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Sample records for pulsating da white

  1. The First Six Outbursting Cool DA White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, K. J.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Raddi, R.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2017-03-01

    Extensive observations from the Kepler spacecraft have recently revealed a new outburst phenomenon operating in cool pulsating DA (hydrogen atmosphere) white dwarfs (DAVs). With the introduction of two new outbursting DAVs from K2 Fields 7 (EPIC 229228364) and 8 (EPIC 220453225) in these proceedings, we presently know of six total members of this class of object. We present the observational commonalities of the outbursting DAVs: (1) outbursts that increase the mean stellar flux by up to ≍15%, last many hours, and recur irregularly on timescales of days; (2) effective temperatures that locate them near the cool edge of the DAV instability strip; and (3) rich pulsation spectra with modes that are observed to wander in amplitude/frequency.

  2. Outbursts in Two New Cool Pulsating DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Raddi, R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Winget, D. E.; Dennihy, E.; Gianninas, A.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Chote, P.; Winget, K. I.

    2016-10-01

    The unprecedented extent of coverage provided by Kepler observations recently revealed outbursts in two hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarfs (DAVs) that cause hours-long increases in the overall mean flux of up to 14%. We have identified two new outbursting pulsating white dwarfs in K2, bringing the total number of known outbursting white dwarfs to four. EPIC 211629697, with {T}{eff} = 10,780 ± 140 K and {log} g = 7.94 ± 0.08, shows outbursts recurring on average every 5.0 days, increasing the overall flux by up to 15%. EPIC 229227292, with {T}{eff} = 11,190 ± 170 K and {log} g = 8.02 ± 0.05, has outbursts that recur roughly every 2.4 days with amplitudes up to 9%. We establish that only the coolest pulsating white dwarfs within a small temperature range near the cool, red edge of the DAV instability strip exhibit these outbursts.

  3. A survey of pulsating DA and DB white dwarfs Observations with the Whole Earth Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M.; Shipman, H.

    2017-09-01

    White dwarfs represent the end point of stellar evolution for the majority of stars. As such, they are excellent astrophysical laboratories. They are structurally simple, with electron degenerate cores surrounded by thin surface layers of helium and/or hydrogen. The g-mode pulsations provide a window into their internal structure. The Whole Earth Telescope has been conducting a long-term survey of pulsating white dwarfs with the goal of providing an empirical map of convection parameters across the DA and DB instability strips. We present an overview of white dwarf asteroseismology, and discuss the current status of our survey.

  4. A search for a new class of pulsating DA white dwarf stars in the DB gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Shibahashi, H.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Littlefair, S. P.

    2008-10-01

    While white dwarf stars are classified into many subgroups based on the appearance of hydrogen, helium, carbon, oxygen and other spectral lines - or even pure continuum with no lines in the case of the DC stars - the vast majority fall into two major subgroups: those with hydrogen atmospheres (the DA white dwarfs), and those with helium atmospheres (the DO and DB white dwarfs). Remarkably, in the range 45000 >= Teff >= 30000K there are only a few white dwarfs with helium atmospheres to be found - the vast majority are DAs in this temperature range - although white dwarfs with helium atmospheres are found at both hotter (DO) and cooler (DB) effective temperatures. This dearth of helium atmosphere white dwarfs in this temperature range is known as the `DB gap' and is understood in terms convective mixing of the outer atmospheres at the hot and cool ends of the gap, while radiative stability allows the lighter hydrogen to float to the top in the DB gap, so the stars are seen to be DA hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs. Asteroseismology is an important tool for probing stellar interiors, and white dwarf stars are the most successfully studied group using this technique. In a stability analysis of the stars in the DB gap, Shibahashi has recently predicted the existence of a new class of pulsating white dwarf stars. He finds from models that DA white dwarfs near the red edge of the DB gap have convectively stable outer atmospheres because of a steep mean molecular weight gradient, yet nevertheless have a superadiabatic layer that renders them pulsationally unstable due to radiative heat exchange. There have been very few observational tests for pulsation among stars of this type. We have initiated a survey to search for the predicted pulsators and report here our first observations of five stars with the South African Astronomical Observatory 1.9-m telescope and University of Cape Town CCD photometer, and two stars with the William Herschel Telescope 4.2-m telescope and

  5. A NEW TIMESCALE FOR PERIOD CHANGE IN THE PULSATING DA WHITE DWARF WD 0111+0018

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Mullally, Fergal; Bischoff-Kim, A.

    2013-03-20

    We report the most rapid rate of period change measured to date for a pulsating DA (hydrogen atmosphere) white dwarf (WD), observed in the 292.9 s mode of WD 0111+0018. The observed period change, faster than 10{sup -12} s s{sup -1}, exceeds by more than two orders of magnitude the expected rate from cooling alone for this class of slow and simply evolving pulsating WDs. This result indicates the presence of an additional timescale for period evolution in these pulsating objects. We also measure the rates of period change of nonlinear combination frequencies and show that they share the evolutionary characteristics of their parent modes, confirming that these combination frequencies are not independent modes but rather artifacts of some nonlinear distortion in the outer layers of the star.

  6. The demise of mode identification in the pulsating DA white dwarf GD 66

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.; Bergeron, P.; Lacombe, P.; Lamontagne, R.; Saumon, D.

    1985-07-01

    An analysis of new photometric and spectroscopic observations of the pulsating DA white dwarf GD 66 is presented. It is shown that the mode identification suggested by Dolez, Vauclair, and Chevreton (1983) is premature. The photometric data reveal the existence of several additional pulsation frequencies which do not fit with their model. Moreover, the 3.90 mHz peak seen in the Fourier spectrum of their light curve of GD 66 is shown to be an artifact of both insufficient time resolution and rotational splitting of the frequency of the dominant pulsation mode. It is not caused by the presence of an independent (different k value) pulsation mode as suggested. In addition, a comparison of model atmosphere calculations with the spectroscopic observations suggests that the surface gravity of GD 66 is quite normal (log g = 7.7 + 0.4 or - 0.2). This is in conflict with the model of the above authors which further requires a significantly larger surface gravity (log g equal to approximately 8.45) to account for the observed pulsation properties of GD 66.

  7. Pulsating white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Romero, Alejandra D.

    2017-09-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey has allowed us to increase the number of known white dwarfs by a factor of five and consequently the number of known pulsating white dwarfs also by a factor of five. It has also led to the discovery of new types of variable white dwarfs, as the variable hot DQs, and the pulsating Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. With the Kepler Mission, it has been possible to discover new phenomena, the outbursts present in a few pulsating white dwarfs.

  8. The pulsation index, effective temperature, and thickness of the hydrogen layer in the pulsating DA white dwarf G117-B15A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. L.; Mailloux, T. M.; Zhang, E.; Koester, D.; Stiening, R. F.; Bless, R. C.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured the amplitude of the 215 s pulsation of the pulsating DA white dwarf, or ZZ Ceti star, G117-B15A in six passbands with effective wavelengths from 1570 to 6730 A. We find that the index of the pulsation is l = 1 with a high degree of confidence, the first unambiguous determination of l for a pulsation of a ZZ Ceti star. We also find that log g and T(sub eff) are tightly correlated for model atmospheres that fit the data, such that at log g = 7.5 the temperature is 11,750 K and at log g = 8.0 the temperature is 12,375 K. Adopting log g = 7.97 +/- 0.06 from published observations of the optical spectrum of G117-B15A, the correlation yields T(sub eff) = 12,375 +/- 125 K. This temperature is free of flux calibration errors and should be substantially more reliable than temperatures derived for IUE spectra. Since G117-B15A is thought to lie close to the blue edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, this low temperature also implies a low temperature for the blue edge. Using pulsation models calculated by Fontaine et al. (1992) and Bradley (1994), we find that the mass of the hydrogen layer in G117-B15A lies between 1.0 x 10(exp -6) solar mass (for k = 1) and 8 x 10(exp -5) solar mass (for k = 2). This range of masses is (barely) consistent with the masses predicted by recent models for the ejection of planetary nebulae, (8-13) x 10(exp -5) solar mass. The mass is too large to be consistent with models invoking thin hydrogen layers to explain the spectral evolution of white dwarfs.

  9. Characterizing Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the population, mass distribution, and evolution of accreting white dwarfs impacts the entire realm of binary interaction, including the creation of Type Ia supernovae. We are concentrating on accreting white dwarf pulsators, as the pulsation properties allow us a view of how the accretion affects the interior of the star. Our ground- based photometry on 11 accreting pulsators with corresponding temperatures from HST UV spectra suggest a broad instability strip in the range of 10500 to 16000K. Additionally, tracking a post-outburst heated white dwarf as it cools and crosses the blue edge and resumes pulsation provides an independent method to locate the empirical instability strip. Determining a post-outburst cooling curve yields an estimate of the amount of heating and the accreted mass during the outburst. We request additional photometry of 2 objects that present unique properties: GW Lib which has not yet returned to its pre-outburst pulsation spectrum after 6 yrs, and EQ Lyn which returned to its pre- outburst pulsation after 3 yrs but is now turning on and off without ongoing outbursts. Following the pulsation spectrum changes over stretches of several nights in a row will provide specific knowledge of the stability of the observed modes.

  10. Radial pulsations in DB white dwarfs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical models of DB white dwarfs are unstable against radial pulsation at effective temperatures near 20,000-30,000 K. Many high-overtone modes are unstable, with periods ranging from 12 s down to the acoustic cutoff period of approximately 0.1 s. The blue edge for radial instability lies at slightly higher effective temperatures than for nonradial pulsations, with the temperature of the blue edge dependent on the assumed efficiency of convection. Models with increased convective efficiency have radial blue edges that are increasingly closer to the nonradial blue edge; in all models the instability persists into the nonradial instability strip. Radial pulsations therefore may exist in the hottest DB stars that lie below the DB gap; the greatest chance for detection would be observations in the ultraviolet. These models also explain why searches for radial pulsations in DA white dwarfs have failed: the efficient convection needed to explain the blue edge for nonradial DA pulsation means that the radial instability strip is 1000 K cooler than found in previous investigations. The multiperiodic nature of the expected pulsations can be used to advantage to identify very low amplitude modes using the uniform spacing of the modes in frequency. This frequency spacing is a direct indicator of the mass of the star.

  11. Two new extremely hot pulsating white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, H. E.; Grauer, A. D.; Green, R. F.; Liebert, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    High speed photometry of the extremely hot, nearly degenerate stars PG 1707 + 427 and PG 2131 + 066 reveals that they are low-amplitude pulsating variables. Power spectral analysis shows both to be multiperiodic, with dominant periods of 7.5 and 6.4-6.9 minutes, respectively. Together with the known pulsators PG 1159 - 035 and the central star of the planetary nebula Kohoutek 1-16, these objects define a new pulsational instability strip at the hot edge of the H-R diagram. The variations of these objects closely resemble those of the much cooler pulsating ZZ Ceti DA white dwarfs; both groups are probably nonradial g-mode pulsators. Evolutionary contraction of the PG 1159 - 035 variables may lead to period changes that would be detectable in as little as 1 year. The optical and IUE spectra of the PG 1159 - 035 variables are characterized by absorption lines of C IV and other CNO ions, indicating radiative levitation of species heavier than helium. He II is also present in the spectra, but the hydrogen Balmer lines are absent. Effective temperatures near 100,000 K are required, and the He II 4686 A profiles indicate log g greater than 6. These helium-rich pulsators form the hottest known subgroup of the DO white dwarfs.

  12. Pulsating White Dwarf Star GD99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chynoweth, K. M.; Thompson, S.; Mullally, F.; Yeates, C.

    2004-12-01

    We present 15 hours of time-series photometry of the variable white dwarf star GD99. These data were obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope in January 2003, using the Argos CCD photometer. We achieved a noise level as low as 0.07 %, as measured from the power spectrum of our first night. Our observations confirm that GD99 is a unique pulsating white dwarf whose modes show characteristics of both the hot and cold type of DA variable stars. Additionally, GD99 has a large number of modes, making it a good candidate for asteroseismological study. Our preliminary results indicate that this star merits further study to decipher its abundant set of unusual modes. With such a rich period structure, longer continuous data sets will be required to fully resolve the pulsation spectrum.

  13. An asteroseismic constraint on the mass of the axion from the period drift of the pulsating DA white dwarf star L19-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Romero, Alejandra D.; Althaus, Leandro G.; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S. O.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Sullivan, Denis J.; Chote, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We employ an asteroseismic model of L19-2, a relatively massive (Mstar ~ 0.75 Msolar) and hot (Teff ~ 12 100 K) pulsating DA (H-rich atmosphere) white dwarf star (DAV or ZZ Ceti variable), and use the observed values of the temporal rates of period change of its dominant pulsation modes (Π ~ 113 s and Π ~ 192 s), to derive a new constraint on the mass of the axion, the hypothetical non-barionic particle considered as a possible component of the dark matter of the Universe. If the asteroseismic model employed is an accurate representation of L19-2, then our results indicate hints of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass ma cos2β lesssim 25 meV or an axion-electron coupling constant of gae lesssim 7 × 10-13.

  14. White Dwarf Pulsational Constraints on Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Bart H.; Clemens, J. Christopher; O'Brien, Patrick C.; Hermes, J. J.; Fuchs, Joshua T.

    2017-01-01

    The complex processes that convert a protostellar cloud into a carbon/oxygen-core white dwarf star are distilled and modeled in state of the art stellar evolution codes. Many of these processes are well-constrained, but several are uncertain or must be parameterized in the models because a complete treatment would be computationally prohibitive—turbulent motions such as convective overshoot cannot, for example, be modeled in 1D. Various free parameters in the models must therefore be calibrated. We will discuss how white dwarf pulsations can inform such calibrations. The results of all prior evolution are cemented into the interiors of white dwarf stars and, so, hidden from view. However, during certain phases of their cooling, pulsations translate the star's evolutionary history into observable surface phenomena. Because the periods of a pulsating white dwarf star depend on an internal structure assembled as it evolved to its final state, white dwarf pulsation periods can be viewed as observable endpoints of stellar evolution. For example, the thickness of the helium layer in a white dwarf directly affects its pulsations; the observed periods are, therefore, a function of the number of thermal pulses during which the star converts helium into core material on the asymptotic giant branch. Because they are also a function of several other significant evolutionary processes, several pulsation modes are necessary to tease all of these apart. Unfortunately, white dwarf pulsators typically do not display enough oscillation modes to constrain stellar evolution. To avoid this limitation, we consider the pulsations of the entire collection of hot pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAVs). Though any one star may not have sufficient information to place interesting constraints on its evolutionary history, taken together, the stars show a pattern of modes that allows us to test evolutionary models. For an example set of published evolutionary models, we show a

  15. Pulsating White Dwarfs in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaan, A.; Zabot, A.; Fraga, L.

    2012-09-01

    We present our current efforts to detect pulsating white dwarfs in globular clusters and analyze the future of this area when the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) and the Thirty-Meter Telescope (TMT) all become operational. Today we are able to detect pulsating white dwarfs in M 4, NGC 6397 and NGC 6752. When ELT comes on line we should be able to improve the quality of data for the nearby clusters and push the limit to at least 3 magnitudes further, up to NGC 6626, increasing the number of observable clusters from 3 to 20.

  16. White Dwarf Period Tables I. Pulsators with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bognar, Zs.; Sodor, A.

    2016-09-01

    We aimed at collecting all known white dwarf pulsators with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres and list their main photometric and atmospheric parameters together with their pulsation periods and amplitudes observed at different epochs. For this purpose, we explored the pulsating white dwarf related literature with the systematic use of the SIMBAD and the NASA's Astrophysics Data System (ADS) databases. We summarized our results in four tables listing seven ZZ Ceti stars in detached white dwarf plus main-sequence binaries, seven extremely low-mass DA pulsators, three hot DAVs and 180 ZZ Ceti stars.

  17. Pulsating White Dwarf Stars and Precision Asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winget, D. E.; Kepler, S. O.

    2008-09-01

    Galactic history is written in the white dwarf stars. Their surface properties hint at interiors composed of matter under extreme conditions. In the forty years since their discovery, pulsating white dwarf stars have moved from side-show curiosities to center stage as important tools for unraveling the deep mysteries of the Universe. Innovative observational techniques and theoretical modeling tools have breathed life into precision asteroseismology. We are just learning to use this powerful tool, confronting theoretical models with observed frequencies and their time rate-of-change. With this tool, we calibrate white dwarf cosmochronology; we explore equations of state; we measure stellar masses, rotation rates, and nuclear reaction rates; we explore the physics of interior crystallization; we study the structure of the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae, and we test models of dark matter. The white dwarf pulsations are at once the heartbeat of galactic history and a window into unexplored and exotic physics.

  18. Mapping the Properties of Convection in Pulsating White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessio, J.; Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Shipman, H. L.

    2013-01-01

    Montgomery (2005) showed that the properties of a pulsating white dwarf's convection zone can be determined by fitting the observed lightcurves with model simulations. The Whole Earth Telescope (WET) and the Delaware Asteroseismic Research Center (DARC) are using this technique to map the properties of convection across the DA and DB instability strips. We present the current status of the project, including preliminary analysis of light curves and from recent WET campaigns.

  19. DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRAMASSIVE PULSATING WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Castanheira, Barbara G.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Harrold, Samuel T.; Kepler, S. O.; Gianninas, A.; Brown, Warren R.

    2013-07-01

    We announce the discovery of the most massive pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf (WD) ever discovered, GD 518. Model atmosphere fits to the optical spectrum of this star show it is a 12, 030 {+-} 210 K WD with a log g =9.08 {+-} 0.06, which corresponds to a mass of 1.20 {+-} 0.03 M{sub Sun }. Stellar evolution models indicate that the progenitor of such a high-mass WD endured a stable carbon-burning phase, producing an oxygen-neon-core WD. The discovery of pulsations in GD 518 thus offers the first opportunity to probe the interior of a WD with a possible oxygen-neon core. Such a massive WD should also be significantly crystallized at this temperature. The star exhibits multi-periodic luminosity variations at timescales ranging from roughly 425 to 595 s and amplitudes up to 0.7%, consistent in period and amplitude with the observed variability of typical ZZ Ceti stars, which exhibit non-radial g-mode pulsations driven by a hydrogen partial ionization zone. Successfully unraveling both the total mass and core composition of GD 518 provides a unique opportunity to investigate intermediate-mass stellar evolution, and can possibly place an upper limit to the mass of a carbon-oxygen-core WD, which in turn constrains Type Ia supernovae progenitor systems.

  20. White dwarf evolution - Cradle-to-grave constraints via pulsation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    White dwarf evolution, particularly in the early phases, is not very strongly constrained by observation. Fortunately, white dwarfs undergo nonradial pulsation in three distinct regions of the H-R diagram. These pulsations provide accurate masses, surface compositional structure and rotation velocities, and help constrain other important physical properties. We demonstrate the application of the tools of stellar seismology to white dwarf evolution using the hot white dwarf star PG 1159-035 and the cool DAV (or ZZ Ceti) stars as examples. From pulsation studies, significant challenges to the theory of white dwarf evolution emerge.

  1. White dwarf evolution - Cradle-to-grave constraints via pulsation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    White dwarf evolution, particularly in the early phases, is not very strongly constrained by observation. Fortunately, white dwarfs undergo nonradial pulsation in three distinct regions of the H-R diagram. These pulsations provide accurate masses, surface compositional structure and rotation velocities, and help constrain other important physical properties. We demonstrate the application of the tools of stellar seismology to white dwarf evolution using the hot white dwarf star PG 1159-035 and the cool DAV (or ZZ Ceti) stars as examples. From pulsation studies, significant challenges to the theory of white dwarf evolution emerge.

  2. Discovery of five new massive pulsating white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Kepler, S. O.; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Fraga, L.

    2013-03-01

    Using the SOuthern Astrophysical Research telescope (SOAR) Optical Imager at the SOAR 4.1 m telescope, we report on the discovery of five new massive pulsating white dwarf stars. Our results represent an increase of about 20 per cent in the number of massive pulsators. We have detected both short and long periods, low and high amplitude pulsation modes, covering the whole range of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. In this paper, we present a first seismological study of the new massive pulsators based on the few frequencies detected. Our analysis indicates that these stars have masses higher than average, in agreement with the spectroscopic determinations. In addition, we study for the first time the ensemble properties of the pulsating white dwarf stars with masses above 0.8 M⊙. We found a bimodal distribution of the main pulsation period with the effective temperature for the massive DAVs, which indicates mode selection mechanisms.

  3. Contrasting Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators with the ZZ Ceti Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukadam, A. S.; Szkody, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Pala, A.

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the similarities and differences between the accreting white dwarf pulsators and their non-interacting counterparts, the ZZ Ceti stars, will eventually help us deduce how accretion affects pulsations. ZZ Ceti stars pulsate in a narrow instability strip in the range 10800-12300 K due to H ionization in their pure H envelopes; their pulsation characteristics depend on their temperature and stellar mass. Models of accreting white dwarfs are found to be pulsationally unstable due to the H/HeI ionization zone, and even show a second instability strip around 15000 K due to HeII ionization. Both these strips are expected to merge for a He abundance higher than 0.48 to form a broad instability strip, which is consistent with the empirical determination of 10500-16000 K. Accreting pulsators undergo outbursts, during which the white dwarf is heated to temperatures well beyond the instability strip and is observed to cease pulsations. The white dwarf then cools to quiescence in a few years as its outer layers cool more than a million times faster than the evolutionary rate. This provides us with an exceptional opportunity to track the evolution of pulsations from the blue edge to quiescence in a few years, while ZZ Ceti stars evolve on Myr timescales. Some accreting pulsators have also been observed to cease pulsations without any apparent evidence of an outburst. This is a distinct difference between this class of pulsators and the non-interacting ZZ Ceti stars. While the ZZ Ceti instability strip is well sampled, the strip for the accreting white dwarfs is sparsely sampled and we hereby add two new potential discoveries to improve the statistics.

  4. Adiabatic properties of pulsating DA white dwarfs. I - The treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the region of period formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.; Kawaler, S. D.; Tassoul, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental issue of the region of period formaton in a degenerate star is examined, with special attention given to the treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. It is shown that, in order to obtain reliable numerical results in degenerate stellar models, the Brunt-Vaisala frequency must be appropriately transformed, because it is defined in terms of a difference between two numbers which become nearly equal in highly degenerate matter, causing serious numerical problems and systematic errors. An alternative expression is derived, which is valid for multicomponent nonideal partially degenerate and partially ionized plasmas such as those encountered in white dwarf envelopes. This expression is used to compute the period structure of the same white dwarf considered by Pesnell (1987). It is shown that the implicit numerical differencing used in the Lagrangian pulsation code of Pesnell leads to very serious difficulties when used with models of degenerate stars.

  5. Adiabatic properties of pulsating DA white dwarfs. I - The treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency and the region of period formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.; Kawaler, S. D.; Tassoul, M.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental issue of the region of period formaton in a degenerate star is examined, with special attention given to the treatment of the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. It is shown that, in order to obtain reliable numerical results in degenerate stellar models, the Brunt-Vaisala frequency must be appropriately transformed, because it is defined in terms of a difference between two numbers which become nearly equal in highly degenerate matter, causing serious numerical problems and systematic errors. An alternative expression is derived, which is valid for multicomponent nonideal partially degenerate and partially ionized plasmas such as those encountered in white dwarf envelopes. This expression is used to compute the period structure of the same white dwarf considered by Pesnell (1987). It is shown that the implicit numerical differencing used in the Lagrangian pulsation code of Pesnell leads to very serious difficulties when used with models of degenerate stars.

  6. New insights on pulsating white dwarfs from 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fontaine, Gilles; Ludwig, Hans-Günter; Gianninas, Alexandros; Kilic, Mukremin

    We have recently computed a grid of 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations for the atmosphere of pure-hydrogen DA white dwarfs in the range 5.0 < log g < 9.0. Our grid covers the full ZZ Ceti instability strip where pulsating DA white dwarfs are located. We have significantly improved the theoretical framework to study these objects by removing the free parameters of 1D convection, which were previously a major modeling hurdle. We present improved atmospheric parameter determinations based on spectroscopic fits with 3D model spectra, allowing for an updated definition of the empirical edges of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Our 3D simulations also precisely predict the depth of the convection zones, narrowing down the internal layers where pulsation are being driven. We hope that these 3D effects will be included in asteroseismic models in the future to predict the region of the HR diagram where white dwarfs are expected to pulsate.

  7. Accreting Pulsating White Dwarfs: Hotter than Single DAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, A.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Woudt, P. A.; Solheim, J.; Sion, E. M.; Nitta, A.; Warner, B.; Sahu, D. K.; Prabhu, T.; Henden, A.

    2006-12-01

    Single DAV pulsating white dwarfs are known to show non-radial g-mode pulsations with periods around 50-1400s and have temperatures in the specific range of 11,000-12,500K. With the discovery of several pulsating white dwarfs in the accreting close binary systems of cataclysmic variables, it is possible to probe the effects of mass transfer and accretion, external heat input, He enriched envelopes and fast rotation on the location of the instability strip. Our UV observations of three pulsating accreting white dwarfs in the cataclysmic variables SDSSJ013132-0901, SDSSJ161033-0102 and SDSSJ220553+1155 with the Solar Blind Channel on HST show enhanced pulsation amplitudes over the optical and white dwarf temperatures near 15,000K. Combined with temperatures of two other known accreting pulsators (GW Lib and HS2331+3905), it appears that there is a wide range in the instability strip for accreting pulsators. This range may be due to different white dwarf masses or compositions compared to single DAVs. This research was supported by NASA grant GO-10233.01A from STScI.

  8. Hot DAVs: a probable new class of pulsating white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Shibahashi, H.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Littlefair, S. P.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Parsons, S. G.

    2013-06-01

    We have discovered a pulsating DA white dwarf at the lower end of the temperature range 45 000-30 000 K where a few helium atmosphere white dwarfs are known. There are now three such pulsators known, suggesting that a new class of theoretically predicted pulsating white dwarf stars exists. We name them the hot DAV stars. From high-speed photometric observations with the ULTRACAM photometer on the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope, we show that the hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf star WD1017-138 pulsates in at least one mode with a frequency of 1.62 mHz (a period of 624 s). The amplitude of that mode was near 1 mmag at a 10σ confidence level on one night of observation and an 8.4σ confidence level on a second night. The combined data have a confidence level of 11.8σ. This supports the two other detections of hot DAV stars previously reported. From three Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph spectra we confirm also that WD1017-138 is a hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf with no trace of helium or metals with Teff = 32 600 K, log g = 7.8 (cgs) and M = 0.55 M⊙. The existence of pulsations in these DA white dwarfs at the cool edge of the 45 000-30 000 K temperature range supports the thin hydrogen layer model for the deficit of helium atmosphere white dwarfs in this range. DA white dwarfs with thick hydrogen layers do not have the superadiabatic, chemically inhomogeneous (μ-gradient) zone that drives pulsation in this temperature range. The potential for higher amplitude hot DAV stars exists; their discovery would open the possibility of a direct test of the explanation for the deficit of helium atmosphere white dwarfs at these temperatures by asteroseismic probing of the atmospheric layers of the hot DAV stars. A search for pulsation in a further 22 candidates with ULTRACAM on the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope gave null results for pulsation at precisions in the range 0.5-3 mmag, suggesting that the pulsation

  9. Peculiar variations of white dwarf pulsation frequencies and maestro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessio, James Ruland

    In Part I we report on variations of the normal mode frequencies of the pulsating DB white dwarfs EC 20058-5234 and KIC 8626021 and the pulsating DA white dwarf GD 66. The observations of EC 20058-5234 and KIC 8626021 were motivated by the possibility of measuring the plasmon neutrino production rate of a white dwarf, while the observations of GD 66 were part of a white dwarf pulsation timing based planet search. We announce the discovery of periodic and quasi-periodic variations of multiple normal mode frequencies that cannot be due to the presence of planetary companions. We note the possible signature of a planetary companion to EC 20058-5234 and show that GD 66 cannot have a planet in a several AU orbit down to half a Jupiter mass. We also announce the discovery of secular variations of the normal mode frequencies of all three stars that are inconsistent with cooling alone. Importantly, the rates of period change of several modes of KIC 8626021 are consistent with evolutionary cooling, but are not yet statistically significant. These modes offer the best possibility of measuring the neutrino production rate in a white dwarf. We also observe periodic and secular variations in the frequency of a combination mode that exactly matches the variations predicted by the parent modes, strong observational evidence that combination modes are created by the convection zone and are not normal modes. Periodic variations in the amplitudes of many of these modes is also noted. We hypothesize that these frequency variations are caused by complex variations of the magnetic field strength and geometry, analogous to behavior observed in the Sun. In Part II we describe the MAESTRO software framework and the MAESTRO REDUCE algorithm. MAESTRO is a collection of astronomy specific MatLab software developed by the Whole Earth Telescope. REDUCE is an an algorithm that can extract the brightness of stars on a set of CCD images with minimal configuration and human interaction. The key to

  10. Pulsational instability of high-luminosity H-rich pre-white dwarf star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcaferro, Leila M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Camisassa, María E.; Althaus, Leandro G.; Shibahashi, Hiromoto

    2017-09-01

    We present a pulsational stability analysis on high-luminosity H-rich (DA) white dwarf models evolved from low-metallicity progenitors. We found that the ɛ mechanism due to H-shell burning is able to excite low-order g modes.

  11. Observations and Theory of Pulsating Helium White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinfadt, Justin D.

    Average C/O-core white dwarf stars pulsate in observable normal modes of oscillation with amplitudes of a few percent and periods of 100-1,000 seconds. As of this dissertation, no WD of less than 0.5 M sun has been observed to pulsate. White dwarfs of this low mass likely possess a He core and are products of very different stellar evolution. In this dissertation, we have constructed very low mass He-core WD models and predict the parameter space in which they may be observed to pulsate. We have also observed 13 stars, most of which are He-core WDs, in a search for the first He-core WD pulsator. While we were unsuccessful in discovering a pulsator, our detection limits offer unique constraints on He-core WD pulsation parameter space. As a fortuitous result of our pulsation search, we have discovered two unique eclipsing binary systems. One of these is the first eclipsing detached double white dwarf binary system offering the first opportunity to make model independent constraints on He-core WD models and evolution.

  12. DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, T. F.; Howell, S. B.; Petit, V.; Lépine, S.

    2017-01-01

    We present 16 new, and confirm 7 previously identified, DA white dwarfs in the Kepler field through ground-based spectroscopy with the Hale 200″, Kitt Peak 4-m, and Bok 2.3-m telescopes. Using atmospheric models, we determine their effective temperatures and surface gravities to constrain their position with respect to the ZZ Ceti (DA pulsator) instability strip, and look for the presence or absence of pulsation with Kepler's unprecedented photometry. Our results are as follows. (i) From our measurements of temperature and surface gravity, 12 of the 23 DA white dwarfs from this work fall well outside of the instability strip. The Kepler photometry available for 11 of these WDs allows us to confirm that none are pulsating. One of these 11 happens to be a presumed binary, KIC 11604781, with a period of ˜5 d. (ii) The remaining 11 DA white dwarfs are instability strip candidates, potentially falling within the current, empirical instability strip, after accounting for uncertainties. These WDs will help constrain the strip's location further, as eight are near the blue edge and three are near the red edge of the instability strip. Four of these WDs do not have Kepler photometry, so ground-based photometry is needed to determine the pulsation nature of these white dwarfs. The remaining seven have Kepler photometry available, but do not show any periodicity on typical WD pulsation time-scales.

  13. An Update on the Quirks of Pulsating, Accreting White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Hermes, J. J.; Toloza, Odette

    2015-06-01

    At the 18th European White Dwarf Workshop, we reported results for several dwarf novae containing pulsating white dwarfs that had undergone an outburst in 2006-2007. HST and optical data on the white dwarfs in GW Lib, EQ Lyn and V455 And all showed different behaviors in the years following their outbursts. We continued to follow these objects for the last 2 years, providing timescales of 6-7 years past outburst. All three reached their optical quiescent values within 4 years but pulsational stability has not returned. EQ Lyn showed its pre-outburst pulsation period after 3 years, but it continues to show photometric variability that alternates between pulsation and disk superhump periods while remaining at quiescence. V455 And has almost reached its pre-outburst pulsation period, while GW Lib still remains heated and with a different pulsation spectrum than at quiescence. These results indicate that asteroseismology provides a unique picture of the effects of outburst heating on the white dwarf.

  14. Making Sense Out of Pulsating Pre-ELM and ELM White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Istrate, A.; Gianninas, A.; Brassard, P.; Van Grootel, V.

    2017-03-01

    We present a unified view of pulsations in both pre-ELM and ELM white dwarfs within the framework of state-of-the-art binary evolution calculations that take into account the combined effects of diffusion and rotational mixing. We find that rotational mixing is able to maintain against settling a sufficient amount of helium in the envelope in order to fuel pulsations through He II-He III ionization on the pre-ELM branch of the evolutionary track in the spectroscopic HR diagram. By the time such a low-mass white dwarf enters the ZZ Ceti instability strip on the cooling branch, settling has taken over rotational mixing and produced a pure H envelope. Such a star then pulsates again, but, this time, as a DA white dwarf of the ZZ Ceti type.

  15. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G.; García-Berro, E. E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μ{sub ν}) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μ{sub ν} ∼< 10{sup -11} μ{sub B}. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  16. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Kepler, S. O.; García-Berro, E.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μν) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pi dot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pi dot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μν lesssim 10-11 μB. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  17. New Insights on Pulsating White Dwarfs from 3D Radiation-Hydrodynamical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Fontaine, Gilles; Ludwig, Hans-Günter

    2015-08-01

    We have recently computed a grid of 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations for the atmosphere of 70 pure-hydrogen DA white dwarfs in the range 7.0 < log g < 9.0. This includes the full ZZ Ceti instability strip where DA white dwarfs are pulsating, by far the most common type of degenerate pulsators. We have significantly improved the theoretical framework to study these objects by removing the free parameters of 1D convection, which were previously a major modeling hurdle. We will compare our new models with the observed sample of ZZ Ceti stars and highlight the improved derived properties of these objects. In particular, the new spectroscopically determined 3D atmospheric parameters allow for an improved definition of instability strip edges. We have also made new predictions for the size of convection zones, which significantly impact the position where the pulsations are driven, and the region of the HR diagram where white dwarfs are expected to pulsate. Finally, we will present new results from non-adiabatic pulsation calculations.

  18. Search for Planets around Pulsating White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullally, F.; Winget, D. E.; Kepler, S. O.

    2005-12-01

    We present initial results from our search for planets around variable white dwarf stars. White dwarf stars are the end point of stellar evolution for 98% of main sequence stars. Theoretical calculations (Sackmann 1993; Duncan & Lissauer 1998) predict that planets further than 1 AU from their parent star will survive the red giant phase. When a hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf (DA) cools to about 12000K it becomes a variable star. A subset of these stars exhibit pulsational stability that rivals atomic clocks (˙ {P} ˜ 10-15; Kepler et al. 2005). The reflex orbital motion of the star around the center of mass of the system due to the presence of a planet changes the light travel time of these stable pulses and hence their observed arrival time on earth, providing a method to detect the planet. Because we are measuring change in distance to the star, planets in long period orbits are easier to detect, complementing the Doppler shift method. This work is supported by grant from the NASA Origins program, NAG5-13094 and performed in part under contract with JPL through the Michelson Fellowship Program.

  19. The Pulsating, Accreting White Dwarf in GW Lib after Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula

    The first known pulsating white dwarf in an accreting close binary system (GW Lib) underwent an outburst in April, 2007. We aim to follow the pulsation spectrum as the white dwarf cools back to to its quiescent temperature from its heating due to the outburst which should take about 3 years. As it cools, it should re-enter the instability strip and we can witness changes in the driving mechanism and detect modes that are excited by the temperature changes. The higher pulse amplitude in UV vs optical and the available time-tag mode makes GALEX the instrument of choice. The data in 2008 will be combined with our DOT time in May, June 2007 to provide coverage of the largest cooling that takes place in the year following outburst. Since the few known systems only outburst every 20-30 yrs, this is the first opportunity to accomplish a study of this type."

  20. Discovery of Three Pulsating, Mixed-atmosphere, Extremely Low-mass White Dwarf Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianninas, A.; Curd, Brandon; Fontaine, G.; Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin

    2016-05-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in three mixed-atmosphere, extremely low-mass white dwarf (ELM WD, M ≤slant 0.3 M ⊙) precursors. Following the recent discoveries of pulsations in both ELM and pre-ELM WDs, we targeted pre-ELM WDs with mixed H/He atmospheres with high-speed photometry. We find significant optical variability in all three observed targets with periods in the range 320-590 s, consistent in timescale with theoretical predictions of p-mode pulsations in mixed-atmosphere ≈0.18 M ⊙ He-core pre-ELM WDs. This represents the first empirical evidence that pulsations in pre-ELM WDs can only occur if a significant amount of He is present in the atmosphere. Future, more extensive, timeseries photometry of the brightest of the three new pulsators offers an excellent opportunity to constrain the thickness of the surface H layer, which regulates the cooling timescales for ELM WDs. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  1. Pulsations powered by hydrogen shell burning in white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Shibahashi, H.

    2016-10-01

    Context. In the absence of a third dredge-up episode during the asymptotic giant-branch phase, white dwarf models evolved from low-metallicity progenitors have a thick hydrogen envelope, which makes hydrogen shell burning be the most important energy source. Aims: We investigate the pulsational stability of white dwarf models with thick envelopes to see whether nonradial g-mode pulsations are triggered by hydrogen burning, with the aim of placing constraints on hydrogen shell burning in cool white dwarfs and on a third dredge-up during the asymptotic giant-branch evolution of their progenitor stars. Methods: We construct white-dwarf sequences from low-metallicity progenitors by means of full evolutionary calculations that take into account the entire history of progenitor stars, including the thermally pulsing and the post-asymptotic giant-branch phases, and analyze their pulsation stability by solving the linear, nonadiabatic, nonradial pulsation equations for the models in the range of effective temperatures Teff 15 000-8000 K. Results: We demonstrate that, for white dwarf models with masses M⋆ ≲ 0.71 M⊙ and effective temperatures 8500 ≲ Teff ≲ 11 600 K that evolved from low-metallicity progenitors (Z = 0.0001, 0.0005, and 0.001), the dipole (ℓ = 1) and quadrupole (ℓ = 2) g1-modes are excited mostly as a result of the hydrogen-burning shell through the ɛ-mechanism, in addition to other g-modes driven by either the κ - γ or the convective driving mechanism. However, the ɛ mechanism is insufficient to drive these modes in white dwarfs evolved from solar-metallicity progenitors. Conclusions: We suggest that efforts should be made to observe the dipole g1-mode in white dwarfs associated with low-metallicity environments, such as globular clusters and/or the galactic halo, to place constraints on hydrogen shell burning in cool white dwarfs and the third dredge-up episode during the preceding asymptotic giant-branch phase.

  2. Periodic Variations in the O - C Diagrams of Five Pulsation Frequencies of the DB White Dwarf EC 20058-5234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessio, J.; Sullivan, D. J.; Provencal, J. L.; Shipman, H. L.; Sullivan, T.; Kilkenny, D.; Fraga, L.; Sefako, R.

    2013-03-01

    Variations in the pulsation arrival time of five independent pulsation frequencies of the DB white dwarf EC 20058-5234 individually imitate the effects of reflex motion induced by a planet or companion but are inconsistent when considered in unison. The pulsation frequencies vary periodically in a 12.9 year cycle and undergo secular changes that are inconsistent with simple neutrino plus photon-cooling models. The magnitude of the periodic and secular variations increases with the period of the pulsations, possibly hinting that the corresponding physical mechanism is located near the surface of the star. The phase of the periodic variations appears coupled to the sign of the secular variations. The standards for pulsation-timing-based detection of planetary companions around pulsating white dwarfs, and possibly other variables such as subdwarf B stars, should be re-evaluated. The physical mechanism responsible for this surprising result may involve a redistribution of angular momentum or a magnetic cycle. Additionally, variations in a supposed combination frequency are shown to match the sum of the variations of the parent frequencies to remarkable precision, an expected but unprecedented confirmation of theoretical predictions. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  3. SEISMOLOGY OF A MASSIVE PULSATING HYDROGEN ATMOSPHERE WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S.; Fraga, Luciano; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Castanheira, Barbara; Corsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, Leandro; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Koester, D.; Kuelebi, Baybars; Kanaan, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    We report our observations of the new pulsating hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J132350.28+010304.22. We discovered periodic photometric variations in frequency and amplitude that are commensurate with nonradial g-mode pulsations in ZZ Ceti stars. This, along with estimates for the star's temperature and gravity, establishes it as a massive ZZ Ceti star. We used time-series photometric observations with the 4.1 m SOAR Telescope, complemented by contemporary McDonald Observatory 2.1 m data, to discover the photometric variability. The light curve of SDSS J132350.28+010304.22 shows at least nine detectable frequencies. We used these frequencies to make an asteroseismic determination of the total mass and effective temperature of the star: M{sub *} = 0.88 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun} and T{sub eff} = 12, 100 {+-} 140 K. These values are consistent with those derived from the optical spectra and photometric colors.

  4. Seismology of a Massive Pulsating Hydrogen Atmosphere White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Peçanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S.; Fraga, Luciano; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Castanheira, Barbara; Córsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, Leandro; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Koester, D.; Külebi, Baybars; Jordan, Stefan; Kanaan, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    We report our observations of the new pulsating hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J132350.28+010304.22. We discovered periodic photometric variations in frequency and amplitude that are commensurate with nonradial g-mode pulsations in ZZ Ceti stars. This, along with estimates for the star's temperature and gravity, establishes it as a massive ZZ Ceti star. We used time-series photometric observations with the 4.1 m SOAR Telescope, complemented by contemporary McDonald Observatory 2.1 m data, to discover the photometric variability. The light curve of SDSS J132350.28+010304.22 shows at least nine detectable frequencies. We used these frequencies to make an asteroseismic determination of the total mass and effective temperature of the star: M sstarf = 0.88 ± 0.02 M ⊙ and T eff = 12, 100 ± 140 K. These values are consistent with those derived from the optical spectra and photometric colors.

  5. HST observations of the pulsating white dwarf GD 358

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Nitta, A.; Kepler, S. O.; Winget, D. E.; Koester, D.

    2005-03-01

    We used time-resolved ultraviolet spectroscopy obtained with the FOS and STIS spectrographs of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), together with archival IUE observations to measure the effective temperature (Teff), surface gravity (log g) and distance (d) of the pulsating DB white dwarf GD 358 with unprecedented accuracy, and to show that the temperature did not change during the 1996 sforzando, when the star changed basically to a single mode pulsator. We also measured for the first time for a DBV the spherical harmonic degree (ℓ) for two modes, with k=8 and k=9, which was only possible because the stellar light curve was dominated by a single mode in 1996. The independent spectra provide the following values: Teff=24 100± 400 K, log g=7.91±0.26 and d=42.7±2.5 pc. The ultraviolet spectroscopic distance is in better agreement with the seismological value, than the one derived by parallax.

  6. Empirical Determination of Convection in Pulsating White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, Judith L.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M.; Reed, Mike; Shipman, Harry; Fraga, Luciano

    2013-02-01

    We propose high speed photometric observations of WD J1518+0658 with SOAR and the KPNO 2m as important components of a coordinated international campaign designed to survey the properties of convection in white dwarf atmospheres. Convection remains the largest source of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. Asteroseismology has proven a powerful tool to attack this problem. White dwarf pulsations appear as local surface temperature variations. The extreme temperature sensitivity of convection leads to local variations in the convection zone's depth. This in turn modulates the local energy flux, producing nonsinusoidal light curves. The observed nonlinearities provide a self-consistent observational test of convection in white dwarf atmospheres. WD J1518+0658 is a member of the newly discovered class of extremely low mass white dwarf pulsators (ELMVs). ELMVs offer the opportunity to extend our investigation to unexplored regions of lower effective temperatures and surface gravities, where conditions are closer to those found in main sequence stars. High precision light curves from SOAR, combined with frequency, amplitude, and phase information provided by the KPNO 2m and the entire WET run, will allow us to recover WD J1518+0658's convective thermal response timescale.

  7. Four new massive pulsating white dwarfs including an ultramassive DAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curd, Brandon; Gianninas, A.; Bell, Keaton J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Romero, A. D.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2017-06-01

    We report the discovery of four massive (M > 0.8 M⊙) ZZ Ceti white dwarfs, including an ultramassive 1.16 M⊙ star. We obtained ground-based, time series photometry for 13 white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 and Data Release 10 whose atmospheric parameters place them within the ZZ Ceti instability strip. We detect monoperiodic pulsations in three of our targets (J1015, J1554 and J2038) and identify three periods of pulsation in J0840 (173, 327 and 797 s). Fourier analysis of the remaining nine objects does not indicate variability above the 4 detection threshold. Our preliminary asteroseismic analysis of J0840 yields a stellar mass M = 1.14 ± 0.01 M⊙, hydrogen and helium envelope masses of MH = 5.8 × 10-7 M⊙ and MHe = 4.5 × 10-4 M⊙ and an expected core crystallized mass ratio of 50-70 per cent. J1015, J1554 and J2038 have masses in the range 0.84-0.91 M⊙ and are expected to have a CO core; however, the core of J0840 could consist of highly crystallized CO or ONeMg given its high mass. These newly discovered massive pulsators represent a significant increase in the number of known ZZ Ceti white dwarfs with mass M > 0.85 M⊙, and detailed asteroseismic modelling of J0840 will allow for significant tests of crystallization theory in CO and ONeMg core white dwarfs.

  8. HST Observations of the Pulsating White Dwarf GD 358

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Kepler, S. O.; Nitta, A.; Winget, D. E.; Koester, D.

    2005-07-01

    We used time-resolved ultraviolet spectroscopy obtained with the FOS and STIS spectrographs of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), together with archival IUE observations to measure the effective temperature (Teff}), surface gravity (log g) and distance (d) of the pulsating DB white dwarf GD 358 with unprecedented accuracy, and to show the temperature did not change during the 1996 sforzando, when the star changed basically to a single mode pulsator. We also measured, for the first time for a DBV, the spherical harmonic degree (ℓ) for two modes, with k=8 and k=9, which was only possible because the stellar light curve was dominated by a single mode in 1996. In addition, we constrain ℓ to be 1 or 2 for the main pulsations in the normal multiperiodic state. The spectra are best fit for Teff}=24 100± 400 K, log g=7.91±0.26 and d=42.7±2.5 pc. The ultraviolet spectroscopic distance is in better agreement with the seismological value, than the one derived by parallax.

