit on hemodynamic energy transmission in terms of energy equivalent pressure (EEP), total hemodynamic energy (THE), and surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) under nonpulsatile and pulsatile modes in a novel ECLS system. The ECLS circuit consisted of i-cor diagonal pump and console (Xenios AG, Heilbronn, Germany), an iLA membrane ventilator (Xenios AG), an 18 Fr femoral arterial cannula, a 23/25 Fr femoral venous cannula, and 3/8-in ID arterial and venous tubing. The circuit was primed with lactated Ringer's solution and human whole blood (hematocrit 33%). All trials were conducted under room temperature at the flow rates of 1-4 L/min (1 L/min increments). The pulsatile flow settings were set at pulsatile frequency of 75 beats per minute and differential speed values of 1000-4000 rpm (1000 rpm increments). Flow and pressure data were collected using a custom-based data acquisition system. EEP was significantly higher than mean arterial pressure in all experimental conditions under pulsatile flow (P < 0.01). THE was also increased under pulsatile flow compared with the nonpulsatile flow (P < 0.01). Under pulsatile flow conditions, SHE was significantly higher and increased differential rpm resulted in significantly higher SHE (P < 0.01). There was no SHE generated under nonpulsatile flow. Energy loss depending on the circuit components was almost similar in both perfusion modes at all different flow rates. The pressure drops across the oxygenator were 3.8-24.9 mm Hg, and the pressure drops across the arterial cannula were 19.3-172.6 mm Hg at the flow rates of 1-4 L/min. Depending on the pulsatility setting, i-cor ECLS system generates physiological quality pulsatile flow without increasing the mean circuit pressure. The iLA membrane ventilator is a low-resistance oxygenator, and allows more hemodynamic energy to be delivered

  2. A hemodynamic evaluation of the Levitronix Pedivas centrifugal pump and Jostra Hl-20 roller pump under pulsatile and nonpulsatile perfusion in an infant CPB model.

    PubMed

    Ressler, Noel; Rider, Alan R; Kunselman, Allen R; Richardson, J Scott; Dasse, Kurt A; Wang, Shigang; Undar, Akif

    2009-01-01

    The hemodynamic comparison of the Jostra HL-20 and the Levitronix PediVAS blood pumps is the focus this study, where pressure-flow waveforms and hemodynamic energy values are analyzed in the confines of a pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass circuit.The pseudo pediatric patient was perfused with flow rates between 500 and 900 ml/min (100 ml/min increments) under pulsatile and nonpulsatile mode. The Levitronix continuous flow pump utilized a customized controller to engage in pulsatile perfusion with equivalent pulse settings to the Jostra HL-20 roller pump. Hemodynamic measurements and waveforms were recorded at the precannula location, while the mean arterial pressure was maintained at 40 mm Hg for each test. Glycerin water was used as the blood analog circuit perfusate. At each flow rate 24 trials were conducted yielding a total of 120 experiments (n=60 pulsatile and n=60 nonpulsatile).Under nonpulsatile perfusion the Jostra roller pump produced small values for surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) due to its inherent pulsatility, while the Levitronix produced values of essentially zero for SHE. When switching to pulsatile perfusion, the SHE levels for both the Jostra and Levitronix pump made considerable increases. In comparing the two pumps under pulsatile perfusion, the Levitronix PediVAS produced significantly more surplus and total hemodynamic energy than did the Jostra roller pump each pump flow rate.The study suggests that the Levitronix PediVAS centrifugal pump has the capability of achieving quality pulsatile waveforms and delivering more SHE to the pseudo patient than the Jostra HL-20 roller pump. Further studies are warranted to investigate the Levitronix under bovine blood studies and with various pulsatile settings.

  3. A pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass system that prevents negative pressure at the membrane oxygenator.

    PubMed

    Komoda, T; Maeta, H; Imawaki, S; Shiraishi, Y; Arioka, I; Fukunaga, S; Tanaka, S; Nasu, N

    1993-01-01

    Negative pressure is a problem in pulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To avoid this, the authors designed a pulsatile CPB system containing a Sarns centrifugal pump (CP) and a Univox membrane oxygenator, in which the inertial flow is not obstructed by the CP. In both an in vitro study and a clinical study, negative pressure was not observed in the arterial line of the CPB circuit when this system was used. When a roller pump (RP) was used, however, instead of a CP, negative pressure did occur. In a clinical study using this system, mean pulse pressure was 36 mmHg and hemolysis, expressed as the rate of rise in plasma free hemoglobin from 10 to 70 min of CPB, was 26.2 mg/dl/hr, which did not exceed that seen with a pulsatile CPB using an RP instead of a CP. The hemolysis seen in the study caused no clinical problems. Thus, pulsatile CPB using a CP and Univox membrane oxygenator should be considered for clinical use to prevent the occurrence of negative pressure.

  4. Flap raising on pulsatile perfused cadaveric tissue: a novel method for surgical teaching and exercise.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Fichter, Andreas; Braun, Christian; Bauer, Florian; Humbs, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Exercising flap raising procedures on cadavers is considered a prerequisite to prepare for clinical practise. To improve teaching and create conditions as realistic as possible, a perfusion device was developed providing pulsatile flow through the vessels of different donor sites. A plastic bag filled with red stained tab water was placed into a pump, which was driven by an electric motor. The bag was set under rhythmic compression with variable frequency and pressure. The pedicles of the radial forearm, anterolateral thigh, rectus abdominis, fibular and iliac crest flap were cannulated at the origin from their source arteries. Flap raising was performed under pulsatile perfusion in 15 fresh bodies and subsequently in 6 Thiel-embalmed cadavers during a flap raising course. We regularly observed staining of the skin and skin bleeding in fresh bodies and less reliable in embalmed cadavers. All flap pedicles showed pulsatile movements, and the radial pulse became palpable. Most perforators of the anterolateral thigh and osteocutaneous fibular flap could be identified by their pulse. Bleeding from bony tissue and venous return was seldom observed. We conclude that pulsatile perfusion of cadaveric tissue creates more realistic conditions for flap raising and improves teaching for beginners and advanced surgeons.

  5. Recent technologies in pulsatile drug delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Deepika; Raturi, Richa; Jain, Vikas; Bansal, Praveen; Singh, Ranjit

    2011-01-01

    Pulsatile drug delivery systems (PDDS) have attracted attraction because of their multiple benefits over conventional dosage forms. They deliver the drug at the right time, at the right site of action and in the right amount, which provides more benefit than conventional dosages and increased patient compliance. These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body, and the drug is released rapidly and completely as a pulse after a lag time. These products follow the sigmoid release profile characterized by a time period. These systems are beneficial for drugs with chronopharmacological behavior, where nocturnal dosing is required, and for drugs that show the first-pass effect. This review covers methods and marketed technologies that have been developed to achieve pulsatile delivery. Marketed technologies, such as PulsincapTM, Diffucaps®, CODAS®, OROS® and PULSYSTM, follow the above mechanism to render a sigmoidal drug release profile. Diseases wherein PDDS are promising include asthma, peptic ulcers, cardiovascular ailments, arthritis and attention deficit syndrome in children and hypercholesterolemia. Pulsatile drug delivery systems have the potential to bring new developments in the therapy of many diseases. PMID:23507727

  6. Evolution of vortical structures in a curved artery model with non-Newtonian blood-analog fluid under pulsatile inflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2016-06-01

    Steady flow and physiological pulsatile flow in a rigid 180° curved tube are investigated using particle image velocimetry. A non-Newtonian blood-analog fluid is used, and in-plane primary and secondary velocity fields are measured. A vortex detection scheme ( d 2-method) is applied to distinguish vortical structures. In the pulsatile flow case, four different vortex types are observed in secondary flow: deformed-Dean, Dean, Wall and Lyne vortices. Investigation of secondary flow in multiple cross sections suggests the existence of vortex tubes. These structures split and merge over time during the deceleration phase and in space as flow progresses along the 180° curved tube. The primary velocity data for steady flow conditions reveal additional vortices rotating in a direction opposite to Dean vortices—similar to structures observed in pulsatile flow—if the Dean number is sufficiently high.

  7. GnRH Pulsatility, the Pituitary Response and Reproductive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Webster, Nicholas J.G.

    2015-01-01

    GnRH plays an essential role in neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. In mammals, the pattern of gonadotropin secretion includes both pulse and surge phases, which are regulated independently. The pulsatile release of GnRH and LH plays an important role in the development of sexual function and in the normal regulation of the menstrual cycle. The importance of GnRH pulsatility was established in a series of classic studies. Fertility is impaired when GnRH pulsatility is inhibited by chronic malnutrition, excessive caloric expenditure, or aging. A number of reproductive disorders in women with including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypothlamic amenorrhea, hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are also associated with disruption of the normal pulsatile GnRH secretion. Despite these findings, the molecular mechanisms of this pulsatile GnRH regulation are not well understood. Here, we review recent studies about GnRH pulsatility, signaling and transcriptional response, and its implications for disease. PMID:19609045

  8. Power consumption of rotary blood pumps: pulsatile versus constant-speed mode.

    PubMed

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Cotter, Chris; Bourque, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the power consumption of a HeartMate III rotary blood pump based on in vitro experiments performed in a cardiovascular simulator. To create artificial-pulse mode, we modulated the pump speed by decreasing the mean speed by 2000 rpm for 200 ms and then increasing speed by 4000 rpm (mean speeds plus 2000 rpm) for another 200 ms, creating a square waveform shape. The HeartMate III was connected to a cardiovascular simulator consisting of a hydraulic pump system to simulate left ventricle pumping action, arterial and venous compliance chambers, and an adjustable valve for peripheral resistance to facilitate the desired aortic pressure. The simulator operated based on Suga's elastance model to mimic the Starling response of the heart, thereby reproducing physiological blood flow and pressure conditions. We measured the instantaneous total electrical current and voltage of the pump to evaluate its power consumption. The aim was to answer these fundamental questions: (i) How does pump speed modulation affect pump power consumption? (ii) How does the power consumption vary in relation to external pulsatile flow? The results indicate that speed modulation and external pulsatile flow both moderately increase the power consumption. Increasing the pump speed reduces the impact of external pulsatile flow.

  9. Pulsatile blood velocity in human arteries displayed by magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, D.A.; Crooks, L.; Hoenninger, J. III.; Arakawa, M.; Watts, J.

    1984-10-01

    The authors describe a new method for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of flowing protons which can illustrate relative blood velocity in the arteries supplying the brain. The magnetic gradient pulse sequence was synchronized to the cardiac cycle at 100-msec. increments to check pulsatile blood flow perpendicular to the image plane. The magnitude of the signal increased with the velocity of blood in major arteries flowing in the direction of the spatially offset refocusing plane. The blood velocity in the vertebral and internal carotid arteries varied as a function of the phase of the cardiac cycle, and the velocity profiles across the vascular lumina were compatible with laminar flow.

  10. In vitro performance analysis of a novel pulsatile diagonal pump in a simulated pediatric mechanical circulatory support system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shigang; Kunselman, Allen R; Ündar, Akif

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pump performance of the third-generation Medos diagonal pump, the Deltastream DP3, on hemodynamic profile and pulsatility in a simulated pediatric mechanical circulatory support (MCS) system. The experimental circuit consisted of a Medos Deltastream DP3 pump head and console (MEDOS Medizintechnik AG, Stolberg, Germany), a 14-Fr Terumo TenderFlow Pediatric arterial cannula and a 20-Fr Terumo TenderFlow Pediatric venous return cannula (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan), and 3 ft of tubing with an internal diameter of in. for both arterial and venous lines. Trials were conducted at flow rates ranging from 250 mL/min to 1000 mL/min (250-mL/min increments) and rotational speeds ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm (1000-rpm increments) using human blood (hematocrit 40%). The postcannula pressure was maintained at 60 mm Hg by a Hoffman clamp. Real-time pressure and flow data were recorded using a Labview-based acquisition system. The pump provided adequate nonpulsatile and pulsatile flow, created more hemodynamic energy under pulsatile mode, and generated higher positive and negative pressures when the inlet and outlet of the pump head, respectively, were clamped. After the conversion from nonpulsatile to pulsatile mode, the flow rates and the rotational speeds increased. In conclusion, the novel Medos Deltastream DP3 diagonal pump is able to supply the required flow rate for pediatric MCS, generate adequate quality of pulsatility, and provide surplus hemodynamic energy output in a simulated pediatric MCS system.

  11. Physiologic benefits of pulsatile perfusion during mechanical circulatory support for the treatment of acute and chronic heart failure in adults.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yulong; Karkhanis, Tushar; Wang, Shigang; Rider, Alan; Koenig, Steven C; Slaughter, Mark S; El Banayosy, Aly; Undar, Akif

    2010-07-01

    A growing population experiencing heart failure (100,000 patients/year), combined with a shortage of donor organs (less than 2200 hearts/year), has led to increased and expanded use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices. MCS devices have successfully improved clinical outcomes, which are comparable with heart transplantation and result in better 1-year survival than optimal medical management therapies. The quality of perfusion provided during MCS therapy may play an important role in patient outcomes. Despite demonstrated physiologic benefits of pulsatile perfusion, continued use or development of pulsatile MCS devices has been widely abandoned in favor of continuous flow pumps owing to the large size and adverse risks events in the former class, which pose issues of thrombogenic surfaces, percutaneous lead infection, and durability. Next-generation MCS device development should ideally implement designs that offer the benefits of rotary pump technology while providing the physiologic benefits of pulsatile end-organ perfusion.

  12. Detection and measurement of retinal blood vessel pulsatile motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Di; Frost, Shaun; Vignarajan, Janardhan; An, Dong; Tay-Kearney, Mei-Ling; Kanagasingam, Yogi

    2016-03-01

    Retinal photography is a non-invasive and well-accepted clinical diagnosis of ocular diseases. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of retinal images is crucial in ocular diseases related clinical application. Pulsatile properties caused by cardiac rhythm, such as spontaneous venous pulsation (SVP) and pulsatile motion of small arterioles, can be visualized by dynamic retinal imaging techniques and provide clinical significance. In this paper, we aim at vessel pulsatile motion detection and measurement. We proposed a novel approach for pulsatile motion measurement of retinal blood vessels by applying retinal image registration, blood vessel detection and blood vessel motion detection and measurement on infrared retinal image sequences. The performance of the proposed methods was evaluated on 8 image sequences with 240 images. A preliminary result has demonstrated the good performance of the method for blood vessel pulsatile motion observation and measurement.

  13. The effect of the pulsatile electromagnetic field in children suffering from bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Sadlonova, J; Korpas, J; Salat, D; Miko, L; Kudlicka, J

    2003-01-01

    From the bibliography it is well known that pulsatile electromagnetic field has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. It causes vasodilatation, myorelaxation, hyper-production of connective tissue and activation of the cell membrane. Therefore our aim was to study the possible therapeutic effect of pulsatile electromagnetic field in asthmatic children. Forty-two children participating in this study were divided in two groups. The 1st group consisting of 21 children (11 females, 10 males, aged 11.8 +/- 0.4 yr) was treated by pulsatile electromagnetic field and pharmacologically. The 2nd group served as control, consisting also of 21 children (11 females, 10 males, aged 11.7 +/- 0.3 yr) and was treated only pharmacologically. Therapeutic effect of the pulsatile electromagnetic field was assessed on the basis of pulmonary tests performed by means of a Spirometer 100 Handi (Germany). The indexes FVC, IVC, ERV, IRV, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, MEF75,50,25, PEF, PIF and the changes of the flow-volume loop were also registered. The pulsatile electromagnetic field was applied by means of the device MTU 500H, Therapy System (Brno, Czech Republic) for 5 days, two times daily for 30 minutes (magnetic induction: 3 mT, frequency: 4 Hz as recommended by the manufacturer). The results in children of the 1st group showed an improvement of FVC of about 70 ml, IVC of about 110 ml, FEV1 of about 80 ml, MEF75 of about 30 ml, PEF of about 480 ml, PIF of about 550 ml. The increases of ERV, IRV and FEV1/FVC and decreases of MEF25,50 were statistically insignificant. The results in the 2nd group were less clear. The flow-volume loop showed a mild improvement in 14 children. This improvement in the 2nd group was less significant. The clinical status of children and their mood became better. We believe that the pulsatile electro-magnetotherapy in children suffering from asthma is effective. On the basis of our results we can recommend it as a complementary therapy. PMID:14708875

  14. Pulsatile dynamics in the yeast proteome.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Chiraj K; Cai, Long; Lin, Yihan; Rahbar, Kasra; Elowitz, Michael B

    2014-09-22

    The activation of transcription factors in response to environmental conditions is fundamental to cellular regulation. Recent work has revealed that some transcription factors are activated in stochastic pulses of nuclear localization, rather than at a constant level, even in a constant environment [1-12]. In such cases, signals control the mean activity of the transcription factor by modulating the frequency, duration, or amplitude of these pulses. Although specific pulsatile transcription factors have been identified in diverse cell types, it has remained unclear how prevalent pulsing is within the cell, how variable pulsing behaviors are between genes, and whether pulsing is specific to transcriptional regulators or is employed more broadly. To address these issues, we performed a proteome-wide movie-based screen to systematically identify localization-based pulsing behaviors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The screen examined all genes in a previously developed fluorescent protein fusion library of 4,159 strains [13] in multiple media conditions. This approach revealed stochastic pulsing in ten proteins, all transcription factors. In each case, pulse dynamics were heterogeneous and unsynchronized among cells in clonal populations. Pulsing is the only dynamic localization behavior that we observed, and it tends to occur in pairs of paralogous and redundant proteins. Taken together, these results suggest that pulsatile dynamics play a pervasive role in yeast and may be similarly prevalent in other eukaryotic species.

  15. Active acromegaly enhances spontaneous parathyroid hormone pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Cimino, Vincenzo; De Menis, Ernesto; Bonadonna, Stefania; Bugari, Giovanna; De Marinis, Laura; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Giustina, Andrea

    2006-06-01

    In healthy subjects, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted in a dual fashion, with low-amplitude and high-frequency pulses superimposed on tonic secretion. These 2 components of PTH secretion seem to have different effects on target organs. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether growth hormone excess in acromegaly may modify the spontaneous pulsatility of PTH. Five male patients with newly diagnosed active acromegaly and 8 healthy subjects were evaluated by 3-minute blood sampling for 6 hours. Plasma PTH concentrations were evaluated by multiparameter deconvolution analysis. Plasma PTH release profiles were also subjected to an approximate entropy (ApEn) estimate, which provides an ensemble measure of the serial regularity or orderliness of the release process. In acromegalic patients, baseline serum PTH values were not significantly different from those measured in the healthy subjects, as well as tonic PTH secretion rate, number of bursts, fractional pulsatile PTH secretion, and ApEn ratio. Conversely, PTH pulse half-duration was significantly longer in acromegalic patients vs healthy subjects (11.8+/-0.95 vs 6.9+/-1.6 minutes; P=.05), whereas PTH pulse mass showed a tendency (P=.06) to be significantly greater in acromegalic patients. These preliminary data suggest that growth hormone excess may affect PTH secretory dynamics in patients with acromegaly. Potentially negative bone effects of the modifications of PTH secretory pattern in acromegaly should be investigated.

  16. Pulsatile Tinnitus with a Dural Arterio-Venous Fistula Diagnosed by Computed Tomography-Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Byun, Jaeyong; Park, Moonsuh

    2013-01-01

    A 43 year-old female patient suffered the sudden onset of pulsatile tinnitus in the left ear 2 months ago. The tinnitus did not subside spontaneously and remained unchanged. The patient had no history of head trauma or surgery of the head and neck. The character of the tinnitus was pulsatile, and it was synchronous with the heart beat. Audiologic examinations were performed and all of the results were normal. Computed tomography with angiography was performed and evidence of an arterio-venous fistula (AVF) was found. 4-vessel angiography was performed to confirm the dural AVF between the external carotid artery and sigmoid sinus. Embolization of the feeder-vessels was done under a fluoroscope and 70% of the fistula flow was controlled after embolization and the tinnitus totally subsided during the embolization. PMID:24653921

  17. Somatosensory Pulsatile Tinnitus Syndrome: Somatic Testing Identifies a Pulsatile Tinnitus Subtype That Implicates the Somatosensory System

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert Aaron; Nam, Eui-Cheol; Melcher, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A new tinnitus syndrome is described: high-pitched, cardiac-synchronous tinnitus, whose pulsations are suppressed by strong contractions or compressions of the neck and jaw muscles (somatic testing). 14 cases, 6 non-lateralized and 8 unilateral, are reported. In the non-lateralized cases, onset was bilateral. In the one intermittent case, while her tinnitus was absent her pulsatile tinnitus could be induced by somatic testing. No etiology was found from physical examination, imaging, or ancillary testing. Because these cases of pulsatile tinnitus can be both induced and suppressed by activation of the somatosensory system of the head or upper lateral neck, we propose that this syndrome is occurring from (a) cardiac synchronous somatosensory activation of the central auditory pathway or (b) failure of the somatosensory-auditory central nervous system interactions to suppress cardiac somatosounds. PMID:18632767

  18. Pulsatile LHRH therapy in patients with oligozoospermia and disturbed LH pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Aulitzky, W; Frick, J; Hadziselimovic, F

    1989-08-01

    Pulsatile administration of LHRH can drive the pituitary to secrete LH and FSH in a pattern that closely mimics the physiological pattern of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. As there is evidence that infertility in some men is due to dysfunction of this axis, 14 men with reported infertility of more than 2 years duration were treated by long-term pulsatile LHRH therapy. They were 24-42 years of age, with variable degrees of oligozoospermia, elevated FSH levels but normal LH and testosterone levels. The number of endogenous LH pulses/24 h was less than eight in all 14 subjects. The degree of testicular damage was assessed semi-thin sections prepared from biopsies of both testes. Scores for spermatogonia per seminiferous tubule (SPT) were calculated from the actual number of Ad-spermatogonia/tubule. Patients were grouped according to sperm density and SPT score (groups I-III). Pulsatile LHRH therapy was administered by means of a portable infusion pump; 4 micrograms LHRH were administered subcutaneously every 120 min for a period of 6 months. This treatment restored the normal pattern of LH secretion to 12 LH pulses/24 h in all patients. A statistically significant decrease of mean FSH levels to normal, and an increase of mean LH levels was observed in most of the 14 patients. Testosterone values did not change in any group. Marked improvement of the sperm count was observed in eight out of 14 patients (groups I and II) and three pregnancies were reported during the treatment periods. These results suggest that some states of male infertility are due to hormonal dysregulation and that these patients may benefit from pulsatile LHRH therapy.

  19. Real-time visualization of pulsatile tissue-motion in B-mode ultrasonogram for assistance in bedside diagnosis of ischemic diseases of neonatal cranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, M.; Yamada, M.; Nakamori, N.; Kitsunezuka, Y.

    2008-03-01

    By developing a real-time visualization system, pulsatile tissue-motion caused by artery pulsation of blood flow has been visualized continuously from a video stream of ultrasonogram in brightness mode. The system concurrently executes the three processes: (1) capturing an input B-mode video stream (640×480 pixels/frame, 30 fps) into a ring buffer of 256 frames, (2) detecting intensity and phase of pulsatile tissue-motion at each pixel from a heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a series of pixel value through the latest 64 frames as a function of time, and (3) generating an output video-stream of pulsatile-phase image, in which the motion phase is superimposed as color gradation on an input video-stream when the motion intensity exceeds a proper threshold. By optimizing the visualization software with the streaming SIMD extensions, the pulsatile-phase image has been continuously updated at more than 10 fps, which was enough to observe pulsatile tissue-motion in real time. Compared to the retrospective technique, the real-time visualization had clear advantages not only in enabling bedside observation and quick snapshot of pulsatile tissue-motion but also in giving useful feedback to probe handling for avoiding unwanted motion-artifacts, which may strongly assist pediatricians in bedside diagnosis of ischemic diseases.

  20. Non-dimensional physics of pulsatile cardiovascular networks and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Berk; Pekkan, Kerem

    2016-01-01

    In Nature, there exist a variety of cardiovascular circulation networks in which the energetic ventricular load has both steady and pulsatile components. Steady load is related to the mean cardiac output (CO) and the haemodynamic resistance of the peripheral vascular system. On the other hand, the pulsatile load is determined by the simultaneous pressure and flow waveforms at the ventricular outlet, which in turn are governed through arterial wave dynamics (transmission) and pulse decay characteristics (windkessel effect). Both the steady and pulsatile contributions of the haemodynamic power load are critical for characterizing/comparing disease states and for predicting the performance of cardiovascular devices. However, haemodynamic performance parameters vary significantly from subject to subject because of body size, heart rate and subject-specific CO. Therefore, a 'normalized' energy dissipation index, as a function of the 'non-dimensional' physical parameters that govern the circulation networks, is needed for comparative/integrative biological studies and clinical decision-making. In this paper, a complete network-independent non-dimensional formulation that incorporates pulsatile flow regimes is developed. Mechanical design variables of cardiovascular flow systems are identified and the Buckingham Pi theorem is formally applied to obtain the corresponding non-dimensional scaling parameter sets. Two scaling approaches are considered to address both the lumped parameter networks and the distributed circulation components. The validity of these non-dimensional number sets is tested extensively through the existing empirical allometric scaling laws of circulation systems. Additional validation studies are performed using a parametric numerical arterial model that represents the transmission and windkessel characteristics, which are adjusted to represent different body sizes and non-dimensional haemodynamic states. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed non

  1. Investigation of pulsatile flowfield in healthy thoracic aorta models.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chih-Yung; Yang, An-Shik; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chai, Jyh-Wen

    2010-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world. Complex hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of aortic dissection and atherosclerosis, as well as many other diseases. Since fundamental fluid mechanics are important for the understanding of the blood flow in the cardiovascular circulatory system of the human body aspects, a joint experimental and numerical study was conducted in this study to determine the distributions of wall shear stress and pressure and oscillatory WSS index, and to examine their correlation with the aortic disorders, especially dissection. Experimentally, the Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PC-MRI) method was used to acquire the true geometry of a normal human thoracic aorta, which was readily converted into a transparent thoracic aorta model by the rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The thoracic aorta model was then used in the in vitro experiments and computations. Simulations were performed using the computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code ACE+((R)) to determine flow characteristics of the three-dimensional, pulsatile, incompressible, and Newtonian fluid in the thoracic aorta model. The unsteady boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the aortic flow were specified from the measured flowrate and pressure results during in vitro experiments. For the code validation, the predicted axial velocity reasonably agrees with the PC-MRI experimental data in the oblique sagittal plane of the thoracic aorta model. The thorough analyses of the thoracic aorta flow, WSSs, WSS index (OSI), and wall pressures are presented. The predicted locations of the maxima of WSS and the wall pressure can be then correlated with that of the thoracic aorta dissection, and thereby may lead to a useful biological significance. The numerical results also suggest that the effects of low WSS and high OSI tend to cause wall thickening occurred along the inferior wall of the aortic arch and the

  2. Numerical investigation of three patterns of motion in an electromagnetic pulsatile VAD.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Zahra Hashemi; Oscuii, Hanieh Niroomand

    2014-01-01

    Hemolysis and thrombus formation which are critical concerns in designing a long-term implantable ventricular assist device (VAD) have impeded the widespread use of VADs. In this study, thus, the three-dimensional fluid domain of blood flow in a small bichamber positive displacement VAD (25 ml) with a magnetically levitated moving pusher plate was simulated by the means of a finite element package called ADINA. To optimize the function of the pump for minimizing shear stress induced blood damage, three different driver patterns (linear, sinusoidal, and Guyton's pulse) were investigated. The first pattern produced a constant flow, whereas the two others created pulsatile flows. The flow pattern and the distribution of shear stress of each pattern were observed for comparison. It was revealed that the three types of motions may induce less than 0.06% red blood cell damage. Moreover, in comparison to the other patterns not only did the sinusoidal motion of the pusher plate cause less risk of hemolysis, but in comparison to the linear pattern, it produced a pulsatile flow which reduced the stagnation areas in chambers, lowering the probability of thrombosis. In addition, this motion eliminates the probability of cavitations as compared with the Guyton's pulse pattern.

  3. Optimum Heart Rate to Minimize Pulsatile External Cardiac Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahlevan, Niema; Gharib, Morteza

    2011-11-01

    The workload on the left ventricle is composed of steady and pulsatile components. Clinical investigations have confirmed that an abnormal pulsatile load plays an important role in the pathogenesis of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and progression of LVH to congestive heart failure (CHF). The pulsatile load is the result of the complex dynamics of wave propagation and reflection in the compliant arterial vasculature. We hypothesize that aortic waves can be optimized to reduce the left ventricular (LV) pulsatile load. We used an in-vitro experimental approach to investigate our hypothesis. A unique hydraulic model was used for in-vitro experiments. This model has physical and dynamical properties similar to the heart-aorta system. Different compliant models of the artificial aorta were used to test the hypothesis under various aortic rigidities. Our results indicate that: i) there is an optimum heart rate that minimizes LV pulsatile power (this is in agreement with our previous computational study); ii) introducing an extra reflection site at the specific location along the aorta creates constructive wave conditions that reduce the LV pulsatile power.

  4. Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Takahashi, Kazuki; Tabata, Yuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2016-04-01

    Effect of echo artifacts on characterization of pulsatile tissues has been examined in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies by characterizing pulsatile intensities with different regions of interest (ROIs). The pulsatile tissue, which is a key point in pediatric diagnosis of brain tissue, was detected from a heartbeat-frequency component in Fourier transform of a time-variation of 64 samples of echo intensity at each pixel in a movie fragment. The averages of pulsatile intensity and power were evaluated in two ROIs: common fan-shape and individual cranial-shape. The area of pulsatile region was also evaluated as the number of pixels where the pulsatile intensity exceeds a proper threshold. The extracranial pulsatile region was found mainly in the sections where mirror image was dominant echo artifact. There was significant difference of pulsatile area between two ROIs especially in the specific sections where mirror image was included, suggesting the suitability of cranial-shape ROI for statistical study on pulsatile tissues in brain. The normalized average of pulsatile power in the cranial-shape ROI exhibited most similar tendency to the normalized pulsatile area which was treated as a conventional measure in spite of its requirement of thresholding. It suggests the potential of pulsatile power as an alternative measure for pulsatile area in further statistical study of pulsatile tissues because it was neither affected by echo artifacts nor threshold.

  5. Measuring pulsatile forces on the human cranium.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Cory S; Antonyshyn, Oleh; Midha, Rajiv; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2005-01-01

    The cyclic stresses in the cranium caused by pulsation of the brain play an important role in the design of materials for cranioplasty, as well as craniofacial development. However, these stresses have never been quantified. In this study, the force in the epidural space against the cranium was measured intraoperatively in 10 patients using a miniature force probe. Heart and ventilatory rates computed from the force tracing correlated closely with the corresponding measured values in the patients, confirming that the forces measured were indeed a result of brain pulsation. The mean outward systolic normal and tangential stresses were 54.2 kilo-Pascals (kPa) and 345.4 kPa, respectively. The systolic shear stress was 199.8 kPa. Through mechanotransduction, these stresses play a role in cranial development. The calculated yield stress of a cranioplasty repair was 0.4 MPa, which is within one order of magnitude of the known strength of common calcium-phosphate cements. This indicates a possible relation of these pulsatile forces and occult failure of calcium-phosphate cement cranioplasties through material fatigue.

  6. Encoding and decoding mechanisms of pulsatile hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Walker, J J; Terry, J R; Tsaneva-Atanasova, K; Armstrong, S P; McArdle, C A; Lightman, S L

    2010-12-01

    Ultradian pulsatile hormone secretion underlies the activity of most neuroendocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and gonadal (HPG) axes, and this pulsatile mode of signalling permits the encoding of information through both amplitude and frequency modulation. In the HPA axis, glucocorticoid pulse amplitude increases in anticipation of waking, and, in the HPG axis, changing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone pulse frequency is the primary means by which the body alters its reproductive status during development (i.e. puberty). The prevalence of hormone pulsatility raises two crucial questions: how are ultradian pulses encoded (or generated) by these systems, and how are these pulses decoded (or interpreted) at their target sites? We have looked at mechanisms within the HPA axis responsible for encoding the pulsatile mode of glucocorticoid signalling that we observe in vivo. We review evidence regarding the 'hypothalamic pulse generator' hypothesis, and describe an alternative model for pulse generation, which involves steroid feedback-dependent endogenous rhythmic activity throughout the HPA axis. We consider the decoding of hormone pulsatility by taking the HPG axis as a model system and focussing on molecular mechanisms of frequency decoding by pituitary gonadotrophs.

  7. First In Vivo Results of a Novel Pediatric Oxygenator with an Integrated Pulsatile Pump.

    PubMed

    Stang, Katharina; Borchardt, Ralf; Neumann, Bernd; Kurz, Julia; Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Greiner, Tim O; Fahrner, Christine; Schenk, Martin; Schlensak, Christian; Schubert, Maria; Lausberg, Henning; Herold, Sabine; Schlanstein, Peter C; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta; Wendel, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a pivotal bridge to recovery for cardiopulmonary failure in children. Besides its life-saving quality, it is often associated with severe system-related complications, such as hemolysis, inflammation, and thromboembolism. Novel oxygenator and pump systems may reduce such ECMO-related complications. The ExMeTrA oxygenator is a newly designed pediatric oxygenator with an integrated pulsatile pump minimizing the priming volume and reducing the surface area of blood contact. The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of this new ExMeTrA (expansion mediated transport and accumulation) oxygenator in an animal model. During 6 h of extracorporeal circulation (ECC) in pigs, parameters of the hemostatic system including coagulation, platelets and complement activation, and flow rates were investigated. A nonsignificant trend in C3 consumption, thrombin-antithrombin-III (TAT) complex formation and a slight trend in hemolysis were detected. During the ECC, the blood flow was constantly at 500 ml/min using only flexible silicone tubes inside the oxygenator as pulsatile pump. Our data clearly indicate that the hemostatic markers were only slightly influenced by the ExMeTrA oxygenator. Additionally, the oxygenator showed a constant quality of blood flow. Therefore, this novel pediatric oxygenator shows the potential to be used in pediatric and neonatal support with ECMO. PMID:26098176

  8. In vivo assessment of a new method of pulsatile perfusion based on a centrifugal pump.

    PubMed

    Herreros, Jesús; Ubilla, Matías; Berjano, Enrique J; Vila-Nuñez, Juan E; Páramo, José A; Sola, Josu; Mercé, Salvador

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess platelet dysfunction and damage to organs after extracorporeal circulation using a pump based on a new method that adds a pulsatile flow to the continuous flow provided by a centrifugal pump. The continuous component of the total flow (2-3 L/min) is created by a Bio-Pump centrifugal pump, while the pulsatile component is created by the pulsating of an inner membrane pneumatically controlled by an intra-aortic counterpulsation balloon console (systolic volume of 37.5 mL in an asynchronous way with a frequency of 60 bpm). Six pigs were subjected to a partial cardiopulmonary bypass lasting 180 min and were sacrificed 60 min after extracorporeal circulation was suspended. The hematological study included the measurement of hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocytes, and platelet function. The new pump did not significantly alter either platelet count or platelet function. In contrast, hematocrit and hemoglobin were significantly reduced during extracorporeal circulation (approximately 5% P = 0.011, and 2 g/dL P = 0.01, respectively). The leukocyte count during extracorporeal circulation showed a tendency to decrease, but this was not significant. In general, the short-term use of the new pump (4 h) did not cause any serious morphological damage to the heart, lung, kidney, or liver. The results suggest that the hemodynamic performance of the new pump is similar to a conventional centrifugal pump and could therefore be appropriate for use in extracorporeal circulation.

  9. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile administration restores luteinizing hormone pulsatility and normal testosterone levels in males with hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, P; Lagoguey, M; Brailly, S; Schaison, G

    1985-02-01

    Hyperprolactinemia in men is frequently associated with hypogonadism. Normalization of serum PRL levels is generally associated with an increase in serum testosterone (T) to normal. To determine the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of hyperprolactinemia on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, we studied the effect of intermittent pulsatile GnRH administration on LH pulsatility and T levels in four men with prolactinomas. All patients had high PRL values (100-3000 ng/ml), low LH (mean +/- SEM, 2.2 +/- 0.1 mIU/ml), and low T values (2.3 +/- 0.3 ng/ml), with no other apparent abnormality of pituitary function. GnRH was administered iv using a pump delivering a bolus dose of 10 micrograms every 90 min for 12 days. No LH pulses were detected before treatment. Pulsatile GnRH administration resulted in a significant increase in basal LH levels (6.7 +/- 0.6 mIU/ml; P less than 0.001) and restored LH pulsatility. In addition, T levels increased significantly to normal values in all patients (7.8 +/- 0.4 ng/ml; P less than 0.001) and were normal or supranormal as long as the pump was in use, although PRL levels remained elevated. These data, therefore, suggest that hyperprolactinemia produces hypogonadism primarily by interfering with pulsatile GnRH release.

  10. A case of Takayasu's arteritis with pulsatile neck mass

    PubMed Central

    Karimifar, Mansoor; Karimifar, Mozhgan; Salimi, Fereshteh; Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2011-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis (TA), also known as pulseless disease or occlusive thromboaortopathy, is a form of vasculitis of unknown cause that chiefly affects the aorta and its major branches, most frequently in young women. We describe an 18-year-old female with a soft and pulsatile mass in the left side of her neck. PMID:22973373

  11. Case of a non-pulsatile groin swelling.

    PubMed

    Razif, M A Mohamed; Rajasingam, V; Abdullah, B J J

    2002-12-01

    We report a case of a non-pulsatile groin swelling in a 38 years old male drug addict without the typical clinical signs of an aneurysm. Ultrasound revealed a left femoral artery pseudo-aneurysm. He was surgically treated and the vessels were ligated without revascularisation.

  12. Nonlinear analysis and prediction of pulsatile hormone secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Prank, K. |; Kloppstech, M.; Nowlan, S.J.; Harms, H.M.; Brabant, G.; Hesch, R.; Sejnowski, T.J.

    1996-06-01

    Pulsatile hormone secretion is observed in almost every hormonal system. The frequency of episodic hormone release ranges from approximately 10 to 100 pulses in 24 hours. This temporal mode of secretion is an important feature of intercellular information transfer in addition to a dose-response dependent regulation. It has been demonstrated in a number of experiments that changes in the temporal pattern of pulsatile hormone secretion specifically regulate cellular and organ function and structure. Recent evidence links osteoporosis, a disease characterized by loss of bone mass and structure, to changes in the dynamics of pulsatile parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. In our study we applied nonlinear and linear time series prediction to characterize the secretory dynamics of PTH in both healthy human subjects and patients with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic patients appear to lack periods of high predictability found in normal humans. In contrast to patients with osteoporosis patients with hyperparathyroidism, a condition which despite sometimes reduced bone mass has a preserved bone architecture, show periods of high predictability of PTH secretion. Using stochastic surrogate data sets which match certain statistical properties of the original time series significant nonlinear determinism could be found for the PTH time series of a group of healthy subjects. Using classical nonlinear analytical techniques we could demonstrate that the irregular pattern of pulsatile PTH secretion in healthy men exhibits characteristics of deterministic chaos. Pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy subjects seems to be a first example of nonlinear determinism in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Bedside assistance in freehand ultrasonic diagnosis by real-time visual feedback of 3D scatter diagram of pulsatile tissue-motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, M.; Kawata, K.; Nakamori, N.; Kitsunezuka, Y.

    2011-03-01

    By real-time visual feedback of 3D scatter diagram of pulsatile tissue-motion, freehand ultrasonic diagnosis of neonatal ischemic diseases has been assisted at the bedside. The 2D ultrasonic movie was taken with a conventional ultrasonic apparatus (ATL HDI5000) and ultrasonic probes of 5-7 MHz with the compact tilt-sensor to measure the probe orientation. The real-time 3D visualization was realized by developing an extended version of the PC-based visualization system. The software was originally developed on the DirectX platform and optimized with the streaming SIMD extensions. The 3D scatter diagram of the latest pulsatile tissues has been continuously generated and visualized as projection image with the ultrasonic movie in the current section more than 15 fps. It revealed the 3D structure of pulsatile tissues such as middle and posterior cerebral arteries, Willis ring and cerebellar arteries, in which pediatricians have great interests in the blood flow because asphyxiated and/or low-birth-weight neonates have a high risk of ischemic diseases such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and periventricular leukomalacia. Since the pulsatile tissue-motion is due to local blood flow, it can be concluded that the system developed in this work is very useful to assist freehand ultrasonic diagnosis of ischemic diseases in the neonatal cranium.

  14. Optimization of the circuit configuration of a pulsatile ECLs: an in vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Lee, Jung Joo; Fang, Yong Hu; Moon, Ki Chul; Ahn, Chi Bum; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Hye Won; Sun, Kyung

    2005-01-01

    An extracorporeal life support system (ECLS) with a conventional membrane oxygenator requires a driving force for the blood to pass through hollow fiber membranes. We hypothesized that if a gravity-flow hollow fiber membrane oxygenator is installed in the circuit, the twin blood sacs of a pulsatile ECLS (the Twin-Pulse Life Support, T-PLS) can be placed downstream of the membrane oxygenator. This would increase pump output by doubling pulse rate at a given pumpsetting rate while maintaining effective pulsatility. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal circuit configuration for T-PLS with respect to energy and pump output. Animals were randomly assigned to 2 groups in a total cardiopulmonary bypass model. In the serial group, a conventional membrane oxygenator was located between the twin blood sacs of the T-PLS. In the parallel group, the twin blood sacs were placed downstream of the gravity-flow membrane oxygenator. Energy equivalent pressure (EEP), surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE) and pump output were collected at the different pump-setting rates of 30, 40, and 50 beats per minute (BPM). At a given pump-setting rate the pulse rate doubled in the parallel group. Percent changes of mean arterial pressure to EEP were 13.0 +/- 1.7, 12.0 +/- 1.9, and 7.6 +/- 0.9% in the parallel group, while 22.5 +/- 2.4, 23.2 +/- 1.9, and 21.8 +/- 1.4 in the serial group at 30, 40, and 50 BPM of pump-setting rates. SHE at each pump setting rate was 20,131 +/- 1408, 21,739 +/- 2470, and 15,048 +/- 2108 erg/ cm3 in the parallel group, while 33,968 +/- 3001, 38,232 +/- 3281, 37,964 +/- 2693 erg/cm3 in the serial group. Pump output was higher in the parallel circuit at 40, and 50 BPM pump-setting rates (3.1 +/- 0.2, 3.7 +/- 0.2 L/min vs. 2.2 +/- 0.1 and 2.5 +/- 0.1 L/min, respectively, p =0.01). Either parallel or serial circuit configuration of T-PLS generates effective pulsatility. As for the pump out, the parallel circuit configuration provides higher flow than the

  15. Chronic pulsatile shear stress alters insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) binding protein release in vitro.

    PubMed

    Elhadj, Selim; Akers, R Michael; Forsten-Williams, Kimberly

    2003-02-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a potent smooth muscle cell mitogen indicated to have a role in vascular disease. IGF-I stimulates proliferation via receptor activation but its activity is mediated by IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs). Since hemodynamics have been linked to vascular proliferative disorders, we studied how pulsatile low (5 +/- 2 dynes/cm2) and high (23 +/- 8 dynes/cm2) shear stresses impacted IGFBP metabolism in bovine aortic endothelial cells using the Cellmax capillary system. We modeled the pulsatile flow in our system using the Womersley model for flow inside a rigid tube and harmonic analysis revealed that the flow was sinusoidal with a frequency of approximately 0.3 Hz for both shear stress treatments. Laminar flow was confirmed and the phase lag between the pressure and the flow found to be insignificant. Thus, our study provides a necessary characterization of this in vitro system as well as an investigation into how shear impacts the IGF axis. We found a significant difference in IGFBP distribution between treatments and, given that IGFBPs regulate IGF-I activity and that IGF-I-independent activities have been suggested for IGFBP-3, suggest that shear stress may indirectly regulate IGF-I activity, and, by extension, the effect of IGF-I on vascular pathologies. PMID:12627824

  16. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy for ovulatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Santoro, N; Elzahr, D

    1993-09-01

    Pulsatile GnRH remains a physiologic method of inducing ovulation that is effective and safer than other parenteral preparations. Its lower rate of acceptance in the United States stands in curious contrast to its widespread usage in other countries as a second-line (postclomiphene) technique of choice for ovulation induction. In a high-technology era such as ours, women who may benefit from pulsatile GnRH therapy should not be forgotten. By far the most favorable results are obtained in women with primary or secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea. In such women, pregnancy rates appear comparable to those achieved with exogenous gonadotropins with a much lower risk of multiple pregnancy and ovarian hyperstimulation. These positive aspects, combined with the decreased need for clinical monitoring and the increased sense of control imparted to the patient, lead to the conclusion that women with uncomplicated hypothalamic-pituitary disorders are the ideal patient group to consider for therapy. The application of pulsatile GnRH therapy to other groups of women relies on limited data. By all means, women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who have not ovulated or conceived after other forms of treatment should be considered because reasonable pregnancy salvage can be obtained. We have noted a first-cycle successful pregnancy after failure of exogenous gonadotropins, with or without a superimposed GnRH agonist, and even in vitro fertilization with multiple embryo transfers. Before such invasive, high-technology procedures are entertained, it would appear prudent to consider this simple alternative in women with an overactive hypothalamic-pituitary axis, as seen in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Other ovulatory defects also may be amenable to treatment with pulsatile GnRH, but their practical usefulness will await further clinical study.