  9. Two-phase ultraviolet spectrophotometry of the pulsating white dwarf ZZ Piscium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, H. E.; Kemper, E.; Grauer, A. D.; Holm, A. V.; Panek, R. J.; Schiffer, F. H., III

    1985-01-01

    Spectra of the pulsating white dwarf ZZ Psc (= G29-38) were obtained using the International Ultraviolet Explorer. By using a multiple-exposure technique in conjunction with simultaneous ground-based exposure-metering photometry, it was possible to obtain mean on-pulse and off-pulse spectra in the 1950-1310 A wavelength range. The ratio of the time-averaged on-pulse to off-pulse spectra is best fitted by a temperature variation that is in phase with the optical light variation. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that the observed variation is due to a high-order nonradial pulsation. Conventional ultraviolet spectra of ZZ Psc showed broad absorption features at 1390 and 1600 A. These features are also found in the spectra of the cool DA-type white dwarfs G226-29 and G67-23, and appear to increase in strength with decreasing temperature. A possible explanation for the 1600 A feature is absorption by the satellite band of resonance-broadened hydrogen Ly-alpha. Such absorption would also help explain a discrepancy between the observed pulsation amplitude shortward of 1650 A and the predicted amplitudes based on model atmospheres.

  10. FINDING THE INSTABILITY STRIP FOR ACCRETING PULSATING WHITE DWARFS FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE AND OPTICAL OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum; Gaensicke, Boris T.; Henden, Arne; Templeton, Matthew; Dillon, William; Holtzman, Jon; Montgomery, Michael H.; Howell, Steve B.; Nitta, Atsuko; Sion, Edward M.; Schwartz, Richard D.

    2010-02-10

    Time-resolved low resolution Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra together with ground-based optical photometry and spectra are used to constrain the temperatures and pulsation properties of six cataclysmic variables containing pulsating white dwarfs (WDs). Combining our temperature determinations for the five pulsating WDs that are several years past outburst with past results on six other systems shows that the instability strip for accreting pulsating WDs ranges from 10,500 to 15,000 K, a wider range than evident for ZZ Ceti pulsators. Analysis of the UV/optical pulsation properties reveals some puzzling aspects. While half the systems show high pulsation amplitudes in the UV compared to their optical counterparts, others show UV/optical amplitude ratios that are less than one or no pulsations at either wavelength region.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR TEMPERATURE CHANGE AND OBLIQUE PULSATION FROM LIGHT CURVE FITS OF THE PULSATING WHITE DWARF GD 358

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Provencal, J. L.; Thompson, S. E.; Kanaan, A.; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Dalessio, J.; Shipman, H. L.; Kepler, S. O.; Koester, D.

    2010-06-10

    Convective driving, the mechanism originally proposed by Brickhill for pulsating white dwarf stars, has gained general acceptance as the generic linear instability mechanism in DAV and DBV white dwarfs. This physical mechanism naturally leads to a nonlinear formulation, reproducing the observed light curves of many pulsating white dwarfs. This numerical model can also provide information on the average depth of a star's convection zone and the inclination angle of its pulsation axis. In this paper, we give two sets of results of nonlinear light curve fits to data on the DBV GD 358. Our first fit is based on data gathered in 2006 by the Whole Earth Telescope; this data set was multiperiodic containing at least 12 individual modes. Our second fit utilizes data obtained in 1996, when GD 358 underwent a dramatic change in excited frequencies accompanied by a rapid increase in fractional amplitude; during this event it was essentially monoperiodic. We argue that GD 358's convection zone was much thinner in 1996 than in 2006, and we interpret this as a result of a short-lived increase in its surface temperature. In addition, we find strong evidence of oblique pulsation using two sets of evenly split triplets in the 2006 data. This marks the first time that oblique pulsation has been identified in a variable white dwarf star.

  12. GW Librae: a unique laboratory for pulsations in an accreting white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloza, O.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Townsley, D. M.; Schreiber, M. R.; Szkody, P.; Pala, A.; Beuermann, K.; Bildsten, L.; Breedt, E.; Cook, M.; Godon, P.; Henden, A. A.; Hubeny, I.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Marsh, T. R.; de Martino, D.; Mukadam, A. S.; Myers, G.; Nelson, P.; Oksanen, A.; Patterson, J.; Sion, E. M.; Zorotovic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Non-radial pulsations have been identified in a number of accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables. These stars offer insight into the excitation of pulsation modes in atmospheres with mixed compositions of hydrogen, helium, and metals, and the response of these modes to changes in the white dwarf temperature. Among all pulsating cataclysmic variable white dwarfs, GW Librae stands out by having a well-established observational record of three independent pulsation modes that disappeared when the white dwarf temperature rose dramatically following its 2007 accretion outburst. Our analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectroscopy taken in 2002, 2010, and 2011, showed that pulsations produce variations in the white dwarf effective temperature as predicted by theory. Additionally in 2013 May, we obtained new HST/Cosmic Origin Spectrograph ultraviolet observations that displayed unexpected behaviour: besides showing variability at ≃275 s, which is close to the post-outburst pulsations detected with HST in 2010 and 2011, the white dwarf exhibits high-amplitude variability on an ≃4.4 h time-scale. We demonstrate that this variability is produced by an increase of the temperature of a region on white dwarf covering up to ≃30 per cent of the visible white dwarf surface. We argue against a short-lived accretion episode as the explanation of such heating, and discuss this event in the context of non-radial pulsations on a rapidly rotating star.

  13. Outbursts from Cool Pulsating White Dwarfs in Kepler and K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, Michael H.; Winget, Donald E.

    2017-01-01

    Data from the Kepler and K2 missions have captured the signatures of a new pulsation-related phenomenon in hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs. Some pulsating white dwarfs within 500 K of the empirical cool edge of the ZZ Ceti instability strip exhibit outburst-like brightness enhancements of up to 15% that last many hours and recur irregularly on timescales on days. In this thesis talk, I summarize the observational characteristics of this new outbursting class of ZZ Ceti.

  14. Pulsation properties of DB white dwarfs: A preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Winget, D.E.; Van Horn, H.M.; Tassoul, M.; Hansen, C.J.; Fontaine, G.

    1983-05-01

    We report preliminary results of a numerical investigation of the nonradial g-mode pulsation properties of evolutionary DB white dwarf models. We have solved the fully nonadiabatic equations for modes corresponding to spherical harmonic index l = 1 through 3. For each of the sequences of models we have examined (M/sub asterisk/ = 0.6 M/sub sun/; and helium layer masses of 10/sup -6/ M/sub asterisk/ and 10/sup -4/ M/sub asterisk/), we find a nonradial g-mode instability strip about 3000 K wide. For models with standard ML1 convection, this strip lies in the effective temperature range 19,000 K> or approx. =T/sub e/> or approx. =16,000 K. The boundaries of the instability strip are extremely sensitive to the assumed efficiency of convection, however, and for sequences with more efficient (ML3) convection, we find the instability strip to be in the range 29,000 K> or approx. =T/sub e/> or approx. = 26,000 K. Extrapolation of our calculations to 0.4 M/sub sun/ and 0.9 M/sub sun/ indicates that that the instability strip boundaries are insensitive to uncertainties in the total stellar mass. The most unstable modes have e-folding times of the order of days.

  15. Thermal-diffusional Instability in White Dwarf Flames: Regimes of Flame Pulsation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Guangzheng; Zhao, Yibo; Modestov, Mikhail; Zhou, Cheng; Gao, Yang; Law, Chung K.

    2017-05-01

    Thermal-diffusional pulsation behaviors in planar as well as outwardly and inwardly propagating white dwarf (WD) carbon flames are systematically studied. In the 1D numerical simulation, the asymptotic degenerate equation of state and simplified one-step reaction rates for nuclear reactions are used to study the flame propagation and pulsation in WDs. The numerical critical Zel’dovich numbers of planar flames at different densities (ρ = 2, 3, and 4 × 107 g cm-3) and of spherical flames (with curvature c = -0.01, 0, 0.01, and 0.05) at a particular density (ρ = 2 × 107 g cm-3) are presented. Flame front pulsation in different environmental densities and temperatures are obtained to form the regime diagram of pulsation, showing that carbon flames pulsate in the typical density of 2 × 107 g cm-3 and temperature of 0.6 × 109 K. While being stable at higher temperatures, at relatively lower temperatures, the amplitude of the flame pulsation becomes larger. In outwardly propagating spherical flames the pulsation instability is enhanced and flames are also easier to quench due to pulsation at small radius, while the inwardly propagating flames are more stable.

  16. Super-Nyquist White Dwarf Pulsations in K2 Long-Cadence Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Hermes, JJ; Montgomery, Michael H.; Vanderbosch, Zach

    2017-06-01

    The Kepler and K2 missions have recently revolutionized the field of white dwarf asteroseismology. Since white dwarfs pulsate on timescales of order 10 minutes, we aim to observe these objects at K2’s short cadence (1 minute). Occasionally we find signatures of pulsations in white dwarf targets that were only observed by K2 at long cadence (30 minute). These signals suffer extreme aliasing since the intrinsic frequencies exceed the Nyquist sampling limit. We present our work to recover accurate frequency determinations for these targets, guided by a limited amount of supplementary, ground-based photometry from McDonald Observatory.

  17. Hot C-rich white dwarfs: testing the DB-DQ transition through pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Hot DQ white dwarfs are a new class of white dwarf stars that were discovered recently within the framework of the SDSS project. There are nine known hot DQ stars, out of a total of several thousands white dwarfs spectroscopically identified. Three hot DQ white dwarfs have been reported to exhibit photometric variability with periods compatible with pulsation g-modes. Aims: We present a nonadiabatic pulsation analysis of carbon-rich hot DQ white dwarf stars. One of our main aims is to test the convective-mixing scenario for the origin of hot DQs by studying their pulsational properties. Methods: Our pulsation study is based on the full evolutionary models of hot DQ white dwarfs developed by Althaus and collaborators, which consistently cover the entire evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Specifically, we present a stability analysis of white dwarf models from stages before the blue edge of the DBV instability strip (Teff ≈ 30 000 K), until the domain of the hot DQ white dwarfs (18 000-24 000 K), including the transition DB→hot DQ white dwarf. We explore evolutionary models with M* = 0.585 M⊙ and M* = 0.87 M⊙, and two values of the thickness of the He-rich envelope (MHe = 2×10-7 M* and MHe = 10-8 M_*). These envelopes are 4-5 orders of magnitude thinner than those of standard DB white dwarf models resulting from canonical stellar evolution computations. Results: We found that at evolutionary phases in which the models are characterized by He-dominated atmospheres, they exhibit unstable g-mode pulsations typical of DBV stars, and when the models become DQ white dwarfs with carbon-dominated atmospheres, they continue being pulsationally unstable with characteristics similar to DB models, and in agreement with the periods detected in variable hot DQ white dwarfs. In particular, for models with MHe = 10-8 M_*, a narrow gap exists separating the DB from the DQ instability domains. Conclusions: Our calculations provide

  18. First axion bounds from a pulsating helium-rich white dwarf star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battich, T.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism proposed to solve the CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics has as consequence the existence of axions, hypothetical weakly interacting particles whose mass is constrained to be on the sub-eV range. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, becoming an important energy sink for the star. Due to their well known physics, white dwarfs are good laboratories to study the properties of fundamental particles such as the axions. We study the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of helium-rich white dwarfs and on their pulsational properties. To this aim, we calculate evolutionary helium-rich white dwarf models with axion emission, and assess the pulsational properties of this models. Our results indicate that the rates of change of pulsation periods are significantly affected by the existence of axions. We are able for the first time to independently constrain the mass of the axion from the study of pulsating helium-rich white dwarfs. To do this, we use an estimation of the rate of change of period of the pulsating white dwarf PG 1351+489 corresponding to the dominant pulsation period. From an asteroseismological model of PG 1351+489 we obtain gae < 3.3 × 10-13 for the axion-electron coupling constant, or macos2β lesssim 11.5 meV for the axion mass. This constraint is relaxed to gae < 5.5 × 10-13 (macos2β lesssim 19.5 meV), when no detailed asteroseismological model is adopted for the comparison with observations.

  19. Recent Advances in the Theoretical Modeling of Pulsating Low-mass He-core White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Calcaferro, L. M.; Serenelli, A. M.; Kepler, S. O.; Jeffery, C. S.

    2017-03-01

    Many extremely low-mass (ELM) white-dwarf (WD) stars are currently being found in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period nonradial g-mode pulsations, and constitute the class of ELMV pulsating WDs. In addition, several low-mass pre-WDs, which could be precursors of ELM WDs, have been observed to show short-period photometric variations likely due to nonradial p modes and radial modes. They could constitute a new class of pulsating low-mass pre-WD stars, the pre-ELMV stars. Here, we present the recent results of a thorough theoretical study of the nonadiabatic pulsation properties of low-mass He-core WDs and pre-WDs on the basis of fully evolutionary models representative of these stars.

  20. The post-outburst pulsations of the accreting white dwarf in the cataclysmic variable GW Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chote, P.; Sullivan, D. J.

    2016-05-01

    We present new time series photometry of the accreting pulsating white dwarf system GW Librae obtained in 2012 and 2013 at the University of Canterbury Mt John Observatory in New Zealand. Our 2012 data show the return of a ˜19 min periodicity that was previously detected in 2008. This pulsation mode was a dominant feature of our quality 2012 May data set, which consisted of six contiguous nights; a detailed analysis indicated a degree of frequency variability. We show by comparison with the previously identified pulsation modes that this periodicity is best explained as a new mode, and that the quasi-stability of the periods appears to be a general feature of the pulsations in these systems. We also find a previously unreported 3-h modulation period, which we believe to be related to the known two and four hour periods of so far unknown origin.

  1. Whole Earth Telescope observations of the hot helium atmosphere pulsating white dwarf EC20058-5234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; O'Donoghue, D.; Winget, D. E.; Kilkenny, D.; van Wyk, F.; Kanaan, A.; Kepler, S. O.; Nitta, A.; Kawaler, S. D.; Montgomery, M. H.; Nather, R. E.; O'Brien, M. S.; Bischoff-Kim, A.; Wood, M.; Jiang, X. J.; Leibowitz, E. M.; Ibbetson, P.; Zola, S.; Krzesinski, J.; Pajdosz, G.; Vauclair, G.; Dolez, N.; Chevreton, M.

    2008-06-01

    We present the analysis of a total of 177h of high-quality optical time-series photometry of the helium atmosphere pulsating white dwarf (DBV) EC20058-5234. The bulk of the observations (135h) were obtained during a WET campaign (XCOV15) in 1997 July that featured coordinated observing from four southern observatory sites over an 8-d period. The remaining data (42h) were obtained in 2004 June at Mt John Observatory in NZ over a one-week observing period. This work significantly extends the discovery observations of this low-amplitude (few per cent) pulsator by increasing the number of detected frequencies from 8 to 18, and employs a simulation procedure to confirm the reality of these frequencies to a high level of significance (1 in 1000). The nature of the observed pulsation spectrum precludes identification of unique pulsation mode properties using any clearly discernable trends. However, we have used a global modelling procedure employing genetic algorithm techniques to identify the n,l values of eight pulsation modes, and thereby obtain asteroseismic measurements of several model parameters, including the stellar mass (0.55 Msolar) and Teff (~28200K). These values are consistent with those derived from published spectral fitting: Teff ~ 28400K and logg ~ 7.86. We also present persuasive evidence from apparent rotational mode splitting for two of the modes that indicates this compact object is a relatively rapid rotator with a period of 2h. In direct analogy with the corresponding properties of the hydrogen (DAV) atmosphere pulsators, the stable low-amplitude pulsation behaviour of EC20058 is entirely consistent with its inferred effective temperature, which indicates it is close to the blue edge of the DBV instability strip. Arguably, our most significant result from this work is the clear demonstration that EC20058 is a very stable pulsator with several dominant pulsation modes that can be monitored for their long-term stability.

  2. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. I. Adiabatic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Many low-mass white dwarfs with masses M∗/M⊙ ≲ 0.45, including the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs (M∗/M⊙ ≲ 0.20 - 0.25), have recently been discovered in the field of our Galaxy through dedicated photometric surveys. The subsequent discovery of pulsations in some of them has opened the unprecedented opportunity of probing the internal structure of these ancient stars. Aims: We present a detailed adiabatic pulsational study of these stars based on full evolutionary sequences derived from binary star evolution computations. The main aim of this study is to provide a detailed theoretical basis of reference for interpreting present and future observations of variable low-mass white dwarfs. Methods: Our pulsational analysis is based on a new set of He-core white-dwarf models with masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.4352 M⊙ derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ ZAMS star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star. We computed adiabatic radial (ℓ = 0) and non-radial (ℓ = 1,2) p and g modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational properties of these objects on stellar parameters such as the stellar mass and the effective temperature, as well as the effects of element diffusion. Results: We found that for white dwarf models with masses below ~ 0.18 M⊙, g modes mainly probe the core regions and p modes the envelope, therefore pulsations offer the opportunity of constraining both the core and envelope chemical structure of these stars via asteroseismology. For models with M∗ ≳ 0.18 M⊙, on the other hand, g modes are very sensitive to the He/H compositional gradient and therefore can be used as a diagnostic tool for constraining the H envelope thickness. Because both types of objects have not only very distinct evolutionary histories (according to whether the progenitor stars have experienced CNO-flashes or not), but also have strongly different pulsation properties, we propose to

  3. Gravitational waves, pulsations, and more : high-speed photometry of low-mass, He-core white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.

    2013-08-01

    This dissertation is an observational exploration of the exciting physics that can be enabled by high-speed photometric monitoring of extremely low-mass (< 0.25 Msun) white dwarf stars, which are found in some of the most compact binaries known. It includes the cleanest indirect detection of gravitational waves at visible wavelengths, the discovery of pulsations in He-core WDs, the strongest evidence for excited p-mode pulsations in a WD, the discovery of the first tidally distorted WDs and their use to constrain the low-end of the WD mass-radius relationship, and the strongest cases of Doppler beaming observed in a binary system. It is the result of the more than 220 nights spent at McDonald Observatory doing high-speed photometry with the Argos instrument on the 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope, which has led to a number of additional exciting results, including the discovery of an intermediate timescale in the evolution of cooling DA WDs and the discovery of the most massive pulsating WD, which should have an ONe-core and should be highly crystallized.

  4. Hot DQ white dwarfs: a pulsational test of the mixing scenario for their formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.

    2010-11-01

    Hot DQ white dwarfs constitute a new class of white dwarf stars, uncovered recently within the framework of SDSS project. There exist nine of them, out of a total of several thousands white dwarfs spectroscopically identified. Recently, three hot DQ white dwarfs have been reported to exhibit photometric variability with periods compatible with pulsation g-modes. In this contribution, we presented the results of a non-adiabatic pulsation analysis of the recently discovered carbon-rich hot DQ white dwarf stars. Our study relies on the full evolutionary models of hot DQ white dwarfs recently developed by Althaus et al. (2009), that consistently cover the whole evolution from the born-again stage to the white dwarf cooling track. Specifically, we performed a stability analysis on white dwarf models from stages before the blue edge of the DBV instability strip (Teff ≈ 30000 K) until the domain of the hot DQ white dwarfs (18000-24000 K), including the transition DB→hot DQ white dwarf. We explore evolutionary models with M*= 0.585M⊙ and M* = 0.87M⊙, and two values of thickness of the He-rich envelope (MHe = 2 × 10-7M* and MHe = 10-8M*).

  5. Amplitude Variability as Evidence of Crystallization in GD 518 and Other Massive Pulsating White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.; Kepler, S. O.; Montgomery, M. H.; Gianninas, A.; Castanheira, Barbara G.; Winget, D. E.

    2015-06-01

    In 2013 March we discovered pulsations in the most massive pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf to date, GD 518. Model atmosphere fits to the optical spectrum of this star show it is a Teff = 12,030±210 K, log g = 9.08±0.06 white dwarf, which corresponds to a mass of 1.20±0.03 M⊙. Such a massive WD should also be significantly crystallized at this temperature, and may possibly contain an oxygen-neon core. The star exhibits multi-periodic luminosity variations at timescales ranging from roughly 425 to 595 s and amplitudes up to 0.7% in a given night, consistent in period and amplitude with the observed variability of typical ZZ Ceti stars, although the pulsation amplitudes change drastically over the 33 days of our discovery observations. We investigate the possibility that these amplitude variations are a consequence of the pulsation modes sampling only the non-crystallized outer mass fraction of the white dwarf (perhaps <0.05 M⊙ of material), and thus have very low mode inertia. Amplitude variability could be an observational consequence of a significantly crystallized stellar interior.

  6. High-Speed Hubble Space Telescope Ultraviolet photometry of two DB white dwarfs: Nonradial and radial pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.; Bond, Howard E.; Sherbert, Lisa E.; Watson, Todd K.

    1994-01-01

    We observed two DB white dwarf stars with the High Speed Photometer aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. The two targets, the nonradial pulsator GD 358, and PG 0112+104, a non-pulsating white dwarf with similar temperature, were each observed for 1800 s with a time resolution of 10 ms. We used the F140LP configuration, which gives a broadband response in the UV between 1400 and 3000 A. The data clearly show the long period (about 700 s) pulsations in GD 358. Comparison with optical observations obtained two weeks earlier shows that the amplitude of the pulsations in the UV is approximately 1.4 times higher, consistent with nonradial pulsations due solely to temperature changes at constant radius. The high time resolution of these observations allows us to search for high-frequency pulsations (such as p modes or high overtone radial modes). No firm evidencefor high-frequency pulsations was seen in either object between 1 and 12 Hz. Correlation analysis of GD 358 shows no clear signal of multifrequency high overtone radial pulsations at the 0.00075 mag level, with no individual modes above the 0.0016 mag level. Upper limits for PG 0112+104 are approximately 2 times higher than for GD 358. Implications of this study for the theory of white dwarf pulsations are discussed.

  7. Signature of the Core Stratification in Pulsating White Dwarfs and Tests of Seismic Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpinet, S.; Giammichele, N.; Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss and illustrate how the C/O stratification in the core of white dwarf stars affects their g-mode pulsation spectrum. This effect, mostly occurring through the interplay of partial wave reflection (mode trapping), leaves a subtle but detectable signature, in particular with now available ultra high precision photometry from space, that could be exploited to infer the main structures in this stratification. We provide tests demonstrating that asteroseismology can indeed be used, in some cases, to probe the innermost composition stratification of pulsating white dwarfs. This brings interesting prospects to constrain the core chemical stratification inherited from previous evolutionary phases, which is one of the most uncertain aspect of white dwarf internal structure.

  8. A search for p-mode pulsations in white dwarf stars using the Berkeley Visible Imaging Tube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Welsh, B. Y.; Koen, C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kotze, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-speed photometry (resolution 0.1 s) obtained during the commissioning of the Berkely Visible Imaging Tube system on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The observations were an attempt to search for very rapid p-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars and included three DA stars known to be g-mode pulsators (ZZ Cet, HK Cet and AF Pic), one other DA star (WD 1056-384) not known to be variable and one AM Cvn star (HP Lib). No evidence was found for any variations greater than about 1 mmag in amplitude (˜0.1 per cent) at frequencies in excess of 60 mHz (periods <17 s) in any of the target stars, though several previously known g-mode frequencies were recovered.

  9. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phoenicis stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M. A.; Kanaan, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Althaus, L. G.; Koester, D.; Sánchez Arias, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity to probe their interiors and determine their evolution by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to analyse high-speed photometry of SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the Teff - log g diagram, we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the photometric data we obtained for these stars with the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analysed their light curves and applied the discrete Fourier transform (FT) to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the Teff - log g diagram, with two known pre-white dwarfs and seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, δ Scuti, and SX Phe stars Results: We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. We determine their effective temperature and surface gravity to be Teff = 7972 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5 and Teff = 7925 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5, respectively. With these parameters, these new pulsating low-mass stars can be identified with either ELM white dwarfs (with ~0.17 M⊙) or more massive SX Phe stars. We identified pulsation periods of 3278.7 and 1633.9 s for SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and a pulsation period of 3367.1 s for SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. These two new objects, together with those of Maxted et al. (2013, 2014), indicate the possible existence of a new instability domain towards the late stages of evolution of low-mass white dwarf stars, although their identification with SX Phe stars cannot be discarded. Visiting Astronomer, Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  10. Crossing HST and wet data for the pulsating DB white dwarf PG1351+489

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, V. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    At discovery, the pulsating DB white dwarf PG1351+489 was initially thought to have the simplest power spectrum of all pulsating helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBVs). The high resolution power spectrum provided by the 1995 Whole Earth Telescope data allowed us to identify 18 pulsation frequencies: a dominating frequency fo (2043.59mHz), its four harmonics, three sets of frequencies which are equidistant from the main periodicity and from its harmonics (one of these may be a splitting due to rotation). With these results, we reanalised the 1996 Faint Object Spectrograph time-resolved ultraviolet spectroscopy obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, together with the simultaneous photometry at the zeroth-order (undifracted) light. In this work, we fixed the frequencies identified in the WET data, due to its much higher time resolution than the HST data, and analised the ones which had amplitude higher than three times the average noise and out of power spectral resolution interference. We identified other frequencies not present at WET data, including a new set of fractional frequencies. The relative amplitude change with wavelenght for each periodicity was compared with the theoretical ones, to obtain the best temperature and gravity values for this star as well as the pulsation spherical degree identification.

  11. Update on the asteroseismology of the Kepler field hot pulsating white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, asteroseismic studies of a pulsating helium atmosphere white dwarf discovered in the Kepler field (KIC 862621) revealed that the star was one of the hottest in its class. Data gathered by Kepler also revealed that a number of the pulsation modes observed in the star were stable over time. Such stable modes can be used to measure a rate of cooling for the star. Combined with interior models of the object, such measurement can help constrain plasmon neutrino emission rates. KIC 862621 is in a temperature range where neutrino cooling contributes to more than half its luminosity. We report on the modeling of the object. The original studies were based on the 5 pulsation periods available at the time. Such a small number of modes only allowed partial constraints on the interior structure. Since then, through continuous observations with Kepler up until the end of the mission, 5 additional independent modes were discovered. We present a new, better constrained asteroseismic study of KIC 862621 based on 10 pulsation periods. Ground observations of the object will continue, yielding a measurement of the rate of cooling. We will then have the elements in place to help us constrain plasmon neutrino emission rates.

  12. Unraveling the Internal Chemical Composition of Kepler White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Charpinet, S.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the asteroseismic analysis of a selected sample of white dwarf stars in the Kepler and Kepler-2 fields. Our seismic procedure using the forward method based on physically sound, static models, includes a new core parameterization leading us to reproduce the periods of these stars at the precision of the observations. These new fits outperform current state-of-the-art standards by orders of magnitude. We precisely establish the internal structures of these stars and unravel the inner C/O stratification of their core. By studying their internal chemical compositions, and more precisely the C/O profiles, this opens up interesting perspectives on better constraining key processes in stellar physics such as nuclear burning, convection, and mixing, that shape this stratification over time.

  13. Comparing the asteroseismic properties of pulsating extremely low-mass pre-white dwarf stars and δ Scuti stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, J. P. Sánchez; Córsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, L. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first results of a detailed comparison between the pulsation properties of pulsating Extremely Low-Mass pre-white dwarf stars (the pre-ELMV variable stars) and δ Scuti stars. The instability domains of these very different kinds of stars nearly overlap in the log Teff vs. log g diagram, leading to a degeneracy in the classification of the stars. Our aim is to provide asteroseismic tools for their correct classification.

  14. Evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarf stars with oxygen cores resulting from close binary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Gautschy, A.; Han, Z.; Serenelli, A. M.; Panei, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The present work is designed to explore the evolutionary and pulsational properties of low-mass white dwarfs with carbon/oxygen cores. In particular, we follow the evolution of a 0.33-Msolar white dwarf remnant in a self-consistent way with the predictions of nuclear burning, element diffusion and the history of the white dwarf progenitor. Attention is focused on the occurrence of hydrogen shell flashes induced by diffusion processes during cooling phases. The evolutionary stages prior to the white dwarf formation are also fully accounted for by computing the conservative binary evolution of an initially 2.5-Msolar Population I star with a 1.25-Msolar companion, and with period Pi= 3 d. Evolution is followed down to the domain of the ZZ Ceti stars on the white dwarf cooling branch. We find that chemical diffusion induces the occurrence of an additional hydrogen thermonuclear flash, which leads to stellar models with thin hydrogen envelopes. As a result, a fast cooling is encountered at advanced stages of evolution. In addition, we explore the adiabatic pulsational properties of the resulting white dwarf models. As compared with their helium-core counterparts, low-mass oxygen-core white dwarfs are characterized by a pulsational spectrum much more featured, an aspect which could eventually be used for distinguishing both types of stars, if low-mass white dwarfs were in fact found to pulsate as ZZ Ceti-type variables. Finally, we perform a non-adiabatic pulsational analysis on the resulting carbon/oxygen low-mass white dwarf models.

  15. PERIODIC VARIATIONS IN THE O - C DIAGRAMS OF FIVE PULSATION FREQUENCIES OF THE DB WHITE DWARF EC 20058-5234

    SciTech Connect

    Dalessio, J.; Provencal, J. L.; Shipman, H. L.; Sullivan, D. J.; Sullivan, T.; Kilkenny, D.; Fraga, L.; Sefako, R.

    2013-03-01

    Variations in the pulsation arrival time of five independent pulsation frequencies of the DB white dwarf EC 20058-5234 individually imitate the effects of reflex motion induced by a planet or companion but are inconsistent when considered in unison. The pulsation frequencies vary periodically in a 12.9 year cycle and undergo secular changes that are inconsistent with simple neutrino plus photon-cooling models. The magnitude of the periodic and secular variations increases with the period of the pulsations, possibly hinting that the corresponding physical mechanism is located near the surface of the star. The phase of the periodic variations appears coupled to the sign of the secular variations. The standards for pulsation-timing-based detection of planetary companions around pulsating white dwarfs, and possibly other variables such as subdwarf B stars, should be re-evaluated. The physical mechanism responsible for this surprising result may involve a redistribution of angular momentum or a magnetic cycle. Additionally, variations in a supposed combination frequency are shown to match the sum of the variations of the parent frequencies to remarkable precision, an expected but unprecedented confirmation of theoretical predictions.

  16. Precision asteroseismology of the pulsating white dwarf GD 1212 using a two-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Charpinet, S.; Barclay, Thomas; Mullally, Fergal; Huber, Daniel; Still, Martin; Howell, Steve B.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Haas, Michael R.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Pakštienė, E.; Kawaler, Steven D.; Bloemen, S.; Castanheira, Barbara G.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Van Grootel, V.

    2014-07-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the cool pulsating white dwarf (WD) GD 1212, enabled by more than 11.5 days of space-based photometry obtained during an engineering test of the two-reaction-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft. We detect at least 19 independent pulsation modes, ranging from 828.2-1220.8 s, and at least 17 nonlinear combination frequencies of those independent pulsations. Our longest uninterrupted light curve, 9.0 days in length, evidences coherent difference frequencies at periods inaccessible from the ground, up to 14.5 hr, the longest-period signals ever detected in a pulsating WD. These results mark some of the first science to come from a two-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft, proving the capability for unprecedented discoveries afforded by extending Kepler observations to the ecliptic.

  17. Precision Asteroseismology of the Pulsating White Dwarf GD 1212 Using a Two-wheel-controlled Kepler Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.; Charpinet, S.; Barclay, Thomas; Pakštienė, E.; Mullally, Fergal; Kawaler, Steven D.; Bloemen, S.; Castanheira, Barbara G.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Van Grootel, V.; Huber, Daniel; Still, Martin; Howell, Steve B.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Haas, Michael R.; Bryson, Stephen T.

    2014-07-01

    We present a preliminary analysis of the cool pulsating white dwarf (WD) GD 1212, enabled by more than 11.5 days of space-based photometry obtained during an engineering test of the two-reaction-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft. We detect at least 19 independent pulsation modes, ranging from 828.2-1220.8 s, and at least 17 nonlinear combination frequencies of those independent pulsations. Our longest uninterrupted light curve, 9.0 days in length, evidences coherent difference frequencies at periods inaccessible from the ground, up to 14.5 hr, the longest-period signals ever detected in a pulsating WD. These results mark some of the first science to come from a two-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft, proving the capability for unprecedented discoveries afforded by extending Kepler observations to the ecliptic.

  18. Enigmatic Recurrent Pulsational Variability of the Accreting White Dwarf EQ Lyn (SDSS J074531.92+453829.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Townsley, D. M.; Szkody, Paula; Gänsicke, B. T.; Southworth, J.; Brockett, T.; Parsons, S.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Harrold, S.; Tovmassian, G.; Zharikov, S.; Drake, A. J.; Henden, A.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Sion, E. M.; Zola, S.; Szymanski, T.; Pavlenko, E.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Qian, S.-B.

    2013-09-01

    Photometric observations of the cataclysmic variable EQ Lyn (SDSS J074531.92+453829.6), acquired from 2005 October to 2006 January, revealed high-amplitude variability in the range 1166-1290 s. This accreting white dwarf underwent an outburst in 2006 October, during which its brightness increased by at least five magnitudes, and it started exhibiting superhumps in its light curve. Upon cooling to quiescence, the superhumps disappeared and it displayed the same periods in 2010 February as prior to the outburst within the uncertainties of a couple of seconds. This behavior suggests that the observed variability is likely due to nonradial pulsations in the white dwarf star, whose core structure has not been significantly affected by the outburst. The enigmatic observations begin with an absence of pulsational variability during a multi-site campaign conducted in 2011 January-February without any evidence of a new outburst; the light curve is instead dominated by superhumps with periods in the range of 83-87 minutes. Ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope time-series spectroscopy acquired in 2011 March reveals an effective temperature of 15,400 K, placing EQ Lyn within the broad instability strip of 10,500-16,000 K for accreting pulsators. The ultraviolet light curve with 90% flux from the white dwarf shows no evidence of any pulsations. Optical photometry acquired during 2011 and Spring 2012 continues to reflect the presence of superhumps and an absence of pulsations. Subsequent observations acquired in 2012 December and 2013 January finally indicate the disappearance of superhumps and the return of pulsational variability with similar periods as previous data. However, our most recent data from 2013 March to May reveal superhumps yet again with no sign of pulsations. We speculate that this enigmatic post-outburst behavior of the frequent disappearance of pulsational variability in EQ Lyn is caused either by heating the white dwarf beyond the instability strip due to an

  19. ENIGMATIC RECURRENT PULSATIONAL VARIABILITY OF THE ACCRETING WHITE DWARF EQ LYN (SDSS J074531.92+453829.6)

    SciTech Connect

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Szkody, Paula; Townsley, D. M.; Brockett, T.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Parsons, S.; Southworth, J.; Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Harrold, S.; Tovmassian, G.; Zharikov, S.; Drake, A. J.; Henden, A.; Rodriguez-Gil, P.; Sion, E. M.; Zola, S.; Szymanski, T.; Pavlenko, E.; and others

    2013-09-15

    Photometric observations of the cataclysmic variable EQ Lyn (SDSS J074531.92+453829.6), acquired from 2005 October to 2006 January, revealed high-amplitude variability in the range 1166-1290 s. This accreting white dwarf underwent an outburst in 2006 October, during which its brightness increased by at least five magnitudes, and it started exhibiting superhumps in its light curve. Upon cooling to quiescence, the superhumps disappeared and it displayed the same periods in 2010 February as prior to the outburst within the uncertainties of a couple of seconds. This behavior suggests that the observed variability is likely due to nonradial pulsations in the white dwarf star, whose core structure has not been significantly affected by the outburst. The enigmatic observations begin with an absence of pulsational variability during a multi-site campaign conducted in 2011 January-February without any evidence of a new outburst; the light curve is instead dominated by superhumps with periods in the range of 83-87 minutes. Ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope time-series spectroscopy acquired in 2011 March reveals an effective temperature of 15,400 K, placing EQ Lyn within the broad instability strip of 10,500-16,000 K for accreting pulsators. The ultraviolet light curve with 90% flux from the white dwarf shows no evidence of any pulsations. Optical photometry acquired during 2011 and Spring 2012 continues to reflect the presence of superhumps and an absence of pulsations. Subsequent observations acquired in 2012 December and 2013 January finally indicate the disappearance of superhumps and the return of pulsational variability with similar periods as previous data. However, our most recent data from 2013 March to May reveal superhumps yet again with no sign of pulsations. We speculate that this enigmatic post-outburst behavior of the frequent disappearance of pulsational variability in EQ Lyn is caused either by heating the white dwarf beyond the instability strip due to an

  20. SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE PULSATIONS IN LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS TRIGGERED BY H-SHELL BURNING

    SciTech Connect

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-09-20

    The detection of pulsations in white dwarfs with low mass offers the possibility of probing their internal structures through asteroseismology and placing constraints on the binary evolutionary processes involved in their formation. In this Letter, we assess the impact of stable H burning on the pulsational stability properties of low-mass He-core white dwarf models resulting from binary star evolutionary calculations. We found that besides a dense spectrum of unstable radial modes and nonradial g and p modes driven by the κ mechanism due to the partial ionization of H in the stellar envelope, some unstable g modes with short pulsation periods are also powered by H burning via the ε mechanism of mode driving. This is the first time that ε destabilized modes are found in models representative of cool white dwarf stars. The short periods recently detected in the pulsating low-mass white dwarf SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 could constitute the first evidence of the existence of stable H burning in these stars, in particular in the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs.

  1. Linear theory radial and nonradial pulsations of DA dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.; Pesnell, W.D.

    1982-07-28

    The Los Alamos stellar envelope and radial linear non-adiabatic computer code, along with a new Los Alamos non-radial code are used to investigate the total hydrogen mass necessary to produce the non-radial instability of DA dwarfs. (GHT)

  2. Precise atmospheric parameters for the shortest-period binary white dwarfs: gravitational waves, metals, and pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Dufour, P.; Bergeron, P.; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.

    2014-10-10

    We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of 61 low-mass white dwarfs and provide precise atmospheric parameters, masses, and updated binary system parameters based on our new model atmosphere grids and the most recent evolutionary model calculations. For the first time, we measure systematic abundances of He, Ca, and Mg for metal-rich, extremely low mass white dwarfs and examine the distribution of these abundances as a function of effective temperature and mass. Based on our preliminary results, we discuss the possibility that shell flashes may be responsible for the presence of the observed He and metals. We compare stellar radii derived from our spectroscopic analysis to model-independent measurements and find good agreement except for white dwarfs with T {sub eff} ≲ 10,000 K. We also calculate the expected gravitational wave strain for each system and discuss their significance to the eLISA space-borne gravitational wave observatory. Finally, we provide an update on the instability strip of extremely low mass white dwarf pulsators.

  3. Time series photometry of the helium atmosphere pulsating white dwarf EC 04207-4748

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chote, P.; Sullivan, D. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Provencal, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    We present the analysis of 71 h of high-quality time series CCD photometry of the helium atmosphere pulsating white dwarf (DBV) EC 04207-4748 obtained using the facilities at Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. The photometric data set consists of four week-long observing sessions covering the period 2011 March to November. A Fourier analysis of the light curves yielded clear evidence of four independent eigenmodes in the star with the dominant mode having a period of 447 s. The light-curve variations exhibit distinct non-sinusoidal shapes, which result in significant harmonics of the dominant frequency appearing in the Fourier transforms. These observed variations are interpreted in terms of non-linear contributions from the energy flux transmission through the sub-surface convection zone in the star. Our modelling of this mechanism, using the methods first introduced by Montgomery, yields a time-averaged convective response time of τ0 ˜ 150 s for the star, and this is shown to be broadly consistent with an MLT/α parameter value between 0.8 and 1.2. It is argued that for the DBV pulsators the measured value of τ0 is a better estimate of the relative stellar surface temperatures than those obtained via spectroscopic techniques.

  4. PULSATIONAL MAPPING OF CALCIUM ACROSS THE SURFACE OF A WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Susan E.; Dalessio, J.; Provencal, J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Von Hippel, T.; Nitta, A.; Strickland, W.; Holtzman, J. A.; Mukadam, A.; Sullivan, D.; Nagel, T.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D.; Kundera, T.; Zola, S.; Kuligowska, E.; Winiarski, M.; Drozdz, M.; Ogloza, W.; Bognar, Zs.; Handler, G.

    2010-05-01

    We constrain the distribution of calcium across the surface of the white dwarf star G29-38 by combining time-series spectroscopy from Gemini-North with global time-series photometry from the Whole Earth Telescope. G29-38 is actively accreting metals from a known debris disk. Since the metals sink significantly faster than they mix across the surface, any inhomogeneity in the accretion process will appear as an inhomogeneity of the metals on the surface of the star. We measure the flux amplitudes and the calcium equivalent width amplitudes for two large pulsations excited on G29-38 in 2008. The ratio of these amplitudes best fits a model for polar accretion of calcium and rules out equatorial accretion.

  5. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. III. The pre-ELM white dwarf instability strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Serenelli, A. M.; Kepler, S. O.; Jeffery, C. S.; Corti, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Many low-mass (M⋆/M⊙ ≲ 0.45) and extremely low-mass (ELM, M⋆/M⊙ ≲ 0.18-0.20) white-dwarf stars are currently being found in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period gravity-mode (g-mode) pulsations, and constitute the class of pulsating white dwarfs called ELMV stars. In addition, two low-mass pre-white dwarfs, which could be precursors of ELM white dwarfs, have been observed to show multiperiodic photometric variations. They could constitute a new class of pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarf stars. Aims: Motivated by this finding, we present a detailed nonadiabatic pulsation study of such stars, employing full evolutionary sequences of low-mass He-core pre-white dwarf models. Methods: Our pulsation stability analysis is based on a set of low-mass He-core pre-white dwarf models with masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.2724 M⊙, which were derived by computing the nonconservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ ZAMS star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star companion. We have considered models in which element diffusion is accounted for and also models in which it is neglected. Results: We confirm and explore in detail a new instability strip in the domain of low gravities and low effective temperatures of the Teff - log g diagram, where low-mass pre-white dwarfs are currently found. The destabilized modes are radial and nonradial p and g modes excited by the κ - γ mechanism acting mainly at the zone of the second partial ionization of He, with non-negligible contributions from the region of the first partial ionization of He and the partial ionization of H. The computations with element diffusion are unable to explain the pulsations observed in the two known pulsating pre-white dwarfs, suggesting that element diffusion might be inhibited at these stages of the pre-white dwarf evolution. Our nonadiabatic models without diffusion, on the other hand, naturally explain the existence and range of

  6. An independent constraint on the secular rate of variation of the gravitational constant from pulsating white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2013-06-01

    A secular variation of the gravitational constant modifies the structure and evolutionary time scales of white dwarfs. Using an state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary code and an up-to-date pulsational code we compute the effects of a secularly varying G on the pulsational properties of variable white dwarfs. Comparing the the theoretical results obtained taking into account the effects of a running G with the observed periods and measured rates of change of the periods of two well studied pulsating white dwarfs, G117-B15A and R548, we place constraints on the rate of variation of Newton's constant. We derive an upper bound Ġ/G ∼ −1.8 × 10{sup −10} yr{sup −1} using the variable white dwarf G117-B15A, and Ġ/G ∼ −1.3 × 10{sup −10} yr{sup −1} using R548. Although these upper limits are currently less restrictive than those obtained using other techniques, they can be improved in a future measuring the rate of change of the period of massive white dwarfs.

  7. The Effect of 22NE Diffusion in the Evolution and Pulsational Properties of White Dwarfs with Solar Metallicity Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, María E.; Althaus, Leandro G.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Vinyoles, Núria; Serenelli, Aldo M.; Isern, Jordi; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; García–Berro, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    Because of the large neutron excess of 22Ne, sedimentation of this isotope occurs rapidly in the interior of white dwarfs. This process releases an additional amount of energy, thus delaying the cooling times of the white dwarf. This influences the ages of different stellar populations derived using white dwarf cosmochronology. Furthermore, the overabundance of 22Ne in the inner regions of the star modifies the Brunt-Väisälä frequency, thus altering the pulsational properties of these stars. In this work we discuss the impact of 22Ne sedimentation in white dwarfs resulting from solar metallicity progenitors (Z = 0.02). We performed evolutionary calculations of white dwarfs with masses of 0.528, 0.576, 0.657, and 0.833 {M}⊙ derived from full evolutionary computations of their progenitor stars, starting at the zero-age main sequence all the way through the central hydrogen and helium burning, the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB), and post-AGB phases. Our computations show that at low luminosities ({log}(L/{L}⊙ )≲ -4.25), 22Ne sedimentation delays the cooling of white dwarfs with solar metallicity progenitors by about 1 Gyr. Additionally, we studied the consequences of 22Ne sedimentation on the pulsational properties of ZZ Ceti white dwarfs. We find that 22Ne sedimentation induces differences in the periods of these stars larger than the present observational uncertainties, particularly in more massive white dwarfs.

  8. Statistical properties of quasi-periodic pulsations in white-light flares observed with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugh, C. E.; Armstrong, D. J.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Broomhall, A.-M.

    2016-07-01

    We embark on a study of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the decay phase of white-light stellar flares observed by Kepler. Out of the 1439 flares on 216 different stars detected in the short-cadence data using an automated search, 56 flares are found to have pronounced QPP-like signatures in the light curve, of which 11 have stable decaying oscillations. No correlation is found between the QPP period and the stellar temperature, radius, rotation period and surface gravity, suggesting that the QPPs are independent of global stellar parameters. Hence they are likely to be the result of processes occurring in the local environment. There is also no significant correlation between the QPP period and flare energy, however there is evidence that the period scales with the QPP decay time for the Gaussian damping scenario, but not to a significant degree for the exponentially damped case. This same scaling has been observed for MHD oscillations on the Sun, suggesting that they could be the cause of the QPPs in those flares. Scaling laws of the flare energy are also investigated, supporting previous reports of a strong correlation between the flare energy and stellar temperature/radius. A negative correlation between the flare energy and stellar surface gravity is also found.

  9. Panel 1: A pulsating red giant star and a compact, hot white dwarf star orbit each other.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Panel 1: A pulsating red giant star and a compact, hot white dwarf star orbit each other. Panel 2: The red giant sheds much of its outer layers in a stellar wind. The white dwarf helps concentrate the wind along a thin equatorial plane. The white dwarf accretes some of this escaping gas forming a disk around the itself. Panel 3: When enough gas accumulates on the white dwarf's surface it explodes as a nova outburst. Most of the hot gas forms a pair of expanding bubbles above and below the equatorial disk. Panel 4: A few thousand years after the bubbles expand into space, the white dwarf goes through another nova outburst and makes another pair of bubbles, which form a distinctive hourglass shape.

  10. A Model of the Pulsating Extremely Low-mass White Dwarf Precursor WASP 0247–25B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istrate, A. G.; Fontaine, G.; Heuser, C.

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of the evolutionary and pulsation properties of the extremely low-mass white dwarf precursor (B) component of the double-lined eclipsing system WASP 0247‑25. Given that the fundamental parameters of that star have been obtained previously at a unique level of precision, WASP 0247‑25B represents the ideal case for testing evolutionary models of this newly found category of pulsators. Taking into account the known constraints on the mass, orbital period, effective temperature, surface gravity, and atmospheric composition, we present a model that is compatible with these constraints and show pulsation modes that have periods very close to the observed values. Importantly, these modes are predicted to be excited. Although the overall consistency remains perfectible, the observable properties of WASP 0247‑25B are closely reproduced. A key ingredient of our binary evolutionary models is represented by rotational mixing as the main competitor against gravitational settling. Depending on assumptions made about the values of the degree index ℓ for the observed pulsation modes, we found three possible seismic solutions. We discuss two tests, rotational splitting and multicolor photometry, that should readily identify the modes and discriminate between these solutions. However, this will require improved temporal resolution and higher S/N observations, which are currently unavailable.