  17. Arterial pulsatility as an index of cerebral microangiopathy in diabetes type 2.

    PubMed

    Agha, M S; Alboudi, A

    2014-01-09

    Transcranial doppler is an inexpensive, non-invasive investigation. This study assessed its validity in determining cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Flow velocity and pulsatility index were measured in the middle cerebral, basilar and intracranial internal carotid arteries of a sample of 141 diabetic patients with no other risk factors, and 132 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 73 with complicated and 68 with uncomplicated diabetes. There was a statistically significant difference between the complicated diabetes and control groups for the 3 arteries and most indices. The differences between the uncomplicated diabetes patients and the controls were also statistically significant but less strongly. Transcranial doppler may be useful in early diagnosis of cerebral small vessel disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  18. Pulsatile Fluid Shear in Bone Remodeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frangos, John A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to elucidate the sensitivity to transients in fluid shear stress in bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is clearly a function of the local mechanical environment which includes interstitial fluid flow. Traditionally, load-induced remodeling has been associated with low frequency (1-2 Hz) signals attributed to normal locomotion. McLeod and Rubin, however, demonstrated in vivo remodeling events associated with high frequency (15-30 Hz) loading. Likewise, other in vivo studies demonstrated that slowly applied strains did not trigger remodeling events. We therefore hypothesized that the mechanosensitive pathways which control bone maintenance and remodeling are differentially sensitive to varying rates of applied fluid shear stress.

  19. Pulsatile compared with nonpulsatile perfusion using a centrifugal pump for cardiopulmonary bypass during coronary artery bypass grafting. Effects on systemic haemodynamics, oxygenation, and inflammatory response parameters.

    PubMed

    Driessen, J J; Dhaese, H; Fransen, G; Verrelst, P; Rondelez, L; Gevaert, L; van Becelaere, M; Schelstraete, E

    1995-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of pulsatile or nonpulsatile flow delivery with a centrifugal pump for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in two randomized groups of 19 patients each. All patients received a standard anaesthetic and surgical protocol. Pulsatile perfusion during CPB was created by accelerating the baseline pump speed of the Sarns centrifugal pump at a rate of 50 cycles per minute. Measurements included perioperative systemic haemodynamics and oxygen exchange, total haemolytic complement (CH50), polymorphonuclear (neutrophil) granulocyte (PMN) count and plasma granulocyte elastase bound to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (E-alpha 1-PI). Laboratory measurements were corrected for haemodilution. During and after CPB there were only a few significant differences between the groups in systemic haemodynamics and oxygenation, i.e. a lower mean arterial blood pressure after the end of CPB in the nonpulsatile group (65 mmHg, SD = 11 vs 76 mmHg, SD = 11) and a lower SvO2 during rewarming on CPB in the nonpulsatile group (62%, SD = 8 vs 67%, SD = 8). The decrease in percentage of PMNs in the total white blood cell count during CPB was greater in the nonpulsatile group than in the pulsatile group (from 61 to 46% vs 63 to 53% of prebypass value). The steep increase of PMN count at the end of CPB and postoperatively was comparable in both groups. The maximal decrease of CH50 levels, occurring after surgery, was significantly higher in the nonpulsatile group (70% SD = 15 vs 79%, SD = 16, of baseline value), suggesting a greater complement activation. E-alpha 1-PI levels increased significantly in both groups during and after CPB with higher peak levels, obtained at one hour after admission to an intensive care unit, in the nonpulsatile group (316 micrograms/l, SD = 102) than in the pulsatile group (247 micrograms/l, SD = 106). There was a partly inverse correlation between the peak postoperative elastase levels and

  20. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  1. An optimization formulation for characterization of pulsatile cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Brown, Emery N

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol is released to relay information to cells to regulate metabolism and reaction to stress and inflammation. In particular, cortisol is released in the form of pulsatile signals. This low-energy method of signaling seems to be more efficient than continuous signaling. We hypothesize that there is a controller in the anterior pituitary that leads to pulsatile release of cortisol, and propose a mathematical formulation for such controller, which leads to impulse control as opposed to continuous control. We postulate that this controller is minimizing the number of secretory events that result in cortisol secretion, which is a way of minimizing the energy required for cortisol secretion; this controller maintains the blood cortisol levels within a specific circadian range while complying with the first order dynamics underlying cortisol secretion. We use an ℓ0-norm cost function for this controller, and solve a reweighed ℓ1-norm minimization algorithm for obtaining the solution to this optimization problem. We use four examples to illustrate the performance of this approach: (i) a toy problem that achieves impulse control, (ii) two examples that achieve physiologically plausible pulsatile cortisol release, (iii) an example where the number of pulses is not within the physiologically plausible range for healthy subjects while the cortisol levels are within the desired range. This novel approach results in impulse control where the impulses and the obtained blood cortisol levels have a circadian rhythm and an ultradian rhythm that are in agreement with the known physiology of cortisol secretion. The proposed formulation is a first step in developing intermittent controllers for curing cortisol deficiency. This type of bio-inspired pulse controllers can be employed for designing non-continuous controllers in brain-machine interface design for neuroscience applications. PMID:26321898

  2. Defects in pulsatile LH release in normally menstruating runners.

    PubMed

    Cumming, D C; Vickovic, M M; Wall, S R; Fluker, M R

    1985-04-01

    Intense physical exercise has been associated with reproductive dysfunction and menstrual cycles may be abnormal in a majority of women with a heavy training load. To determine whether training influenced pulsatile LH release, we measured LH pulse frequency, LH pulse amplitude and area under the curve over six hours during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in four sedentary women and six eumenorrheic women runners with a training volume of at least 32 km per week. All three LH variables were significantly lower in runners than in controls. These data suggest that there is a central inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in eumenorrheic runners.

  3. Hypothyroidism affects pulsatile LH secretion in pubertal orchiectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Maia, A L; Favaretto, A L; Carvaho, T L; Rodrigues, J A; Iazigi, N

    1995-08-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of hypothyroidism on the pituitary-testicular axis in rats rendered hypothyroid on the beginning of puberty. Rats were treated with propylthiouracil for 8 weeks and killed for determination of hormonal status and body parameters. For determination of pulsatile LH secretion other animals were orchiectomized two weeks before sampling. Analysis of the results led us to conclude that although the absolute weight of sex organs tended to decrease in hypothyroid animals, the relative weights were equal or higher than control, suggesting that the development of these organs were not affected by hypothyroidism; the androgenic activity of hypothyroid rat testes were preserved; basal plasma levels of pituitary hormones were similar in control and hypothyroid groups; the pulsatile LH secretion showed a decrease in the number of pulses, nadir mean and total LH secretion in hypothyroid animals. Our results demonstrate that although hypothalamic-pituitary axis of hypothyroid pubertal rats displays an abnormal pulsation LH release, no evidences of abnormalities in the reproductive system functions were found.

  4. Prediction and control of neural responses to pulsatile electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Luke J.; Sly, David James; O'Leary, Stephen John

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to predict and control the probability of firing of a neuron in response to pulsatile electrical stimulation of the type delivered by neural prostheses such as the cochlear implant, bionic eye or in deep brain stimulation. Using the cochlear implant as a model, we developed an efficient computational model that predicts the responses of auditory nerve fibers to electrical stimulation and evaluated the model's accuracy by comparing the model output with pooled responses from a group of guinea pig auditory nerve fibers. It was found that the model accurately predicted the changes in neural firing probability over time to constant and variable amplitude electrical pulse trains, including speech-derived signals, delivered at rates up to 889 pulses s-1. A simplified version of the model that did not incorporate adaptation was used to adaptively predict, within its limitations, the pulsatile electrical stimulus required to cause a desired response from neurons up to 250 pulses s-1. Future stimulation strategies for cochlear implants and other neural prostheses may be enhanced using similar models that account for the way that neural responses are altered by previous stimulation.

  5. Mathematical modeling of CSF pulsatile hydrodynamics based on fluid-solid interaction.

    PubMed

    Masoumi, Nafiseh; Bastani, Dariush; Najarian, Siamak; Ganji, Fariba; Farmanzad, Farhad; Seddighi, Amir Saeed

    2010-06-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) is derived from cerebral blood pressure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulatory dynamics and can be affected in the course of many diseases. Computer analysis of the ICP time pattern plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of those diseases. This study proposes the application of Linninger et al.'s [IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 557-565, Apr. 2005] fluid-solid interaction model of CSF hydrodynamic in ventricular system based on our clinical data from a group of patients with brain parenchyma tumor. The clinical experiments include the arterial blood pressure (ABP), venous blood pressure, and ICP in the subarachnoid space (SAS). These data were used as inputs to the model that predicts the intracranial dynamic phenomena. In addition, the model has been modified by considering CSF pulsatile production rate as the major factor of CSF motion. The approximations of ventricle enlargement, CSF pressure distribution in the ventricular system and CSF velocity magnitude in the aqueduct and foramina were obtained in this study. The observation of reversal flow in the CSF flow pattern due to brain tissue compression is another finding in our investigation. Based on the experimental results, no existence of large transmural pressure differences were found in the brain system. The measured pressure drop in the ventricular system was less than 5 Pa. Moreover, the CSF flow pattern, ICP distribution, and velocity magnitude were in good agreement with the published models and CINE (phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging) experiments, respectively.

  6. A Pulsatile Bioreactor for Conditioning of Tissue-Engineered Cardiovascular Constructs under Endoscopic Visualization

    PubMed Central

    König, Fabian; Hollweck, Trixi; Pfeifer, Stefan; Reichart, Bruno; Wintermantel, Erich; Hagl, Christian; Akra, Bassil

    2012-01-01

    Heart valve disease (HVD) is a globally increasing problem and accounts for thousands of deaths yearly. Currently end-stage HVD can only be treated by total valve replacement, however with major drawbacks. To overcome the limitations of conventional substitutes, a new clinical approach based on cell colonization of artificially manufactured heart valves has been developed. Even though this attempt seems promising, a confluent and stable cell layer has not yet been achieved due to the high stresses present in this area of the human heart. This study describes a bioreactor with a new approach to cell conditioning of tissue engineered heart valves. The bioreactor provides a low pulsatile flow that grants the correct opening and closing of the valve without high shear stresses. The flow rate can be regulated allowing a steady and sensitive conditioning process. Furthermore, the correct functioning of the valve can be monitored by endoscope surveillance in real-time. The tubeless and modular design allows an accurate, simple and faultless assembly of the reactor in a laminar flow chamber. It can be concluded that the bioreactor provides a strong tool for dynamic pre-conditioning and monitoring of colonized heart valve prostheses physiologically exposed to shear stress. PMID:24955628

  7. A Pulsatile Bioreactor for Conditioning of Tissue-Engineered Cardiovascular Constructs under Endoscopic Visualization.

    PubMed

    König, Fabian; Hollweck, Trixi; Pfeifer, Stefan; Reichart, Bruno; Wintermantel, Erich; Hagl, Christian; Akra, Bassil

    2012-07-19

    Heart valve disease (HVD) is a globally increasing problem and accounts for thousands of deaths yearly. Currently end-stage HVD can only be treated by total valve replacement, however with major drawbacks. To overcome the limitations of conventional substitutes, a new clinical approach based on cell colonization of artificially manufactured heart valves has been developed. Even though this attempt seems promising, a confluent and stable cell layer has not yet been achieved due to the high stresses present in this area of the human heart. This study describes a bioreactor with a new approach to cell conditioning of tissue engineered heart valves. The bioreactor provides a low pulsatile flow that grants the correct opening and closing of the valve without high shear stresses. The flow rate can be regulated allowing a steady and sensitive conditioning process. Furthermore, the correct functioning of the valve can be monitored by endoscope surveillance in real-time. The tubeless and modular design allows an accurate, simple and faultless assembly of the reactor in a laminar flow chamber. It can be concluded that the bioreactor provides a strong tool for dynamic pre-conditioning and monitoring of colonized heart valve prostheses physiologically exposed to shear stress.

  8. A comparison of methods for analyzing time series of pulsatile hormone data.

    PubMed

    Carlson, N E; Horton, K W; Grunwald, G K

    2013-11-20

    Many endocrine systems are regulated by pulsatile hormones - hormones that are secreted intermittently in boluses rather than continuously over time. To study pulsatile secretion, blood is drawn every few minutes for an extended period. The result is a time series of hormone concentrations for each individual. The goal is to estimate pulsatile hormone secretion features such as frequency, location, duration, and amount of pulsatile and non-pulsatile secretion and compare these features between groups. Various statistical approaches to analyzing these data have been proposed, but validation has generally focused on one hormone. Thus, we lack a broad understanding of each method's performance. By using simulated data with features seen in reproductive and stress hormones, we investigated the performance of three recently developed statistical approaches for analyzing pulsatile hormone data and compared them to a frequently used deconvolution approach. We found that methods incorporating a changing baseline modeled both constant and changing baseline shapes well; however, the added model flexibility resulted in a slight increase in bias in other model parameters. When pulses were well defined and baseline constant, Bayesian approaches performed similar to the existing deconvolution method. The increase in computation time of Bayesian approaches offered improved estimation and more accurate quantification of estimation variation in situations where pulse locations were not clearly identifiable. Within the class of deconvolution models for fitting pulsatile hormone data, the Bayesian approach with a changing baseline offered adequate results over the widest range of data.

  9. Phantom-based ground-truth generation for cerebral vessel segmentation and pulsatile deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetelig, Daniel; Säring, Dennis; Illies, Till; Sedlacik, Jan; Kording, Fabian; Werner, René

    2016-03-01

    Hemodynamic and mechanical factors of the vascular system are assumed to play a major role in understanding, e.g., initiation, growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Among those factors, cardiac cycle-related pulsatile motion and deformation of cerebral vessels currently attract much interest. However, imaging of those effects requires high spatial and temporal resolution and remains challenging { and similarly does the analysis of the acquired images: Flow velocity changes and contrast media inflow cause vessel intensity variations in related temporally resolved computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography data over the cardiac cycle and impede application of intensity threshold-based segmentation and subsequent motion analysis. In this work, a flow phantom for generation of ground-truth images for evaluation of appropriate segmentation and motion analysis algorithms is developed. The acquired ground-truth data is used to illustrate the interplay between intensity fluctuations and (erroneous) motion quantification by standard threshold-based segmentation, and an adaptive threshold-based segmentation approach is proposed that alleviates respective issues. The results of the phantom study are further demonstrated to be transferable to patient data.

  10. Measurement of pulsatile motion with millisecond resolution by MRI.

    PubMed

    Souchon, Rémi; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Salomir, Rares; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Rouvière, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    We investigated a technique based on phase-contrast cine MRI combined with deconvolution of the phase shift waveforms to measure rapidly varying pulsatile motion waveforms. The technique does not require steady-state displacement during motion encoding. Simulations and experiments were performed in porcine liver samples in view of a specific application, namely the observation of transient displacements induced by acoustic radiation force. Simulations illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of the methods. For experimental validation, the waveforms were acquired with an ultrafast ultrasound scanner (Supersonic Imagine Aixplorer), and the rates of decay of the waveforms (relaxation time) were compared. With bipolar motion-encoding gradient of 8.4 ms, the method was able to measure displacement waveforms with a temporal resolution of 1 ms over a time course of 40 ms. Reasonable agreement was found between the rate of decay of the waveforms measured in ultrasound (2.8 ms) and in MRI (2.7-3.3 ms).

  11. Altered pulsatile gonadotropin signaling in nutritional deficiency in the male.

    PubMed

    Bergendahl, M; Veldhuis, J D

    1995-07-01

    Reproduction cannot occur without adequate nutrition. Diets that are nutritionally inadequate delay and disrupt the pubertal development of the reproductive processes of immature experimental animals and humans, and impair the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adults. Although there is a general understanding of the linkages between nutrition and reproduction, there is a lack of detailed knowledge of the exact mechanisms that couple these two systems. The major effects of malnutrition on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis reported in the literature are, for the most part, manifested as reduced gonadotropin secretion. Malnutrition results in decreased circulating gonadotropin concentrations. These changes in the reproductive system are associated with impaired gonadal function and subsequent secondary sex organ atrophy and lead, ultimately, to poor reproduction. Decreased hypothalamic release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been proposed as the most important etiologic factor for the fasting-induced suppression of pituitary-testicular function. In the human, hypogonadism and infertility develop in both sexes during chronic malnutrition. Most studies on the effects of malnutrition on the reproductive hormones have been performed in women, perhaps because malnutrition in women is promptly accompanied by amenorrhea, whereas in men hypogonadism develops gradually and becomes clinically evident only during more severe malnutrition. With the advent of sensitive assays for measuring reproductive hormones and of modern computerized methods for analyzing the pulsatile secretion of these hormones, however, the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis has been scrutinized and it has, indeed, been observed that this system is disturbed even during acute malnutrition. Here, we review the effects of malnutrition on reproductive function, especially on the pulsatile pattern of LH secretion, in humans and in experimental animals.

  12. Hippocampal Fast Glutamatergic Transmission Is Transiently Regulated by Corticosterone Pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Pasricha, Natasha; Smeets, Johanna A S; Kerkhofs, Amber; Mikasova, Lenka; Karst, Henk; Groc, Laurent; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that corticosteroid hormones (such as corticosterone) are released in ultradian pulses as a natural consequence of pituitary-adrenal interactions. All organs, including the brain, are thus exposed to pulsatile changes in corticosteroid hormone level, important to ensure full genomic responsiveness to stress-induced surges. However, corticosterone also changes neuronal excitability through rapid non-genomic pathways, particularly in the hippocampus. Potentially, background excitability of hippocampal neurons could thus be changed by pulsatile exposure to corticosteroids. It is currently unknown, though, how neuronal activity alters during a sequence of corticosterone pulses. To test this, hippocampal cells were exposed in vitro to four consecutive corticosterone pulses with a 60 min inter-pulse interval. During the pulses we examined four features of hippocampal signal transfer by the main excitatory transmitter glutamate-i.e., postsynaptic responses to spontaneous release of presynaptic vesicles, postsynaptic GluA2-AMPA receptor dynamics, basal (evoked) field responses, and synaptic plasticity, using a set of high resolution imaging and electrophysiological approaches. We show that the first pulse of corticosterone causes a transient increase in miniature EPSC frequency, AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity, while basal evoked field responses are unaffected. This pattern is not maintained during subsequent applications: responses become more variable, attenuate or even reverse over time, albeit with different kinetics for the various experimental endpoints. This may indicate that the beneficial effect of ultradian pulses on transcriptional regulation in the hippocampus is not consistently accompanied by short-term perturbations in background excitability. In general, this could be interpreted as a means to keep hippocampal neurons responsive to incoming signals related to environmental challenges. PMID:26741493

  13. The pulsatility volume index: an indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on fast magnetic resonance imaging of cardiac and respiratory pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Evans, Karleyton C; Bhat, Himanshu; Keil, Boris; Rosen, Bruce R; Boas, David A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-05-13

    The influence of cardiac activity on the viscoelastic properties of intracranial tissue is one of the mechanisms through which brain-heart interactions take place, and is implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Cerebrovascular disease risk is not fully explained by current risk factors, including arterial compliance. Cerebrovascular compliance is currently estimated indirectly through Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of blood velocity changes. In order to meet the need for novel cerebrovascular disease risk factors, we aimed to design and validate an MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on direct endogenous measures of blood volume changes. We implemented a fast non-gated two-dimensional MRI pulse sequence based on echo-planar imaging (EPI) with ultra-short repetition time (approx. 30-50 ms), which stepped through slices every approximately 20 s. We constrained the solution of the Bloch equations for spins moving faster than a critical speed to produce an endogenous contrast primarily dependent on spin volume changes, and an approximately sixfold signal gain compared with Ernst angle acquisitions achieved by the use of a 90° flip angle. Using cardiac and respiratory peaks detected on physiological recordings, average cardiac and respiratory MRI pulse waveforms in several brain compartments were obtained at 7 Tesla, and used to derive a compliance indicator, the pulsatility volume index (pVI). The pVI, evaluated in larger cerebral arteries, displayed significant variation within and across vessels. Multi-echo EPI showed the presence of significant pulsatility effects in both S0 and [Formula: see text] signals, compatible with blood volume changes. Lastly, the pVI dynamically varied during breath-holding compared with normal breathing, as expected for a compliance indicator. In summary, we characterized and performed an initial validation of a novel MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance, which might prove useful

  14. The pulsatility volume index: an indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on fast magnetic resonance imaging of cardiac and respiratory pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Marta; Toschi, Nicola; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Evans, Karleyton C; Bhat, Himanshu; Keil, Boris; Rosen, Bruce R; Boas, David A; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-05-13

    The influence of cardiac activity on the viscoelastic properties of intracranial tissue is one of the mechanisms through which brain-heart interactions take place, and is implicated in cerebrovascular disease. Cerebrovascular disease risk is not fully explained by current risk factors, including arterial compliance. Cerebrovascular compliance is currently estimated indirectly through Doppler sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of blood velocity changes. In order to meet the need for novel cerebrovascular disease risk factors, we aimed to design and validate an MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance based on direct endogenous measures of blood volume changes. We implemented a fast non-gated two-dimensional MRI pulse sequence based on echo-planar imaging (EPI) with ultra-short repetition time (approx. 30-50 ms), which stepped through slices every approximately 20 s. We constrained the solution of the Bloch equations for spins moving faster than a critical speed to produce an endogenous contrast primarily dependent on spin volume changes, and an approximately sixfold signal gain compared with Ernst angle acquisitions achieved by the use of a 90° flip angle. Using cardiac and respiratory peaks detected on physiological recordings, average cardiac and respiratory MRI pulse waveforms in several brain compartments were obtained at 7 Tesla, and used to derive a compliance indicator, the pulsatility volume index (pVI). The pVI, evaluated in larger cerebral arteries, displayed significant variation within and across vessels. Multi-echo EPI showed the presence of significant pulsatility effects in both S0 and [Formula: see text] signals, compatible with blood volume changes. Lastly, the pVI dynamically varied during breath-holding compared with normal breathing, as expected for a compliance indicator. In summary, we characterized and performed an initial validation of a novel MRI indicator of cerebrovascular compliance, which might prove useful

  15. Development of a polymer bileaflet valve to realize a low-cost pulsatile blood pump.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Umezu, Mitsuo; Iijima, Kazuo; Inoue, Akira; Imachi, Kou; Ye, Chun Xiu

    2003-01-01

    The final goal of this study is to realize a low-cost pulsatile blood pump especially for patients with acute heart failure or postoperative low cardiac output syndrome. In support of the pump, two types of polymer bileaflet valves with different configuration of the valve seats were developed. Influence of the leaflet thickness on the hydrodynamics of the prototype was preliminarily investigated among 70 microm, 100 microm, and 150 microm. As to the valves with the thinner leaflets, buckling of the leaflets was observed, which induced a large amount of regurgitation at valve closure. However, by thickening the leaflet to 150 microm, the mean flow of the prototype and the second model could be successfully comparable to the Medtronic-Hall valve. Moreover, accelerated fatigue tests showed that reinforcement of the valve seat with the additional spokes in the second model extended the durability by four times as compared with the prototype, equivalent to an in vivo duration of over one month. PMID:12534717

  16. Unsteady entrance flow development in a straight tube.

    PubMed

    He, X; Ku, D N

    1994-08-01

    The entrance conditions for pulsatile flow are important in the understanding blood flow out of the heart and in developing regions at branches. The pulsatile entrance flow was solved using a spectral element simulation of the full unsteady Navier-Stokes equations. A mean Reynolds number of 200 and a range of Womersley parameters from 1.8 to 12.5 was used for a sinusoidal inlet flow waveform 1 + sin (omega t). Variations in the entrance length were observed during the pulsatile cycle. The amplitude of the entrance length variation decreased with an increase in the Womersley parameter. The phase lag between the entrance length and the inlet flow waveform increased for Womersley parameter alpha up to 5.0 and decreased for alpha larger than 5.0. For low alpha, the maximum entrance length during pulsatile flow was approximately the same as the steady entrance length for the peak flow. For high varies; is directly proportional to, the pulsatile entrance length was more uniform during the cycle and tended to the entrance length for the mean flow. The wall shear rate reached its far downstream value after only about half of the entrance length and also exhibited a dependence on alpha. The results quantify the entrance conditions typically encountered in studies of the arterial system. PMID:7799639

  17. Pulsatile instability in rapid directional solidification - Strongly-nonlinear analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merchant, G. J.; Braun, R. J.; Brattkus, K.; Davis, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the rapid directional solidification of a dilute binary alloy, analysis reveals that, in addition to the cellular mode of Mullins and Sekerka (1964), there is an oscillatory instability. For the model analyzed by Merchant and Davis (1990), the preferred wavenumber is zero; the mode is one of pulsation. Two strongly nonlinear analyses are performed that describe this pulsatile mode. In the first case, nonequilibrium effects that alter solute rejection at the interface are taken asymptotically small. A nonlinear oscillator equation governs the position of the solid-liquid interface at leading order, and amplitude and phase evolution equations are derived for the uniformly pulsating interface. The analysis provides a uniform description of both subcritical and supercritical bifurcation and the transition between the two. In the second case, nonequilibrium effects that alter solute rejection are taken asymptotically large, and a different nonlinear oscillator equation governs the location of the interface to leading order. A similar analysis allows for the derivation of an amplitude evolution equation for the uniformly pulsating interface. In this case, the bifurcation is always supercritical. The results are used to make predictions about the characteristics of solute bands that would be frozen into the solid.

  18. Effects of hydrocortisone on pulsatile pituitary glycoprotein secretion.

    PubMed

    Samuels, M H; Luther, M; Henry, P; Ridgway, E C

    1994-01-01

    During states of stress, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function can be suppressed. One putative mediator of this stress response may be glucocorticoids, which have widespread effects on thyroid and gonadal function. To characterize dynamic pituitary glycoprotein secretion during glucocorticoid administration, 24-h TSH, LH, FSH, and alpha-subunit pulses were measured in 10 healthy young subjects on 3 occasions: 1) at baseline, 2) during infusions of 100 mg hydrocortisone (HC) over 24 h, and 3) during infusions of 300 mg HC over 24 h. These HC infusions led to serum cortisol levels similar to the endogenous cortisol levels seen in moderate and severe stress. Both HC infusions had profound rapid effects on TSH levels, decreasing TSH pulse amplitude by 60% and abolishing the nocturnal TSH surge. However, TSH pulse frequency was unaltered. In contrast, HC infusions did not change mean or pulsatile LH, FSH, or alpha-subunit secretion. These results suggest that stress levels of cortisol acutely suppress TSH secretion at the pituitary level, with little effect on the TSH pulse generator. On the other hand, the effects of stress and/or hypercortisolism on the gonadal axis may require higher cortisol levels, more prolonged exposure, or other mediators of the stress response.

  19. Experiments On Flow In A Coronary Artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug-Yon; Liem, Timothy K.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on simulated flow of blood in atherosclerotic human coronary artery. Experiments performed on polyurethane cast made from S-shaped coronary artery of cadaver. Sucrose solution with viscosity of blood pumped through cast at physiologically realistic rates, and flow made pulsatile by mechanism alternately compressing and releasing elastic tube just upstream of cast.

  20. Vortices in by-pass graft flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, S. I.; Bosioc, A.; Totorean, A.; Stanciu, R.; Bernad, E. S.

    2013-10-01

    Curved channel flows and branching of fluid flow are used in many industrial applications to provide compactness and high heat and mass-transfer rates so as to enhance mixing in laminar flow regimes. Branchings of fluid flow are extremely common throughout the human body and involve various complex geometrical configurations and flow conditions associated with different ranges of Reynolds numbers, pulsatility and wall flexibility. Branchings greatly affect the fluid dynamics and are common sites of disease in human cardiac circulation.

  1. Non-invasive estimation of static and pulsatile intracranial pressure from transcranial acoustic signals.

    PubMed

    Levinsky, Alexandra; Papyan, Surik; Weinberg, Guy; Stadheim, Trond; Eide, Per Kristian

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether a method for estimation of non-invasive ICP (nICP) from transcranial acoustic (TCA) signals mixed with head-generated sounds estimate the static and pulsatile invasive ICP (iICP). For that purpose, simultaneous iICP and mixed TCA signals were obtained from patients undergoing continuous iICP monitoring as part of clinical management. The ear probe placed in the right outer ear channel sent a TCA signal with fixed frequency (621 Hz) that was picked up by the left ear probe along with acoustic signals generated by the intracranial compartment. Based on a mathematical model of the association between mixed TCA and iICP, the static and pulsatile nICP values were determined. Total 39 patients were included in the study; the total number of observations for prediction of static and pulsatile iICP were 5789 and 6791, respectively. The results demonstrated a good agreement between iICP/nICP observations, with mean difference of 0.39 mmHg and 0.53 mmHg for static and pulsatile ICP, respectively. In summary, in this cohort of patients, mixed TCA signals estimated the static and pulsatile iICP with rather good accuracy. Further studies are required to validate whether mixed TCA signals may become useful for measurement of nICP. PMID:26997563

  2. A new kind of auxiliary heart in insects: functional morphology and neuronal control of the accessory pulsatile organs of the cricket ovipositor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In insects, the pumping of the dorsal heart causes circulation of hemolymph throughout the central body cavity, but not within the interior of long body appendages. Hemolymph exchange in these dead-end structures is accomplished by special flow-guiding structures and/or autonomous pulsatile organs (“auxiliary hearts”). In this paper accessory pulsatile organs for an insect ovipositor are described for the first time. We studied these organs in females of the cricket Acheta domesticus by analyzing their functional morphology, neuroanatomy and physiological control. Results The lumen of the four long ovipositor valves is subdivided by longitudinal septa of connective tissue into efferent and afferent hemolymph sinuses which are confluent distally. The countercurrent flow in these sinuses is effected by pulsatile organs which are located at the bases of the ovipositor valves. Each of the four organs consists of a pumping chamber which is compressed by rhythmically contracting muscles. The morphology of the paired organs is laterally mirrored, and there are differences in some details between the dorsal and ventral organs. The compression of the pumping chambers of each valve pair occurs with a left-right alternating rhythm with a frequency of 0.2 to 0.5 Hz and is synchronized between the dorsal and ventral organs. The more anteriorly located genital chamber shows rhythmical lateral movements simultaneous to those of the ovipositor pulsatile organs and probably supports the hemolymph exchange in the abdominal apex region. The left-right alternating rhythm is produced by a central pattern generator located in the terminal ganglion. It requires no sensory feedback for its output since it persists in the completely isolated ganglion. Rhythm-modulating and rhythm-resetting interneurons are identified in the terminal ganglion. Conclusion The circulatory organs of the cricket ovipositor have a unique functional morphology. The pumping apparatus at the base

  3. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072) between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  4. Formulation and process optimization of multiparticulate pulsatile system delivered by osmotic pressure-activated rupturable membrane.

    PubMed

    Hung, Sheng-Feng; Hsieh, Chien-Ming; Chen, Ying-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Ho, Hsiu-O; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a multiparticulate pulsatile drug delivery system activated by a rupturable controlled-release membrane (Eudragit(®) RS) via osmotic pressure (with NaCl as the osmogent) was developed and characterized for omeprazole, omeprazole sodium, and propranolol HCl which have different water solubilities. Multiparticulates in pellet form for incorporation with or without the osmogent were manufactured by three methods and then used to coat a polymeric membrane. Results demonstrated that drug/osmogent-containing pellets manufactured by the extrusion/spheronization method with incorporation of the osmogent were optimal. The lag time (tL) to initiate pulsatile release is regulated by tL=l(2)/(6×D), which is dependent on the coating levels (l(2)) and plasticizer content (D). The pulsatile release pattern was found to be dependent on the osmotic pressure (osmogent), drug solubility, and mechanical properties of the polymeric membrane (elasticity and toughness). Omeprazole with lower water solubility could not generate sufficient osmotic pressure to create a crack in the membrane to activate pulsatile release, whereas the two other model drugs with higher solubilities could. But adsorption of omeprazole sodium on Eudragit(®) RS via charge-charge interactions led the its incomplete release. Finally, with 4% osmogent of NaCl added, a lag time in a range from 0 to 12h proportionally regulated by varying both the membrane thickness and plasticizer level initiated the complete pulsatile release of propranolol HCl. In conclusion, a multiparticulate pulsatile drug delivery system activated by a rupturable controlled-release membrane via osmotic pressure was successfully developed, and clinical applications of chronotherapy with drugs like propranolol HCl are expected.

  5. Simulation of a pulsatile total artificial heart: Development of a partitioned Fluid Structure Interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Simon J.; Kaufmann, Tim A. S.; Büsen, Martin R.; Laumen, Marco; Linde, Torsten; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Due to a shortage in donor organs artificial hearts can be a bridge to transplantation or even serve as a destination therapy for patients with terminal heart insufficiency. A pusher plate driven pulsatile membrane pump, the Total Artificial Heart (TAH) ReinHeart, is currently under development at the Institute of Applied Medical Engineering of RWTH Aachen University.This paper presents the methodology of a fully coupled three-dimensional time-dependent Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation of the TAH using a commercial partitioned block-Gauss-Seidel coupling package. Partitioned coupling of the incompressible fluid with the slender flexible membrane as well as a high fluid/structure density ratio of about unity led inherently to a deterioration of the stability (‘artificial added mass instability’). The objective was to conduct a stable simulation with high accuracy of the pumping process. In order to achieve stability, a combined resistance and pressure outlet boundary condition as well as the interface artificial compressibility method was applied. An analysis of the contact algorithm and turbulence condition is presented. Independence tests are performed for the structural and the fluid mesh, the time step size and the number of pulse cycles. Because of the large deformation of the fluid domain, a variable mesh stiffness depending on certain mesh properties was specified for the fluid elements. Adaptive remeshing was avoided. Different approaches for the mesh stiffness function are compared with respect to convergence, preservation of mesh topology and mesh quality. The resulting mesh aspect ratios, mesh expansion factors and mesh orthogonalities are evaluated in detail. The membrane motion and flow distribution of the coupled simulations are compared with a top-view recording and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, respectively, of the actual pump.

  6. Behavioral treatment of pulsatile tinnitus and headache following traumatic head injury. Objective polygraphic assessment of change.

    PubMed

    Hegel, M T; Martin, J B

    1998-10-01

    Pulsatile tinnitus is a disorder that can be extremely disabling. Nonetheless, it has not been well-researched in the fields of psychology or behavioral therapy. This article describes the evaluation and behavioral treatment of a gentleman with pulsatile tinnitus. The evaluation included polygraphic assessment of vasomotor and electromyographic function both before and after treatment. The results show that the combination of lifestyle modifications and specific behavioral interventions were successful in modifying not only self-report indices of functioning, but also the underlying physiology related to the disorder. The potential role of the various treatment components and the value of including polygraphic assessment for informing treatment and evaluating outcome are discussed.

  7. [The role of pulsatile LHRH therapy in women: the treatment of delayed puberty and of hypothalamic amenorrhea].

    PubMed

    Giusti, M; Cavagnaro, P; Traverso, L; Torre, R

    1990-11-01

    The importance of gonadotropin pulsatility for normal hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function is well known. The most important aim of exogenous LHRH administration, given in females with delayed puberty or hypothalamic amenorrhea is to physiologically restore LH pulsatility to a more physiologic way as possible. In fact, a variable degree of LHRH endogenous defect is present in these conditions. Moreover, exogenous LHRH pulsatile administration is able to restore normal pubertal development until menarche appears and normal ovulatory cycles occur and pregnancy is induced. We reported our experience and review the literature regarding the importance and use of LHRH pulsatile therapy in delayed puberty and hypothalamic amenorrhea. We have also evaluated the data for various administration routes, the choice of patients, response to therapy and the possible diagnostic use of pulsatile LHRH with regard to the differential diagnosis of delayed puberty.

  8. Effect of blood flow parameters on flow patterns at arterial bifurcations--studies in models.

    PubMed

    Liepsch, D W

    1990-01-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are found primarily at arterial bends and bifurcations. Flow disturbances at these anatomic sites play a major role in atherogenesis. How hemodynamic factors such as vessel geometry, the pulsatile nature of blood flow, vessel wall elasticity and the non-Newtonian flow behavior of blood influence the flow field at these sites must be clarified. We have performed fundamental studies using a birefringent solution in a simplified rigid 90 degree T-bifurcation and pulsatile flow. The velocity distribution was measured with a laser Doppler anemometer. Flow in an elastic abdominal aorta model has been visualized using magnetic resonance imaging. In both flow studies, zones with negative velocity were found. These model measurements demonstrate that no flow parameter can be neglected. Further detailed studies are necessary to examine the interaction between fluid dynamic and cellular surface properties. PMID:2404201

  9. Pulsatile protein release from monodisperse liquid-core microcapsules of controllable shell thickness

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yujie; Pack, Daniel W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pulsatile delivery of proteins, in which release occurs over a short time after a period of little or no release, is desirable for many applications. This paper investigates the effect of biodegradable polymer shell thickness on pulsatile protein release from biodegradable polymer microcapsules. Methods Using precision particle fabrication (PPF) technology, monodisperse microcapsules were fabricated encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a liquid core surrounded by a drug-free poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) shell of uniform, controlled thickness from 14 to 19 μm. Results When using high molecular weight PLG (Mw 88 kDa), microparticles exhibited the desired core-shell structure with high BSA loading and encapsulation efficiency (55-65%). These particles exhibited very slow release of BSA for several weeks followed by rapid release of 80-90% of the encapsulated BSA within seven days. Importantly, with increasing shell thickness the starting time of the pulsatile release could be controlled from 25 to 35 days. Conclusions Biodegradable polymer microcapsules with precisely controlled shell thickness provide pulsatile release with enhanced control of release profiles. PMID:24831313

  10. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone presenting with pulsatile tinnitus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone is an unusual but distinct disease entity. The most common presenting symptoms are otalgia, otorrhea, hearing loss, facial palsy, and vertigo. We describe here what we believe to be the first reported case of a patient presenting with persistent pulsatile tinnitus. The clinical features, radiological and histopathologic findings, and treatment outcomes of the patient are presented. Case presentation A 59-year-old woman of Chinese Han origin presented with complaints of left-sided pulsatile tinnitus and progressive hearing loss for several years. Clinical evaluations revealed a reddish mass behind the intact tympanic membrane, and a moderately severe conductive hearing loss in the left ear. The computed tomographic imaging of the temporal bone demonstrated a slightly ill-defined left middle ear soft tissue mass involving the posterior portion of the mesotympanum and epitympanum, and the mastoid antrum. The patient underwent surgical excision of the lesion which subsequently resolved her symptoms. Postoperative pathology was consistent with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. Conclusions An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the temporal bone can present clinically with pulsatile tinnitus and masquerade as venous hum or vascular tumors of the middle ear; therefore, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of pulsatile tinnitus. PMID:23787119

  11. Comparison of the standard roller pump and a pulsatile centrifugal pump for extracorporeal circulation during routine coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Driessen, J J; Fransen, G; Rondelez, L; Schelstraete, E; Gevaert, L

    1991-01-01

    The present prospective study compared the standard nonpulsatile twin roller pump with the Sarns centrifugal pump, in the pulsatile mode, as arterial pumps for extracorporeal circulation during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study was conducted in two consecutive groups of 25 patients receiving a standard anaesthetic and surgical protocol. The investigated parameters included haemodynamic profiles, oxygen exchange, blood gas and acid-base homeostasis, haematology, coagulation and complement consumption. With comparable settings for pump flow, gas flow and delivered oxygen concentrations, there was no difference between the groups in the main haemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, a tenfold lower dose of sodium nitroprusside was required to keep systemic vascular resistance within physiologic limits during CPB in the centrifugal group (C group) compared with the roller group (R group). During rewarming oxygen extraction was higher in the C group than in the R group. During the first eight hours after CPB no differences in haemodynamics, oxygenation parameters and pulmonary shunt between the groups were observed. During, as well as after, CPB there was no significant difference in blood gas and acid-base homeostasis between either group. Average postoperative blood loss via chest tubes, total transfusions of blood products, haemoglobin and coagulation did not differ between the two groups. However, the white blood cell count, corrected for changes in haematocrit, decreased during the early phase of CPB in the R group, but not in the C group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Non-pulsatile subjective tinnitus without hearing loss may be caused by undetectable sounds originating from venous system of the brain.

    PubMed

    Bektas, Devrim; Caylan, Refik

    2008-08-01

    Tinnitus is a common otologic symptom, which can interfere with the daily activities of life. Subjective tinnitus is perception of sound only heard by the patient. The most common type of tinnitus is non-pulsatile subjective tinnitus (NST), which is believed to originate from auditory pathway, mostly from central nervous system. This hypothesis proposes that an important percentage of NST cases are actually misdiagnosed venous type tinnitus cases. Recent studies have demonstrated that dural-jugular system is dominant only in the horizontal body position. Jugular flow is at maximum during this position possibly making any noise generated within the dural-jugular system louder. As body assumes more vertical positions it gradually leaves its function to the extrajugular venous system of the brain. When there is an objective and/or a pulsating sound it is easier to suspect a vascular etiology and diagnose it clinically or radiologically. However, if a vascular pathology causes a non-pulsatile complaint that can not be heard by the examiner or can not be detected clinically or radiologically, it is bound to be misdiagnosed as central tinnitus. Most NST cases experience their symptoms especially at night. Night time usually allows the combination of silent ambience and horizontal body position to take place. We believe that in some NST cases, especially those without hearing loss (HL), the main cause of tinnitus is venous in origin.

  13. Biological factors in plasma from diabetes mellitus patients enhance hyperglycaemia and pulsatile shear stress-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, X F; Yu, J Q; Dalan, R; Liu, A Q; Luo, K Q

    2014-05-01

    People suffering from Diabetes Mellitus (DM) are prone to an array of vascular complications leading to end organ damage. The hallmark of these vascular complications is endothelium dysfunction, which is caused by endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis. Although the endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction induced by hyperglycaemia and fluid shear stress has been studied, the effects of biological factors in the blood of DM patients on EC integrity have not been reported in the in vitro models that mimic the physiological pulsatile nature of the vascular system. This study reports the development of a hemodynamic lab-on-a-chip system to investigate this issue. The pulsatile flow was applied to a monolayer of endothelial cells expressing a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor that changes colour from green to blue in response to caspase-3 activation during apoptosis. Plasma samples from healthy volunteers and DM patients were compared to identify biological factors that are critical to endothelial disruption. Three types of microchannels were designed to simulate the blood vessels under healthy and partially blocked pathological conditions. The results showed that EC apoptosis rates increased with increasing glucose concentration and levels of shear stress. The rates of apoptosis further increased by a factor of 1.4-2.3 for hyperglycaemic plasma under all dynamic conditions. Under static conditions, little difference was detected in the rate of EC apoptosis between experiments using plasma from DM patients and glucose medium, suggesting that the effects of hyperglycaemia and biological factors on the induction of EC apoptosis are all shear flow-dependent. A proteomics study was then conducted to identify biological factors, demonstrating that the levels of eight proteins, including haptoglobin and clusterin, were significantly down-regulated, while six proteins, including apolipoprotein C-III, were significantly up-regulated in the plasma of DM patients

  14. Reference Ranges for Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index during the Menstrual Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Guedes-Martins, Luís; Gaio, Rita; Saraiva, Joaquim; Cerdeira, Sofia; Matos, Liliana; Silva, Elisabete; Macedo, Filipe; Almeida, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyclic endometrial neoangiogenesis contributes to changes in local vascular patterns and is amenable to non-invasive assessment with Doppler sonography. We hypothesize that the uterine artery (UtA) impedance, measured by its pulsatility index (PI), exhibits a regular pattern during the normal menstrual cycle. Therefore, the main study objective was to derive normative new day-cycle-based reference ranges for the UtA-PI during the entire cycle from days 1 to 34 according to the isolated time effect and potential confounders such as age and parity. Methods From January 2009 to December 2012, a cross-sectional study of 1,821 healthy women undergoing routine gynaecological ultrasound was performed. The Doppler flow of the right and left UtA-PI was studied transvaginally by colour and pulsed Doppler imaging. The mean right and left values and the presence or absence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch were recorded. Reference intervals for the PI according to the cycle day were generated by classical linear regression. Results The majority of patients (97.5%) presented unilateral or bilateral UtA notches. The crude 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves of the UtA-PI at 1–34 days of the normal menstrual cycle were derived. In all curves, a progressive significant decrease occurred during the first 13 days, followed by an increase and recovery in the UtA-PI. The adjusted 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves for the effects of age and parity were also obtained. These two conditions generated an approximately identical UtA-PI pattern during the cycle, except with small but significant reductions at the temporal extremes. Conclusions The median, 5th, and the 95th percentiles of the UtA-PI decrease during the first third of the menstrual cycle and recover to their initial values during the last two thirds of the cycle. The rates of decrease and recovery depend significantly on age and parity. PMID:25742286

  15. Pregnancy following combined growth hormone--pulsatile GnRH treatment in a patient with hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    Volpe, A; Coukos, G; Artini, P G; Silferi, M; Petraglia, F; Boghen, M; D'Ambrogio, G D; Genazzani, A R

    1990-04-01

    A patient with hypothalamic amenorrhoea and a poor response in terms of pituitary growth hormone (GH) to acute administration of growth hormone-releasing factor has been treated with pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) combined with GH to induce ovulation. GH was administered daily until signs of ovulation were detected. The luteal phase was supported by pulsatile GnRH only. Combined treatment gave an improved follicular recruitment, higher plasma levels of 17 beta-oestradiol and an earlier ovulation, compared to the previous cycle with pulsatile GnRH only. The result was a twin pregnancy which ended with the birth of two healthy male babies. The role of GH in potentiating the ovarian response to gonadotrophins, as well as the GH secretion abnormalities associated with dysfunctions of the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal axis, might provide a rationale for combined GH and pulsatile GnRH treatment in such patients.

  16. Reproducibility of aortic pulsatility measurements from ECG-gated abdominal CTA in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, Joel G.; Wentz, Robert J.; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri J.; Siddiki, Hassan; Nielson, Theresa

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: ECG-gated abdominal CT angiography with reconstruction of multiple, temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets has been proposed for measuring aortic pulsatility. The purpose of this work is to develop algorithms to segment the aorta from surrounding structures from CTA datasets across cardiac phases, calculate registered centerlines and measurements of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with AAA, and to assess the reproducibility of these measurements. Methods: ECG-gated CTA was performed with a temporal resolution of 165 ms, reconstructed to 1 mm slices ranging at 14 cardiac phase points. Data sets were obtained from 17 patients on which two such scans were performed 6 to 12 months apart. Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of centerlines between phases was performed, followed by calculation of cross-sectional areas and regional and local pulsatility. Results: Pulsatility calculations for the supraceliac region were very reproducible between earlier and later scans of the same patient, with average differences less than 1% for pulsatility values ranging from 2% to 13%. Local radial pulsatilities were also reproducible to within ~1%. Aneurysm volume changes between scans can also be quantified. Conclusion: Automated segmentation, centerline generation, and registration of temporally resolved CTA datasets permit measurements of regional changes in cross-sectional area over the course of the cardiac cycle (i.e., regional aortic pulsatility). These measurements are reproducible between scans 6-12 months apart, with differences in aortic areas reflecting both aneurysm remodeling and changes in blood pressure. Regional pulsatilities ranged from 2 to 13% but were reproducible at the 1% level.

  17. Experimental characterization of transitional unsteady flow inside graft-to-vein junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Nurullah

    1999-12-01

    Turbulent flow measurements were conducted inside an upscaled end-to-side model of a human arteriovenous graft using laser Doppler anemometry under steady and pulsatile flow conditions. This research is clinically relevant because turbulence and local fluid dynamic factors such as wall shear stress have been implicated as localization factors for intimal hyperplasia, the main cause of arteriovenous graft failure. This research is the first experimental study measuring the turbulence level and Reynolds stresses quantitatively inside an in vitro model representing an arteriovenous graft under pulsatile flow conditions. The turbulence intensity, Reynolds stresses, and mean velocities have been measured for steady and pulsatile flow. Reynolds numbers for steady flow were 1060, 1820, 2530 and 2720. The peak, mean and minimum Reynolds numbers were 2470, 1762 and 1198 for the pulsatile flow, respectively. The flow division was 90% entering from the graft inlet and 10% entering from the distal vein segment for steady flow measurements. It was 85% entering from the graft inlet and 15% entering from the distal vein segment for pulsatile flow measurements. Measurements were made thirteen axial locations in the plane of the bifurcation at the venous anastomosis. At high Reynolds numbers (>2000), the velocity profiles were blunt at the inlet of the arteriovenous graft. High turbulent fluctuations and Reynolds stresses were found in the proximal vein segment opposite to the vein side of the anastomosis for steady and pulsatile flows. Steady flow fluctuation values were 20-30% larger than pulsatile flow values for the same instantaneous Reynolds number. The highest value of the Reynolds stress was found to be 2080 and 1400 dynes/cm2 steady and pulsatile flow, respectively. A separation region was observed at the toe side of the arteriovenous graft. Strong secondary flows were found at the inlet to and inside the proximal vein segment under steady flow conditions. The results of

  18. Nanoscaffold matrices for size-controlled, pulsatile transdermal testosterone delivery: nanosize effects on the time dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Ritu; Tondwal, Shailesh; Venkatesh, K. S.; Misra, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Pulsatile transdermal testosterone (T) has applications in hormone supplementation and male contraception. Pulsatile T delivery was achieved by assembling crystalline and nanoparticulate T in nucleation-inhibiting polymer matrices of controlled porosity. Different interference patterns observed from various polymeric films containing T were due to the various particle sizes of T present in the polymer matrices. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the size and shape of T crystals. Skin-adherent films containing T nanoparticles of any size between 10-500 nm could be prepared using pharmaceutically acceptable vinylic polymers. Drug release and skin permeation profiles were studied. The dissolution-diffusion behavior of nanoparticles differed from crystalline and molecular states. Nanosize may thus be used to engineer chronopharmacologically relevant drug delivery.

  19. Differences in the Pulsatile Component of the Skin Hemodynamic Response to Verbal Fluency Tasks in the Forehead and the Fingertip

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Kawagoe, Reiko

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have claimed that hemodynamic signals measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the forehead exhibit different patterns during a verbal fluency task (VFT) in various psychiatric disorders, whereas many studies have noted that NIRS signals can reflect task-related changes in skin blood flow. If such a task-related skin hemodynamic response is also observed in the fingertip, a simpler biomarker may be developed. Furthermore, determining the difference in the response pattern may provide physiological insights into the condition. We found that the magnitude of the pulsatile component in skin hemodynamic signals increased on the forehead (p < 0.001 for N = 50, p = 0.073 for N = 8) but decreased on the fingertip (p < 0.001, N = 8) during the VFT, whereas the rate in both areas increased (p < 0.02, N = 8). We also did not find a repetition effect in both the rate and the magnitude on the fingertip, whereas the effect was present in the magnitude (p < 0.02, N = 8) but not in the rate on the forehead. These results suggest that the skin vasomotor system in the forehead could have a different vessel mechanism to psychological tasks compared to the fingertip. PMID:26905432

  20. Successful Endovascular Treatment of Pulsatile Tinnitus Caused by a Sigmoid Sinus Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Gard, A.P.; Klopper, H.B.; Thorell, W.E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We describe the case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with a sigmoid sinus aneurysm. These rare entities have only recently been described in the literature and the ideal treatment approach has not been elucidated. This report represents additional evidence in a growing body of literature that suggests that endovascular therapy is a safe and effective therapeutic alternative to surgical reconstruction of the sigmoid sinus in selected cases of intractable pulsatile tinnitus. PMID:20465881

  1. Indirect assessment of pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone release in agonadal prepubertal rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Suter, K J; Pohl, C R; Plant, T M

    1999-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to characterize the open-loop frequency of pulsatile GnRH release in the female rhesus monkey at an age (15-20 months) when the prepubertal restraint on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is maximally imposed. Additionally, evidence for pulsatile GnRH release in agonadal males of comparable age was also sought. Episodic LH secretion from the pituitary was used as an indirect index of GnRH discharges. In order to maximize the sensitivity of this in situ bioassay, the responsiveness of the pituitary gonadotrophs was usually first heightened by an i.v. intermittent infusion of the synthetic peptide. Monkeys (five females, three males) were castrated between 9 and 14 months of age, implanted with indwelling venous catheters, fitted with nylon jackets and housed in specialized cages that permitted remote access to the venous circulation with minimal restraint and without interruption of the light-darkness cycle. In females, LH secretion was generally assessed at 20-day intervals during alternate nighttime (1900-0200 h) and daytime (0700-1400 h) windows. In males, LH was assessed less frequently and only at night. The mean frequency of pulsatile LH release in agonadal prepubertal females was 4 pulses/7 h during the night and 2 pulses/7 h during the day. These findings indicate that, prior to puberty in the female monkey, the GnRH pulse generator operates at a relatively slow frequency and is subjected to diurnal modulation. In males, evidence for robust pulsatile GnRH release was not observed. The striking difference in activity of the GnRH pulse generator in agonadal prepubertal male and female monkeys reinforces the view that the ontogeny of the hypothalamic drive to the pituitary-gonadal axis in higher primates, including man, is sexually differentiated.

  2. Neoglycoenzyme-Gated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Toward the Design of Nanodevices for Pulsatile Programmed Sequential Delivery.

    PubMed

    Díez, Paula; Sánchez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Cristina; Gamella, María; Martínez-Ruíz, Paloma; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Pingarrón, José M; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-03-01

    We report herein the design of a stimulus-programmed pulsatile delivery system for sequential cargo release based on the use of a lactose-modified esterase as a capping agent in phenylboronic acid functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The dual-release mechanism was based on the distinct stability of the cyclic boronic acid esters formed with lactose residues and the long naturally occurring glycosylation chains in the modified neoglycoenzyme. Cargo delivery in succession was achieved using glucose and ethyl butyrate as triggers.

  3. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry.

    PubMed

    Nam, Kweon-Ho; Kim, Juho; Ra, Gicheol; Lee, Chong Hyun; Paeng, Dong-Guk

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with the spectral

  4. Initial results with simultaneous analog and pulsatile stimulation of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    von Wallenberg, E L; Hochmair, E S; Hochmair-Desoyer, I J

    1990-01-01

    An improved method has been developed for the coding of speech information into adequate signals for the stimulation of the auditory nerve. It combines the periodicity principle, which has been applied in single-channel analog stimulation in the Austrian cochlear prosthesis, with the place principle by simultaneous analog stimulation on one channel and pulsatile stimulation on other channels. The second formant frequency determines the place of stimulation for the pulsatile signals. Simultaneous stimulation of several channels can cause the currents emerging from different electrodes to interact because the fluid impedance in the cochlea is small. Therefore, an important aspect of the multichannel strategy is to maintain the temporal pattern transmitted via the analog channel by adequate repetition rates and phase relationships of the pulsatile signals. The signals were processed with finite impulse response digital filters. Vowel identification tests were performed with 6 patients implanted with a 4-channel intracochlear electrode. The test material was spoken by male and female speakers. With proper timing of the pulses the improvement over the single-channel stimulation was significant at the 1% level and this difference was due to a significant increase in second formant recognition.

  5. In vitro flow dynamics of four prosthetic aortic valves: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hanle, D D; Harrison, E C; Yoganathan, A P; Allen, D T; Corcoran, W H

    1989-01-01

    The velocity fields downstream of four prosthetic heart valves were mapped in vitro over the entire cross-section of a model aortic root using laser Doppler anemometry. THe Björk-Shiley 60 degrees convexo-concave tilting disc valve, the Smeloff-Cutter caged ball valve, the St. Jude Medical bileaflet valve, and the Ionescu-Shiley standard bioprosthesis were examined under both steady and pulsatile flows. Velocity profiles under steady flow conditions were a good approximation for pulsatile profiles only during midsystole. The pulsatile flow characteristics of the four valves showed variation in large scale flow structures. Comparison of the valves according to pressure drop, shear stress and maximum velocities are also provided. PMID:2808443

  6. In-vivo imaging of blood flow dynamics using color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2000-04-01

    Noninvasive quantitation of blood flow in the retinal micro circulation may elucidate the progression and treatment of ocular disorders including diabetic retinopathy, age-related degeneration, and glaucoma. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography was recently introduced as a technique allowing simultaneous micron-scale resolution cross-sectional imaging of tissue micro structure and blood flow in the human retina. Here, time-resolved imaging of dynamics of blood flow profiles was performed to measure cardiac pulsatility within retinal vessels. Retinal pulsatility has been shown to decrease throughout the progression of diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Frequency-Dependent Neural Activity in Patients with Unilateral Vascular Pulsatile Tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Yan, Fei; Dong, Cheng; Zhang, Ling; Li, Rui; Wang, Peng; Li, Ting; Gong, Shusheng; Wang, Zhenchang

    2016-01-01

    Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have shown that neurological changes are important findings in vascular pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients. Here, we utilized rs-fMRI to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in forty patients with unilateral PT and forty age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects. Two different frequency bands (slow-4, 0.027-0.073 Hz, and slow-5, 0.010-0.027 Hz, which are more sensitive to subcortical and cortical neurological signal changes, resp.) were analyzed to examine the intrinsic brain activity in detail. Compared to controls, PT patients had increased ALFF values mainly in the PCu, bilateral IPL (inferior parietal lobule), left IFG (inferior frontal gyrus), and right IFG/anterior insula and decreased ALFF values in the multiple occipital areas including bilateral middle-inferior occipital lobe. For the differences of the two frequency bands, widespread ALFF differences were observed. The ALFF abnormalities in aMPFC/ACC, PCu, right IPL, and some regions of occipital and parietal cortices were greater in the slow-5 band compared to the slow-4 band. Additionally, the THI score of PT patients was positively correlated with changes in slow-5 and slow-4 band in PCu. Pulsatile tinnitus is a disease affecting the neurological activities of multiple brain regions. Slow-5 band is more sensitive in detecting the alternations. Our results also indicated the importance of pathophysiological investigations in patients with pulsatile tinnitus in the future. PMID:27413554

  8. Frequency-Dependent Neural Activity in Patients with Unilateral Vascular Pulsatile Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Han; Zhao, Pengfei; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Guopeng; Zeng, Rong; Yan, Fei; Dong, Cheng; Zhang, Ling; Li, Rui; Wang, Peng; Li, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Previous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) studies have shown that neurological changes are important findings in vascular pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients. Here, we utilized rs-fMRI to measure the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in forty patients with unilateral PT and forty age-, gender-, and education-matched normal control subjects. Two different frequency bands (slow-4, 0.027–0.073 Hz, and slow-5, 0.010–0.027 Hz, which are more sensitive to subcortical and cortical neurological signal changes, resp.) were analyzed to examine the intrinsic brain activity in detail. Compared to controls, PT patients had increased ALFF values mainly in the PCu, bilateral IPL (inferior parietal lobule), left IFG (inferior frontal gyrus), and right IFG/anterior insula and decreased ALFF values in the multiple occipital areas including bilateral middle-inferior occipital lobe. For the differences of the two frequency bands, widespread ALFF differences were observed. The ALFF abnormalities in aMPFC/ACC, PCu, right IPL, and some regions of occipital and parietal cortices were greater in the slow-5 band compared to the slow-4 band. Additionally, the THI score of PT patients was positively correlated with changes in slow-5 and slow-4 band in PCu. Pulsatile tinnitus is a disease affecting the neurological activities of multiple brain regions. Slow-5 band is more sensitive in detecting the alternations. Our results also indicated the importance of pathophysiological investigations in patients with pulsatile tinnitus in the future. PMID:27413554

  9. Pulsatile secretion of LH in relation to the resumption of ovarian activity post partum.

    PubMed

    Glasier, A; McNeilly, A S; Howie, P W

    1984-04-01

    Changes in the pulsatile pattern of LH secretion in relation to the resumption of ovarian activity post partum have been studied in breast feeding mothers. Basal concentrations of LH were significantly lower than normal both when ovarian activity was completely suppressed and when there was evidence of some follicular development prior to the resumption of menstruation. Once menstruation resumed basal concentrations of LH were unchanged whether ovulation occurred or not. No difference in the frequency or amplitude of pulses in LH secretion could be found at any stage post partum in either breast or bottle feeding women. FSH levels remained constant throughout the post partum period while mean concentrations of prolactin fell as ovarian activity returned to normal. However, during the period of complete suppression of ovarian activity in breast feeding women, two patterns of pulsatile secretion of LH were observed. In 76% of observation periods, basal levels of LH were lower than normal and were characterized by low frequency and low amplitude pulses of LH. In contrast, in the remaining 24% of observation periods, basal levels and pulse amplitude and frequency of LH were similar to those in the follicular phase of normal menstrual cycles in these women. Individual women showed either or both of these patterns of secretion during the period of ovarian suppression post partum. The data suggests that the failure to maintain ovarian follicular development post partum in breast feeding women may be due to: (1) a direct block of LH action at ovarian level, perhaps by the high levels of prolactin associated with lactation and/or (2) an inability of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis-as a result of the suckling stimulus and/or prolactin-to maintain pulsatile secretion of LH in the face of the negative feedback effects of the increased oestrogen secretion resulting from the initiation of follicular development.

  10. Automatic segmentation and co-registration of gated CT angiography datasets: measuring abdominal aortic pulsatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentz, Robert; Manduca, Armando; Fletcher, J. G.; Siddiki, Hassan; Shields, Raymond C.; Vrtiska, Terri; Spencer, Garrett; Primak, Andrew N.; Zhang, Jie; Nielson, Theresa; McCollough, Cynthia; Yu, Lifeng

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop robust, novel segmentation and co-registration software to analyze temporally overlapping CT angiography datasets, with an aim to permit automated measurement of regional aortic pulsatility in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods: We perform retrospective gated CT angiography in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Multiple, temporally overlapping, time-resolved CT angiography datasets are reconstructed over the cardiac cycle, with aortic segmentation performed using a priori anatomic assumptions for the aorta and heart. Visual quality assessment is performed following automatic segmentation with manual editing. Following subsequent centerline generation, centerlines are cross-registered across phases, with internal validation of co-registration performed by examining registration at the regions of greatest diameter change (i.e. when the second derivative is maximal). Results: We have performed gated CT angiography in 60 patients. Automatic seed placement is successful in 79% of datasets, requiring either no editing (70%) or minimal editing (less than 1 minute; 12%). Causes of error include segmentation into adjacent, high-attenuating, nonvascular tissues; small segmentation errors associated with calcified plaque; and segmentation of non-renal, small paralumbar arteries. Internal validation of cross-registration demonstrates appropriate registration in our patient population. In general, we observed that aortic pulsatility can vary along the course of the abdominal aorta. Pulsation can also vary within an aneurysm as well as between aneurysms, but the clinical significance of these findings remain unknown. Conclusions: Visualization of large vessel pulsatility is possible using ECG-gated CT angiography, partial scan reconstruction, automatic segmentation, centerline generation, and coregistration of temporally resolved datasets.

  11. cAMP mediators of pulsatile insulin secretion from glucose-stimulated single beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Barg, Sebastian; Gylfe, Erik; Tengholm, Anders

    2010-07-23

    Pulsatile insulin release from glucose-stimulated beta-cells is driven by oscillations of the Ca(2+) and cAMP concentrations in the subplasma membrane space ([Ca(2+)](pm) and [cAMP](pm)). To clarify mechanisms by which cAMP regulates insulin secretion, we performed parallel evanescent wave fluorescence imaging of [cAMP](pm), [Ca(2+)](pm), and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) in the plasma membrane. This lipid is formed by autocrine insulin receptor activation and was used to monitor insulin release kinetics from single MIN6 beta-cells. Elevation of the glucose concentration from 3 to 11 mm induced, after a 2.7-min delay, coordinated oscillations of [Ca(2+)](pm), [cAMP](pm), and PIP(3). Inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA) markedly diminished the PIP(3) response when applied before glucose stimulation, but did not affect already manifested PIP(3) oscillations. The reduced PIP(3) response could be attributed to accelerated depolarization causing early rise of [Ca(2+)](pm) that preceded the elevation of [cAMP](pm). However, the amplitude of the PIP(3) response after PKA inhibition was restored by a specific agonist to the cAMP-dependent guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac. Suppression of cAMP formation with adenylyl cyclase inhibitors reduced already established PIP(3) oscillations in glucose-stimulated cells, and this effect was almost completely counteracted by the Epac agonist. In cells treated with small interfering RNA targeting Epac2, the amplitudes of the glucose-induced PIP(3) oscillations were reduced, and the Epac agonist was without effect. The data indicate that temporal coordination of the triggering [Ca(2+)](pm) and amplifying [cAMP](pm) signals is important for glucose-induced pulsatile insulin release. Although both PKA and Epac2 partake in initiating insulin secretion, the cAMP dependence of established pulsatility is mediated by Epac2.

  12. Resolution of Pulsatile Tinnitus after Venous Sinus Stenting in Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Dinkin, Marc; Suurna, Maria; Hannsgen, Kelly; Bui, Xem

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the role of venous sinus stenting in the treatment of pulsatile tinnitus among patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) and significant venous sinus stenosis. Subjects and Methods A written informed consent approved by the Weill Cornell institutional review board was signed and obtained from the study participants. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis who were treated with venous sinus stenting between Jan.2012-Jan.2016 were prospectively evaluated. Patients without pulsatile tinnitus were excluded. Tinnitus severity was categorized based on “Tinnitus Handicap Inventory” (THI) at pre-stent, day-0, 1-month, 3-month, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month and 2-year follow-up. Demographics, body-mass index (BMI), pre and post VSS trans-stenotic pressure gradient were documented. Statistical analysis performed using Pearson’s correlation, Chi-square analysis and Fischer’s exact test. Results 29 patients with a mean age of 29.5±8.5 years M:F = 1:28. Median (mean) THI pre and post stenting were: 4 (3.7) and 1 (1) respectively. Median time of tinnitus resolution post VSS was 0-days. There was significant improvement of THI (Δ Mean: 2.7 THI [95% CI: 2.3–3.1 THI], p<0.001) and transverse-distal sigmoid sinus gradient (Δ Mean: -15.3 mm Hg [95% CI: 12.7–18 mm Hg], p<0.001) post-stenting. Mean follow-up duration of 26.4±9.8 months (3–44 months). VSS was feasible in 100% patients with no procedural complications. Three-patients (10%) had recurrent sinus stenosis and tinnitus at mean follow-up of 12 months (6–30 months). Conclusion Venous sinus stenting is an effective treatment for pulsatile tinnitus in patients with IIH and venous sinus stenosis. PMID:27768690

  13. Neoglycoenzyme-Gated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles: Toward the Design of Nanodevices for Pulsatile Programmed Sequential Delivery.

    PubMed

    Díez, Paula; Sánchez, Alfredo; de la Torre, Cristina; Gamella, María; Martínez-Ruíz, Paloma; Aznar, Elena; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Pingarrón, José M; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2016-03-01

    We report herein the design of a stimulus-programmed pulsatile delivery system for sequential cargo release based on the use of a lactose-modified esterase as a capping agent in phenylboronic acid functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The dual-release mechanism was based on the distinct stability of the cyclic boronic acid esters formed with lactose residues and the long naturally occurring glycosylation chains in the modified neoglycoenzyme. Cargo delivery in succession was achieved using glucose and ethyl butyrate as triggers. PMID:26966914

  14. Endogenous opiates modulate the pulsatile secretion of biologically active luteinizing hormone in man.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Rogol, A D; Johnson, M L

    1983-12-01

    We studied the secretion of physiological pools of immunoreactive and biologically active luteinizing hormone in response to endogenous pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) in eugonadal men. Concentrations of immunoactive and bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH) were determined in blood drawn at 20-min intervals for 8 h in eight normal men under two conditions: (a) after placebo, in order to evaluate spontaneous LH pulsations in the basal state, and (b) after administration of the opiate-receptor antagonist, naltrexone, which is believed to amplify the pulsatile release of endogenous GNRH. Spontaneous and naltrexone-stimulated secretion of LH occurred in pulses of high biological activity, as measured in the RICT (rat interstitial cell testosterone bioassay), i.e., bioactive:immunoactive LH ratios within both spontaneous and naltrexone-stimulated LH pulses were higher than corresponding interpulse ratios (P less than 0.001). Quantitative characterization of the pulsatile release of bioactive LH revealed the following specific effects of opiate-receptor blockade: increased 8-h mean and integrated serum concentrations of bioactive LH (P less than 0.002), enhanced pulse frequency of bioactive LH release (P less than 0.001), and augmented peak amplitude of bio-LH pulses (P less than 0.01). Moreover, this increase in episodic secretion of bioactive LH was associated with increased 8-h mean and integrated serum testosterone concentrations in these men (P less than 0.05). We conclude the following: (a) LH is normally released in spontaneous pulses of high biological activity in men; (b) when the endogenous GNRH signal is amplified by opiate-receptor blockade, the pituitary gland releases more frequent bioactive LH pulses, which are of high amplitude and contain a high bioactive:immunoactive LH ratio. This increase in pulsatile release of bioactive LH quantitated in the RICT assay in vitro is reflected by acutely increased serum testosterone concentrations in vivo

  15. Pulsatile Support Mode of BJUT-II Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) has Better Hemodynamic Effects on the Aorta than Constant Speed Mode: A Primary Numerical Study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist device (LVADs), directly implanted into the ascending aorta. The pulsatile support mode is proposed to achieve better unloading performance than constant speed mode. However, the hemodynamic effects of this support mode on the aorta are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the hemodynamic effects BJUT-II VAD under pulsatile support mode on the aorta. MATERIAL AND METHODS Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, based on a patient-specific aortic geometric model, were conducted. Wall shear stress (WSS), averaged WSS (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and averaged helicity density (Ha) were calculated to compare the differences in hemodynamic effects between pulsatile support mode and constant speed mode. RESULTS The results show that avWSS under pulsatile support mode is significantly higher than that under constant speed mode (0.955Pa vs. 0.675Pa). Similarly, the OSI value under pulsatile mode is higher than that under constant speed mode (0.104 vs. 0.057). In addition, Ha under pulsatile mode for all selected cross-sections is larger than that under constant mode. CONCLUSIONS BJUT-II VAD, under pulsatile control mode, may prevent atherosclerosis lesions and aortic remodeling. The precise effects of pulsatile support mode on atherosclerosis and aortic remodeling need to be further studied in animal experiments. PMID:27363758

  16. Pulsatile Support Mode of BJUT-II Ventricular Assist Device (VAD) has Better Hemodynamic Effects on the Aorta than Constant Speed Mode: A Primary Numerical Study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Kaiyun; Gao, Bin; Chang, Yu; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background BJUT-II VAD is a novel left ventricular assist device (LVADs), directly implanted into the ascending aorta. The pulsatile support mode is proposed to achieve better unloading performance than constant speed mode. However, the hemodynamic effects of this support mode on the aorta are still unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the hemodynamic effects BJUT-II VAD under pulsatile support mode on the aorta. Material/Methods Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies, based on a patient-specific aortic geometric model, were conducted. Wall shear stress (WSS), averaged WSS (avWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI), and averaged helicity density (Ha) were calculated to compare the differences in hemodynamic effects between pulsatile support mode and constant speed mode. Results The results show that avWSS under pulsatile support mode is significantly higher than that under constant speed mode (0.955Pa vs. 0.675Pa). Similarly, the OSI value under pulsatile mode is higher than that under constant speed mode (0.104 vs. 0.057). In addition, Ha under pulsatile mode for all selected cross-sections is larger than that under constant mode. Conclusions BJUT-II VAD, under pulsatile control mode, may prevent atherosclerosis lesions and aortic remodeling. The precise effects of pulsatile support mode on atherosclerosis and aortic remodeling need to be further studied in animal experiments. PMID:27363758

  17. Effect of mild atherosclerosis on flow resistance in a coronary artery casting of man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Cuffel, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    An in-vitro flow study was conducted in a mildly atherosclerotic main coronary artery casting of man using sugar-water solutions simulating blood viscosity. Steady flow results indicated substantial increases in pressure drop, and thus flow resistance at the same Reynolds number, above those for Poiseuille flow by 30 to 100 percent in the physiological Reynolds number range from about 100 to 400. Time-averaged pulsatile flow data showed additional 5 percent increases in flow resistance above the steady flow results. Both pulsatile and steady flow data from the casting were found to be nearly equal to those from a straight, axisymmetric model of the casting up to a Reynolds number of about 200, above which the flow resistance of the casting became gradually larger than the corresponding values from the axisymmetric model.

  18. Design and In Vitro Evaluation of Compression-coated Pulsatile Release Tablets of Losartan Potassium

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, M.; Singh, D. C. P.; Bhattacharya, A.; Singh, A.

    2012-01-01

    In majority of individuals blood pressure rises in the early morning hours, which lead to serious cardiovascular complications. Formulation of pulsatile system makes it possible to deliver drug at definite period of time when symptoms of the disease condition are most critical. The purpose of the present work was to develop pulsatile release tablet of losartan potassium for chronotherapy in hypertension. The prepared system consisted of a core tablet coated with versatile and safe hydrophilic cellulosic ethers such as, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose and sodium carboxy methylcellulose to produce burst release after predetermined lag time. Various formulation factors were studied through series of test and in vitro dissolution study. It was found that core tablets containing superdisintegrant failed to produce burst drug release pattern while effervescent agent was able to do so. Results also reveal that coating composition and coating level affects lag time. Formulation containing effervescent agent in core and coated with 200 mg hydroxypropyl cellulose provide lag time of 4.5 h with 73% drug release in 6 h that followed a sigmoidal release pattern. These values were close to the desired objective of producing lag time of 5-6 h followed by fast drug release. This approach can thus provide a useful means for timed release of losartan and is helpful for patients with morning surge. PMID:23325989

  19. Elderly depression diagnostic of diabetic patients by brain tissue pulsatility imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachemi, Mélouka Elkateb; Remeniéras, Jean-pierre; Desmidt, Thomas; Camus, Vincent; Tranquart, François

    2010-01-01

    Pulsatile motion of brain parenchyma results from cardiac and breathing cycles and consists in a rapid displacement in systole, with slow diastolic recovery. Based on the vascular depression concept and recent studies where a correlation was found between cerebral haemodynamics and depression in the elderly, we emitted the hypothesis that tissue brain motion due to perfusion is correlated to elderly depression associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Tissue Pulsatlity Imaging (TPI) is a new ultrasound technique developed firstly at the University of Washington to assess the brain tissue motion. We used TPI technique to measure the brain displacement of two groups of elderly patients with diabetes as a vascular risk factor. The first group is composed of 11 depressed diabetic patients. The second group is composed of 12 diabetic patients without depressive symptoms. Transcranial acquisitions were performed with a 1.8 MHz ultrasound phased array probe through the right temporal bone window. The acquisition of six cardiac cycles was realized on each patient with a frame rate of 23 frames/s. Displacements estimation was performed by off-line analysis. A significant decrease in brain pulsatility was observed in the group of depressed patients compared to the group of non depressed patients. Mean displacement magnitude was about 44±7 μm in the first group and 68±13 μm in the second group.

  20. Biological time series analysis using a context free language: applicability to pulsatile hormone data.

    PubMed

    Dean, Dennis A; Adler, Gail K; Nguyen, David P; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for analyzing biological time-series data using a context-free language (CFL) representation that allows the extraction and quantification of important features from the time-series. This representation results in Hierarchically AdaPtive (HAP) analysis, a suite of multiple complementary techniques that enable rapid analysis of data and does not require the user to set parameters. HAP analysis generates hierarchically organized parameter distributions that allow multi-scale components of the time-series to be quantified and includes a data analysis pipeline that applies recursive analyses to generate hierarchically organized results that extend traditional outcome measures such as pharmacokinetics and inter-pulse interval. Pulsicons, a novel text-based time-series representation also derived from the CFL approach, are introduced as an objective qualitative comparison nomenclature. We apply HAP to the analysis of 24 hours of frequently sampled pulsatile cortisol hormone data, which has known analysis challenges, from 14 healthy women. HAP analysis generated results in seconds and produced dozens of figures for each participant. The results quantify the observed qualitative features of cortisol data as a series of pulse clusters, each consisting of one or more embedded pulses, and identify two ultradian phenotypes in this dataset. HAP analysis is designed to be robust to individual differences and to missing data and may be applied to other pulsatile hormones. Future work can extend HAP analysis to other time-series data types, including oscillatory and other periodic physiological signals.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics in pulsatile secretion of parathyroid hormone in normal human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prank, Klaus; Harms, Heio; Brabant, Georg; Hesch, Rolf-Dieter; Dämmig, Matthias; Mitschke, Fedor

    1995-03-01

    In many biological systems, information is transferred by hormonal ligands, and it is assumed that these hormonal signals encode developmental and regulatory programs in mammalian organisms. In contrast to the dogma of endocrine homeostasis, it could be shown that the biological information in hormonal networks is not only present as a constant hormone concentration in the circulation pool. Recently, it has become apparent that hormone pulses contribute to this hormonal pool, which modulates the responsiveness of receptors within the cell membrane by regulation of the receptor synthesis, movement within the membrane layer, coupling to signal transduction proteins and internalization. Phase space analysis of dynamic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion allowed the definition of a (in comparison to normal subjects) relatively quiet ``low dynamic'' secretory pattern in osteoporosis, and a ``high dynamic'' state in hyperparathyroidism. We now investigate whether this pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy men exhibits characteristics of nonlinear determinism. Our findings suggest that this is conceivable, although on the basis of presently available data and techniques, no proof can be established. Nevertheless, pulsatile secretion of PTH might be a first example of nonlinear deterministic dynamics in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology.

  2. Enteric-coating of pulsatile-release HPC capsules prepared by injection molding.

    PubMed

    Macchi, E; Zema, L; Maroni, A; Gazzaniga, A; Felton, L A

    2015-04-01

    Capsular devices based on hydroxypropyl cellulose (Klucel® LF) intended for pulsatile release were prepared by injection molding (IM). In the present work, the possibility of exploiting such capsules for the development of colonic delivery systems based on a time-dependent approach was evaluated. For this purpose, it was necessary to demonstrate the ability of molded cores to undergo a coating process and that coated systems yield the desired performance (gastric resistance). Although no information was available on the coating of IM substrates, some issues relevant to that of commercially-available capsules are known. Thus, preliminary studies were conducted on molded disks for screening purposes prior to the spray-coating of HPC capsular cores with Eudragit® L 30 D 55. The ability of the polymeric suspension to wet the substrate, spread, start penetrating and initiate hydration/swelling, as well as to provide a gastroresistant barrier was demonstrated. The coating of prototype HPC capsules was carried out successfully, leading to coated systems with good technological properties and able to withstand the acidic medium with no need for sealing at the cap/body joint. Such systems maintained the original pulsatile release performance after dissolution of the enteric film in pH 6.8 fluid. Therefore, they appeared potentially suitable for the development of a colon delivery platform based on a time-dependent approach. PMID:25585355

  3. Anti-inflammatory effect with high intensity focused ultrasound-mediated pulsatile delivery of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Yu; Yang, Chih-Hui; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Chen, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2012-02-01

    A pulsatile ultrasound controlled drug release platform with diclofenac-loaded alginate microcapsules (fabricated with a home-made electrostatic device, 75% embedded rate) was established to evaluate anti-inflammation efficiency. Better anti-inflammation efficiency was found using the ultrasound system and the drug delivery can be adjusted based on the programmed ultrasound cycle. The results of the in vitro study show that an approx. 30% higher drug release rate was obtained by using continuous ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 180 min), and an approx. 16% higher drug release rate was obtained by using pulsatile ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) compared to without ultrasound activation. For the in vivo study, the anti-inflammatory test with carrageenan-induced rat's paw edema shows that diclofenac-loaded microcapsules followed by ultrasound irradiation (9-Watt, 60 min) contributed to an 81% inhibition rate, which was significantly higher than diclofenac only (approx. 60% higher). In addition, because of their heat conducting properties, gold nanoparticles encapsulated in the diclofenac-loaded microcapsules resulted in better drug release efficiency, but tended to depress the anti-inflammation effect.

  4. Effects of oestrogen replacement on steady and pulsatile haemodynamics in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kwok-Keung; Hu, Cheng-Tao; Ou, Tein-Yuan; Yen, Mao-Hsiung; Chen, Hsing-I

    2002-07-01

    1. The effects of ovariectomy (Ovx), menopause and oestrogen replacement on the haemodynamics remain controversial. The present study employed the technique of arterial impedance analysis to measure and calculate the steady and pulsatile haemodynamics. The purpose was to determine the haemodynamic consequence of ovariectomy and oestrogen replacement. 2. Ovariectomy was carried out under anaesthesia on female Sprague Dawley rats aged 9 weeks. Oestrogen (17 beta-estradiol or E(2)) replacement started 1 week after ovariectomy for 4 weeks. Ovx increased the body weight (BW), while it greatly reduced the uterus weight. Left ventricular weight (LVW) was slightly increased, but LVW/BW ratio was slightly reduced. These changes were reversed after E(2) replacement. 3. Compared to sham group, Ovx with or without E(2) replacement did not significantly affect the systolic, mean and diastolic pressure. In Ovx, pulse pressure (PP) and heart rate were significantly increased, while stroke volume and cardiac output were slightly decreased. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) was largely elevated, indicating Ovx induced systemic vasoconstriction. These changes all returned to close normal values (sham group) after E(2) replacement, except PP. 4. Ovx increased the characteristic input impedance (Zc) and pulse wave reflection, while it decreased arterial compliance. E(2) treatment reversed these changes, except Zc. 5. These results demonstrate that Ovx influences both the resistance and Windkessel functions of the artery. E(2) treatment effectively reverses most the effects of Ovx both on the steady and pulsatile haemodynamics. PMID:12110605

  5. Effects of continuous and pulsatile PTH treatments on rat bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chiming; Frei, Hanspeter Burt, Helen M.; Rossi, Fabio

    2009-03-20

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) differentiation and proliferation are controlled by numerous growth factors and hormones. Continuous parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment has been shown to decrease osteoblast differentiation, whereas pulsatile PTH increases osteoblast differentiation. However, the effects of PTH treatments on MSCs have not been investigated. This study showed continuous PTH treatment in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX) promoted osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs in vitro, as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, number of ALP expressing cells, and up-regulation of PTH receptor-1, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNA expressions. In contrast, pulsatile PTH treatment was found to suppress osteogenesis of rat MSCs, possibly by promoting the maintenance of undifferentiated cells. Additionally, the observed effects of PTH were strongly dependent on the presence of DEX. MSC proliferation however was not influenced by PTH independent of treatment regimen and presence or absence of DEX. Furthermore, our work raised the possibility that PTH treatment may modulate stem/progenitor cell activity within MSC cultures.

  6. Behaviour of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes under continuous and pulsatile tocolysis with Fenoterol.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhode, Peter; Brunke, Björn; Schröer, Heinrich; Obert, Kirstin; Schlegel, Kerstin; Sturm, Gerhard; Schulz, Klaus-Dieter; von Wichert, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the population of beta 2-receptors on lymphocytes in pregnant women with premature labor between the 29th and 34th week of pregnancy. The population of receptors on lymphocytes correlates with that on the myometrium, which is not accessible for study during pregnancy. Fourteen patients received a pulsatile tocolysis, while ten women received a continuous tocolysis with Fenoterol. Assuming an equal population of receptors in both groups before commencement of therapy, the numbers of receptors in the patients with continuous tocolysis fell to about 35% of the initial value after 72 hours. Under pulsatile tocolysis, the numbers of receptors remained unchanged for a period of three days and was still only just below 70% of the initial value by the seventh day. Our data demonstrate that continuous administration of the short-acting beta 2-agonist Fenoterol resulted in a substantial loss of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. In contrast, intermittent administration of the same beta 2-adrenergic agonist prevented the onset of receptor down-regulation in pregnant women with preterm labor. Further studies are required to investigate the impact of the decreased loss of beta 2-adrenoceptor density on the good clinical experience with intermittent tocolysis.

  7. Time controlled pulsatile transdermal delivery of nicotine: A phase I feasibility trial in male smokers.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Felix; Kummer, Oliver; Guercioni, Stefania; Imanidis, Georgios; Drewe, Juergen

    2016-06-28

    Nicotine substitution is a mainstay component in smoking cessation schemes. Current products including patches are poorly effective mainly because they do not give smokers the same pharmacokinetic profile of nicotine as cigarette consumption. This work evaluates a new computer operated delivery system for time controlled pulsatile transdermal administration of nicotine in a phase I clinical trial with twelve heavy smoking male volunteers. The device was affixed to the ventral side of the leading lower arm of the subjects and was programmed to deliver two pulses of drug within 16h with three delivery rates in a consecutive dose escalation study. Tolerability of the three increasing doses of nicotine was established. Plasma concentration of nicotine exhibited two peaks and one trough and reached therapeutically effective levels that behaved linearly with the drug load concentration of the device. In vivo input rate, delivered amount and elimination kinetics were deduced by pharmacokinetic modeling to analyze device performance. Timing, dose and duration of delivery were controlled by system operation parameters. Hence, feasibility of controlled pulsatile delivery of nicotine at predetermined intervals was demonstrated. After additional optimization, preprogrammed or on demand administration to meet individualized and circadian replacement needs should improve smoking cessation efficacy. PMID:27090163

  8. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  9. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  10. Stimulation of luteinizing hormone subunit gene expression by pulsatile intracerebroventricular microinjection of galanin in female rats.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, A; Zwierzchowski, L; Kochman, K

    2004-06-01

    Although galanin, which exerts its effects both at the hypothalamic and pituitary level, has been implicated as an important neuroendocrine regulator of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activity, there is a lack of data concerning its involvement in the regulation of gonadotropin subunit gene expression. To elucidate whether galanin can influence luteinizing hormone (LH) subunit mRNA content, as well as affect gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor activity, a model based on pulsatile (one pulse per hour over 5 h) galanin (1 nM) microinjections directly into the third cerebral ventricle of ovariectomized (OVX) and/or oestrogen/progesterone-pretreated rats was used. Furthermore, to determine galanin effects on GnRH-induced LH subunit mRNA synthesis, a cocktail of 1 nM GnRH and 1 nM galanin was coadministered in a pulsatile manner to OVX/steroid primed rats. Subsequently, to obtain data concerning the role of galanin receptors in the regulation of pituitary alpha (common to LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and LHbeta subunit gene expression, OVX/oestrogen/progesterone rats received microinjections of 1 nM of the receptor antagonist galantide and 1 nM of galanin. In this case, both substances were administered separately, with a 30 min lag, according to which each galantide pulse always preceded a galanin pulse. Northern-blot analysis revealed that intracerebroventricular pulsatile galanin injections were effective in stimulation of both alpha and LHbeta subunit mRNA levels and that this effect was apparently steroid-dependent. Moreover, galanin also up-regulated GnRH receptor functional parameters (affinity and maximum binding capacity) but was ineffective in potentiating GnRH-induced accumulation of both subunit mRNAs. The results from the study also indicate that galanin acts through its own receptor(s) because a receptor antagonist, galantide, significantly reduced the stimulatory effect exerted by galanin on the expression

  11. A Novel Approach to Flurbiprofen Pulsatile Colonic Release: Formulation and Pharmacokinetics of Double-Compression-Coated Mini-Tablets.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Sateesh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    A significant plan is executed in the present study to study the effect of double-compression coating on flurbiprofen core mini-tablets to achieve the pulsatile colonic delivery to deliver the drug at a specific time as per the patho-physiological need of the disease that results in improved therapeutic efficacy. In this study, pulsatile double-compression-coated tablets were prepared based on time-controlled hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M inner compression coat and pH-sensitive Eudragit S100 outer compression coat. Then, the tablets were evaluated for both physical evaluation and drug-release studies, and to prove these results, in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in human volunteers were conducted. From the in vitro drug-release studies, F6 tablets were considered as the best formulation, which retarded the drug release in the stomach and small intestine (3.42 ± 0.12% in 5 h) and progressively released to the colon (99.78 ± 0.74% in 24 h). The release process followed zero-order release kinetics, and from the stability studies, similarity factor between dissolution data before and after storage was found to be 88.86. From the pharmacokinetic evaluation, core mini-tablets producing peak plasma concentration (C max) was 14,677.51 ± 12.16 ng/ml at 3 h T max and pulsatile colonic tablets showed C max = 12,374.67 ± 16.72 ng/ml at 12 h T max. The area under the curve for the mini and pulsatile tablets was 41,238.52 and 72,369.24 ng-h/ml, and the mean resident time was 3.43 and 10.61 h, respectively. In conclusion, development of double-compression-coated tablets is a promising way to achieve the pulsatile colonic release of flurbiprofen.