  11. UBV photometry of hot DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, K. M.; Holberg, J. B.; Mason, Paul A.

    1991-01-01

    Johnson UBV photometry has been obtained photoelectrically for a set of DA white dwarfs with effective temperatures greater than 20,000 K and for the AM Her type binary HO538 + 608. Most of the white dwarfs lie within existing Einstein IPC or EXOSAT LE soft X-ray fields, therefore they are of interest as potential serendipitous soft X-ray sources. In addition, high dispersion spectroscopy has been used to differentiate seven of these objects to be subdwarfs.

  12. FIRST UNAMBIGUOUS DETECTION OF THE RETURN OF PULSATIONS IN THE ACCRETING WHITE DWARF SDSS J074531.92+453829.6 AFTER AN OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Mukadam, Anjum S.; Szkody, P.; Townsley, D. M.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Winget, D. E.; Hermes, J. J.; Howell, Steve B.; Teske, J.; Patterson, Joseph; Armstrong, Eve; Kemp, Jonathan

    2011-02-20

    The primary white dwarf of the cataclysmic variable SDSS J074531.92+453829.6 was discovered to exhibit non-radial pulsations in 2006 January. This accreting white dwarf underwent its first recorded dwarf nova outburst in 2006 October, during which its brightness increased by more than 5 mag. A Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectrum, obtained one year after the outburst, revealed a white dwarf temperature of 16,500 K, hotter than all other known accreting white dwarf pulsators. This implies that the accreting primary white dwarf of SDSS J074531.92+453829.6 was heated to temperatures beyond the instability strip during the outburst. Optical observations acquired a year after the outburst did not reveal any evidence of pulsations, suggesting that the white dwarf had not cooled to quiescence by then. We recently acquired optical high-speed time-series photometry on this cataclysmic variable SDSS J074531.92+453829.6 more than three years after its outburst to find that pulsations have now returned to the primary white dwarf. Moreover, the observed pulsation periods agree with pre-outburst periods within the uncertainties of a few seconds. This discovery is significant because it indicates that the outburst did not affect the interior stellar structure, which governs the observed pulsation frequencies. It also suggests that the surface of the white dwarf has now cooled to quiescence. Using this discovery in addition to the prior HST temperature measurement of 16,500 K, we have been able to constrain the matter accreted during the 2006 outburst. This is the first time an accreting white dwarf was unambiguously observed to resume pulsating after an outburst.

  13. FOLLOW-UP STUDIES OF THE PULSATING MAGNETIC WHITE DWARF SDSS J142625.71+575218.3

    SciTech Connect

    Green, E. M.; Dufour, P.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. E-mail: dufourpa@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: brassard@astro.umontreal.ca

    2009-09-10

    We present a follow-up analysis of the unique magnetic luminosity-variable carbon-atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J142625.71+575218.3. This includes the results of some 106.4 hr of integrated light photometry which have revealed, among other things, the presence of a new periodicity at 319.720 s which is not harmonically related to the dominant oscillation (417.707 s) previously known in that star. Using our photometry and available spectroscopy, we consider the suggestion made by Montgomery et al. that the luminosity variations in SDSS J142625.71+575218.3 may not be caused by pulsational instabilities, but rather by photometric activity in a carbon-transferring analog of AM CVn. This includes a detailed search for possible radial velocity variations due to rapid orbital motion on the basis of Multiple Mirror Telescope spectroscopy. At the end of the exercise, we unequivocally rule out the interacting binary hypothesis and conclude instead that, indeed, the luminosity variations are caused by g-mode pulsations as in other pulsating white dwarfs. This is in line with the preferred possibility put forward by Montgomery et al.

  14. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. IV. The secular rate of period change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcaferro, Leila M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2017-04-01

    Context. An increasing number of low-mass (M⋆/M⊙ ≲ 0.45) and extremely low-mass (ELM, M⋆/M⊙ ≲ 0.18-0.20) white-dwarf stars are being discovered in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period g-mode pulsations, and are called ELMV variable stars. Also, some low-mass pre-white dwarf stars show short-period p-mode (and likely radial-mode) photometric variations, and are designated as pre-ELMV variable stars. The existence of these new classes of pulsating white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs opens the prospect of exploring the binary formation channels of these low-mass white dwarfs through asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to present a theoretical assessment of the expected temporal rates of change of periods (\\dot{Π}) for such stars, based on fully evolutionary low-mass He-core white dwarf and pre-white dwarf models. Methods: Our analysis is based on a large set of adiabatic periods of radial and nonradial pulsation modes computed on a suite of low-mass He-core white dwarf and pre-white dwarf models with masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.4352 M⊙, which were derived by computing the non-conservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ ZAMS star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star companion. Results: We computed the secular rates of period change of radial (ℓ = 0) and nonradial (ℓ = 1,2) g and p modes for stellar models representative of ELMV and pre-ELMV stars, as well as for stellar objects that are evolving just before the occurrence of CNO flashes at the early cooling branches. We find that the theoretically expected magnitude of \\dot{Π} of g modes for pre-ELMVs is by far larger than for ELMVs. In turn, \\dot{Π} of g modes for models evolving before the occurrence of CNO flashes are larger than the maximum values of the rates of period change predicted for pre-ELMV stars. Regarding p and radial modes, we find that the larger absolute values of \\dot{Π} correspond to pre-ELMV models. Conclusions: We

  15. Time-Series Spectroscopy and Photometry of the Helium Atmosphere Pulsating White Dwarf EC 20058–5234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, D. J.

    2017-03-01

    We summarise both photometric and spectroscopic observations of the southern DBV white dwarf EC 20058–5234 (QU Tel) obtained primarily using a Magellan 6.5 m telescope. With the aim of identifying pulsation-induced spectral variations, the time-resolved 30 sMagellan spectra are phased using 54 h of contiguous time-series photometry obtained using the Mt John (NZ) 1.0 m telescope. A comparison of the DFTs obtained from a 1997 nine day multisite WET run and the two day single site Magellan observations is made. The difficulty of establishing a reliable surface temperatures for DBVs is mentioned.

  16. The O-C Diagram of the Pulsating White Dwarf EC20058-5234

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessio, James

    2011-01-01

    We present 13 years of timing measurements of the pulsating DB WD EC20058-5234. These measurements were taken in an attempt to measure the plasmon neutrino emission rate from this star. We find correlated sinusoidal variations in the O-Cs of the four highest amplitude modes. These variations are not due to a planetary companion. We present measurements of the plasmon neutrino emission rate and speculate as to the cause of the sinusoidal O-C variations.

  17. The Instability Strip of ZZ Ceti White Dwarfs and Its Extension to the Extremely Low Mass Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Grootel, V.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Dupret, M.-A.

    2013-12-01

    The determination of the location of the theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip in the log g - Teff diagram has remained a challenge over the years, due to the lack of a suitable treatment for convection in these stars. We report here a detailed stability survey over the whole ZZ Ceti regime, including the very low masses where three pulsators have recently been found. With this in mind, we computed twenty-nine evolutionary sequences of DA models with various masses and chemical layering. These models are characterized by the so-called ML2/α = 1.0 convective efficiency and take into account the important feedback effect of convection on the atmospheric structure. We computed power spectra for these models with the Liège nonadiabatic pulsation code MAD, which is the only one to conveniently incorporate a full time-dependent convection treatment and, thus, provides the best available description of the blue edge of the instability strip. On the other hand, given the failure of all nonadiabatic codes to properly account for the red edge of the strip, including MAD, we tested the idea that the red edge is due to energy leakage through the atmosphere. Using this approach, we found that our theoretical ZZ Ceti instability strip accounts remarkably well for the boundaries of the empirical strip.

  18. Circumstellar features in hot DA white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, N. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.

    2003-05-01

    We present a phenomenological study of highly ionized, non-photospheric absorption features in high spectral resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectra of 23 hot DA white dwarfs. Prior to this study, four of the survey objects (Feige 24, REJ 0457-281, G191-B2B and REJ 1614-085) were known to possess these features. We find four new objects with multiple components in one or more of the principal resonance lines: REJ 1738+665, Ton 021, REJ 0558-373 and WD 2218+706. A fifth object, REJ 2156-546, also shows some evidence of multiple components, though further observations are required to confirm the detection. We discuss possible origins for these features including ionization of the local interstellar environment, the presence of material inside the gravitational well of the white dwarf, mass loss in a stellar wind and the existence of material in an ancient planetary nebula around the star. We propose ionization of the local interstellar medium as the origin of these features in G191-B2B and REJ 1738+665, and demonstrate the need for higher-resolution spectroscopy of the sample, to detect multiple interstellar medium velocity components and to identify circumstellar features that may lie close to the photospheric velocity.

  19. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  20. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  1. EVOLUTION OF THE SYMBIOTIC NOVA PU VUL-OUTBURSTING WHITE DWARF, NEBULAE, AND PULSATING RED GIANT COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Mariko; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Hachisu, Izumi

    2012-05-01

    We present a composite light-curve model of the symbiotic nova PU Vul (Nova Vulpeculae 1979) that shows a long-lasting flat optical peak followed by a slow decline. Our model light curve consists of three components of emission, i.e., an outbursting white dwarf (WD), its M-giant companion, and the nebulae. The WD component dominates in the flat peak while the nebulae dominate after the photospheric temperature of the WD rises to log T (K) {approx}> 4.5, suggesting its WD origin. We analyze the 1980 and 1994 eclipses to be total eclipses of the WD occulted by the pulsating M-giant companion with two sources of the nebular emission; one is an unocculted nebula of the M-giant's cool-wind origin and the other is a partially occulted nebula associated to the WD. We confirmed our theoretical outburst model of PU Vul by new observational estimates, which spanned 32 yr, of the temperature and radius. Also our eclipse analysis confirmed that the WD photosphere decreased by two orders of magnitude between the 1980 and 1994 eclipses. We obtain the reddening E(B - V) {approx} 0.3 and distance to PU Vul d {approx} 4.7 kpc. We interpret the recent recovery of brightness in terms of eclipse of the hot nebula surrounding the WD, suggesting that hydrogen burning is ongoing. To detect supersoft X-rays, we recommend X-ray observations around 2014 June when absorption by neutral hydrogen is minimum.

  2. Using DA White Dwarfs to Calibrate Synthetic Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, J. B.

    2007-04-01

    Four widely used photometric systems, namely the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI, the Strömgren uvby, the 2MASS JHKs and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz systems have been directly compared with the HST absolute photometric scale of Bohlin & Gilliland (2004). These comparisons are subsequently used to construct a large grid of accurate synthetic magnitudes for DA white dwarfs. This grid is, in turn, critically evaluated with respect to the observed photometry from substantial samples of actual white dwarfs. The advantages of DA white dwarfs as photometric stars are emphasized, and the prospects for extending the use of these stars into the near infrared are highlighted.

  3. A detection of the evolutionary time scale of the DA white dwarf G117 - B15A with the Whole Earth Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Bradley, P. A.; Claver, C. F.; Grauer, A. D.; Vauclair, G.; Marar, T. M. K.

    1991-01-01

    The time rate of change for the main pulsation period of the 13,000 K DA white dwarf G117 - B15A has been detected using the Whole Earth Telescope (WET). The observed rate of period change, P(dot) = (12.0 + or - 3.5) x 10 to the -15th s/s, is somewhat larger than the published theoretical calculations of the rate of period change due to cooling, based on carbon core white dwarf models. Other effects that could contribute to the observed rate of period change are discussed.

  4. A Deep Test of Radial Differential Rotation in a Helium-atmosphere White Dwarf. I. Discovery of Pulsations in PG 0112+104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.; Kawaler, Steven D.; Bischoff-Kim, A.; Provencal, J. L.; Dunlap, B. H.; Clemens, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    We present the detection of non-radial oscillations in a hot, helium-atmosphere white dwarf using 78.7 days of nearly uninterrupted photometry from the Kepler space telescope. With an effective temperature >30,000 K, PG 0112+104 becomes the hottest helium-atmosphere white dwarf known to pulsate. The rich oscillation spectrum of low-order g-modes includes clear patterns of rotational splittings from consecutive sequences of dipole and quadrupole modes, which can be used to probe the rotation rate with depth in this highly evolved stellar remnant. We also measure a surface rotation rate of 10.17404 hr from an apparent spot modulation in the K2 data. With two independent measures of rotation, PG 0112+104 provides a remarkable test of asteroseismic inference.

  5. Calibration of Synthetic Photometry Using DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Bergeron, P.

    2005-12-01

    We have calibrated four major ground-based photometric systems with respect to the Hubble Space Telescope absolute flux scale, which is defined by Vega and four fundamental DA white dwarfs. These photometric systems include the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI, the Stromgren uvby filters, the 2MASS JHKs and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filters. Synthetic magnitudes are calculated from model white dwarf spectra folded through the published filter response functions, these magnitudes in turn are absolutely calibrated with respect to the HST flux scale. Effective zero magnitude fluxes and zero point offsets of each system are determined. In order to verify the external observational consistency as well as to demonstrate the applicability of these definitions, the synthetic magnitudes are compared with the respective observed magnitudes of larger sets of DA white dwarfs that have well determined effective temperatures and surface gravities and which span a wide range in both of these parameters.

  6. Calibration of Synthetic Photometry Using DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Bergeron, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    We have calibrated four major ground-based photometric systems with respect to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) absolute flux scale, which is defined by Vega and four fundamental DA white dwarfs. These photometric systems include the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI, the Strömgren uvby filters, the Two Micron All Sky Survey JHKs, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filters. Synthetic magnitudes are calculated from model white dwarf spectra folded through the published filter response functions; these magnitudes in turn are absolutely calibrated with respect to the HST flux scale. Effective zero-magnitude fluxes and zero-point offsets of each system are determined. In order to verify the external observational consistency, as well as to demonstrate the applicability of these definitions, the synthetic magnitudes are compared with the respective observed magnitudes of larger sets of DA white dwarfs that have well-determined effective temperatures and surface gravities and span a wide range in both of these parameters.

  7. Discovery of Photospheric Germanium in Hot DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennes, Stéphane; Chayer, Pierre; Dupuis, Jean

    2005-04-01

    We report the identification of Ge IV resonance lines in ultraviolet spectra of the hot DA white dwarfs Feige 24, G191-B2B, and GD 246. The lines originate in the stellar photosphere, and we measure low Ge/H abundance ratios ranging between -8.0 and -8.7. We also tentatively identify a resonance line of Sn IV blended with an Fe V line in the spectrum of G191-B2B. The presence of germanium extends our knowledge of the abundance pattern in hot white dwarfs beyond the iron group. The abundance ratio appears nearly solar, which implies either that the germanium abundance mixture in these stars has remained unaltered since leaving the main sequence or that diffusion processes (e.g., selective radiation pressure) are coincidentally reproducing a solar Ge/H ratio.

  8. High Resolution EUV & FUV Spectroscopy of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Bannister, N. P.; Burleigh, M. R.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Cruddace, R. G.; Kowalski, M. P.

    We report on recent results from a high-resolution spectroscopic survey of hot DA white dwarfs, based on IUE, FUSE and HST observations. For the first time, we address the measurement of element abundances in a completely objective manner with a spectroscopic model fitting technique, which allows us to consider formally the limits that can be placed on abundances in stars where no heavy elements are detected. We also include our latest analysis of the high resolution EUV spectrum of G191-B2B recorded by J-PEX.

  9. Heavy-element abundance patterns in hot DA white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Hubeny, I.; Bannister, N. P.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Burleigh, M. R.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2003-05-01

    We present a series of systematic abundance measurements for 25 hot DA white dwarfs in the temperature range ~20 000-110 000 K, based on far-ultraviolet spectroscopy with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)/Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on-board Hubble Space Telescope, IUE and FUSE. Using our latest heavy-element blanketed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) stellar atmosphere calculations we have addressed the heavy-element abundance patterns, making completely objective measurements of abundance values and upper limits using a χ2 fitting technique to determine the uncertainties in the abundance measurements, which can be related to the formal upper limits in those stars where particular elements are not detected. We find that the presence or absence of heavy elements in the hot DA white dwarfs largely reflects what would be expected if radiative levitation is the supporting mechanism, although the measured abundances do not match the predicted values very well, as reported by other authors in the past. Almost all stars hotter than ~50 000 K contain heavy elements. For most of these the spread in element abundances is quite narrow and similar to the abundances measured in G191-B2B. However, there is an unexplained dichotomy at lower temperatures with some stars having apparently pure H envelopes and others having detectable quantities of heavy elements. The heavy elements present in these cooler stars are often stratified, lying in the outermost layers of the envelope. A few strong temperature/evolutionary effects are seen in the abundance measurements. There is a decreasing Si abundance with temperature, the N abundance pattern splits into two groups at lower temperature and there is a sharp decline in Fe and Ni abundance to zero, below ~50 000 K. When detected, the Fe and Ni abundances maintain an approximately constant ratio, close to the cosmic value of ~20. For the hottest white dwarfs observed by STIS, the strongest

  10. 70 DA WHITE DWARFS IDENTIFIED IN LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. K.; Luo, A. L.; Zhao, G.; Oswalt, T. D. E-mail: gzhao@bao.ac.cn E-mail: toswalt@fit.edu

    2013-06-01

    We present a spectroscopically identified catalog of 70 DA white dwarfs (WDs) from the LAMOST pilot survey. Thirty-five are found to be new identifications after cross-correlation with the Eisenstein et al. and Villanova catalogs. The effective temperature and gravity of these WDs are estimated by Balmer lines fitting. Most of them are hot WDs. The cooling times and masses of these WDs are estimated by interpolation in theoretical evolution tracks. The peak of the mass distribution is found to be {approx}0.6 M {sub Sun }, which is consistent with prior work in the literature. The distances of these WDs are estimated using the method of synthetic spectral distances. All of these WDs are found to be in the Galactic disk from our analysis of space motions. Our sample supports the expectation that WDs with high mass are concentrated near the plane of the Galactic disk.

  11. DA WHITE DWARFS OBSERVED IN THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueyang; Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang Fan; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Li Jing; Zhang Haotong; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Yuan Hailong; Lepine, Sebastien; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Jin Ge

    2013-08-01

    A total of {approx}640, 000 objects from the LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs (DAWDs) from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs (WDs) by fitting Sersic profiles to the Balmer H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. Two thousand nine hundred sixty-four candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 DAWDs (59 of which are already included in the Villanova and SDSS WD catalogs), 20 of which are DAWDs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DAWDs/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DAWD number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

  12. Ultra-high precision white dwarf asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, Noemi; Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre; Zong, Weikai

    We present a brief progress report in our quest for deriving seismic models of pulsating white dwarfs that can account simultaneously for all the observed periods at the precision of the observations. We point out that this is possible from a pratical point of view only if parametrized models are used to complement evolutionary models. We adopt a double optimization procedure that insures that the best possible model in parameter space is found objectively and automatically. Our ultimate goal is to be able to account for the exquisite period data gathered with Kepler and Kepler-2 on key pulsating white dwarfs of both the DA (ZZ Ceti) and DB (V777 Her) type.

  13. New Perspectives on Stellar Pulsation and Pulsating Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, James M.; Matthews, Jaymie M.

    The study of pulsating variable stars has undergone dramatic changes in the past decade. The use of Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars as distance indicators has been extended by the increased sensitivity afforded by CCD detectors and by infrared observations. Meanwhile, other classes of pulsators, such as Mira and SX Phe variables are providing independent checks of the distance scale. Long-standing discrepancies between "pulsational" and "evolutionary" masses are finally being resolved by the new OP and OPAL opacity calculations, as is the mystery of the β Cephei excitation mechanism. Seismology of the oscillations of the Sun, white dwarfs, Ap stars and delta Scuti stars has opened windows on internal stellar structure, while Doppler Imaging reveals an entire range of high-degree pulsations hitherto undetectable by conventional photometry or radial velocity measurements. Observations of Long Period Variables have cast a new light on the implications of mass loss for stellar evolution and the history of the interstellar medium. On other fronts, more rigorous treatments of convection and radiative diffusion are starting to bring theory and observation into closer agreement.This book, the proceedings of the International Astronomical Union's Colloquium 139 held in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada in July 1992, contains over thirty comprehensive reviews as well as summaries of over 100 contributed papers, reflecting the current scope of stellar pulsation research. It is an overview of the most recent developments in the field, and a preview of some of the advances expected in the decade to come.

  14. Near-UV absorption in very cool DA white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, D.; Holberg, J. B.; Kowalski, P. M. E-mail: holberg@argus.lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-07-20

    The atmospheres of very cool, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (WDs) (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) are challenging to model because of the increased complexity of the equation of state, chemical equilibrium, and opacity sources in a low-temperature, weakly ionized dense gas. In particular, many models that assume relatively simple models for the broadening of atomic levels and mostly ideal gas physics overestimate the flux in the blue part of their spectra. A solution to this problem that has met with some success is that additional opacity at short wavelengths comes for the extreme broadening of the Lyman α line of atomic H by collisions primarily with H{sub 2}. For the purpose of validating this model more rigorously, we acquired Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra of eight very cool WDs (five DA and three DC stars). Combined with their known parallaxes, BVRIJHK, and Spitzer IRAC photometry, we analyze their entire spectral energy distribution (from 0.24 to 9.3 μm) with a large grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. We find that the red wing of the Lyman α line reproduces the rapidly decreasing near-UV flux of these very cool stars very well. We determine better constrained values of T{sub eff} and gravity as well as upper limits to the helium abundance in their atmospheres.

  15. Temperature and Gravity Dependence of Trace Element Abundances in Hot DA White Dwarfs (94-EUVE-094)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    EUV spectroscopy has shown that DA white dwarfs hotter than about 45,000 K may contain trace heavy elements, while those hotter than about 50,000 K almost always have significant abundances of trace heavy elements. One of our continuing challenges is to identify and determine the abundances of these trace constituents, and then to relate the observed abundance patterns to the present conditions and previous evolutionary histories of the hot DA white dwarfs.

  16. THE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF CONVECTIVE MIXING WHITE DWARFS, THE NON-DA GAP, AND WHITE DWARF COSMOCHRONOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Hansen, Brad M. S. E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-07-01

    The spectral distribution of field white dwarfs shows a feature called the 'non-DA gap'. As defined by Bergeron et al., this is a temperature range (5100-6100 K) where relatively few non-DA stars are found, even though such stars are abundant on either side of the gap. It is usually viewed as an indication that a significant fraction of white dwarfs switch their atmospheric compositions back and forth between hydrogen-rich and helium-rich as they cool. In this Letter, we present a Monte Carlo model of the Galactic disk white dwarf population, based on the spectral evolution model of Chen and Hansen. We find that the non-DA gap emerges naturally, even though our model only allows white dwarf atmospheres to evolve monotonically from hydrogen-rich to helium-rich through convective mixing. We conclude by discussing the effects of convective mixing on the white dwarf luminosity function and the use thereof for Cosmochronology.

  17. Current Status of the Hot White Dwarf Luminosity Function and non-DA to DA Ratio from SDSS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzesinski, J.; Stachowski, G.

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in the determination of the hot white dwarf (WD) luminosity function have reached the point where we have good agreement between the observed and theoretical DA and non-DA LFs for WDs from SDSS DR4. The main progress in calculation of the DA LF was obtained when the WD sample was restricted to only carbon-oxygen core WDs. However, one remaining effect which could influence the LF and the non-DA to DA ratio is the difference in visibility of helium- and hydrogen-atmosphere WDs in a magnitude-limited sample. In this work we explore this effect for the SDSS g filter as a function of effective temperature, as well as make an attempt to evaluate data relevant to the WD sample and LFs from more recent data releases of the SDSS.

  18. Temperature determinations of hot DA white dwarfs using IUE continuum fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, David; Basri, Gibor; Bowyer, Stuart

    1988-01-01

    Effective temperatures of 15 DA white dwarfs hotter than 20,000 K were derived from low-dispersion far ultraviolet spectra obtained with IUE. The analysis was carried out by comparing the observed far ultraviolet fluxes with model fluxes scaled to the V-band flux. Accurate calibration of the IUE spectra is critical for this analysis. Observations at all epochs were corrected to the 1980 IUE calibration using the time-dependent corrections of Bohlin (1988). Taking advantage of the smooth and well-defined continuum fluxes provided by DA white dwarfs, seven white dwarfs for which accurate, independent temperature determinations were made from line profile analyses were used to improve the accuracy of the IUE flux calibration. The correction to the original calibration is as great as 20 percent in individual 5 A wavelength bins, while the average over the IUE wavelength range is 5 percent. The final calibration correction and the temperatures for the hot white dwarfs are presented.

  19. Radial pulsation stability as a function of hydrogen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Simon; Saio, Hideyuki

    2015-08-01

    Following the discovery of pulsation in an extremely low-mass pre-white dwarf by Maxted et al. (2011, 2013), Jeffery & Saio (2013) showed that pulsations in such stars would be excited in high radial overtones provided that the driving zone was sufficiently depleted in hydrogen. Following previous work which shows that pulsations are more easily excited in stars where the damping effects of hydrogen are somehow reduced (Jeffery & Saio 2006), we have completed a survey of radial pulsation stability across a substantially larger parameter space. The object is to identify new regions of the HR diagram where stars should be unstable to radial pulsations, or where closely related p-modes might be excited. These would enable targeted surveys for new classes of pulsating variable. This poster reports the survey results and the identification of new instability regions.

  20. KIC 8262223: A Post-mass Transfer Eclipsing Binary Consisting of a Delta Scuti Pulsator and a Helium White Dwarf Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R.; Matson, Rachel A.; García Hernández, Antonio; Han, Zhanwen; Chen, Xuefei

    2017-03-01

    KIC 8262223 is an eclipsing binary with a short orbital period (P = 1.61 day). The Kepler light curves are of Algol-type and display deep and partial eclipses, ellipsoidal variations, and pulsations of δ Scuti type. We analyzed the Kepler photometric data, complemented by phase-resolved spectra from the R-C Spectrograph on the 4 meter Mayall telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory and determined the fundamental parameters of this system. The low-mass and oversized secondary ({M}2=0.20{M}ȯ , {R}2=1.31{R}ȯ ) is the remnant of the donor star that transferred most of its mass to the gainer, and now the primary star. The current primary star is thus not a normal δ Scuti star but the result of mass accretion from a lower mass progenitor. We discuss the possible evolutionary history and demonstrate with the MESA evolution code that this system and several other systems discussed in prior literature can be understood as the result of non-conservative binary evolution for the formation of EL CVn-type binaries. The pulsations of the primary star can be explained as radial and non-radial pressure modes. The equilibrium models from single star evolutionary tracks can match the observed mass and radius ({M}1=1.94{M}ȯ , {R}1=1.67{R}ȯ ) but the predicted unstable modes associated with these models differ somewhat from those observed. We discuss the need for better theoretical understanding of such post-mass transfer δ Scuti pulsators.

  1. Iron abundance in the hot DA white dwarfs Feige 24 and G191 B2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Chayer, Pierre; Thorstensen, John R.; Bowyer, Stuart; Shipman, Harry L.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to model calculations of the far- and extreme-UV line spectra of highly ionized Fe species (Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI) for hot high-gravity H-rich stars. A spectral analysis of 31 hr of exposure of the DA white dwarf Feige 24 with IUE in the echelle mode reveals the presence of Fe with an abundance relative to H by number of (5-10) x 10 exp -6 with an uncertainty dominated by the determination of stellar parameters. An analysis of IUE data from the white dwarf G191 B2B results in a similar Fe abundance if this star shares similar atmospheric parameters (Teff, g) with Feige 24. Fe is thus the second most abundant photospheric element in hot DA white dwarfs.

  2. The coolest DA white dwarfs detected at soft X-ray wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, K. M.; Holberg, J. B.; Barstow, M. A.; Tweedy, R. W.; Wesemael, F.

    1992-01-01

    New soft X-ray/EUV photometric observations of the DA white dwarfs KPD 0631 + 1043 = WD 0631 + 107 and PG 1113 + 413 = WD 1113 + 413 are analyzed. Previously reported soft X-ray detections of three other DAs and the failure to detect a fourth DA in deep Exosat observations are investigated. New ground-based spectra are presented for all of the objects, with IUE Ly-alpha spectra for some. These data are used to constrain the effective temperatures and surface gravities. The improved estimates of these parameters are employed to refer a photospheric He abundance for the hotter objects and to elucidate an effective observational low-temperature threshold for the detection of pure hydrogen DA white dwarfs at soft X-ray wavelengths.

  3. The coolest DA white dwarfs detected at soft X-ray wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, K. M.; Holberg, J. B.; Barstow, M. A.; Tweedy, R. W.; Wesemael, F.

    1992-01-01

    New soft X-ray/EUV photometric observations of the DA white dwarfs KPD 0631 + 1043 = WD 0631 + 107 and PG 1113 + 413 = WD 1113 + 413 are analyzed. Previously reported soft X-ray detections of three other DAs and the failure to detect a fourth DA in deep Exosat observations are investigated. New ground-based spectra are presented for all of the objects, with IUE Ly-alpha spectra for some. These data are used to constrain the effective temperatures and surface gravities. The improved estimates of these parameters are employed to refer a photospheric He abundance for the hotter objects and to elucidate an effective observational low-temperature threshold for the detection of pure hydrogen DA white dwarfs at soft X-ray wavelengths.

  4. THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVE OF THE UNIQUE DA WHITE DWARF BOKS 53856

    SciTech Connect

    Holberg, J. B.; Howell, Steve B. E-mail: howell@noao.edu

    2011-08-15

    The faint (g = 16.9) hot white dwarf BOKS 53856 was observed by the Kepler Mission in short cadence mode during mid-2009. Analysis of these observations reveals a highly stable modulation with a period of 6.1375 hr and a 2.46% half-amplitude. The folded light curve has an unusual shape that is difficult to explain in terms of a binary system containing an unseen companion more luminous than an L0 brown dwarf. Optical spectra of BOKS 53856 show a T{sub eff} = 34,000 K, log g = 8.0 DA white dwarf. There are few, if any, known white dwarfs in this temperature range exhibiting photometric variations similar to those we describe. A magnetic spin-modulated white dwarf model can in principle explain the light curve, an interpretation supported by spectral observations of the H{alpha} line showing evidence of Zeeman splitting.

  5. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  6. An analysis of DA white dwarfs from the Hamburg Quasar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homeier, D.; Koester, D.; Hagen, H.-J.; Jordan, S.; Heber, U.; Engels, D.; Reimers, D.; Dreizler, S.

    1998-10-01

    Follow-up spectroscopy of several hundred hot stars detected by the Hamburg Quasar Survey (HQS) has been carried out between 1989 and 1996. We present the analysis of 80 DA white dwarfs using model atmospheres and theoretical cooling tracks to derive the atmospheric parameters T_eff and log g, masses and absolute magnitudes. The HQS turned out to be sensitive to the detection of hydrogen-rich white dwarfs in a wide temperature range, from 10 000 K upwards. Star counts within four HQS fields for magnitudes B<= 16fm 4 exceed those from the Palomar Green survey by about 50%. The more recent observation campaigns emphasized the detection of very hot degenerates, yielding a large fraction of DA stars with T_eff > 50 000 K compared to other surveys. The mean mass of our DA sample is M=0.61{M}_{\\odot}, with three massive DA stars exceeding 1{M}_{\\odot} and three DA stars with masses significantly below the assummed lower mass limit for single white dwarf evolution of 0.45{M}_{\\odot}. Among the cool DA stars, thirteen are potential ZZ Ceti candidates because their effective temperatures lie close to the instability strip. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (DSAZ), Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Plank-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy; with the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite (IUE) collected at Villafranca, Spain, and with the ROSAT X-ray telescope.

  7. Linear radial pulsation theory. Lecture 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a method for getting an equilibrium stellar envelope model using as input the total mass, the envelope mass, the surface effective temperature, the total surface luminosity, and the composition of the envelope. Then wih the structure of the envelope model known, we present a method for obtaining the raidal pulsation periods and growth rates for low order modes. The large amplitude pulsations observed for the yellow and red giants and supergiants are always these radial models, but for the stars nearer the main sequence, as for all of our stars and for the white dwarfs, there frequently are nonradial modes occuring also. Application of linear theory radial pulsation theory is made to the giant star sigma Scuti variables, while the linear nonradial theory will be used for the B stars in later lectures.

  8. Spectroscopy of the DA white dwarfs - Automatic atmospheric parameterization and mass distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the automatic calculation of the atmospheric parameters (Teff and log g) of hydrogen-rich degenerate stars from low-resolution spectra is described, and then applied to the spectra of 53 DA white dwarfs. A value for the width of the DA mass distribution of sigma M/solar-M not greater than +0.10 is obtained using the proposed approach. The data indicate that the distribution is asymmetrically skewed to low masses; however, there is also evidence of a high-mass non-Gaussian tail.

  9. Spectroscopy of the DA white dwarfs - Automatic atmospheric parameterization and mass distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Robert K.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the automatic calculation of the atmospheric parameters (Teff and log g) of hydrogen-rich degenerate stars from low-resolution spectra is described, and then applied to the spectra of 53 DA white dwarfs. A value for the width of the DA mass distribution of sigma M/solar-M not greater than +0.10 is obtained using the proposed approach. The data indicate that the distribution is asymmetrically skewed to low masses; however, there is also evidence of a high-mass non-Gaussian tail.

  10. Photospheric soft X-ray emission from hot DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesemael, F.; Raymond, J. C.; Kahn, S. M.; Liebert, J.; Steiner, J. E.; Shipman, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Einstein Observatory's imaging proportional counter has detected 150-eV soft X-ray radiation from the four hot DA white dwarfs EG 187, Gr 288 and 289, and LB 1663. The observed pulse height spectra suggest that the emission is generated by hot photospheres whose T(eff) lie in the 30,000-60,000 K range. The IUE spacecraft UV spectra and H-beta line profiles for the four stars have been fitted, along with the X-ray fluxes, with a grid of hot, high gravity, homogeneous model atmospheres of mixed H-He composition. In all cases, the data require the presence of some X-ray opacity in the photosphere. Attention is given to the implications of this result in the context of white dwarf surface layer diffusion theories. Also noted are the limits imposed on the hot white dwarf population by the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey.

  11. Characteristics of Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Mann, I. R.; Samara, M.; Michell, R.

    2013-12-01

    We have investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of pulsating auroral patches observed with an all-sky imager located at Poker Flat, Alaska. Pulsating aurora often covers the entire sky with intermixed large and small-scale patches that vary in intensity or disappear and reappear on different time scales and timings. The broad definition of pulsating aurora covers patches and bands from tens to several tens of km which have a quasi-periodic temporal variation from 1 s to tens of seconds. In this paper we examine >15 patches from different events. We analyze all-sky movies (557.7 nm, 3.31 Hz) with a simple, yet robust, technique that allows us to determine the scale size dependent variability of the >15 individual patches. A spatial 2D Fourier Transform is used to separate the aurora into different horizontal scale sizes, and by correlating each patch for all image separations and available scale sizes smaller than the patch itself, we reveal what scale sizes are pulsating and their variability. The patches are found to be persistent, meaning that we can follow them for typically 5 minutes. The period of the pulsations is often remarkably variable and it seems that only certain scale sizes pulsate (typically the size of the patch). The patches drift with the background ExB plasma drift indicating that the magnetospheric source mechanism drifts with the field lines.

  12. The binary Feige 24 - The mass, radius, and gravitational redshift of the DA white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Vennes, S.; Shipman, H.L.; Thorstensen, J.R.; Thejll, P. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH NORDITA, Copenhagen, Denmark )

    1991-05-01

    Observations are reported which refine the binary ephemeris of the Feige 24 system, which contains a peculiar hot DA white dwarf and an M dwarf with an atmosphere illuminated by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf. With the new ephemeris and a set of IUE high-dispersion spectra, showing phase-dependent redshifted C IV, N V, and Si IV resonance lines, the orbital velocity, and hence the mass (0.54 + or {minus} 0.20 solar masses), and the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf (14.1 + or {minus} 5.2 km/s) are determined independently. It is shown that the measured Einstein redshift is consistent with an estimated radius for the white dwarf obtained from a model atmosphere solid angle and a parallax measurement. This radius is twice the Hamada-Salpeter radius for the given mass and offers a prospect to investigate the presence of a massive hydrogen envelope in that white dwarf star. 27 refs.

  13. AN IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF DA WHITE DWARFS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 4

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Bergeron, P.; Gianninas, A. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2011-04-01

    We present an improved spectroscopic and photometric analysis of hydrogen-line DA white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS DR4) based on model atmospheres that include improved Stark broadening profiles with non-ideal gas effects. We also perform a careful visual inspection of all spectroscopic fits with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns > 12) and present improved atmospheric parameters (T{sub eff} and log g) for each white dwarf. Through a comparison of spectroscopic and photometric temperatures, we report the discovery of 35 DA+DB/DC double degenerate candidates and two helium-rich DA stars. We also determine that a cutoff at S/N = 15 optimizes the size and quality of the sample for computing the mean mass of DA white dwarfs, for which we report a value of 0.613 M{sub sun}. We compare our results to previous analyses of the SDSS DR4 and find a good agreement if we account for the shift produced by the improved Stark profiles. Finally, the properties of DA white dwarfs in the SDSS are weighed against those of the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog sample of Gianninas et al. We find systematically lower masses (by about 3% on average), a difference that we trace back to the data reduction procedure of the SDSS. We conclude that a better understanding of these differences will be important to determine the absolute temperature scale and mean mass of DA white dwarfs.

  14. Toward a Network of Faint DA White Dwarfs as High-precision Spectrophotometric Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, G.; Axelrod, T.; Holberg, J. B.; Matheson, T.; Saha, A.; Olszewski, E.; Claver, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Bohlin, R. C.; Deustua, S.; Rest, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the initial results from a program aimed at establishing a network of hot DA white dwarfs to serve as spectrophotometric standards for present and future wide-field surveys. These stars span the equatorial zone and are faint enough to be conveniently observed throughout the year with large-aperture telescopes. The spectra of these white dwarfs are analyzed in order to generate a non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmosphere normalized to Hubble Space Telescope colors, including adjustments for wavelength-dependent interstellar extinction. Once established, this standard star network will serve ground-based observatories in both hemispheres as well as space-based instrumentation from the UV to the near IR. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this concept and show how two different approaches to the problem using somewhat different assumptions produce equivalent results. We discuss the lessons learned and the resulting corrective actions applied to our program.

  15. Wave energy in white dwarf atmospheres. I - Magnetohydrodynamic energy spectra for homogeneous DB and layered DA stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiative damping of acoustic and MHD waves that propagate through white dwarf photospheric layers is studied, and other damping processes that may be important for the propagation of the MHD waves are calculated. The amount of energy remaining after the damping processes have occurred in different types of waves is estimated. The results show that lower acoustic fluxes should be expected in layered DA and homogeneous DB white dwarfs than had previously been estimated. Acoustic emission manifests itself in an enhancement of the quadrupole term, but this term may become comparable to or even lower than the dipole term for cool white dwarfs. Energy carried by the acoustic waves is significantly dissipated in deep photospheric layers, mainly because of radiative damping. Acoustically heated corona cannot exist around DA and DB white dwarfs in a range T(eff) = 10,000-30,000 K and for log g = 7 and 8. However, relatively hot and massive white dwarfs could be exceptions.

  16. Wave energy in white dwarf atmospheres. I - Magnetohydrodynamic energy spectra for homogeneous DB and layered DA stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiative damping of acoustic and MHD waves that propagate through white dwarf photospheric layers is studied, and other damping processes that may be important for the propagation of the MHD waves are calculated. The amount of energy remaining after the damping processes have occurred in different types of waves is estimated. The results show that lower acoustic fluxes should be expected in layered DA and homogeneous DB white dwarfs than had previously been estimated. Acoustic emission manifests itself in an enhancement of the quadrupole term, but this term may become comparable to or even lower than the dipole term for cool white dwarfs. Energy carried by the acoustic waves is significantly dissipated in deep photospheric layers, mainly because of radiative damping. Acoustically heated corona cannot exist around DA and DB white dwarfs in a range T(eff) = 10,000-30,000 K and for log g = 7 and 8. However, relatively hot and massive white dwarfs could be exceptions.

  17. The discontinuity near 1600 A in the spectra of DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of two relatively cool DA white dwarfs, L481 - 60 (= WD 1544 - 37) and BPM 1266 ( = WD 2105 - 82), with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite show a strong drop in their spectral energy distributions below 1600 A. Published model atmospheres and thier visual spectra suggest that these two stars have effective temperatures in the vicinity of 9,000-10,000 K, and it is proposed that the 1600 A feature could be due to the 342(1S) 3s2(1S) photoionization edge of Mg I.

  18. The discontinuity near 1600 A in the spectra of DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of two relatively cool DA white dwarfs, L481 - 60 (= WD 1544 - 37) and BPM 1266 ( = WD 2105 - 82), with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite show a strong drop in their spectral energy distributions below 1600 A. Published model atmospheres and thier visual spectra suggest that these two stars have effective temperatures in the vicinity of 9,000-10,000 K, and it is proposed that the 1600 A feature could be due to the 342(1S) 3s2(1S) photoionization edge of Mg I.

  19. Pulsating Soft Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatri, Shilpa; Holzman, Roi; Miller, Laura; Samson, Julia; Shavit, Uri

    2016-11-01

    Soft corals of the family Xeniidae have a pulsating motion, a behavior not observed in many other sessile organisms. We are studying how this behavior may give these corals a competitive advantage. We will present experimental data and computational simulations of the pulsations of the coral. Video data and kinematic analysis will be shown from the lab and the field. We will present direct numerical simulations of the pulsations of the coral and the resulting fluid flow by solving the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the immersed boundary method. Furthermore, parameter sweeps studying the resulting fluid flow will be discussed. This work is supported by NSF PoLS #1505061 (to S. Khatri) and #1504777 (to L. Miller).

  20. Hydroacoustic pulsating jet generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unrau, A.; Meier, G. E. A.

    1987-04-01

    A high pressure turbulent jet generator connected to a low pressure hydraulic tube is studied to investigate water hammer in tubes with fast flow variations, generating high pressure pulsating water jets. The pulsating jet generator consists of a tube, a hydraulic valve, a spring, and a water container. The jet is the effect of the combination of turbulent pipe flow with a valve for flow nozzle. The jet pressure depends on specific oscillation impedance and flow velocity variations. For inlet pressure of 0.5 to 2 bar the pressure rises to 40 bar. The described pulsating jet generator is more effective than the earlier model. A piezoelectric pressure controller is used to register pressure signals and high speed photos are made of the jet. Test results are consistent with theoretical calculation.

  1. A Possible Solution to the Lyman/Balmer Line Problem in Hot DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preval, Simon P.; Barstow, Martin A.; Badnell, Nigel R.; Holberg, Jay B.; Hubeny, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    Arguably, the best method for determining the effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) of a DA white dwarf is by fitting the Hydrogen Lyman and Balmer absorption features. However, as has been shown for white dwarfs with Teff>50,000K, the calculated value from the Lyman and Balmer lines are discrepant, which worsens with increasing temperature. Many different solutions have been suggested, ranging from the input physics used to calculate the models, to interstellar reddening. We will focus on the former, and consider three variables. The first is the atomic data used, namely the number of transitions included in line blanketing treatments and the photoionization cross sections. The second is the stark broadening treatment used to synthesise the Lyman and Balmer line profiles, namely the calculations performed by Lemke (1997) and Tremblay & Bergeron (2009). Finally, the third is the atmospheric content. The model grids are calculated with a pure H composition, and a metal polluted composition using the abundances of Preval et al. (2013). We present the preliminary results of our analysis, whereby we have determined the Teff for a small selection of white dwarfs. We plan to extend our analysis by allowing metallicity to vary in future model grids.

  2. Alleviating pulsations in turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Wedmark, A.B.

    1994-10-01

    Pressure pulsations resulting from vortices in the draft tube are a persistent problem with Francis turbines. Air injection through the turbine shaft often can solve the problem, but this approach may not be possible after the turbine unit has been manufactured. In such cases, new and innovative solutions may be required.

  3. A Pulsation Mechanism for GW Virginis Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Arthur N.

    2003-03-01

    The mechanism that produces pulsations in the hottest pre-white dwarfs has been uncertain since the early work indicated that helium is a poison that smooths opacity bumps in the opacity-temperature plane caused by the ionizations of the large observed amounts of carbon and oxygen. Very little helium seemed to be needed to prevent the kappa effect pulsation driving, but helium amounts of almost half of the mass in the surface composition are observed in the pulsating PG 1159-035 stars called the GW Virginis variables. Rather little change in the C and O surface abundances is observed from the hottest (RX J2117.1+3412 at 170,000 K) to the coolest (PG 0122+200 at 80,000 K) GW Vir variables. Actually the shortest observed periods (300-400 s) of these variables are generally predicted to be unstable in all models, but the longest observed periods (up to 1000 s) are difficult to excite. Three recent investigations differ in their conclusions, with two finding that helium and even a slight amount of hydrogen does not prevent the kappa effect of C and O ionizations. A more detailed study reported here confirms the poisoning effect of helium. However, the ionization K- and L-edge opacity of the original iron, whose global abundance is unaffected by all previous evolution, especially if enhanced by radiation absorption levitation, can give different, previously unexplored, opacity driving that can explain the observed pulsations. But even this iron ionization driving can be somewhat poisoned by bump smoothing if the C and O abundances are large. Nonvariable GW Vir stars in the observed instability strip could be the result of small composition variations in the pulsation driving layers.

  4. L151-81A/B - A unique white dwarf binary with DB and DA components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, Terry D.; Hintzen, Paul M.; Liebert, James W.; Sion, Edward M.

    1988-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the wide binary L151-81A/B reveal that both components are white dwarfs with spectral types DB3 and DA4, the first such binary identified in a comprehensive survey of Luyten and Giclas common proper motion pairs. Assuming log g = 8, measurements of the helium line profiles in the DB primary yield Teff = 16,000 + or - 2,000, while the hydrogen profiles for the DA companion yield Teff =12,000 + or - 2,000. The existence of a helium-rich/hydrogen-rich degenerate pair offers several interesting tests of theoretical white dwarf formation channels and surface abundance evolution.

  5. DA white dwarf effective temperatures determined from IUE Lyman-alpha profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Basile, J.; Wesemael, F.

    1986-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha profiles of 12 DA white dwarfs have been obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer Satellite. Analysis of these profiles provides an improved, uniform, and relatively bias-free measure of effective temperature for these stars over the range 20,000-60,000 K. Simultaneous estimates of surface gravity yield a mean gravity of log g = 7.96 for the entire sample, with the hottest stars tending to have the lowest gravities. A significant exception to this trend occurs in the case of the gravitation of HZ 43. An important by-product of this work has been the determination of a correction to IUE fluxes over the 1150-1350 A range.

  6. Theoretical profiles of Lyman-alpha satellites and application to synthetic spectra of DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allard, N. F.; Koester, D.

    1992-01-01

    We present new theoretical calculations for the red wing of the Lyman-alpha profile. Close collisions with neutral and ionized hydrogen lead to the formation of the pseudomolecules H-H and H-H(+) with the appearance of satellite features near 1600 and 1400 A. The calculations include multiperturber effects, which are responsible for the formation of H3 and H3 with features near 1950 and 2600 A. The theoretical absorption profiles are included in stellar atmosphere codes and used to predict synthetic spectra for DA white dwarfs of intermediate temperatures (20,000 to 8000 K). These new calculations offer a unique opportunity to determine accurate effective temperatures and surface gravities for the variable ZZ Ceti stars.

  7. Understanding the Spectrum of the Very Hot DA White Dwarf PG 0948+534

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    PG 0948+534 is currently one of the hottest DA white dwarf stars, and is also one of the most mysterious. Attempts to model the sharp, deep absorption features of this star have been unsuccessful. In these proceedings we describe our analysis of PG 0948+534. We perform a line survey of the UV spectrum of PG 0948+534, making detections of 300+ absorption features, and identifying four distinct velocity regimes. We find evidence of circumstellar absorption in the profiles of C IV and Si IV. Using non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres, we are able to correctly model the absorption features of the star, providing abundance measurements for C, N, O, and Si for PG 0948+534 for the first time. We also revise the effective temperature and gravity for this star using models including these new abundances.

  8. Classical Cepheid pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalik, P.; Buchler, J.R.; Kovacs, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Theoretical models of classical Cepheid variable stars are examined by means of test computations focusing on (1) the systematic period change known as the Hertzsprung or bump progression and (2) the hypothesis (Simon and Schmidt, 1976) that (1) is due to a 2:1 resonance between the fundamental mode and the second overtone. One-parameter families or sequences of models are calculated which represent 'snapshots' of pulsational behavior at different points on the Cepheid evolutionary tracks, and a remarkable uniformity is found when the Fourier coefficients for sequences with moderate luminosity/mass ratios are plottted against the linear period ratio. The complete disappearance of this uniformity when the coefficients are plotted against the pulsation period itself is shown to be consistent with (2). The description of these phenomena with amplitude equations is explained, and expressions for estimating the width of the instability strip are derived. 32 refs.

  9. Why DA and DB white dwarfs do not show coronal activity and p-mode oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Musielak, Z.E.; Fontenla, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    The problems of nonradiative heating of outer atmospheric layers and p-mode oscillations in white dwarfs caused by acoustic waves generated in convective zones are discussed. These effects have been studied by calculating the cutoff periods for adiabatic and isothermal waves propagating in atmospheres of DA and DB stars with Teff greater than or equal 20,000 K and log g = 6-9. The obtained cutoff periods are approximately bounded by 0.01 and 40 sec for high- and low-gravity white dwarfs, respectively. Expected amplitudes of p-mode oscillations corresponding to trapped acoustic waves with small angular wave numbers are estimated, indicating that the amplitudes could be observed as Doppler shifts of spectral lines which might be detectable if adequate spectral resolution were available. The luminosity variations corresponding to these amplitudes are unlikely to be observable when all damping processes are accounted for. Results also indicate that the present theory of convection predicts some irregularities in the behavior of physical parameters. 34 refs.

  10. Why DA and DB white dwarfs do not show coronal activity and p-mode oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Fontenla, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of nonradiative heating of outer atmospheric layers and p-mode oscillations in white dwarfs caused by acoustic waves generated in convective zones are discussed. These effects have been studied by calculating the cutoff periods for adiabatic and isothermal waves propagating in atmospheres of DA and DB stars with Teff greater than or equal 20,000 K and log g = 6-9. The obtained cutoff periods are approximately bounded by 0.01 and 40 sec for high- and low-gravity white dwarfs, respectively. Expected amplitudes of p-mode oscillations corresponding to trapped acoustic waves with small angular wave numbers are estimated, indicating that the amplitudes could be observed as Doppler shifts of spectral lines which might be detectable if adequate spectral resolution were available. The luminosity variations corresponding to these amplitudes are unlikely to be observable when all damping processes are accounted for. Results also indicate that the present theory of convection predicts some irregularities in the behavior of physical parameters.

  11. High-resolution UVES/VLT spectra of white dwarfs observed for the ESO SN Ia Progenitor Survey. III. DA white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, D.; Voss, B.; Napiwotzki, R.; Christlieb, N.; Homeier, D.; Lisker, T.; Reimers, D.; Heber, U.

    2009-10-01

    Context: The ESO Supernova Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY) took high-resolution spectra of more than 1000 white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs. About two thirds of the stars observed are hydrogen-dominated DA white dwarfs. Here we present a catalog and detailed spectroscopic analysis of the DA stars in the SPY. Aims: Atmospheric parameters effective temperature and surface gravity are determined for normal DAs. Double-degenerate binaries, DAs with magnetic fields or dM companions, are classified and discussed. Methods: The spectra are compared with theoretical model atmospheres using a χ2 fitting technique. Results: Our final sample contains 615 DAs, which show only hydrogen features in their spectra, although some are double-degenerate binaries. 187 are new detections or classifications. We also find 10 magnetic DAs (4 new) and 46 DA+dM pairs (10 new). Based on data obtained at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes 165.H-0588 and 167.D-0407.

  12. Accreting Pulsators Gw Lib and V455 and after Superoutburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula

    Two cataclysmic variables containing pulsating white dwarfs underwent rare outbursts in 2007 (GW Lib and V455 And). As we know outbursts heat the white dwarfs by more than 10,000K and they gradually cool to their quiescent temperatures over the course of about 3 years, these two objects present the first unique opportunity to follow the pulsation spectrum of a white dwarf as it cools on much more rapid timescales than evolutionary ones for single white dwarfs. As these 2 objects cool, they should re-enter their instability strips and we can witness changes in the driving mechanism and detect modes that are excited by the T changes. Our 2008 ground-based data on GW Lib showed an intermittent new pulsation at a longer period than at quiescence. The data in 2010 will be the critical 3rd year and will be combined with our DOT and Cycle 4,5 GI observations to determine the long term cooling of GW Lib. Similar information will be obtained for V455 And. The higher pulse amplitude in UV vs optical and the time-tag mode means that GALEX can provide optimum data over the optical. Data on both systems will provide an important contrast in how the white dwarfs react to an outburst, as GW Lib at quiescence has a hot white dwarf far outside the normal instability strip for non-accreting white dwarfs, while V455 And is cool and inside this strip.

  13. Recent Progress Characterizing Convection Using White Dwarf Light Curves from the Whole Earth Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Dalessio, J.; Montgomery, M. H.; WET Team

    2013-01-01

    Convection remains of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainties in our understanding of stars and other natural phenomena. Montgomery (2005b) shows how precise observations of white dwarf light curves are used to observationally determine the depth of the pulsator's convection zone and its sensitivity to changes in temperature. The Whole Earth Telescope (WET) and the Delaware Asteroseismic Research Center (DARC) are currently conducting a project to map convection across the white dwarf instability strips. We present preliminary results for the DA BPM 31594 and the DB EC 04207-4748 and show the current status of our project mapping convection across the hydrogen white dwarf instability strip.

  14. Nonperiodic eddy pulsations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; McDonald, Richard R.

    1995-01-01

    Recirculating flow in lateral separation eddies is typically weaker than main stem flow and provides an effective environment for trapping sediment. Observations of recirculating flow and sedimentary structures demonstrate that eddies pulsate in size and in flow velocity even when main stem flow is steady. Time series measurements of flow velocity and location of the reattachment point indicate that these pulsations are nonperiodic. Nonperiodic flow in the lee of a channel margin constriction is grossly different from the periodic flow in the lee of a cylinder that is isolated in a flow. Our experiments demonstrate that placing a flow-parallel plate adjacent to a cylinder is sufficient to cause the leeside flow to change from a periodic sequence of vortices to a nonperiodically pulsating lateral separation eddy, even if flow conditions are otherwise unchanged. Two processes cause the leeside flow to become nonperiodic when the plate is added. First, vortices that are shed from the cylinder deform and become irregular as they impact the plate or interfere with remnants of other vortices near the reattachment point. Second, these deformed vortices and other flow structures are recirculated in the lateral separation eddy, thereby influencing the future state (pressure and momentum distribution) of the recirculating flow. The vortex deformation process was confirmed experimentally by documenting spatial differences in leeside flow; vortex shedding that is evident near the separation point is undetectable near the reattachment point. Nonlinear forecasting techniques were used in an attempt to distinguish among several possible kinds of nonperiodic flows. The computational techniques were unable to demonstrate that any of the nonperiodic flows result from low-dimensional nonlinear processes.

  15. Computational astrophysics: Pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. G.

    The field of computational astrophysics in pulsating star studies has grown considerably since the advent of the computer. Initially calculations were done on the IBM 704 with 32K of memory and now we use the CRAY YMP computers with considerably more memory. Our early studies were for models of pulsating stars using a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamic code (SPEC) with radiation diffusion. The radiative transfer was treated in the equilibrium diffusion approximation and the hydrodynamics was done utilizing the approximation of artificial viscosity. The early calculations took many hours of 704 CPU time. Early in 1965 we decided to improve on the usual treatment of the radiative transfer used in our codes by utilizing the method of moments, the so-called variable Eddington approximation. In this approximation the material energy field is uncoupled from the radiation energy field and the angular dependence is introduced through the Eddington factor. A multigroup frequency dependent method may also be applied. The Eddington factor is determined by snapshots of the stars structure utilizing a y-line approximation. The full radiative transfer approximation appears necessary in order to understand the light curves for W Virginia stars and may be important for the light curves of RR Lyrae stars. A detailed radiative transfer method does not appear to be necessary for the understanding of Cepheid light curves. A recent improvement to our models for pulsating stars is in the use of an adaptive mesh scheme to resolve the sharp features in the nonlinear hydrodynamic structure. From these improved structures, better analysis of the radius, velocity, and light curves could be obtained.

  16. X-ray spectroscopy of hot white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, Jens

    2010-10-01

    X-ray spectra of two hot white dwarfs observed by the Chandra satellite have been analyzed. The first is a white dwarf of spectral class DA with an almost pure hydrogen atmosphere. Contrary to that, the atmosphere of the second object, a PG 1159 star, is basically hydrogen free. The reason for the different composition can be found in the differing evolution of these objects. Some DA white dwarfs show much smaller metallicities than predicted by the mechanism of radiative levitation. Many spectral lines of the heavy elements that are the key to the explanation to the unusual metal poorness are located in the X-ray wavelength range. Some PG 1159 stars are non-radial g-mode pulsators. The pulsations depend amongst others on the abundances of the elements in the atmosphere, log g, and T eff. The soft X-ray range is particularly temperature sensitive and allows to constrain the temperature of a non-pulsating PG 1159 star with respect to its pulsating spectroscopic twin. Detailed analysis of X-ray spectra of single white dwarfs do not yet exist. The aim of this thesis was to analyze spectra of the DA white dwarfs LB 1919 and GD 246 in different wavelength ranges in order to find out if the metals in the atmospheres of these objects are homogeneously mixed or chemically stratified. This helps to identify or exclude possible unexpected mechanisms that might disturb the equilibrium between gravitational and radiative forces in the atmosphere. For LB 1919 an additional aim was to identify photospheric features of several elements and determine their abundances for the first time. It was further intended to determine the temperature of the non-pulsating PG 1159 star PG 1520+525 precisely. The spectra of LB 1919 and GD 246 ranging from X-ray to optical wavelengths were analyzed with advanced homogeneous and stratified Non-LTE model atmospheres. The Chandra spectrum of the PG 1159 star PG 1520+525 was analyzed with homogeneous Non-LTE model atmospheres only since no

  17. Hot DA white dwarf model atmosphere calculations: including improved Ni PI cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Badnell, N. R.; Hubeny, I.; Holberg, J. B.

    2017-02-01

    To calculate realistic models of objects with Ni in their atmospheres, accurate atomic data for the relevant ionization stages need to be included in model atmosphere calculations. In the context of white dwarf stars, we investigate the effect of changing the Ni IV-VI bound-bound and bound-free atomic data on model atmosphere calculations. Models including photoionization cross-section (PICS) calculated with AUTOSTRUCTURE show significant flux attenuation of up to ˜80 per cent shortward of 180 Å in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region compared to a model using hydrogenic PICS. Comparatively, models including a larger set of Ni transitions left the EUV, UV, and optical continua unaffected. We use models calculated with permutations of these atomic data to test for potential changes to measured metal abundances of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS were found to change the abundances of N and O by as much as ˜22 per cent compared to models using hydrogenic PICS, but heavier species were relatively unaffected. Models including AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS caused the abundances of N/O IV and V to diverge. This is because the increased opacity in the AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS model causes these charge states to form higher in the atmosphere, more so for N/O V. Models using an extended line list caused significant changes to the Ni IV-V abundances. While both PICS and an extended line list cause changes in both synthetic spectra and measured abundances, the biggest changes are caused by using AUTOSTRUCTURE PICS for Ni.

  18. Search for optical pulsations in PSR J0337+1715

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strader, M. J.; Archibald, A. M.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Walter, A. B.; van Eyken, J. C.; Ulbricht, G.; Stoughton, C.; Bumble, B.; Kaplan, D. L.; Mazin, B. A.

    2016-06-01

    We report on a search for optical pulsations from PSR J0337+1715 at its observed radio pulse period. PSR J0337+1715 is a millisecond pulsar (2.7 ms spin period) in a triple hierarchical system with two white dwarfs, and has a known optical counterpart with g-band magnitude 18. The observations were done with the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry at the 200 arcsec Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. No significant pulsations were found in the range 4000-11 000 Å, and we can limit pulsed emission in g band to be fainter than 25 mag.

  19. Search for optical pulsations in PSR J0337+1715

    DOE PAGES

    Strader, M. J.; Archibald, A. M.; Meeker, S. R.; ...

    2016-03-20

    In this study, we report on a search for optical pulsations from PSR J0337+1715 at its observed radio pulse period. PSR J0337+1715 is a millisecond pulsar (2.7 ms spin period) in a triple hierarchical system with two white dwarfs, and has a known optical counterpart with g-band magnitude 18. The observations were done with the Array Camera for Optical to Near-IR Spectrophotometry (ARCONS) at the 200" Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. No significant pulsations were found in the range 4000-11000 angstroms, and we can limit pulsed emission in g-band to be fainter than 25 mag.

  20. The Post-outburst Pulsations of GW Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chote, P.; Mukadam, A. S.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Szkody, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Sullivan, D. J.; Poshyachinda, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Moore, J. P.

    2017-03-01

    We present new observations of GW Librae obtained between 2012 and 2016. GW Librae was the first accreting white dwarf to be discovered with non-radial pulsations, which were wiped out in 2007 when a dwarf nova outburst heated the surface of the WD outside the instability strip. In the years that followed, we have seen pulsations return with periods near 280 and 1200 seconds, but find that their periods and amplitudes vary on timescales longer than a few hours. Some of these changes are found to correlate with changes in the mysterious 2/3/4 hour modulation that has been seen both before and after the outburst.

  1. Pulsating slurry flow in pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Masry, O. A.; El Shobaky, K.

    1989-07-01

    An experimental study on pulsating turbulent flow of sand-water suspension was carried out. The objective was to investigate the effect of pulsating flow parameters, such as, frequency and amplitude on the critical velocity, the pressure drop per unit length of pipeline and hence the energy requirements for hydraulic transportation of a unit mass of solids. The apparatus was constructed as a closed loop of 11.4 m length and 3.3 cm inner diameter of steel tubing. Solid volumetric concentrations of up to 20% were used in turbulent flow at a mean Reynolds number of 33,000 82,000. Pulsation was generated using compressed air in a controlled pulsation unit. Frequencies of 0.1 1.0 Hz and amplitude ratios of up to 30% were used. Instantaneous pressure drop and flow rate curves were digitized to calculate the energy dissipation associated with pulsation. The critical velocity in pulsating flow was found to be less than that for the corresponding steady flow at the same volumetric concentration. Energy dissipation for pulsating flow was found to be a function of both frequency and amplitude of pulsation. A possible energy saving was indicated at frequencies of 0.4 0.8 Hz and moderate amplitudes ratios of less than 25%.

  2. Magnetic White Dwarfs in the SDSS and Estimating the Mean Mass of Normal DA and DB WDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Kleinman, S. J.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Peçanha, Viviane; Diaz, Marcos; Koester, Detlev; Castanheira, B. G.; Nitta, Atsuko

    2010-11-01

    When classifying by eye more than 22 000 spectra selected as possible white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we detected Zeeman splittings in more than 800 stars, increasing by a factor of five the number of known magnetic white dwarfs. Our field estimations range from 90 MG to less than 1 MG, complementing the detections by Külebi et al. [1]. These magnetic white dwarf stars cover the whole range of temperature and spectral classes observed. As the Zeeman splittings broadens the lines, we cannot use the line profiles to estimate surface gravity directly. We therefore excluded the magnetic white dwarfs from our average mass estimate of normal DAs and DBs. Analysis of the remaining 1505 bright and hot DA white dwarfs, i.e., those with S/N>=20 and Teff = 12000 K, results in a mean mass DA = 0.604+/-0.003 Msolar, while that of our 82 bright DBs with Teff = 16000 K is DB = 0.646+/-0.006 Msolar.

  3. A Gravitational Redshift Determination of the Mean Mass of White Dwarfs. DA Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A.

    2010-03-01

    We measure apparent velocities (v app) of the Hα and Hβ Balmer line cores for 449 non-binary thin disk normal DA white dwarfs (WDs) using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey (SPY). Assuming these WDs are nearby and comoving, we correct our velocities to the local standard of rest so that the remaining stellar motions are random. By averaging over the sample, we are left with the mean gravitational redshift, [vg]: we find [vg] = [vapp] = 32.57 ± 1.17 km s-1. Using the mass-radius relation from evolutionary models, this translates to a mean mass of 0.647+0.013 -0.014 Msun. We interpret this as the mean mass for all DAs. Our results are in agreement with previous gravitational redshift studies but are significantly higher than all previous spectroscopic determinations except the recent findings of Tremblay & Bergeron. Since the gravitational redshift method is independent of surface gravity from atmosphere models, we investigate the mean mass of DAs with spectroscopic T eff both above and below 12,000 K fits to line profiles give a rapid increase in the mean mass with decreasing Teff. Our results are consistent with no significant change in mean mass: [M]hot = 0.640 ± 0.014 M⊙ and [M]cool = 0.686+0.035 -0.039 M⊙.

  4. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Wallez, Gilles; Mottin, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Département des Arts Graphiques, Musée du Louvre and in the Musée des Beaux- Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special µ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique.

  5. A GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT DETERMINATION OF THE MEAN MASS OF WHITE DWARFS. DA STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A. E-mail: dew@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: kurtis@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2010-03-20

    We measure apparent velocities (v{sub app}) of the Halpha and Hbeta Balmer line cores for 449 non-binary thin disk normal DA white dwarfs (WDs) using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey (SPY). Assuming these WDs are nearby and comoving, we correct our velocities to the local standard of rest so that the remaining stellar motions are random. By averaging over the sample, we are left with the mean gravitational redshift, (v{sub g}): we find (v{sub g}) = (v{sub app}) = 32.57 +- 1.17 km s{sup -1}. Using the mass-radius relation from evolutionary models, this translates to a mean mass of 0.647{sup +0.013}{sub -0.014} M{sub sun}. We interpret this as the mean mass for all DAs. Our results are in agreement with previous gravitational redshift studies but are significantly higher than all previous spectroscopic determinations except the recent findings of Tremblay and Bergeron. Since the gravitational redshift method is independent of surface gravity from atmosphere models, we investigate the mean mass of DAs with spectroscopic T{sub eff} both above and below 12,000 K; fits to line profiles give a rapid increase in the mean mass with decreasing T{sub eff}. Our results are consistent with no significant change in mean mass: (M){sup hot} = 0.640 +- 0.014 M{sub sun} and (M){sup cool} = 0.686{sup +0.035}{sub -0.039} M{sub sun}.

  6. Establishing a Network of faint DA white dwarfs as Spectrophotometric Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Abhijit; Narayan, Gautham; Holberg, Jay; Matheson, Thomas; Olszewski, Edward; Stubbs, Christopher; Bohlin, Ralph; Sabbi, Elena; Deustua, Susana; Rest, Armin; Axelrod, Tim; MacKenty, John W.; Camarota, Larry; Gilliland, Ron

    2015-08-01

    Systematic uncertainties in photometric calibration are the dominant source of error in current type Ia supernova dark energy studies, as well as other forefront cosmology efforts, e.g. photo-redshift determinations for weak lensing mass tomography. Current and next-generation ground-based all-sky surveys require a network of calibration stars with 1) known SEDs (to properly and unambiguously take into account filter differences), and 2) that are on a common photometric zeropoint scale across the sky to sub-percent accuracy. We are using a combination of HST panchromatic photometry and ground based spectroscopy to establish such an essential network of faint primary photometric standards, exploiting the well-understood spectral energy distributions of DA white dwarf stars that are free from the complications of observing through the Earth's time-variable atmosphere. The Balmer features in the spectra are used to deduce the two parameters (temperature and log(g)) from which we model the spectral energy distribution (SED) from these stars which have pure hydrogen atmospheres. By comparing against panchromatic broadband HST photometry, and allowing for an achromatic zero-point adjustment and mild scaling of the interstellar reddening, we find that model prediction and observation agree to a few milli-mag. By combining the zero-point and reddening adjustments with the modeled SED, for each star we obtain the incident SED above the terrestrial atmosphere, thus establishing these objects as spectrophotometric standards. We are pursuing 23 objects between 16 and 19 mag spread over the sky uniformly around the equator and northern mid-latitudes, with plans to extend this to southern latitudes. This precision photometric heritage from HST will benefit essentially all existing and upcoming survey projects, and in prticular, directly addresses one of the current barriers to understanding the nature of dark energy.

  7. The Initial-Final Mass Relation and the DA/DB White Dwarf Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalirai, J.; Richer, H.; Reitzel, D.; Hansen, B.; Rich, R. M.; Fahlman, G.; Gibson, B.; von Hippel, T.

    2004-12-01

    We present spectroscopic observations of very faint white dwarfs in the rich open star cluster NGC 2099 (M37). With multiobject data from both GMOS on Gemini and LRIS on Keck, we confirm the true WD nature for 21 of 24 faint WD candidates (V > 22.4), all of which were previously identified as possible WDs through CFHT imaging. Fitting 18 of the 21 WD spectra with model atmospheres, we find that the mean derived mass of the sample is 0.8 Msun - about 0.2 Msun larger than the mean seen amongst field WDs. This is expected given the clusters young age (650 Myrs), and hence, high turn-off mass ( ˜ 2.4 M⊙). A surprising result is that all of the NGC 2099 WDs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres (DAs) and none exhibit helium-rich ones (DBs), or any other spectral class. From a sequence of cooling models of various masses it appears that the most promising scenario for the DA/DB number ratio discrepancy is that hot, high mass WDs do not develop large enough helium convection zones to allow helium to be brought to the surface and turn a hydrogen-rich WD into a helium-rich one. We also determine a new initial-final mass relationship and nearly double the number of existing data points from previous studies. The results indicate that stars with initial masses between 2.8 and 3.4 Msun lose 75% of their mass through stellar evolution. We wish to thank the Gemini, Keck and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescopes. J.S.K. acknowledges support from an NSERC PGS-B Graduate Fellowship.

  8. Analysis of the DA white dwarf HZ 43 A and its companion star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napiwotzki, R.; Barstow, M. A.; Fleming, T.; Holweger, H.; Jordan, S.; Werner, K.

    1993-11-01

    The DA white dwarf HZ 43 A (WD 1314+293) is analyzed based on a newly obtained optical spectrogram. We demonstrate that the derived parameters Teff = 49.000 K and log g = 7.7 are in agreement with the observed Ly-alpha line, the slope of the UV continuum, and the measured trigonometric parallax. The EXOSAT spectrograms of Paerels et al. (1986) are used to obtain upper limits for the atmospheric abundance of helium, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen of HZ 43 A by applying the new parameters and up-to-date Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres. The result is discussed within the framework of diffusion calculations. It turns out that the resulting abundances of the CNO elements are below the predictions of theory making HZ 43 A an unique object. A red/near-infrared spectrum of the companion star HZ 43 B is used to reclassify it and to estimate temperature and metallicity. We calculate EUV fluxes from models with the derived stellar parameters and use them to check the flux calibrations of EXOSAT and ROSAT. The agreement between predicted and measured count rates is reasonable for the ROSAT-Wide Field Camera (WFC) filters. Most EXOSAT photometric filters exhibit deviations. These are marginally consistent with our error limits for the LX 3000, LX 4000, and the PPL filters. The Al/P calibration is in error. Discrepant results are obtained for the EXOSAT spectrograph and the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC). These inconsistencies may cause systematic errors, if for instance PSPC measurements are combined with WFC data for an analysis.

  9. Pulsation of Ap-Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. W.; Schneider, H.

    1983-09-01

    It has been known for many centuries that one can determine by simple means if a barrel of wine is full, half empty, or- horribile dictu - empty. One knocks against the wall and listens to the echo. Another example of the same technique, but less interesting for the connaisseur en vin is given by seismology. Seismographs distributed all over the globe register earthquakes and since they are differently located with respect to an earthquake centre the registrations look different. From a comparison of such registrations geologists have extracted most of our knowledge about the structure and composition of the terrestrial interior. Corresponding experiments were also planned and successfully executed on the Moon and on Mars. Stellar astronomers, however, are not in the lucky position of their colleagues who work in our solar system with the help of satellites. They are limited to stars which pulsate voluntarily. We will not discuss here the question why some groups of stars pulsate and others do not. We shall only mention that pulsating stars have at least one layer in their interior which does not absorb pulsational energy, as is the case for the rest of the star, but produces energy of variable amount and in phase with PUlsation. This mechanism keeps the star pulsating as long as this (these) layer(s) exists. Oue to stellar evolution, diffusion, magnetic fields, to name only some possible mechanisms, these layers can disappear or undergo substantial changes so that the energy losses due to pulsation cannot be compensated anymore. Oamping will result and finally the star will become stable against pulsation.

  10. Viscoelastic pulsational mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Pranamika; Karmakar, Pralay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    We present a theoretical model analysis to study the linear pulsational mode dynamics in viscoelastic complex self-gravitating infinitely extended clouds in the presence of active frictional coupling and dust-charge fluctuations. The complex cloud consists of uniformly distributed lighter hot mutually thermalized electrons and ions, and heavier cold dust grains amid partial ionization in a homogeneous, quasi-neutral, hydrostatic equilibrium configuration. A normal mode analysis over the closed set of slightly perturbed cloud governing equations is employed to obtain a generalized dispersion relation (septic) of unique analytic construct on the plasma parameters. Two extreme cases of physical interest depending on the perturbation scaling, hydrodynamic limits and kinetic limits are considered. It is shown that the grain mass and viscoelastic relaxation time associated with the charged dust fluid play stabilizing roles to the fluctuations in the hydrodynamic regime. In contrast, however in the kinetic regime, the stabilizing effects are introduced by the dust mass, dust equilibrium density and equilibrium ionic population distribution. Besides, the oscillatory and propagatory features are illustrated numerically and interpreted in detail. The results are in good agreement with the previously reported findings as special corollaries in like situations. Finally, a focalized indication to new implications and applications of the outcomes in the astronomical context is foregrounded.

  11. On the Role of Resonances in Nonradial Pulsators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchler, J. R.; Goupil, M. J.; Hansen, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Resonances or near resonances are ubiquitous among the excited nonradial pulsation modes of variable stars and they must play an important role in determining their pulsational behavior. Here in a first step at nonlinear asteroseismology, we explore some of the consequences of resonances by means of the amplitude equation formalism. We show how parity and angular momentum constraints can be used to eliminate many of the possible nonlinear resonant couplings between modes (and multiplets of modes), and how the amplitude equations can thus be simplified. Even when we may not be able, nor wish, to make an ab initio computation of the values of the coupling coefficients, it is still possible to obtain constraints on the nature of the excited modes if a resonance between observed frequencies can be identified. Resonances can cause nonlinear frequency locking of modes. This means that the observed frequencies appear in exact resonance even though the linear frequencies are only approximately in resonance. The nonlinear frequency lock, when it occurs, it does so over a range of departures from linear resonance, and it is accompanied by constant pulsation amplitudes. The locked, nonlinear frequencies can differ noticeably from their nonresonant counterparts which are usually used in seismology. This is particularly true for multiplets of modes split by rotation. Beyond the regime of the frequency lock, amplitude and frequency modulations can appear in the pulsations. Far from the resonance condition one recovers the regime of steady pulsations with nonresonant frequencies for which the seismological studies, as they are presently carried out, are justified (provided furthermore, of course, that nonlinear frequency shifts are negligible). Success in identifying a resonance in an observed power spectrum depends on the quality of the data. While keeping this limitation in mind, ew discuss the possible existence of peculiar resonances the pulsations specific variable white

  12. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  13. The Pulsating Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    Following the basic principles of a charge-separated pulsar magnetosphere, we consider the magnetosphere to be stationary in space, instead of corotating, and the electric field to be uploaded from the potential distribution on the pulsar surface, set up by the unipolar induction. Consequently, the plasma of the magnetosphere undergoes guiding center drifts of the gyromotion due to the forces transverse to the magnetic field. These forces are the electric force, magnetic gradient force, and field line curvature force. Since these plasma velocities are of drift nature, there is no need to introduce an emf along the field lines, which would contradict the {{E}\\parallel }={\\boldsymbol{E}} \\cdot {\\boldsymbol{B}} =0 plasma condition. Furthermore, there is also no need to introduce the critical field line separating the electron and ion open field lines. We present a self-consistent description where the magnetosphere is described in terms of electric and magnetic fields and also in terms of plasma velocities. The fields and velocities are then connected through the space-charge densities self-consistently. We solve the pulsar equation analytically for the fields and construct the standard steady-state pulsar magnetosphere. By considering the unipolar induction inside the pulsar and the magnetosphere outside the pulsar as one coupled system, and under the condition that the unipolar pumping rate exceeds the Poynting flux in the open field lines, plasma pressure can build up in the magnetosphere, in particular, in the closed region. This could cause a periodic opening up of the closed region, leading to a pulsating magnetosphere, which could be an alternative to pulsar beacons. The closed region can also be opened periodically by the build up of toroidal magnetic field through a positive feedback cycle.

  14. Pulsating aurora: The importance of the ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.

    1980-05-01

    A number of different, but mainly optical, observations made in pulsating auroras are presented. These observations indicate that active ionospheric processes are likely to play an important role in causing and/or modifying pulsating aurora.

  15. Discovery of X-ray pulsations from a massive star.

    PubMed

    Oskinova, Lidia M; Nazé, Yael; Todt, Helge; Huenemoerder, David P; Ignace, Richard; Hubrig, Swetlana; Hamann, Wolf-Rainer

    2014-06-03

    X-ray emission from stars much more massive than the Sun was discovered only 35 years ago. Such stars drive fast stellar winds where shocks can develop, and it is commonly assumed that the X-rays emerge from the shock-heated plasma. Many massive stars additionally pulsate. However, hitherto it was neither theoretically predicted nor observed that these pulsations would affect their X-ray emission. All X-ray pulsars known so far are associated with degenerate objects, either neutron stars or white dwarfs. Here we report the discovery of pulsating X-rays from a non-degenerate object, the massive B-type star ξ(1) CMa. This star is a variable of β Cep-type and has a strong magnetic field. Our observations with the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) telescope reveal X-ray pulsations with the same period as the fundamental stellar oscillations. This discovery challenges our understanding of stellar winds from massive stars, their X-ray emission and their magnetism.

  16. On the Formation of DA White Dwarfs with low Hydrogen Contents: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    Systematic photometric and asteroseismological studies in the last decade support the belief that white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood harbor a broad range of hydrogen-layer contents. The reasons behind this spread of hydrogen-layer masses are not understood and usually misunderstood. In this work we present, and review, the different mechanisms that can (or cannot) lead to the formation of white dwarfs with a broad range hydrogen contents.

  17. Comparison of atmospheric parameters determined from spectroscopy and photometry for DA white dwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Genest-Beaulieu, C.; Bergeron, P. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2014-12-01

    We present a comparative analysis of atmospheric parameters obtained with the so-called photometric and spectroscopic techniques. Photometric and spectroscopic data for 1360 DA white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are used, as well as spectroscopic data from the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog. We first test the calibration of the ugriz photometric system by using model atmosphere fits to observed data. Our photometric analysis indicates that the ugriz photometry appears well calibrated when the SDSS to AB{sub 95} zeropoint corrections are applied. The spectroscopic analysis of the same data set reveals that the so-called high-log g problem can be solved by applying published correction functions that take into account three-dimensional hydrodynamical effects. However, a comparison between the SDSS and the White Dwarf Catalog spectra also suggests that the SDSS spectra still suffer from a small calibration problem. We then compare the atmospheric parameters obtained from both fitting techniques and show that the photometric temperatures are systematically lower than those obtained from spectroscopic data. This systematic offset may be linked to the hydrogen line profiles used in the model atmospheres. We finally present the results of an analysis aimed at measuring surface gravities using photometric data only.

  18. Chandra grating spectroscopy of three hot white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, J.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Schuh, S.; Drake, J. J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2012-10-01

    Context. High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB 1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG 1159 (PG 1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD 246). Aims: The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB 1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD 246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG 1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. Methods: The Chandra spectra are analyzed with chemically homogeneous as well as stratified NLTE model atmospheres that assume equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative acceleration of chemical elements. Archival EUV and UV spectra obtained with EUVE, FUSE, and HST are utilized to support the analysis. Results: No metals could be identified in LB 1919. All observations are compatible with a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This is in stark contrast to the vast majority of hot DA white dwarfs that exhibit light and heavy metals and to the stratified models that predict significant metal abundances in the atmosphere. For GD 246 we find that neither stratified nor homogeneous models can fit the Chandra spectrum. The Chandra spectrum of PG 1520+525 constrains the effective temperature to Teff = 150 000 ± 10 000 K. Therefore, this nonpulsating star together with the pulsating prototype of the GW Vir class (PG 1159 - 035) defines the location of the blue edge of the GW Vir

  19. Chandra Grating Spectroscopy of Three Hot White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczak, J.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Schuh, S.; Drake, J. J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG1159 (PG1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD246). Aims. The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. Methods. The Chandra spectra are analyzed with chemically homogeneous as well as stratified NLTE model atmospheres that assume equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative acceleration of chemical elements. Archival EUV and UV spectra obtained with EUVE, FUSE, and HST are utilized to support the analysis. Results. No metals could be identified in LB1919. All observations are compatible with a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This is in stark contrast to the vast majority of hot DA white dwarfs that exhibit light and heavy metals and to the stratified models that predict significant metal abundances in the atmosphere. For GD246 we find that neither stratified nor homogeneous models can fit the Chandra spectrum. The Chandra spectrum of PG1520+525 constrains the effective temperature to T(sub eff) = 150 000 +/- 10 000 K. Therefore, this nonpulsating star together with the pulsating prototype of the GWVir class (PG1159-035) defines the location of the blue edge of the GWVir instability region

  20. Type Ia supernovae: Pulsating delayed detonation models, IR light curves, and the formation of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflich, Peter; Khokhlov, A.; Wheeler, C.

    1995-01-01

    We computed optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). It is demonstrated that observations of the IR light curves can be used to identify subluminous SNe Ia by testing whether secondary maxima occur in the IR. Our pulsating delayed detonation models are in agreement with current observations both for subluminous and normal bright SN Ia, namely SN1991bg, SN1992bo, and SN1992bc. Observations of molecular bands provide a test to distinguish whether strongly subluminous supernovae are a consequence of the pulsating mechanism occurring in a high-mass white dwarf (WD) or, alternatively, are formed by the helium detonation in a low-mass WD as was suggested by Woosley. In the latter case, no carbon is left after the explosion of low-mass WDs whereas a log of C/O-rich material is present in pulsating delayed detonation models.

  1. Type Ia supernovae: Pulsating delayed detonation models, IR light curves, and the formation of molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoflich, Peter; Khokhlov, A.; Wheeler, C.

    1995-01-01

    We computed optical and infrared light curves of the pulsating class of delayed detonation models for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). It is demonstrated that observations of the IR light curves can be used to identify subluminous SNe Ia by testing whether secondary maxima occur in the IR. Our pulsating delayed detonation models are in agreement with current observations both for subluminous and normal bright SN Ia, namely SN1991bg, SN1992bo, and SN1992bc. Observations of molecular bands provide a test to distinguish whether strongly subluminous supernovae are a consequence of the pulsating mechanism occurring in a high-mass white dwarf (WD) or, alternatively, are formed by the helium detonation in a low-mass WD as was suggested by Woosley. In the latter case, no carbon is left after the explosion of low-mass WDs whereas a log of C/O-rich material is present in pulsating delayed detonation models.

  2. Constraining the physics of carbon crystallization through pulsations of a massive DAV BPM37093

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Atsuko; Kepler, S. O.; Chené, André-Nicolas; Koester, D.; Provencal, J. L.; Kleinmani, S. J.; Sullivan, D. J.; Chote, Paul; Sefako, Ramotholo; Kanaan, Antonio; Romero, Alejandra; Corti, Mariela; Kilic, Mukremin; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.

    We are trying to reduce the largest uncertainties in using white dwarf stars as Galactic chronometers by understanding the details of carbon crystalliazation that currently result in a 1-2 Gyr uncertainty in the ages of the oldest white dwarf stars. We expect the coolest white dwarf stars to have crystallized interiors, but theory also predicts hotter white dwarf stars, if they are massive enough, will also have some core crystallization. BPM 37093 is the first discovered of only a handful of known massive white dwarf stars that are also pulsating DAV, or ZZ Ceti, variables. Our approach is to use the pulsations to constrain the core composition and amount of crystallization. Here we report our analysis of 4 hours of continuous time series spectroscopy of BPM 37093 with Gemini South combined with simultaneous time-series photometry from Mt. John (New Zealand), SAAO, PROMPT, and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina).

  3. A Search for Metal Lines in the Spectra of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical analysis was carried out in order to interpret the ultraviolet spectra of DB white dwarfs obtained earlier with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. Here the results of the IUE ultraviolet spectroscopy combined with visual data and model atmospheres of DB white dwarfs are reported. In particular, a search for spectra lines due to the element carbon using the ultraviolet was made. In no case is there a positive detection of carbon and from these data, and upper limits for carbon by number relative to helium are derived in the range of C: He 10 to the minus 5 power to 10 to the minus 7 power for the 16 DB stars with ultraviolet spectra in the temperature range 11400 K T sub EFF less than 2300 K. The low carbon abundances found in the atmospheres of the DB stars agree well with the hypothesis that the atmospheric carbon observed in the cooler DQ members of the helium-rich white dwarf sequence is produced by a convective dredging mechanism.

  4. Chaotic pulsations in stellar models

    SciTech Connect

    Buchler, J.R. )

    1990-12-01

    The irregular behavior of large-amplitude pulsating stars undergoing radial oscillations is examined theoretically, with a focus on hydrodynamic simulations of the W Virginis population II Cepheids (stars which show both regular and RV Tau characteristics). Sequences of models are constructed as one-parameter families (with luminosity, mass, and composition fixed and Teff as the control parameter) and analyzed to derive a systematic map of the bifurcation set; i.e., of the possible types of pulsations. The results are presented graphically, and it is shown that both cascades of period doubling (via destabilization of an overtone through a half-integer-type resonance) and tangent bifurcation are possible routes to chaos in these systems, depending on the stellar parameters. The general robustness of the chaotic behavior and the existence of a 'chaotic blue edge' in stellar-parameter space are demonstrated. 55 refs.

  5. Pressure pulsations above turbomolecular pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danziger, S.; Kendall, B. R. F.; Dormer, J.

    1982-01-01

    Lange and Singleton (1978) have observed pressure pulses above a turbomolecular pump. They reported that the mean pulse frequency increased with the temperature of the pump cooling water and that the evolved gas was mainly hydrogen. The present investigation takes into account tests conducted with a similar pumping system. The pumping system was equipped with additional pressure-monitoring equipment in order to study these pulsations in more detail. It was found that at least two distinct types of pressure pulsations may be present in a turbomolecular-pumped ultrahigh vacuum system. The random hydrogen pulses are easily eliminated for period of days by changing the cooling water temperature. The cyclic pulses consisting mainly of water vapor are not likely to be a problem in normal experiments.

  6. Four new subdwarf B pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østensen, R.; Heber, U.; Silvotti, R.; Solheim, J.-E.; Dreizler, S.; Edelmann, H.

    2001-11-01

    We report the detection of short period oscillations in the sdB stars HS 0039+4302, HS 0444+0408, HS 1824+5745 and HS 2151+0857 from time-series photometry made at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) of a sample of 55 candidates. Hence these four hot subdwarfs are new members of the EC 14026 class of pulsating sdB stars. HS 0039+4302 is a multi-mode pulsator with at least four distinct periods in the range between 182 and 234 s, and amplitudes up to 8 mma. HS 0444+0408 shows one dominant pulsation at 137 s (A ~ 12 mma) and a second weaker pulsation at 170 s (A ~ 3 mma). For HS 1824+5745 we find a single period of 139 s with an amplitude of about 5 mma. HS 2151+0857 shows four periods in the range 129-151 s with amplitudes between 2 and 5 mma. Our NLTE model atmosphere analysis of the time-averaged optical spectra place all stars well within the theoretical sdBV instability strip. Based on observations obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. }\\fnmsep\\thanks{ Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Plank-Institute für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO No. 66.D-0031).

  7. Presence and active synthesis of the 67 kDa elastin-receptor in human circulating white blood cells.

    PubMed

    Larbi, Anis; Levesque, Georges; Robert, Ladislas; Gagné, Daniéle; Douziech, Nadine; Fülöp, Tamas

    2005-07-08

    Early after the identification of the elastin-receptor (El-R) on mesenchymal cells, it was demonstrated that phagocytic cells and lymphocytes could also respond to elastin peptides. Nevertheless, the level of El-R expression has never been demonstrated on immune cells and no data exist whether these cells actively synthesize this El-R. Thus, our aim in the present work was to study the expression and number of El-R on white blood cells (WBC) using a specific 67 kDa El-R antibody and to demonstrate the presence of mRNA corresponding to the gene coding for El-R. Our results show that messenger RNA corresponding to the presumptive gene coding for the 67 kDa El-R subunit could be detected in all three WBC-types investigated. On all of these WBC, the presence of El-R could be demonstrated, however their number and their function varied following the cell type. The presence of El-R is very important for the interaction of circulating cell with the matrix as these cells intervene during atherosclerosis and in host defence.

  8. Head pulsations in a centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, V. S.; Sotnyk, M. I.; Moskalenko, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    This article investigated the factors, which affect to the character of the head pulsations of a centrifugal pump. We investigated the dependence of the shape and depth of these pulsations from the operation mode of the pump. Was determined, that the head pulsations at the outlet of the impeller (pulsations on the blade passing frequency) cause head pulsations at the outlet of the pump, that have the same frequency, but differ in shape and depth. These pulsations depend on the design features of the flow-through part of the pump (from the ratio of hydraulic losses on the friction and losses on the vortex formation). A feature of the researches that were conducted is also the using of not only hydraulic but also electric modeling methods. It allows determining the values of the components of hydraulic losses.

  9. Following the Pulsations of GW Lib and V455 and after Superoutburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula

    Two cataclysmic variables containing pulsating white dwarfs underwent outbursts in 2007 (GW Lib and V455 And). As we know outbursts heat the white dwarfs by more than 10,000K and they gradually cool to their quiescent temperatures over the course of about 3 years, these two objects present the first unique opportunity to follow the pulsation spectrum of a white dwarf as it cools on much more rapid timescales than evolutionary ones for single white dwarfs. As these 2 objects cool, they should re-enter their instability strips and we can witness changes in the driving mechanism and detect modes that are excited by the T changes. Our 2008 ground-based data on GW Lib has shown a new pulsation at a longer period than at quiescence. The data in 2009 will be combined with our time for GW Lib in Cycle 4 and our DOT time in 2007 to follow the long term cooling of GW Lib and obtain similar information on V455 And. The higher pulse amplitude in UV vs optical and the time-tag mode means that GALEX can provide optimum data over the optical. Data on both systems will provide an important contrast in how the white dwarfs react to an outburst, as GW Lib at quiescence has a hot white dwarf far outside the normal instability strip for non-accreting white dwarfs, while V455 And is cool and inside this strip.

  10. The morphology of displays of pulsating auroras.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cresswell, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    An auroral substorm generates displays of pulsating auroras in ways which show a dependence upon both local time and latitude relative to the auroral oval. For several hours after midnight pulsating auroras can be observed in the wake of poleward expansions or within equatorward spreading diffuse envelopes of meridional extent of several hundred kilometers. As the dawn meridian is approached the displays of pulsating auroras tend increasingly to be comprised of distinct eastward drifting patches easily recorded by all-sky cameras.

  11. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - I. Survey target selection and the first pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østensen, R. H.; Silvotti, R.; Charpinet, S.; Oreiro, R.; Handler, G.; Green, E. M.; Bloemen, S.; Heber, U.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Kurtz, D. W.; Telting, J. H.; Reed, M. D.; Kawaler, S. D.; Aerts, C.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Vučković, M.; Ottosen, T. A.; Liimets, T.; Quint, A. C.; Van Grootel, V.; Randall, S. K.; Gilliland, R. L.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Quintana, E. V.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from the first two quarters of a survey to search for pulsations in compact stellar objects with the Kepler spacecraft. The survey sample and the various methods applied in its compilation are described, and spectroscopic observations are presented to separate the objects into accurate classes. From the Kepler photometry we clearly identify nine compact pulsators and a number of interesting binary stars. Of the pulsators, one shows the strong, rapid pulsations typical of a V361 Hya-type sdB variable (sdBV); seven show long-period pulsation characteristics of V1093 Her-type sdBVs; and one shows low-amplitude pulsations with both short and long periods. We derive effective temperatures and surface gravities for all the subdwarf B stars in the sample and demonstrate that below the boundary region where hybrid sdB pulsators are found, all our targets are pulsating. For the stars hotter than this boundary temperature a low fraction of strong pulsators (<10 per cent) is confirmed. Interestingly, the short-period pulsator also shows a low-amplitude mode in the long-period region, and several of the V1093 Her pulsators show low-amplitude modes in the short-period region, indicating that hybrid behaviour may be common in these stars, also outside the boundary temperature region where hybrid pulsators have hitherto been found.