  12. The effects of acute exercise on pulsatile LH release in high-mileage male runners.

    PubMed

    McColl, E M; Wheeler, G D; Gomes, P; Bhambhani, Y; Cumming, D C

    1989-11-01

    Evidence suggests that acute exercise and endurance training has a suppressive effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in men and women. To determine if training and acute exercise influence the neuroendocrine regulation of the HPG axis in men we examined pulsatile LH release in six male endurance runners with a training volume of at least 80 km per week, and compared this with values in six age-matched sedentary controls. Blood samples were obtained through an indwelling i.v. cannula from the subjects at 15-min intervals for 6 h following 24 h without significant physical activity and again in the runners, following 60 min of running at a speed equivalent to 5% below the anaerobic threshold. Mean LH pulse frequency and amplitude, as well as areas under the LH pulses and total LH curve, were calculated but only the mean post-exercise area under the total LH curve area was significantly lower than basal values (P less than 0.05) following exercise compared with the resting values in runners. Other measures of LH release did not change with acute exercise. Basal and pre-exercise testosterone levels were also measured and found to be at the lower end of normal men. The mean pre-exercise serum testosterone levels were significantly higher than basal levels. Mean testosterone levels, mean pulse amplitude, and mean area under the LH curve were significantly lower in resting runners than in the controls. The data suggest that exercise induces a general lowering of LH levels but does not inhibit LH pulsatile release. An anticipatory increase in serum testosterone occurred before exercise.

  13. Selective optogenetic activation of arcuate kisspeptin neurons generates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Young; McLennan, Timothy; Czieselsky, Katja; Herbison, Allan E

    2015-10-20

    Normal reproductive functioning in mammals depends upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons generating a pulsatile pattern of gonadotropin secretion. The neural mechanism underlying the episodic release of GnRH is not known, although recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) may be involved. In the present experiments we expressed channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in the ARN kisspeptin population to test directly whether synchronous activation of these neurons would generate pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in vivo. Characterization studies showed that this strategy targeted ChR2 to 70% of all ARN kisspeptin neurons and that, in vitro, these neurons were activated by 473-nm blue light with high fidelity up to 30 Hz. In vivo, the optogenetic activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons at 10 and 20 Hz evoked high amplitude, pulse-like increments in LH secretion in anesthetized male mice. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 2 min was sufficient to generate repetitive LH pulses. In diestrous female mice, only 20-Hz activation generated significant increments in LH secretion. In ovariectomized mice, 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons were all found to evoke LH pulses. Part of the sex difference, but not the gonadal steroid dependence, resulted from differential pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. Experiments in kisspeptin receptor-null mice, showed that kisspeptin was the critical neuropeptide underlying the ability of ARN kisspeptin neurons to generate LH pulses. Together these data demonstrate that synchronized activation of the ARN kisspeptin neuronal population generates pulses of LH. PMID:26443858

  14. Selective optogenetic activation of arcuate kisspeptin neurons generates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Young; McLennan, Timothy; Czieselsky, Katja; Herbison, Allan E

    2015-10-20

    Normal reproductive functioning in mammals depends upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons generating a pulsatile pattern of gonadotropin secretion. The neural mechanism underlying the episodic release of GnRH is not known, although recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) may be involved. In the present experiments we expressed channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in the ARN kisspeptin population to test directly whether synchronous activation of these neurons would generate pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in vivo. Characterization studies showed that this strategy targeted ChR2 to 70% of all ARN kisspeptin neurons and that, in vitro, these neurons were activated by 473-nm blue light with high fidelity up to 30 Hz. In vivo, the optogenetic activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons at 10 and 20 Hz evoked high amplitude, pulse-like increments in LH secretion in anesthetized male mice. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 2 min was sufficient to generate repetitive LH pulses. In diestrous female mice, only 20-Hz activation generated significant increments in LH secretion. In ovariectomized mice, 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons were all found to evoke LH pulses. Part of the sex difference, but not the gonadal steroid dependence, resulted from differential pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. Experiments in kisspeptin receptor-null mice, showed that kisspeptin was the critical neuropeptide underlying the ability of ARN kisspeptin neurons to generate LH pulses. Together these data demonstrate that synchronized activation of the ARN kisspeptin neuronal population generates pulses of LH.

  15. Incompressible viscous flow in tubes with occlusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huaxiong

    Viscous, incompressible flow in tubes with partial occlusion is investigated using numerical and experimental procedures. The study is related to the problem of atherosclerosis, one of the most common diseases of the circulatory system. One of the computational difficulties in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is the lack of pressure or vorticity boundary conditions. A finite difference approach, referred to as the interior constraint (IC) method, is proposed to resolve this difficulty. As a general numerical method, it is formulated for both the stream function-vorticity and primitive (physical) variable formulations. The procedure is explained using a one dimensional model with extensive numerical tests presented for two dimensional cases, including flow in a driven cavity and flow over a backward facing step. Results are obtained with second-order accuracy. Next, the IC method is applied to flow in a tube with an occlusion, which is used as the model for blood flow in stenosed arteries in the study of the pathology of atherosclerosis. Numerical results are obtained for both steady and pulsatile flows. Results are compared with those of SIMPLE, one of the commercially available numerical algorithms. The pulsatile flow study revealed several interesting new features. It suggested that the high shear stress is not likely to initiate atherosclerosis lesions. The recirculation region, which is a prominent feature of the unsteady flow, is more likely to cause the initiation and development of the disease. Experimental measurements for steady flow complement the numerical study and show qualitative agreement.

  16. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Yi, Hou-Hui; Li, Hua-Bing; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small. On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency. Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel walls. The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  17. Comparison of a pulsatile blood pump and a peristaltic roller pump during hemoperfusion treatment in a canine model of paraquat poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Chan; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Seong Wook; Kim, Jeong Chul; Lim, Ki Moo; Kim, Kyuseok; Jung, Sung Koo; Kwak, Young Ho; Shin, Sang Do; Jo, Ik Joon; Suh, Gil Joon; Min, Byoung Goo

    2008-07-01

    This study examined the treatment efficacy and the damage to the blood during hemoperfusion for treating paraquat poisoning using two blood pump mechanisms. Paraquat-poisoned animal models were prepared. A conventional hemodialysis machine, AK90, with a peristaltic roller pump and a cardiopulmonary support system, T-PLS, with a pulsatile blood pump were used during the animal experiments. A total of 12 dogs were treated with hemoperfusion using a charcoal column. Six dogs were treated with hemoperfusion and T-PLS, and the other six were treated with AK90. A paraquat dose of 30 mg/kg was administrated by an intravenous injection. Both pumps maintained blood flow rates of 125 mL/min measured by an ultrasonic flowmeter. For anticoagulation, heparin was administrated by an initial bolus (250 IU/kg) and a continuous injection (100 IU/kg/h). During the experiments, T-PLS and AK90 showed a similar toxin removal efficacy. Both devices decreased the plasma paraquat concentration to 10% of the initial dose within 4-h hemoperfusion. The two pumps showed similar hemolysis properties with acceptable levels. Although T-PLS was developed as a cardiopulmonary bypass system, it can also be used as a hemoperfusion treatment device. PMID:18638308

  18. Surgical treatment of severe chronic venous insufficiency caused by pulsatile varicose veins in a patient with tricuspid regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Casian, D; Gutsu, E; Culiuc, V

    2009-04-01

    A case of severe chronic venous insufficiency caused by pulsatile varicose veins in a 46-year-old man with tricuspid regurgitation is presented. Active venous leg ulcer complicated with recurrent venous bleeding and inefficacy of conservative management serve as indications for surgical treatment. This case demonstrates the possibility of radical surgical correction of pathological venous reflux by means of saphenofemoral ligation, foam sclerotherapy and subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery.

  19. Effect of transport on pulsatile and surge secretion of LH in ewes in the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Dobson, H; Tebble, J E; Phogat, J B; Smith, R F

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in stress-induced subfertility by examining the effect of 4 h transport on surge and pulsatile LH secretion in intact ewes and ovariectomized ewes treated with steroids to induce an artificial follicular phase (model ewes). Transport caused a greater delay in the onset of the LH surge in nine intact ewes than it did in ten ovariectomized ewes (intact: 41.0 +/- 0.9 h versus 48.3 +/- 0.8 h, P < 0.02; ovariectomized model: 40.8 +/- 0.6 h versus 42.6 +/- 0.5 h, P < 0.02). Disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary endocrine balance in intact ewes may have reduced gonadotrophin stimulation of follicular oestradiol production which had an additional effect on the LH surge mechanism. In the ovariectomized model ewes, this effect was masked by the exogenous supply of oestradiol. However, in these model ewes, there was a greater suppression of maximum LH surge concentrations (intact controls: 29 +/- 4 ng ml-1 versus intact transported 22 +/- 5 ng ml-1, P < 0.02; ovariectomized model controls: 35 +/- 7 ng ml-1 versus model transported 15 +/- 2 ng ml-1, P < 0.02). Subsequent exposure to progesterone for 12 days resulted in the resumption of a normal LH profile in the next follicular phase, indicating that acute stress leads to a temporary endocrine lesion. In four intact ewes transported in the mid-follicular phase, there was a suppression of LH pulse amplitude (0.9 +/- 0.3 versus 0.3 +/- 0.02 ng ml-1, P < 0.05) but a statistically significant effect on pulse frequency was not observed (2.0 +/- 0.4 versus 1.7 +/- 0.6 pulses per 2 h). In conclusion, activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis by transport in the follicular phase of intact ewes interrupts surge secretion of LH, possibly by interference with LH pulsatility and, hence, follicular oestradiol production. This disruption of gonadotrophin secretion will have a major impact on fertility.

  20. Pulsatile dry cupping in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee – a randomized controlled exploratory trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cupping is used in various traditional medicine forms to relieve pain in musculoskeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cupping in relieving the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods In a two-group, randomized controlled exploratory pilot study patients with a clinically and radiological confirmed knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence Grading Scale: 2-4) and a pain intensity > 40 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) were included. 40 Patients were randomized to either 8 sessions of pulsatile dry cupping within 4 weeks or no intervention (control). Paracetamol was allowed on demand for both groups. Outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) score, the pain intensity on a VAS (0 mm = no pain to 100 mm = maximum intensity) and Quality of Life (SF-36) 4 and 12 weeks after randomization. Use of Paracetamol was documented within the 4-week treatment period. Analyses were performed by analysis of covariance adjusting for the baseline value for each outcome. Results 21 patients were allocated to the cupping group (5 male; mean age 68 ± SD 7.2) and 19 to the control group (8 male; 69 ± 6.8). After 4 weeks the WOMAC global score improved significantly more in the cupping group with a mean of 27.7 (95% confidence interval 22.1; 33.3) compared to 42.2 (36.3; 48.1) in the control group (p = 0.001). After 12 weeks the WOMAC global score were still significantly different in favor for cupping (31.0 (24.9; 37.2) vs. 40.8 (34.4; 47.3) p = 0.032), however the WOMAC subscores for pain and stiffness were not significant anymore. Significantly better outcomes in the cupping group were also observed for pain intensity on VAS and for the SF-36 Physical Component Scale compared to the control group after 4 and 12 weeks. No significant difference was observed for the SF-36 Mental Component Scale and the total number of consumed Paracetamol tablets

  1. Pulsatile dynamic stiffness of cartilage-like materials and use of agarose gels to validate mechanical methods and models.

    PubMed

    Scandiucci de Freitas, P; Wirz, D; Stolz, M; Göpfert, B; Friederich, N-F; Daniels, A U

    2006-08-01

    Stiffness is a fundamental indicator of the functional state of articular cartilage. Reported test modes include compressive incremental strain to determine the equilibrium modulus, and sinusoidal strain to determine the dynamic modulus and stress/strain loss angle. Here, initial development is described for a method recognizing that gait is pulsatile. Agarose gels have been used by others for validation or comparison of mechanical test methods and models for cartilage and proteoglycan aggregate. Accordingly, gels ranging from 0.5 to 20% agarose were prepared. Pulsatile stiffness in both indentation and unconfined compression were closely reproducible. Stiffness as a function of agarose concentration rose exponentially, as found using other methods. Indentation stiffness was higher than for unconfined compression and ranged from approximately 2.0 kPa for 0.5% gel to approximately 3,800 kPa for 20% gel. Pulsatile dynamic stiffness appears to be a useful method, although further development is needed. Agarose gel stiffness values obtained by other methods were reviewed for comparison. Unfortunately, reported values for a given agarose concentration ranged widely (e.g. fourfold) even when test methods were similar. Causes appear to include differences in molecular weight and gel preparation time-temperature regimens. Also, agarose is hygroscopic, leading to unintended variations in gel composition. Agarose gels are problematic materials for validation or comparison of cartilage mechanical test methods and models. PMID:16470817

  2. A Multichannel Dampened Flow System for Studies on Shear Stress-Mediated Mechanotransduction

    PubMed Central

    Voyvodic, Peter L.; Min, Daniel; Baker, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    Shear stresses are powerful regulators of cellular function and potent mediators of the development of vascular disease. We have designed and optimized a system allowing the application of flow to cultured cells in a multichannel format. By using a multichannel peristaltic pump, flow can be driven continuously in the system for long-term studies in multiple isolated flow loops. A key component of the system is a dual-chamber pulse dampener that removes the pulsatility of the flow without the need for having an open system or elevated reservoir. We optimized the design parameters of the pulse dampening chambers for the maximum reduction in flow pulsation while minimizing the fluid needed for each isolated flow channel. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to steady and pulsatile shear stress using the system. We found that cells under steady flow had a marked increased production of eNOS and formation of actin stress fibers in comparison to those under pulsatile flow conditions. Overall, the results confirm the utility of the device as a practical means to apply shear stress to cultured cells in the multichannel format and provide steady, long term flow to microfluidic devices. PMID:22836694

  3. A multichannel dampened flow system for studies on shear stress-mediated mechanotransduction.

    PubMed

    Voyvodic, Peter L; Min, Daniel; Baker, Aaron B

    2012-09-21

    Shear stresses are powerful regulators of cellular function and potent mediators of the development of vascular disease. We have designed and optimized a system allowing the application of flow to cultured cells in a multichannel format. By using a multichannel peristaltic pump, flow can be driven continuously in the system for long-term studies in multiple isolated flow loops. A key component of the system is a dual-chamber pulse dampener that removes the pulsatility of the flow without the need for having an open system or elevated reservoir. We optimized the design parameters of the pulse dampening chambers for the maximum reduction in flow pulsation while minimizing the fluid needed for each isolated flow channel. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to steady and pulsatile shear stress using the system. We found that cells under steady flow had a marked increased production of eNOS and formation of actin stress fibers in comparison to those under pulsatile flow conditions. Overall, the results confirm the utility of the device as a practical means to apply shear stress to cultured cells in the multichannel format and provide steady, long term flow to microfluidic devices.

  4. Effects of cocaine and corticotropin-releasing factor on pulsatile ACTH and cortisol release in ovariectomized rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sarnyai, Z; Mello, N K; Mendelson, J H; Nguyen, P H; Erös-Sarnyai, M

    1995-09-01

    Cocaine stimulates ACTH secretion by a corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-dependent mechanism in male rats, rhesus monkeys, and humans. To determine the generality of this effect, we examined the effects of acute cocaine administration on the pulsatile release of ACTH and cortisol in three ovariectomized (OVX) rhesus monkeys and compared its effects to stimulation with CRF. Venous blood samples were collected at 2-min intervals for 60 min before and after iv administration of cocaine (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) and CRF (1.0 and 10 micrograms/kg). Cluster analysis procedures were used to evaluate the pulsatile characteristics of ACTH and cortisol release. After placebo administration, an ACTH pulse frequency of 3 peaks/h was detected. After cocaine administration, plasma cocaine levels peaked at 92 +/- 3.0 and 201 +/- 60 ng/mL within 2 min. However, in contrast to normal intact males, cocaine did not stimulate the pulsatile release of ACTH in OVX females. Cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) decreased ACTH incremental peak height and valley levels compared with pre-cocaine values, and a higher dose of cocaine produced no changes in ACTH release. Bolus injection of a low dose of CRF (1.0 micrograms/kg, iv) significantly increased ACTH incremental peak height (P < 0.05), and a higher dose of CRF (10 micrograms/kg) increased ACTH peak amplitude, percentage increase in peak amplitude, area under the peaks, and incremental peak heights as well as ACTH valley level and nadir (10 micrograms/kg, iv) (P < 0.05). ACTH pulse frequency did not change after CRF or cocaine administration. Pulsatile release of cortisol was 2.7 peaks/h under placebo conditions and did not change after cocaine or CRF administration. Cortisol pulse amplitude was increased after low and high doses of CRF. High doses of CRF (10 micrograms/kg) also increased the mean level of cortisol valleys. In summary, we found that CRF but not cocaine stimulated pulsatile ACTH and cortisol release in OVX rhesus monkeys. The profound ACTH

  5. Realization of a permanent implantable pulsatile impeller heart with magnetically suspended motor.

    PubMed

    Qian, K X; Zheng, M

    1997-07-01

    A permanent impeller heart that could work for years was once an idea. However, now this idea is turning into reality through the use of the magnetically suspended motor. Recently, with our implantable pulsatile impeller pump, 3 left ventricular assisted calves survived for about 2 months (62, 54, and 46 days, respectively). The termination of the experiments was related to wear of the mechanical bearing, which resulted in vibration of the rotor and pump failure. All the experimental animals were in good condition prior to pump failure. It seemed as if the experiments could have lasted indefinitely if the bearing had not failed. All the hematological and biochemical data of the calves remained in normal or acceptable ranges; neither blood damage nor organ dysfunction of any animal was detected. During autopsy, no severe thrombus formation was found in the pump or vessels although a low dose of heparin (0.5-0.8 g/h) was given to increase the activated coagulation time (ACT) to 1.5-2.0 times its normal value. To solve the problem of bearing wear, a magnetically suspended motor was investigated and applied to the impeller pump. On the opposite sides of a disc connected to the rotor, 2 permanent magnet rings were embedded, one for driving and the other for axial suspension. Because both the driving and suspending coils with iron cores attract the disc, no radial bearing was needed. This newly devised impeller heart promises to have long-term and permanent applications. PMID:9212937

  6. The Effect of Pulsatility Index on Infarct Volume in Acute Lacunar Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon; Lee, Hanbin; An, Se-A; Yim, Byeongsoo; Kim, Jonguk; Kim, Ok Joon; Kim, Won Chan; Kim, Hyun Sook; Oh, Seung Hun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lacunar stroke, in the context of small vessel disease, is a type of cerebral infarction caused by occlusion of a penetrating artery. Pulsatility index (PI) is an easily measurable parameter in Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) study. PI reflects distal cerebral vascular resistance and has been interpreted as a surrogate marker of small vessel disease. We hypothesized that an increased PI, a marker of small vessel disease, might be associated with a larger infarct volume in acute lacunar stroke. Materials and Methods This study included 64 patients with acute lacunar stroke who underwent TCD and brain MRI. We evaluated the association between the mean PI value of bilateral middle cerebral arteries and infarct volume on diffusion-weighted MRI using univariate and multivariate linear regression. Results The mean infarct volume and PI were 482.18±406.40 mm3 and 0.86±0.18, respectively. On univariate linear regression, there was a significant positive association between PI and infarct volume (p=0.001). In the multivariate model, a single standard deviation increase of PI (per 0.18) was associated with an increase of 139.05 mm3 in infarct volume (95% confidence interval, 21.25 to 256.85; p=0.022). Conclusion We demonstrated that PI was an independent determinant of infarct volume in acute lacunar stroke. The PI value measured in acute stroke may be a surrogate marker of the extent of ischemic injury. PMID:27189290

  7. The effect of androgen blockade on pulsatile gonadotrophin release and LH response to naloxone.

    PubMed

    Balzano, S; Migliari, R; Sica, V; Scarpa, R M; Pintus, C; Loviselli, A; Usai, E; Balestrieri, A

    1987-10-01

    In order to clarify the effects of androgen blockade on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in man, four patients with advanced prostate cancer, not previously treated, were given oral flutamide, 250 mg three times daily for 9 days. Before, and 7, 8 and 9 days after starting flutamide treatment, on separate days, the following tests were performed: a gonadotrophin pulsatility study, with 20 min interval blood sampling for 12 h, a naloxone test and a GnRH test. Flutamide induced a significant increase in both LH and FSH pulse frequency, while pulse amplitudes and plasma integrated concentrations (IC) of LH and FSH were unaffected. Plasma integrated concentrations of testosterone and oestradiol rose significantly, while that of prolactin was unaffected. The increase in plasma LH concentration induced by naloxone injection was abolished by flutamide treatment. On the other hand, the small FSH response to naloxone was unaffected by flutamide treatment. Response to GnRH was unaffected by flutamide. These results suggest that flutamide exerts effective androgen blockade at the hypothalamic level, since, despite increased plasma testosterone concentrations, gonadotrophin pulse frequency increased and the LH response to naloxone was abolished.

  8. Pulsatile and steady components of blood pressure and subclinical cerebrovascular disease: the Northern Manhattan Study

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S.V.; Cheung, Ken; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.; Wright, Clinton B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess whether pulse pressure (PP) is associated, independently of mean arterial pressure (MAP), with perivascular spaces (PVS), lacunar lesions presumably ischemic (LPI), and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV) seen on brain MRI. METHODS Participants in the Northern Manhattan Study had their blood pressure (BP) taken during their baseline enrollment visit and again during a visit for a brain MRI a mean of 7 years later. We assessed small and large PVS, lacunar LPI, and WMHV on MRI. We examined the association of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), MAP, and PP at baseline with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease using generalized linear models and adjusting for vascular risk factors. RESULTS Imaging and BP data were available for 1009 participants (mean age 68 ± 8 years, 60% women, 60% Hispanic). DBP was associated with lacunar LPI and WMHV, while SBP was associated with small and large PVS. Using MAP and PP together disclosed that the effect size for PP was greater for large PVS while the effect of MAP was greater for lacunar LPI and WMHV. The effects of DBP were flat or negative at any degree of SBP > 120 mm Hg for small and large PVS, while a positive association was noted for lacunar LPI and WMHV with any DBP increase over any degree of SBP. CONCLUSIONS We report here a segregated association between the pulsatile and steady components of the BP with subclinical markers of cerebrovascular disease. These differential associations may reflect the underlying pathology of these biomarkers. PMID:26259124

  9. Superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as a growing, pulsatile, and tender mass

    PubMed Central

    Seferi, Arsen; Alimehmeti, Ridvan; Pajaj, Ermira; Vyshka, Gentian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Superficial temporal artery (STA) pseudoaneurysms have been reported in the literature since the mid of seventeenth century from Bartholin, however, there is an increasing number of cases, suggesting a diversity of etiological factors. Among these, traumatic events, even of an iatrogenic nature, have been identified as causative factors for nonspontaneous STA pseudoaneurysms. Regional pain and tenderness, troublesome pulsations of the mass, cosmetic concerns as well as the risk of bleeding warrant a thorough evaluation and a definite interventional approach to the condition. Case Description: A 21-year-old Caucasian male searched medical advice for a growing, tender, and pulsatile mass on his right temple, with isolated and short episodes of lancinating sensations, after sustaining a blunt trauma following a hit with a stick half a year before the admission. Enhanced cranial computed tomography and angiography confirmed the diagnosis of an STA pseudoaneurysm. A direct percutaneous aspiration, as well as ultrasonography, was performed prior to the neurosurgical intervention, with the complete removal of the mass. Conclusions: STA pseudoaneurysms require a careful evaluation and a conclusive approach in order to avoid the risk of a growing mass and other nonremote complications such as bone erosions and bleeding. Different treatment options are available, including endovascular obliteration and embolization, however, surgical removal after ligation of the afferent and efferent segments of the vessel seem to be highly effective. PMID:27413578

  10. Cerebral blood flow assessment of preterm infants during respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Mariana Almada; Caldas, Jamil Pedro Siqueira; Netto, Abimael Aranha; Marba, Sérgio Tadeu Martins

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the impact of respiratory therapy with the expiratory flow increase technique on cerebral hemodynamics of premature newborns. Methods: This is an intervention study, which included 40 preterm infants (≤34 weeks) aged 8-15 days of life, clinically stable in ambient air or oxygen catheter use. Children with heart defects, diagnosis of brain lesion and/or those using vasoactive drugs were excluded. Ultrasonographic assessments with transcranial Doppler flowmetry were performed before, during and after the increase in expiratory flow session, which lasted 5min. Cerebral blood flow velocity and resistance and pulsatility indices in the pericallosal artery were assessed. Results: Respiratory physical therapy did not significantly alter flow velocity at the systolic peak (p=0.50), the end diastolic flow velocity (p=0.17), the mean flow velocity (p=0.07), the resistance index (p=0.41) and the pulsatility index (p=0.67) over time. Conclusions: The expiratory flow increase technique did not affect cerebral blood flow in clinically-stable preterm infants. PMID:26611888

  11. Computation of flow pressure fields from magnetic resonance velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Yang, G Z; Kilner, P J; Wood, N B; Underwood, S R; Firmin, D N

    1996-10-01

    Magnetic resonance phase velocity mapping has unrivalled capacities for acquiring in vivo multi-directional blood flow information. In this study, the authors set out to derive both spatial and temporal components of acceleration, and hence differences of pressure in a flow field using cine magnetic resonance velocity data. An efficient numerical algorithm based on the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluid was used. The computational approach was validated with in vitro flow phantoms. This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of cardiovascular dynamics and to serve as a basis for investigating pulsatile pressure/flow relationships associated with normal and impaired cardiovascular function. PMID:8892202

  12. Numerical analysis of blood flow through an elliptic stenosis using large eddy simulation.

    PubMed

    Jabir, E; Lal, S Anil

    2016-08-01

    The presence of a stenosis caused by the abnormal narrowing of the lumen in the artery tree can cause significant variations in flow parameters of blood. The original flow, which is believed to be laminar in most situations, may turn out to turbulent by the geometric perturbation created by the stenosis. Flow may evolve to fully turbulent or it may relaminarise back according to the intensity of the perturbation. This article reports the numerical simulation of flow through an eccentrically located asymmetric stenosis having elliptical cross section using computational fluid dynamics. Large eddy simulation technique using dynamic Smagorinsky sub-grid scale model is applied to capture the turbulent features of flow. Analysis is carried out for two situations: steady inflow as ideal condition and pulsatile inflow corresponding to the actual physiological condition in common carotid artery. The spatially varying pulsatile inflow waveforms are mathematically derived from instantaneous mass flow measurements available in the literature. Carreau viscosity model is used to estimate the effect of non-Newtonian nature of blood. The present simulations for steady and pulsatile conditions show that post-stenotic flow field undergoes transition to turbulence in all cases. The characteristics of mean and turbulent flow fields have been presented and discussed in detail. PMID:27146288

  13. Pulsatile Hyperglycaemia Induces Vascular Oxidative Stress and GLUT 1 Expression More Potently than Sustained Hyperglycaemia in Rats on High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Rakipovski, Günaj; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Raun, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Pulsatile hyperglycaemia resulting in oxidative stress may play an important role in the development of macrovascular complications. We investigated the effects of sustained vs. pulsatile hyperglycaemia in insulin resistant rats on markers of oxidative stress, enzyme expression and glucose metabolism in liver and aorta. We hypothesized that liver’s ability to regulate the glucose homeostasis under varying states of hyperglycaemia may indirectly affect oxidative stress status in aorta despite the amount of glucose challenged with. Methods Animals were infused with sustained high (SHG), low (SLG), pulsatile (PLG) glucose or saline (VEH) for 96 h. Oxidative stress status and key regulators of glucose metabolism in liver and aorta were investigated. Results Similar response in plasma lipid oxidation was observed in PLG as in SHG. Likewise, in aorta, PLG and SHG displayed increased expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), gp-91PHOX and super oxide dismutase (SOD), while only the PLG group showed increased accumulation of oxidative stress and oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in aorta. Conclusion Pulsatile hyperglycaemia induced relatively higher levels of oxidative stress systemically and in aorta in particular than overt sustained hyperglycaemia thus supporting the clinical observations that pulsatile hyperglycaemia is an independent risk factor for diabetes related macrovascular complications. PMID:26790104

  14. Fetal umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index and childhood neurocognitive outcome at 12 years

    PubMed Central

    Mone, Fionnuala; McConnell, Barbara; Thompson, Andrew; Segurado, Ricardo; Hepper, Peter; Stewart, Moira C; Dornan, James C; Ong, Stephen; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Shields, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether an elevated fetal umbilical artery Doppler (UAD) pulsatility index (PI) at 28 weeks’ gestation, in the absence of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and prematurity, is associated with adverse neurocognitive outcome in children aged 12 years. Methods Prospective cohort study, comparing children with a normal fetal UAD PI (<90th centile) (n=110) and those with an elevated PI (≥90th centile) (n=40). UAD was performed at 28, 32 and 34 weeks gestation. At 12 years of age, all children were assessed under standardised conditions at Queen's University, Belfast, UK to determine cognitive and behavioural outcomes using the British Ability Score-II and Achenbach Child Behavioural Checklist Parent Rated Version under standardised conditions. Regression analysis was performed, controlling for confounders such as gender, socioeconomic status and age at assessment. Results The mean age of follow-up was 12.4 years (±0.5 SD) with 44% of children male (n=63). When UAD was assessed at 28 weeks, the elevated fetal UAD group had lower scores in cognitive assessments of information processing and memory. Parameters included (1) recall of objects immediate verbal (p=0.002), (2) delayed verbal (p=0.008) and (3) recall of objects immediate spatial (p=0.0016). There were no significant differences between the Doppler groups at 32 or 34 weeks' gestation. Conclusions An elevated UAD PI at 28 weeks' gestation in the absence of FGR or prematurity is associated with lower scores of declarative memory in children aged 12 years. A potential explanation for this is an element of placental insufficiency in the presence of the appropriately grown fetus, which affects the development of the fetal hippocampus and information processing and memory long-term. These findings, however, had no impact on overall academic ability, mental processing and reasoning or overall behavioural function. PMID:27311899

  15. Development of Press-Coated, Floating-Pulsatile Drug Delivery of Lisinopril

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Swati C.; Suryawanshi, Vishnu M.; Pandya, Sudhir V.; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S.; Chabukswar, Aniruddha R.

    2014-01-01

    Lisinopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, primarily used for the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, and heart attack. It belongs to BCS class III having a half-life of 12 hrs and 25% bioavailability. The purpose of the present work was to develop a press-coated, floating-pulsatile drug delivery system. The core tablet was formulated using the super-disintegrants crosprovidone and croscarmellose sodium. A press-coated tablet (barrier layer) contained the polymer carrageenan, xanthan gum, HPMC K4M, and HPMC K15M. The buoyant layer was optimized with HPMC K100M, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid. The tablets were evaluated for physical characteristics, floating lag time, swelling index, FTIR, DSC, and in vitro and in vivo behavior. The 5% superdisintgrant showed good results. The FTIR and DSC study predicted no chemical interactions between the drug and excipients. The formulation containing xanthan gum showed drug retaining abilities, but failed to float. The tablet containing HPMC K15M showed a high swelling index. The lag time for the tablet coated with 200 mg carrageenan was 3±0.1 hrs with 99.99±1.5% drug release; with 140 mg HPMC K4M, the lag time was 3±0.1 hrs with 99.71±1.2% drug release; and with 120 mg HPMC K15M, the lag time was 3±0.2 hrs with 99.98±1.7% drug release. The release mechanism of the tablet followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation and a first-order release pattern. Floating and lag time behavior have shown good in vitro and in vivo correlations. PMID:24959410

  16. Development of a miniature motor-driven pulsatile LVAD driven by a fuzzy controller.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Eiji; Makino, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Shuji; Yasuda, Takahiko; Akasaka, Yuta; Tani, Makiko; Inoue, Yusuke; Mitoh, Ayumu; Mitamura, Yoshinori

    2007-01-01

    We have been developing a small, lightweight motor-driven pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD) with a ball screw. The motor-driven LVAD consists of a brushless DC motor and a ball screw. The attractive magnetic force between Nd-Fe-B magnets (with a diameter of 5 mm and a thickness of 1.5 mm) mounted in holes in a silicone rubber sheet (thickness 2 mm) and an iron plate adhered onto the a diaphragm of the blood pump can provide optimum active blood filling during the pump filling phase. The LVAD has a stroke volume of 55 ml and an overall volume of 285 ml; it weighs 360 g. The controller mainly consists of a fuzzy logic position and velocity controller to apply doctors' and engineers' knowledge to control the LVAD. Each unit of the controller consists of a functionally independent program module for easy improvement of the controller's performance. The LVAD was evaluated in in vitro experiments using a mock circulation. A maximum pump outflow of 5.1 l/min was obtained at a drive rate of 95 bpm against an afterload of 95 mmHg, and active filling using the attractive magnetic force provided a pump output of 3.6 l/min at a drive rate of 75 bpm under a preload of 0 mmHg. The operating efficiency of the LVAD was measured at between 8% and 10.5%. While the LVAD can provide adequate pump outflow for cardiac assistance, further upgrading of the software and improvement of the blood pump are required to improve pump performance and efficiency. PMID:17846714

  17. Endovascular Treatment of Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Malformations Presenting as Pulsatile Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Shownkeen, Harish; Yoo, Kevin; Leonetti, John; Origitano, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Transverse-sigmoid sinus dural arteriovenous malformations (DAVM) are uncommon vascular lesions for which complete cure may be difficult to obtain. A wide variety of treatments for these lesions include observation, arterial compression, surgical resection, and endovascular embolization. We propose that transverse-sigmoid sinus DAVM can be completely cured by occluding the ipsilateral dural sinus with detachable balloon and Guglielmi detachable coils (GDC) coils before arterial feeder embolization with histoacryl. Three patients who presented with pulsatile tinnitus and normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies underwent angiography, which demonstrated transverse-sigmoid sinus DAVM. All three patients wer treated with retrograde transvenous sinus embolization with complete occlusion of the transverse-sigmoid sinus with detachable balloons and GDC coils with preservation of the vein of Labbé. Subsequently, the various feeders from the external carotid artery were embolized. The tentorial arteries arising from the ipsilateral internal carotid arteries were not embolized in any of the cases, which were still contributing to the DAVM. Complete cure with thrombosis of the tentorial branch of the internal carotid artery (ICA) was seen on follow-up angiogram 1 day after embolization in one patient and on 4-week and 6-week follow-up angiograms in the other two patients. Complete occlusion of the transverse sinus proximal to the vein of Labbé, in spite of incomplete arterial feeder embolization, can result in complete cure of the transversesinus dural AVF if adequate time is given for the remaining feeders to occlude, once the fistula is obliterated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 1p18-aFigure 2Figure 3 PMID:17167600

  18. Pulsatility index in carotid arteries is increased in levothyroxine-treated Hashimoto disease.

    PubMed

    Owecki, M; Sawicka-Gutaj, N; Owecki, M K; Ambrosius, W; Dorszewska, J; Oczkowska, A; Michalak, M; Fischbach, J; Kozubski, W; Ruchała, M

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate carotid hemodynamic variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in women with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The study group consisted of 31 females with HT on levothyroxine (L-T4) and 26 euthyroid women with HT without L-T4 matched for age and body mass index (BMI) as controls. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid extra-media thickness (CEMT), and pulsatility indexes in common carotid artery (PI CCA) and in internal carotid artery (PI ICA) were measured. BMI, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin levels, and parameters of thyroid function [TSH, free thyroxine (FT4) and antithyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAbs)] were assessed. The study and the control groups did not differ in age, BMI, waist circumference, lipid profile, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results are expressed as median (IQR). Treated HT group had higher FT4 levels than nontreated [17.13 (5.11) pmol/l vs. 14.7 (2.27) pmol/l; p=0.0011] and similar TSH [1.64 (2.08) IU/ml vs. 2.07 (3.14) IU/ml; p=0.5915]. PI CCA and PI ICA were higher in the study group than in controls (p=0.0224 and p=0.0477, respectively). The difference remained statistically significant for PI ICA and PI CCA after adjustment for other variables (coefficient=0.09487; standard error=0.04438; p=0.037 and coefficient=0.1786; standard error=0.0870; p=0.0449, respectively). CIMT and CEMT were similar in both groups (p=0.8746 and p=0.0712, respectively). Women with HT on L-T4 replacement therapy have increased PI in common and internal carotid arteries than nontreated euthyroid HT patients. Therefore, it seems that hypothyroidism, but not autoimmune thyroiditis per se, influences arterial stiffness.

  19. The Use of Fluid Mechanics to Predict Regions of Microscopic Thrombus Formation in Pulsatile VADs.

    PubMed

    Topper, Stephen R; Navitsky, Michael A; Medvitz, Richard B; Paterson, Eric G; Siedlecki, Christopher A; Slattery, Margaret J; Deutsch, Steven; Rosenberg, Gerson; Manning, Keefe B

    2014-03-01

    We compare the velocity and shear obtained from particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a pulsatile ventricular assist device (VAD) to further test our thrombus predictive methodology using microscopy data from an explanted VAD. To mimic physiological conditions in vitro, a mock circulatory loop is used with a blood analog that matched blood's viscoelastic behavior at 40% hematocrit. Under normal physiologic pressures and for a heart rate of 75 bpm, PIV data is acquired and wall shear maps are produced. The resolution of the PIV shear rate calculations are tested using the CFD and found to be in the same range. A bovine study, using a model of the 50 cc Penn State V-2 VAD, for 30 days at a constant beat rate of 75 beats per minute (bpm) provides the microscopic data whereby after the 30 days, the device is explanted and the sac surface analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and, after immunofluorescent labeling for platelets and fibrin, confocal microscopy. Areas are examined based on PIV measurements and CFD, with special attention to low shear regions where platelet and fibrin deposition are most likely to occur. Data collected within the outlet port in a direction normal to the front wall of the VAD shows that some regions experience wall shear rates less than 500 s(-1), which increases the likelihood of platelet and fibrin deposition. Despite only one animal study, correlations between PIV, CFD, and in vivo data show promise. Deposition probability is quantified by the thrombus susceptibility potential, a calculation to correlate low shear and time of shear with deposition.

  20. Flow in the well: computational fluid dynamics is essential in flow chamber construction

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Jörg; Frank, Wolfram; Schroten, Horst

    2007-01-01

    A perfusion system was developed to generate well defined flow conditions within a well of a standard multidish. Human vein endothelial cells were cultured under flow conditions and cell response was analyzed by microscopy. Endothelial cells became elongated and spindle shaped. As demonstrated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD), cells were cultured under well defined but time varying shear stress conditions. A damper system was introduced which reduced pulsatile flow when using volumetric pumps. The flow and the wall shear stress distribution were analyzed by CFD for the steady and unsteady flow field. Usage of the volumetric pump caused variations of the wall shear stresses despite the controlled fluid environment and introduction of a damper system. Therefore the use of CFD analysis and experimental validation is critical in developing flow chambers and studying cell response to shear stress. The system presented gives an effortless flow chamber setup within a 6-well standard multidish. PMID:19002993

  1. Dominance of the forward compression wave in determining pulsatile components of blood pressure: similarities between inotropic stimulation and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fok, Henry; Guilcher, Antoine; Brett, Sally; Jiang, Benyu; Li, Ye; Epstein, Sally; Alastruey, Jordi; Clapp, Brian; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2014-11-01

    Pulsatile components of blood pressure may arise from forward (ventricular generated) or backward wave travel in the arterial tree. The objective of this study was to determine the relative contributions of forward and backward waves to pulsatility. We used wave intensity and wave separation analysis to determine pulsatile components of blood pressure during inotropic and vasopressor stimulation by dobutamine and norepinephrine in normotensive subjects and compared pulse pressure components in hypertensive (mean±SD, 48.8±11.3 years; 165±26.6/99±14.2 mm Hg) and normotensive subjects (52.2±12.6 years; 120±14.2/71±8.2 mm Hg). Dobutamine (7.5 μg/kg per minute) increased the forward compression wave generated by the ventricle and increased pulse pressure from 36.8±3.7 to 59.0±3.4 mm Hg (mean±SE) but had no significant effect on mean arterial pressure or the midsystolic backward compression wave. By contrast, norepinephrine (50 ng/kg per minute) had no significant effect on the forward compression wave but increased the midsystolic backward compression wave. Despite this increase in the backward compression wave, and an increase in mean arterial pressure, norepinephrine increased central pulse pressure less than dobutamine (increases of 22.1±3.8 and 7.2±2.8 mm Hg for dobutamine and norepinephrine, respectively; P<0.02). An elevated forward wave component (mean±SE, 50.4±3.4 versus 35.2±1.8 mm Hg, in hypertensive and normotensive subjects, respectively; P<0.001) accounted for approximately two thirds of the total difference in central pulse pressures between hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Increased central pulse pressure during inotropic stimulation and in essential hypertension results primarily from the forward compression wave.

  2. Pulsatile Tinnitus due to a Tortuous Siphon-Like Internal Carotid Artery Successfully Treated by Arterial Remodeling.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Menovsky, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    A patient is described with a right-sided tortuous siphon-like extracranial internal carotid artery leading to highly distressing ipsilateral heart beat synchronous pulsatile tinnitus, scoring 9/10 measuring loudness. Dilating the balloon during the occlusion test in or distal to the siphon-like anomaly reduces the arterial pulsations. Subsequently, surgery is performed using Teflon as an external construct to straighten the siphon-like anomaly. Postoperatively, the pulsations improve to 5/10 in a standing position and disappear during a reclined position. By adding a hearing aid, the pulsations are almost completely gone during a standing position (1/10) and remain absent in a reclined position.

  3. Unsteady flow motions in the supraglottal region during phonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Dai, Hu

    2008-11-01

    The highly unsteady flow motions in the larynx are not only responsible for producing the fundamental frequency tone in phonation, but also have a significant contribution to the broadband noise in the human voice. In this work, the laryngeal flow is modeled either as an incompressible pulsatile jet confined in a two-dimensional channel, or a pressure-driven flow modulated by a pair of viscoelastic vocal folds through the flow--structure interaction. The flow in the supraglottal region is found to be dominated by large-scale vortices whose unsteady motions significantly deflect the glottal jet. In the flow--structure interaction, a hybrid model based on the immersed-boundary method is developed to simulate the flow-induced vocal fold vibration, which involves a three-dimensional vocal fold prototype and a two-dimensional viscous flow. Both the flow behavior and the vibratory characteristics of the vocal folds will be presented.

  4. Modeling Fluid Flows in Distensible Tubes for Applications in Hemodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descovich, X.; Pontrelli, G.; Melchionna, S.; Succi, S.; Wassertheurer, S.

    2013-05-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for the simulation of hemodynamic flows in the presence of compliant walls. The new scheme is based on the use of a continuous bounce-back boundary condition, as combined with a dynamic constitutive relation between the flow pressure at the wall and the resulting wall deformation. The method is demonstrated for the case of two-dimensional (axisymmetric) pulsatile flows, showing clear evidence of elastic wave propagation of the wall perturbation in response to the fluid pressure. The extension of the present two-dimensional axisymmetric formulation to more general three-dimensional geometries is currently under investigation.