  12. Discovery of a new PG 1159 (GW Vir) pulsator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Fraga, Luciano; Winget, Don Earl; Bell, Keaton; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Werner, Klaus

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of pulsations in the spectroscopic PG 1159 type pre-white dwarf SDSS J075415.12 + 085232.18. Analysis of the spectrum by Werner et al. indicated Teff = 120 000 ± 10 000 K, log g = 7.0 ± 0.3, mass {M}=0.52 ± 0.02 M_{⊙}, C/He = 0.33 by number. We obtained time series images with the SOAR 4.1 m telescope and 2.1 m Otto Struve telescope at McDonald Observatory and show the star is also a variable PG 1159 type star, with dominant period of 525 s.

  13. A comprehensive near- and far-ultraviolet spectroscopic study of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preval, S. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Dickinson, N. J.

    2013-11-01

    We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the hot DA white dwarf G191-B2B, using the best signal-to-noise ratio, high-resolution near- and far-UV spectrum obtained to date. This is constructed from co-added Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrometer (STIS) E140H, E230H and FUSE observations, covering the spectral ranges of 1150-3145 Å and 910-1185 Å, respectively. With the aid of recently published atomic data, we have been able to identify previously undetected absorption features down to equivalent widths of only a few mÅ. In total, 976 absorption features have been detected to 3σ confidence or greater, with 947 of these lines now possessing an identification, the majority of which are attributed to Fe and Ni transitions. In our survey, we have also potentially identified an additional source of circumstellar material originating from Si III. While we confirm the presence of Ge detected by Vennes et al., we do not detect any other species. Furthermore, we have calculated updated abundances for C, N, O, Si, P, S, Fe and Ni, while also calculating, for the first time, a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium abundance for Al, deriving Al III/H=1.60_{-0.08}^{+0.07}× {10}^{-7}. Our analysis constitutes what is the most complete spectroscopic survey of any white dwarf. All observed absorption features in the FUSE spectrum have now been identified, and relatively few remain elusive in the STIS spectrum.

  14. The mitigation of pulsation in ventilated supercavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Grant

    It is desirable to use ventilated supercavities to reduce the drag created by underwater bodies and obtain velocities much higher than those that are possible with fully wetted bodies. Ventilated supercavities, however, are prone to an autoresonant phenomenon known as pulsation where the supercavity radius and length oscillate with time. These oscillations in radius and length are oftentimes severe enough to cause issues with body stability and control. In this dissertation, a method to mitigate pulsation in ventilated supercavities is presented. The method, which modulates or adds a sinusoidal component to the ventilation rate, is shown to suppress pulsation numerically, experimentally, and computationally. Additionally in this dissertation, the near-field acoustic characteristics of twin vortex, re-entrant jet, and pulsating ventilated supercavities are studied experimentally. This study is then repeated computationally, with a focus on the generation and mitigation of pulsation in ventilated supercavities. The study of the near-field radiated noise from supercavities shows that pulsating supercavities generate noise that is two orders of magnitude (i.e., 40 dB) greater in level than that from comparable twin vortex and re-entrant jet supercavities. For pulsating supercavities, it is found that the interior cavity pressure and near-field radiated noise are both monotonic in frequency, with said frequency being related to the freestream velocity and the length of the dominant waves on the supercavity air/water interface. For pulsating supercavities, it is also found that, at the pulsation frequency, the cavity interior pressure spectrum level is related to the near-field and far-field noise spectrum level through spherical spreading of the sound waves from the supercavity interface. As a result, the cavity interior pressure can be used as a measure of the radiated noise. The developed method for mitigating pulsation in ventilated supercavities is shown to

  15. Transition to turbulence in pulsating pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Duo; Warnecke, Sascha; Hof, Bjoern; Avila, Marc

    2014-11-01

    We report an experimental investigation of the transition to turbulence in a pulsating pipe flow. This flow is a prototype of various pulsating flows in both nature and engineering, such as in the cardiovascular system where the onset of turbulence is often possibly related to various diseases (e.g., the formation of aneurysms). The experiments are carried out in a straight rigid pipe using water with a sinusoidal modulation of the flow rate. The governing parameters, Reynolds number, Womersley number α (dimensionless pulsating frequency) and the pulsating amplitude A, cover a wide range 3 < α < 23 and 0 < A < 1 . To characterize the transition to turbulence, we determine how the characteristic lifetime of turbulent spots (/puffs) are affected by the pulsation. While at high pulsation frequencies (α > 12) lifetimes of turbulent spots are entirely unaffected by the pulsation, at lower frequencies they are substantially affected. With decreasing frequency much larger Reynolds numbers are needed to obtain spots of the same characteristic lifetime. Hence at low frequency transition is delayed significantly. In addition the effect of the pulsation amplitude on the transition delay is quantified. Duo Xu would like to acknowledge the support from Humboldt Foundation.

  16. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    WDs, causing an overestimated surface gravity, and ultimately determine if these magnetic fields are likely developed through the star's own surface convection zone, or inherited from massive Ap/Bp progenitors. We discovered around 20 000 spectroscopic white dwarfs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with a corresponding increase in relatively rare varieties of white dwarfs, including the massive ones (Kleinman et al. 2013, ApJS, 204, 5, Kepler et al. 2013, MNRAS, 439, 2934). The mass distributions of the hydrogen-rich (DA) measured from fitting the spectra with model atmospheres calculated using unidimensinal mixing lenght-theory (MLT) shows the average mass (as measured by the surface gravity) increases apparently below 13 000K for DAs (e.g. Bergeron et al. 1991, ApJ, 367, 253; Tremblay et al. 2011, ApJ, 730, 128; Kleinman et al. 2013). Only with the tridimensional (3D) convection calculations of Tremblay et al. 2011 (A&A, 531, L19) and 2013 (A&A, 552, 13; A&A, 557, 7; arXiv 1309.0886) the problem has finally been solved, but the effects of magnetic fields are not included yet in the mass determinations. Pulsating white dwarf stars are used to measure their interior and envelope properties through seismology, and together with the luminosity function of white dwarf stars in clusters and around the Sun are valuable tools for the study of high density physics, and the history of stellar formation.

  17. A New Analysis of the Two Classical ZZ Ceti White Dwarfs GD 165 and Ross 548. I. Photometry and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Pfeiffer, B.; Vauclair, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first of a two-part seismic analysis of the two bright hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and Ross 548. In this first part, we report the results of frequency extraction exercises based on time-series data sets of exceptional quality. We uncovered up to 13 independent pulsation modes in GD 165, regrouped into six main frequency multiplets. These include 9 secure (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N > 4) detections and 4 possible ones (4 ≥ S/N ≥ 3). Likewise, we isolated 11 independent modes in Ross 548 (9 secure and 2 possible detections), also regrouped into 6 multiplets. The multiplet structure is likely caused by rotational splitting. We also provide updated estimates of the time-averaged atmospheric properties of these two pulsators in the light of recent developments on the front of atmospheric modeling for DA white dwarfs.

  18. A NEW ANALYSIS OF THE TWO CLASSICAL ZZ CETI WHITE DWARFS GD 165 AND ROSS 548. I. PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Giammichele, N.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G.; Pfeiffer, B.

    2015-12-10

    We present the first of a two-part seismic analysis of the two bright hot ZZ Ceti stars GD 165 and Ross 548. In this first part, we report the results of frequency extraction exercises based on time-series data sets of exceptional quality. We uncovered up to 13 independent pulsation modes in GD 165, regrouped into six main frequency multiplets. These include 9 secure (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N > 4) detections and 4 possible ones (4 ≥ S/N ≥ 3). Likewise, we isolated 11 independent modes in Ross 548 (9 secure and 2 possible detections), also regrouped into 6 multiplets. The multiplet structure is likely caused by rotational splitting. We also provide updated estimates of the time-averaged atmospheric properties of these two pulsators in the light of recent developments on the front of atmospheric modeling for DA white dwarfs.

  19. Nonradial Pulsations in ɛ Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saio, Hideyuki; Kambe, Eiji; Lee, Umin

    2000-11-01

    We consider the question of whether all the modes detected in the line profile variations of ɛ Persei are consistent with nonradial pulsations excited by the kappa mechanism at the opacity Z-bump. We have computed massive (12.5-14 Msolar) main-sequence models, adjusting the parameters such that the evolutionary tracks pass around the approximate position of ɛ Per on the H-R diagram. A linear nonadiabatic, nonradial pulsation analysis is applied to these models. The periods in the frame corotating with the stellar surface for the observed 2.3-4.5 hr modes are found to be consistent with the Z-bump kappa mechanism. We have found, however, that the longest-period mode (8.48 hr in the observer's frame) cannot be explained by the kappa mechanism. We have examined the effect of rotation on the stability of oscillations and found that the stabilizing effect is weak, so that only a few of the shortest-period modes are stabilized for the rotation speed of ɛ Per. No significant difference is found between prograde and retrograde modes in the stability. It is a puzzle why no retrograde mode has been detected in ɛ Per, which should equally be excited by the kappa mechanism. We also discuss the observed and theoretical line profile variations of ɛ Per in the Appendix.

  20. Models of cylindrical bubble pulsation

    PubMed Central

    Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hay, Todd A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    Three models are considered for describing the dynamics of a pulsating cylindrical bubble. A linear solution is derived for a cylindrical bubble in an infinite compressible liquid. The solution accounts for losses due to viscosity, heat conduction, and acoustic radiation. It reveals that radiation is the dominant loss mechanism, and that it is 22 times greater than for a spherical bubble of the same radius. The predicted resonance frequency provides a basis of comparison for limiting forms of other models. The second model considered is a commonly used equation in Rayleigh-Plesset form that requires an incompressible liquid to be finite in extent in order for bubble pulsation to occur. The radial extent of the liquid becomes a fitting parameter, and it is found that considerably different values of the parameter are required for modeling inertial motion versus acoustical oscillations. The third model was developed by V. K. Kedrinskii [Hydrodynamics of Explosion (Springer, New York, 2005), pp. 23–26] in the form of the Gilmore equation for compressible liquids of infinite extent. While the correct resonance frequency and loss factor are not recovered from this model in the linear approximation, it provides reasonable agreement with observations of inertial motion. PMID:22978863

  1. Pulsating star research from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadid, Merieme

    2017-09-01

    This invited talk discusses the pulsating star research from the heart of Antarctica and the scientific polar challenges in the extreme environment of Antarctica, and how the new polar technology could cope with unresolved stellar pulsation enigmas and evolutionary properties challenges towards an understanding of the mysteries of the Universe. PAIX, the first robotic photometer Antarctica program, has been successfully launched during the polar night 2007. This ongoing program gives a new insight to cope with unresolved stellar enigmas and stellar oscillation challenges with a great opportunity to benefit from an access to the best astronomical site on Earth, Dome C. PAIX achieves astrophysical measurement time-series of stellar fields, challenging photometry from space. A continuous and an uninterrupted series of multi-color photometric observations has been collected each polar night - 150 days - without regular interruption, Earth's rotation effect. PAIX shows the first light curve from Antarctica and first step for the astronomy in Antarctica giving new insights in remote polar observing runs and robotic instruments towards a new technology.

  2. Occurrence and average behavior of pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partamies, N.; Whiter, D.; Kadokura, A.; Kauristie, K.; Nesse Tyssøy, H.; Massetti, S.; Stauning, P.; Raita, T.

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by recent event studies and modeling efforts on pulsating aurora, which conclude that the precipitation energy during these events is high enough to cause significant chemical changes in the mesosphere, this study looks for the bulk behavior of auroral pulsations. Based on about 400 pulsating aurora events, we outline the typical duration, geomagnetic conditions, and change in the peak emission height for the events. We show that the auroral peak emission height for both green and blue emission decreases by about 8 km at the start of the pulsating aurora interval. This brings the hardest 10% of the electrons down to about 90 km altitude. The median duration of pulsating aurora is about 1.4 h. This value is a conservative estimate since in many cases the end of event is limited by the end of auroral imaging for the night or the aurora drifting out of the camera field of view. The longest durations of auroral pulsations are observed during events which start within the substorm recovery phases. As a result, the geomagnetic indices are not able to describe pulsating aurora. Simultaneous Antarctic auroral images were found for 10 pulsating aurora events. In eight cases auroral pulsations were seen in the southern hemispheric data as well, suggesting an equatorial precipitation source and a frequent interhemispheric occurrence. The long lifetimes of pulsating aurora, their interhemispheric occurrence, and the relatively high-precipitation energies make this type of aurora an effective energy deposition process which is easy to identify from the ground-based image data.

  3. A Grid of Synthetic Spectra for Hot DA White Dwarfs and Its Application in Stellar Population Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenhagen, Ronaldo S.; Diaz, Marcos P.; Coelho, Paula R. T.; Hubeny, Ivan

    2017-07-01

    In this work we present a grid of LTE and non-LTE synthetic spectra of hot DA white dwarfs (WDs). In addition to its usefulness for the determination of fundamental stellar parameters of isolated WDs and in binaries, this grid will be of interest for the construction of theoretical libraries for stellar studies from integrated light. The spectral grid covers both a wide temperature and gravity range, with 17,000 K ≤ T eff ≤ 100,000 K and 7.0 ≤ {log}g ≤ 9.5. The stellar models are built for pure hydrogen and the spectra cover a wavelength range from 900 Å to 2.5 μm. Additionally, we derive synthetic HST/ACS, HST/WFC3, Bessel UBVRI, and SDSS magnitudes. The grid was also used to model integrated spectral energy distributions of simple stellar populations and our modeling suggests that DAs might be detectable in ultraviolet bands for populations older than ∼8 Gyr.

  4. A Planet Found by Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Searching for planets around very hot stars is much more challenging than looking around cool stars. For this reason, the recent discovery of a planet around a main-sequence A star is an important find both because of its unique position near the stars habitable zone, and because of the way in which the planet was discovered.Challenges in VariabilityIn the past three decades, weve discovered thousands of exoplanets yet most of them have been found around cool stars (like M dwarfs) or moderate stars (like G stars like our Sun). Very few of the planets that weve found orbit hot stars; in fact, weve only discovered ~20 planets orbiting the very hot, main-sequence A stars.The instability strip, indicated on an H-R diagram. Stellar classification types are listed across the bottom of the diagram. Many main-sequence A stars reside in the instability strip. [Rursus]Why is this? We dont expect that main-sequence A stars host fewer planets than cooler stars. Instead, its primarily because the two main techniques that we use to find planets namely, transits and radial velocity cant be used as effectively on the main-sequence A stars that are most likely to host planets, because the luminosities of these stars are often variable.These stars can lie on whats known as the classical instability strip in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Such variable stars pulsate due to changes in the ionization state of atoms deep in their interiors, which causes the stars to puff up and then collapse back inward. For variable main-sequence A stars, the periods for these pulsations can be several to several tens of times per day.These very pulsations that make transits and radial-velocity measurements so difficult, however, can potentially be used to detect planets in a different way. Led by Simon Murphy (University of Sydney, Australia and Aarhus University, Denmark), a team of scientists has recently detected the first planet ever to be discovered around a main-sequence A star from the timing

  5. PULSATING REVERSE DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. II. EXPLOSION

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, Eduardo; Garcia-Senz, Domingo; Cabezon, Ruben M.; DomInguez, Inmaculada E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu E-mail: inma@ugr.es

    2009-04-20

    Observational evidences point to a common explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae based on a delayed detonation of a white dwarf (WD). However, all attempts to find a convincing ignition mechanism based on a delayed detonation in a destabilized, expanding, white dwarf have been elusive so far. One of the possibilities that has been invoked is that an inefficient deflagration leads to pulsation of a Chandrasekhar-mass WD, followed by formation of an accretion shock that confines a carbon-oxygen rich core, while transforming the kinetic energy of the collapsing halo into thermal energy of the core, until an inward moving detonation is formed. This chain of events has been termed Pulsating Reverse Detonation (PRD). In this work, we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of PRD models from the time of detonation initiation up to homologous expansion. Different models characterized by the amount of mass burned during the deflagration phase, M {sub defl}, give explosions spanning a range of kinetic energies, K {approx} (1.0-1.2) x 10{sup 51} erg, and {sup 56}Ni masses, M({sup 56}Ni) {approx} 0.6-0.8 M {sub sun}, which are compatible with what is expected for typical Type Ia supernovae. Spectra and light curves of angle-averaged spherically symmetric versions of the PRD models are discussed. Type Ia supernova spectra pose the most stringent requirements on PRD models.

  6. Pulsations and outbursts of luminous blue variables

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.; Guzik, J.A.; Soukup, M.S.; Despain, K.M.

    1997-06-01

    We propose an outburst mechanism for the most luminous stars in our and other galaxies. These million solar luminosity stars, with masses (after earlier mass loss) of between 20 and maybe 70 solar masses, are pulsationally unstable for both radial and low-degree nonradial modes. Some of these modes are ``strange,`` meaning mostly that the pulsations are concentrated near the stellar surface and have very rapid growth rates in linear theory. The pulsation driving is by both the high iron line opacity (near 150,000 K) and the helium opacity (near 30,000 K) kappa effects. Periods range from 5 to 40 days. Depending on the composition, pulsations periodically produce luminosities above the Eddington limit for deep layers. The radiative luminosity creates an outward push that readily eases the very low gamma envelope to very large outburst radii. A key point is that a super-Eddington luminosity cannot be taken up by the sluggish convection rapidly enough to prevent an outward acceleration of much of the envelope. As the helium abundance in the envelope stellar material increases by ordinary wind mass loss and the luminous blue variable outbursts, the opacity in the deep pulsation driving layers decreases. This makes the current Eddington luminosity even higher so that pulsations can then no longer give radiative luminosities exceeding the limit. For the lower mass and luminosity luminous blue variables there is considerably less iron line opacity driving, and pulsations are almost all caused by the helium ionization kappa effect.

  7. Constraining structural models of stellar helium cores using the pulsations of Feige 48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Mike; Jeffery, C. Simon; Telting, John; Quick, Breanna

    2014-02-01

    Asteroseismology is the art of using stellar pulsations to discern a star's detailed structure and evolutionary history. When many stars of similar structure and/or evolution can be studied, the results can be extremely powerful; examples of which include white dwarf and red giant seismology. However, the key to these successes are twofold: Observed pulsation frequencies must first be identified with spherical harmonics (modes) and mature models must exist for comparison. For subdwarf B (sdB) stars, Kepler observations have allowed progress with the former, but have indicated weaknesses in the latter. We propose using time- resolved spectroscopy combined with multicolor photometry to identify pulsation modes and constrain structure models. We propose to re-observe Feige 48 (KY UMa). We were allocated time during 2010A, but inclement weather prevented fully exploiting the pulsations. Yet those data provided surprising clues. Feige 48's an important sdB in a short-period binary, with constrained inclination and some constraints on three pulsation modes. Our proposed observations will constrain both the star and the binary system and provide calibration for models. This provides an arsenal of seismic tools for testing structure and evolution models of Feige 48 and other, previously observed, sdB stars.

  8. CHARACTERIZING PULSATING MIXING OF SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the physical properties for defining the operation of a pulse jet mixing system. Pulse jet mixing operates with no moving parts located in the vessel to be mixed. Pulse tubes submerged in the vessel provide a pulsating flow due to a controlled combination of applied pressure to expel the fluid from the pulse tube nozzle followed by suction to refill the pulse tube through the same nozzle. For mixing slurries nondimensional parameters to define mixing operation include slurry properties, geometric properties and operational parameters. Primary parameters include jet Reynolds number and Froude number; alternate parameters may include particle Galileo number, particle Reynolds number, settling velocity ratio, and hindered settling velocity ratio. Rating metrics for system performance include just suspended velocity, concentration distribution as a function of elevation, and blend time.

  9. Survey of Candidate Pulsating Eclipsing Binaries - I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorak, S.

    2009-08-01

    Initial results from a photometric survey of stars selected from the list of eclipsing binaries that may contain a pulsating component by Soydugan et al. (2006) are reported. A minimum of two nights of CCD observations with V and/or B filters of each of the 35 stars from this list was collected. Of the 35 stars stud- ied, a pulsating component was detected in three of the systems. Pulsations were also serendiptiously detected in the eclipsing binary RR Leporis, which is not on the candidate list.

  10. Theoretical interpretations of anomalous Cepheid pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.; Proffitt, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Detailed pulsation studies have been made of five anomalous Cepheids in the Draco galaxy, one in the galactic globular cluster NGC 5466 and a possible anomalous Cepheid in M15. Observed quantities are periods, luminosities, and effective temperatures. Pulsation masses range from 1.0 to 1.8 solar masses, as found by others before. The variables with effective temperatures above 7000 K seem to be in the first overtone radial mode, while the others are fundamental pulsators. Investigations show that the masses and pulsation modes are independent of the assumed composition and details of the convection such as inclusion of the considerable turbulent pressure as part of the total pressure in the convection zone. 19 references.

  11. Small-scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S.; Jaynes, A. N.; Knudsen, D. J.; Trondsen, T.; Lessard, M.

    2011-12-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the 'off' phase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  12. Small-Scale Features in Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sarah; Jaynes, Allison N.; Knudsen, David J.; Trondsen, Trond; Lessard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A field study was conducted from March 12-16, 2002 using a narrow-field intensified CCD camera installed at Churchill, Manitoba. The camera was oriented along the local magnetic zenith where small-scale black auroral forms are often visible. This analysis focuses on such forms occurring within a region of pulsating aurora. The observations show black forms with irregular shape and nonuniform drift with respect to the relatively stationary pulsating patches. The pulsating patches occur within a diffuse auroral background as a modulation of the auroral brightness in a localized region. The images analyzed show a decrease in the brightness of the diffuse background in the region of the pulsating patch at the beginning of the offphase of the modulation. Throughout the off phase the brightness of the diffuse aurora gradually increases back to the average intensity. The time constant for this increase is measured as the first step toward determining the physical process.

  13. A motion picture presentation of magnetic pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suzuki, A.; Kim, J. S.; Sugura, M.; Nagano, H.

    1981-01-01

    Using the data obtained from the IMS North American magnetometer network stations at high latitudes, a motion picture was made by a computer technique, describing time changes of Pc5 and Pi3 magnetic pulsation vectors. Examples of pulsation characteristics derived from this presentation are regional polarization changes including shifts of polarization demarcation lines, changes in the extent of an active region and its movement with time.

  14. Statistical study of dayside pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanmae, T.; Kadokura, A.; Ogawa, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Motoba, T.; Gerrard, A. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2015-12-01

    Pulsating aurora normally occurs after a substorm breakup in the midnight sector, often observed to persist through the morning sector and beyond. Indeed, it has also been observed on the dayside; however, the characteristics of the dayside pulsating aurora are poorly known. A handful of observational studies have been reported, but the results are somewhat disputable because most of the studies had non-uniform sampling of the dark dayside region. Furthermore, the previous studies used photometer data, with which the spatial characteristics of the pulsating aurora cannot be examined. To determine both temporal and spatial characteristics of the pulsating aurora, we have studied three years of all-sky image data obtained at the South Pole station. Because of its unique geographical location, the station has 24 hours of darkness during the austral winter from April to August, providing an ideal platform for studying dayside aurora. In a preliminary survey of the data, we have identified the pulsating auroras in 198 days out of 365 days of observations. The magnetic local time (MLT) distribution of the occurrence peaks between 9:00 and 11:00, but shows no or little dependence on the geomagnetic activity. In many events, pulsating patches initially appear as east-west aligned arc segments and later in the afternoon sector develop into large, diffuse patches, which occasionally fill a large part of the field of view. Using the long-term data, we will statistically examine both temporal (occurrence rate, duration and pulsation period) and spatial (sizes and shapes) characteristics of the dayside pulsating aurora.

  15. Stellar pulsation and rotation in NGC 6811

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, E.; Ocando, S.; López-González, M. J.; Martín-Ruiz, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of the frequency analysis for a selected sample of pulsating δ Sct- and γ Dor-type stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 6811, which have been observed in short-cadence (SC) mode by the Kepler satellite. In all cases, the resulting frequency spectra are very complex, especially when the dominant pulsation is that of the δ Sct type, that is, short-period pulsations corresponding to excited pressure (p) modes. In all cases, the δ Sct stars are shown to be essentially δ Sct/ γ Dor hybrid pulsators. However, the opposite seems not to be true. We also find that the δ Sct-type peaks commonly are not stable in amplitude. Many of the main peaks significantly change their amplitudes over relatively short time scales. For a large percentage of pulsators in our sample we also find that the variability shown in the light curves is not produced by a single cause, but a combination of various sources: δ Sct- and γ Dor-type pulsations together with rotational modulation produced by starspots in the surfaces of these stars. This is an indication of stellar activity in the surfaces of these relatively hot stars of spectral type A(-F). Sometimes, activity dominates the luminosity variations in various pulsating stars in our sample. Eclipsing binarity is also detected in a few cases. Flares are also detected in one of the δ Sct-type pulsators. This is an indication of unusual strong activity for this kind of hot stars.

  16. Ultraviolet Spectra of Two Magnetic White Dwarfs and Ultraviolet Spectra of Subluminous Objects Found in the Kiso Schmidt Survey and Ultraviolet Absorptions in the Spectra of DA White Dwarfds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Research under NASA Grant NAG5-287 has carried out a number of projects in conjunction with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. These include: (1) studies of the UV spectra of DA white dwarfs which show quasi-molecular bands of H2 and H2(+); (2) the peculiar star HR6560; (3) the UV spectra of two magnetic white dwarfs that also show the quasi-molecular features; (4) investigations of the UV spectra of subluminous stars, primarily identified from visual wavelength spectroscopy in the Kiso survey of UV excess stars, some of which show interesting metal lines in their UV spectra; and (5) completion of studies of UV spectra of DB stars. The main result of this research has been to further knowledge of the structure and compositions of subluminous stars which helps cast light on their formation and evolution.

  17. Temperature effects in pulsating superfluid neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kantor, Elena M.; Gusakov, Mikhail E.

    2011-05-15

    We study the effects of finite stellar temperatures on the oscillations of superfluid neutron stars. The importance of these effects is illustrated with a simple example of a radially pulsating general relativistic star. Two main effects are taken into account: (i) temperature dependence of the entrainment matrix and (ii) the variation of the size of superfluid region with temperature. Four models are considered, which include either one or both of these two effects. Pulsation spectra are calculated for these models, and asymptotes for eigenfrequencies at temperatures close to critical temperature of neutron superfluidity are derived. It is demonstrated that models that allow for the temperature effect (ii) but disregard the effect (i), yield unrealistic results. Eigenfunctions for the normal- and superfluid-type pulsations are analyzed. It is shown that superfluid pulsation modes practically do not appear at the neutron-star surface and, therefore, can hardly be observed by measuring the modulation of the electromagnetic radiation from the star. The e-folding times for damping of pulsations due to the shear viscosity and nonequilibrium modified Urca processes are calculated and their asymptotes at temperatures close to the neutron critical temperature, are obtained. It is demonstrated that superfluid pulsation modes are damped by 1-3 orders of magnitude faster than normal modes.

  18. Multi-periodic pulsations of a stripped red-giant star in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Maxted, Pierre F L; Serenelli, Aldo M; Miglio, Andrea; Marsh, Thomas R; Heber, Ulrich; Dhillon, Vikram S; Littlefair, Stuart; Copperwheat, Chris; Smalley, Barry; Breedt, Elmé; Schaffenroth, Veronika

    2013-06-27

    Low-mass white-dwarf stars are the remnants of disrupted red-giant stars in binary millisecond pulsars and other exotic binary star systems. Some low-mass white dwarfs cool rapidly, whereas others stay bright for millions of years because of stable fusion in thick surface hydrogen layers. This dichotomy is not well understood, so the potential use of low-mass white dwarfs as independent clocks with which to test the spin-down ages of pulsars or as probes of the extreme environments in which low-mass white dwarfs form cannot fully be exploited. Here we report precise mass and radius measurements for the precursor to a low-mass white dwarf. We find that only models in which this disrupted red-giant star has a thick hydrogen envelope can match the strong constraints provided by our data. Very cool low-mass white dwarfs must therefore have lost their thick hydrogen envelopes by irradiation from pulsar companions or by episodes of unstable hydrogen fusion (shell flashes). We also find that this low-mass white-dwarf precursor is a type of pulsating star not hitherto seen. The observed pulsation frequencies are sensitive to internal processes that determine whether this star will undergo shell flashes.

  19. The discovery of Ni V in the photospheres of the hot DA white dwarfs RE 2214-492 and G191-B2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Hubeny, I.; Barstow, M. A.; Lanz, T.; Sion, E. M.; Tweedy, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    We have co-added six recently obtained International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) echelle spectra of the hot DA white dwarf RE 2214-492 and 10 existing archive spectra of the well-known hot DA, G191-B2B. We find that both stars contain numerous weak features due to Ni V. Nickel is thus the second iron-group element to be found in the spectra of the very hottest DA white dwarfs. In addition to Ni V, we also observe Al III in both stars and present evidence for the possible presence of Ni IV and Fe IV in RE 2214-492. The presence of Ni and Al, together with previously reported elements, will contribute significantly to both the EUV opacity and to the apparent complexity of the UV spectra of these stars. Using Non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres we estimate the Ni abundances in RE 2214-492 the G191-B2B to be log(Ni/H) = -5.5 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3, respectively.

  20. Pulsational Pair-instability Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    2017-02-01

    The final evolution of stars in the mass range 70-140 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ is explored. Depending upon their mass loss history and rotation rates, these stars will end their lives as pulsational pair-instability supernovae (PPISN) producing a great variety of observational transients with total durations ranging from weeks to millennia and luminosities from 1041 to over 1044 erg s-1. No nonrotating model radiates more than 5× {10}50 erg of light or has a kinetic energy exceeding 5× {10}51 erg, but greater energies are possible, in principle, in magnetar-powered explosions, which are explored. Many events resemble SNe Ibn, SNe Icn, and SNe IIn, and some potential observational counterparts are mentioned. Some PPISN can exist in a dormant state for extended periods, producing explosions millennia after their first violent pulse. These dormant supernovae contain bright Wolf-Rayet stars, possibly embedded in bright X-ray and radio sources. The relevance of PPISN to supernova impostors like Eta Carinae, to superluminous supernovae, and to sources of gravitational radiation is discussed. No black holes between 52 and 133 {\\text{}}{M}⊙ are expected from stellar evolution in close binaries.

  1. The First Kepler Observations of the Pulsations of R Coronae Borealis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Jeffery, C. Simon; Montiel, Edward; Saio, Hideyuki; Ramsay, Gavin

    2017-01-01

    K2 has opened a new avenue for the detailed study of the pulsations of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars. These observations are key to understanding the evolution of the RCB stars because their masses cannot be accurately estimated by other means. The ~75 days of near continuous, high-precision observations are ideal for our planned analysis of the brightness variations of the RCB stars. We are observing about 15 RCB stars In K2 Fields 7, 9, and 11.These observations will provide a better understanding of the pulsation mechanisms and modes in RCB stars. RCB stars are thought to be ~0.8-0.9 M(Sun) from previous stellar pulsation modeling. These estimated masses agree well with the predicted masses of the merger products of a CO- and a He-WD. Final-flash stars, since they are single white dwarfs, should typically have masses of 0.55-0.6 M(Sun). No cool RCB star, with T(eff) = 5000-7000 K, is known to be a binary so these mass estimates are of great importance to understanding the evolution of these enigmatic stars. RCB stars show periodic or semi-periodic light and radial velocity fluctuations due to both radial and non-radial pulsations. These stars show pulsation periods in the 40-100 d range. These variations are separate from the large declines in brightness caused by dust forming around the star. The pulsations in RCB stars are thought to arise through strange-mode instabilities. Strange modes occur in stars with high luminosity where radiation pressure dominates. RCB stars comprise a peculiar and rare class of stars that offers an excellent opportunity to reveal crucial insights into the advanced stages of stellar evolution.

  2. Objective detection of retinal vessel pulsation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, William H; Abdul-Rahman, Anmar; Yu, Dao-Yi; Hazelton, Martin L; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Lind, Christopher R P

    2015-01-01

    Retinal venous pulsation detection is a subjective sign, which varies in elevated intracranial pressure, venous obstruction and glaucoma. To date no method can objectively measure and identify pulsating regions. Using high resolution video-recordings of the optic disk and retina we measured fluctuating light absorption by haemoglobin during pulsation. Pulsation amplitude was calculated from all regions of the retinal image video-frames in a raster pattern. Segmented retinal images were formed by objectively selecting regions with amplitudes above a range of threshold values. These were compared to two observers manually drawing an outline of the pulsating areas while viewing video-clips in order to generate receiver operator characteristics. 216,515 image segments were analysed from 26 eyes in 18 research participants. Using data from each eye, the median area under the receiver operator curve (AU-ROC) was 0.95. With all data analysed together the AU-ROC was 0.89. We defined the ideal threshold amplitude for detection of any pulsating segment being that with maximal sensitivity and specificity. This was 5 units (95% confidence interval 4.3 to 6.0) compared to 12 units before any regions were missed. A multivariate model demonstrated that ideal threshold amplitude increased with increased variation in video-sequence illumination (p = 0.0119), but between the two observers (p = 0.0919) or other variables. This technique demonstrates accurate identification of retinal vessel pulsating regions with no areas identified manually being missed with the objective technique. The amplitude values are derived objectively and may be a significant advance upon subjective ophthalmodynamometric threshold techniques.

  3. Thermal Management Using Pulsating Jet Cooling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimohammadi, S.; Dinneen, P.; Persoons, T.; Murray, D. B.

    2014-07-01

    The existing methods of heat removal from compact electronic devises are known to be deficient as the evolving technology demands more power density and accordingly better cooling techniques. Impinging jets can be used as a satisfactory method for thermal management of electronic devices with limited space and volume. Pulsating flows can produce an additional enhancement in heat transfer rate compared to steady flows. This article is part of a comprehensive experimental and numerical study performed on pulsating jet cooling technology. The experimental approach explores heat transfer performance of a pulsating air jet impinging onto a flat surface for nozzle-to-surface distances 1 <= H/D <= 6, Reynolds numbers 1,300 <= Re <= 2,800 pulsation frequency 2Hz <= f <= 65Hz, and Strouhal number 0.0012 <= Sr = fD/Um <= 0.084. The time-resolved velocity at the nozzle exit is measured to quantify the turbulence intensity profile. The numerical methodology is firstly validated using the experimental local Nusselt number distribution for the steady jet with the same geometry and boundary conditions. For a time-averaged Reynolds number of 6,000, the heat transfer enhancement using the pulsating jet for 9Hz <= f <= 55Hz and 0.017 <= Sr <= 0.102 and 1 <= H/D <= 6 are calculated. For the same range of Sr number, the numerical and experimental methods show consistent results.

  4. Modeling of pulsating heat pipes.

    SciTech Connect

    Givler, Richard C.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a computer model that describes the behavior of pulsating heat pipes (PHP). The purpose of the project was to develop a highly efficient (as compared to the heat transfer capability of solid copper) thermal groundplane (TGP) using silicon carbide (SiC) as the substrate material and water as the working fluid. The objective of this project is to develop a multi-physics model for this complex phenomenon to assist with an understanding of how PHPs operate and to be able to understand how various parameters (geometry, fill ratio, materials, working fluid, etc.) affect its performance. The physical processes describing a PHP are highly coupled. Understanding its operation is further complicated by the non-equilibrium nature of the interplay between evaporation/condensation, bubble growth and collapse or coalescence, and the coupled response of the multiphase fluid dynamics among the different channels. A comprehensive theory of operation and design tools for PHPs is still an unrealized task. In the following we first analyze, in some detail, a simple model that has been proposed to describe PHP behavior. Although it includes fundamental features of a PHP, it also makes some assumptions to keep the model tractable. In an effort to improve on current modeling practice, we constructed a model for a PHP using some unique features available in FLOW-3D, version 9.2-3 (Flow Science, 2007). We believe that this flow modeling software retains more of the salient features of a PHP and thus, provides a closer representation of its behavior.

  5. Space- and ground-based observations of pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sarah

    Pulsating aurora is a frequently occurring phenomenon generally believed to occur mainly in the aftermath of a substorm, resulting in widespread auroral luminosity corresponding to a significant transfer of power from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. A handful of theories have been proposed to explain the associated precipitation mechanism, which have been shown to ineffectively explain certain aspects of pulsating aurora. Previous research into pulsating aurora has provided a wealth of observations, yet much remains unknown about this phenomenon and some previous observations are contradictory. The focus of this presentation is the analysis of ground- and space-based measurements of pulsating aurora (primarily THEMIS ASI array, Poker Flat ISR, and Rocket Observations of Pulsating Aurora) to provide information regarding the large-scale spatial and temporal evolution of pulsating aurora events and the relationship to substorms, to determine the altitude extent and precipitating electron distribution corresponding to pulsating aurora, and to understand commonly occurring features within pulsating aurora.

  6. Pulsating star research and the Gaia revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyer, Laurent; Clementini, Gisella; Guy, Leanne P.; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Glass, Florian; Audard, Marc; Holl, Berry; Charnas, Jonathan; Cuypers, Jan; Ridder, Joris De; Evans, Dafydd W.; de Fombelle, Gregory Jevardat; Lanzafame, Alessandro; Lecoeur-Taibi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Riello, Marco; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Sarro, Luis; Süveges, Maria

    2017-09-01

    In this article we present an overview of the ESA Gaia mission and of the unprecedented impact that Gaia will have on the field of variable star research. We summarise the contents and impact of the first Gaia data release on the description of variability phenomena, with particular emphasis on pulsating star research. The Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution, although limited to 2.1 million stars, has been used in many studies related to pulsating stars. Furthermore a set of 3,194 Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with their times series have been released. Finally we present the plans for the ongoing study of variable phenomena with Gaia and highlight some of the possible impacts of the second data release on variable, and specifically, pulsating stars.

  7. Transition to turbulence in pulsating pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hof, Bjorn; Warnecke, Sascha; Xu, Duo

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental study of the transition to turbulence in a pulsating pipe flow the most important example of pulsating flows is the cardiovascular system where the onset of fluctuations and turbulence can be a possible cause for various diseases such as the formation of aneurysms. The present study is limited to a straight rigid pipe, sinusoidal modulation of the flow rate and a Newtonian fluid. The dimensionless parameters (Womersley and Reynolds numbers) were chosen to include the parameter range encountered in larger arteries. We observe that at large frequencies the critical point for the onset of turbulence remains completely unaffected by pulsation for all amplitudes investigated (up to 40%). However for smaller frequencies (Womersley numbers below 10) the critical point considerably increases. Furthermore we investigate how the transition scenario is affected for a fixed frequency and increasing amplitudes (approaching oscillatory flow).

  8. AT LAST-A V777 HER PULSATOR IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Oestensen, R. H.; Bloemen, S.; Vuckovic, M.; Aerts, C.; Oreiro, R.; Kinemuchi, K.; Still, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present the discovery of the first-and so far the only-pulsating white dwarf star located in the field of view of the Kepler spacecraft. During our ongoing effort to search for compact pulsator candidates that can benefit from the near-continuous coverage of Kepler, we recently identified a faint DB star from spectroscopy obtained with the William Herschel Telescope. After establishing its physical parameters to be T{sub eff} = 24,950 K and log g = 7.91 dex, placing it right in the middle of the V777 Her instability strip, we immediately submitted the target for follow-up space observations. The Kepler light curve reveals a pulsation spectrum consisting of five modes that follow a sequence roughly equally spaced in period with a mean spacing of 37 s. The three strongest modes show a triplet structure with a mean splitting of 3.3 {mu}Hz. We conclude that this object is a V777 Her pulsator with a mass of {approx}0.56 M{sub sun}, and very similar to the class prototype.

  9. At Last—A V777 Her Pulsator in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østensen, R. H.; Bloemen, S.; Vučković, M.; Aerts, C.; Oreiro, R.; Kinemuchi, K.; Still, M.; Koester, D.

    2011-08-01

    We present the discovery of the first—and so far the only—pulsating white dwarf star located in the field of view of the Kepler spacecraft. During our ongoing effort to search for compact pulsator candidates that can benefit from the near-continuous coverage of Kepler, we recently identified a faint DB star from spectroscopy obtained with the William Herschel Telescope. After establishing its physical parameters to be T eff = 24,950 K and log g = 7.91 dex, placing it right in the middle of the V777 Her instability strip, we immediately submitted the target for follow-up space observations. The Kepler light curve reveals a pulsation spectrum consisting of five modes that follow a sequence roughly equally spaced in period with a mean spacing of 37 s. The three strongest modes show a triplet structure with a mean splitting of 3.3 μHz. We conclude that this object is a V777 Her pulsator with a mass of ~0.56 M sun, and very similar to the class prototype.

  10. The research on flow pulsation characteristics of axial piston pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingchao; Wang, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    The flow pulsation is an important factor influencing the axial piston pump performance. In this paper we implement modeling and simulation of the axial piston pump with AMESim software to explore the flow pulsation characteristics under various factors . Theory analysis shows the loading pressure, angular speed, piston numbers and the accumulator impose evident influence on the flow pulsation characteristics. This simulation and analysis can be used for reducing the flow pulsation rate via properly setting the related factors.

  11. Benefit of pulsation in soft corals

    PubMed Central

    Kremien, Maya; Shavit, Uri; Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-01-01

    Soft corals of the family Xeniidae exhibit a unique, rhythmic pulsation of their tentacles (Movie S1), first noted by Lamarck nearly 200 y ago. However, the adaptive benefit of this perpetual, energetically costly motion is poorly understood. Using in situ underwater particle image velocimetry, we found that the pulsation motions thrust water upward and enhance mixing across the coral–water boundary layer. The induced upward motion effectively prevents refiltration of water by neighboring polyps, while the intensification of mixing, together with the upward flow, greatly enhances the coral’s photosynthesis. A series of controlled laboratory experiments with the common xeniid coral Heteroxenia fuscescens showed that the net photosynthesis rate during pulsation was up to an order of magnitude higher than during the coral’s resting, nonpulsating state. This enhancement diminished when the concentration of oxygen in the ambient water was artificially raised, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthesis was due to a greater efflux of oxygen from the coral tissues. By lowering the internal oxygen concentration, pulsation alleviates the problem of reduced affinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) to CO2 under conditions of high oxygen concentrations. The photosynthesis–respiration ratio of the pulsating H. fuscescens was markedly higher than the ratios reported for nonpulsating soft and stony corals. Although pulsation is commonly used for locomotion and filtration in marine mobile animals, its occurrence in sessile (bottom-attached) species is limited to members of the ancient phylum Cnidaria, where it is used to accelerate water and enhance physiological processes. PMID:23610420

  12. Benefit of pulsation in soft corals.

    PubMed

    Kremien, Maya; Shavit, Uri; Mass, Tali; Genin, Amatzia

    2013-05-28

    Soft corals of the family Xeniidae exhibit a unique, rhythmic pulsation of their tentacles (Movie S1), first noted by Lamarck nearly 200 y ago. However, the adaptive benefit of this perpetual, energetically costly motion is poorly understood. Using in situ underwater particle image velocimetry, we found that the pulsation motions thrust water upward and enhance mixing across the coral-water boundary layer. The induced upward motion effectively prevents refiltration of water by neighboring polyps, while the intensification of mixing, together with the upward flow, greatly enhances the coral's photosynthesis. A series of controlled laboratory experiments with the common xeniid coral Heteroxenia fuscescens showed that the net photosynthesis rate during pulsation was up to an order of magnitude higher than during the coral's resting, nonpulsating state. This enhancement diminished when the concentration of oxygen in the ambient water was artificially raised, indicating that the enhancement of photosynthesis was due to a greater efflux of oxygen from the coral tissues. By lowering the internal oxygen concentration, pulsation alleviates the problem of reduced affinity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) to CO2 under conditions of high oxygen concentrations. The photosynthesis-respiration ratio of the pulsating H. fuscescens was markedly higher than the ratios reported for nonpulsating soft and stony corals. Although pulsation is commonly used for locomotion and filtration in marine mobile animals, its occurrence in sessile (bottom-attached) species is limited to members of the ancient phylum Cnidaria, where it is used to accelerate water and enhance physiological processes.

  13. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Bell, Keaton J.; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B < 70 kG. Since up to 15% of white dwarfs display kG magnetic fields, such eclipse-like events should be common around white dwarfs. We discuss the potential implications of this discovery on transient surveys targeting white dwarfs, like the K2 mission and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, McDonald Observatory, and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. The latter is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  14. A COMPREHENSIVE SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF DB WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.; Wesemael, F.; Dufour, Pierre; Beauchamp, A.; Hunter, C.; Gianninas, A.; Limoges, M.-M.; Dufour, Patrick; Fontaine, G.; Saffer, Rex A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Liebert, James E-mail: wesemael@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: limoges@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: fontaine@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: chris.hunter@yale.edu E-mail: mtruiz@das.uchile.cl

    2011-08-10

    We present a detailed analysis of 108 helium-line (DB) white dwarfs based on model atmosphere fits to high signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy. We derive a mean mass of 0.67 M{sub sun} for our sample, with a dispersion of only 0.09 M{sub sun}. White dwarfs also showing hydrogen lines, the DBA stars, comprise 44% of our sample, and their mass distribution appears similar to that of DB stars. As in our previous investigation, we find no evidence for the existence of low-mass (M < 0.5 M{sub sun}) DB white dwarfs. We derive a luminosity function based on a subset of DB white dwarfs identified in the Palomar-Green Survey. We show that 20% of all white dwarfs in the temperature range of interest are DB stars, although the fraction drops to half this value above T{sub eff} {approx} 20,000 K. We also show that the persistence of DB stars with no hydrogen features at low temperatures is difficult to reconcile with a scenario involving accretion from the interstellar medium, often invoked to account for the observed hydrogen abundances in DBA stars. We present evidence for the existence of two different evolutionary channels that produce DB white dwarfs: the standard model where DA stars are transformed into DB stars through the convective dilution of a thin hydrogen layer and a second channel where DB stars retain a helium atmosphere throughout their evolution. We finally demonstrate that the instability strip of pulsating V777 Her white dwarfs contains no non-variables, if the hydrogen content of these stars is properly accounted for.

  15. Linear nonradial pulsation theory. Lecture 7

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-03-14

    Many of the upper main-sequence stars pulsate in spheroidal nonradial modes. We know this to be true in numerous cases, as we have tabulated for the ..beta.. Cephei and delta Scuti variables in previous lectures. However, we cannot identify the actual mode for any star except for the low-order pressure p and f modes of our sun. It remains a great challenge to clearly state what really is occurring, in the process we learn more about how stars evolve and pulsate.

  16. Polaris: history of pulsation activity since discovery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usenko, I. O.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Danford, S.

    2017-02-01

    The pulsation activity of small-amplitude Cepheid Alpha UMi (Polaris) during the period of its radial velocity observations has been analyzed. In the 20th century, Polaris was known to demonstrate a decrease in radial velocity amplitude to the minimum, in the 1980s. Thereafter, the amplitude has increased. The observations of September-December 2015 (21 spectra) obtained by 81cm telescope TCO with spectrograph have showed that radial velocity amplitude comes to 4.16 km/s and is approximately twice higher than the estimates made in 2007, with pulsation period adding 8.6 min.