  5. Transmastoid reshaping of the sigmoid sinus: preliminary study of a novel surgical method to quiet pulsatile tinnitus of an unrecognized vascular origin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Sun; Kim, So Young; Choi, Hyunseok; Koo, Ja-Won; Yoo, Shin-Young; An, Gwang Seok; Lee, Kyogu; Choi, Inyong; Song, Jae-Jin

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE A dominant sigmoid sinus with focal dehiscence or thinning (DSSD/T) of the overlying bony wall is a commonly encountered, but frequently overlooked, cause of vascular pulsatile tinnitus (VPT). Also, the pathophysiological mechanism of sound perception in patients with VPT remains poorly understood. In the present study, a novel surgical method, termed transmastoid SS-reshaping surgery, was introduced to ameliorate VPT in patients with DSSD/T. The authors reviewed a case series, analyzed the surgical outcomes, and suggested the pathophysiological mechanism of sound perception. The theoretical background underlying VPT improvement after transmastoid SS-reshaping surgery was also explored. METHODS Eight patients with VPT that was considered attributable to DSSD/T underwent transmastoid SS-reshaping surgery between February 2010 and February 2015. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 9.5 months (range 4-13 months). Transmastoid SS-reshaping surgery featured simple mastoidectomy, partial compression of the SS using harvested cortical bone chips, and reinforcement of the bony SS wall with bone cement. Perioperative medical records, imaging results, and audiological findings were comprehensively reviewed. RESULTS In 7 of the 8 patients (87.5%), the VPT abated immediately after surgery. Statistically significant improvements in tinnitus loudness and distress were evident on numeric rating scales. Three patients with preoperative ipsilesional low-frequency hearing loss exhibited postoperative improvements in their low-frequency hearing thresholds. No major postoperative complications were encountered except in the first subject, who experienced increased intracranial pressure postoperatively. This subsided after a revision operation for partial decompression of the SS. CONCLUSIONS Transmastoid SS-reshaping surgery may be a good surgical option in patients with DSSD/T, a previously unrecognized cause of VPT. Redistribution of severely asymmetrical blood flow

  6. Systemic Pulsatile Pressure in Type II Endoleaks After Stent Grafting of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard Schmenger, Patrick; Dueber, Christoph; Neufang, Achim; Thelen, Manfred

    2003-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate pressure and maximum rate of rise of systolic pressure (peak dP/dt) in completely excluded aneurysms and endoleaks to determine the hemodynamic impact of endoleaks. Methods: In mongrel dogs (n =36) experimental aneurysms were created by insertion of a patch (portion of rectus abdomen is muscle sheath) into the infrarenalaorta. In group I (n 18), all aortic branches of the aneurysm were ligated and all aneurysms were completely excluded by stent grafts. Group II (n = 18) consisted of aneurysms with patent aortic side branches that represented sources of endoleaks.One week (n = 12), six weeks (n = 12),and six months (n = 12) after stent grafting,hemodynamic measurements were obtained in thrombosed aneurysms and proved endoleaks. Systemic blood pressure and intraaneurysmal pressure were simultaneously measured and the respective peak dP/dt were computed. Results: At the six-month follow-up, the systolic-pressure ratio (intraaneurysmatic pressure: systemic pressure)was significantly increased in endoleaks compared to non-perfused areas(0.879 {+-} 0.042 versus 0.438 {+-} 0.176, p <0.01, group II) or completely excluded aneurysms (0.385 {+-}0.221, group I). Peak dP/dt ratio (intraaneurysmal peak dP/dt: systemic peak dP/dt) was 0.922 {+-} 0.154 in endoleaks, compared to 0.084 {+-} 0.080 in non-perfused areas (group II, p <0.01), and was 0.146 {+-} 0.121 in completely excluded aneurysms (group I). The diastolic-pressure ratio was also increased inendoleaks compared to non-perfused areas (0.929 {+-} 0.088 versus 0.655 {+-} 0.231, p < 0.01, group II) or completely excluded aneurysms (0.641 {+-} 0.278, group I). In excluded aneurysms, pressure exposure declined as the length of the follow-up period increased. Conclusion: Type II endoleaks transmit pulsatile pressure of near systemic level and indicate insufficient treatment result. In contrast, complete endovascular exclusion of aneurysms results in significantly reduced pressure exposure.

  7. Flow induction by rotary jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garris, Charles A.; Foa, Joseph V.

    Theoretical analyses of generalized flow induction were carried out which showed that the least dissipative mode of flow induction is the cryptosteady mode. Studies were carried out on the energetics of vortex formation showing that in pulsatile thrust augmentors, considerable energy is carried away as kinetic energy of rotation. Parametric studies were conducted on rotary-jet thrust augmentation yielding a best thrust augmentation of 1.97. Theoretical and experimental studies on the utilization of propagating stall were conducted. The promise of eliminating moving parts for the rotary-jet thrust augmentor was explored and parametric testing was conducted to establish conditions for obtaining stall. Experiments showed, however, that stall is relatively difficult to obtain in configurations compatible with the rotary jet thrust augmentor.

  8. Oxytocin evokes a pulsatile PGE2 release from ileum mucosa and is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dawei; Zhao, Junhan; Wang, Haoyi; An, Ning; Zhou, Yuping; Fan, Jiahui; Luo, Junwen; Su, Wenlong; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2015-07-10

    We measured the short-circuit current (Isc) in rat ileum mucosa to identify the effect of oxytocin (OT) on mucosal secretion in small intestine. We identified a COX-2-derived pulsatile PGE2 release triggered by OT in rat ileum mucosa. OT receptors (OTR) are expressed in intestine crypt epithelial cells. Notably, OT evoked a dynamic change of [Ca(2+)]i in ileum crypts, which was responsible for this pulsatile release of PGE2. OT ameliorated 5-FU-, radiation- or DSS- induced injury in vivo, including the improvement of weight loss, reduced villus height and impaired survival of crypt transit-amplifying cells as well as crypt. Moreover, these protective effects of OT against intestinal injury were eliminated by coadministration of a selective inhibitor of PGE2, AH6809. Our findings strongly suggest that OT, a novel and important regulator of intestine mucosa barrier, is required for repair of intestinal epithelium after injury. Considering that OT is an FDA-approved drug, this work reveals a potential novel and safe way to combat or prevent chemo-radiotherapy induced intestine injury or to treat IBD.

  9. Pulsatile and sexually dimorphic secretion of luteinizing hormone in the human infant on the day of birth.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, F; Devlieger, H; Veldhuis, J D

    1992-11-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is operational and sexually dimorphic in the mammalian fetus and newborn. We examined the dynamics of human luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in five male and three female infants on the day of birth, after 34-41 wk of gestation. The infants were polycythemic, and blood samples were obtained every 20 min for 160 to 360 min during a therapeutic, standardized, isovolumetric, partial exchange transfusion. Serum LH was measured by an immunoradiometric assay that does not cross-react with human chorionic gonadotropin. The serum profiles of LH presented a striking sex dimorphism with elevated LH levels in male compared with female newborns. Deconvolution analysis of all male LH profiles was consistent with a high-frequency, pulsatile secretory pattern. Testosterone, measured in a pooled serum sample of each infant, was 10-fold higher in male than in female newborns. These results document pulsatile and sexually dimorphic secretion of LH in the human infant as early as the first day of postnatal life. It is possible that the augmented LH secretion in the male newborn participates in the neonatal rise of the serum testosterone concentration.

  10. Induction of ovulation with subcutaneous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone: correlation with body weight and other parameters.

    PubMed

    Thomas, A K; Mander, J; Hale, J; Walstab, J; Forrest, M S

    1989-05-01

    We treated 21 anovulatory infertile patients with subcutaneous pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) administered via a syringe pump. Response to treatment was assessed by urinary estrogen excretion and ultrasound measurement of follicular growth. Ten patients ovulated and 8 subsequently conceived, for a total of 10 pregnancies. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was not administered routinely, but two patients required hCG to induce follicular rupture. The majority of the patients who conceived had a body mass index (BMI) of less than 21 and a luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone ratio of less than 1. Conversely, those patients with either elevated BMI or LH or both generally failed to respond satisfactorily to this treatment. It is suggested that pulsatile GnRH is most likely to succeed in inducing ovulation if the BMI is less than 21 and the LH is normal, but is unlikely to be successful if there is both an elevated LH and a BMI of greater than 25. Between these two extremes, the response is variable and a therapeutic trial may be appropriate. PMID:2495993

  11. Changes in Bone Mineral Density and Metabolic Parameters after Pulsatile Gonadorelin Treatment in Young Men with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen-Xi; Tang, Song-Tao; Zhang, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of osteoporosis in young men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) and to investigate the changes of BMD and metabolic parameters, a total of 22 young male patients with HH and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. BMD, biochemical, and hormonal parameters were measured in two groups. Osteoporosis was more prevalent in HH patients (45.45%) than the control subjects (10.00%) (P < 0.001). The patients with HH had lower BMD in lumbar spine 2–4, femoral neck, and total hip (P < 0.001, for all) and higher fasting insulin (P = 0.001), HOMA-IR (P = 0.002), and SHBG (P < 0.001) compared to the controls. After 6 months of pulsatile gonadorelin treatment, BMI (P = 0.021) and BMD in lumbar spine 2–4, femoral neck, and total hip (P = 0.002, P = 0.003, and P = 0.003, resp.) increased dramatically and total cholesterol (P = 0.034), fasting insulin (P = 0.025), HOMA-IR (P = 0.021), and SHBG (P = 0.001) decreased significantly in HH patients. The study shows a higher prevalence of osteoporosis in young men with HH. Long-term pulsatile gonadorelin treatment indicates a positive effect on BMD and metabolic parameters of HH patients. PMID:26417369

  12. Measurements of flow structure interaction in a plaqued artificial artery using an index matched flow facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash; Brock, Larry; Sheng, Jian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the experiment is to study the flow structure interaction in an arterial model with a simulated plaque inside a closed loop index matched pulsatile flow facility. The test section is 24.5 inches long 6 inches wide. The experimental models are compliant polymer (PDMS) tubes having an outer diameter of 9 mm and a wall thickness of 1 mm. The plaque on the models are simulated by means of a radially asymmetric bump. Both flow and polymeric structures are doped with different particles and imaged with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method. To minimize the optical distortion near liquid solid interface, the facility is fully index matched with NaI at 40% by weight. A suite of analysis procedures quantifying complex interactions including solid-fluid phase separation, near wall flow analysis, and wall shear stress approximation as well as wall deformation quantification, have been developed and applied to study the healthy and plaqued artificial arteries in steady and pulsatile flow conditions. 3D ensemble velocity fields, wall shear stress distributions and corresponding strain deformations will be presented.

  13. Effect of branchings on blood flow in the system of human coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wiwatanapataphee, Benchawan; Wu, Yong Hong; Siriapisith, Thanongchai; Nuntadilok, Buraskorn

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the behavior of the pulsatile blood flow in the system of human coronary arteries. Blood is modeled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid. The transient phenomena of blood flow through the coronary system are simulated by solving the three dimensional unsteady state Navier-Stokes equations and continuity equation. Distributions of velocity, pressure and wall shear stresses are determined in the system under pulsatile conditions on the boundaries. Effect of branching vessel on the flow problem is investigated. The numerical results show that blood pressure in the system with branching vessels of coronary arteries is lower than the one in the system with no branch. The magnitude of wall shear stresses rises at the bifurcation. PMID:22229404

  14. Computer simulation of blood flow patterns in arteries of various geometries.

    PubMed

    Wong, P K; Johnston, K W; Ethier, C R; Cobbold, R S

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the application of computer simulation to the study of blood flow through arteries and to demonstrate the relationship between geometry of the vessels and local flow patterns. A finite element computer program was developed to simulate steady and pulsatile blood flow by solving the continuity and Navier-Stokes equations. The accuracy of the computational method has been confirmed by comparing the numeric results to analytic solutions and to published experimental data from physical models. The results are presented as plots of the velocity vectors, streamlines, and pressure contours. The computational model has been applied to illustrate flow patterns in the following situations: pulsatile flow in a cylindric artery and an artery with an axisymmetric stenosis, steady flow in cylindric arteries with stenoses of varying severity and with different flow rates, steady flow in an artery containing a fusiform aneurysm, steady flow in a two-dimensional model of a symmetric Y-shaped bifurcation, and steady flow in a two-dimensional model of the carotid bifurcation. Regions that are commonly associated with arterial disease often coincide with zones of reversed or stagnant flow. In conclusion, the versatility and feasibility of computational simulation of blood flow is illustrated by this study. Although this mathematic model is a simplification of the real flow phenomena, it yields results that provide useful insights into the understanding of local blood flow patterns for a variety of complex geometries.

  15. Retrograde flow detection in the radial artery as a means to assess palmar collateral circulation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Hack, W W; Leenhoven, T; vd Lei, J; Okken, A

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to determine whether Doppler ultrasound can be used in newborn infants to assess the adequacy of palmar collateral circulation. Retrograde flow in the radial artery, distal to the site of manual occlusion of the vessel, was studied by Doppler technique. Forty-seven newborn infants, who underwent percutaneous radial artery cannulation were studied. Prior to cannulation palmar collateral circulation was tested in each infant, using the timed Allen test and was considered to be adequate. Pulsatile retrograde flow could be demonstrated in 11 out of 47 infants, but not in 36 of the 47 studied. During the period of cannulation none of the infants showed any sign of vascular insufficiency of the hand. It can be concluded that in newborn infants, the detection of pulsatile retrograde flow in the radial artery, using a Doppler flow meter, does not appear to have advantages over the Allen test as an indicator of adequate palmar collateral circulation.

  16. Effects of unsteadiness and non-Newtonian rheology on blood flow through a tapered time-variant stenotic artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, A.; Ali, N.; Sajid, M.; Hayat, T.

    2015-03-01

    A two-dimensional model is used to analyze the unsteady pulsatile flow of blood through a tapered artery with stenosis. The rheology of the flowing blood is captured by the constitutive equation of Carreau model. The geometry of the time-variant stenosis has been used to carry out the present analysis. The flow equations are set up under the assumption that the lumen radius is sufficiently smaller than the wavelength of the pulsatile pressure wave. A radial coordinate transformation is employed to immobilize the effect of the vessel wall. The resulting partial differential equations along with the boundary and initial conditions are solved using finite difference method. The dimensionless radial and axial velocity, volumetric flow rate, resistance impedance and wall shear stress are analyzed for normal and diseased artery with particular focus on variation of these quantities with non-Newtonian parameters.

  17. Frequency-Dependent Regulation of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone β by Pulsatile Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Is Mediated by Functional Antagonism of bZIP Transcription Factors ▿

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Nick A.; Xu, Shuyun; Lacza, Charlemagne T.; Carroll, Rona S.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2010-01-01

    Oscillatory synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), under the control of pulsatile hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), is essential for normal reproductive development and fertility. The molecular mechanisms by which various patterns of pulsatile GnRH regulate gonadotrope responsiveness remain poorly understood. In contrast to the α and LHβ subunit genes, FSHβ subunit transcription is preferentially stimulated at low rather than high frequencies of pulsatile GnRH. In this study, mutation of a cyclic AMP response element (CRE) within the FSHβ promoter resulted in the loss of preferential GnRH stimulation at low pulse frequencies. We hypothesized that high GnRH pulse frequencies might stimulate a transcriptional repressor(s) to attenuate the action of CRE binding protein (CREB) and show that inducible cAMP early repressor (ICER) fulfills such a role. ICER was not detected under basal conditions, but pulsatile GnRH stimulated ICER to a greater extent at high than at low pulse frequencies. ICER binds to the FSHβ CRE site to reduce CREB occupation and abrogates both maximal GnRH stimulation and GnRH pulse frequency-dependent effects on FSHβ transcription. These data suggest that ICER production antagonizes the stimulatory action of CREB to attenuate FSHβ transcription at high GnRH pulse frequencies, thereby playing a critical role in regulating cyclic reproductive function. PMID:20008557

  18. Complications of Continuous-Flow Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Madanieh, Raef; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vatti, Satya K; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), more importantly the continuous-flow subclass, have revolutionized the medical field by improving New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class status, quality of life, and survival rates in patients with advanced systolic heart failure. From the first pulsatile device to modern day continuous-flow devices, LVADs have continued to improve, but they are still associated with several complications. These complications include infection, bleeding, thrombosis, hemolysis, aortic valvular dysfunction, right heart failure, and ventricular arrhythmias. In this article, we aim to review these complications to understand the most appropriate approach for their prevention and to discuss the available therapeutic modalities. PMID:26052234

  19. Different effects of subnormal levels of progesterone on the pulsatile and surge mode secretion of luteinizing hormone in ovariectomized goats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungjoon; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2003-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that endocrinological threshold levels of progesterone that induce negative feedback effects on the pulsatile and surge modes of LH secretion are different. Our approach was to examine the effects of subnormal progesterone concentrations on LH secretion. Long-term ovariectomized Shiba goats that had received implants of silastic capsules containing estradiol were divided into three groups. The high progesterone (high P) group received a subcutaneous implant of a silastic packet (50 x 70 mm) containing progesterone, and the low progesterone (low P) group received a similar implant of a small packet (25 x 40 mm) containing progesterone. The control (non-P) group received no treatment with exogenous progesterone. Blood samples were collected daily throughout the experiment for the analysis of gonadal steroid hormone levels and at 10-min intervals for 8 h on Days 0, 3, and 7 (Day 0: just before progesterone treatment) for analysis of the pulsatile frequency of LH secretion. Then estradiol was infused into the jugular vein of all animals at a rate of 3 microg/h for 16 h on Day 8 to determine whether an LH surge was induced. Blood samples were collected every 2 h from 4 h before the start of the estradiol infusion until 48 h after the start of the infusion. In each group, the mean +/- SEM concentration after progesterone implant treatment was 3.3 +/- 0.1 ng/ml for the high P group, 1.1 +/- 0.1 ng/ml for the low P group, and <0.1 ng/ml for the non-P group, concentrations similar to the luteal levels, subluteal levels, and follicular phase levels of the normal estrous cycle, respectively. The estradiol concentration ranged from 4 to 8 pg/ml after estradiol capsule implants in all groups. The LH pulse frequency was significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed on Day 3 (6.2 +/- 0.5 pulses/8 h) and on Day 7 (2.6 +/- 0.9 pulses/8 h) relative to Day 0 (9.0 +/- 0.5 pulses/8 h) in the high P group. In both the low P and non-P groups, however, the changes

  20. The linear relationship between transcranial Doppler pulsatility indices and intracranial pressure is influenced by traumatic brain injury and vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Thomas C; Sherma, Arun K; McArthur, David L; Hu, Xiao; Hanuscin, Christopher R; Furreedan, Mehjabeen S; Hovda, David A; Vespa, Paul M; Martin, Neil A

    2012-01-01

    The pulsatility index (PI) and the intracranial -pressure (ICP) may or may not be correlated; the evidence to date differs widely. A study of multiple measures of PI and the corresponding ICP in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) showed that some of the relationships were moderately strong when calculated as conventional Pearson correlation coefficients. However, that method makes no adjustment of any kind for statistical outliers in the data. With the TBI patients demonstrating a large fraction of skewed measurements, a set of robust correlations were calculated that demonstrated that the apparent relationships between PI and ICP were entirely attributable to the statistical outliers. We conclude that the fundamental relationship of PI to ICP is weakly positive at best.

  1. Piecewise function parameters as responses of the design of experiment in the development of a pulsatile release chronopharmaceutical system.

    PubMed

    Vonica-Gligor, Andreea Loredana; Tomuţă, Ioan; Leucuţa, Sorin E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a pulsatile release system with metoprolol for chronotherapeutical use by coating swellable mini-tablets with Eudragit RS. To study the influence of the formulation factors (amount of coating polymer, plasticizer percentage in film coating and swelling agent percentage in mini-tablets), a Box-Behnken design of experiment (DoE) was used. To evaluate the influence of the studied factors on the sigmoid shape of the dissolution profile, piecewise function parameters were used as the responses of DoE. The results show that higher concentrations of coating polymer and higher concentrations of plasticizer polymer led to a thicker and more elastic polymeric film, which led to a delay in drug release. Using the parameters of the piecewise function as DoE responses, an optimum formulation with a sigmoid shape dissolution profile and a 2.5-h lag time followed by rapid drug release were obtained. PMID:27279062

  2. Developmental changes in hypothalamic Kiss1 expression during activation of the pulsatile release of luteinising hormone in maturing ewe lambs.

    PubMed

    Redmond, J S; Baez-Sandoval, G M; Spell, K M; Spencer, T E; Lents, C A; Williams, G L; Amstalden, M

    2011-09-01

    Onset of puberty is characterised by a marked increase in the frequency of release of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinising hormone (LH). The Kiss1 gene plays a critical role in pubertal development, and its product, kisspeptin, stimulates GnRH and LH release. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Kiss1 gene expression in the preoptic area (POA) and hypothalamus increases during maturation of the reproductive neuroendocrine axis in association with increased LH pulsatility. Ovariectomised, oestradiol-replaced lambs were euthanised at 25, 30 and 35 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected before euthanasia to characterise the pattern of LH release. Kiss1 mRNA was detected in coronal sections of the POA and hypothalamus and Kiss1-expressing cells were identified on the basis of silver grain density. The mean number of Kiss1-expressing cells in the POA/periventricular (PeV) areas increased from 25 to 30 weeks of age. No further increase at 35 weeks of age was observed, and the changes in Kiss1 expression in the POA/PeV were independent of changes in LH pulse frequency. The mean number of Kiss1-expressing cells in the arcuate (ARC) nucleus did not differ among age groups, although it was greater in the middle ARC of lambs exhibiting increased frequency of LH release. The density of silver grains per cell did not differ among groups in any of the areas studied. The results obtained indicate that the Kiss1 gene is activated in the POA/PeV and ARC of ewe lambs during juvenile development, and that kisspeptin neurones in the middle ARC, in particular, are involved in the acceleration of pulsatile LH release during maturation of the reproductive neuroendocrine axis in ewe lambs.

  3. Pulsatile motion of the trabecular meshwork in healthy human subjects quantified by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Shen, Tueng T.; Johnstone, Murray; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous leaves the anterior chamber of eye by passing through the trabecular meshwork (TM), a tissue thought to be responsible for increased outflow resistance in glaucoma. Motion assessment could permit characterization of TM biomechanical properties necessary to maintain intra-ocular pressure (IOP) within a narrow homeostatic range. In this paper, we report the first in vivo identification of TM motion in humans. We use a phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) system with sub-nanometer sensitivity to detect and image dynamic pulse-induced TM motion. To permit quantification of TM motion and relationships we develop and apply a phase compensation algorithm permitting removal of the otherwise evitable confounding effects of bulk motion. Twenty healthy human eyes from 10 subjects are imaged. The results permit visualization of pulsatile TM motion visualization by PhS-OCT; correlation with the digital/cardiac pulse is highly significant. The correlation permits assessment of the phase lag and time delay between TM motion and the cardiac pulse. In this study, we find that the digital pulse leads the pulsatile TM motion by a mean phase of 3.53 ± 0.48 rad and a mean time of 0.5 ± 0.14 s in the fundamental frequency. A significant linear relationship is present between the TM phase lag and the heart rate (p value < 0.05). The TM phase lag is also affected by age, the relationship not quite reaching significance in the current study. PhS-OCT reveals pulse-induced motion of the TM that may provide insights into the biomechanics of the tissues involved in the regulation of IOP. PMID:24156063

  4. Pulsed-injection method for blood flow velocity measurement in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C G; Plewes, D B

    1986-08-01

    The pulsed-injection method for measuring the velocity of blood flow in intraarterial digital subtraction angiography is described. With this technique, contrast material is injected at a pulsing frequency as high as 15 Hz, so that two or more boluses can be imaged simultaneously. The velocity of flow is determined by measuring the spacing between the boluses and multiplying it by the pulsing frequency. Results of tests with phantoms correlate well with flow measurements obtained with a graduated cylinder for velocities ranging from 8 to 60 cm/sec. The potential of the method for time-dependent velocity measurement has been demonstrated with simulated pulsatile flows. PMID:3523598

  5. Measurement of coronary flow using high-frequency intravascular ultrasound imaging and pulsed Doppler velocimetry: in vitro feasibility studies.

    PubMed

    Grayburn, P A; Willard, J E; Haagen, D R; Brickner, M E; Alvarez, L G; Eichhorn, E J

    1992-01-01

    The recent development of intravascular ultrasound imaging offers the potential to measure blood flow as the product of vessel cross-sectional area and mean velocity derived from pulsed Doppler velocimetry. To determine the feasibility of this approach for measuring coronary artery flow, we constructed a flow model of the coronary circulation that allowed flow to be varied by adjusting downstream resistance and aortic driving pressure. Assessment of intracoronary flow velocity was accomplished using a commercially available end-mounted pulsed Doppler catheter. Cross-sectional area of the coronary artery was measured using a 20 MHz mechanical imaging transducer mounted on a 4.8 F catheter. The product of mean velocity and cross-sectional area was compared with coronary flow measured by timed collection in a graduated cylinder by linear regression analysis. Excellent correlations were obtained between coronary flow calculated by the ultrasound method and measured coronary flow at both ostial (r = 0.99, standard error of the estimate [SEE] = 13.9 ml/min) and distal (r = 0.98, SEE = 23.0 ml/min) vessel locations under steady flow conditions. During pulsatile flow, calculated and measured coronary flow also correlated well for ostial (r = 0.98, SEE = 12.7 ml/min) and downstream (r = 0.99, SEE = 9.3 ml/min) locations. That the SEE was lower for pulsatile as compared with steady flow may be explained by the blunting of the flow profile across the vessel lumen by the acceleration phase of pulsatile flow. These data establish the feasibility of measuring coronary artery blood flow using intravascular ultrasound imaging and pulsed Doppler techniques. PMID:1531416

  6. Mini hemoreliable axial flow LVAD with magnetic bearings: part 2: design description.

    PubMed

    Goldowsky, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives the preliminary configuration of the flow geometry used to eliminate bearing thrombus by forced pressure wash-out of the bearing gaps. This left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is physiologically controllable without extraneous sensors based on the measurement of pump differential pressure using the magnetic bearings. Knowing the LVAD differential pressure allows safe cyclic variation of impeller rpm with feedback around differential pressure, which obtains desired pressure pulsatility. Flow pulsatility is known to be of major benefit for minimizing thrombus in both the pump and arteries. It also results in improved perfusion of many organs. The ability of a conventional virtual zero power feedback loop to axially control the bearing in a long-term drift free manor is also explained.

  7. Lagrangian Coherent Structures in Blood Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadden, Shawn

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of fluid transport is particularly compelling in understanding the function of cardiovascular processes. Transport of chemicals, cells, and compounds in the vascular system is influenced by local flow structures in large vessels. Local flow features can also induce cell-signaling pathways and biologic response critical to maintaining health or disease progression. Complex vessel geometry, the pulsatile pumping of blood, and low Reynolds number turbulence leads to complex flow features in large vessels. However, we are gaining the ability to study transport in large vessels with unprecedented detail, which is in part allowing us to broaden the ``shear-centric'' view of hemodynamics. In this talk we will describe the application of computational fluid mechanics and the computation of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) to study transport in various cardiovascular applications. We will discuss some of the challenges of this work and some results of computing LCS in several regions of the vascular system. In collaboration with Charles Taylor, Stanford University.

  8. Basic flow structure in saccular aneurysms: a flow visualization study.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H J; Poll, A; Liepsch, D; Reulen, H J

    1987-01-01

    Basic flow patterns were investigated in a set of glass aneurysm models by means of flow visualization methods. Dye injection and streaming double refraction were used to visualize flow. The circulation inside lateral aneurysms arising at a 90 degree angle from a straight parent conduit could not be visualized by the dye-injection technique but could be demonstrated by streaming double refraction. The inflow was seen to arise from the downstream lip of the orifice and to project to the dome of the aneurysm. Backflow to the parent conduit took place along the walls of the aneurysm. In aneurysms located at bifurcations, flow characteristics depended on the geometry of the bifurcation and the flow ratio between the branches. Relatively little intra-aneurysmal flow was demonstrated in side branch-related aneurysms arising distal to an asymmetric 90 degrees bifurcation of the type encountered at the junction of the internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries. Stagnation of flow at the neck and little intra-aneurysmal circulation were found with terminal aneurysms of the basilar bifurcation type if the outflow through the branches was symmetric. With asymmetric outflow, however, or if the axis of the aneurysm did not coincide with that of the afferent vessel, an active rotation developed in these aneurysms. The size of the aneurysm had no influence on the basic pattern of intra-aneurysmal circulation. The use of pulsatile perfusion did not significantly alter the basic flow patterns observed with steady flow. Locally disturbed laminar flow was observed in certain models at physiological Reynold's numbers, but there were no signs of fully developed turbulence.

  9. 4D-Flow validation, numerical and experimental framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Kurt; Liu, Haining; Canton, Gador; Aliseda, Alberto; Yuan, Chun

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a group of assessment metrics of new 4D MRI flow sequences, an imaging modality that allows for visualization of three-dimensional pulsatile flow in the cardiovascular anatomy through time-resolved three-dimensional blood velocity measurements from cardiac-cycle synchronized MRI acquisition. This is a promising tool for clinical assessment but lacks a robust validation framework. First, 4D-MRI flow in a subject's stenotic carotid bifurcation is compared with a patient-specific CFD model using two different boundary condition methods. Second, Particle Image Velocimetry in a patient-specific phantom is used as a benchmark to compare the 4D-MRI in vivo measurements and CFD simulations under the same conditions. Comparison of estimated and measureable flow parameters such as wall shear stress, fluctuating velocity rms, Lagrangian particle residence time, will be discussed, with justification for their biomechanics relevance and the insights they can provide on the pathophysiology of arterial disease: atherosclerosis and intimal hyperplasia. Lastly, the framework is applied to a new sequence to provide a quantitative assessment. A parametric analysis on the carotid bifurcation pulsatile flow conditions will be presented and an accuracy assessment provided.

  10. Luminal flow patterns dictate arterial drug deposition in stent-based delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kolachalama, Vijaya B.; Tzafriri, Abraham R.; Arifin, Davis Y.; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2010-01-01

    Endovascular stents reside in a dynamic flow environment and yet the impact of flow on arterial drug deposition after stent-based delivery is only now emerging. We employed computational fluid dynamic modeling tools to investigate the influence of luminal flow patterns on arterial drug deposition and distribution. Flow imposes recirculation zones distal and proximal to the stent strut that extend the coverage of tissue absorption of eluted drug and induce asymmetry in tissue drug distribution. Our analysis now explains how the disparity in sizes of the two recirculation zones and the asymmetry in drug distribution are determined by a complex interplay of local flow and strut geometry. When temporal periodicity was introduced as a model of pulsatile flow, the net luminal flow served as an index of flow-mediated spatio-temporal tissue drug uptake. Dynamically changing luminal flow patterns are intrinsic to the coronary arterial tree. Coronary drug eluting stents should be appropriately considered where luminal flow, strut design and pulsatility have direct effects on tissue drug uptake after local delivery. PMID:18926864

  11. Ultrasonic detection of cardiovascular flow disturbances.

    PubMed

    Winter, D C; Wells, M K; Morgan, R J

    1976-01-01

    Blood flow that is disturbed or turbulent may have a significant effect on the development of cardiovascular disease. A method is presented here for detecting periods of disturbed flow using autocorrelograms of the audio signal from a pulsed ultrasound Doppler velocity meter (PUDVM). Autocorrelograms describe quantitatively how the form of a signal changes over time. We produced steady laminar and turbulent pipe flow in a hydraulic test tank, and computed autocorrelograms of the audio signal of the centerline velocity as detected by the PUDVM using fast Fourier transform techniques. We have shown that the autocorrelation coefficient averaged over a short length of time (64 ms) is significantly higher for laminar than for turbulent flow. We have also produced pulsatile flow in our hydraulic tank and computed the mean autocorrelation coefficient at different phases of the flow cycle. The regions of disturbed and undisturbed flow were predicted from the steady flow results. The disturbed flow first appears during the period of the highest forward velocities. These results indicate that the mean autocorrelation coefficient can serve as an indicator of the presence of flow disturbances.

  12. Dogmas and controversies in the handling of nitrogenous wastes: 5-HT2-like receptors are involved in triggering pulsatile urea excretion in the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta.

    PubMed

    McDonald, M Danielle; Walsh, Patrick J

    2004-05-01

    When injected arterially, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) has been shown to elicit naturally sized urea pulse events in the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta. The goal of the present study was to determine which 5-HT receptor(s) was involved in mediating this serotonergic stimulation of the pulsatile excretion mechanism. Toadfish were surgically implanted with caudal arterial catheters and intraperitoneal catheters and injected with either 8-OH-DPAT (1 micro mol kg(-1)), a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist, alpha-methyl-5-HT (1 micro mol kg(-1)), a 5-HT(2) receptor agonist, or ketanserin, a 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 micro mol kg(-1)) plus alpha-methyl-5-HT. 8-OH-DPAT injection did not mediate an increase in urea excretion, ruling out the involvement of 5-HT(1A) receptors in pulsatile excretion. However, within 5 min, alpha-methyl-5-HT injection caused an increase in the excretion of urea in >95% (N=27) of the fish injected, with an average pulse size of 652+/-102 micro mol N kg(-1) (N=26). With alpha-methyl-5-HT injection there was no corresponding increase in ammonia or [(3)H]PEG 4000 permeability. Urea pulses elicited by alpha-methyl-5-HT were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by the 5-HT(2) receptor antagonist ketanserin, which at low doses caused a significant inhibition of pulse size and at higher doses significantly inhibited the occurrence of pulsatile excretion altogether. However, neither 8-OH-DPAT nor alpha-methyl 5-HT injection had an effect on plasma cortisol or plasma urea concentrations. These findings suggest the involvement of a 5-HT(2)-like receptor in the regulation of pulsatile urea excretion. PMID:15143134

  13. Rectification of pulsatile stress on soft tissues: a mechanism for normal-pressure hydrocephalus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalikop, Shreyas; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2011-11-01

    Hydrocephalus is a pathological condition of the brain that occurs when cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) accumulates excessively in the brain cavities, resulting in compression of the brain parenchyma. Counter-intuitively, normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) does not show elevated pressure differences across the compressed parenchyma. We investigate the effects of nonlinear tissue mechanics and periodic driving in this system. The latter is due to the cardiac cycle, which provides significant intracranial pressure and volume flow rate fluctuations. Nonlinear rectification of the periodic driving within a model of fluid flow in poroelastic material can lead to compression or expansion of the parenchyma, and this effect does not rely on changes in the mean intracranial pressure. The rectification effects can occur gradually over several days, in agreement with clinical studies of NPH.

  14. Role of phosphodiesterases in the shaping of sub-plasma-membrane cAMP oscillations and pulsatile insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Tian, Geng; Sågetorp, Jenny; Xu, Yunjian; Shuai, Hongyan; Degerman, Eva; Tengholm, Anders

    2012-11-01

    Specificity and versatility in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signalling are governed by the spatial localisation and temporal dynamics of the signal. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important for shaping cAMP signals by hydrolyzing the nucleotide. In pancreatic β-cells, glucose triggers sub-plasma-membrane cAMP oscillations, which are important for insulin secretion, but the mechanisms underlying the oscillations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of different PDEs in the generation of cAMP oscillations by monitoring the concentration of cAMP in the sub-plasma-membrane space ([cAMP](pm)) with ratiometric evanescent wave microscopy in MIN6 cells or mouse pancreatic β-cells expressing a fluorescent translocation biosensor. The general PDE inhibitor IBMX increased [cAMP](pm), and whereas oscillations were frequently observed at 50 µM IBMX, 300 µM-1 mM of the inhibitor caused a stable increase in [cAMP](pm). The [cAMP](pm) was nevertheless markedly suppressed by the adenylyl cyclase inhibitor 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, indicating IBMX-insensitive cAMP degradation. Among IBMX-sensitive PDEs, PDE3 was most important for maintaining a low basal level of [cAMP](pm) in unstimulated cells. After glucose induction of [cAMP](pm) oscillations, inhibitors of PDE1, PDE3 and PDE4 inhibitors the average cAMP level, often without disturbing the [cAMP](pm) rhythmicity. Knockdown of the IBMX-insensitive PDE8B by shRNA in MIN6 cells increased the basal level of [cAMP](pm) and prevented the [cAMP](pm)-lowering effect of 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine after exposure to IBMX. Moreover, PDE8B-knockdown cells showed reduced glucose-induced [cAMP](pm) oscillations and loss of the normal pulsatile pattern of insulin secretion. It is concluded that [cAMP](pm) oscillations in β-cells are caused by periodic variations in cAMP generation, and that several PDEs, including PDE1, PDE3 and the IBMX-insensitive PDE8B, are required for shaping the sub-membrane cAMP signals and pulsatile insulin release.

  15. Effect of Deletion of Ghrelin-O-Acyltransferase on the Pulsatile Release of Growth Hormone in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, T Y; Ngo, S T; Veldhuis, J D; Jeffery, P L; Chopin, L K; Tschöp, M; Waters, M J; Tolle, V; Epelbaum, J; Chen, C; Steyn, F J

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin, a gut hormone originating from the post-translational cleavage of preproghrelin, is the endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a). Within the growth hormone (GH) axis, the biological activity of ghrelin requires octanoylation by ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT), conferring selective binding to the GHS-R1a receptor via acylated ghrelin. Complete loss of preproghrelin-derived signalling (through deletion of the Ghrl gene) contributes to a decline in peak GH release; however, the selective contribution of endogenous acyl-ghrelin to pulsatile GH release remains to be established. We assessed the pulsatile release of GH in ad lib. fed male germline goat(-/-) mice, extending measures to include mRNA for key hypothalamic regulators of GH release, and peripheral factors that are modulated relative to GH release. The amount of GH released was reduced in young goat(-/-) mice compared to age-matched wild-type mice, whereas pulse frequency and irregularity increased. Altered GH release did not coincide with alterations in hypothalamic Ghrh, Srif, Npy or Ghsr mRNA expression, or pituitary GH content, suggesting that loss of Goat does not compromise canonical mechanisms that contribute to pituitary GH production and release. Although loss of Goat resulted in an irregular pattern of GH release (characterised by an increase in the number of GH pulses observed during extended secretory events), this did not contribute to a change in the expression of sexually dimorphic GH-dependent liver genes. Of interest, circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were elevated in goat(-/-) mice. This rise in circulating levels of IGF-1 was correlated with an increase in GH pulse frequency, suggesting that sustained or increased IGF-1 release in goat(-/-) mice may occur in response to altered GH release patterning. Our observations demonstrate that germline loss of Goat alters GH release and patterning. Although the biological relevance of

  16. Effect of pulse frequency and amplitude of D-Trp6-luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone on the pulsatile secretion of prolactin and LH.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, T; Bordiu, E; Rubio, J A; Duran, A; Charro, A L

    1993-09-01

    This work analyzes the effect of the pulse amplitude and frequency of a potent LHRH analog, D-Trp6-LHRH, in a perfusion system of isolated rat pituitary cells. To this purpose, we studied the LH and PRL secretion in different conditions: basal secretion, secretion after increasing concentrations of D-Trp6-LHRL (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 nM) secretion in function of the pulses frequency (2,3, and 4 pulses per h) and amplitude (0.1, 1 and 10 nM). The principal findings were: 1. The basal LH and PRL secretions was pulsatile; 2. The stimulation of LH by the analog was not dose-dependent; 3. When more than 2 pulses per h were administered, a rapid desensitization of gonadotroph to release LH (at 20-30 min) occurred; 4. There was a loss of pulsatility of PRL secretion with an increase in the pulse frequency and amplitude of the D-Trp6-LHRH, which was produced parallelly to the desensitization of the gonadotroph to release LH. In summary, these findings suggest that a rapid loss of pulsatility of the PRL when the D-Trp6-LHRH pulse frequency and amplitude is increased might be due to the early desensitization of the gonadotroph to the analog.

  17. Actions of NPY, and its Y1 and Y2 receptors on pulsatile growth hormone secretion during the fed and fasted state.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lili; Tan, Hwee Y; Fogarty, Matthew J; Andrews, Zane B; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Herzog, Herbert; Steyn, Frederik J; Chen, Chen

    2014-12-01

    The hypothalamic NPY system plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Different biological actions of NPY are assigned to NPY receptor subtypes. Recent studies demonstrated a close relationship between food intake and growth hormone (GH) secretion; however, the mechanism through which endogenous NPY modulates GH release remains unknown. Moreover, conclusive evidence demonstrating a role for NPY and Y-receptors in regulating the endogenous pulsatile release of GH does not exist. We used genetically modified mice (germline Npy, Y1, and Y2 receptor knock-out mice) to assess pulsatile GH secretion under both fed and fasting conditions. Deletion of NPY did not impact fed GH release; however, it reversed the fasting-induced suppression of pulsatile GH secretion. The recovery of GH secretion was associated with a reduction in hypothalamic somatotropin release inhibiting factor (Srif; somatostatin) mRNA expression. Moreover, observations revealed a differential role for Y1 and Y2 receptors, wherein the postsynaptic Y1 receptor suppresses GH secretion in fasting. In contrast, the presynaptic Y2 receptor maintains normal GH output under long-term ad libitum-fed conditions. These data demonstrate an integrated neural circuit that modulates GH release relative to food intake, and provide essential information to address the differential roles of Y1 and Y2 receptors in regulating the release of GH under fed and fasting states.

  18. Beneficial Effect of Short Pretransplant Period of Hypothermic Pulsatile Perfusion of the Warm-Ischemic Kidney after Cold Storage: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Humanes, Blanca; Jado, Juan Carlos; Mojena, Marina; González-Nicolás, María Ángeles; del Cañizo, Juan Francisco; Lledó-García, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Warm ischemia (WI) produces a significant deleterious effect in potential kidney grafts. Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) seems to improve immediate graft function after transplant. Our aim was to analyze the effect of short pretransplant periods of pulsatile HMP on histology and renal injury in warm-ischemic kidneys. Twelve minipigs were used. WI was achieved in the right kidney by applying a vascular clamp for 45 min. After nephrectomy, autotransplant was performed following one of two strategies: cold storage of the kidneys or cold storage combined with perfusion in pulsatile HMP. The graft was removed early to study renal morphology, inflammation (fibrosis), and apoptosis. Proinflammatory activity and fibrosis were less pronounced after cold storage of the kidneys with HMP than after cold storage only. The use of HMP also decreased apoptosis compared with cold storage only. The detrimental effects on cells of an initial and prolonged period of WI seem to improve with a preservation protocol that includes a short period of pulsatile HMP after cold storage and immediately before the transplant, in comparison with cold storage only. PMID:27556029

  19. Hydrokinetic approach to large-scale cardiovascular blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchionna, Simone; Bernaschi, Massimo; Succi, Sauro; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mitsouras, Dimitris; Coskun, Ahmet U.; Feldman, Charles L.

    2010-03-01

    We present a computational method for commodity hardware-based clinical cardiovascular diagnosis based on accurate simulation of cardiovascular blood flow. Our approach leverages the flexibility of the Lattice Boltzmann method to implementation on high-performance, commodity hardware, such as Graphical Processing Units. We developed the procedure for the analysis of real-life cardiovascular blood flow case studies, namely, anatomic data acquisition, geometry and mesh generation, flow simulation and data analysis and visualization. We demonstrate the usefulness of our computational tool through a set of large-scale simulations of the flow patterns associated with the arterial tree of a patient which involves two hundred million computational cells. The simulations show evidence of a very rich and heterogeneous endothelial shear stress pattern (ESS), a quantity of recognized key relevance to the localization and progression of major cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, and set the stage for future studies involving pulsatile flows.