  17. Gas compressor with side branch absorber for pulsation control

    DOEpatents

    Harris, Ralph E [San Antonio, TX; Scrivner, Christine M [San Antonio, TX; Broerman, III, Eugene L.

    2011-05-24

    A method and system for reducing pulsation in lateral piping associated with a gas compressor system. A tunable side branch absorber (TSBA) is installed on the lateral piping. A pulsation sensor is placed in the lateral piping, to measure pulsation within the piping. The sensor output signals are delivered to a controller, which controls actuators that change the acoustic dimensions of the SBA.

  18. Evaluation of pump pulsation in respirable size-selective sampling: part I. Pulsation measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Larry; Möhlmann, Carsten; Flemmer, Michael M; Kashon, Michael; Harper, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Pulsations generated by personal sampling pumps modulate the airflow through the sampling trains, thereby varying sampling efficiencies, and possibly invalidating collection or monitoring. The purpose of this study was to characterize pulsations generated by personal sampling pumps relative to a nominal flow rate at the inlet of different respirable cyclones. Experiments were conducted using a factorial combination of 13 widely used sampling pumps (11 medium and 2 high volumetric flow rate pumps having a diaphragm mechanism) and 7 cyclones [10-mm nylon also known as Dorr-Oliver (DO), Higgins-Dewell (HD), GS-1, GS-3, Aluminum, GK2.69, and FSP-10]. A hot-wire anemometer probe cemented to the inlet of each cyclone type was used to obtain pulsation readings. The three medium flow rate pump models showing the highest, a midrange, and the lowest pulsations and two high flow rate pump models for each cyclone type were tested with dust-loaded filters (0.05, 0.21, and 1.25mg) to determine the effects of filter loading on pulsations. The effects of different tubing materials and lengths on pulsations were also investigated. The fundamental frequency range was 22-110 Hz and the magnitude of pulsation as a proportion of the mean flow rate ranged from 4.4 to 73.1%. Most pump/cyclone combinations generated pulse magnitudes ≥10% (48 out of 59 combinations), while pulse shapes varied considerably. Pulsation magnitudes were not considerably different for the clean and dust-loaded filters for the DO, HD, and Aluminum cyclones, but no consistent pattern was observed for the other cyclone types. Tubing material had less effect on pulsations than tubing length; when the tubing length was 183cm, pronounced damping was observed for a pump with high pulsation (>60%) for all tested tubing materials except for the Tygon Inert tubing. The findings in this study prompted a further study to determine the possibility of shifts in cyclone sampling efficiency due to sampling pump pulsations

  19. VOLUME COMPENSATING MEANS FOR PULSATING PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, D.L.W.; MacCormack, R.S. Jr.

    1959-12-01

    A double diaphragm, two-liquid pulsating pump for remote control use, having as an improvement an apparatus for maintaining constant the volume of the liquid such as kerosene between the two diaphragms is described. Phase difficulties encountered in the operation of such pumps when the volume of the liquid is altered by changes in temperature are avoided.

  20. Blackworms, Blood Vessel Pulsations and Drug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiuk, Nalena M.; Drewes, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the freshwater oligochaete worm, lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworms), an organism that is well suited for classroom study because of its closed circulatory system. Describes a set of simple, fast, noninvasive, and inexpensive methods for observing pulsations of the worm's dorsal blood vessels under baseline conditions, and…

  1. Blackworms, Blood Vessel Pulsations and Drug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiuk, Nalena M.; Drewes, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the freshwater oligochaete worm, lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworms), an organism that is well suited for classroom study because of its closed circulatory system. Describes a set of simple, fast, noninvasive, and inexpensive methods for observing pulsations of the worm's dorsal blood vessels under baseline conditions, and…

  2. Pulsations in total columnar electron content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okuzawa, T.; Davies, K.

    1981-01-01

    Radio signals from the ATS 6 beacon received at Boulder reveal small-amplitude, quasi-sinusoidal fluctuations with periods in the range of 10 to 50 s. Visual comparisons of these data (116 events for October 1974 to April 1975) shows a good correspondence with simultaneous geomagnetic pulsations at Boulder in two thirds of the cases for which Boulder magnetograms were available, but they do not necessarily correspond with magnetic pulsations on ATS 6. Spectral analyses, by the method of maximum entropy, were made on sample records. The principal results are the following: (1) The occurrence of the pulsations is higher on magnetically disturbed days. (2) The maximum likelihood of occurrence is around 2100 UT (1400 LT). (3) The dominant spectrum peaks of the radio fluctuations and geomagnetic field on the ground generally coincide. Cases are found also in which temporal characteristics of the spectra are similar. These results indicate a close association of the radio fluctuations with the Pc 3-4 type pulsations of the geomagnetic field on the ground. It is suggested that the radio fluctuations originate mainly in the F region of the ionosphere, while some of them could be due to plasmapause effects.

  3. Pulsation behavior of classical Am star 60 Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiping, Li

    2000-08-01

    Five nights photoelectric photometric observations through v and y bands confirm the pulsation of classical Am δ Scuti variable 60 Tau. Power spectrum of light curves shows multi-period pulsation behavior of 60 Tau and two pulsation modes f1=13.0364 and f2=11.8521 cycles per day are definitely identified. Classical Am star 60 Tau is a complicated pulsation δ Scuti variable. Considering the pulsation constant Q, 60 Tau is identified to be low overtone f or p1 modes tendentiously.

  4. EX-111 Thermal Emission from Hot White Dwarfs: The Suggested He Abundance-Temperature Correlation. EX-112: The Unique Emission Line White Dwarf Star GD 356

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the EXOSAT data analysis program is reported. EXOSAT observations for four white dwarfs (WD1031-115, WD0004+330, WD1615-154, and WD0109-264) were obtained. Counting rates were unexpectedly low, indicating that these objects have a substantial amount of x-ray absorbing matter in their photosheres. In addition, soft x-ray pulsations characterized by a 9.25 minute cycle were discovered in the DA white dwarf V471 Tauri. A residual x-ray flux from the K dwarf companion can be seen during the white dwarf eclipse at orbital phase 0.0. Pronounced dips in the soft x-ray light curve occur at orbital phases 0.15, 0.18, and 0.85. The dips may be correlated with the triangular Lagrangian points of the binary orbit. Smaller dips at phases near the eclipse may be associated with cool loops in the K star corona. Data for the white dwarf H1504+65 was also analyzed. This object is particularly unusual in that its photoshere is devoid of hydrogen and helium. Finally, existing data on the white dwarf Sirius B were analyzed to see what constraints from other data can be placed on the properties of this star. Interrelationships between radius, rotational velocity, and effective temperature were derived.

  5. The White Mountain Apache Child Protection Service Training Curriculum. Nohwii Chaghashe Baa da gontzaa (Protect Our Apache Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Santin, Edwin, Comp.

    This curriculum manual provides 8 days of training for child protective services (CPS) personnel (social workers and administrators) working in the White Mountain Apache tribal community. Each of the first seven units in the manual contains a brief description of contents, course objectives, time required, key concepts, possible discussion topics,…

  6. Convection in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, Judith L.; Shipman, H.; Dalessio, J.; M, M.

    2012-01-01

    Convection is one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. Current studies of convective energy transport are based on the mixing length theory. Originally intended to depict turbulent flows in engineering situations, MLT enjoys moderate success in describing stellar convection. However, problems arising from MLT's incompleteness are apparent in studies ranging from determinations of the ages of massive stars, to understanding the structure F and early A stars, to predicting the pulsation periods of solar stars, to understanding the atmosphere of Titan. As an example for white dwarfs, Bergeron et al. (1995) show that model parameters such as flux, line profiles, energy distribution, color indices, and equivalent widths are extremely sensitive to the assumed MLT parameterization. The authors find systematic uncertainties ranging from 25% for effective temperatures to 11% for mass and radius. The WET is engaged in a long term project to empirically determine the physical properties of convection in the atmospheres of pulsating white dwarfs. The technique, outlined by Montgomery et al. (2010), uses information from nonlinear (non-sinusoidal) pulse shapes of the target star to empirically probe the physical properties of its convection zone. Approximately two thirds of all white dwarfs show nonlinear characteristics in their light curves. We present current results from WET targets in 2008-2011.

  7. Rapid Rotation of a Heavy White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    New Kepler observations of a pulsating white dwarf have revealed clues about the rotation of intermediate-mass stars.Learning About ProgenitorsStars weighing in at under 8 solar masses generally end their lives as slowly cooling white dwarfs. By studying the rotation of white dwarfs, therefore, we are able to learn about the final stages of angular momentum evolution in these progenitor stars.Most isolated field white dwarfs cluster in mass around 0.62 solar masses, which corresponds to a progenitor mass of around 2.2 solar masses. This abundance means that weve already learned a good deal about the final rotation of low-mass (13 solar-mass) stars. Our knowledge about the angular momentum of intermediate-mass (38 solar-mass) stars, on the other hand, remains fairly limited.Fourier transform of the pulsations from SDSSJ0837+1856. The six frequencies of stellar variability, marked with red dots, reveal a rotation period of 1.13 hours. [Hermes et al. 2017]Record-Breaking FindA newly discovered white dwarf, SDSSJ0837+1856, is now helping to shed light on this mass range. SDSSJ0837+1856 appears to be unusually massive: its measured at 0.87 solar masses, which corresponds to a progenitor mass of roughly 4.0 solar masses. Determining the rotation of this white dwarf would therefore tell us about the final stages of angular momentum in an intermediate-mass star.In a new study led by J.J. Hermes (Hubble Fellow at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill), a team of scientists presents a series of measurements of SDSSJ0837+1856 that suggest its the highest-mass and fastest-rotating isolated pulsating white dwarf known.Histogram of rotation rates determined from the asteroseismology of pulsating white dwarfs (marked in red). SDSSJ0837+1856 (indicated in black) is more massive and rotates faster than any other known pulsating white dwarf. [Hermes et al. 2017]Rotation from PulsationsWhy pulsating? In the absence of measurable spots and other surface features, the way we

  8. Pulsation tomography of rapidly oscillating Ap stars. Resolving the third dimension in peculiar pulsating stellar atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Sachkov, M.; Kochukhov, O.; Lyashko, D.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:We present detailed analysis of the vertical pulsation mode cross-section in ten rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars based on spectroscopic time-series observations. The aim of this analysis is to derive from observations a complete picture of how the amplitude and phase of magnetoacoustic waves depend on depth. Methods: We use the unique properties of roAp stars, in particular chemical stratification, to resolve the vertical structure of p-modes. Our approach consists of characterising pulsational behaviour of a carefully chosen, but extensive sample of spectral lines. We analyse the resulting amplitude-phase diagrams and interpret observations in terms of pulsation wave propagation. Results: We find common features in the pulsational behaviour of roAp stars. Within a sample of representative elements the lowest amplitudes are detected for Eu ii (and Fe in 33 Lib and in HD 19918), then pulsations go through the layers where Hα core, Nd, and Pr lines are formed. There RV amplitude reaches its maximum, and after that decreases in most stars. The maximum RV of the second REE ions is always delayed relative to the first ions. The largest phase shifts are detected in Tb iii and Th iii lines. Pulsational variability of the Th iii lines is detected here for the first time. The Y ii lines deviate from this picture, showing even lower amplitudes than Eu ii lines but half a period phase shift relative to other weakly pulsating lines. We measured an extra broadening, equivalent to a macroturbulent velocity from 4 to 11-12 km s-1 (where maximum values are observed for Tb iii and Th iii lines), for pulsating REE lines. The surface magnetic field strength is derived for the first time for three roAp stars: HD 9289 (2 kG), HD 12932 (1.7 kG), and HD 19918 (1.6 kG). Conclusions: The roAp stars exhibit similarity in the depth-dependence of pulsation phase and amplitude, indicating similar chemical stratification and comparable vertical mode cross-sections. In general

  9. Evaluation of hydro-mechanical pulsation for rocket injector research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew B.

    The Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has designed and built a hydro-mechanical pulsator to simulate the pressure fluctuations created by high frequency combustion instability. The pressure response characteristics were evaluated in an atmospheric test rig using filtered de-ionized water as the working fluid. The outlet of the pulsator was connected to a swirl injector post to provide downstream flow resistance. Previous low pressure and mass flow experimental data revealed a complex relationship between the control parameters and the pulsation response. For each test, the average mass flow rates of the waste water, water lost through the seals, and injector mass flow rates are measured. A dynamic pressure transducer at the pulsator exit measures and records the pressure waveform. Pulsation magnitude, reliability, repeatability, pulsation effects, and detailed variable control are examined. The data shows the pulsator is capable of generating 30% pulsation at 1575 Hz input. The repeatability of the pulsator is questionable because the standard deviations exceeded 40% of the average. The detailed data obtained during this research provides is sufficient to develop a pulsator tuning procedure for future applications.

  10. Pulsation and mass loss in Mira variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The behavior of pulsation in the outer layers of a typical Mira variable was studied in the adiabatic and isothermal limits. A shock wave propagates outward once per period and the radial velocity obtained from observations of hydrogen emission lines is identified with the velocity of gas in the post shock region. In the adiabatic case, mass loss in the form of a steady stellar wind was produced. In the isothermal case, no continuous mass loss was produced but occasional ejection of shells occur. Pulsation introduced into a star undergoing steady mass loss as a result of radiation pressure acting on grains caused the mass loss rate to increase by a factor of approximately 40, while the terminal velocity of the flow was almost unaltered.

  11. Stellar pulsations in beyond Horndeski gravity theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy; Kenna-Allison, Michael; Koyama, Kazuya

    2017-03-01

    Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class recover the predictions of general relativity in the solar system whilst admitting novel cosmologies, including late-time de Sitter solutions in the absence of a cosmological constant. Deviations from Newton's law are predicted inside astrophysical bodies, which allow for falsifiable, smoking-gun tests of the theory. In this work we study the pulsations of stars by deriving and solving the wave equation governing linear adiabatic oscillations to find the modified period of pulsation. Using both semi-analytic and numerical models, we perform a preliminary survey of the stellar zoo in an attempt to identify the best candidate objects for testing the theory. Brown dwarfs and Cepheid stars are found to be particularly sensitive objects and we discuss the possibility of using both to test the theory.

  12. Reverse Fluid Transport Due to Boundary Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma, Mikhail; Schaffer, David; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We investigate a reverse fluid transport mechanism consisting of peristaltic flow and boundary wave reflections. The reverse flow occurs in a rectangular conduit aligned in parallel between two cylindrical channels embedded in an elastic PDMS medium. The pulsating flow in the cylindrical channels, driven by a peristaltic pump, deform the PDMS medium and induce a pulsating flow in the rectangular conduit. Waveforms along the conduit boundaries, and their transmission and reflections, can be controlled by changing the PDMS rigidity. Our results show that while the overall wave propagation direction is in the forward direction, a reverse flow in the rectangular conduit can be preferentially induced by varying the elastic rigidity in one of the cylindrical channels. We study the overall flow velocity and direction under various PDMS rigidities. The identified set of experimental parameters that leads to a reverse flow will provide insights in understanding metabolic waste transport within the arterial walls in the brain.

  13. BRUCE/KYLIE: Pulsating star spectra synthesizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Rich

    2014-12-01

    BRUCE and KYLIE, written in Fortran 77, synthesize the spectra of pulsating stars. BRUCE constructs a point-sampled model for the surface of a rotating, gravity-darkened star, and then subjects this model to perturbations arising from one or more non-radial pulsation modes. Departures from adiabaticity can be taken into account, as can the Coriolis force through adoption of the so-called traditional approximation. BRUCE writes out a time-sequence of perturbed surface models. This sequence is read in by KYLIE, which synthesizes disk-integrated spectra for the models by co-adding the specific intensity emanating from each visible point toward the observer. The specific intensity is calculated by interpolation in a large temperature-gravity-wavelength-angle grid of pre-calculated intensity spectra.

  14. Pulsating Radio Sources near the Crab Nebula.

    PubMed

    Staelin, D H; Reifenstein, E C

    1968-12-27

    Two new pulsating radio sources, designated NP 0527 and NP 0532, were found near the Crab Nebula and could be coincident with it. Both sources are sporadic, and no periodicities are evident. The pulse dispersions indicate that 1.58 +/- 0.03 and 1.74 +/- 0.02 x 10(20) electrons per square centimeter lie in the direction of NP 0527 and NP 0532, respectively.

  15. Major isoform of zebrafish P0 is a 23.5 kDa myelin glycoprotein expressed in selected white matter tracts of the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Bai, Qing; Sun, Ming; Stolz, Donna B; Burton, Edward A

    2011-06-01

    The zebrafish mpz gene, encoding the ortholog of mammalian myelin protein zero, is expressed in oligodendrocytes of the zebrafish central nervous system (CNS). The putative gene product, P0, has been implicated in promoting axonal regeneration in addition to its proposed structural functions in compact myelin. We raised novel zebrafish P0-specific antibodies and established that P0 is a 23.5 kDa glycoprotein containing a 3 kDa N-linked carbohydrate moiety. P0 was localized to myelin sheaths surrounding axons, but was not detected in the cell bodies or proximal processes of oligodendrocytes. Many white matter tracts in the adult zebrafish CNS were robustly immunoreactive for P0, including afferent visual and olfactory pathways, commissural and longitudinal tracts of the brain, and selected ascending and descending tracts of the spinal cord. P0 was first detected during development in premyelinating oligodendrocytes of the ventral hindbrain at 48 hours postfertilization (hpf). By 72 hpf, short segments of longitudinally oriented P0-immunoreactive myelinating axons were seen in the hindbrain; expression in the spinal cord, optic pathways, hindbrain commissures, midbrain, and peripheral nervous system followed. The mpz transcript was found to be alternatively spliced, giving rise to P0 isoforms with alternative C-termini. The 23.5 kDa isoform was most abundant in the CNS, but other isoforms predominated in the myelin sheath surrounding the Mauthner axon. These data provide a detailed account of P0 expression and demonstrate novel P0 isoforms, which may have discrete functional properties. The restriction of P0 immunoreactivity to myelin sheaths indicates that the protein is subject to stringent intracellular compartmentalization, which likely occurs through posttranslational mechanisms.

  16. Beyond Binarity: Spots, Pulsations, and Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Cole; Prsa, A.

    2014-01-01

    We use the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (Prsa et al. 2011) to find and explore previously unstudied intrinsic stellar variability and stellar multiplicity. All but the highest-amplitude intrinsic variation in these systems is dominated by the eclipsing binary signature, however by fitting a physical model to the eclipsing binary signal and then subtracting this model from the lightcurve, we effectively remove binary effects and can search the residuals for other sources of variability. Using 120 stars for our sample, observed at a 1-min cadence by NASA's Kepler satellite (Borucki et al. 2009), we find low amplitude spot variation, pulsations, and background eclipsing binary stars. Frequencies derived from the spot variations and pulsations provide us with information on the rotation rates, internal structure and physical parameters of the stars that comprise each system. Using frequency and period relations derived by Tassoul (1980), we identify g-mode and p-mode pulsations from the derived signals. We apply asteroseismic methods to interpret these signals and determine the radii and masses of the system components, differential surface and interior rotation, and evolutionary state of these stars. Binary star modeling of these systems yields independent values of the masses, radii, and temperatures of both components, as well as any tidal deformation that may occur. By coupling these approaches, we aim able to construct a fully consistent model of the systems that undergo these variations. We highlight systems of particular interest and discuss frequently observed features in the power spectra.

  17. Amplitude of Supersonic Diffuser Flow Pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterbentz, William H.; Davids, Joseph

    1952-01-01

    A theoretical method for evaluating the stability characteristics and the amplitude and the frequency of pulsation of ram-jet engines without heat addition is presented herein. Experimental verification of the theoretical results are included where data were available. Theory and experiment show that the pulsation amplitude of a high mass-flow-ratio diffuser having no cone surface flow separation increases with decreasing mass flow. The theoretical trends for changes in amplitude, frequency, and mean-pressure recovery with changes in plenum-chamber volume were experimentally confirmed. For perforated convergent-divergent-type diffusers, a stability hysteresis loop was predicted on the pressure-recovery mass-flow-ratio curve. At a given mean mass-flow ratio, the higher.value of mean pressure recovery corresponded to oscillatory flow in the diffuser while the lower branch was stable. This hysteresis has been observed experimentally. The theory indicates that for a ram-jet engine of given diameter, the amplitude of pulsation of a supersonic diffuser is increased by decreasing the relative size of the plenum chamber with respect to the diffuser volume down to a critical value at which oscillations cease. In the region of these critical values, the stable mass-flow range of the diffuser may be increased either by decreasing the combustion chamber volume or by increasing the length of the diffuser.

  18. Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations, pulsating particle precipitation, and VLF chorus: Case study on 24 November 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, J.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Turunen, T.

    2010-08-01

    The event (24 November 2006, ˜0400-0500 UT) of the simultaneous observations of Pc5 ULF geomagnetic pulsations, electron precipitation (CNA riometer absorption), and whistler-mode chorus, as well as solar wind (SW) and IMF parameters have been analyzed based on the data from IMAGE magnetometers, Finnish riometer array, and temporal VLF station. The visible correlation between the simultaneous occurrence of several minutes scale patches of chorus and pulsating CNA enhancements was found. The dynamic spectra of the riometer data showed a maximum at ˜3.5 mHz in the first half-hour interval and at ˜2.0 mHz in the second one, while the ULF pulsation spectra exhibit these two maxima in both intervals simultaneously. In the first time interval, the Pc5 pulsations at ˜3.5 mHz demonstrated the typical FLR feature. The SW dynamic pressure fluctuations showed a broad (1.5-3.5 mHz) spectral maximum in the first interval; however, in the second one, the simultaneous oscillations at ˜2.0 mHz were observed in SW pressure and in IMF Bz. The similar ˜2.0 mHz peak has been found in the spectra of Pc5 pulsations from auroral zone to the equator, in riometer absorption, and in VLF chorus power. We suggest that the modulation of particle precipitation and whistler-mode chorus patches was caused by the 2.0 mHz compressional component of Pc5 poloidal geomagnetic pulsations driven in the magnetosphere by SW dynamic pressure and IMF Bz disturbances.

  19. Contamination of RR Lyrae stars from Binary Evolution Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, Paulina; Pietrzyński, Grzegorz; Belczyński, Krzysztof; Stępień, Kazimierz; Wiktorowicz, Grzegorz; Iłkiewicz, Krystian

    2016-06-01

    Binary Evolution Pulsator (BEP) is an extremely low-mass member of a binary system, which pulsates as a result of a former mass transfer to its companion. BEP mimics RR Lyrae-type pulsations but has different internal structure and evolution history. We present possible evolution channels to produce BEPs, and evaluate the contamination value, i.e. how many objects classified as RR Lyrae stars can be undetected BEPs. In this analysis we use population synthesis code StarTrack.

  20. Bone pulsating metastasis due to renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cınar, Murat; Derincek, Alihan; Karan, Belgin; Akpınar, Sercan; Tuncay, Cengiz

    2010-11-01

    Pulsation on the bone cortex surface is a rare condition. Pulsative palpation of the superficial-located bone tumors can be misperceived as an aneurysm. Fifty-eight-year-old man is presented with pulsating bone mass in his proximal tibia. During angiographic examination, hypervascular masses were diagnosed both at right kidney and at right proximal tibia. Renal cell carcinoma was diagnosed after abdominal CT scan. Proximal tibia biopsy was complicated with projectile bleeding.

  1. A search for low-metallicity pulsating B stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, Chris; Kgoadi, Refilwe; Frescura, Fabio

    2017-09-01

    We report on some recent results from a long-term UBVI survey of various fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which is aimed at identifying and classifying pulsating B stars in the selected LMC fields. Difference Imaging Analysis shows a clear advantage over conventional PSF fitting. Tentative indications have been found of a varying incidence of pulsation amplitudes (and, by inference, of metal content of the pulsators) across the LMC bar.

  2. DRIVING G-MODE PULSATIONS IN GAMMA DORADUS VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    J. GUZIK; A. KAYE; ET AL

    2000-10-10

    The {gamma} Doradus stars are a newly-discovered class of gravity-mode pulsators which lie just at or beyond the red edge of the {delta} Scuti instability strip. We present the results of calculations which predict pulsation instability of high-order g-modes with periods between 0.4 and 3 days, as observed in these stars. The pulsations are driven by the modulation of radiative flux by convection at the base of a deep envelope convection zone. Pulsation instability is predicted only for models with temperatures at the convection zone base between {approximately}200,000 and {approximately}480,000 K. The estimated shear dissipation due to turbulent viscosity within the convection zone, or in an overshoot region below the convection zone, can be comparable to or even exceed the predicted driving, and is likely to reduce the number of unstable modes, or possibly to quench the instability. Additional refinements in the pulsation modeling are required to determine the outcome. A few Doradus stars have been observed that also pulsate in {delta} Scuti-type p-modes, and at least two others have been identified as chemically peculiar. Since our calculated driving region is relatively deep, Doradus pulsations are not necessarily incompatible with surface abundance peculiarities or with {delta} Scuti p-mode pulsations driven by the H and He-ionization {kappa} effect. Such stars will provide useful observational constraints on the proposed Doradus pulsation mechanism.

  3. Decoupling of superfluid and normal modes in pulsating neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gusakov, Mikhail E.; Kantor, Elena M.

    2011-04-15

    We show that equations governing pulsations of superfluid neutron stars can be split into two sets of weakly coupled equations, one describing the superfluid modes and another one, the normal modes. The coupling parameter s is small, |s|{approx}0.01-0.05, for realistic equations of state. Already an approximation s=0 is sufficient to calculate the pulsation spectrum within the accuracy of a few percent. Our results indicate, in particular, that emission of gravitational waves from superfluid pulsation modes is suppressed in comparison to that from normal modes. The proposed approach allows to drastically simplify modeling of pulsations of superfluid neutron stars.

  4. Large-Scale Aspects and Temporal Evolution of Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. L.; Lessard, M. R.; Rychert, K.; Spanswick, E.; Donovan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsating aurora is a common phenomenon generally believed to occur mainly in the aftermath of a, substorm, where dim long-period pulsating patches appear. The study determines the temporal and spatial evolution of pulsating events using two THEN IIIS ASI stations, at Gillam (66.18 mlat, 332.78 mlon, magnetic midnight at 0634 UT) and Fort Smith, (67.38 mlat, 306.64 mlon, magnetic midnight at, 0806 UT) along roughly the same invariant latitude. Parameters have been calculated from a database of 74 pulsating aurora events from 119 days of good optical data within the period from September 2007 through March 2008 as identified with the Gillam camera. It is shown that the source region of pulsating aurora drifts or expands eastward, away from magnetic midnight, for pre-midnight onsets and that the spatial evolution is more complicated for post midnight onsets, which has implications for the source mechanism. The most probable duration of a pulsating aurora event is roughly 1.5 hours while the distribution of possible event durations includes many long (several hours) events. This may suggest that pulsating aurora is not strictly a substorm recovery phase phenomenon but rather a persistent, long-lived phenomenon that may be temporarily disrupted by auroral substorms. Observations from the Gillam station show that in fact, pulsating aurora is quite common with the occurrence rate increasing to around 60% for morning hours, with 6910 of pulsating aurora onsets occurring after substorm breakup.

  5. Optical and Ultraviolet Analyses of ZZ Ceti Stars and Study of the Atmospheric Convective Efficiency in DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, P.; Wesemael, F.; Lamontagne, R.; Fontaine, G.; Saffer, R. A.; Allard, N. F.

    1995-08-01

    New high signal-to-noise optical spectrophotometry is presented for 22 ZZ Ceti stars. The atmospheric parameters (Teff log g) and the mass are derived for each object using new model atmospheres and synthetic spectra calculated within the mixing-length theory, as well as recent published mass-radius relationships. Various parameterizations of the convective efficiency are explored. The mass distribution obtained from the optical solutions indicate that the so-called ML2 parameterization of the mixing-length theory yields a mean mass of 0.58 Msun, in excellent agreement with that of hotter DA stars (0.59 Msun) whose atmospheres are completely radiative. ML1 and ML3 models, on the other hand, yield mean masses which are, respectively, too high (0.70 Msun) and too low (0.51 Msun). With ML2 models, ZZ Ceti stars are found within a narrow instability strip located in the range 13,650 ≥ Teff ≥ 11,960 K. A similar analysis of IUE and HST spectroscopic observations is presented as well. It is first shown that a unique solution for Teff and log g cannot be achieved on the basis of ultraviolet spectroscopy alone, and that one of these parameters needs to be constrained independently. When log g values from the optical analysis are adopted, the analysis of the ultraviolet data requires a parameterization less efficient than ML2. Models calculated with ML2/α = 0.6 are shown to provide an excellent internal consistency between ultraviolet and optical temperatures. The corresponding instability strip becomes cooler and narrower (12,460 ≥ Teff ≥ 11,160 K) than that inferred from ML2 models. Furthermore, the atmospheric parameters obtained with these models are consistent with the observed photometry, the trigonometric parallax measurements, and the gravitational redshift masses. However, the mean mass of the sample increases to a value ˜0.06 Msun larger than that of hotter DA stars. An explanation for this discrepancy is offered in the light of recent nonadiabatic

  6. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2017-09-01

    SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  7. Pulsating stars in the VMC survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Clementini, Gisella; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Moretti, Maria I.; Muraveva, Tatiana; Subramanian, Smitha

    2017-09-01

    The VISTA survey of the Magellanic Clouds system (VMC) began observations in 2009 and since then, it has collected multi-epoch data at Ks and in addition multi-band data in Y and J for a wide range of stellar populations across the Magellanic system. Among them are pulsating variable stars: Cepheids, RR Lyrae, and asymptotic giant branch stars that represent useful tracers of the host system geometry. Based on observations made with VISTA at ESO under programme ID 179.B-2003.

  8. Pulsations, interpulsations, and sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    It is postulated that worldwide transgressions (pulsations) and regressions (interpulsations) through the course of geologic time are related to the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems and to sea-floor spreading. Two multiple working hypotheses are advanced to explain major transgressions and regressions and the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems. One hypothesis interrelates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to the hypothesis of sub-Mohorovicic serpentinization. The second hypothesis relates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to a hypothesis involving thermal expansion and contraction.

  9. Optical multichannel sensing of skin blood pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spigulis, Janis; Erts, Renars; Kukulis, Indulis; Ozols, Maris; Prieditis, Karlis

    2004-09-01

    Time resolved detection and analysis of the skin back-scattered optical signals (reflection photoplethysmography or PPG) provide information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for cardiovascular assessment. The multi-channel PPG concept has been developed and clinically verified in this study. Portable two- and four-channel PPG monitoring devices have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The multi-channel devices were successfully applied for cardiovascular fitness tests and for early detection of arterial occlusions in extremities. The optically measured heartbeat pulse wave propagation made possible to estimate relative arterial resistances for numerous patients and healthy volunteers.

  10. Pulsations, interpulsations, and sea-floor spreading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pessagno, E. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    It is postulated that worldwide transgressions (pulsations) and regressions (interpulsations) through the course of geologic time are related to the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems and to sea-floor spreading. Two multiple working hypotheses are advanced to explain major transgressions and regressions and the elevation and subsidence of oceanic ridge systems. One hypothesis interrelates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to the hypothesis of sub-Mohorovicic serpentinization. The second hypothesis relates the sea-floor spreading hypothesis to a hypothesis involving thermal expansion and contraction.

  11. Acoustic radiation force control: Pulsating spherical carriers.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2017-06-13

    The interaction between harmonic plane progressive acoustic beams and a pulsating spherical radiator is studied. The acoustic radiation force function exerted on the spherical body is derived as a function of the incident wave pressure and the monopole vibration characteristics (i.e., amplitude and phase) of the body. Two distinct strategies are presented in order to alter the radiation force effects (i.e., pushing and pulling states) by changing its magnitude and direction. In the first strategy, an incident wave field with known amplitude and phase is considered. It is analytically shown that the zero- radiation force state (i.e., radiation force function cancellation) is achievable for specific pulsation characteristics belong to a frequency-dependent straight line equation in the plane of real-imaginary components (i.e., Nyquist Plane) of prescribed surface displacement. It is illustrated that these characteristic lines divide the mentioned displacement plane into two regions of positive (i.e., pushing) and negative (i.e., pulling) radiation forces. In the second strategy, the zero, negative and positive states of radiation force are obtained through adjusting the incident wave field characteristics (i.e., amplitude and phase) which insonifies the radiator with prescribed pulsation characteristics. It is proved that zero radiation force state occurs for incident wave pressure characteristics belong to specific frequency-dependent circles in Nyquist plane of incident wave pressure. These characteristic circles divide the Nyquist plane into two distinct regions corresponding to positive (out of circles) and negative (in the circles) values of radiation force function. It is analytically shown that the maximum amplitude of negative radiation force is exactly equal to the amplitude of the (positive) radiation force exerted upon the sphere in the passive state, by the same incident field. The developed concepts are much more deepened by considering the required

  12. Design of a Hydrogen Pulsating Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yumeng; Deng, Haoren; Pfotenhauer, John; Gan, Zhihua

    In order to enhance the application of a cryocooler that provides cooling capacity at the cold head location, and effectively spread that cooling over an extended region, one requires an efficient heat transfer method. The pulsating heat pipe affords a highly effective heat transfer component that has been extensively researched at room temperature, but is recently being investigated for cryogenic applications. This paper describes the design. The experimental setup is designed to characterize the thermal performance of the PHP as a function of the applied heat, number of turns, filling ratio, inclination angle, and length of adiabatic section.

  13. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - VII. Pulsating subdwarf B stars detected in the second half of the survey phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A. S.; Kawaler, S. D.; Reed, M. D.; Quint, A. C.; O'Toole, S. J.; Østensen, R. H.; Telting, J. H.; Silvotti, R.; Charpinet, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Still, M.; Hall, J. R.; Uddin, K.

    2011-07-01

    We present five new pulsating subdwarf B (sdB) stars discovered by the Kepler spacecraft during the asteroseismology survey phase. We perform time series analysis on the nearly continuous month-long Kepler data sets of these five objects; these data sets provide nearly alias-free time series photometry at unprecedented precision. Following an iterative pre-whitening process, we derive the pulsational frequency spectra of these stars, separating out artefacts of known instrumental origin. We find that these new pulsating sdB stars are multiperiodic long-period pulsators of the V1093 Her type, with the number of periodicities ranging from eight (KIC 8302197) to 53 (KIC 11558725). The frequencies and amplitudes are typical of g-mode pulsators of this type. We do not find any evidence for binarity in the five stars from their observed pulsation frequencies. As these are g-mode pulsators, we briefly looked for period spacings for mode identification and found average spacings of about 260 and 145 s. This may indicate l= 1 and 2 patterns. Some modes may show evidence of rotational splitting. These discoveries complete the list of compact pulsators found in the survey phase. Of the 13 compact pulsators, only one star was identified as a short-period (p-mode) V361 Hya pulsator, while all other new pulsators turned out to be V1093 Her class objects. Among the latter objects, two of them seemed to be pure V1093 Her while the others show additional low-amplitude peaks in the p-mode frequency range, suggesting their hybrid nature. Authenticity of these peaks will be tested with longer runs currently under analysis.

  14. Review and prospect of research on hydraulic pulsation attenuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Chang-ji; Zhao, Qi-jun; Dai, Ting-ting; Bian, Yi-duo; Cai, Yan

    2017-09-01

    The pressure pulsation attenuator is able to decrease the fluid fluctuation of the hydraulic pump effectively, so it is widely used in construction machinery. This paper reviews the history and progresses of the research on the pressure pulsation attenuator in China and overseas, summarizes its two types: H-type rigid structure and built-in flexible material, meanwhile, discusses its future research area.

  15. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer for pulsating laminar flow in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valueva, E. P.; Purdin, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The problem about laminar pulsating flow and heat transfer with high pulsation amplitudes of average cross-section velocity in a round tube and in a flat channel is solved using the finite element method. The difference scheme's optimal parameters are determined. Data on the pulsation amplitude and phase are obtained for the hydraulic friction coefficient, tangential stress on the wall, liquid temperature, heat flux on the wall q w (at ϑw = const), and wall temperature ϑw (at q w = const) are obtained. Two characteristic modes, namely, quasi steady-state and high-frequency ones are separated based on the value of dimensionless pulsation frequency. During operation in the quasi steady-state mode, the values of all hydrodynamic and thermal quantities correspond to the values of time-average velocity at the given time instant. For operation in the high-frequency mode, it is shown that the dependences of the pulsating components of hydrodynamic and thermal quantities on the dimensionless pulsation frequency have the same pattern for rectilinear channels having different shapes of their cross section. It is found that certain nodal points exist on the distribution of thermal characteristics along the tube (liquid temperature, heat flux density on the wall at ϑw = const, and wall temperature at q w = const) in which the values of these quantities remain unchanged. The distances between the nodal points decrease with increasing the pulsation frequency. The pulsations of thermal quantities decay over the tube length.

  16. Non-linear hydrodynamical simulations of delta Scuti star pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, M. R.; Guzik, J. A.; McNamara, B. J.

    1998-12-01

    We present the initial results of non-linear hydrodynamic simulations of the pulsation modes of delta Scuti stars. These models use the Ostlie and Cox (1993) Lagrangian hydrodynamic code, adapted to use the most recent OPAL (1996) opacities, the Stellingwerf (1974) periodic relaxation method of obtaining stable limit cycle pulsations, and time-dependent convection. Initial tests of first- and second-overtone pulsation models are consistent with the models of Bono, et al (1997) showing asymmetric lightcurves for first overtone rather than fundamental pulsations. Future modeling work will test several stellar models with varying masses, ages, metal and helium abundances and envelope abundance gradients. Ultimately, we hope to determine the role that abundances and, more specifically, helium abundance gradients in delta Scuti envelopes play in light curve shape. This work will be applied to a test sample of known radially-pulsating delta Scuti field stars and the newly-discovered delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables in the Galactic Bulge.

  17. First Optical Observations of Interhemispheric Electron Reflections Within Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2017-01-01

    A case study of a pulsating auroral event imaged optically at high time resolution presents direct observational evidence in agreement with the interhemispheric electron bouncing predicted by the Super Thermal Electron Transport model. Pulsation-on times are identified and subsequent equally spaced fainter pulsations are also noted and can be explained by a portion/percentage of the primary precipitating electrons reflecting upward from the ionosphere, traveling to the opposite hemisphere and reflecting upward again. The high time resolution of these data, combined with the short duration of the pulsation-on time (approx. 1 s) and the relatively long spacing between pulsations (approx. 6 to 9 s) made it possible to observe the faint optical pulses caused by the reflected electrons coming from the opposite hemisphere.

  18. Nighttime Pc3 pulsations: MM100 and MAGDAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagova, Nadezda V.; Heilig, Balazs; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav A.; Yoshikawa, Akimasa; Nosikova, Nataliya S.; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Reda, Jan

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a statistical and case analysis of nighttime Pc3 pulsations observed from middle to equatorial latitudes during the year 2003. We found two groups of nighttime Pc3 pulsations. Pc3s of the first group are in fact the nightside counterpart of morning Pc3 pulsations with large azimuthal scales slowly attenuating toward midnight. Such night signatures of morning Pc3 waves are observed during the periods of fast solar wind (V>500 km/s). The second type is the locally generated night Pc3 pulsations. They can be observed under moderate solar wind velocities. Maximal occurrence rates and amplitudes for these pulsations are recorded at middle geomagnetic latitudes near the local magnetic midnight. Probably, they are associated with auroral activations or local non-substorm bursty processes.[Figure not available: see fulltext.][Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Recurrent pulsations in Saturn's high latitude magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Carbary, J. F.; Bunce, E. J.; Radioti, A.; Badman, S. V.; Pryor, W. R.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of about 6 h on Day 129, 2008, the UV imaging spectrograph (UVIS) on the Cassini spacecraft observed a repeated intensification and broadening of the high latitude auroral oval into the polar cap. This feature repeated at least 5 times with about a 1 h period, as it rotated in the direction of corotation, somewhat below the planetary rotation rate, such that it moved from noon to post-dusk, and from roughly 77° to 82° northern latitudes during the observing interval. The recurring UV observation was accompanied by pronounced ∼1 h pulsations in auroral hiss power, magnetic perturbations consistent with small-scale field aligned currents, and energetic ion conics and electrons beaming upward parallel to the local magnetic field at the spacecraft location. The magnetic field and particle events are in phase with the auroral hiss pulsation. This event, taken in the context of the more thoroughly documented auroral hiss and particle signatures (seen on many high latitude Cassini orbits), sheds light on the possible driving mechanisms, the most likely of which are magnetopause reconnection and/or Kelvin Helmholtz waves.

  20. Impulsively started, steady and pulsated annular inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Raouf, Emad; Sharif, Muhammad A. R.; Baker, John

    2017-04-01

    A computational investigation was carried out on low Reynolds number laminar inflow starting annular jets using multiple blocking ratios and atmospheric ambient conditions. The jet exit velocity conditions are imposed as steady, unit pulsed, and sinusoidal pulsed while the jet surroundings and the far-field jet inlet upstream conditions are left atmospheric. The reason is to examine the flow behavior in and around the jet inlet under these conditions. The pulsation mode behavior is analyzed based on the resultant of the momentum and pressure forces at the entry of the annulus, the circulation and vortex formation, and the propulsion efficiency of the inflow jets. The results show that under certain conditions, the net force of inflow jets (sinusoidal pulsed jets in particular) could point opposite to the flow direction due to the adverse pressure drops in the flow. The propulsion efficiency is also found to increase with pulsation frequency and the sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets are more efficient than the unit pulsed inflow jets. In addition, steady inflow jets did not trigger the formation of vortices, while unit and sinusoidal pulsed inflow jets triggered the formation of vortices under a certain range of frequencies.

  1. Nonlinear pulsations of the RV Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokin, A. B.

    1994-12-01

    The nonlinear pulsations of luminous 0.6 solar mass models for RV Tauri stars are studied by numerical simulation. We find typical RV Tauri behavior in a number of models within 3123 less than or equal to L/Solar Luminosity less than or equal to 7000 and a wide range of Teff below 5400 K, whereas hotter models exhibit pulsations in the first or second overtone. Fourier analysis of the alternating RV Tauri models reveals two strong peaks with 2:1 frequency ratio, but the origin of the low-frequency peak can hardly be explained by the period doubling hypothesis. As comparison with the linear results shows, those peaks are more likely due to the fundamental mode and the first overtone. This result supports the long-standing hypothesis of the 2:1 resonance between these modes in RV Tauri stars. The phase space reconstructions of RV Tauri models reveal chaotic behavior similar to that found in the semiregular W Virginis models. The principal physical processes in the envelopes of alternating models are discussed, and a possible explanation for the secondary variability of RVb stars is presented.

  2. Optical pulsations from a transitional millisecond pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosino, F.; Papitto, A.; Stella, L.; Meddi, F.; Cretaro, P.; Burderi, L.; Di Salvo, T.; Israel, G. L.; Ghedina, A.; Di Fabrizio, L.; Riverol, L.

    2017-10-01

    Millisecond pulsars are neutron stars that attain their very fast rotation during a 108-109-yr-long phase of disk accretion of matter from a low-mass companion star1,2. They can be detected as accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsars if towards the end of this phase their magnetic field is strong enough to channel the in-flowing matter towards their magnetic poles3. When mass transfer is reduced or ceases altogether, pulsed emission generated by magnetospheric particle acceleration and powered by the star rotation is observed, preferentially in the radio4 and gamma-ray5 bands. A few transitional millisecond pulsars that swing between an accretion-powered X-ray pulsar regime and a rotationally powered radio pulsar regime in response to variations of the mass in-flow rate have been recently identified6,7. Here, we report the detection of optical pulsations from a transitional millisecond pulsar. The pulsations were observed when the pulsar was surrounded by an accretion disk, and originated inside the magnetosphere or within a few hundreds of kilometres from it. Energy arguments rule out reprocessing of accretion-powered X-ray emission and argue against a process related to accretion onto the pulsar polar caps; synchrotron emission of electrons in a rotation-powered pulsar magnetosphere8 seems more likely.

  3. The Pulsation Spectrum of VX Hydrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, M. R.; Samolyk, G.; Dvorak, S.; Poklar, R.; Butterworth, N.; Gerner, H.

    2009-10-01

    We present the results of a two-year, multisite observing campaign investigating the high-amplitude δ Scuti star VX Hydrae during the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons. The final data set consists of nearly 8500 V-band observations spanning HJD 2453763.6 to 2454212.7 (2006 January 28 to 2007 April 22). Separate analyses of the two individual seasons of data yield 25 confidently detected frequencies common to both data sets, of which two are pulsation modes, and the remaining 23 are Fourier harmonics or beat frequencies of these two modes. The 2006 data set had five additional frequencies with amplitudes less than 1.5 mmag, and the 2007 data had one additional frequency. Analysis of the full 2006–2007 data set yields 22 of the 25 frequencies found in the individual seasons of data. There are no significant peaks in the spectrum other than these between 0 and 60 cycles day-1. The frequencies of the two main pulsation modes derived from the 2006 and 2007 observing seasons individually do not differ at the level of 3σ, and thus we find no conclusive evidence for period change over the span of these observations. However, the amplitude of changed significantly between the two seasons, while the amplitude of remained constant; amplitudes of the Fourier harmonics and beat frequencies of f1 also changed. Similar behavior was seen in the 1950s, and it is clear that VX Hydrae undergoes significant amplitude changes over time.

  4. Pulsating variable stars and large spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Cat, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In the past decade, the research of pulsating variable stars has taken a giant leap forward thanks to the photometric measurements provided by space missions like Most, CoRoT, Kepler/K2, and Brite. These missions have provided quasi uninterrupted photometric time-series with an ultra-high quality and a total length that is not achievable from Earth. However, many of the success stories could not have been told without ground-based spectroscopic follow-up observations. Indeed, spectroscopy has some important assets as it can provide (more) accurate information about stellar parameters (like the effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, and abundances that are mandatory parameters for an in-depth asteroseismic study), the radial velocity (that is important for the detection of binaries and for the confirmation of cluster membership, if applicable), and the projected rotational velocity (that allows the study of the effects of rotation on pulsations). Fortunately, several large spectroscopic surveys are (becoming) available that can be used for these purposes. For some of these surveys, sub-projects have been initiated with the specific goal to complement space-based photometry. In this review, several spectroscopic surveys are introduced and compared with each other. We show that a large amount of spectroscopic data is (becoming) available for a large variety of objects.

  5. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, Mario J.; Givler, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  6. Physical Properties of the Current Census of Northern White Dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, M.-M.; Bergeron, P.; Lépine, S.