  20. The effects of recirculation flows on mass transfer from the arterial wall to flowing blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Deng, Xiaoyan; Fan, Yubo; Guidoin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Using a sudden tubular expansion as a model of an arterial stenosis, the effect of disturbed flow on mass transfer from the arterial wall to flowing blood was studied theoretically and tested experimentally by measuring the dissolution rate of benzoic acid disks forming the outer tube of a sudden tubular expansion. The study revealed that mass transfer from vessel wall to flowing fluid in regions of disturbed flow is independent of wall shear rates. The rate of mass transfer is significantly higher in regions of disturbed flow with a local maximum around the reattachment point where the wall shear rate is zero. The experimental study also revealed that the rate of mass transfer from the vessel wall to a flowing fluid is much higher in the presence of microspheres (as models of blood cells) in the flowing fluid and under the condition of pulsatile flow than in steady flow. These results imply that flow disturbance may enhance the transport of biochemicals and macromolecules, such as plasma proteins and lipoproteins synthesized within the blood vessel wall, from the blood vessel wall to flowing blood. PMID:18204314

  1. Development of a miniature intraventricular axial flow blood pump.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Umezu, M; Koyanagi, H; Outa, E; Ogino, S; Otake, Y; Shiozaki, H; Fujimoto, T; Tagusari, O; Kitamura, M

    1993-01-01

    A new intraventricular axial flow blood pump has been designed and developed as a totally implantable left ventricular assist device (LVAD). This pump consists of an impeller combined with a guide-vane, a tube housing, and a DC motor. The pump is introduced into the LV cavity through the LV apex, and the outlet cannula is passed antegrade across the aortic valve. Blood is withdrawn from the LV through the inlet ports at the pump base, and discharged to the ascending aorta. Our newly developed axial flow pump system has the following advantages: 1) it is a simple and compact system, 2) minimal blood stasis both in the device and the LV cavity, 3) minimal blood contacting surface of the pump, 4) easy accessibility with a less invasive surgical procedure, and 5) low cost. A pump flow > 5 L/min was obtained against 100 mmHg differential pressure in the mock circulatory system. The pump could produce a passive pulsatile flow effect with a beating heart more efficiently than other non-pulsatile pumps because of minimal pressure drop and inertia along the bypass tract. Anatomic fit studies using dissected hearts of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) cadavers showed that this pump could smoothly pass through the aortic valve without any interference with mitral valve function. Recently, a dynamic pressure groove bearing and a miniature lip seal have been developed. The dynamic pressure groove bearing has a simple structure and acts as a pressure resistant sealing mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Gastroretentive pulsatile release tablets of lercanidipine HCl: development, statistical optimization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gagganapalli Santhoshi; Nayak, Usha Yogendra; Deshpande, Praful Balavant; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at the development of gastroretentive floating pulsatile release tablets (FPRTs) of lercanidipine HCl to enhance the bioavailability and treat early morning surge in blood pressure. Immediate release core tablets containing lercanidipine HCl were prepared and optimized core tablets were compression-coated using buoyant layer containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) WSR coagulant, sodium bicarbonate, and directly compressible lactose. FPRTs were evaluated for various in vitro physicochemical parameters, drug-excipient compatibility, buoyancy, swelling, and release studies. The optimized FPRTs were tested in vivo in New Zealand white rabbits for buoyancy and pharmacokinetics. DoE optimization of data revealed FPRTs containing PEO (20% w/w) with coat weight 480 mg were promising systems exhibiting good floating behavior and lag time in drug release. Abdominal X-ray imaging of rabbits after oral administration of the tablets, confirmed the floating behavior and lag time. A quadratic model was suggested for release at 7th and 12th h and a linear model was suggested for release lag time. The FPRT formulation improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to immediate release tablet formulation in terms of extent of absorption in rabbits. As the formulation showed delay in drug release both in vitro and in vivo, nighttime administration could be beneficial to reduce the cardiovascular complications due to early morning surge in blood pressure. PMID:25525619

  3. Predictive value of middle cerebral artery to uterine artery pulsatility index ratio in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Adiga, Prashanth; Kantharaja, Indumathi; Hebbar, Shripad; Rai, Lavanya; Guruvare, Shyamala; Mundkur, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objectives. (i) To determine the predictive value of cerebrouterine (CU) ratio (middle cerebral artery to uterine artery pulsatility index, MCA/UT PI) in assessing perinatal outcome among hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. (ii) To compare between CU ratio and CP ratio (MCA/Umbilical artery PI) as a predictor of adverse perinatal outcome. Methods. A prospective observational study was done in a tertiary medical college hospital, from September 2012 to August 2013. One hundred singleton pregnancies complicated by hypertension peculiar to pregnancy were enrolled. Both CU and CP ratios were estimated. The perinatal outcomes were studied. Results. Both cerebrouterine and cerebroplacental ratios had a better negative predictive value in predicting adverse perinatal outcome. However, both CU and CP ratios when applied together were able to predict adverse outcomes better than individual ratios. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and the negative predictive values for an adverse neonatal outcome with CU ratio were 61.3%, 70.3%, 56%, and 78.9%, respectively, compared to 42%, 57.5%, 62%, and 76% as with CP ratio. Conclusion. Cerebrouterine ratio and cerebroplacental ratio were complementary to each other in predicting the adverse perinatal outcomes. Individually, both ratios were reassuring for favorable perinatal outcome with high negative predictive value.

  4. Gonadal and pituitary responsiveness of stallions is not down-regulated by prolonged pulsatile administration of GnRH.

    PubMed

    Brinsko, S P; Squires, E L; Pickett, B W; Nett, T M

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged pulsatile administration of homologous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at therapeutic or 5x therapeutic doses would cause down-regulation of the stallion's hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Fifteen stallions were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (n=5/group) and received a 0.5 ml subcutaneous dose of saline (group 1), 50 microg GnRH (group 2), or 250 microg GnRH (group 3) every 2 hours for 75 days. Weekly evaluations of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone and monthly evaluations of daily sperm output and spermatozoal motility failed to demonstrate any decreased pituitary or gonadal responsiveness within or among treatment groups (P > 0.1) as a result of treatment with GnRH. Results of this study demonstrate that the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicularaxis of the stallion, unlike that of other domestic species, is remarkably refractory to GnRH-induced down-regulation.

  5. CCAP and FMRFamide-like peptides accelerate the contraction rate of the antennal accessory pulsatile organs (auxiliary hearts) of mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Suggs, Julia M; Jones, Talitha H; Murphree, Steven C; Hillyer, Julián F

    2016-08-01

    Insects rely on specialized accessory pulsatile organs (APOs), also known as auxiliary hearts, to propel hemolymph into their antennae. In most insects, this is accomplished via the pulsations of a pair of ampulla located in the head, each of which propels hemolymph across an antenna via an antennal vessel. Once at the distal end of the appendage, hemolymph returns to the head via the antennal hemocoel. Although the structure of the antennal hearts has been elucidated in various insect orders, their hormonal modulation has only been studied in cockroaches and other hemimetabolous insects within the superorder Polyneoptera, where proctolin and FMRFamide-like peptides accelerate the contraction rate of these auxiliary hearts. Here, we assessed the hormonal modulation of the antennal APOs of mosquitoes, a group of holometabolous (Endopterygota) insects within the order Diptera. We show that crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), FMRFamide and SALDKNFMRFamide increase the contraction rate of the antennal APOs and the heart of Anopheles gambiae Both antennal hearts are synchronously responsive to these neuropeptides, but their contractions are asynchronous with the contraction of the heart. Furthermore, we show that these neuropeptides increase the velocity and maximum acceleration of hemolymph within the antennal space, suggesting that each contraction is also more forceful. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that hormones of a holometabolous insect modulate the contraction dynamics of an auxiliary heart, and the first report that shows that the hormones of any insect accelerate the velocity of hemolymph in the antennal space.

  6. Gastroretentive Pulsatile Release Tablets of Lercanidipine HCl: Development, Statistical Optimization, and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gagganapalli Santhoshi; Nayak, Usha Yogendra; Deshpande, Praful Balavant; Mutalik, Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at the development of gastroretentive floating pulsatile release tablets (FPRTs) of lercanidipine HCl to enhance the bioavailability and treat early morning surge in blood pressure. Immediate release core tablets containing lercanidipine HCl were prepared and optimized core tablets were compression-coated using buoyant layer containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) WSR coagulant, sodium bicarbonate, and directly compressible lactose. FPRTs were evaluated for various in vitro physicochemical parameters, drug-excipient compatibility, buoyancy, swelling, and release studies. The optimized FPRTs were tested in vivo in New Zealand white rabbits for buoyancy and pharmacokinetics. DoE optimization of data revealed FPRTs containing PEO (20% w/w) with coat weight 480 mg were promising systems exhibiting good floating behavior and lag time in drug release. Abdominal X-ray imaging of rabbits after oral administration of the tablets, confirmed the floating behavior and lag time. A quadratic model was suggested for release at 7th and 12th h and a linear model was suggested for release lag time. The FPRT formulation improved pharmacokinetic parameters compared to immediate release tablet formulation in terms of extent of absorption in rabbits. As the formulation showed delay in drug release both in vitro and in vivo, nighttime administration could be beneficial to reduce the cardiovascular complications due to early morning surge in blood pressure. PMID:25525619

  7. Fasting suppresses pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and enhances orderliness of LH release in young but not older men.

    PubMed

    Bergendahl, M; Aloi, J A; Iranmanesh, A; Mulligan, T M; Veldhuis, J D

    1998-06-01

    Pulsatile gonadotropin secretion and sex-steroid concentrations are suppressed reversibly in young fasted or malnourished human subjects. In this study, we investigated the impact of age on the dynamic neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying this stress response in healthy young (age, 28 +/- 3 yr, n = 8) vs. older (age 67 +/- 2 yr, n = 8) men with similar body mass indices (mean, 26 +/- 0.6 vs. 26 +/- 1.3 kg/m2, respectively). Serum LH concentrations were measured by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in blood collected at 10-min intervals over 27 h on a control (fed) day and on the third day of a 3.5-day fast (water only) assigned in randomized order. After 24 h of basal sampling, GnRH (10 micrograms i.v. bolus) was administered to test gonadotrope responsiveness. Cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione, testosterone, FSH, GH, and PRL were measured in 24-h pooled serum as positive and negative control hormones. Approximate entropy was used to quantitate the orderliness of LH release over 24 h, and a multiple-parameter deconvolution method was applied to quantify pulsatile LH secretion and LH half-life. In the fed state, older men exhibited elevated mean (24-h pooled) serum FSH and cortisol concentrations compared with young controls but equivalent serum LH concentrations and reduced serum GH, free testosterone, androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations. Fed older men also manifested a lower frequency and amplitude of 24-h pulsatile LH secretion, and, by approximate entropy calculations, a more disorderly pattern of basal LH release than younger individuals. Three- and one-half days of fasting evoked 40% and 47% increases in mean (24-h) serum cortisol concentrations in young and older men, respectively (P < 0.01 vs. fed, but P = not significant for percentage rise in older vs. young men). Concurrently, fasting induced a 2.1-fold fall in the 24-h endogenous LH production rate in young men (fed 36 +/- 9.7 vs. fasted 17 +/- 2.0 IU

  8. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-hydroxyethylacrylamide) thermosensitive microspheres: the size of microgels dictates the pulsatile release mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fundueanu, Gheorghe; Constantin, Marieta; Asmarandei, Ionela; Bucatariu, Sanda; Harabagiu, Valeria; Ascenzi, Paolo; Simionescu, Bogdan C

    2013-11-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-hydroxyethylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm-co-HEAAm)) was prepared as a new thermosensitive copolymer possessing a sharp phase transition around the human body temperature. The effect of the copolymer concentration on the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) was determined under physiological conditions by cloud point (CP) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) methods. Then, thermosensitive microspheres were prepared from preformed copolymers by chemical cross-linking of hydroxyl groups with glutaraldehyde at a temperature situated slightly below LCST of the copolymer solution. The volume phase transition temperature (VPTT) of corresponding cross-linked microspheres was determined from swelling degree-temperature curve. The microspheres were loaded with model drug indomethacin by the solvent evaporation method. The DSC analysis proved that the drug is molecularly dispersed in the polymer network. Finally, the influence of the microsphere size on drug release was investigated. It was established that microspheres with the diameter ranging between 5 and 60 μm release the drug with almost the same rate below (in the swollen state) and above the VPTT (in the collapsed state). On the contrary, microspheres with the diameter ranging between 125 and 220 μm release a significantly higher amount of indomethacin below than above the VPTT. This different behavior is enough to assure a pulsatile release mechanism when the temperature changes cyclically below and above the VPTT. However, both small and large microspheres release a large amount of the drug during the collapsing process.

  9. Experimental and theoretical investigations of Lantana camara oil diffusion from polyacrylonitrile membrane for pulsatile drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Balasubramanian, K

    2014-08-01

    Porous composite membrane of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and Lantana camara essential oil was synthesized by solvent casting method. Stability of oil in PAN solution was measured by XiGo nano tool indicating constant relaxation time of 1487 time/s. Pore size of few microns confirmed by electron microscopy was supported by atomic force microscopy indicating roughness factor of 0.9 nm. Contact angle of 2° inveterates superhydrophilicity of the composite membrane. Membrane showed excellent antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli with a 7-10mm zone of inhibition. In vitro release of Lantana oil from the composite membrane was carried out in isotonic phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.4). Lantana oil was released for 9h, lag time of 3h with constant 33% release confirmed PAN membranes as potential system for pulsatile drug delivery applications. Diffusion of E-caryophyllene (antibacterial component of oil) which was studied through molecular simulation using Material Studio software ensued diffusion coefficient value of 1.11∗10(-9) m(2)/s. Biocompatibility of the composite membrane was assessed by mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line (NIH 3T3) through MTT assay indicating more than 91% viable cell even at 200 μg/mL concentration. Such membranes can be efficiently used in biomedical applications as antibacterial and antifungal agent. PMID:24907763

  10. Comparison of pulsatile and continuous ritodrine administration: effects on uterine contractility and beta-adrenergic receptor cascade.

    PubMed

    Caritis, S N; Chiao, J P; Kridgen, P

    1991-04-01

    In this study we compare the uterine contractility and beta-adrenergic receptor effects of identical doses of ritodrine administered intermittently or continuously for 24 hours in pregnant sheep. Ritodrine was administered intravenously to five animals as a pulse, 16 micrograms/kg every 1.5 hours, whereas five other animals received ritodrine as a continuous infusion of 0.18 microgram/kg/min. Ritodrine plasma concentrations at steady state were comparable in both groups and averaged 18 ng/ml. Animals receiving ritodrine pulses demonstrated no alteration of myometrial beta-adrenergic receptors or adenylyl cyclase activity, and ritodrine inhibited oxytocin-induced contractility comparably at 4 and 24 hours. Animals receiving ritodrine continuously had a significant decrease in myometrial beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylyl cyclase activity, yet ritodrine inhibition of oxytocin-induced uterine contractility was sustained for 24 hours. Oxytocin receptors were not affected by ritodrine administration and were similar in both groups. At the dose studied, oxytocin-induced contractions are comparably inhibited by ritodrine for 24 hours whether the drug is given continuously or in a pulsatile fashion.

  11. Abnormal Baseline Brain Activity in Patients with Pulsatile Tinnitus: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lv; Zhaohui, Liu; Fei, Yan; Ting, Li; Pengfei, Zhao; Wang, Du; Cheng, Dong; Pengde, Guo; Xiaoyi, Han; Xiao, Wang; Rui, Li; Zhenchang, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Numerous investigations studying the brain functional activity of the tinnitus patients have indicated that neurological changes are important findings of this kind of disease. However, the pulsatile tinnitus (PT) patients were excluded in previous studies because of the totally different mechanisms of the two subtype tinnitus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether altered baseline brain activity presents in patients with PT using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) technique. The present study used unilateral PT patients (n = 42) and age-, sex-, and education-matched normal control subjects (n = 42) to investigate the changes in structural and amplitude of low-frequency (ALFF) of the brain. Also, we analyzed the relationships between these changes with clinical data of the PT patients. Compared with normal controls, PT patients did not show any structural changes. PT patients showed significant increased ALFF in the bilateral precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and decreased ALFF in multiple occipital areas. Moreover, the increased THI score and PT duration was correlated with increased ALFF in precuneus and bilateral IFG. The abnormalities of spontaneous brain activity reflected by ALFF measurements in the absence of structural changes may provide insights into the neural reorganization in PT patients. PMID:24872895

  12. New intravascular flow sensor using fiber optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenow, Erik N. D.

    1994-12-01

    A new sensor using fiber optics is suggested for blood flow measurements in small vessels. The sensor principle and a first evaluation on a flow model are presented. The new sensor uses small CO2 gas bubbles as flow markers for optical detection. When the bubbles pass an optical window, light emitted from one fiber is reflected and scattered into another fiber. The sensor has been proven to work in a 3 mm flow model using two 110 micrometers optical fibers and a 100 micrometers steel capillary inserted into a 1 mm guide wire. The evaluation of a sensor archetype shows that the new sensor provides a promising method for intravascular blood flow measurement in small vessels. The linearity for steady state flow is studied in the flow interval 30 - 130 ml/min. comparison with ultrasound Doppler flowmetry was performed for pulsatile flow in the interval 25 - 125 ml/min. with a pulse length between 0.5 and 2 s. The use of intravascular administered CO2 in small volumes is harmless because the gas is rapidly dissolved in whole blood.

  13. Microvascular Branching as a Determinant of Blood Flow by Intravital Particle Imaging Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Wernet, Mark P.; Myers, Jerry G.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of microvascular branching on blood flow were investigated in vivo by microscopic particle imaging velocimetry (micro-PIV). We use micro-PIV to measure blood flow by tracking red blood cells (RBC) as the moving particles. Velocity flow fields, including flow pulsatility, were analyzed for the first four branching orders of capillaries, postcapillary venules and small veins of the microvascular network within the developing avian yolksac at embryonic day 5 (E5). Increasing volumetric flowrates were obtained from parabolic laminar flow profiles as a function of increasing vessel diameter and branching order. Maximum flow velocities increased approximately twenty-fold as the function of increasing vessel diameter and branching order compared to flow velocities of 100 - 150 micron/sec in the capillaries. Results from our study will be useful for the increased understanding of blood flow within anastomotic, heterogeneous microvascular networks.

  14. Modeling and Thrust Optimization of a Bio-Inspired Pulsatile Jet Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieg, Michael W.

    A new type of thruster technology offers promising low speed maneuvering capabilities for underwater vehicles. Similar to the natural locomotion of squid and jellyfish the thruster successively forces fluid jets in and out of a small internal cavity. We investigate several properties of squid and jellyfish locomotion to drive the thruster design including actuation of nozzle geometry and vortex ring thrust augmentation. The thrusters are compact with no extruding components to negatively impact the vehicle's drag. These devices have thrust rise-times orders of magnitude faster than those reported for typical propeller thrusters, making them an attractive option for high accuracy underwater vehicle maneuvering. The dynamics of starting jet circulation, impulse, and kinetic energy are derived in terms of kinematics at the entrance boundary of a semi-infinite domain, specifically identifying the effect of a non-parallel incoming flow. A model for pressure at the nozzle is derived without the typical reliance on a predetermined potential function, making it a powerful tool for modeling any jet flow. Jets are created from multiple nozzle configurations to validate these models, and velocity and vorticity fields are determined using DPIV techniques. A converging starting jet resulted in circulation 90--100%, impulse 70--75%, and energy 105--135% larger than a parallel starting jet with identical volume flux and piston velocity, depending on the stroke ratio. The new model is a much better predictor of the jet properties than the standard 1D slug model. A simplified thrust model, was derived to describe the high frequency thruster characteristics. This model accurately predicts the average thrust, measured directly, for stroke ratios up to a critical value where the leading vortex ring separates from the remainder of the shear flow. A new model predicting the vortex ring pinch-off process is developed based on characteristic centerline velocities. The vortex ring pinch

  15. Endothelial shear stress estimation in the human carotid artery based on Womersley versus Poiseuille flow.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Janina C V; Duivenvoorden, Raphaël; Nederveen, Aart J; Stroes, Erik S G; VanBavel, Ed

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial shear stress (ESS) dynamics are a major determinant of atherosclerosis development. The frequently used Poiseuille method to estimate ESS dynamics has important limitations. Therefore, we investigated whether Womersley flow may provide a better alternative for estimation of ESS while requiring equally simple hemodynamic parameters. Common carotid blood flow, centerline velocity, lumen diameter and mean wall thickness (MWT) were measured with 3T-MRI in 45 subjects at three different occasions. Mean ESS and two measures of pulsatility [shear pulsatility index (SPI) and oscillatory shear index (OSI)] were estimated based on Poiseuille and Womersley flow and compared to the more complex velocity gradient modelling method. The association between ESS and MWT was tested with multiple linear regression analysis; interscan reproducibility was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean ESS and pulsatility indices based on Womersley flow (ESSwq β = -0.18, P = 0.04; SPIwq β = 0.24, P = 0.02; OSIwq β = 0.18, P = 0.045), showed equally good correlations with carotid MWT as the velocity gradient method (ESSvg β = -0.23, P = 0.01; SPIvg β = 0.21, P = 0.02; OSIvg β = 0.07, P = 0.47). This in contrast to the Poiseuille flow method that only showed a good correlation for mean ESS (ESSpq β = -0.18, P = 0.04; SPIpq β = 0.14, P = 0.14; OSIpq β = 0.04, P = 0.69). Womersley and Poiseuille methods had high intraclass correlation coefficients indicating good interscan reproducibility (both ICC = 0.84, 95% confidence interval 0.75-0.90). Estimation of ESS dynamics based on Womersley flow modelling is superior to Poiseuille flow modelling and has good interscan reproducibility.

  16. Discriminative imaging of maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta using ultrafast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-09-16

    Being able to map accurately placental blood flow in clinics could have major implications in the diagnosis and follow-up of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Moreover, the impact of such an imaging modality for a better diagnosis of placental dysfunction would require to solve the unsolved problem of discriminating the strongly intricated maternal and fetal vascular networks. However, no current imaging modality allows both to achieve sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to tell these entangled flows apart. Although ultrasound imaging would be the clinical modality of choice for such a problem, conventional Doppler echography both lacks of sensibility to detect and map the placenta microvascularization and a concept to discriminate both entangled flows. In this work, we propose to use an ultrafast Doppler imaging approach both to map with an enhanced sensitivity the small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) and to assess the variation of the Doppler frequency simultaneously in all pixels of the image within a cardiac cycle. This approach is evaluated in vivo in the placenta of pregnant rabbits: By studying the local flow pulsatility pixel per pixel, it becomes possible to separate maternal and fetal blood in 2D from their pulsatile behavior. Significance Statement: The in vivo ability to image and discriminate maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta is an unsolved problem which could improve the diagnosis of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction or preeclampsia. To date, no imaging modality has both sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate these intimately entangled flows. We demonstrate that Ultrafast Doppler ultrasound method with a frame rate 100x faster than conventional imaging solves this issue. It permits the mapping of small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) in 2D with an enhanced sensitivity. By assessing pixel-per-pixel pulsatility within single cardiac cycles, it

  17. Discriminative imaging of maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta using ultrafast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Osmanski, Bruno-Felix; Lecarpentier, Edouard; Montaldo, Gabriel; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Chavatte-Palmer, Pascale; Tanter, Mickael

    2015-01-01

    Being able to map accurately placental blood flow in clinics could have major implications in the diagnosis and follow-up of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Moreover, the impact of such an imaging modality for a better diagnosis of placental dysfunction would require to solve the unsolved problem of discriminating the strongly intricated maternal and fetal vascular networks. However, no current imaging modality allows both to achieve sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to tell these entangled flows apart. Although ultrasound imaging would be the clinical modality of choice for such a problem, conventional Doppler echography both lacks of sensibility to detect and map the placenta microvascularization and a concept to discriminate both entangled flows. In this work, we propose to use an ultrafast Doppler imaging approach both to map with an enhanced sensitivity the small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) and to assess the variation of the Doppler frequency simultaneously in all pixels of the image within a cardiac cycle. This approach is evaluated in vivo in the placenta of pregnant rabbits: By studying the local flow pulsatility pixel per pixel, it becomes possible to separate maternal and fetal blood in 2D from their pulsatile behavior. Significance Statement: The in vivo ability to image and discriminate maternal and fetal blood flow within the placenta is an unsolved problem which could improve the diagnosis of pregnancy complications such as intrauterine growth restriction or preeclampsia. To date, no imaging modality has both sufficient sensitivity and selectivity to discriminate these intimately entangled flows. We demonstrate that Ultrafast Doppler ultrasound method with a frame rate 100x faster than conventional imaging solves this issue. It permits the mapping of small vessels of the placenta (~100 μm) in 2D with an enhanced sensitivity. By assessing pixel-per-pixel pulsatility within single cardiac cycles

  18. Classification of Unsteady Flow Patterns in a Rotodynamic Blood Pump: Introduction of Non-Dimensional Regime Map.

    PubMed

    Shu, Fangjun; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Brackett, Jaclyn; Antaki, James F

    2015-09-01

    Rotodynamic blood pumps (also known as rotary or continuous flow blood pumps) are commonly evaluated in vitro under steady flow conditions. However, when these devices are used clinically as ventricular assist devices (VADs), the flow is pulsatile due to the contribution of the native heart. This study investigated the influence of this unsteady flow upon the internal hemodynamics of a centrifugal blood pump. The flow field within the median axial plane of the flow path was visualized with particle image velocimetry (PIV) using a transparent replica of the Levacor VAD. The replica was inserted in a dynamic cardiovascular simulator that synchronized the image acquisition to the cardiac cycle. As compared to steady flow, pulsatile conditions produced periodic, transient recirculation regions within the impeller and separation in the outlet diffuser. Dimensional analysis revealed that the flow characteristics could be uniquely described by the non-dimensional flow coefficient (Φ) and its time derivative ([Formula: see text]), thereby eliminating impeller speed from the experimental matrix. Four regimes within the Φ-[Formula: see text] plane were found to classify the flow patterns, well-attached or disturbed. These results and methods can be generalized to provide insights for both design and operation of rotodynamic blood pumps for safety and efficacy. PMID:26577357

  19. Experimental Studies of Unsteady Flow through Compliant Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Victoria; Tsai, William; Saloner, David; Savas, Omer

    2004-11-01

    Hemodynamic forces are a significant cause of device failure when stent-grafts are used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms and even have a causative relationship with the formation and rupture of atherosclerosis. A better comprehension of the forces at play in this environment would help further the understanding and treatment of aneurysmal diseases. In this experimental study, we characterize the behavior of physiologically correct pulsatile input flow in an straight compliant vessel as an analog for the hemodynamic behavior in an abdominal aorta. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry are used to study the flow in simplified geometries simulating segments of human abdominal aorta in various stages of disease progression. The effects of external pressure are examined to shed light on the interactions between pressure differential across the vessel wall, blood flow, and vessel deformation.

  20. Experimental studies of unsteady flow through compliant vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturgeon, Victoria; Saloner, David; Savas, Omer

    2003-11-01

    Hemodynamic forces are a significant cause of device failure when stent-grafts are used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms and even have a strong causative relationship with the very formation and rupture of atherosclerosis. A better comprehension of the forces at play in this environment is highly desirable in furthering the understanding and treatment of aneurysmal diseases. The purpose of this experimental study is to characterize the behavior of physiologically correct pulsatile input flow in a straight compliant vessel as an analog for the behavior in an abdominal aorta. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry are used to study the flow in simplified geometries replicating healthy and diseased segments of human abdominal aorta. The effects of external pressure are examined to shed light on the interactions between pressure differential across the vessel wall, blood flow, and vessel deformation.

  1. Reduced placental volume and flow in severe growth restricted fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Abulé, Renata Montes Dourado; Bernardes, Lisandra Stein; Doro, Giovana Farina; Miyadahira, Seizo; Francisco, Rossana Pulcinelli Vieira

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate placental volume and vascular indices in pregnancies with severe fetal growth restriction and determine their correlations to normal reference ranges and Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. METHODS: Twenty-seven fetuses with estimated weights below the 3rd percentile for gestational age were evaluated. Placental volume and vascular indices, including vascularization, flow, and vascularization flow indices, were measured by three-dimensional ultrasound using a rotational technique and compared to a previously described nomogram. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight were calculated. Placental parameters correlated with the Doppler velocimetry results of uterine and umbilical arteries. RESULTS: The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was negatively correlated with the observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age, vascularization index and vascularization flow index. The observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for gestational age and observed-to-expected placental volume ratio for fetal weight and vascularization index were significantly lower in the group with a bilateral protodiastolic notch. No placental parameter correlated with the umbilical artery pulsatility index. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancies complicated by severe fetal growth restriction are associated with reduced placental volume and vascularization. These findings are related to changes in uterine artery Doppler velocimetry. Future studies on managing severe fetal growth restriction should focus on combined results of placental three-dimensional ultrasound and Doppler studies of uterine arteries. PMID:27438567

  2. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F. J.; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E.; Padera, Timothy P.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-07-01

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels.

  3. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F. J.; Nam, Ahhyun S.; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E.; Padera, Timothy P.; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels. PMID:27377852

  4. In vivo label-free measurement of lymph flow velocity and volumetric flow rates using Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Blatter, Cedric; Meijer, Eelco F J; Nam, Ahhyun S; Jones, Dennis; Bouma, Brett E; Padera, Timothy P; Vakoc, Benjamin J

    2016-01-01

    Direct in vivo imaging of lymph flow is key to understanding lymphatic system function in normal and disease states. Optical microscopy techniques provide the resolution required for these measurements, but existing optical techniques for measuring lymph flow require complex protocols and provide limited temporal resolution. Here, we describe a Doppler optical coherence tomography platform that allows direct, label-free quantification of lymph velocity and volumetric flow rates. We overcome the challenge of very low scattering by employing a Doppler algorithm that operates on low signal-to-noise measurements. We show that this technique can measure lymph velocity at sufficiently high temporal resolution to resolve the dynamic pulsatile flow in collecting lymphatic vessels. PMID:27377852

  5. Computational modelling and evaluation of cardiovascular response under pulsatile impeller pump support

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yubing; Brown, Alistair G.; Lawford, Patricia V.; Arndt, Andreas; Nuesser, Peter; Hose, D. Rodney

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a numerical simulation of cardiovascular response in the heart failure condition under the support of a Berlin Heart INCOR impeller pump-type ventricular assist device (VAD). The model is implemented using the CellML modelling language. To investigate the potential of using the Berlin Heart INCOR impeller pump to produce physiologically meaningful arterial pulse pressure within the various physiological constraints, a series of VAD-assisted cardiovascular cases are studied, in which the pulsation ratio and the phase shift of the VAD motion profile are systematically changed to observe the cardiovascular responses in each of the studied cases. An optimization process is proposed, including the introduction of a cost function to balance the importance of the characteristic cardiovascular variables. Based on this cost function it is found that a pulsation ratio of 0.35 combined with a phase shift of 200° produces the optimal cardiovascular response, giving rise to a maximal arterial pulse pressure of 12.6 mm Hg without inducing regurgitant pump flow while keeping other characteristic cardiovascular variables within appropriate physiological ranges. PMID:22670203

  6. Computational modelling and evaluation of cardiovascular response under pulsatile impeller pump support.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yubing; Brown, Alistair G; Lawford, Patricia V; Arndt, Andreas; Nuesser, Peter; Hose, D Rodney

    2011-06-01

    This study presents a numerical simulation of cardiovascular response in the heart failure condition under the support of a Berlin Heart INCOR impeller pump-type ventricular assist device (VAD). The model is implemented using the CellML modelling language. To investigate the potential of using the Berlin Heart INCOR impeller pump to produce physiologically meaningful arterial pulse pressure within the various physiological constraints, a series of VAD-assisted cardiovascular cases are studied, in which the pulsation ratio and the phase shift of the VAD motion profile are systematically changed to observe the cardiovascular responses in each of the studied cases. An optimization process is proposed, including the introduction of a cost function to balance the importance of the characteristic cardiovascular variables. Based on this cost function it is found that a pulsation ratio of 0.35 combined with a phase shift of 200° produces the optimal cardiovascular response, giving rise to a maximal arterial pulse pressure of 12.6 mm Hg without inducing regurgitant pump flow while keeping other characteristic cardiovascular variables within appropriate physiological ranges.

  7. Pulsatile exposure to simulated reflux leads to changes in gene expression in a 3D model of oesophageal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Green, Nicola H; Nicholls, Zoe; Heath, Paul R; Cooper-Knock, Jonathan; Corfe, Bernard M; MacNeil, Sheila; Bury, Jonathan P

    2014-06-01

    Oesophageal exposure to duodenogastroesophageal refluxate is implicated in the development of Barrett's metaplasia (BM), with increased risk of progression to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. The literature proposes that reflux exposure activates NF-κB, driving the aberrant expression of intestine-specific caudal-related homeobox (CDX) genes. However, early events in the pathogenesis of BM from normal epithelium are poorly understood. To investigate this, our study subjected a 3D model of the normal human oesophageal mucosa to repeated, pulsatile exposure to specific bile components and examined changes in gene expression. Initial 2D experiments with a range of bile salts observed that taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC) impacted upon NF-κB activation without causing cell death. Informed by this, the 3D oesophageal model was repeatedly exposed to TCDC in the presence and absence of acid, and the epithelial cells underwent gene expression profiling. We identified ~300 differentially expressed genes following each treatment, with a large and significant overlap between treatments. Enrichment analysis (Broad GSEA, DAVID and Metacore™; GeneGo Inc) identified multiple gene sets related to cell signalling, inflammation, proliferation, differentiation and cell adhesion. Specifically NF-κB activation, Wnt signalling, cell adhesion and targets for the transcription factors PTF1A and HNF4α were highlighted. Our data suggest that HNF4α isoform switching may be an early event in Barrett's pathogenesis. CDX1/2 targets were, however, not enriched, suggesting that although CDX1/2 activation reportedly plays a role in BM development, it may not be an initial event. Our findings highlight new areas for investigation in the earliest stages of BM pathogenesis of oesophageal diseases and new potential therapeutic targets.

  8. Dopamine receptor dysregulation in hippocampus of aged rats underlies chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment induced cognitive and emotional alterations.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Vito S; Luquín, Sonia; Jáuregui-Huerta, Fernando; Corona-Morales, Aleph A; Medina, Mauricio P; Ruíz-Velasco, Silvia; Zhang, Limei

    2014-07-01

    L-Dopa is the major symptomatic therapy for Parkinson's disease, which commonly occurs in elderly patients. However, the effects of chronic use on mood and cognition in old subjects remain elusive. In order to compare the effects of a chronic pulsatile L-Dopa treatment on emotional and cognitive functions in young (3 months) and old (18 months) intact rats, an L-Dopa/carbidopa treatment was administered every 12 h over 4 weeks. Rats were assessed for behavioural despair (repeated forced swimming test, RFST), anhedonia (sucrose preference test, SPT) and spatial learning (Morris water maze, MWM) in the late phase of treatment (T). Neuronal expression of Fos in the hippocampus at the early and late phases of T, as well as after MWM was studied. The density and ratio of dopamine D5r, D3r and D2r receptors were also evaluated in the hippocampus using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Young rats showed similar patterns during behavioural tests, whereas aged treated rats showed increased immobility counts in RFST, diminished sucrose liquid intake in SPT, and spatial learning impairment during MWM. Fos expression was significantly blunted in the aged treated group after MWM. The density of D5r, D3r and D2r was increased in both aged groups. The treatment reduced the ratio of D5r/D3r and D5r/D2r in both groups. Moreover, aged treated subjects had significant lower values of D5r/D3r and higher values of D5r/D2r when compared with young treated subjects. These results indicate that chronic L-Dopa treatment in itself could trigger emotional and cognitive dysfunctions in elderly subjects through dopamine receptor dysregulation.

  9. Male sexual development in the monkey. II. Cross-sectional analysis of pulsatile hypothalamic-pituitary secretion in castrated males.

    PubMed

    Bercu, B B; Lee, B C; Spiliotis, B E; Pineda, J L; Denman, D W; Hoffman, H J; Brown, T J

    1983-06-01

    Pulsatile secretion of serum gonadotropins was studied in 16 castrated monkeys from 4 weeks of age through adult life. Animals were castrated at various ages from birth through adult life. Although some studies of the gonadotropin-secretory patterns were longitudinal in nature, most comparisons were cross-sectional. On the basis of our observations, we have arbitrarily grouped the animals into 4 developmental ages: postnatal (less than 7 months), prepubertal or juvenile (7-27 months), pubertal (28-59 months), and adult (greater than or equal to 60 months). In carrying out these studies, blood was withdrawn at 15-min intervals over 24 h without anesthesia using a mobile vest and tether assembly to support an indwelling catheter. GnRH challenge tests were done on 1 or more occasions on all animals. Plasma samples were analyzed for concentrations of FSH and LH by established RIAs and an in vitro bioassay for LH. During the frequent sampling period (24 h for all except postnatal animals), the amplitude of gonadotropin pulses was greatest in adult animals followed by postnatal and pubertal monkeys. During pubertal development, there was a marked increase in the magnitude of gonadotropin pulses, and remarkedly, there was a substantial increase in the LH bioassay: RIA (greater than 5:1) by adult life. GnRH challenge tests of gonadotropins correlated with these observations. Time series analysis was applied to the data for objective statistical characterization of cyclic patterns. Our findings can be summarized: 1) during pubertal maturation there is a change in amplitude but not frequency of gonadotropin pulses, 2) pubertal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis advances in the absence of gonadal feedback, and 3) there is a significant increase in the LH bioassay: RIA during pubertal development. We conclude that the castrate monkey is a valuable adjunct to direct clinical investigations of the mechanisms controlling human sexual development.

  10. Pulsatile Stress in Middle-Aged Patients With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Compared With Nondiabetic Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Philips, Jean-Christophe; Marchand, Monique; Scheen, André J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Arterial pulse pressure is considered to be an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We compared pulse pressure during an active orthostatic test in middle-aged patients with type 1 diabetes and with type 2 diabetes and corresponding nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty patients with type 1 diabetes (mean age 50 years, diabetes duration 23 years, and BMI 23.0 kg/m2) were compared with 40 nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes (respectively, 50 years, 8 years, and 29.7 kg/m2). Patients taking antihypertensive agents or with renal insufficiency were excluded. All patients were evaluated with a continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitoring (Finapres) in standing (1 min), squatting (1 min), and again standing position (1 min). Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes were compared with two groups of 40 age-, sex- and BMI-matched healthy subjects. RESULTS Patients with type 1 diabetes and patients with type 2 diabetes showed significantly higher pulse pressure, heart rate, and double product of pulse pressure and heart rate (PP×HR) (type 1: 5,263 vs. 4,121 mmHg/min, P = 0.0004; type 2: 5,359 vs. 4,321 mmHg, P = 0.0023) levels than corresponding control subjects. There were no significant differences between patients with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes regarding pulse pressure (59 vs. 58 mmHg), heart rate (89 vs. 88/min), and PP×HR (5,263 vs. 5,359 mmHg/min). CONCLUSIONS Patients with type 1 diabetes have increased levels of peripheral PP, an indirect marker of arterial stiffness, and PP×HR, an index of pulsatile stress, comparable to those of nonhypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes at similar mean age of 50 years. PMID:20693351

  11. Disruption of endocrine rhythms in sleeping sickness with preserved relationship between hormonal pulsatility and the REM-NREM sleep cycles.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Buguet, A; Spiegel, K; Stanghellini, A; Muanga, G; Bogui, P; Dumas, M

    1996-09-01

    In human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), sleep and wake episodes are sporadically distributed throughout the day and the night. To determine whether these sleep disturbances affect the 24-h hormone profiles and the normal relationships between hormone pulsatility and sleep stages, polygraphic sleep recordings and concomitant hormone profiles were obtained in 6 African patients with sleeping sickness and in 5 healthy African subjects selected from Abidjan on the Ivory Coast. Polysomnographic recordings were continuous, and blood was taken every 10 min throughout the 24-h period. Plasma was analyzed for cortisol, prolactin, and plasma renin activity (PRA). The 24-h rhythm of cortisol, considered to be an endogenous circadian rhythm, was attenuated in all of the patients except one. However, as in normal subjects, slow wave sleep (SWS) remained associated with the declining phases of the cortisol secretory episodes. Prolactin and PRA profiles, which are strongly influenced by the sleep-wake cycle, did not manifest the nocturnal increase normally associated with the sleep period; instead, they reflected a sporadic distribution of the sleep and wake episodes throughout the 24-h period. In patients with sleeping sickness as in normal subjects, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep began during the descending phases of prolactin pulses. In both groups, PRA reflected the sleep stage distribution with non REM (NREM) sleep occurring during the ascending phases and REM sleep during the descending phases of the PRA oscillations. However, in sleeping sickness patients, the marked sleep fragmentation often did not allow sufficient time for PRA to increase significantly, as is normally the case in subjects with regular NREM-REM sleep cycles. These results demonstrate that, together with the disruption of the sleep-wake cycle, there are profound differences in the temporal organization of the 24-h hormone profiles in humans with African trypanosomiasis. However, the

  12. Image-based biomechanical modeling of aortic wall stress and vessel deformation: response to pulsatile arterial pressure simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazer, Dilana; Bauer, Miriam; Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Richter, Götz-M.

    2008-03-01

    Image-based modeling of cardiovascular biomechanics may be very helpful for patients with aortic aneurysms to predict the risk of rupture and evaluate the necessity of a surgical intervention. In order to generate a reliable support it is necessary to develop exact patient-specific models that simulate biomechanical parameters and provide individual structural analysis of the state of fatigue and characterize this to the potential of rupture of the aortic wall. The patient-specific geometry used here originates from a CT scan of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). The computations are based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) and simulate the wall stress distribution and the vessel deformation. The wall transient boundary conditions are based on real time-dependent pressure simulations obtained from a previous computational fluid dynamics study. The physiological wall material properties consider a nonlinear hyperelastic constitutive model, based on realistic ex-vivo analysis of the aneurismal arterial tissue. The results showed complex deformation and stress distribution on the AAA wall. The maximum stresses occurred at the systole and are found around the aneurismal bulge in regions close to inflection points. Biomechanical modeling based on medical images and coupled with patient-specific hemodynamics allows analysing and quantifying the effects of dilatation of the arterial wall due to the pulsatile aortic pressure. It provides a physical and realistic insight into the wall mechanics and enables predictive simulations of AAA growth and assessment of rupture. Further development integrating endovascular models would help evaluating non-invasively individual treatment strategies for optimal placement and improved device design.

  13. Five-day pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone administration unveils combined hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal defects underlying profound hypoandrogenism in men with prolonged critical illness.

    PubMed

    van den Berghe, G; Weekers, F; Baxter, R C; Wouters, P; Iranmanesh, A; Bouillon, R; Veldhuis, J D

    2001-07-01

    Central hyposomatotropism and hypothyroidism have been inferred in long-stay intensive care patients. Pronounced hypoandrogenism presumably also contributes to the catabolic state of critical illness. Accordingly, the present study appraises the mechanism(s) of failure of the gonadotropic axis in prolonged critically ill men by assessing the effects of pulsatile GnRH treatment in this unique clinical context. To this end, 15 critically ill men (mean +/- SD age, 67 +/- 12 yr; intensive care unit stay, 25 +/- 9 days) participated, with baseline values compared with those of 50 age- and BMI-matched healthy men. Subjects were randomly allocated to 5 days of placebo or pulsatile iv GnRH administration (0.1 microg/kg every 90 min). LH, GH, and TSH secretion was quantified by deconvolution analysis of serum hormone concentration-time series obtained by sampling every 20 min from 2100-0600 h at baseline and on nights 1 and 5 of treatment. Serum concentrations of gonadal and adrenal steroids, T(4), T(3), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF), and IGF-binding proteins as well as circulating levels of cytokines and selected metabolic markers were measured. During prolonged critical illness, pulsatile LH secretion and mean LH concentrations (1.8 +/- 2.2 vs. 6.0 +/- 2.2 IU/L) were low in the face of extremely low circulating total testosterone (0.27 +/- 0.18 vs. 12.7 +/- 4.07 nmol/L; P < 0.0001) and relatively low estradiol (E(2); 58.3 +/- 51.9 vs. 85.7 +/- 18.6 pmol/L; P = 0.009) and sex hormone-binding globulin (39.1 +/- 11.7 vs. 48.6 +/- 27.8 nmol/L; P = 0.01). The molar ratio of E(2)/T was elevated 37-fold in ill men (P < 0.0001) and correlated negatively with the mean serum LH concentrations (r = -0.82; P = 0.0002). Pulsatile GH and TSH secretion were suppressed (P < or = 0.0004), as were mean serum IGF-I, IGF-binding protein-3, and acid-labile subunit concentrations; thyroid hormone levels; and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Morning cortisol was within the normal range

  14. Numerical Prediction of Turbulent Oscillating Flow and Heat Transfer in Pipes with Various End Geometries. Ph.D. Thesis, Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oseid, Kirk Leroi

    1995-01-01

    Unsteady flow is present in man, machine and nature. The flow of blood in arteries and capillaries in the human body is pulsatile-composed of a mean flow superposed with an oscillating component. The tides that wash in and out of rivers, harbors and estuaries are unsteady flows with very long periods of oscillation. Many engineering devices employ pulsatile and oscillating flow. Pulsating flow is defined here as a periodic flow with a net displacement of fluid over each flow cycle. Oscillating flow is defined as a period flow with a zero mean over each cycle. The subject of this thesis is oscillating flow and heat transfer in pipes which make up the heater and cooler sections of the NASA Space Power Research Engine (SPRE) currently under development. This engine uses the Stirling cycle as the thermal energy converter in a power plant for future space applications. The information presented in this thesis will of course be applicable to the design of many types of machinery which employ oscillating flow and heat transfer.

  15. Simulation of Local Blood Flow in Human Brain under Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the altered gravitational forces, specific shapes and connections of arteries in the brain vary in the human population (Cebral et al., 2000; Ferrandez et al., 2002). Considering the geometric variations, pulsatile unsteadiness, and moving walls, computational approach in analyzing altered blood circulation will offer an economical alternative to experiments. This paper presents a computational approach for modeling the local blood flow through the human brain under altered gravity. This computational approach has been verified through steady and unsteady experimental measurements and then applied to the unsteady blood flows through a carotid bifurcation model and an idealized Circle of Willis (COW) configuration under altered gravity conditions.

  16. Time-frequency analysis of neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies for selective detection of pulsatile tissues by avoiding probe-motion artifact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzawa, Masayuki; Tabata, Yuki; Izuwaki, Yusuke; Nakamori, Nobuyuki; Kitsunezuka, Yoshiki

    2015-03-01

    In order to detect the pulsatile tissues in neonatal cranial ultrasonic movies by avoiding probe-motion artifact, a time-frequency analysis has been performed in several movie fragments at typical three scenes: (a) a brain-lost, (b) a brain-captured and probe-stabilized, and (c) a brain-captured and probe-swayed ones. The pulsatile tissue, which is a key point of pediatric diagnosis, had successfully detected with an algorithm based on Fourier transform but it had required us to extract the probe-stabilized scene manually by visual observation of the movie. A spatial mean square of echo intensity Etot and a total AC power Ptot over a fan-shape of field of view were evaluated according to a power spectrum of a time-variation of 64 samples of echo intensity at each pixel in each movie fragment split from actual B-mode ultrasonic movies taken at coronal sections of a neonate. The results revealed that (1) significant low Etot was found at the brain-lost scene rather than that at the other scenes, and (2) lower Ptot was found at the probe-stabilized scene rather than the probe-swayed ones. This fact strongly suggests that the Etot and Ptot are promising features for automatic extraction of probe-stabilized scenes. It must lead to detect the pulsatile tissues selectively by avoiding probe-motion artifact and to realize systematic analysis of the whole of our extensive movie archives, which is useful not only for retrospective study of ischemic diseases but also for bedside diagnosis to stabilize the freehand ultrasonic probe.

  17. Flow Structures in a Healthy and Plaqued Artificial Artery using Fully Index Matched Vascular Flow Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Faraz; Jain, Akash; Sheng, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements are made in a closed loop fully index matched flow facility to study the flow structures and flow wall interactions in healthy and diseased model arteries. The test section is 0.63 m long and the facility is capable of emulating both steady and pulsatile flows under physiologically relevant conditions. The model arteries are in-house developed compliant polymer (PDMS) tubes with 1 cm diameter and 1 mm wall thickness. The Reynolds numbers of flows vary up to 20,000. The plaque is simulated by introducing a radially asymmetric bump that can be varied in shape, size and compliancy. The overall compliancy of the model can be also controlled by varying ratio between the elastomer and the curing agent. The tubes are doped with particles allowing the simultaneous measurements of wall deformation and flows over it. The working fluid in the facility is NaI and is refractive index matched to the PDMS model. This allows flow measurement very close to the wall and measurement of wall shear stress. The aim of this study is to characterize the changes in flow as the compliancy and geometry of blood vessels change due to age or disease. These differences can be used to develop a diagnostic tool to detect early onset of vascular diseases.

  18. Role of endogenous opiates in the expression of negative feedback actions of androgen and estrogen on pulsatile properties of luteinizing hormone secretion in man.

    PubMed

    Veldhuis, J D; Rogol, A D; Samojlik, E; Ertel, N H

    1984-07-01

    We have tested the participation of endogenous opiate pathways in the negative feedback actions of gonadal steroids on pulsatile properties of luteinizing (LH) hormone release in normal men. To this end, sex steroid hormones were infused intravenously at dosages that under steady state conditions selectively suppressed either the frequency or the amplitude of the pulsatile LH signal. The properties of pulsatile LH secretion were assessed quantitatively by computerized analysis of LH series derived from serial blood sampling over 12 h of observation. When the pure (nonaromatizable) androgen, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, was infused continuously for 108 h at the blood production rate of testosterone, we were able to achieve selective inhibition of LH pulse frequency akin to that observed in experimental animals after low-dosage androgen replacement. Under these conditions, serum concentrations of testosterone and estradiol-17 beta did not change significantly, but serum 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone concentrations increased approximately two- to threefold, with a corresponding increase in levels of its major metabolite, 5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol. In separate experiments, the infusion of estradiol-17 beta at its blood production rate over a 4.5-d interval selectively suppressed LH pulse amplitude without influencing LH pulse frequency. Estrogen infusion increased serum estradiol-17 beta levels approximately twofold without significantly altering blood androgen concentrations. We then used these schedules of selective androgen or estrogen infusion to investigate the participation of endogenous opiates in the individual inhibitory feedback actions of pure androgen or estrogen on pulsatile LH release by administering a potent and specific opiate-receptor antagonist, naltrexone, during the infusions. Our observations indicate that, despite the continuous infusion of a dosage of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone that significantly suppresses LH pulse frequency, co

  19. Rapid Response to High-Dose, Pulsatile Erlotinib in Afatinib-Refractory Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis from Adenocarcinoma of the Lung: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Frank S.

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurred in an old female patient who was on a standard dose of afatinib for the treatment of her non-small cell lung cancer harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors when extracranial lesions were still under control. Shifting to high-dose, pulsatile erlotinib dramatically saved her from the devastating condition in a very short period of time. Inadequate afatinib concentration in cerebrospinal fluid is reasonably suspected, and there is a call for clinical trials testing high-dose afatinib in leptomeningeal carcinomatosis. PMID:27790117

  20. Blood flow dynamic improvement with aneurysm repair detected by a patient-specific model of multiple aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Sughimoto, Koichi; Takahara, Yoshiharu; Mogi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Ken'ichi; Liang, Fuyou; Liu, Hao

    2014-05-01

    Aortic aneurysms may cause the turbulence of blood flow and result in the energy loss of the blood flow, while grafting of the dilated aorta may ameliorate these hemodynamic disturbances, contributing to the alleviation of the energy efficiency of blood flow delivery. However, evaluating of the energy efficiency of blood flow in an aortic aneurysm has been technically difficult to estimate and not comprehensively understood yet. We devised a multiscale computational biomechanical model, introducing novel flow indices, to investigate a single male patient with multiple aortic aneurysms. Preoperative levels of wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were elevated but declined after staged grafting procedures: OSI decreased from 0.280 to 0.257 (first operation) and 0.221 (second operation). Graftings may strategically counter the loss of efficient blood delivery to improve hemodynamics of the aorta. The energy efficiency of blood flow also improved postoperatively. Novel indices of pulsatile pressure index (PPI) and pulsatile energy loss index (PELI) were evaluated to characterize and quantify energy loss of pulsatile blood flow. Mean PPI decreased from 0.445 to 0.423 (first operation) and 0.359 (second operation), respectively; while the preoperative PELI of 0.986 dropped to 0.820 and 0.831. Graftings contributed not only to ameliorate wall shear stress or oscillatory shear index but also to improve efficient blood flow. This patient-specific modeling will help in analyzing the mechanism of aortic aneurysm formation and may play an important role in quantifying the energy efficiency or loss in blood delivery. PMID:23852404

  1. X-ray PIV measurement of blood flow in deep vessels of a rat: An in vivo feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    X-ray PIV measurement is a noninvasive approach to measure opaque blood flows. However, it is not easy to measure real pulsatile blood flows in the blood vessels located at deep position of the body, because the surrounding tissues significantly attenuate the contrast of X-ray images. This study investigated the effect of surrounding tissues on X-ray beam attenuation by measuring the velocity fields of blood flows in deep vessels of a live rat. The decrease in image contrast was minimized by employing biocompatible CO2 microbubbles as tracer particles. The maximum measurable velocity of blood flows in the abdominal aorta of a rat model was found through comparative examination between the PIV measurement accuracy and the level of image contrast according to the input flow rate. Furthermore, the feasibility of using X-ray PIV to accurately measure in vivo blood flows was demonstrated by determining the velocity field of blood flows in the inferior vena cava of a rat. This study may serve as a reference in conducting in vivo X-ray PIV measurements of pulsatile blood flows in animal disease models and investigating hemodynamic characteristics and circulatory vascular diseases. PMID:26777719

  2. Circulating nitric oxide in women affected by weight loss amenorrhea during pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Valenti, S; Cavallero, D; Fazzuoli, L; Minuto, F; Giusti, M

    2005-10-01

    No specific markers of the severity or prognosis of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis disturbances associated with weight loss amenorrhea (WLA) are currently available. Circulating nitric oxide (NO), which is involved in the control of the reproductive function in women and is correlated with body mass index (BMI), at least in over-weight and obese subjects, might be a marker of the severity and/or progression of WLA. To test this hypothesis, we studied circulating NO levels in 11 women (age 27.1 +/- 1.59 yr) affected by WLA for 5.1 +/- 1.0 yr; in all patients hormonal therapy had been discontinued 10.0 +/- 3.15 months earlier. NO, determined by measuring its stable catabolite nitrite/nitrates (NOx), was compared with some clinical parameters and sex hormone levels. Subsequently, changes in NOx during pulsatile GnRH therapy (120 ng/kg bw sc every 120 min) were compared with the clinical and hormonal data. Fifteen normal women (27.3 +/- 1.6 yr) served as a control group. NOx was significantly lower (p<0.01) in WLA (8.8 +/- 2.0 micromol/l) than in control (18.7 +/- 2.5 micromol/l) subjects. No correlation between NOx and clinical parameters was noted in either WLA or control subjects. As a result of GnRH therapy, ovulatory cycles reappeared in 91% of WLA women. During the 1st cycle, periovulatory 17beta-estradiol levels were 110% higher than those noted in controls. During the 2nd cycle, NOx showed a slight increase in the follicular phase (+12% vs 1st cycle) followed by a drop during the luteal phase (-40% from the follicular phase); indeed, at that time, NOx correlated negatively with progesterone in both WLA (rS -0.32, p<0.05) and control (rS -0.48, p<0.05) subjects. NOx correlated with BMI at the time of the 2nd cycle (rS 0.71, p<0.05). In conclusion, this study shows that in WLA patients: 1) NO is low, as in other conditions of chronic anovulation; 2) it does not correlate with clinical data; 3) it takes longer than sex steroids to increase and show normal

  3. Effect of counter-pulsation control of a pulsatile left ventricular assist device on working load variations of the native heart

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background When using a pulsatile left ventricular assist device (LVAD), it is important to reduce the cardiac load variations of the native heart because severe cardiac load variations can induce ventricular arrhythmia. In this study, we investigated the effect of counter-pulsation control of the LVAD on the reduction of cardiac load variation. Methods A ventricular electrocardiogram-based counter-pulsation control algorithm for a LVAD was implemented, and the effects of counter-pulsation control of the LVAD on the reduction of the working load variations of the left ventricle were determined in three animal experiments. Results Deviations of the working load of the left ventricle were reduced by 51.3%, 67.9%, and 71.5% in each case, and the beat-to-beat variation rates in the working load were reduced by 84.8%, 82.7%, and 88.2% in each ease after counter-pulsation control. There were 3 to 12 premature ventricle contractions (PVCs) before counter-pulsation control, but no PVCs were observed during counter-pulsation control. Conclusions Counter-pulsation control of the pulsatile LVAD can reduce severe cardiac load variations, but the average working load is not markedly affected by application of counter-pulsation control because it is also influenced by temporary cardiac outflow variations. We believe that counter-pulsation control of the LVAD can improve the long-term safety of heart failure patients equipped with LVADs. PMID:24708625

  4. Interleukin 1. alpha. inhibits prostaglandin E sub 2 release to suppress pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone but not follicle-stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Rettori, V.; McCann, S.M. ); Gimeno, M.F. ); Karara, A. ); Gonzalez, M.C. )

    1991-04-01

    Interleukin 1{alpha} (IL-1{alpha}), a powerful endogenous pyrogen released from monocytes and macrophages by bacterial endotoxin, stimulates corticotropin, prolactin, and somatotropin release and inhibits thyrotropin release by hypothalamic action. The authors injected recombinant human IL-1{alpha} into the third cerebral ventricle, to study its effect on the pulsatile release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in conscious, freely moving, ovariectomized rats. Intraventricular injection of 0.25 pmol of IL-1{alpha} caused an almost immediate reduction of plasma LH concentration. To determine the mechanism of the suppression of LH release, mediobasal hypothalamic fragments were incubated in vitro with IL-1{alpha} (10 pM) and the release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and prostaglandin E{sub 2} into the medium was measured by RIA in the presence or absence of nonrepinephrine. 1{alpha} reduced basal LHRH release and blocked LHRH release induced by nonrepinephrine. In conclusion, IL-1{alpha} suppresses LH but not FSH release by an almost complete cessation of pulsatile release of LH in the castrated rat. The mechanism of this effect appears to be by inhibition of prostaglandin E{sub 2}-mediated release of LHRH.

  5. Flow investigation in sidewall aneurysm model using a novel PIV multi-time-lag method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouillot, Pierre; Brina, Olivier; Ouared, Rafik; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Mendes Pereira, Vitor; Farhat, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    The intracranial aneurysm (IA) lesion is one of the main causes of intracranial hemorrhage in productive population. It is well known that the hemodynamic factors have large impact on both the IAs rupture and treatment efficacy based on flow diverter stents. Precise experimental investigations of blood flow in IAs using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) are therefore strongly required in order to validate clinical treatments based on computational and clinical flow assessment tools. Due to the large variations of flow velocities in IAs, a single PIV measurement with a unique time lag between two consecutive images cannot provide a good level of precision in all the measured volume. In this work, we implement an error analysis based on several PIV measurements with different time lags to ensure an optimal precision in the entire measurement volume. This PIV multi-time-lag method is applied on a sidewall IA model to investigate the effect of the inflow pulsatility. By comparing the flow patterns resulting from steady and unsteady inflows we point out important differences which could be involved in the IAs evolution. In particular, the blood transfer in the IA and the vortical structure are significantly modified when increasing the pulsatility compared to quasi-steady conditions.

  6. Fast blood flow monitoring in deep tissues with real-time software correlators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Detian; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Baker, Wesley B.; Gannon, Kimberly; Kavuri, Venki; Ko, Tiffany; Schenkel, Steven; Li, Zhe; Li, Zeren; Mullen, Michael T.; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce, validate and demonstrate a new software correlator for high-speed measurement of blood flow in deep tissues based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). The software correlator scheme employs standard PC-based data acquisition boards to measure temporal intensity autocorrelation functions continuously at 50 – 100 Hz, the fastest blood flow measurements reported with DCS to date. The data streams, obtained in vivo for typical source-detector separations of 2.5 cm, easily resolve pulsatile heart-beat fluctuations in blood flow which were previously considered to be noise. We employ the device to separate tissue blood flow from tissue absorption/scattering dynamics and thereby show that the origin of the pulsatile DCS signal is primarily flow, and we monitor cerebral autoregulation dynamics in healthy volunteers more accurately than with traditional instrumentation as a result of increased data acquisition rates. Finally, we characterize measurement signal-to-noise ratio and identify count rate and averaging parameters needed for optimal performance. PMID:27231588

  7. Cerebral blood flow in the newborn infant: comparison of Doppler ultrasound and /sup 133/xenon clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Greisen, G.; Johansen, K.; Ellison, P.H.; Fredriksen, P.S.; Mali, J.; Friis-Hansen, B.

    1984-03-01

    Two techniques of Doppler ultrasound examination, continuous-wave and range-gated, applied to the anterior cerebral artery and to the internal carotid artery, were compared with /sup 133/xenon clearance after intravenous injection. Thirty-two sets of measurements were obtained in 16 newborn infants. The pulsatility index, the mean flow velocity, and the end-diastolic flow velocity were read from the Doppler recordings. Mean cerebral blood flow was estimated from the /sup 133/Xe clearance curves. The correlation coefficients between the Doppler and the /sup 133/Xe measurements ranged from 0.41 to 0.82. In the subset of 16 first measurements in each infant, there were no statistically significant differences between the correlation coefficients of the various Doppler ultrasound variables, but the correlation coefficients were consistently lower for the pulsatility index than for mean flow velocity or end-diastolic flow velocity, and they were consistently higher for the range-gated than for the continuous-wave Doppler technique.

  8. Development of a flow feedback pulse duplicator system with rhesus monkey arterial input impedance characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaub, J. D.; Koenig, S. C.; Schroeder, M. J.; Ewert, D. L.; Drew, G. A.; Swope, R. D.; Convertino, V. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    An in vitro pulsatile pump flow system that is capable of producing physiologic pressures and flows in a mock circulatory system tuned to reproduce the first nine harmonics of the input impedance of a rhesus monkey was developed and tested. The system was created as a research tool for evaluating cardiovascular function and for the design, testing, and evaluation of electrical-mechanical cardiovascular models and chronically implanted sensors. The system possesses a computerized user interface for controlling a linear displacement pulsatile pump in a controlled flow loop format to emulate in vivo cardiovascular characteristics. Evaluation of the pump system consisted of comparing its aortic pressure and flow profiles with in vivo rhesus hemodynamic waveforms in the time and frequency domains. Comparison of aortic pressure and flow data between the pump system and in vivo data showed good agreement in the time and frequency domains, however, the pump system produced a larger pulse pressure. The pump system can be used for comparing cardiovascular parameters with predicted cardiovascular model values and for evaluating such items as vascular grafts, heart valves, biomaterials, and sensors. This article describes the development and evaluation of this feedback controlled cardiovascular dynamics simulation modeling system.

  9. Flow bioreactor design for quantitative measurements over endothelial cells using micro-particle image velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Chia Min; Voorhees, Abram; Nackman, Gary B.; Wei, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells (ECs) is a highly complex process through which cells respond to changes in hemodynamic loading by generating biochemical signals involving gene and protein expression. To study the effects of mechanical loading on ECs in a controlled fashion, different in vitro devices have been designed to simulate or replicate various aspects of these physiological phenomena. This paper describes the design, use, and validation of a flow chamber which allows for spatially and temporally resolved micro-particle image velocimetry measurements of endothelial surface topography and stresses over living ECs immersed in pulsatile flow. This flow chamber also allows the study of co-cultures (i.e., ECs and smooth muscle cells) and the effect of different substrates (i.e., coverslip and/or polyethylene terepthalate (PET) membrane) on cellular response. In this report, the results of steady and pulsatile flow on fixed endothelial cells seeded on PET membrane and coverslip, respectively, are presented. Surface topography of ECs is computed from multiple two-dimensional flow measurements. The distributions of shear stress and wall pressure on each individual cell are also determined and the importance of both types of stress in cell remodeling is highlighted.

  10. Flow bioreactor design for quantitative measurements over endothelial cells using micro-particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Leong, Chia Min; Voorhees, Abram; Nackman, Gary B; Wei, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells (ECs) is a highly complex process through which cells respond to changes in hemodynamic loading by generating biochemical signals involving gene and protein expression. To study the effects of mechanical loading on ECs in a controlled fashion, different in vitro devices have been designed to simulate or replicate various aspects of these physiological phenomena. This paper describes the design, use, and validation of a flow chamber which allows for spatially and temporally resolved micro-particle image velocimetry measurements of endothelial surface topography and stresses over living ECs immersed in pulsatile flow. This flow chamber also allows the study of co-cultures (i.e., ECs and smooth muscle cells) and the effect of different substrates (i.e., coverslip and∕or polyethylene terepthalate (PET) membrane) on cellular response. In this report, the results of steady and pulsatile flow on fixed endothelial cells seeded on PET membrane and coverslip, respectively, are presented. Surface topography of ECs is computed from multiple two-dimensional flow measurements. The distributions of shear stress and wall pressure on each individual cell are also determined and the importance of both types of stress in cell remodeling is highlighted.

  11. Development of a flow feedback pulse duplicator system with rhesus monkey arterial input impedance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Schaub, J D; Koenig, S C; Schroeder, M J; Ewert, D L; Drew, G A; Swope, R D

    1999-01-01

    An in vitro pulsatile pump flow system that is capable of producing physiologic pressures and flows in a mock circulatory system tuned to reproduce the first nine harmonics of the input impedance of a rhesus monkey was developed and tested. The system was created as a research tool for evaluating cardiovascular function and for the design, testing, and evaluation of electrical-mechanical cardiovascular models and chronically implanted sensors. The system possesses a computerized user interface for controlling a linear displacement pulsatile pump in a controlled flow loop format to emulate in vivo cardiovascular characteristics. Evaluation of the pump system consisted of comparing its aortic pressure and flow profiles with in vivo rhesus hemodynamic waveforms in the time and frequency domains. Comparison of aortic pressure and flow data between the pump system and in vivo data showed good agreement in the time and frequency domains, however, the pump system produced a larger pulse pressure. The pump system can be used for comparing cardiovascular parameters with predicted cardiovascular model values and for evaluating such items as vascular grafts, heart valves, biomaterials, and sensors. This article describes the development and evaluation of this feedback controlled cardiovascular dynamics simulation modeling system. PMID:10445741

  12. Color-flow Doppler sonography in Graves disease: "thyroid inferno".

    PubMed

    Ralls, P W; Mayekawa, D S; Lee, K P; Colletti, P M; Radin, D R; Boswell, W D; Halls, J M

    1988-04-01

    Graves disease is a common diffuse abnormality of the thyroid gland usually characterized by thyrotoxicosis. We performed color-flow Doppler sonography in 16 patients with Graves disease and compared the results with those in 15 normal volunteers and 14 patients with other thyroid diseases (eight with multinodular goiter, four with focal masses, and two with papillary thyroid carcinoma). All 16 Graves disease patients exhibited a pulsatile pattern we call "thyroid inferno." This pattern consists of multiple small areas of intrathyroidal flow seen diffusely throughout the gland in both systole and diastole. In systole, both high-velocity flow (color coded white) and lower velocity flow (color coded red and blue) were noted. In diastole, fewer areas of flow and lower velocity flow were noted. Patients with Graves disease also exhibited color flow around the periphery of the gland. The inferno pattern did not occur in normal subjects or in patients with other thyroid diseases. On occasion, focal areas of intrathyroidal flow were detected in patients with multinodular goiter and focal thyroid masses. High-resolution gray-scale images did not show the small vascular channels from which the flow signal originated. Color-flow Doppler sonography shows promise as a cost-effective, noninvasive technique for diagnosing Graves disease.

  13. Clinical Applicability of Assessment of Jugular Flow over the Individual Cardiac Cycle Compared with Current Ultrasound Methodology.

    PubMed

    Sisini, Francesco; Tessari, Mirko; Menegatti, Erica; Vannini, Maria Elena; Gianesini, Sergio; Tavoni, Valentina; Gadda, Giacomo; Gambaccini, Mauro; Taibi, Angelo; Zamboni, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest in measuring cerebral venous outflow with ultrasound (US). However, results obtained with the current US Doppler methodology, which uses just a single value of cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vessel, are highly variable and inconclusive. The product of CSA and time-averaged velocity in the case of pulsatile vessels may be a possible source of error, particularly for a pulsatile vein like the internal jugular vein (IJV), where the cardiac pump transmits a sequence of well-established waves along the conduit. We herein propose a novel technique for US IJV flow assessment that accurately accounts for IJV CSA variations during the cardiac cycle. Five subjects were investigated with a high-resolution real-time B-mode video, synchronized with an electrocardiography trace. In this approach, CSA variations representing the pulsatility of the IJV are overlapped with the velocity curve obtained by the usual spectral Doppler trace. The overlap is then phased point by point using the electrocardiography pacemaker. This allows us to experimentally measure the velocity variation in relation to the change in CSA precisely, ultimately enabling calculation of IJV flow. (i) The sequence of CSA variation with respect to the electrocardiography waves corresponds exactly to the jugular venous pulse as measured in physiology. (ii) The methodology permits us to phase the velocity and CSA, which is ultimately what is currently lacking to precisely calculate the flow in the IJV with US. (iii) The time-averaged flow, calculated with the described technique, is very close to that calculated assuming a constant IJV CSA, whereas the time-dependent flow shows differs as much as 40%. (iv) Finally, we tested the accuracy of the technique with a methodology that may allow for universal assessment of the accuracy of each personal US-based evaluation of flow rate. PMID:27108038

  14. Characterization of the left atrial vortex flow by two-dimensional transesophageal contrast echocardiography using particle image velocimetry.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyu-Hwan; Son, Jang-Won; Park, Won-Jong; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kim, Ung; Park, Jong-Seon; Shin, Dong-Gu; Kim, Young-Jo; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Hong, Geu-Ru

    2013-01-01

    This article is the first clinical investigation of the quantitative left atrial (LA) vortex flow by two-dimensional (2-D) transesophageal contrast echocardiography (2-D-TECE) using vector particle image velocimetry (PIV). The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of LA vortex flow analysis and to characterize and quantify the LA vortex flow in controls and in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Thirty-five controls and 30 patients with AF underwent transesophageal contrast echocardiography. The velocity vector was estimated by particle image velocimetry. The morphology and pulsatility of the LA vortex flow were compared between the control and AF groups. In all patients, quantitative LA vortex flow analysis was feasible. In the control group, multiple, pulsatile, compact and elliptical-shaped vortices were seen in the periphery of the LA. These vortices were persistently maintained and vectors were directed toward the atrioventricular inflow. In the AF group, a large, merged, lower pulsatile and round-shaped vortex was observed in the center of the LA. In comparisons of vortex parameters, the relative strength was significantly lower in the AF group (1.624 ± 0.501 vs. 2.105 ± 0.226, p < 0.001). It is feasible to characterize and quantify the LA vortex flow by transesophageal contrast echocardiography in patients with AF, which offers a new method to obtain additional information on LA hemodynamics. The approach has the potential for early detection of the LA dysfunction and in decisions regarding treatment strategy and guiding anticoagulation treatment in patients with AF.

  15. Evaluation of pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein and superficial body temperature as physiological indices of temperament in weaned beef calves: relationship with serum cortisol concentrations, rectal temp..

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between temperament, pulsatility index and diameter of the jugular vein, and body temperature was assessed in Angus crossbred calves (262±24.9 days old). Temperament scores were used to classify calves as calm (n=31), intermediate (n=32), or temperamental (n=28). Blood samples were ...

  16. Clinical impact of quantitative left atrial vortex flow analysis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a comparison with invasive left atrial voltage mapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Myung; Hong, Geu-Ru; Pak, Hui-Nam; Shim, Chi Young; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Kim, Minji; Chung, Namsik

    2015-08-01

    Recently, left atrial (LA) vortex flow analysis using contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been shown to be feasible and has demonstrated significant differences in vortex flow morphology and pulsatility between normal subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relationship between LA vortex flow and electrophysiological properties and the clinical significance of LA vortex flow are unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to compare LA vortex flow parameters with LA voltage and (2) to assess the predictive value of LA vortex flow parameters for the recurrence of AF after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Thirty-nine patients with symptomatic non-valvular AF underwent contrast TEE before undergoing RFCA for AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow parameters were analyzed by Omega flow (Siemens Medical Solution, Mountain View, CA, USA). The morphology and pulsatility of LA vortex flow were compared with electrophysiologic parameters that were measured invasively. Hemodynamic, electrophysiological, and vortex flow parameters were compared between patients with and without early recurrence of AF after RFCA. Morphologic parameters, including LA vortex depth, length, width, and sphericity index were not associated with LA voltage or hemodynamic parameters. The relative strength (RS), which represents the pulsatility power of LA, was positively correlated with LA voltage (R = 0.53, p = 0.01) and LA appendage flow velocity (R = 0.73, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with LA volume index (R = -0.56, p < 0.001). Patients with recurrent AF after RFCA showed significantly lower RS (1.7 ± 0.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.048) and LA voltage (0.9 ± 0.7 vs 1.7 ± 0.8, p = 0.004) than patients without AF recurrence. In the relatively small LA dimension group (LA volume index ≤ 33 ml/m(2)), RS was significantly lower (2.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.1, p = 0.029) in patients with the recurrent AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow analysis, especially RS

  17. Clinical impact of quantitative left atrial vortex flow analysis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a comparison with invasive left atrial voltage mapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Myung; Hong, Geu-Ru; Pak, Hui-Nam; Shim, Chi Young; Houle, Helene; Vannan, Mani A; Kim, Minji; Chung, Namsik

    2015-08-01

    Recently, left atrial (LA) vortex flow analysis using contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been shown to be feasible and has demonstrated significant differences in vortex flow morphology and pulsatility between normal subjects and patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the relationship between LA vortex flow and electrophysiological properties and the clinical significance of LA vortex flow are unknown. The aims of this study were (1) to compare LA vortex flow parameters with LA voltage and (2) to assess the predictive value of LA vortex flow parameters for the recurrence of AF after radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Thirty-nine patients with symptomatic non-valvular AF underwent contrast TEE before undergoing RFCA for AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow parameters were analyzed by Omega flow (Siemens Medical Solution, Mountain View, CA, USA). The morphology and pulsatility of LA vortex flow were compared with electrophysiologic parameters that were measured invasively. Hemodynamic, electrophysiological, and vortex flow parameters were compared between patients with and without early recurrence of AF after RFCA. Morphologic parameters, including LA vortex depth, length, width, and sphericity index were not associated with LA voltage or hemodynamic parameters. The relative strength (RS), which represents the pulsatility power of LA, was positively correlated with LA voltage (R = 0.53, p = 0.01) and LA appendage flow velocity (R = 0.73, p < 0.001) and negatively correlated with LA volume index (R = -0.56, p < 0.001). Patients with recurrent AF after RFCA showed significantly lower RS (1.7 ± 0.2 vs 1.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.048) and LA voltage (0.9 ± 0.7 vs 1.7 ± 0.8, p = 0.004) than patients without AF recurrence. In the relatively small LA dimension group (LA volume index ≤ 33 ml/m(2)), RS was significantly lower (2.1 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.1, p = 0.029) in patients with the recurrent AF. Quantitative LA vortex flow analysis, especially RS

  18. Spiral blood flow in aorta-renal bifurcation models.

    PubMed

    Javadzadegan, Ashkan; Simmons, Anne; Barber, Tracie

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a spiral arterial blood flow pattern in humans has been widely accepted. It is believed that this spiral component of the blood flow alters arterial haemodynamics in both positive and negative ways. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of spiral flow on haemodynamic changes in aorta-renal bifurcations. In this regard, a computational fluid dynamics analysis of pulsatile blood flow was performed in two idealised models of aorta-renal bifurcations with and without flow diverter. The results show that the spirality effect causes a substantial variation in blood velocity distribution, while causing only slight changes in fluid shear stress patterns. The dominant observed effect of spiral flow is on turbulent kinetic energy and flow recirculation zones. As spiral flow intensity increases, the rate of turbulent kinetic energy production decreases, reducing the region of potential damage to red blood cells and endothelial cells. Furthermore, the recirculation zones which form on the cranial sides of the aorta and renal artery shrink in size in the presence of spirality effect; this may lower the rate of atherosclerosis development and progression in the aorta-renal bifurcation. These results indicate that the spiral nature of blood flow has atheroprotective effects in renal arteries and should be taken into consideration in analyses of the aorta and renal arteries. PMID:26414530

  19. Transient Non-Newtonian Blood Flow under Magnetic Targeting Drug Delivery in an Aneurysm Blood Vessel with Porous Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohamadi, Haleh; Imani, Mohsen

    2014-11-01

    The present investigation deals with numerical solution of blood flow patterns through an aneurysm artery under the applied magnetic field. Transient extended Navier-Stokes, Brinkman, continuity, and heat conduction equations govern this phenomenon and unsteady pulsatile inlet velocity varies by human heart-beating frequency. Our simulation demonstrates applying 105 magnetic field intensity (MnF) to recirculate flow and increase fluid flux and maximum blood temperature by 62.5x and 3.5%, respectively, in the aneurysm region. It is also shown that the vessel's wall porosity plays an important role in magnetic targeting of drug delivery performance, as this parameter can noticeably change maximum blood temperature and pressure.

  20. An investigation of bimodal jet trajectory in flow through scaled models of the human vocal tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2006-05-01

    Pulsatile two-dimensional flow through static divergent models of the human vocal folds is investigated. Although the motivation for this study is speech production, the results are generally applicable to a variety of engineering flows involving pulsatile flow through diffusers. Model glottal divergence angles of 10, 20, and 40° represent various geometries encountered in one phonation cycle. Frequency and amplitude of the flow oscillations are scaled with physiological Reynolds and Strouhal numbers typical of human phonation. Glottal velocity trajectories are measured along the anterior-posterior midline by using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry to acquire 1,000 realizations at ten discrete instances in the phonation cycle. The angular deflection of the glottal jet from the streamwise direction (symmetric configuration) is quantified for each realization. A bimodal flow configuration is observed for divergence angles of 10 and 20°, with the flow eventually skewing and attaching to the vocal fold walls. The deflection of the flow toward the vocal fold walls occurs when the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. For a divergence angle of 40°, the flow never attaches to the vocal fold walls; however, there is increased variability in the glottal jet after the forcing function reaches maximum velocity and zero acceleration. The variation in the jet trajectory as a function of divergence angle is explained by performance maps of diffuser flow regimes. The smaller angle cases are in the unstable transitory stall regime while the 40° divergent case is in the fully developed two-dimensional stall regime. Very small geometric variations in model size and surface finish significantly affect the flow behavior. The bimodal, or flip-flopping, glottal jet behavior is expected to influence the dipole contribution to sound production.

  1. Latency relationships between cerebral blood flow velocity and intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Shadnaz; Vespa, Paul M; Bergsneider, Marvin; Hu, Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Pulsatile intracranial pressure (ICP) is a key to the understanding of several neurological disorders in which compliance is altered, e.g., hydrocephalus. A recently proposed model suggests that ICP pulse is a standing wave and not a transmitted wave. The present work, aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the pulsatility in the cranium, tries to test the following hypotheses: first, ICP pulse onset latency would be lower than that of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) pulses measured at a distal vessel; second, CBFV pulse at different intracranial arteries will have different pulse onset latencies, and hence they are not generated as a standing wave. The dataset used in the present study consists of ICP and CBFV signals collected from 60 patients with different diagnoses. The results reveal that the ICP pulse leads CBFV for 90% of the patients regardless of the diagnosis and mean ICP value. In addition, we show that CBFV pulse onset latency is roughly determined by the distance of the measurement point to the heart. We conclude that the ICP signal is not generated as a standing wave and that ICP pulse onset may be related to the arteries proximal to the heart.

  2. Three-phase CFD analytical modeling of blood flow.

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, J.; Hassanein, A.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of blood cells in disturbed flow regions of arteries has significant relevance for understanding atherogenesis. However, their distribution with red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes is not so well studied and understood. Our three-phase computational fluid dynamics approach including plasma, RBCs, and leukocytes was used to numerically simulate the local hemodynamics in such a flow regime. This model has tracked the wall shear stress (WSS), phase distributions, and flow patterns for each phase in a concentrated suspension shear flow of blood. Unlike other computational approaches, this approach does not require dispersion coefficients as an input. The non-Newtonian viscosity model was applied to a wide physiological range of hematocrits, including low shear rates. The migration and segregation of blood cells in disturbed flow regions were computed, and the results compared favorably with available experimental data. The predicted higher leukocyte concentration was correlated with relatively low WSS near the stenosis having a high WSS. This behavior was attributed to flow-dependent interactions of the leukocytes with RBCs in pulsatile flow. This three-phase hemodynamic analysis may have application to vulnerable plaque formation in arteries with in vivo complex flow conditions.

  3. Effects of ghrelin on Kisspeptin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area and pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Li, Xiao Feng; Kinsey-Jones, James; O'Byrne, Kevin

    2009-08-28

    The orexigenic gut peptide ghrelin negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hyperghrelinaemia results during negative energy balance, a state often associated with delayed puberty and disrupted fertility, whilst exogenous ghrelin suppresses pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion. The recent identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the HPG axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of ghrelin-induced suppression of LH. Ovariectomised oestrogen-replaced rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and blood samples collected for detection of LH pulses prior to and after intravenous administration of ghrelin (3nM/250 microl) or saline (250 microl) during ad libitum feeding or after overnight fasting. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA levels in brain punches of the key hypothalamic sites regulating gonadotrophin secretion, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), collected 6h following administration of ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly lowered LH pulse frequency in fed rats, an effect significantly enhanced by food deprivation. Fasting, ghrelin or their combination down-regulated Kiss1, without affecting Kiss1r, expression in the mPOA, and affected the expression of neither in the ARC. Considering the pivotal role for kisspeptin signalling in the activation of the HPG axis, the ability of ghrelin to down-regulate Kiss1 expression in mPOA may be a contributing factor in ghrelin-related suppression of pulsatile LH secretion.

  4. The Effect of Intermittent Alcohol Vapor or Pulsatile Heroin on Somatic and Negative Affective Indices during Spontaneous Withdrawal in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Angela M.; Reis, Daniel J.; Powell, Alexa S.; Neira, Louis J.; Nealey, Kathryn A.; Ziegler, Cole E.; Kloss, Nina; Bilimoria, Jessica L.; Smith, Chelsea E.; Walker, Brendan M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Once dependent on alcohol or opioids, negative affect may accompany withdrawal. Dependent individuals are hypothesized to “self-medicate” in order to cope with withdrawal, which promotes escalated drug or alcohol use. Objectives The current study aimed to develop a reliable animal model to assess symptoms that occur during spontaneous alcohol and opioid withdrawal. Methods Dependence was induced using intermittent alcohol exposure or pulsatile heroin delivery and assessed for the presence of withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal by measuring somatic signs, behavior in the forced swim test (FST) and air-puff induced 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Additional animals subjected to eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure were evaluated for altered somatic signs, operant alcohol self-administration and 22-kHz USV production, as well as performance in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Results During spontaneous withdrawal from pulsatile heroin or intermittent alcohol vapor, animals displayed increased somatic withdrawal signs, FST immobility and 22-kHz USV production, but did not show any behavioral change in the EPM unless the duration of exposure was extended to four weeks. Following eight weeks of alcohol vapor exposure, animals displayed somatic withdrawal signs, escalated alcohol self-administration and increased 22-kHz USVs. Conclusions These paradigms provide consistent methods to evaluate the behavioral ramifications, and neurobiological substrates, of alcohol and opioid dependence during spontaneous withdrawal. As immobility in the FST and percent open-arm time in the EPM were dissociable, with 22-kHz USVs paralleling immobility in the FST, assessment of air-puff induced 22-kHz USVs could provide an ethologically-valid alternative to the FST. PMID:22461104

  5. Influence of compliance on flow rate waveforms in hydraulic circuits for in vitro modeling the human circulatory system.

    PubMed

    He, Wenbo; Wang, Yuan; Gong, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Generating an artificial blood flow in a circle system is an important step in hemodynamic research; thus, the influence of circle system components on the pulsatile flow wave forms should be investigated. In this study, a circle system was built, in which two solenoid valves were controlled by a timer to transform a constant flow into a pulsatile one, and two customized compliances with five different aeration volumes were set up upstream and downstream of the test chamber, achieving twenty-five different wave forms. Then, the influence of the compliance settings on the flow rate wave form was investigated. From the experimental data, it can be concluded that the absolute value of the maximum value and the minimum value of the wave forms increases along the aeration of the downstream compliance but decreases along the aeration of the upstream compliance. For the second maximum value and the offset between the maximum value and the minimum value, remarkable differences were obtained between runs with aeration of zero compliance and nonzero compliance. Finally, an emulational flow was achieved with the up- and downstream aeration volume equaling 360 mL and 180 mL, respectively, which fit the realistic wave form well. PMID:25226946

  6. Doppler analysis of superior mesenteric artery blood flow in preterm infants.

    PubMed Central

    Leidig, E

    1989-01-01

    Transcutaneous Doppler ultrasound measurements were made of the superior mesenteric artery of 22 preterm infants (mean birth weight 600-2580 g) to investigate the response of intestinal blood flow to feeding. Analysis of the data in relation to milk intake showed a significant change in peak velocity and mean velocity; peak velocity before feeding increased from a mean baseline value of 34 cm/s in fasting infants to 46 cm/s when less than 50 g milk/kg body weight a day were given, and up to 56 cm/s when 50 g or more of milk/kg body weight a day were given. The corresponding values for mean velocity were 10, 15, and 22 cm/s, respectively. The pulsatility index decreased from 0.94 to 0.90 and 0.86 as milk volumes were increased. This investigation showed characteristic changes in the response of intestinal blood flow to feeding: 15 minute peak velocity and mean velocity rose significantly 15, 45, and 90 minutes after feeding, whereas the pulsatility index fell. Flow rate peaked 45 minutes after feeding. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:2499270

  7. Flow Structure Associated with Hemodialysis Catheters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foust, Jason

    2005-11-01

    Insertion of a hemodialysis catheter into the superior vena cava (SVC) gives rise to complex flow patterns, which arise from the simultaneous injection and extraction of blood through different holes (ports) of the catheter. Techniques of high-image-density particle image velocimetry are employed in a scaled-up water facility. This approach allows characterization of both the instantaneous and time-averaged flow structure due to generic classes of side hole geometries. The trajectory of the injection jet is related to the ratio of the initial jet velocity to the mainstream velocity through the SVC, and to the type of distortion of the jet cross-section. Furthermore, the mean and fluctuating velocity and vorticity fields are determined. Significant turbulent stresses develop rapidly in the injection jet, which can impinge upon the wall of the simulated SVC. Immediately downstream of the injection hole, a recirculation cell of low velocity exists adjacent to the catheter surface. These and other representations of the flow structure are first evaluated for a steady throughflow, then for the case of a pulsatile waveform in the SVC, which matches that of a normal adult.

  8. Blood flow changes in permanent maxillary canines during retraction.

    PubMed

    McDonald, F; Pitt Ford, T R

    1994-02-01

    The influence of external load on the blood flow of permanent maxillary canine teeth was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Blood flow readings were obtained from 10 maxillary canines and compared with the contralateral teeth simultaneously. Readings were obtained from the teeth before, during, and after the application of a 50 g force (gf) which was applied using a removable appliance. The probe for LDF measurement was held in place by a splint constructed of a silicone impression material designed to allow movement of the tooth, but prevent instability of the probe. LDF demonstrated a reading from the canine teeth consistent with recordings of blood flow, i.e. the traces were similar to the pulsatile nature of pulse pressure recordings taken from the subjects' ear-lobes. After loading the effect on the canine was (1) a decrease in blood flow as measured with LDF followed by (2) an increase in flow after 32.3 minutes (SD 4.74). These changes were statistically significant (P < 0.05) using Student's t-test. The increase in blood flow was still present after 24 and 48 hours, but returned to preload values within 72 hours. In two cases it was found that the decrease in blood flow remained as long as the load was applied. The response appeared similar to reactive hyperaemia found following placement of a tourniquet. However, the response time was substantially longer for the hyperaemic phase.

  9. Physiological flow of shear-thinning viscoelastic fluid past an irregular arterial constriction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarifuddin; Chakravarty, Santabrata; Mandal, Prashanta Kumar

    2013-08-01

    The present investigation deals with the effect of the shape of a stenosis on the flow characteristics of blood, having shear-thinning viscoelastic rheological properties by using a suitable mathematical model. Keeping the relevance of the physiological situation, the mathematical model is developed by treating blood as a non-Newtonian shear-thinning viscoelastic fluid characterised by unsteady Oldroyd-3-constant model through an axisymmetric irregular arterial stenosis obtained from casting of a mildly stenosed artery (cf. Back et al., 1984). Comparison with the well-known cosine-shaped stenosis, in order to estimate the effect of surface roughness on the flow characteristics of blood, has however not been ruled out from the present study. Numerical illustrations are presented for a physiological flow, as well as for an equivalent simple pulsatile flow with equal stroke volume to that of the physiological flow, and the differences in their flow behaviour are recorded and discussed. The Marker and Cell method is developed in cylindrical co-ordinate system in order to tackle the highly nonlinear governing equations of motion. The effects of the quantities of significance such as Reynolds number, Deborah number, blood viscoelasticity and flow pulsatility, as well on the velocity components, pressure drop, wall shear stress and patterns of streamlines are quantitatively investigated graphically. Comparison of the results reveals that although the behaviour of two different pulses are similar at the same instant of time, there exist some important deviations in the flow pattern, pressure drop and wall shear stress as well. The present results also predict that the excess pressure drop across the cosine stenosis compared with the irregular one is consistent with several existing results in the literature which substantiate sufficiently to validate the applicability of the model under consideration.