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed description of the physical properties of our current census of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun, based on an exhaustive spectroscopic survey of northern hemisphere candidates from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database. Our method for selecting white dwarf candidates is based on a combination of theoretical color-magnitude relations and reduced proper motion diagrams. We reported in an earlier publication the discovery of nearly 200 new white dwarfs, and we present here the discovery of an additional 133 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 96 DA, 3 DB, 24 DC, 3 DQ, and 7 DZ stars. We further identify 178 white dwarfs that lie within 40 pc of the Sun, representing a 40% increase of the current census, which now includes 492 objects. We estimate the completeness of our survey at between 66% and 78%, allowing for uncertainties in the distance estimates. We also perform a homogeneous model atmosphere analysis of this 40 pc sample and find a large fraction of massive white dwarfs, indicating that we are successfully recovering the more massive, and less luminous objects often missed in other surveys. We also show that the 40 pc sample is dominated by cool and old white dwarfs, which populate the faint end of the luminosity function, although trigonometric parallaxes will be needed to shape this part of the luminosity function more accurately. Finally, we identify 4 probable members of the 20 pc sample, 4 suspected double degenerate binaries, and we also report the discovery of two new ZZ Ceti pulsators.

  7. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE CURRENT CENSUS OF NORTHERN WHITE DWARFS WITHIN 40 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Limoges, M.-M.; Bergeron, P.; Lépine, S. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2015-08-15

    We present a detailed description of the physical properties of our current census of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun, based on an exhaustive spectroscopic survey of northern hemisphere candidates from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database. Our method for selecting white dwarf candidates is based on a combination of theoretical color–magnitude relations and reduced proper motion diagrams. We reported in an earlier publication the discovery of nearly 200 new white dwarfs, and we present here the discovery of an additional 133 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 96 DA, 3 DB, 24 DC, 3 DQ, and 7 DZ stars. We further identify 178 white dwarfs that lie within 40 pc of the Sun, representing a 40% increase of the current census, which now includes 492 objects. We estimate the completeness of our survey at between 66% and 78%, allowing for uncertainties in the distance estimates. We also perform a homogeneous model atmosphere analysis of this 40 pc sample and find a large fraction of massive white dwarfs, indicating that we are successfully recovering the more massive, and less luminous objects often missed in other surveys. We also show that the 40 pc sample is dominated by cool and old white dwarfs, which populate the faint end of the luminosity function, although trigonometric parallaxes will be needed to shape this part of the luminosity function more accurately. Finally, we identify 4 probable members of the 20 pc sample, 4 suspected double degenerate binaries, and we also report the discovery of two new ZZ Ceti pulsators.

  8. Non-radially pulsating Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivinius, Th.; Baade, D.; Štefl, S.

    2003-11-01

    Based on more than 3000 high-resolution echelle spectra of 27 early-type Be stars, taken over six years, it is shown that the short-term periodic line profile variability of these objects is due to non-radial pulsation. The appearance of the line profile variability depends mostly on the projected rotational velocity v sin i and thus, since all Be stars rotate rapidly, on the inclination i. The observed variability of the investigated stars is described, and for some of them line profile variability periods are given for the first time. For two of the investigated stars the line profile variability was successfully modeled as non-radial pulsation with l=m=+2 already in previous works. Since Be stars with similarly low v sin i share the same variability properties, these are in general explainable under the same model assumptions. The line profile variability of stars with higher v sin i is different from the one observed in low v sin i stars, but can be reproduced by the same model, if only the model inclination is modified to more equatorial values. Only for a few stars with periodic line profile variability the l=m=2 non-radial pulsation mode is not able to provide a satisfying explanation. These objects might pulsate in different modes (e.g. tesseral ones, l != |m|). Almost all stars in the sample show traces of outburst-like variability, pointing to an ephemeral nature of the mass-loss phenomenon responsible for the formation of the circumstellar disk of early-type Be stars, rather than a steady star-to-disk mass transfer. In addition to the variability due to non-radial pulsation present in most stars, several objects were found to show other periods residing in the immediate circumstellar environment. The presence of these secondary periods is enhanced in the outburst phases. Short-lived aperiodic phenomena were clearly seen in two stars. But, given the unfavourable sampling of our database to follow rapid variability of transient nature, they might be more

  9. Determination of discharge during pulsating flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.H.

    1968-01-01

    Pulsating flow in an open channel is a manifestation of unstable-flow conditions in which a series of translatory waves of perceptible magnitude develops and moves rapidly downstream. Pulsating flow is a matter of concern in the design and operation of steep-gradient channels. If it should occur at high stages in a channel designed for stable flow, the capacity of the channel may be inadequate at a discharge that is much smaller than that for which the channel was designed. If the overriding translatory wave carries an appreciable part of the total flow, conventional stream-gaging procedures cannot be used to determine the discharge; neither the conventional instrumentation nor conventional methodology is adequate. A method of determining the discharge during pulsating flow was tested in the Santa Anita Wash flood control channel in Arcadia, Calif., April 16, 1965. Observations of the dimensions and velocities of translatory waves were made during a period of controlled reservoir releases of about 100, 200, and 300 cfs (cubic feet per second). The method of computing discharge was based on (1) computation of the discharge in the overriding waves and (2) computation of the discharge in the shallow-depth, or overrun, part of the flow. Satisfactory results were obtained by this method. However, the procedure used-separating the flow into two components and then treating the shallow-depth component as though it were steady--has no theoretical basis. It is simply an expedient for use until laboratory investigation can provide a satisfactory analytical solution to the problem of computing discharge during pulsating flow. Sixteen months prior to the test in Santa Anita Wash, a robot camera had been designed .and programmed to obtain the data needed to compute discharge by the method described above. The photographic equipment had been installed in Haines Creek flood control channel in Los Angeles, Calif., but it had not been completely tested because of the infrequency of

  10. Chandra Discovers Eruption and Pulsation in Nova Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered a giant outburst of X-rays and unusual cyclical pulsing from a white dwarf star that is closely orbiting another star -- the first time either of these phenomena has been seen in X-rays. The observations are helping scientists better understand the thermonuclear explosions that occur in certain binary star systems. The observations of Nova Aquilae were reported today at the "Two Years of Science with Chandra" symposium by an international team led by Sumner Starrfield of Arizona State University. "We found two important results in our Chandra observations. The first was an underlying pulsation every 40 minutes in the X-ray brightness, which we believe comes from the cyclical expansion and contraction of the outer layers of the white dwarf," said Starrfield. "The other result was an enormous flare of X-rays that lasted for 15 minutes. Nothing like this has been seen before from a nova, and we don't know how to explain it." Novas occur on a white dwarf (a star which used up all its nuclear fuel and shrank to roughly the size of the Earth) that is orbiting a normal size star. Strong gravity tides drag hydrogen gas off the normal star and onto the white dwarf, where it can take more than 100,000 years for enough hydrogen to accumulate to ignite nuclear fusion reactions. Gradually, these reactions intensify until a cosmic-sized hydrogen bomb blast results. The outer layers of the white dwarf are then blown away, producing a nova outburst that can be observed for a period of months to years as the material expands into space. "Chandra has allowed us to see deep into the gases ejected by this giant explosion and extract unparalleled information on the evolution of the white dwarf whose surface is exploding," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. The brightening of Nova Aquilae was first detected by optical astronomers in December 1999. "Although this star is at a distance of more than 6

  11. Effects of pulsation rate and viscosity on pulsation-induced taste enhancement: new insights into texture-taste interactions.

    PubMed

    Burseg, Kerstin Martha Mensien; Camacho, Sara; Bult, Johannes Hendrikus Franciscus

    2011-05-25

    Oral stimulation with high-tastant concentrations that are alternared with low-tastant concentrations or water rinses (pulsatile stimulation) results in taste intensity ratings that are higher than continuous stimulation with the same average tastant concentration. This study tested the combined effects of taste pulsation rate and viscosity on pulsation-induced taste enhancement in apple juice. According to a tastant-kinetics hypothesis, less pulsation-induced taste enhancement is expected at enhanced pulsation rates in the high-viscous proximal stimulus compared to lower viscous stimuli. High-concentration sucrose apple juice pulses and low-concentration sucrose apple juice intervals were alternated at different pulsation periods (pulse + interval in seconds) every 2.5 s (period length = 5 s) or every 1.25 s (period length = 2.5 s). Pulsed stimuli were presented at two viscosity levels by the addition of pectin (0 and 10 g/L). Sweetness intensities of pulsed stimuli were compared to a continuous reference of the same net but nonalternating sucrose concentration. Sweetness ratings were higher for pulsatile stimuli than for continuous stimuli. In low-viscous stimuli, enhancement depended on the pulsation period and peaked at 5 s periods. In high-viscous stimuli, the same enhancement was observed for both pulsation periods. These results contradict a tastant-kinetics hypothesis of viscosity-induced taste suppression because impaired tastant kinetics by viscosity would predict the opposite: lower pulsation-induced taste enhancement for viscous stimuli, especially at higher pulsation rates. Instead, these observations favor an explanation based on perceptual texture-taste interactions, which predict the observed independence between viscosity and pulsation rate.

  12. An overview of white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Randall, S. K.; Van Grootel, V.

    2013-03-01

    We present a brief summary of what is currently known about white dwarf stars, with an emphasis on their evolutionary and internal properties. As is well known, white dwarfs represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, bear the signatures of past events (such as mass loss, mixing phases, loss and redistribution of angular momentum, and thermonuclear burning) that are of essential importance in the evolution of stars in general. In addition, white dwarf stars represent ideal testbeds for our understanding of matter under extreme conditions, and work on their constitutive physics (neutrino production rates, conductive and radiative opacities, interior liquid/solid equations of state, partially ionized and partially degenerate envelope equations of state, diffusion coefficients, line broadening mechanisms) is still being actively pursued. Given a set of constitutive physics, cooling white dwarfs can be used advantageously as cosmochronometers. Moreover, the field has been blessed by the existence of four distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs, each mapping a different evolutionary phase, and this allows the application of the asteroseismological method to probe and test their internal structure and evolutionary state. We set the stage for the reviews that follow on cooling white dwarfs as cosmochronometers and physics laboratories, as well as on the properties of pulsating white dwarfs and the asteroseismological results that can be inferred.

  13. Laser dynamics in self-pulsating quantum dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, Huw D.; Matthews, Daniel R.; Smowton, Peter M.; Rees, Paul; Hopkinson, Mark

    2004-02-01

    We have studied self-pulsation in InGaAs quantum dot lasers with an emission wavelength in the 1 μm band. The use of saturable absorption to produce internal optical feedback in semiconductor lasers is well established and leads to the phenomenon of self-pulsation. The characteristics of this self-sustaining oscillation in the optical intensity are determined by the optical characteristics of the amplifying and absorbing media. These experiments therefore provide a direct measure of the intrinsic dynamics of the dot laser system free of any external parasitics. At room temperature, pulsation is observed up to a drive current of 1.5Ith with a maximum pulsation frequency of 700 MHz. The self-pulsation is strongly temperature dependent, and cannot be maintained below a temperature of 150 K. Studies of the optical gain and carrier lifetime within the lasers indicate that the dynamic characteristics are controlled by the interaction of the quantum dots with the two-dimensional wetting layer surrounding them. The relatively low pulsation frequency results from the strong saturation of the gain with increasing injection at room temperature, while the thermal switch-off of pulsation is due to changes in the absorber recovery time.

  14. A pulsational approach to the luminosity of RR Lyrae variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellani, V.; de Santis, R.

    1994-08-01

    We show that the temperature scale of Butler, Dickens, & Epps (1978) for RR Lyrae pulsators appears tightly correlated with the two pulsational parameters, amplitude and period of the pulsation. Application of these 'pulsational' temperatures to the well-studied Galactic globular clusters M3 and M15 gives for these clusters a reddening E(B - V) = 0.01 and 0.08, respectively. Moreover, we show that pulsational parameters should give rather severe constraints on the visual magnitude of the pulsators. Calibration of a similar relation to pulsator magnitudes as given by Baade-Wesselink (BW) analyses supports this suggestion, though producing Mnu values in systematic disagreement with current evolutionary computations. We discuss the problem, showing that BW results can be reconciled with the current evolutionary scenario only assuming a value of the original He as low as Y = 0.19 plus a systematic error in the temperature scale. Conversely, one may save the evolutionary scenario with Y = 0.23 by assuming a systematic error in BW magnitudes.

  15. Pulsations in the free oscillations of the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.

    2015-05-01

    The records from wideband IRIS stations after a strong earthquake are analyzed. A few days after the earthquake, pulsations with a period of 128 min arise and last for about a week. They appear as a periodical variation in the amplitude of the free radial oscillation of the Earth 0S0 having a period of 20.46 min. The period of the pulsations is more than double the period of the lowest-frequency free spheroidal oscillations of the Earth (53.9 min). The pulsations are most pronounced at the mid-latitudinal and equatorial stations and less distinct near the poles. The pulsations are phase synchronous at the nearby stations and antiphase at the stations located in the western and eastern hemispheres. The pulsation amplitude does not depend on the phase of the Earth's tide. The shape and period of the pulsations are fitted by the model of beatings appearing in the Van der Pol oscillator with periodic forcing. The pulsations are hypothesized to result from asynchronous interaction between the free oscillations of the Earth.

  16. Pulsational Modes of Mira Variables Examined through IR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creech-Eakman, M. J.; Thompson, R. R.; van Belle, G. T.

    1999-12-01

    We have undertaken a program with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) to measure the angular size variations, with respect to pulsational phase, of a group of about 20 mainly O-rich Mira variables. While previous groups have attempted to measure angular size with phase (van Belle et al. 1996, 1997; Tej et al. 1999) these are the first dedicated, spatially-resolved K band observations designed to detect size variations in a large sample of Miras at regular intervals over their pulsation periods. Our first goal has been the unambiguous detection of the mira pulsational cycle with phase, already shown in previous work to be as much as 35% of the radial size over the course of a pulsational period (van Belle et al. 1996; Burns et al. 1997; Tuthill et al. 1995; Perrin et al. 1999 ). We will ultimately use these data, along with the best estimates of stellar distance and effective temperatures for these sources, to determine the mode of pulsation. There has long been a debate as to whether Mira variables pulsate in their fundamental or first-overtone mode (Barthes 1999; Feast 1998; Wood and Sebo 1996). Determination of the pulsation behavior of Mira variables may eventually render them suitable as standard candles for distance determination.

  17. There and Back Again?: The Disappearing Pulsations of CS 1246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez Soto, Alan; Barlow, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Hot subdwarf stars were once main sequence stars, like the sun, that deviated from normal stellar evolution due to binary interactions and evolved into extreme horizontal branch stars. Several of these stars exhibit rapid pulsations driven by iron opacity instabilities. CS 1246 is a rapidly pulsating hot subdwarf discovered in 2009 that is dominated by a single 371 second pulsation. At the time of its discovery, the pulsational amplitude was one of the largest known, making CS 1246 an ideal candidate for follow up studies. Observations in 2013 implied that the pulsational amplitude had decreased significantly. Since then we have continued monitoring the star using the robotic SKYNET telescopes in Chile, in order to further characterize any changes. Our recent observations show that the pulsational amplitude has gone down by a factor of six: CS 1246 is barely a pulsator anymore. The decay in amplitude over time is reminiscent of a damped harmonic oscillator. Here we present six years of photometry for CS 1246 and discuss possible scenarios that might explain its interesting behavior.

  18. Multiscale temporal variations of pulsating auroras: On-off pulsation and a few Hz modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Takanori; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Hampton, Donald L.; Katoh, Yuto; Kataoka, Ryuho; Okano, Shoichi

    2014-05-01

    A statistical study on the cross-scale property on the temporal variations of pulsating aurora intensity was conducted on 53 events observed at the Poker Flat Research Range during the period from 1 December 2011 to 1 March 2012. The observed modulation frequency ranged from 1.5 to 3.3 Hz, and strong modulations were not seen in the frequency range higher than about 3 Hz. This suggests that the time of flight of electrons has a time-smoothing effect on the more rapid variations above 3 Hz. Furthermore, the frequency of modulation showed relatively strong correlation to auroral intensity (correlation coefficient of 0.58), and it can be explained with nonlinear wave growth theory, in which the modulation frequency increases with the wave amplitude of the whistler mode chorus. In contrast, the on-off pulsations showed no significant correlations with auroral intensity. This result probably implies that several different plasma processes with different time scales from nonlinear wave growth should be taken into account when determining the on-off periods. In particular, we suggest that long-term variations in the cold plasma density play a dominant role in controlling the conditions of wave-particle interactions that have temporal scale of the on-off pulsation periods.

  19. Supergiant radial and nonradial pulsations. Lecture 10

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1983-03-14

    The stars that we consider here have luminosities above 10,000 solar luminosities and masses above 15 solar masses. We contact the 53 Per stars such as ..nu.. Ori, 10 Lac, and iota CMa at our lower luminosity limit, and at the most luminous limit, we have the famous stars eta Car, Cyg OB12, and P Cyg. Evolution tracks including a reasonable mass loss rate are given for 15, 30, 60, and 120 solar masses. It appears that our pulsators have masses less than 60 solar masses, but how do the most luminous stars observed survive mass loss. Do they have masses above 100 solar masses as indicated, or are these stars somehow superluminous due to their erratic mass loss behavior. Popper (1980) studying the masses in binary systems has never found one with a value greater than 27 solar masses.

  20. Total pressure averaging in pulsating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a non-steady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered within the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure, and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles. The experiments were performed at a pressure level of 1 bar, for Mach number up to near 1, and frequencies up to 3 kHz.

  1. Optical noninvasive monitoring of skin blood pulsations.

    PubMed

    Spigulis, Janis

    2005-04-01

    Time-resolved detection and analysis of skin backscattered optical signals (remission photoplethysmography or PPG) provide rich information on skin blood volume pulsations and can serve for reliable cardiovascular assessment. Single- and multiple-channel PPG concepts are discussed. Simultaneous data flow from several locations on the human body allows us to study heartbeat pulse-wave propagation in real time and to evaluate vascular resistance. Portable single-, dual-, and four-channel PPG monitoring devices with special software have been designed for real-time data acquisition and processing. The prototype devices have been clinically studied, and their potential for monitoring heart arrhythmias, drug-efficiency tests, steady-state cardiovascular assessment, body fitness control, and express diagnostics of the arterial occlusions has been confirmed.

  2. THE PULSATION MODE OF THE CEPHEID POLARIS

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D. G.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Usenko, I. A.; Gorlova, N. I.

    2013-01-01

    A previously derived photometric parallax of 10.10 {+-} 0.20 mas, d = 99 {+-} 2 pc, is confirmed for Polaris by a spectroscopic parallax derived using line ratios in high dispersion spectra for the Cepheid. The resulting estimates for the mean luminosity of (M{sub V} ) = -3.07 {+-} 0.01 s.e., average effective temperature of (T{sub eff}) = 6025 {+-} 1 K s.e., and intrinsic color of ((B) - (V)){sub 0} = +0.56 {+-} 0.01 s.e., which match values obtained previously from the photometric parallax for a space reddening of E{sub B-V} = 0.02 {+-} 0.01, are consistent with fundamental mode pulsation for Polaris and a first crossing of the instability strip, as also argued by its rapid rate of period increase. The systematically smaller Hipparcos parallax for Polaris appears discrepant by comparison.

  3. Finding binaries from phase modulation of pulsating stars with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Murphy, Simon; Bedding, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Binary orbital motion causes a periodic variation in the path length travelled by light emitted from a star towards us. Hence, if the star is pulsating, the observed phase of the pulsation varies over the orbit. Conversely, once we have observed such phase variation, we can extract information about the binary orbit from photometry alone. Continuous and precise space-based photometry has made it possible to measure these light travel time effects on the pulsating stars in binary systems. This opens up a new way of finding unseen brown dwarfs, planets, or massive compact stellar remnants: neutron stars and black holes.

  4. The attractor dimension of solar decimetric radio pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurths, J.; Benz, A. O.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The temporal characteristics of decimetric pulsations and related radio emissions during solar flares are analyzed using statistical methods recently developed for nonlinear dynamic systems. The results of the analysis is consistent with earlier reports on low-dimensional attractors of such events and yield a quantitative description of their temporal characteristics and hidden order. The estimated dimensions of typical decimetric pulsations are generally in the range of 3.0 + or - 0.5. Quasi-periodic oscillations and sudden reductions may have dimensions as low as 2. Pulsations of decimetric type IV continua have typically a dimension of about 4.

  5. Ambiguity of mapping the relative phase of blood pulsations

    PubMed Central

    Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Makarenko, Alexander A.; Giniatullin, Rashid; Kamshilin, Alexei A.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pulsation imaging (BPI) is a non-invasive optical method based on photoplethysmography (PPG). It is used for the visualization of changes in the spatial distribution of blood in the microvascular bed. BPI specifically allows measurements of the relative phase of blood pulsations and using it we detected a novel type of PPG fast waveforms, which were observable in limited areas with asynchronous regional blood supply. In all subjects studied, these fast waveforms coexisted with traditional slow waveforms of PPG. We are therefore presenting a novel lock-in image processing technique of blood pulsation imaging, which can be used for detailed temporal characterization of peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25401026

  6. Theoretical Period Changes in Yellow Giant Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Arthur N.

    1998-03-01

    Period changes in RR Lyrae variables and Cepheids, known for more than 60 years, can possibly be explained by small changes in a helium composition gradient below the hydrogen and helium convection zones. The particular cases for the globular cluster M15 double-mode RR Lyrae variable V53 and the Cepheid Polaris are studied. For the last 80 years, the fundamental mode period of V53 has been decreasing while the overtone mode period in this same star has been increasing. The rather steady overtone mode period increase for Polaris stopped very recently, and the period now seems constant. Diffusive settling of helium in these kinds of stars has been known to be slight because of the two convection zones and the long diffusion timescale below them. But a small amount of helium settling, even before the star begins to pulsate, and then a dredge-up of just a little helium by an occasional overshooting can change surface layer structures and periods. This dredge-up can have a timescale as short as the convection turnover time, i.e., a few days. A slight helium dredge-up episode may now have temporarily stopped the decaying pulsations and period increase of Polaris. Such an episode cannot explain the double-mode V53 case, but possibly the helium composition gradient is deepened enough by matter accretion in only 80 years to explain its observed opposite period changes. Another mechanism that might be important for period changes is tidal mixing of the small composition gradients caused by occasional close encounters of stars in clusters. Significant stellar rotation would keep the surface layer composition homogeneous and not allow the anomalous period changes discussed here.

  7. Multisatellite observations of a giant pulsation event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazue; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Bonnell, John; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Singer, Howard J.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2011-11-01

    Giant pulsations (Pgs; frequency ˜10 mHz) were detected with ground magnetometers on the North American continent on 19 October 2008, when the GOES-10, -11, -12, and -13 geostationary satellites and the THEMIS-A probe were magnetically connected to the region of the ground pulsation activity. This unique configuration allowed us to determine the properties of magnetospheric ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves that caused the Pgs on the ground. All spacecraft detected monochromatic ULF waves at ˜10 mHz, and the coherence between the Pg at the Gillam ground station and the ULF wave at THEMIS-A was high when the magnetic field foot point of the spacecraft came close to the ground station. The ULF waves observed by the five spacecraft had perturbations in the radial and compressional components of the magnetic field and in the azimuthal component of the electric field, which are attributed to poloidal mode standing Alfvén waves. The poloidal waves were accompanied by multiharmonic toroidal waves, and from the frequency relationship among these, it is concluded that the ˜10 mHz oscillations correspond to the fundamental (odd, or symmetric) mode. The standing wave mode also explains the amplitude variation with latitude and the phase delay between the magnetic and electric fields. Numerical models of poloidal waves incorporating finite height integrated ionospheric conductivity indicate that the fundamental mode interpretation is valid even when the damping of the standing waves is strong. Our observations are the most comprehensive to date in terms of spacecraft data, and we believe that theoretical work on the Pg generation mechanism should focus on mechanisms specific to odd mode standing waves, such as drift resonance of ring current ions.

  8. Multisatellite Observations of a Giant Pulsation Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, K.; Glassmeier, K.; Angelopoulos, V.; Bonnell, J. W.; Nishimura, T.; Singer, H. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    Giant pulsations (Pgs; frequency ~10 mHz) were detected with ground magnetometers in the North American continent on October 2008, when the GOES-10, -11, -12, and -13 geostationary satellites and the THEMIS-A probe were magnetically connected to the region of the ground pulsation activity. This unique observational configuration allowed us to determine the properties of magnetospheric ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves that caused the Pgs on the ground. All spacecraft detected monochromatic ULF waves at ~10 mHz, and the coherence between the Pg at the Gillam ground station and the ULF wave at THEMIS-A was high when the magnetic field foot point of the spacecraft came close to the ground station, indicating a causal relationship between the two oscillation phenomena. The ULF waves observed by the five spacecraft had perturbations in the radial and compressional components of the magnetic field and in the azimuthal component of the electric field, which are attributed to poloidal mode standing Alfvén waves. The poloidal waves were accompanied by multiharmonic toroidal waves, and from the frequency relationship among these, it is concluded that the ~10 mHz oscillations correspond to the fundamental (odd, or symmetric) mode. The standing wave mode also explains the amplitude variation with latitude and the phase delay between the magnetic and electric fields. Numerical models of poloidal waves incorporating finite ionospheric conductivity indicate that the fundamental mode interpretation is valid even when the damping of the standing waves is strong. Our observations are the most comprehensive to date in terms of spacecraft data, and we believe that theoretical work on the Pg generation mechanism should focus on mechanisms specific to odd mode standing waves, such as drift resonance of ring current ions.

  9. Quantitative imaging of neuroinflammation in human white matter: a positron emission tomography study with translocator protein 18 kDa radioligand, [18F]-FEPPA.

    PubMed

    Suridjan, Ivonne; Rusjan, Pablo M; Kenk, Miran; Verhoeff, Nicolaas Paul L G; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Rotenberg, David; Wilson, Alan A; Meyer, Jeffrey H; Houle, Sylvain; Mizrahi, Romina

    2014-11-01

    The ability to quantify translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) in white matter (WM) is important to understand the role of neuroinflammation in neurological disorders with WM involvement. This article aims to extend the utility of TSPO imaging in WM using a second-generation radioligand, [18F]-FEPPA, and high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) positron emission tomography (PET) camera system. Four WM regions of interests (WM-ROI), relevant to the study of aging and neuroinflammatory diseases, were examined. The corpus callosum, cingulum bundle, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and posterior limb of internal capsule were delineated automatically onto subject's T1 -weighted magnetic resonance image using a diffusion tensor imaging-based WM template. The TSPO polymorphism (rs6971) stratified individuals to three genetic groups: high-affinity binders (HAB), mixed-affinity binders (MAB), and low-affinity binders. [18F]-FEPPA PET scans were acquired on 32 healthy subjects and analyzed using a full kinetic compartment analysis. The two-tissue compartment model showed moderate identifiability (coefficient of variation 15-19%) for [18F]-FEPPA total volume distribution (VT ) in WM-ROIs. Noise affects VT variability, although its effect on bias was small (6%). In a worst-case scenario, ≤6% of simulated data did not fit reliably. A simulation of increased TSPO density exposed minimal effect on variability and identifiability of [18F]-FEPPA VT in WM-ROIs. We found no association between age and [18F]-FEPPA VT in WM-ROIs. The VT values were 15% higher in HAB than in MAB, although the difference was not statistically significant. This study provides evidence for the utility and limitations of [18F]-FEPPA PET to measure TSPO expression in WM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. White dwarfs in Be star binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apparao, K. M. V.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of possible reasons for the persistent inability to identify white dwarf stars in the Be binary systems. It is noted that many Be stars exhibiting large optical enhancements may be Be + WD and Be + He systems, and that observations of pulsations in the H-alpha emission, as well as observation of time delays between enhancements of optical line and continuum, can identify such systems.

  11. Report of geomagnetic pulsation indices for space weather applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Z.; Gannon, Jennifer L.; Rigler, Erin J.

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of ultra-low frequency geomagnetic pulsations was first observed in the ground-based measurements of the 1859 Carrington Event and has been studied for over 100 years. Pulsation frequency is considered to be “ultra” low when it is lower than the natural frequencies of the plasma, such as the ion gyrofrequency. Ultra-low frequency pulsations are considered a source of noise in some geophysical analysis techniques, such as aeromagnetic surveys and transient electromagnetics, so it is critical to develop near real-time space weather products to monitor these geomagnetic pulsations. The proper spectral analysis of magnetometer data, such as using wavelet analysis techniques, can also be important to Geomagnetically Induced Current risk assessment.

  12. Unilateral Loss of Spontaneous Venous Pulsations in an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Gibson, C. Robert; Lee, Andrew G.; Patel, Nimesh; Hart, Steven; Pettit, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous venous pulsations seen on the optic nerve head (optic disc) are presumed to be caused by fluctuations in the pressure gradient between the intraocular and retrolaminar venous systems. The disappearance of previously documented spontaneous venous pulsations is a well-recognized clinical sign usually associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and a concomitant bilateral elevation of pressure in the subarachnoid space surrounding the optic nerves. In this correspondence we report the unilateral loss of spontaneous venous pulsations in an astronaut 5 months into a long duration space flight. We documented a normal lumbar puncture opening pressure 8 days post mission. The spontaneous venous pulsations were also documented to be absent 21 months following return to Earth.. We hypothesize that these changes may have resulted from a chronic unilateral rise in optic nerve sheath pressure caused by a microgravity-induced optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome.

  13. Pulsations of B stars: A review of observations and theories

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    The observational and theoretical status are discussed for several classes of variable B stars. The older classes now seem to be better understood in terms of those stars that probably have at least one radial mode and those that have only nonradial modes. The former are the ..beta.. Cephei variables, and the latter are the slowly rotating 53 Persei and the rapidly rotating zeta Ophiuchi variables. It seems that in this last class there are also some Be stars that show nonradial pulsations from the variations of the line shapes and their light. Among the nonradial pulsators, we must also include the supergiants which show pulsations with very short lifetimes. A review of the present observational and theoretical problems is given. The most persistent problem of the cause for the pulsations is briefly discussed, and many proposed mechanisms plus some new thoughts are presented. 57 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Contamination of RR Lyrae stars from Binary Evolution Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarek, P.

    2015-09-01

    A Binary Evolution Pulsator (BEP) is a low-mass (0.26 M_⊙) member of a binary system, which pulsates as a result of a former mass transfer to its companion. The BEP mimics RR~Lyrae-type pulsations, but has completely different internal structure and evolution history. Although there is only one known BEP (OGLE-BLG-RRLYR-02792), it has been estimated that approximately 0.2% of objects classified as RR Lyrae stars can be undetected Binary Evolution Pulsators. In the present work, this contamination value is re-evaluated using the population synthesis method. The output falls inside a range of values dependent on tuning the parameters in the StarTrack code, and varies from 0.06% to 0.43%.

  15. Photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO DRA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.; Tian, J. F.; Wang, K.; Yan, Z. Z.; Luo, C. Q.; Sun, J. J.; Liu, Q. L.; Xin, H. Q.; Zhou, Q.; Luo, Z. Q.

    2014-12-01

    We present a comprehensive photometric study of the pulsating, eclipsing binary OO Dra. Simultaneous B- and V-band photometry of the star was carried out on 14 nights. A revised orbital period and a new ephemeris were derived from the data. The first photometric solution of the binary system and the physical parameters of the component stars are determined. They reveal that OO Dra could be a detached system with a less-massive secondary component nearly filling its Roche lobe. By subtracting the eclipsing light changes from the data, we obtained the intrinsic pulsating light curves of the hotter, massive primary component. A frequency analysis of the residual light yields two confident pulsation modes in both B- and V-band data with the dominant frequency detected at 41.865 c/d. A brief discussion concerning the evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of the binary system is finally given.

  16. Rhythmic pulsations in inferior vena cava in pericardial constriction.

    PubMed

    Mittal, S R

    2016-09-01

    A case of pericardial constriction with rhythmic, nonrespiratory pulsations in inferior vena cava is presented. Hepatic vein flow showed wave form classical of pericardial constriction. Backward transmission of changes in right atrial pressure resulted in rhythmic, nonrespiratory pulsations in inferior vena cava. This echocardiographic finding could help in diagnosis of pericardial constriction. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stochastic pulsations in the subdwarf-B star KIC 2991276

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østensen, R. H.; Reed, M. D.; Baran, A. S.; Telting, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The subdwarf-B star KIC 2991276 was monitored with the Kepler spacecraft for nearly three years. Two pulsation modes with periods of 122 and 132 s are clearly detected in the Fourier spectrum, as well as a few weaker modes with periods ranging from 118 to 216 s. Unlike the other subdwarf-B pulsators with similar high-quality Kepler lightcurves, the modes in KIC 2991276 do not display long-term coherency. Rather, their pulsation amplitudes vary substantially in amplitude and phase on timescales of about a month, sometimes disappearing completely. Thus, while the pulsations are seen to have amplitudes of up to 1.4% in individual months, the amplitude spectrum of the full lightcurve shows a broad, messy peak with an amplitude of only 0.23%. Such stochastic oscillations are normal in the Sun and other cool stars with solar-like pulsations and have been suspected for V361-Hya pulsators, but thanks to the exceptional coverage of Kepler data, this is the first unambiguous case established for a hot subdwarf.

  18. Frequency-domain analysis for pulsating combustion of gaseous fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, I. A.; Porshnev, S. V.; Oshchepkova, V. Y.; Medvedev, A. N.

    2017-06-01

    Pulsating combustion is among combustion control methods used to suppress formation of NOx. Past experiments showed that the dependency of NOx content from pulsation rate has a minimum. A measuring unit was set up to study torch behavior in infrared band. To study pulsating combustion of gaseous fuel a thermographic camera was used. Thermographic sequences were recorded using the instrument FLIR 7700M with the resolution of 320×240 pixels at the frame rate of 412 Hz. The experiments resulted in obtaining thermographic sequences radiation intensity fields in the longitudinal section of the torch at different pulsation rates. The obtained raw data was preprocessed to obtain distributions of quantities of pixels corresponding to temperatures in each frame, as well as time-domain series for changes of the torch core longitudinal section area. Frequency-domain analysis was run for each time-domain series using Fast Fourier transform (FFT). The results demonstrate that the first maximum of spectral density coincides with the control action rate. The spectrum also contains pronounced second and third harmonics. For each spectrum of the time-domain series signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated. Comparison of different SNR shows that maximum impact of pulsation control on torch radiation intensity takes place at the on/off valve opening rate of 4 Hz. This method of torch diagnostics can be helpful for future studies and development of pulsating combustion control systems.

  19. Pulsations and Hydrodynamics of Luminous Blue Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Lovekin, Catherine C.

    2012-07-01

    The Luminous Blue Variable stars exhibit behavior ranging from light curve 'microvariations' on timescales of tens of days, to 'outbursts' accompanied by mass loss of ~10-3 Msun occurring decades apart, to 'giant eruptions' such as seen in Eta Carinae, ejecting one or more solar masses and recurring on timescales of centuries. Here we review the work of the Los Alamos group since 1993, to investigate pulsations and instabilities in massive stars using linear pulsation models and non-linear hydrodynamic models. The models predict pulsational variability that may be associated with the microvariations. We show using a nonlinear pulsation hydrodynamics code with a time-dependent convection treatment, that in some circumstances the Eddington limit is exceeded periodically in the pulsation driving region of the stellar envelope, accelerating the outer layers, and perhaps initiating mass loss or the LBV outbursts. We discuss how pulsations and mass loss may be responsible for the location of the Humphreys- Davidson Limit in the H-R diagram. The 'giant eruptions', however, must involve much deeper regions in the stellar core to cause such large amounts of mass to be ejected. We review and suggest some possible explanations, including mixing from gravity modes, secular instabilities, the epsilon mechanism, or the SASI instability as proposed for Type II supernovae. We outline future work and required stellar modeling capabilities to investigate these possibilities.

  20. Structure of black aurora associated with pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Bruce A.; Lessard, Marc L.; Blandin, Matthew J.; Fernandes, Philip A.

    2015-11-01

    Morphological behavior of black aurora as it relates to pulsating aurora is investigated by examining a collection of ground-based observations from January 2007 in support of the Rocket Observations of Pulsating Aurora rocket campaign. Images were sampled from video recorded by a Xybion intensified camera (30 fps) at Poker Flat Research Range, AK. The primary observations of black aurora recorded during the substorm recovery phase were between separate patches of pulsating aurora as well as pulsating aurora separated from diffuse aurora. In these observations the black aurora forms an apparent firm boundary between the auroral forms in a new behavior that is in contrast with previously reported observations. Also presented for the first time are black curls in conjunction with pulsating aurora. Curl structures that indicate shear plasma flows in the ionosphere may be used as a proxy for converging/diverging electric fields in and above the ionosphere. This new subset of black auroral behavior may provide visual evidence of black aurora as an ionospheric feedback mechanism as related to pulsating aurora.

  1. Non-Invasive Measurement of Intracranial Pressure Pulsation using Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, R. E.; Yost, W. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity causes a cephalad fluid shift which may elevate intracranial pressure (ICP). Elevation in ICP may affect cerebral hemodynamics in astronauts during space flight. ICP is, however, a difficult parameter to measure due to the invasiveness of currently available techniques. We already reported our development of a non-invasive ultrasound device for measurement of ICP. We recently modified the device so that we might reproducibly estimate ICP changes in association with cardiac cycles. In the first experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance with the ultrasound device in cadavera while changing ICP by infusing saline into the lateral ventricle. In the second experiment, we measured changes in cranial distance in five healthy volunteers while placing them in 60 deg, 30 deg head-up tilt, supine, and 10 deg head-down tilt position. In the cadaver study, fast Fourier transformation revealed that cranial pulsation is clearly associated with ICP pulsation. The ratio of cranial distance and ICP pulsation is 1.3microns/mmHg. In the tilting study, the magnitudes of cranial pulsation are linearly correlated to tilt angles (r=0.87). The ultrasound device has sufficient sensitivity to detect cranial pulsation in association with cardiac cycles. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsation, estimates of ICP during space flight are possible.

  2. Revealing the pulsational properties of the V777 Herculis star KUV 05134+2605 by its long-term monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bognár, Zs.; Paparó, M.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Győrffy, Á.

    2014-10-01

    Context. KUV 05134+2605 is one of the 21 pulsating DB white dwarfs (V777 Her or DBV variables) known so far. The detailed investigation of the short-period and low-amplitude pulsations of these relatively faint targets requires considerable observational efforts from the ground, long-term single-site or multi-site observations. The observed amplitudes of excited modes undergo short-term variations in many cases, which makes determining pulsation modes difficult. Aims: We aim to determine the pulsation frequencies of KUV 05134+2605, find regularities between the frequency and period components, and perform an asteroseismic investigation for the first time. Methods: We re-analysed the published data and collected new measurements. We compared the frequency content of the different datasets from the different epochs and performed various tests to check the reliability of the frequency determinations. The mean period spacings were investigated with linear fits to the observed periods, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and inverse variance significance tests, and with a Fourier analysis of different period sets, including a Monte Carlo test that simulated the effect of alias ambiguities. We employed fully evolutionary DB white dwarf models for the asteroseismic investigations. Results: We identified 22 frequencies between 1280 and 2530 μHz. These form 12 groups, which suggests at least 12 possible frequencies for the asteroseismic investigations. Thanks to the extended observations, KUV 05134+2605 joined the group of rich white dwarf pulsators. We identified one triplet and at least one doublet with a ≈ 9 μHz frequency separation, from which we derived a stellar rotation period of 0.6 d. We determined the mean period spacings of ≈ 31 s and 18 s for the modes we propose as dipole and quadrupole. We found an excellent agreement between the stellar mass derived from the ℓ = 1 period spacing and the period-to-period fits, all providing M∗ = 0.84 - 0.85 M⊙ solutions. Our study

  3. PULSATION FREQUENCIES AND MODES OF GIANT EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Le Bihan, Bastien; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-02-10

    We calculate the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of the acoustic oscillations of giant exoplanets and explore the dependence of the characteristic frequency {nu}{sub 0} and the eigenfrequencies on several parameters: the planet mass, the planet radius, the core mass, and the heavy element mass fraction in the envelope. We provide the eigenvalues for degree l up to 8 and radial order n up to 12. For the selected values of l and n, we find that the pulsation eigenfrequencies depend strongly on the planet mass and radius, especially at high frequency. We quantify this dependence through the calculation of the characteristic frequency {nu}{sub 0} which gives us an estimate of the scale of the eigenvalue spectrum at high frequency. For the mass range 0.5 M{sub J} {<=} M{sub P} {<=} 15 M{sub J} , and fixing the planet radius to the Jovian value, we find that {nu}{sub 0} {approx} 164.0 Multiplication-Sign (M{sub P} /M{sub J} ){sup 0.48}{mu}Hz, where M{sub P} is the planet mass and M{sub J} is Jupiter's mass. For the radius range from 0.9 to 2.0 R{sub J} , and fixing the planet's mass to the Jovian value, we find that {nu}{sub 0} {approx} 164.0 Multiplication-Sign (R{sub P} /R{sub J} ){sup -2.09}{mu}Hz, where R{sub P} is the planet radius and R{sub J} is Jupiter's radius. We explore the influence of the presence of a dense core on the pulsation frequencies and on the characteristic frequency of giant exoplanets. We find that the presence of heavy elements in the envelope affects the eigenvalue distribution in ways similar to the presence of a dense core. Additionally, we apply our formalism to Jupiter and Saturn and find results consistent with both the observational data of Gaulme et al. and previous theoretical work.

  4. Asteroseismology of ZZ Ceti stars with fully evolutionary white dwarf models. I. The impact of the uncertainties from prior evolution on the period spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gerónimo, F. C.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Kepler, S. O.

    2017-03-01

    Context. ZZ Ceti stars are pulsating white dwarfs with a carbon-oxygen core build up during the core helium burning and thermally pulsing Asymptotic Giant Branch phases. Through the interpretation of their pulsation periods by means of asteroseismology, details about their origin and evolution can be inferred. The whole pulsation spectrum exhibited by ZZ Ceti stars strongly depends on the inner chemical structure. At present, there are several processes affecting the chemical profiles that are still not accurately determined. Aims: We present a study of the impact of the current uncertainties of the white dwarf formation and evolution on the expected pulsation properties of ZZ Ceti stars. Methods: Our analysis is based on a set of carbon-oxygen core white dwarf models with masses 0.548 and 0.837 M⊙ that are derived from full evolutionary computations from the ZAMS to the ZZ Ceti domain. We considered models in which we varied the number of thermal pulses, the amount of overshooting, and the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rate within their uncertainties. Results: We explore the impact of these major uncertainties in prior evolution on the chemical structure and expected pulsation spectrum. We find that these uncertainties yield significant changes in the g-mode pulsation periods. Conclusions: We conclude that the uncertainties in the white dwarf progenitor evolution should be taken into account in detailed asteroseismological analyses of these pulsating stars.

  5. SABRE observations of Pi2 pulsations: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, E. G.; Lester, M.

    1997-01-01

    The characteristics of substorm-associated Pi2 pulsations observed by the SABRE coherent radar system during three separate case studies are presented. The SABRE field of view is well positioned to observe the differences between the auroral zone pulsation signature and that observed at mid-latitudes. During the first case study the SABRE field of view is initially in the eastward electrojet, equatorward and to the west of the substorm-enhanced electrojet current. As the interval progresses, the western, upward field-aligned current of the substorm current wedge moves westward across the longitudes of the radar field of view. The westward motion of the wedge is apparent in the spatial and temporal signatures of the associated Pi2 pulsation spectra and polarisation sense. During the second case study, the complex field-aligned and ionospheric currents associated with the pulsation generation region move equatorward into the SABRE field of view and then poleward out of it again after the third pulsation in the series. The spectral content of the four pulsations during the interval indicate different auroral zone and mid-latitude signatures. The final case study is from a period of low magnetic activity when SABRE observes a Pi2 pulsation signature from regions equatorward of the enhanced substorm currents. There is an apparent mode change between the signature observed by SABRE in the ionosphere and that on the ground by magnetometers at latitudes slightly equatorward of the radar field of view. The observations are discussed in terms of published theories of the generation mechanisms for this type of pulsation. Different signatures are observed by SABRE depending on the level of magnetic activity and the position of the SABRE field of view relative to the pulsation generation region. A twin source model for Pi2 pulsation generation provides the clearest explanation of the signatures observed Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. D. J. Southwood

  6. Numerical simulation of pulsating turbulent channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, Alberto; Piomelli, Ugo

    2001-05-01

    Direct and large-eddy simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations are used to study the pulsating flow in a channel. The cases examined span a wide range of frequencies of the driving pressure gradient, and encompass different physical behaviors, from the quasi-Stokes flow observed at high frequencies, to a quasisteady behavior at the lowest ones. The validity of the dynamic Smagorinsky model to study this kind of unsteady flow is established by a posteriori comparison with direct simulations and experimental data. It is shown that the fluctuations generated in the near-wall region by the unsteady pressure gradient do not propagate beyond a certain distance lt from the wall, which can be estimated quite accurately by a simple eddy viscosity argument. No substantial departure from the Stokes regime at very high frequency (ω+ as high as 0.1) is observed. The time-dependent characteristics of the flow are examined in detail, as well as the topology of the coherent structures.

  7. Sher 25: pulsating but apparently alone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, William D.; Evans, Christopher J.; Simón-Díaz, Sergio; Sana, Hugues; Langer, Norbert; Smith, Nathan; Smartt, Stephen J.

    2014-08-01

    The blue supergiant Sher 25 is surrounded by an asymmetric, hourglass-shaped circumstellar nebula, which shows similarities to the triple-ring structure seen around SN 1987A. From optical spectroscopy over six consecutive nights, we detect periodic radial velocity variations in the stellar spectrum of Sher 25 with a peak-to-peak amplitude of ˜12 km s-1 on a time-scale of about 6 d, confirming the tentative detection of similar variations by Hendry et al. From consideration of the amplitude and time-scale of the signal, coupled with observed line profile variations, we propose that the physical origin of these variations is related to pulsations in the stellar atmosphere, rejecting the previous hypothesis of a massive, short-period binary companion. The radial velocities of two other blue supergiants with similar bipolar nebulae, SBW1 and HD 168625, were also monitored over the course of six nights, but these did not display any significant radial velocity variations.

  8. New Links Between Pulsation and Stellar History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage

    New instrumentation is providing new insights into intermediate mass pulsating Cepheids, particularly about their formation and history. Three approaches are discussed, using space (Hubble and Chandra) and ground-based studies (radial velocities). First, we are conducting a survey of Cepheids with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) to identify possible resolved companions (for example Eta Aql) and thus provide constraints on star formation. Followup X-ray observations (Chandra and XMM-Newton) can confirm whether possible low mass companions are young enough to be physical companions of Cepheids. In a related study of intermediate mass stars, Chandra X-ray observations of late B stars in Tr 16 have been used to determine the fraction which have X-ray active low mass companions. Finally, the Tennessee State Automatic Spectroscopic Telescope AST and the Moscow University group have obtained velocities of a number of Cepheids. As an example, the orbit of V350 Sgr has been redetermined, providing a new level of accuracy to the orbital velocity amplitude, which is needed for mass determination.