  10. Hemodynamics of a functional centrifugal-flow total artificial heart with functional atrial contraction in goats.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Takuya; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Sano, Kyosuke; Taira, Yasunori; Tsuboko, Yusuke; Yamada, Akihiro; Miura, Hidekazu; Katahira, Shintaro; Akiyama, Masatoshi; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Yambe, Tomoyuki

    2016-03-01

    Implantation of a total artificial heart (TAH) is one of the therapeutic options for the treatment of patients with end-stage biventricular heart failure. There is no report on the hemodynamics of the functional centrifugal-flow TAH with functional atrial contraction (fCFTAH). We evaluated the effects of pulsatile flow by atrial contraction in acute animal models. The goats received fCFTAH that we created from two centrifugal-flow ventricular assist devices. Some hemodynamic parameters maintained acceptable levels: heart rate 115.5 ± 26.3 bpm, aortic pressure 83.5 ± 10.1 mmHg, left atrial pressure 18.0 ± 5.9 mmHg, pulmonary pressure 28.5 ± 9.7 mmHg, right atrial pressure 13.6 ± 5.2 mmHg, pump flow 4.0 ± 1.1 L/min (left) 3.9 ± 1.1 L/min (right), and cardiac index 2.13 ± 0.14 L/min/m(2). fCFTAH with atrial contraction was able to maintain the TAH circulation by forming a pulsatile flow in acute animal experiments. Taking the left and right flow rate balance using the low internal pressure loss of the VAD pumps may be easier than by other pumps having considerable internal pressure loss. We showed that the remnant atrial contraction effected the flow rate change of the centrifugal pump, and the atrial contraction waves reflected the heart rate. These results indicate that remnant atria had the possibility to preserve autonomic function in fCFTAH. We may control fCFTAH by reflecting the autonomic function, which is estimated with the flow rate change of the centrifugal pump.

  11. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    PubMed

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices. PMID:27435456

  12. In Vitro MRV-based Hemodynamic Study of Complex Helical Flow in a Patient-specific Jugular Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefayati, Sarah; Acevedo-Bolton, Gabriel; Haraldsson, Henrik; Saloner, David

    2014-11-01

    Neurointerventional Radiologists are frequently requested to evaluate the venous side of the intracranial circulation for a variety of conditions including: Chronic Cerebrospinal Venous Insufficiency thought to play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis; sigmoid sinus diverticulum which has been linked to the presence of pulsatile tinnitus; and jugular vein distension which is related to cardiac dysfunction. Most approaches to evaluating these conditions rely on structural assessment or two dimensional flow analyses. This study was designed to investigate the highly complex jugular flow conditions using magnetic resonance velocimetry (MRV). A jugular phantom was fabricated based on the geometry of the dominant jugular in a tinnitus patient. Volumetric three-component time-resolved velocity fields were obtained using 4D PC-MRI -with the protocol enabling turbulence acquisition- and the patient-specific pulsatile waveform. Flow was highly complex exhibiting regions of jet, high swirling strength, and strong helical pattern with the core originating from the focal point of the jugular bulb. Specifically, flow was analyzed for helicity and the level of turbulence kinetic energy elevated in the core of helix and distally, in the post-narrowing region.

  13. Validation of rapid velocity encoded cine imaging of a dynamically complex flow field using turbo block regional interpolation scheme for k space.

    PubMed

    Kortright, E; Doyle, M; Anayiotos, A S; Walsh, E G; Fuisz, A R; Pohost, G M

    2001-02-01

    Block regional interpolation scheme for k space (BRISK) is a sparse sampling approach to allow rapid magnetic resonance imaging of dynamic events. Rapid velocity encoded cine (VEC) imaging with Turbo BRISK is potentially an important clinical diagnostic technique for cardiovascular diseases. Previously we applied BRISK and Turbo BRISK to imaging pulsatile flow in a straight tube. To evaluate the capabilities of Turbo BRISK imaging in more complex dynamic flow fields such as might exist in the human vasculature, an in vitro curved tube model, similar in geometry to the aortic arch, was fabricated and imaged under pulsatile flow conditions. Velocity maps were obtained using conventional VEC and Turbo BRISK (turbo factors 1 through 5). Comparison of the flow fields obtained with each higher order turbo factor showed excellent agreement with conventional VEC with minimal loss of information. Similarly, flow maps showed good agreement with the profiles from a laser Doppler velocimetry model. Turbo-5 BRISK, for example, allowed a 94% savings in imaging time, reducing the conventional imaging time from over 8 min to a near breath-hold imaging period of 31 s. Turbo BRISK shows excellent promise toward the development of a clinical tool to evaluate complex dynamic intravascular flow fields.

  14. Relations of Arterial Stiffness and Brachial Flow-Mediated Dilation With New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Amir Y; Wang, Na; Yin, Xiaoyan; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Hamburg, Naomi M; Magnani, Jared W; Ellinor, Patrick T; Lubitz, Steven A; Mitchell, Gary F; Benjamin, Emelia J; McManus, David D

    2016-09-01

    The relations of measures of arterial stiffness, pulsatile hemodynamic load, and endothelial dysfunction to atrial fibrillation (AF) remain poorly understood. To better understand the pathophysiology of AF, we examined associations between noninvasive measures of vascular function and new-onset AF. The study sample included participants aged ≥45 years from the Framingham Heart Study offspring and third-generation cohorts. Using Cox proportional hazards regression models, we examined relations between incident AF and tonometry measures of arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), wave reflection (augmentation index), pressure pulsatility (central pulse pressure), endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation), resting brachial arterial diameter, and hyperemic flow. AF developed in 407/5797 participants in the tonometry sample and 270/3921 participants in the endothelial function sample during follow-up (median 7.1 years, maximum 10 years). Higher augmentation index (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.32; P=0.02), baseline brachial artery diameter (hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.43; P=0.04), and lower flow-mediated dilation (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.99; P=0.04) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. Central pulse pressure, when adjusted for age, sex, and hypertension (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.28; P=0.02) was associated with incident AF. Higher pulsatile load assessed by central pulse pressure and greater apparent wave reflection measured by augmentation index were associated with increased risk of incident AF. Vascular endothelial dysfunction may precede development of AF. These measures may be additional risk factors or markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease associated with increased risk of incident AF. PMID:27456517

  15. Complex flow patterns in a real-size intracranial aneurysm phantom: phase contrast MRI compared with particle image velocimetry and computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    van Ooij, P; Guédon, A; Poelma, C; Schneiders, J; Rutten, M C M; Marquering, H A; Majoie, C B; VanBavel, E; Nederveen, A J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the flow patterns measured by high-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional phase contrast MRI in a real-size intracranial aneurysm phantom. Retrospectively gated three-dimensional phase contrast MRI was performed in an intracranial aneurysm phantom at a resolution of 0.2 × 0.2 × 0.3 mm(3) in a solenoid rat coil. Both steady and pulsatile flows were applied. The phase contrast MRI measurements were compared with particle image velocimetry measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulations. A quantitative comparison was performed by calculating the differences between the magnitude of the velocity vectors and angles between the velocity vectors in corresponding voxels. Qualitative analysis of the results was executed by visual inspection and comparison of the flow patterns. The root-mean-square errors of the velocity magnitude in the comparison between phase contrast MRI and computational fluid dynamics were 5% and 4% of the maximum phase contrast MRI velocity, and the medians of the angle distribution between corresponding velocity vectors were 16° and 14° for the steady and pulsatile measurements, respectively. In the phase contrast MRI and particle image velocimetry comparison, the root-mean-square errors were 12% and 10% of the maximum phase contrast MRI velocity, and the medians of the angle distribution between corresponding velocity vectors were 19° and 15° for the steady and pulsatile measurements, respectively. Good agreement was found in the qualitative comparison of flow patterns between the phase contrast MRI measurements and both particle image velocimetry measurements and computational fluid dynamics simulations. High-resolution, time-resolved, three-dimensional phase contrast MRI can accurately measure complex flow patterns in an intracranial aneurysm phantom.

  16. Fluid-Dynamic Optimal Design of Helical Vascular Graft for Stenotic Disturbed Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Hojin; Hwang, Dongha; Choi, Woo-Rak; Baek, Jehyun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2014-01-01

    Although a helical configuration of a prosthetic vascular graft appears to be clinically beneficial in suppressing thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia, an optimization of a helical design has yet to be achieved because of the lack of a detailed understanding on hemodynamic features in helical grafts and their fluid dynamic influences. In the present study, the swirling flow in a helical graft was hypothesized to have beneficial influences on a disturbed flow structure such as stenotic flow. The characteristics of swirling flows generated by helical tubes with various helical pitches and curvatures were investigated to prove the hypothesis. The fluid dynamic influences of these helical tubes on stenotic flow were quantitatively analysed by using a particle image velocimetry technique. Results showed that the swirling intensity and helicity of the swirling flow have a linear relation with a modified Germano number (Gn*) of the helical pipe. In addition, the swirling flow generated a beneficial flow structure at the stenosis by reducing the size of the recirculation flow under steady and pulsatile flow conditions. Therefore, the beneficial effects of a helical graft on the flow field can be estimated by using the magnitude of Gn*. Finally, an optimized helical design with a maximum Gn* was suggested for the future design of a vascular graft. PMID:25360705

  17. Numerical and Analytical Study of Two-Layered Unsteady Blood Flow through Catheterized Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Akbar; Ali, Nasir; Sajid, M.; Hayat, Tasawar

    2016-01-01

    The pulsatile flow of blood in a catheterized blood vessel is analyzed. The flow of blood in vessel is modeled as the flow of two immiscible fluids. The fluid in the core region is characterized as a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid satisfying the constitutive equation of an Oldroyd-B fluid. The fluid in the peripheral region is treated as a Newtonian fluid. The catheter inside the vessel is modeled as a rigid tube of very small radius. The resulting differential system for velocity in each region is computed numerically by finite-difference scheme and analytically by Laplace transform. A comparison of numerical solution with Laplace transform solution is carried out. Various physical quantities of interest through the computed velocity are also analyzed. PMID:27548476

  18. Numerical Simulation of the Flow in Vascular Grafts for Surgical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGah, Patrick; Aliseda, Alberto

    2009-11-01

    Numerical simulation of the human blood vessels, is becoming an important tool in surgical planning and research. Accurate vascular simulations might grant physicians the predictive capability to perform pre-surgical planning. We focus our attention on the implantation of vascular grafts. The high rate of failure of this common vascular interaction is intimately related to the fluid mechanics in the affected region and the subsequent wall tissue remodeling. Here, we will present our current work in developing a methodology for the numerical simulation of vascular grafts which incorporates physiologically realistic geometries and flow boundary conditions. In particular, we seek to correlate the wall shear stress and its spatial (WSSG) and temporal (OSI) variability to wall remodeling as observed in patient specific longitudinal studies. The pulsatility (Remean= 800 , Repeak= 2000, Wo = 2) of the flow gives rise to additional fluid dynamics phenomena such as instability, flow separation, transition, and unsteadiness. Our goal is to describe and evaluate their effect on the wall physiology.

  19. Numerical and Analytical Study of Two-Layered Unsteady Blood Flow through Catheterized Artery.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Akbar; Ali, Nasir; Sajid, M; Hayat, Tasawar

    2016-01-01

    The pulsatile flow of blood in a catheterized blood vessel is analyzed. The flow of blood in vessel is modeled as the flow of two immiscible fluids. The fluid in the core region is characterized as a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid satisfying the constitutive equation of an Oldroyd-B fluid. The fluid in the peripheral region is treated as a Newtonian fluid. The catheter inside the vessel is modeled as a rigid tube of very small radius. The resulting differential system for velocity in each region is computed numerically by finite-difference scheme and analytically by Laplace transform. A comparison of numerical solution with Laplace transform solution is carried out. Various physical quantities of interest through the computed velocity are also analyzed. PMID:27548476

  20. Parallel Adaptive Computation of Blood Flow in a 3D ``Whole'' Body Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Figueroa, C. A.; Taylor, C. A.; Sahni, O.; Jansen, K. E.

    2008-11-01

    Accurate numerical simulations of vascular trauma require the consideration of a larger portion of the vasculature than previously considered, due to the systemic nature of the human body's response. A patient-specific 3D model composed of 78 connected arterial branches extending from the neck to the lower legs is constructed to effectively represent the entire body. Recently developed outflow boundary conditions that appropriately represent the downstream vasculature bed which is not included in the 3D computational domain are applied at 78 outlets. In this work, the pulsatile blood flow simulations are started on a fairly uniform, unstructured mesh that is subsequently adapted using a solution-based approach to efficiently resolve the flow features. The adapted mesh contains non-uniform, anisotropic elements resulting in resolution that conforms with the physical length scales present in the problem. The effects of the mesh resolution on the flow field are studied, specifically on relevant quantities of pressure, velocity and wall shear stress.

  1. The Impact of Letrozole Versus Clomiphene Citrate on Uterine Blood Flow in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Sakhavar, Nahid; Sadegi, Kambiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of letrozole and clomiphene citrate (CC) on uterine blood flow rate in patients with unexplained infertility. Materials and methods In this randomized clinical trial 90 women with unexplained infertility referred to a university clinic from January 2011- December 2013 were enrolled. Thirty patients were randomized for letrozole, 30 patients for CC and 3o patients for control group. On the day 3 of cycle the patients were given letrozole 2.5mg/day or CC 100 mg /day orally or did not receive any treatment. Resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) of uterine artery were calculated and chemical pregnancy rate was evaluated. Results Mean age was 26.4±3.2 (20-33) and mean BMI was 26.3± 3.2. After treatment using ultrasonography the Resistance index (RI) and Pulsatility index (PI) showed no significant difference among three groups (P > 0.05). Pregnancy rate in letrozole group (58%) was more in comparison to CC (53.6%) and control groups (46%) but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion Our study showed that letrozole and clomiphene citrate have comparable impact on uterine blood flow and pregnancy rate in women with unexplained infertility. PMID:24971126

  2. 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Dyverfeldt, Petter; Bissell, Malenka; Barker, Alex J; Bolger, Ann F; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino; Francios, Christopher J; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Geiger, Julia; Giese, Daniel; Hope, Michael D; Kilner, Philip J; Kozerke, Sebastian; Myerson, Saul; Neubauer, Stefan; Wieben, Oliver; Markl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile blood flow through the cavities of the heart and great vessels is time-varying and multidirectional. Access to all regions, phases and directions of cardiovascular flows has formerly been limited. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has enabled more comprehensive access to such flows, with typical spatial resolution of 1.5×1.5×1.5 - 3×3×3 mm(3), typical temporal resolution of 30-40 ms, and acquisition times in the order of 5 to 25 min. This consensus paper is the work of physicists, physicians and biomedical engineers, active in the development and implementation of 4D Flow CMR, who have repeatedly met to share experience and ideas. The paper aims to assist understanding of acquisition and analysis methods, and their potential clinical applications with a focus on the heart and greater vessels. We describe that 4D Flow CMR can be clinically advantageous because placement of a single acquisition volume is straightforward and enables flow through any plane across it to be calculated retrospectively and with good accuracy. We also specify research and development goals that have yet to be satisfactorily achieved. Derived flow parameters, generally needing further development or validation for clinical use, include measurements of wall shear stress, pressure difference, turbulent kinetic energy, and intracardiac flow components. The dependence of measurement accuracy on acquisition parameters is considered, as are the uses of different visualization strategies for appropriate representation of time-varying multidirectional flow fields. Finally, we offer suggestions for more consistent, user-friendly implementation of 4D Flow CMR acquisition and data handling with a view to multicenter studies and more widespread adoption of the approach in routine clinical investigations. PMID:26257141

  3. Beat-rate dependent mitral flow patterns for in vitro hemodynamic applications.

    PubMed

    Vismara, Riccardo; Fiore, Gianfranco B

    2010-12-01

    The conservative surgery approach for restoring the functionality of heart valves has predominated during the last two decades, particularly for the mitral valve. In vitro pulsatile testing is a key methodology for the investigation of heart valve hemodynamics, and particularly for the ideation, validation and optimization of novel techniques in heart valve surgery. Traditionally, however, pulsatile mock loops have been developed for the study of aortic valve substitutes, and scarce attention has been paid in replicating the mitral flow patterns with due hemodynamic fidelity. In this work we provide detailed analytical expressions to produce beat-rate dependent, physiologic-like mitral flow patterns for in vitro applications. The approach we propose is based on a biomechanical analysis of the factors which govern hemodynamic changes in the mitral flow pattern, namely in terms of E and A wave contours and E/A peaks ratio, when switching from rest to mild exercise conditions. The patterns from the model we obtained were in good agreement with clinical literature data in terms of i) gradual superimposition of the E and A wave, which yielded a single peak at 96 bpm; ii) decrease in the E/A ratio with increasing heart rate; iii) amount of flow delivered by each of the two waves. The proposed method provides a physiologically representative, beat-rate dependent analytical expression of the mitral flow pattern, which can be used in in vitro hydrodynamic investigations to accurately replicate the changes that the flow waves experience when the heart rate shifts from rest to mild exercise conditions.

  4. Computational simulations of flow dynamics and blood damage through a bileaflet mechanical heart valve scaled to pediatric size and flow.

    PubMed

    Yun, B Min; McElhinney, Doff B; Arjunon, Shiva; Mirabella, Lucia; Aidun, Cyrus K; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-09-22

    Despite pressing needs, there are currently no FDA approved prosthetic valves available for use in the pediatric population. This study is performed for predictive assessment of blood damage in bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) with pediatric sizing and flow conditions. A model of an adult-sized 23 mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) Regent(™) valve is selected for use in simulations, which is scaled in size for a 5-year old child and 6-month old infant. A previously validated lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to simulate pulsatile flow with thousands of suspended platelets for cases of adult, child, and infant BMHV flows. Adult BMHV flows demonstrate more disorganized small-scale flow features, but pediatric flows are associated with higher fluid shear stresses. Platelet damage in the pediatric cases is higher than in adult flow, highlighting thrombus complication dangers of pediatric BMHV flows. This does not necessarily suggest clinically important differences in thromboembolic potential. Highly damaged platelets in pediatric flows are primarily found far downstream of the valve, as there is less flow recirculation in pediatric flows. In addition, damage levels are well below expected thresholds for platelet activation. The extent of differences here documented between the pediatric and adult cases is of concern, demanding particular attention when pediatric valves are designed and manufactured. However, the differences between the pediatric and adult cases are not such that development of pediatric sized valves is untenable. This study may push for eventual approval of prosthetic valves resized for the pediatric population. Further studies will be necessary to determine the validity and potential thrombotic and clinical implications of these findings. PMID:25011622

  5. Differential effects of short-term fasting on pulsatile thyrotropin, gonadotropin, and alpha-subunit secretion in healthy men--a clinical research center study.

    PubMed

    Samuels, M H; Kramer, P

    1996-01-01

    In healthy subjects, short term fasting suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes, with decreased serum levels of TSH and LH. However, effects of fasting on pulsatile release of TSH, LH, FSH, and alpha-subunit are less clear. Eleven healthy young men each underwent two 2-day studies: a baseline study during normal caloric intake and a fasting study during 56 h of caloric deprivation. During the final 24 h of each study, blood samples were drawn every 15 min for measurement of serum TSH, LH, FSH, and alpha-subunit pulses. Fifty-six hours of fasting caused a 50% suppression of mean TSH levels and TSH pulse amplitude, without altering TSH pulse frequency. Nocturnal TSH pulse amplitude decreased by 60%, with abolition of the usual nocturnal TSH surge. Fasting suppressed mean LH levels and LH pulse amplitude by 30%, without affecting LH pulse frequency. In contrast, mean FSH levels only decreased by 13%, without changes in FSH pulse parameters, whereas mean alpha-subunit levels and pulse amplitude decreased by 20%. These data show that short term fasting has a greater suppressive effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis than on the HPG axis. Within the HPG axis, FSH is more resistant to fasting-induced suppression than LH, implying discordant regulation of the two gonadotropins during nutritional deprivation. alpha-Subunit suppression during fasting appears to parallel that seen for LH.

  6. Blood Glucose Control Using a Novel Continuous Blood Glucose Monitor and Repetitive Intravenous Insulin Boluses: Exploiting Natural Insulin Pulsatility as a Principle for a Future Artificial Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Skjaervold, Nils K.; Östling, Dan; Hjelme, Dag R.; Spigset, Olav; Lyng, Oddveig

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a glucose regulatory algorithm by employing the natural pulsatile pattern of insulin secretion and the oscillatory pattern of resting blood glucose levels and further to regulate the blood glucose level in diabetic pigs by this method. We developed a control algorithm based on repetitive intravenous bolus injections of insulin and combined this with an intravascular blood glucose monitor. Four anesthetized pigs were used in the study. The animals developed a mildly diabetic state from streptozotocin pretreatment. They were steadily brought within the blood glucose target range of 4.5–6.0 mmol/L in 21 to 121 min and kept within that range for 128 to 238 min (hypoglycemic values varied from 2.9 to 51.1 min). The study confirmed our hypotheses regarding the feasibility of this new principle for blood glucose control, and the algorithm was constantly improved during the study to produce the best results in the last animals. The main obstacles were the drift of the IvS-1 sensor and problems with the calibration procedure, which calls for an improvement in the sensor stability before this method can be applied fully in new studies in animals and humans. PMID:24369461

  7. Association of Renal Resistive Index, Renal Pulsatility Index, Systemic Hypertension, and Albuminuria with Survival in Dogs with Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Yin; Lien, Yu-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    An increased renal resistive index (RI) and albuminuria are markers of target organ damage secondary to systemic hypertension. This study evaluated associations between systemic blood pressure (SBP), renal RI, pulsatility index (PI), and albuminuria in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). Predictors of overall mortality were investigated. Twenty client-owned dogs with PDH and 20 clinically healthy client-owned dogs as matched controls were included. Incidence rates of systemic hypertension (SBP ≥ 160 mmHg), albuminuria, and increased renal RI (≥ 0.70) and PI (≥ 1.45) in the control group were 5%, 0%, 5%, and 0%, respectively, compared to 35%, 40%, 50%, and 35%, respectively, in the PDH group (P = 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, resp.). No association between systemic hypertension, renal RI, renal PI, and albuminuria was observed. PDH was the only predictor of albuminuria and increased renal RI. Survival was not affected by increased renal PI, systemic hypertension, or albuminuria. Increased renal RI (≥ 0.70) was the only predictor of overall mortality in dogs with PDH. PMID:27340403

  8. Association of educational achievement with pulsatile arterial diameter change of the common carotid artery: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, 1987-1992.

    PubMed

    Din-Dzietham, R; Liao, D; Diez-Roux, A; Nieto, F J; Paton, C; Howard, G; Brown, A; Carnethon, M; Tyroler, H A

    2000-10-01

    Education is strongly inversely associated with common carotid artery intima-media thickness in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. The authors extended the ARIC study of preclinical atherosclerosis by evaluating the cross-sectional association of education with common carotid artery elasticity. This study included 10,091 Black and White men and women aged 45-64 years who were free of clinical coronary heart disease and stroke/transient ischemic attack. Arterial elasticity was assessed by pulsatile arterial diameter change (PADC), derived from phase-locked echo-tracking. The smaller the PADC, the stiffer the artery. Education was categorized into grade school, high school without graduation, high school with graduation, vocational school, some college, and graduate/professional school. PADC was directly associated with educational attainment. The mean PADCs, adjusted for age, height, diastolic diameter, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure (linear and squared), ethnicity, gender, and smoking status, in successively higher education strata were 402 (standard error (SE) 5), 403 (SE 4), 407 (SE 3), 413 (SE 4), 416 (SE 2), and 417 (SE 4) microm (p = 0.007). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time such an association has been reported. If arterial dilation impairment precedes arterial wall thickening in the atherosclerotic process, as recent studies on endothelial dysfunction suggest, these results indicate that low socioeconomic status may be associated with early arterial pathophysiologic changes-an effect that appears to be mediated by established cardiovascular disease risk factors.

  9. Preservation Of Native Aortic Valve Flow And Full Hemodynamic Support With The TORVAD™ Using A Computational Model Of The Cardiovascular System

    PubMed Central

    Gohean, Jeffrey R.; George, Mitchell J.; Chang, Kay-Won; Larson, Erik R.; Pate, Thomas D.; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G.; Smalling, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the stroke volume selection and operational design for the TORVAD™, a synchronous, positive-displacement ventricular assist device (VAD). A lumped parameter model was used to simulate hemodynamics with the TORVAD™ compared to those under continuous flow VAD support. Results from the simulation demonstrated that a TORVAD™ with a 30 mL stroke volume ejecting with an early diastolic counterpulse provides comparable systemic support to the HeartMate II® (HMII) (cardiac output 5.7 L/min up from 3.1 L/min in simulated heart failure). By taking advantage of synchronous pulsatility, the TORVAD™ delivers full hemodynamic support with nearly half the VAD flow rate (2.7 L/min compared to 5.3 L/min for the HMII) by allowing the left ventricle to eject during systole, thus preserving native aortic valve flow (3.0 L/min compared to 0.4 L/min for the HMII, down from 3.1 L/min at baseline). The TORVAD™ also preserves pulse pressure (26.7 mmHg compared to 12.8 mmHg for the HMII, down from 29.1 mmHg at baseline). Preservation of aortic valve flow with synchronous pulsatile support could reduce the high incidence of aortic insufficiency and valve cusp fusion reported in patients supported with continuous flow VADs. PMID:25485562

  10. Successful Development of Small Diameter Tissue-Engineering Vascular Vessels by Our Novel Integrally Designed Pulsatile Perfusion-Based Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lei; Zhou, Qiang; Duan, Ping; Guo, Ping; Li, Dianwei; Xu, Yuan; Li, Songtao; Luo, Fei; Zhang, Zehua

    2012-01-01

    Small-diameter (<4 mm) vascular constructs are urgently needed for patients requiring replacement of their peripheral vessels. However, successful development of constructs remains a significant challenge. In this study, we successfully developed small-diameter vascular constructs with high patency using our integrally designed computer-controlled bioreactor system. This computer-controlled bioreactor system can confer physiological mechanical stimuli and fluid flow similar to physiological stimuli to the cultured grafts. The medium circulating system optimizes the culture conditions by maintaining fixed concentration of O2 and CO2 in the medium flow and constant delivery of nutrients and waste metabolites, as well as eliminates the complicated replacement of culture medium in traditional vascular tissue engineering. Biochemical and mechanical assay of newly developed grafts confirm the feasibility of the bioreactor system for small-diameter vascular engineering. Furthermore, the computer-controlled bioreactor is superior for cultured cell proliferation compared with the traditional non-computer-controlled bioreactor. Specifically, our novel bioreactor system may be a potential alternative for tissue engineering of large-scale small-diameter vascular vessels for clinical use. PMID:22880036

  11. Factors influencing the structure and shape of stenotic and regurgitant jets: an in vitro investigation using Doppler color flow mapping and optical flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Krabill, K A; Sung, H W; Tamura, T; Chung, K J; Yoganathan, A P; Sahn, D J

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate factors influencing the structure and shape of stenotic and regurgitant jets, Doppler color flow mapping and optical flow visualization studies were performed with use of a syringe model with a constant rate of ejection to simulate jets of valvular regurgitation and a pulsatile flow model of the right heart chambers to simulate jets of mild, moderate and severe valvular pulmonary stenosis. Ink-(0 to 40%) glycerol-water jets (viscosity 1 to 3.5 centiPoise) were produced by injecting the fluid at a constant rate into a 10 gallon rectangular reservoir of the same still fluid through 1.4 and 3.4 mm needles. The Doppler color flow scanners imaged the laminar jet length within 3 mm of actual jet length (2 to 6 cm) and the jet width within 2 to 3 mm of the actual jet width. Jet flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from 230 to 1,200 injected into still fluid yielded jet length/width ratios that decreased with increasing Reynolds numbers and leveled off to a length/width ratio of 5-6:1 at a Reynolds number near 600. When the fluid reservoir was swirled to better mimic the effect of flow entering the same cardiac chamber from a second source, the jets showed diminution of the jet length/width ratio and a clearly defined zone of turbulence. Studies of the pulsatile flow model were performed at cardiac outputs of 1 to 6 liters/min for the normal and each stenotic valve. Mild stenosis had an orifice area of 2.8 cm2, moderate stenosis an area of 1.0 cm2 and severe stenosis an area of 0.5 cm2. Laminar jet length represented the length of the total jet, which had a symmetric width and was measured from the valve opening to a region where the jet exhibited a spray effect. Laminar jet lengths (0.2 to 1.1 cm) were imaged by Doppler color flow mapping and optical visualization only in the moderate and severely stenotic valves and only at flows less than or equal to 3 liters/min (mean Reynolds numbers less than or equal to 3,470). Beyond this flow rate the jets exhibited a

  12. Flow Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Hedland Flow Meters manufactures a complete line of flow meters used in industrial operations to monitor the flow of oil, water or other liquids, air and other compressed gases, including caustics or corrosive liquids/gases. The company produces more than 1,000 types of flow meters featuring rugged construction, simplicity of installation and the ability to operate in any position.

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Turbulence and Flow Eccentricity in an Aortic Coarctation: Impact of Virtual Interventions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Magnus; Lantz, Jonas; Ebbers, Tino; Karlsson, Matts

    2015-09-01

    Turbulence and flow eccentricity can be measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we propose quantitative techniques to assess turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and flow eccentricity that could assist in the evaluation and treatment of stenotic severities. These hemodynamic parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) and after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to demonstrate the effect of different dilatation options on the flow field. Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from MRI data. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Results showed an inverse asymptotic relationship between the total amount of TKE and degree of dilatation of the stenosis, where turbulent flow proximal the constriction limits the possible improvement by treating the CoA alone. Spatiotemporal maps of TKE and flow eccentricity could be linked to the characteristics of the jet, where improved flow conditions were favored by an eccentric dilatation of the CoA. By including these flow markers into a combined MRI-CFD intervention framework, CoA therapy has not only the possibility to produce predictions via simulation, but can also be validated pre- and immediate post treatment, as well as during follow-up studies. PMID:26577361

  14. Acute Portal Hypertension Models in Dogs: Low- and High-Flow Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Jaydev K; Liu, Ji-Bin; Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Eisenbrey, John R; Merton, Daniel A; Machado, Priscilla; Zhao, Hongjia; Altemus, Joseph; Needleman, Laurence; Brown, Daniel B; Forsberg, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Effective animal models are needed to evaluate the feasibility of new techniques to assess portal hypertension (PH). Here we developed 2 canine models of acute PH by increasing intrasinusoidal resistance and by increasing the portal vein (PV) flow volume to test the efficacy of a noninvasive technique to evaluate PH. The acute low-flow PH model was based on embolization of liver circulation by using a gelatin sponge material. The acute high-flow PH model was based on increasing the PV flow volume by using an arteriovenous (A-V) shunt from the femoral artery and saline infusion. PV pressures and diameters were assessed before and after inducing PH. Pressure values and diameters were obtained from the inferior vena cava in 3 unmanipulated controls. The low-flow model of PH was repeatable and successfully increased PV pressure by an average of 16.5 mm Hg within 15 min. The high-flow model of PH failed to achieve increased PV pressures. However, saline supplementation of the portal circulation in the high-flow model led to mean increases in PV pressures of 12.8 mm Hg within 20 min. Pulsatility in the PV was decreased in the low-flow model and increased in the high-flow model relative to baseline. No changes in PV diameter were noted in either model. These acute PH models are relatively straightforward to implement and may facilitate the evaluation of new techniques to assess PH. PMID:23114046

  15. Physiological flow simulation in residual human stenoses after coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, R K; Back, L H; Back, M R; Cho, Y I

    2000-08-01

    To evaluate the local hemodynamic implications of coronary artery balloon angioplasty, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied in a group of patients previously reported by [Wilson et al. (1988), 77, pp. 873-885] with representative stenosis geometry post-angioplasty and with measured values of coronary flow reserve returning to a normal range (3.6 +/- 0.3). During undisturbed flow in the absence of diagnostic catheter sensors within the lesions, the computed mean pressure drop delta p was only about 1 mmHg at basal flow, and increased moderately to about 8 mmHg for hyperemic flow. Corresponding elevated levels of mean wall shear stress in the midthroat region of the residual stenoses, which are common after angioplasty procedures, increased from about 60 to 290 dynes/cm2 during hyperemia. The computations (Ree approximately equal to 100-400; alpha e = 2.25) indicated that the pulsatile flow field was principally quasi-steady during the cardiac cycle, but there was phase lag in the pressure drop-mean velocity (delta p - u) relation. Time-averaged pressure drop values, delta p, were about 20 percent higher than calculated pressure drop values, delta ps, for steady flow, similar to previous in vitro measurements by Cho et al. (1983). In the throat region, viscous effects were confined to the near-wall region, and entrance effects were evident during the cardiac cycle. Proximal to the lesion, velocity profiles deviated from parabolic shape at lower velocities during the cardiac cycle. The flow field was very complex in the oscillatory separated flow reattachment region in the distal vessel where pressure recovery occurred. These results may also serve as a useful reference against catheter-measured pressure drops and velocity ratios (hemodynamic endpoints) and arteriographic (anatomic) endpoints post-angioplasty. Some comparisons to previous studies of flow through stenoses models are also shown for perspective purposes. PMID:11036553

  16. [Changes of cerebral blood flow during diving reactions in humans].

    PubMed

    Baranova, T I; Berlov, D N; Ianvareva, I N

    2014-05-01

    The characteristics of human cerebral blood flow were estimated during the implementation of the diving response, simulated by complex cold-hypoxic-hypercapnic exposure (CHHE), and under the influence of separate cold, hypercapnic and hypoxic stimuli. Was studied 18 people aged 18-22 years who had no special training. Cerebral blood flow was recorded by transcranial Doppler. It is shown that in the CHHE with the respect initial state to observe a marked increase in cerebral blood flow linear velocity (BFV) to 82.3 ± 15.2%, as well as reducing characterizing the tone of resistance vessels of the brain pulsatility index (PI) to 77.2 ± 13.1%. During cold and tactile stimulation of facial skin BFV and PI did not change significantly, with a single breath hold (Genchi test) BFV increased by 52.3 ± 12.5%, PI at 64.5 ± 15%. The latent period of cerebral blood flow (14-43) allow suppose metabolic (chemical) nature of regulatory influences, which provide changes of considered indicators.

  17. Floating-pulsatile release multiparticulate system for chronopharmacotherapy: effect of some hydrophobic additives on the buoyancy and release behavior of particles.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodi, M

    2014-01-01

    A blend of floating and pulsatile principles of a drug delivery system would have the advantage that a drug can be released in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract after a lag period, which is anticipated for chronotherapy. In this study, microballoons were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion technique using Eudragit S100, and hydrophobic additive (magnesium stearate, stearic acid or talc) for time- and site-specific drug release of piroxicam. The effect of hydrophobic additives on the production yield of floating microparticles, buoyant ability for 8 h, release of drug in simulated GI fluids (simulated gastric fluid [SGF] and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF]), mean particle size, apparent particle density, encapsulation efficiency of drug and physical state of incorporated drug were studied. Both production yield and buoyancy of the microballoons were affected by additives in the following order: magnesium stearate, stearic acid>free-additive>talc. The observed difference in yield and the buoyancy of the microballoons could be attributed to the hydrophobic character of the additives and the shell rigidity of the obtained microballoons. Incorporation of hydrophobic additives in the microballoons was found to impart the desired release properties to the microballoons by providing a 2-phase release pattern with initial slow release (5-6%) through 8 h in SGF followed by rapid pulse release (>92%) in SIF through 15 min. The microballoons co-formulated with magnesium stearate or stearic acid, combining excellent buoyancy and suitable drug release pattern of piroxicam, could be useful in chronopharmacotherapy in arthritis. PMID:23950100

  18. An in situ method to quantitatively determine dissolved free drug concentrations in vitro in the presence of polymer excipients using pulsatile microdialysis (PMD).

    PubMed

    Vejani, Charchil; Bellantone, Robert A

    2015-12-30

    In drug formulations containing polymer excipients, the effects of the polymer on the dissolved free drug concentration and resulting dissolution or release can be important, especially for poorly soluble drugs. In this study, an in vitro method based on pulsatile microdialysis (PMD) was developed to quantitatively determine dissolved free concentrations of drugs in the presence of polymers in aqueous media in situ (e.g., in place within the system being characterized). Formulations were made by dissolving various ratios of the drug griseofulvin and polymer PVP K30 in water and allowing the mix to equilibrate. A PMD probe was immersed in each mixture and the dissolved free drug concentrations were determined in the PMD samples. The experimental procedure and the equations used for data analysis are presented. To assess the consistency of data, a binding model was fit to the data obtained using PMD by calculating the dissolved free drug fraction fD for each drug-polymer ratio in solution, and obtaining the product of the binding stoichiometry and binding constant (νK per mole of polymer) from the slope of a plot of (1-fD)/fD vs. the molar polymer concentration. For comparison, equilibrium binding experiments were also performed at 23C, and the determined value of νK was similar to the value found using PMD. Experiments were performed at three temperatures, and a plot of ln (νK) vs. 1/T was linear and a binding enthalpy of -110.9±4.4J/mol of monomer was calculated from its slope. It was concluded that PMD can be used to determine the dissolved free drug concentrations in situ, which allows characterization of the drug-polymer interaction, even for low drug concentrations. This information may be important in modeling the dissolution or release of drugs from formulations containing polymers.

  19. Atrazine inhibits pulsatile luteinizing hormone release without altering pituitary sensitivity to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor agonist in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Foradori, Chad D; Hinds, Laura R; Hanneman, William H; Legare, Marie E; Clay, Colin M; Handa, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    Atrazine [2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-tri-azine] is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the United States. Atrazine has been shown to suppress luteinizing hormone (LH) release and can lead to a prolongation of the estrous cycle in the rat. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of atrazine on normal tonic release of LH and to elucidate the site of action of atrazine in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Episodic release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the corresponding release of LH from the anterior pituitary gland are required for normal reproductive function. To determine if atrazine affects pulsatile LH release, ovariectomized adult female Wistar rats were administered atrazine (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg of body weight daily by gavage) or vehicle control for 4 days. On the final day of atrazine treatment, blood samples were obtained using an indwelling right atrial cannula. In the group receiving 200 mg/kg, there was a significant reduction in LH pulse frequency and a concomitant increase in pulse amplitude. To determine if the effects of atrazine on LH release were due to changes at the level of the pituitary, animals were passively immunized against endogenous GnRH, treated with atrazine, and challenged with a GnRH receptor agonist. Atrazine failed to alter pituitary sensitivity to the GnRH receptor agonist at any dose used. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that high doses of atrazine affect the GnRH pulse generator in the brain and not at the level of gonadotrophs in the pituitary.

  20. The NK3 Receptor Antagonist ESN364 Interrupts Pulsatile LH Secretion and Moderates Levels of Ovarian Hormones Throughout the Menstrual Cycle.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Graeme L; Hoveyda, Hamid R; Clarke, Iain J; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M; Rose, Claudia; Millar, Robert P

    2015-11-01

    Women's health disorders such as uterine fibroids and endometriosis are currently treated by GnRH modulators that effectively suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R) is an alternative target with an important role in the modulation of this axis. In this report, we demonstrate that systemic administration of an NK3R antagonist (ESN364) prolongs the LH interpulse interval in ovarectomized ewes and significantly lowers plasma LH and FSH concentrations in castrated nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis). Moreover, daily oral dosing of ESN364 throughout the menstrual cycle in M fascicularis lowered plasma estradiol levels in a dose-dependent manner, although nadir levels of estradiol were maintained well above menopausal levels. Nevertheless, estradiol levels during the follicular phase were sufficiently inhibited at all doses to preclude the triggering of ovulation as evidenced by the absence of the LH surge and failure of a subsequent luteal phase rise in plasma progesterone concentrations, consistent with the absence of normal cycle changes in the uterus. Apart from the point at surge, FSH levels were not altered over the course of the menstrual cycle. These effects of ESN364 were reversible upon cessation of drug treatment. Together these data support the proposed role of neurokinin B-NK3R signaling in the control of pulsatile GnRH secretion. Furthermore, in contrast to GnRH antagonists, NK3R antagonists induce a partial suppression of estradiol and thereby offer a viable therapeutic approach to the treatment of ovarian sex hormone disorders with a mitigated risk of menopausal-like adverse events in response to long-term drug exposure.

  1. The NK3 Receptor Antagonist ESN364 Interrupts Pulsatile LH Secretion and Moderates Levels of Ovarian Hormones Throughout the Menstrual Cycle.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Graeme L; Hoveyda, Hamid R; Clarke, Iain J; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M; Rose, Claudia; Millar, Robert P

    2015-11-01

    Women's health disorders such as uterine fibroids and endometriosis are currently treated by GnRH modulators that effectively suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R) is an alternative target with an important role in the modulation of this axis. In this report, we demonstrate that systemic administration of an NK3R antagonist (ESN364) prolongs the LH interpulse interval in ovarectomized ewes and significantly lowers plasma LH and FSH concentrations in castrated nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis). Moreover, daily oral dosing of ESN364 throughout the menstrual cycle in M fascicularis lowered plasma estradiol levels in a dose-dependent manner, although nadir levels of estradiol were maintained well above menopausal levels. Nevertheless, estradiol levels during the follicular phase were sufficiently inhibited at all doses to preclude the triggering of ovulation as evidenced by the absence of the LH surge and failure of a subsequent luteal phase rise in plasma progesterone concentrations, consistent with the absence of normal cycle changes in the uterus. Apart from the point at surge, FSH levels were not altered over the course of the menstrual cycle. These effects of ESN364 were reversible upon cessation of drug treatment. Together these data support the proposed role of neurokinin B-NK3R signaling in the control of pulsatile GnRH secretion. Furthermore, in contrast to GnRH antagonists, NK3R antagonists induce a partial suppression of estradiol and thereby offer a viable therapeutic approach to the treatment of ovarian sex hormone disorders with a mitigated risk of menopausal-like adverse events in response to long-term drug exposure. PMID:26305889

  2. Floating-pulsatile release multiparticulate system for chronopharmacotherapy: effect of some hydrophobic additives on the buoyancy and release behavior of particles.

    PubMed

    Maghsoodi, M

    2014-01-01

    A blend of floating and pulsatile principles of a drug delivery system would have the advantage that a drug can be released in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract after a lag period, which is anticipated for chronotherapy. In this study, microballoons were prepared by an emulsion solvent diffusion technique using Eudragit S100, and hydrophobic additive (magnesium stearate, stearic acid or talc) for time- and site-specific drug release of piroxicam. The effect of hydrophobic additives on the production yield of floating microparticles, buoyant ability for 8 h, release of drug in simulated GI fluids (simulated gastric fluid [SGF] and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF]), mean particle size, apparent particle density, encapsulation efficiency of drug and physical state of incorporated drug were studied. Both production yield and buoyancy of the microballoons were affected by additives in the following order: magnesium stearate, stearic acid>free-additive>talc. The observed difference in yield and the buoyancy of the microballoons could be attributed to the hydrophobic character of the additives and the shell rigidity of the obtained microballoons. Incorporation of hydrophobic additives in the microballoons was found to impart the desired release properties to the microballoons by providing a 2-phase release pattern with initial slow release (5-6%) through 8 h in SGF followed by rapid pulse release (>92%) in SIF through 15 min. The microballoons co-formulated with magnesium stearate or stearic acid, combining excellent buoyancy and suitable drug release pattern of piroxicam, could be useful in chronopharmacotherapy in arthritis.

  3. The influence of non-planar geometry on the flow within a distal end-to-side anastomosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwin, S. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Peiro, J.; Caro, C. G.

    1998-11-01

    The pattern of the flow in arteries is strongly influenced by the three-dimensional shape of the geometry. Curvature and torsion of the wall geometry alters the axial velocity distribution, and introduces cross flow velocity components. In this investigation we have considered flow in a model geometry of a fully occluded 45^o distal end-to-side anastomosis. Previous investigations have typically focused on planar end-to-side anastomoses where the bypass and host vessels have a plane of symmetry. We have increased the complexity of the model by considering a non-planar geometry produced by deforming the bypass vessel out of the plane of symmetry. The flows have been numerically and experimentally investigated using a spectral/hp element algorithm and magnetic resonance imaging. The significant effect of the non-planar geometry is to introduce a bulk rotation of the two secondary flow cells present in flow within a planar geometry. A reduction in wall shear stress is observed at the bed of the anastomosis and a larger absolute flux of velocity is seen within the occluded region proximal to the anastomosis. Current investigations have considered the role of pulsatility in the form of a non-reversing sinusoidal oscillation. In this case a separation bubble, not present in the steady case, is seen at the toe of the anastomosis during the systolic part of the cycle. The role of geometry and pulsatility on partic