  9. Some simple properties of stellar pulsation modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, C. L.

    1979-01-01

    Except for the lowest harmonics, small-amplitude stellar pulsation modes possess many simple properties whose evaluation does not require numerical integration of the fourth-order equations of motion. All antinodes tend to have the same total kinetic energy except for those lying near physical or geometric boundaries. However, when kinetic energy per unit volume is considered, order-of-magnitude enhancements are seen in antinodes lying near the center of the star, and factor-of-2 enhancements occur near the polar axis. The nodes are distributed very regularly along the radius. They follow an exponential law in g-regions, and their separation is proportional to the sound travel time in p-regions. A simple graphical procedure is described for surveying the oscillation frequencies of a new stellar model. A precise condition is derived giving the division of energy between radial and angular motion. Another condition gives the fractional contribution to the velocity field of its two sources, the divergence and the curl. Certain simplifying results of weak coupling among the linear modes are briefly described.

  10. EC 03089-6421: a new, very rapidly pulsating sdO star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Worters, H. L.; Østensen, R. H.

    2017-01-01

    EC 03089-6421, classified sdO in the Edinburgh-Cape (EC) blue object survey, is shown to have unusually rapid pulsations with a dominant frequency near 32 mHz (amplitude ˜0.02 mag; period 31.1s) - which appears to be strongly variable in amplitude on timescales of hours and days - and a generally weaker frequency near 29 mHz (amplitude ˜0.004 mag; period 34.2s) which is also variable in amplitude. This star varies at twice the frequency of any known hot subdwarf pulsator. Although the low resolution EC spectrogram appears very similar to those of DAO stars, our analysis derives Teff = 40200 ± 1600 K; log g = 6.25 ± 0.23 and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.63 ± 0.55; more recent spectrograms give Teff = 37400 ± 1000 K; log g = 5.70 ± 0.13 and log N(He)/N(H) = -2.02 ± 0.17, both of which indicate that the gravity is too low for a white dwarf star, although the low temperature derived from the Balmer lines is at odds with the absence of neutral Helium and the strength of He II 4686. It is possible that EC 03089-6421 is a field analogue of the ω Cen sdO variables.

  11. EC03089-6421: a new, very rapidly pulsating sdO star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Worters, H. L.; Østensen, R. H.

    2017-06-01

    EC 03089-6421, classified sdO in the Edinburgh-Cape (EC) blue object survey, is shown to have unusually rapid pulsations with a dominant frequency near 32 mHz (amplitude ˜0.02 mag; period 31.1 s) - which appears to be strongly variable in amplitude on time-scales of hours and days - and a generally weaker frequency near 29 mHz (amplitude ˜0.004 mag; period 34.2 s), which is also variable in amplitude. This star varies at twice the frequency of any known hot subdwarf pulsator. Although the low-resolution EC spectrogram appears very similar to those of DAO stars, our analysis derives Teff = 40 200 ± 1600 K; log g = 6.25 ± 0.23 and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.63 ± 0.55; more recent spectrograms give Teff = 37 400 ± 1000 K; log g = 5.70 ± 0.13 and log N(He)/N(H) = -2.02 ± 0.17, both of which indicate that the gravity is too low for a white dwarf star, although the low temperature derived from the Balmer lines is at odds with the absence of neutral Helium and the strength of He ii 4686. It is possible that EC 03089-6421 is a field analogue of the ω Cen sdO variables.

  12. Ionospheric signatures of cusp latitude Pc 3 pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Engebretson, M.J.; Anderson, B.J. ); Cahill, L.J. Jr. ); Arnoldy, R.L. ); Rosenberg, T.J. ); Carpenter, D.L. ); Gail, W.B. ); Eather, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The authors have compared search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica, during selected days in March and April 1986. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the daysie cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light a 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. When Pc 3 pulsations are present, they exhibit nearly identical frequencies, proportional to the magnitude of the IMF, in magnetometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver signals at South Pole Station and in magnetometer signals at McMurdo. Singals from the 30-MHz riometer at South Pole are modulated in concert with the magnetic and optical variations during periods of broadband pulsation activity, but no riometer variations are noted during periods of narrow-band activity. Because riometers are sensitive to electrons of auroral energies (several keV and above), while the 427.8-nm photometer is sensitive to precipitation with much lower energies, they interpret these observatons as showing that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons (with energies {le} 1 keV) at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. They suggest that these particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.

  13. The seismic properties of low-mass He-core white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, L. G.; Hermes, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Context. In recent years, many low-mass (≲ 0.45 M⊙) white dwarf stars expected to harbor He cores have been detected in the field of the Milky Way and in several galactic globular and open clusters. Until recently, no objects of this kind showed pulsations. This situation has changed recently with the exciting discovery of SDSS J184037.78+642312.3, the first pulsating low-mass white dwarf star. Aims: Motivated by this extremely important finding, and in view of the very valuable asteroseismological potential of these objects, we present here a detailed pulsational study applied to low-mass He-core white dwarfs with masses ranging from 0.17 to 0.46 M⊙, based on full evolutionary models representative of these objects. This study is aimed to provide a theoretical basis from which to interpret future observations of variable low-mass white dwarfs. Methods: The background stellar models on which our pulsational analysis was carried out were derived by taking into account the complete evolutionary history of the progenitor stars, with special emphasis on the diffusion processes acting during the white dwarf cooling phase. We computed nonradial g-modes to assess the dependence of the pulsational properties of these objects with stellar parameters such as the stellar mass and the effective temperature, and also with element diffusion processes. We also performed a g- and p-mode pulsational stability analysis on our models and found well-defined blue edges of the instability domain, where these stars should start to exhibit pulsations. Results: We found substantial differences in the seismic properties of white dwarfs with M∗ ≳ 0.20 M⊙ and the extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarfs (M∗ ≲ 0.20 M⊙). Specifically, g-mode pulsation modes in ELM white dwarfs mainly probe the core regions and are not dramatically affected by mode-trapping effects by the He/H interface, whereas the opposite is true for more massive He-core white dwarfs. We found that element

  14. Learning from Pulsating Stars: Progress over the Last Century (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) Scarcely more than a century has elapsed since it began to be widely accepted that pulsation plays an important role in the variability of stars. During that century pulsating stars have been used as tools to explore a variety of astrophysical questions, including the determination of distances to other galaxies, the testing of timescales of evolution through the HR diagram, and the identification of the ages and star formation histories of stellar populations. Among the significant early milestones along this investigative path are Henrietta Leavitt's discovery of a relation between the periods and luminosities of Cepheids, Harlow Shapley's proposal that all Cepheids are pulsating stars, and Arthur Stanley Eddington's use of the observed period change of d Cephei to constrain its power source. Today our explorations of pulsating stars are bolstered by long observational histories of brighter variables, surveys involving unprecedentedly large numbers of stars, and improved theoretical analyses. This talk will review aspects of the history and our current understanding of pulsating stars, paying particular attention to RR Lyrae, d Scuti, and Cepheid variables. Observations by AAVSO members have provided insight into several questions regarding the behavior of these stars.

  15. Quasi-periodic rapid motion of pulsating auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoko; Kataoka, Ryuho; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Nishiyama, Takanori; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Ebihara, Yusuke; Hampton, Donald; Iwagami, Naomoto

    2016-09-01

    We report rapid motion of pulsating auroras associated with so called ​3 ± 1 Hz modulations embedded in the main pulsations. During the pulsation ON phase, repetitive expansions are often observed around the edges of pulsating patches. Some events show a few detached expansions traveling away from the main deformed pulsating patch. Approximately 80% of all expansion speeds were found to be less than 70 km s-1 at ionospheric altitudes, which is less than the projected Alfvén speed from the magnetospheric equator to the ionosphere. The rapid motions with speeds of tens of km s-1 are unlikely to be explained by obliquely propagating chorus elements, which are known to cause the 3 ± 1 Hz modulation, because the perpendicular speed of the oblique chorus waves is higher than the Alfvén speed. We discuss the slow-mode Alfvén wave as a candidate modulation source to generate the rapid motions. A few non-repetitive expansion events with a speed of more than 150 km s-1 also appear at the onset of the ON phase. These non-repetitive expanding motions are characterized by a long displacement compared to the repetitive expanding motions. The differences in the expansion speeds indicate different formation mechanisms of the patch motions.

  16. Variability of Microcirculation Detected by Blood Pulsation Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Teplov, Victor; Nippolainen, Ervin; Miridonov, Serguei; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    The non-invasive assessment of blood flow is invaluable for the diagnostic and monitoring treatment of numerous vascular and neurological diseases. We developed a non-invasive and non-contact method of blood pulsation imaging capable of visualizing and monitoring of the two-dimensional distribution of two key parameters of peripheral blood flow: the blood pulsation amplitude and blood pulsation phase. The method is based on the photoplethysmographic imaging in the reflection mode. In contrast with previous imaging systems we use new algorithm for data processing which allows two dimensional mapping of blood pulsations in large object's areas after every cardiac cycle. In our study we carried out the occlusion test of the arm and found (i) the extensive variability of 2D-distribution of blood pulsation amplitude from one cardiac cycle to another, and (ii) existence of the adjacent spots to which the blood is asynchronously supplied. These observations show that the method can be used for studying of the multicomponent regulation of peripheral blood circulation. The proposed technique is technologically simple and cost-effective, which makes it applicable for monitoring the peripheral microcirculation in clinical settings for example, in diagnostics or testing the efficiency of new medicines. PMID:23431399

  17. The Effects of Pulsating Flow on Eruption Column Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, T.; Dufek, J.; Benage, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Pulsating flow, at frequencies ranging from 10-2 to 101 Hz, has been recorded in explosive eruptions through video, thermal imagery, and infrasonic and seismic data. Such pulsating flow can be generated from instabilities in bubbly magma, and from granular instabilities in post-fragmentation conduit flow. Variable fluxes of gas and particles at the vent can alter entrainment conditions, and consequently affect eruption column stability. However, volcanic eruption models typically assume steady flow from the vent, and regime diagrams of eruption column stability are based on such steady flow assumptions. Using Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase numerical simulations of eruption columns with both steady and pulsating sources, we compared the relative behavior of steady and pulsed columns across a range of pulse frequencies and mass fluxes at the vent (mass flux is time-averaged for pulsating cases). Preliminary results suggest that pulsating flow increases air entrainment into the column relative to steady flow for otherwise constant eruption conditions, and that entrainment increases with decreasing pulse frequency. Increased entrainment at low frequency implies that low-frequency pulsed columns are more buoyant and potentially more stable than their steady counterparts, for a given mass flux. This effect disrupts the steady flow-based understanding of eruption column stability regimes and may be a factor to consider for future assessment of volcanic hazards and interpreting mass flux conditions from deposits.

  18. THE DISCOVERY OF PULSATING HOT SUBDWARFS IN NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Thomas M.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Randall, Suzanna K.; Sweigart, Allen V.; Lanz, Thierry E-mail: Wayne.Landsman@nasa.gov E-mail: allen.sweigart@gmail.com

    2013-11-10

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope program to search for pulsating hot subdwarfs in the core of NGC 2808. These observations were motivated by the recent discovery of such stars in the outskirts of ω Cen. Both NGC 2808 and ω Cen are massive globular clusters exhibiting complex stellar populations and large numbers of extreme horizontal branch stars. Our far-UV photometric monitoring of over 100 hot evolved stars has revealed six pulsating subdwarfs with periods ranging from 85 to 149 s and UV amplitudes of 2.0%-6.8%. In the UV color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2808, all six of these stars lie immediately below the canonical horizontal branch, a region populated by the subluminous 'blue-hook' stars. For three of these six pulsators, we also have low-resolution far-UV spectroscopy that is sufficient to broadly constrain their atmospheric abundances and effective temperatures. Curiously, and in contrast to the ω Cen pulsators, the NGC 2808 pulsators do not exhibit the spectroscopic or photometric uniformity one might expect from a well-defined instability strip, although they all fall within a narrow band (0.2 mag) of far-UV luminosity.

  19. Structure of Black Aurora Associated With Pulsating Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenward, D. R.; Fritz, B.; Lessard, M.; Fernandes, P. A.; Blandin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Morphological behavior of black aurora as it relates to pulsating aurora is investigated by examining a collection of ground-based observations from January 2007 in support of the ROPA rocket campaign. Images were sampled from video recorded by a Xybion intensified camera (30 fps) at Poker Flat Research Range, AK. The primary observations of black aurora were observed during the substorm recovery phase and separate patches of pulsating aurora as well as pulsating aurora from diffuse aurora. In these observations the black aurora forms an apparent firm boundary between the auroral forms in a new behavior that is in contrast with previously reported observations. Also presented for the first time are black curls in conjunction with pulsating aurora. Curl structures that indicate shear plasma flows in the ionosphere may be used as a proxy for converging/diverging electric fields in and above the ionosphere. This new subset of black auroral behavior may provide visual evidence of black aurora as an ionospheric feedback mechanism as related to pulsating aurora.

  20. The Discovery of Pulsating Hot Subdwarfs in NGC 2808

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Landsman, Wayne B.; Randall, Suzanna K.; Sweigert, Allen V.; Lanz, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope program to search for pulsating hot subdwarfs in the core of NGC 2808. These observations were motivated by the recent discovery of such stars in the outskirts of Omega Cen. Both NGC 2808 and ? Cen are massive globular clusters exhibiting complex stellar populations and large numbers of extreme horizontal branch stars. Our far-UV photometric monitoring of over 100 hot evolved stars has revealed six pulsating subdwarfs with periods ranging from 85 to 149 s and UV amplitudes of 2.0%-6.8%. In the UV color-magnitude diagram of NGC 2808, all six of these stars lie immediately below the canonical horizontal branch, a region populated by the subluminous "blue-hook" stars. For three of these six pulsators, we also have low-resolution far-UV spectroscopy that is sufficient to broadly constrain their atmospheric abundances and effective temperatures. Curiously, and in contrast to the ? Cen pulsators, the NGC 2808 pulsators do not exhibit the spectroscopic or photometric uniformity one might expect from a well-defined instability strip, although they all fall within a narrow band (0.2 mag) of far-UV luminosity.

  1. Ionospheric signatures of cusp latitude Pc 3 pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Rosenberg, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica during selected days in March and April 1986 are compared. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low IMF cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light at 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. The observations suggest that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. These particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.

  2. Heartbeat Stars and the Ringing of Tidal Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambleton, Kelly; Kurtz, Don; Prša, Andrej; Fuller, Jim; Thompson, Susan

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of high precision photometry from satellites such as Kepler and CoRoT, a whole new layer of interesting and astounding astronomical objects has been revealed: heartbeat stars are an example of such objects. Heartbeat stars are eccentric ellipsoidal variables that undergo strong tidal interactions when the stars are almost in contact at the time of closest approach. These interactions deform of the stars and cause a notable light curve variation in the form of a tidal pulse. A subset of these objects (~20%) show prominent tidally induced pulsations: pulsations forced by the binary orbit. We now have a fully functional code that models binary star features (using PHOEBE) and stellar pulsations simultaneously, enabling a complete and accurate heartbeat star model to be determined. In this paper we show the results of our new code, which uses emcee, a variant of mcmc, to generate a full set of stellar parameters. We further highlight the interesting features of KIC 8164262, including its tidally induced pulsations and resonantly locked pulsations.

  3. Lattice melting and rotation in perpetually pulsating equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Pichon, C.; Lynden-Bell, D.; Pichon, J.; Lynden-Bell, R.

    2007-01-15

    Systems whose potential energies consists of pieces that scale as r{sup -2} together with pieces that scale as r{sup 2}, show no violent relaxation to Virial equilibrium but may pulsate at considerable amplitude forever. Despite this pulsation these systems form lattices when the nonpulsational ''energy'' is low, and these disintegrate as that energy is increased. The ''specific heats'' show the expected halving as the ''solid'' is gradually replaced by the ''fluid'' of independent particles. The forms of the lattices are described here for N{<=}18 and they become hexagonal close packed for large N. In the larger N limit, a shell structure is formed. Their large N behavior is analogous to a {gamma}=5/3 polytropic fluid with a quasigravity such that every element of fluid attracts every other in proportion to their separation. For such a fluid, we study the ''rotating pulsating equilibria'' and their relaxation back to uniform but pulsating rotation. We also compare the rotating pulsating fluid to its discrete counterpart, and study the rate at which the rotating crystal redistributes angular momentum and mixes as a function of extra heat content.

  4. Epsilon Aur monitoring during predicted pulsation phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.; Templeton, Matthew R.

    2014-09-01

    Dr. Robert Stencel (University of Denver Astronomy Program) has requested that AAVSO observers monitor epsilon Aurigae from now through the end of the observing season. "Studies of the long-term, out-of-eclipse photometry of this enigmatic binary suggest that intervals of coherent pulsation occur at roughly 1/3 of the 27.1-year orbital period. Kloppenborg, et al. noted that stable variation patterns develop at 3,200-day intervals' implying that 'the next span of dates when such events might happen are circa JD ~2457000 (2014 December)'. "These out-of-eclipse light variations often have amplitudes of ~0.1 magnitude in U, and ~0.05 in V, with characteristic timescales of 60-100 days. The AAVSO light curve data to the present may indicate that this coherent phenomenon has begun, but we encourage renewed efforts by observers...to help deduce whether these events are internal to the F star, or externally-driven by tidal interaction with the companion star." Nightly observations or one observation every few days (CCD/PEP/DSLR, VUBR (amplitude too small for visual)) are requested. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. Epsilon Aur was the subject of major international campaigns and the AAVSO's Citizen Sky project as it went through its 27.1-year eclipse in 2009-2011. Over 700 observers worldwide submitted over 20,000 multicolor observations to the AAVSO International Database for this project. Much information on eps Aur is available from the AAVSO, including material on the Citizen Sky website (http://www.aavso.org/epsilon-aurigae and http://www.citizensky.org/content/star-our-project). The Journal of the AAVSO, Volume 40, No. 2 (2012) was devoted to discussion of and research results from this event. See full Alert Notice for more details and observations.

  5. Commentary on fast atmospheric pulsations. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Vampola, A.L.

    1988-11-22

    A recent paper proposed that Fast Atmospheric Light Pulsations (FAPs), which have been observed at L=1.5-2.2 in the northern hemisphere, are optical signatures of >2-MeV electrons associated with Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events produced by lightning strokes in the southern hemisphere. FAPs cannot be produced by >2-MeV electrons in the inner radiation belt because the upper limit for fluxes of such particles is only about 0.2% of the value that was used in the analysis and would lead to an unrealistically short electron lifetime. The discrepancy comes from using an electron model, AE-2, which included the Starfish fission electrons. Later inner-zone electron environment models show the inner-zone to have negligible fluxes of electrons in excess of 2 MeV. The use of a model in which southern hemisphere lightning strokes result in northern hemisphere FAPs via a cyclotron mode interaction between magnetospheric electrons and lightning generated waves is also untenable because it would result in FAP intensities two orders of magnitude greater in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere, leading to a further two orders of magnitude reduction in estimated inner-zone electron lifetimes. The estimated light intensity of FAPs is within acceptable bounds compared to the lifetime of inner zone electrons if all electrons above 100 keV contribute to the light production, if southern hemisphere FAP intensity is no greater than the FAP intensity observed in the northern hemisphere, and if the light-production efficiency is of the order of .001.

  6. Discovery of ZZ Cetis in detached white dwarf plus main-sequence binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrzas, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Copperwheat, C. M.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Dhillon, V. S.; Littlefair, S. P.; Marsh, T. R.; Parsons, S. G.; Savoury, C. D. J.; Schreiber, M. R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bento, J.; Breedt, E.; Kerry, P.

    2015-02-01

    We present the first results of a dedicated search for pulsating white dwarfs (WDs) in detached WD plus main-sequence (MS) binaries. Candidate systems were selected from a catalogue of WD+MS binaries, based on the surface gravities and effective temperatures of the WDs. We observed a total of 26 systems using ULTRACAM mounted on ESO's 3.5 m New Technology Telescope at La Silla. Our photometric observations reveal pulsations in seven WDs of our sample, including the first pulsating WD with an MS companion in a post-common envelope (CE) binary, SDSS J1136+0409. Asteroseismology of these new pulsating systems will provide crucial insight into how binary interactions, particularly the CE phase, affect the internal structure and evolution of WDs. In addition, our observations have revealed the partially eclipsing nature of one of our targets, SDSS J1223-0056.

  7. The stellar seismology of hot white dwarfs and planetary nebula nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1987-01-01

    The pulsation properties of hot white dwarfs make it possible to determine their mass, surface composition, rotation, and rate of evolution, and provide constraints on their internal structure. Period spacings are sensitive measures of stellar mass and indicate surface layer structure. Measurement of the rate of period change for these stars provide a way to determine their cooling rates. Attention is also given to how well (or poorly) models of excitation of the pulsations fit within current models of planetary nebula nuclei and hot white dwarfs.

  8. EPIC 211779126: a rare hybrid pulsating subdwarf B star richly pulsating in both pressure and gravity modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A. S.; Reed, M. D.; Østensen, R. H.; Telting, J. H.; Jeffery, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    We present our analysis of EPIC 211779126, a pulsating subdwarf B star discovered with the Kepler spacecraft during K2 Campaign 5. We found 154 frequencies in the g-mode region as well as 29 frequencies in the p-mode region. This makes EPIC 211779126 a rare hybrid pulsator with a rich pulsation spectrum in both regions. We successfully identified modal degrees and relative radial orders of most of the g-modes using asymptotic period spacing, and modal degrees of some of the p-modes using rotational splitting. We detected trapped modes, which are a very important feature for constraining theoretical models. Our ground-based spectroscopic observations revealed no companion, therefore EPIC 211779126 is likely a single sdB star. Using p-mode multiplets, we derived a rotation period of approximately 16 days, making EPIC 211779126 the fastest rotating non-binary subdwarf B pulsator observed with Kepler. However, we do not find any resolved multiplets among the high-amplitude g-mode pulsations that correspond to the rotation rate inferred from the p-mode splittings. This may indicate that the star's core is rotating more slowly than its envelope.

  9. Modelling of Pc5 pulsation structure in the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. D. M.

    1980-03-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic resonance theory is used to model the structure of the magnetospheric and ionospheric electric and magnetic fields associated with Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations. In this paper the variation of the fields across the invariant latitude of the resonance are computed. The results are combined with calculations of the variation along a field line to map the fields down to the ionosphere. In one case the results are compared with measurements obtained by the STARE auroral radar and show good agreement. The relationship between the width of the resonance region and ionospheric height-integrated Pedersen conductivity is computed and it is shown how auroral radar measurements of Pc5 oscillations could be used to determine ionospheric height-integrated Pedersen conductivity. It is pointed out that from these calculations it would be possible to identify the field line on which a satellite was located by comparing a Pc5 pulsation observed by the satellite, and the same pulsation observed by STARE.

  10. On permanent and sporadic pulsations of the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, A. V.

    2015-05-01

    A question concerning the influence of permanent Pc3-band pulsations (periods from 10 to 45 s) on the excitation of sporadic Pi2-band pulsations (40 to 150 s) is raised. It is hypothesized that, being generated ahead of the front of the Earth's magnetosphere, the Pc3 penetrate into the geomagnetic tail where they cause local depression in the electric current in the neutral sheet and, under favorable conditions, initiate tearing instability. This leads to the reconnection of the magnetic field lines and explosion-like release of the magnetic energy stored in the tail. As a result, a substorm arises with the sporadic Pi2 pulsations being its important element. Ways are suggested to theoretically substantiate and experimentally validate this hypothesis.

  11. Geomagnetic pulsations observed simultaneously on three geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. J.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Barfield, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of magnetic pulsations have been made by three geostationary satellites carrying similar magnetometers and acting as an azimuthal array. Autospectral and cross-spectral analysis yields coherence and phase differences between the pulsations at the satellite positions. The majority of the data fit the Kelvin-Helmholtz generation mechanism. The azimuthal wave number changes sign near noon and corresponds to propagation away from noon. Usually, the wave number is less than 10 deg per degree of longitude. Later in the afternoon, however, strong pulsations are observed with low coherence, implying large wave numbers. This suggests an instability driven by a gradient in the intensity of energetic protons, which may be expected at this local time. The data also suggest that some of the observed phase difference between the azimuthal components is due to small separations in magnetic shell, whereas this is not the case for the radial components. This implies a localized field-line resonance.

  12. Theory of auroral zone PiB pulsation spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Lysak, R.L. )

    1988-06-01

    Changes in the auroral zone current system are often accompanied by magnetic pulsations with periods of about 1 s. These so-called bursts of irregular pulsations (PiB) have been observed both on ground magnetograms and with in situ satellite observations. These pulsations can be understood as excitations of a resonant cavity in the topside ionosphere, where the Alfven speed has a strong gradient due to the exponential decrease of density above the ionosphere. These waves have a frequency which scales as the ratio of the Alfven speed at the ionosphere divided by the ionospheric scale height. For a pure exponential Alfven speed profile, the mode frequencies are related to zeros of the zeroth-order Bessel function. For other profiles of the density, and therefore Alfven speed, the frequencies are not exactly given by the simple theory, but the frequency and mode structure are similar provided the Alfven speed sharply increases above the ionosphere.

  13. Ground magnetic field fluctuations associated with pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, R. G.; Samara, M.

    2015-10-01

    A case study of an intense pulsating auroral event is presented where the large-scale (100-200 km) optical intensity variations are anticorrelated with fluctuations in the ground magnetometer data at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The auroral event occurred over Poker Flat, Alaska, on 1 March 2012 and was imaged optically with several different fields of view and filters. The fluctuations in the magnetometer data were most prominent in the D component and had magnitudes of 1 to 5 nT. The auroral intensity variations had amplitudes of 200 to 400 R, comprising 25% to 50% of the total auroral luminosity at 427.8 nm. The direction of the magnetometer deflections is consistent with a south-to-north ionospheric current present when each pulsation is on, thus providing closure for the field-aligned currents associated with each of the pulsating patches.

  14. On the Stenbaek-Nielsen and Hallinan pulsating auroras

    SciTech Connect

    D'Angelo, N. )

    1991-02-01

    Stenbaek-Nielsen and Hallinan (1979) argued that if the pulsating auroras are caused by precipitating electrons, the data suggest that noncollisional interactions, localized in the lower E region (90-107 km), where most of the pulsations are observed, may play a dominant role in thermalizing the particles. They also stated that one type of process that comes to mind is a wave-particle interaction in the ionosphere. If, through one or more instabilities, waves grow at the expense of beam energy and, in turn, energize ambient electrons, the energized ambient electrons could ionize the background gas and, in process, produce luminosity. The exceptionally thin pulsating auroral patches observed by Stenbaek-Nielsen and Hallinan (1979) may be caused by an ionization instability occurring at the end of the range of precipitating electrons. A comparison is made to laboratory results reported by Johnson et al. (1990).

  15. Fibre-grating sensors for the measurement of physiological pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, M. D.; Daničić, A.; Atanasoski, V.; Radosavljević, S.; Prodanović, V.; Miljković, N.; Petrović, J.; Petrović, D.; Bojović, B.; Hadžievski, Lj; Allsop, T.; Lloyd, G.; Webb, D. J.

    2013-11-01

    Mechanical physiological pulsations are movements of a body surface incited by the movements of muscles in organs inside the body. Here we demonstrate the use of long-period grating sensors in the detection of cardio-vascular pulsations (CVP), in particular apex and carotid pulsations. To calibrate the sensors, we use a mechanical tool designed specifically to measure the sensor response to a localized perturbation at different grating curvatures as working points. From the data we infer the amplitude of the CVP. Together with the electrophysiological signals, the CVP signals obtained from the sensors can provide significant information on heart function which is inaccessible to the electrocardiogram. The low cost and easy handling of the fibre sensors increase their prospects to become the sensors of choice for novel diagnostic devices.

  16. Long periods (1 -10 mHz) geomagnetic pulsations variation with solar cycle in South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon Silva, Willian; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Guimarães Dutra, Severino Luiz; Babulal Trivedi, Nalin; Claudir da Silva, Andirlei; Souza Savian, Fernando; Ronan Coelho Stekel, Tardelli; de Siqueira, Josemar; Espindola Antunes, Cassio

    The occurrence and intensity of the geomagnetic pulsations Pc-5 (2-7 mHz) and its relationship with the solar cycle in the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly -SAMA is presented. The study of geomagnetic pulsations is important to help the understanding of the physical processes that occurs in the magnetosphere region and help to predict geomagnetic storms. The fluxgate mag-netometers H, D and Z, three axis geomagnetic field data from the Southern Space Observatory -SSO/CRS/INPE -MCT, São Martinho da Serra (29.42° S, 53.87° W, 480m a.s.l.), RS, Brasil, a were analyzed and correlated with the solar wind parameters (speed, density and temperature) from the ACE and SOHO satellites. A digital filtering to enhance the 2-7 mHz geomagnetic pulsations was used. Five quiet days and five perturbed days in the solar minimum and in the solar maximum were selected for this analysis. The days were chosen based on the IAGA definition and on the Bartels Musical Diagrams (Kp index) for 2001 (solar maximum) and 2008 (solar minimum). The biggest Pc-5 amplitude averages differences between the H-component is 78,35 nT for the perturbed days and 1,60nT for the quiet days during the solar maximum. For perturbed days the average amplitude during the solar minimum is 8,32 nT, confirming a direct solar cycle influence in the geomagnetic pulsations intensity for long periods.

  17. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the pulsating CV GW Lib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Spaandonk, L.; Steeghs, D.; Marsh, T. R.; Torres, M. A. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present time-resolved optical spectroscopy of the dwarf nova GW Librae during its rare 2007 April superoutburst and compare these with quiescent epochs. The data provide the first opportunity to track the evolution of the principal spectral features. In the early stages of the outburst, the optically thick disc dominates the optical and the line components show clear orbital radial velocity excursions. In the course of several weeks, optically thin regions become more prominent as strong emission lines replace the broad disc absorption. Post-outburst spectroscopy covering the I band illustrates the advantages of CaII relative to the commonly used Balmer lines when attempting to constrain binary parameters. Due to the lower ionization energy combined with smaller thermal and shear broadening of these lines, a sharp emission component is seen to be moving in between the accretion disc peaks in the CaII line. No such component is visible in the Balmer lines. We interpret this as an emission component originating on the hitherto unseen mass donor star. This emission component has a mean velocity of ~ -15 +/- 5 kms-1 which is associated with the systemic velocity γ, and a velocity semi-amplitude of Kem = 82.2 +/- 4.9 kms-1. Doppler tomography reveals an asymmetric accretion disc, with the S-wave mapping to a sharp spot in the tomogram with a velocity consistent to what is obtained with line profile fitting. A centre of symmetry analysis of the disc component suggests a very small value for the WD orbital velocity K1 as is also inferred from double Gaussian fits to the spectral lines. While our conservative dynamical limits place a hard upper limit on the binary mass ratio of q < 0.23, we favour a significantly lower value near q ~ 0.06. Pulsation modelling suggests a white dwarf mass ~1Msolar. This, paired with a low-mass donor, near the empirical sequence of an evolved cataclysmic variable close to the period bounce, appears to be consistent with all the

  18. Pulsations of B star models by an opacity mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N. ); Morgan, S.M. . Dept. of Astronomy)

    1990-01-01

    The pulsation mechanism for B stars has been sought for 30 years. No proposed radial or nonradial mechanism, either deeply seated or in the surface layers, has been successful in explaining all the observational details. Perhaps the missing piece in the puzzle is the opacity of the stellar material. Many times the first author has tried to make unconventional surface compositions give instability, but none were ever found. We now propose that the sudden appearance of a tremendous number of iron lines, as the temperature rises above about 150,000 K, gives a high sensitivity of the opacity to temperature at the very low densities found in these blue giants. Opacities need to increase quickly to a factor of three or more above the Cox-Tabor (1976) values in the range around 200,000 K. These increases are the same needed to decrease theoretical period ratios of double-mode Cepheids and {delta} Scuti variables to agree better with observations for conventional yellow giant masses. The reason why not all B stars pulsate is that a slight primordial deficit in the iron abundance in the surface layer (1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} of the mass) can reduce the opacity and its sensitivity to temperature. A slight amount of iron concentration by radiative levitation could make a star pulsate even if it did not originally have enough primordial iron to cause this opacity mechanism to operate. Then any slow slight mixing caused by the unstable nonradial pulsations could restabilize the pulsations as actually observed in {alpha} Vir and {beta} CMa. Rapid levitation and mixing for the very luminous B stars with their very low density envelopes could even explain the puzzling luminous blue variables with this standard {kappa} mechanism. Large amplitude pulsations like those seen in BW Vul would indicate a somewhat larger iron abundance compared to all other B stars.

  19. γ Doradus Pulsations in the Eclipsing Binary Star KIC 6048106

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Woo

    2016-12-01

    We present the Kepler photometry of KIC 6048106, which is exhibiting the O’Connell effect and multiperiodic pulsations. Including a starspot on either of the components, light-curve synthesis indicates that this system is a semi-detached Algol with a mass ratio of 0.211, an orbital inclination of 73.°9, and a large temperature difference of 2534 K. To examine in detail both the spot variations and pulsations, we separately analyzed the Kepler time-series data at the interval of an orbital period in an iterative way. The results reveal that the variable asymmetries of the light maxima can be interpreted as the changes with time of a magnetic cool spot on the secondary component. Multiple frequency analyses were performed in the outside-eclipse light residuals after removal of the binarity effects from the observed Kepler data. We detected 30 frequencies with signal to noise amplitude ratios larger than 4.0, of which six (f 2-f 6 and f 10) can be identified as high-order (17 ≤ n ≤ 25) low-degree (ℓ = 2) gravity-mode pulsations that were stable during the observing run of 200 days. In contrast, the other frequencies may be harmonic and combination terms. For the six frequencies, the pulsation periods and pulsation constants are in the ranges of 0.352-0.506 days and 0.232-0.333 days, respectively. These values and the position on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram demonstrate that the primary star is a γ Dor variable. The evolutionary status and the pulsation nature of KIC 6048106 are discussed.

  20. Cycles of self-pulsations in a photonic integrated circuit.

    PubMed

    Karsaklian Dal Bosco, Andreas; Kanno, Kazutaka; Uchida, Atsushi; Sciamanna, Marc; Harayama, Takahisa; Yoshimura, Kazuyuki

    2015-12-01

    We report experimentally on the bifurcation cascade leading to the appearance of self-pulsation in a photonic integrated circuit in which a laser diode is subjected to delayed optical feedback. We study the evolution of the self-pulsing frequency with the increase of both the feedback strength and the injection current. Experimental observations show good qualitative accordance with numerical results carried out with the Lang-Kobayashi rate equation model. We explain the mechanism underlying the self-pulsations by a phenomenon of beating between successive pairs of external cavity modes and antimodes.

  1. Mode identification from spectroscopy of gravity-mode pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, K. R.; Brunsden, E.; Cottrell, P. L.; Davie, M.; Greenwood, A.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.

    2014-02-01

    The gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. For the MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury, we obtain extensive high-resolution echelle spectra of γ Dor stars from the Mt John University Observatory in New Zealand. We analyze these to obtain the pulsational frequencies and identify these with the multiple pulsational modes excited in the star. A summary of recent results from our spectroscopic mode-identification programme is given.

  2. Effects of pulsating flow on current meter performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; ,

    1995-01-01

    Summarized are laboratory tests for current meter response to pulsating flows. Included are results for mechanical and electromagnetic water-current meters that are commonly used for stream gaging. Most of the vertical-axis and horizontal-axis types of mechanical meters that were tested significantly underregistered the mean flow velocity when the magnitude of the pulsating portion of the flow velocity was greater than half the mean velocity but less than the mean velocity. Errors for all meters tested were largest at the lowest mean flow velocity, 0.076 m/s.

  3. Resonant self-pulsations in coupled nonlinear microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Victor; Biancalana, Fabio

    2011-04-15

    A different point of view on the phenomenon of self-pulsations is presented, which shows that they are a balanced state formed by two counteracting processes: beating of modes and bistable switching. A structure based on two coupled nonlinear microcavities provides a generic example of a system with enhanced ability to support this phenomenon. The specific design of such a structure in the form of multilayered media is proposed, and the coupled-mode theory is applied to describe its dynamical properties. It is emphasized that the frequency of self-pulsations is related to the frequency splitting between resonant modes and can be adjusted over a broad range.

  4. A New Subdwarf-OB Pulsator J23341+4622

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakštiene, E.; Qvam, J. K. T.; Østensen, R. H.; Telting, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    A new sdOB variable star, J23341+4622 (SDSS J233406.10+462249.3), was discovered during photometric observations with the Nordic Optical Telescope (La Palma). We found its main pulsation frequency at 7422(±9) μHz with an amplitude of 4.5(±0.5) mma. The star is possibly a complex pulsator, as we found another significant peak at 7759(±11) μHz with an amplitude of 2.0(±0.3) mma and a possible subharmonic of the main frequency at 3508 μHz with an amplitude of 2.3 mma.

  5. Spectral peculiarities of turbulent pulsations of submerged water jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Znamenskaya, I. A.; Koroteeva, E. Yu.; Novinskaya, A. M.; Sysoev, N. N.

    2016-07-01

    The spectra of turbulent jet temperature pulsations at 1-40 Hz frequencies have been experimentally studied based on high-speed thermography of the water boundary layer: the region where an impact jet interacts with a surface transparent to IR radiation, as well as the near-wall region where two submerged jets interact in a disc-shaped tee-joint. It has been indicated that the slopes of the spectra of impact submerged jet turbulent pulsations are close to-5/3 and a double inertial interval exists in a quasi-2D turbulent flow that is formed when two jets mix.

  6. Inconsistencies in the harmonic analysis applied to pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Granado, J.; Garrido, R.; Suárez, J. C.

    2015-05-01

    Harmonic analysis is the fundamental mathematical method used for the identification of pulsation frequencies in asteroseismology and other fields of physics. Here we introduce a test to evaluate the validity of the hypothesis in which Fourier theorem is based: the convergence of the expansion series. The huge number of difficulties found in the interpretation of the periodograms of pulsating stars observed by CoRoT and Kepler satellites lead us to test whether the function underlying these time series is analytic or not. Surprisingly, the main result is that these are originated from non-analytic functions, therefore, the condition for Parseval's theorem is not guaranteed.

  7. Model for bubble pulsation in liquid between parallel viscoelastic layers

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Todd A.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    A model is presented for a pulsating spherical bubble positioned at a fixed location in a viscous, compressible liquid between parallel viscoelastic layers of finite thickness. The Green’s function for particle displacement is found and utilized to derive an expression for the radiation load imposed on the bubble by the layers. Although the radiation load is derived for linear harmonic motion it may be incorporated into an equation for the nonlinear radial dynamics of the bubble. This expression is valid if the strain magnitudes in the viscoelastic layer remain small. Dependence of bubble pulsation on the viscoelastic and geometric parameters of the layers is demonstrated through numerical simulations. PMID:22779461

  8. Analysis of pulsating spray flames propagating in lean two-phase mixtures with unity Lewis number

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, C.; Haldenwang, P.; Suard, S.

    2005-11-01

    Pulsating (or oscillatory) spray flames have recently been observed in experiments on two-phase combustion. Numerical studies have pointed out that such front oscillations can be obtained even with very simple models of homogeneous two-phase mixtures, including elementary vaporization schemes. The paper presents an analytical approach within the simple framework of the thermal-diffusive model, which is complemented by a vaporization rate independent of gas temperature, as soon as the latter reaches a certain thermal threshold ({theta}{sub v} in reduced form). The study involves the Damkoehler number (Da), the ratio of chemical reaction rate to vaporization rate, and the Zeldovich number (Ze) as essential parameters. We use the standard asymptotic method based on matched expansions in terms of 1/Ze. Linear analysis of two-phase flame stability is performed by studying, in the absence of differential diffusive effects (unity Lewis number), the linear growth rate of 2-D perturbations added to steady plane solutions and characterized by wavenumber k in the direction transverse to spreading. A domain of existence is found for the pulsating regime. It corresponds to mixture characteristics often met in air-fuel two-phase systems: low boiling temperature ({theta}{sub v} << 1), reaction rate not higher than vaporization rate (Da < 1, i.e., small droplets), and activation temperature assumed to be high compared with flame temperature (Ze {>=} 10). Satisfactory comparison with numerical simulations confirms the validity of the analytical approach; in particular, positive growth rates have been found for planar perturbations (k = 0) and for wrinkled fronts (k {ne} 0). Finally, comparison between predicted frequencies and experimental measurements is discussed.

  9. 3D MODEL ATMOSPHERES FOR EXTREMELY LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Freytag, B.; Hermes, J. J.

    2015-08-20

    We present an extended grid of mean three-dimensional (3D) spectra for low-mass, pure-hydrogen atmosphere DA white dwarfs (WDs). We use CO5BOLD radiation-hydrodynamics 3D simulations covering T{sub eff} = 6000–11,500 K and log g = 5–6.5 (g in cm s{sup −2}) to derive analytical functions to convert spectroscopically determined 1D temperatures and surface gravities to 3D atmospheric parameters. Along with the previously published 3D models, the 1D to 3D corrections are now available for essentially all known convective DA WDs (i.e., log g = 5–9). For low-mass WDs, the correction in temperature is relatively small (a few percent at the most), but the surface gravities measured from the 3D models are lower by as much as 0.35 dex. We revisit the spectroscopic analysis of the extremely low-mass (ELM) WDs, and demonstrate that the 3D models largely resolve the discrepancies seen in the radius and mass measurements for relatively cool ELM WDs in eclipsing double WD and WD + millisecond pulsar binary systems. We also use the 3D corrections to revise the boundaries of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, including the recently found ELM pulsators.

  10. Low-Altitude Satellite Measurements of Pulsating Auroral Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and Reimei satellites, where common-volume high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging data are available. These satellite overpasses of ground-based all-sky imagers reveal the specific features of the electron populations responsible for different types of pulsating aurora modulations. The energies causing the pulsating aurora mostly range from 3 keV to 20 keV but can at times extend up to 30 keV. The secondary, low-energy electrons (<1 keV) are diminished from the precipitating distribution when there are strong temporal variations in auroral intensity. There are often persistent spatial structures present inside regions of pulsating aurora, and in these regions there are secondary electrons in the precipitating populations. The reduction of secondary electrons is consistent with the strongly temporally varying pulsating aurora being associated with field-aligned currents and hence parallel potential drops of up to 1 kV.

  11. Solar Microwave and Geomagnetic Field Pulsations as Space Weather Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snegirev, S. D.; Fridman, V. M.; Sheiner, O. A.

    The procedure of short-term prediction of main solar flares was created on the basis of temporal behavior of long-period microwave pulsations [Kobrin et al., 1997]. At the same time it was shown that before these flares one could observe long-period (T > 20 min) pulsations of geomagnetic field [Kobrin et al, 1985]. The resemblance between microwave and geomagnetic pulsations (duration and temporal behaviour) allows us to propose the common nature of these variations: the reflection of solar energy accumulation and instabilities in solar centers of activity. To be an important factor of Space Weather above mentioned pulsations can be useful for constructing the procedures to predict the near Earth's conditions. This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research and Russian Federal Programm "Astronomy" (grant N 1.5.5.5). Kobrin M.M, Malygin V.I., Snegirev S.D. Plan. Space Sci., 33, N11, p. 1251 (1985). Kobrin M.M., Pakhomov V.V., Snegirev S.D., Fridman V.M., Sheiner O.A. Proc. Workshop `STPW-96', Tokyo: RCW, p. 200 (1997).

  12. Severe Vertebral Erosion by Huge Symptomatic Pulsating Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2008-01-01

    Aortic abdominal aneurysm rarely has been reported as causing osteolytic lesions of the spine. It may produce back and radiating pain patterns similar to those of several commonly encountered neurosurgical processes. We report a uncommon complication of huge pulsating aortic aneurysm causing severe vertebral erosion with incapacitating back and radiating pain. PMID:19096617

  13. Photometry of ET Andromedae and pulsation of HD 219891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W. W.; Kuschnig, R.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Kusakin, A. V.; Kreidl, T. J.; Bus, S. J.; Osip, D. J.; Guo, Z.; Hao, J.; Huang, L.; Sareyan, J.-P.; Alvarez, M.; Bedolla, S. G.; Zverko, J.; Ziznovsky, J. \\V.; Mittermayer, P.; Zwintz, K.; Polosukhina, N.; Mironov, A. V.; Dorokhov, N. I.; Goranskij, V. P.; Dorokhova, T. N.; Schneider, H.; Hiesberger, F.

    1998-10-01

    ET And is a binary system with a B9p(Si) star as the main component. We report on the photometric observing campaigns in 1988, 1989 and 1994 which confirmed the rotation period of 1.618875 deg for ET And while refuting other published values. Furthermore, the controversial issue of pulsational stability of ET And is resolved since we have discovered pulsation for HD 219891, which was the main comparison star and sometimes exclusively used. The frequency of 10.0816 d(-1) , a semi-amplitude of 2.5 mmag, T_eff\\ and M_v suggest this comparison star to be a delta Scuti variable close to the blue border of the instability strip. The pulsational stability of ET And could be clearly established and hence no need exists to derive new driving mechanisms for stars between the classical instability strip and the region of slowly pulsating B-type (SPB) stars. Based on observations obtained at the Bulgarian National Observatory, Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (Ukraine), Lowell Observatory (USA), Mauna Kea (USA), Mt. Dushak-Erekdak (Turkmenistan), San Pedro (Mexico), Skalnate Pleso (Slovakia), Tien Shan (Kazakhstan) and Wise Observatory (Israel)

  14. Low-Altitude Satellite Measurements of Pulsating Auroral Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and Reimei satellites, where common-volume high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging data are available. These satellite overpasses of ground-based all-sky imagers reveal the specific features of the electron populations responsible for different types of pulsating aurora modulations. The energies causing the pulsating aurora mostly range from 3 keV to 20 keV but can at times extend up to 30 keV. The secondary, low-energy electrons (<1 keV) are diminished from the precipitating distribution when there are strong temporal variations in auroral intensity. There are often persistent spatial structures present inside regions of pulsating aurora, and in these regions there are secondary electrons in the precipitating populations. The reduction of secondary electrons is consistent with the strongly temporally varying pulsating aurora being associated with field-aligned currents and hence parallel potential drops of up to 1 kV.

  15. Tracking patchy pulsating aurora through all-sky images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grono, Eric; Donovan, Eric; Murphy, Kyle R.

    2017-07-01

    Pulsating aurora is frequently observed in the evening and morning sector auroral oval. While the precipitating electrons span a wide range of energies, there is increasing evidence that the shape of pulsating auroral patches is controlled by structures in near-equatorial cold plasma; these patches appear to move with convection, for example. Given the tremendous and rapidly increasing amount of auroral image data from which the velocity of these patches can be inferred, it is timely to develop and implement techniques for the automatic identification of pulsating auroral patch events in these data and for the automatic determination of the velocity of individual patches from that data. As a first step towards this, we have implemented an automatic technique for determining patch velocities from sequences of images from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) all-sky imager (ASI) and applied it to many pulsating aurora events. Here we demonstrate the use of this technique and present the initial results, including a comparison between ewograms (east-west keograms) and time series of patch position as determined by the algorithm. We discuss the implications of this technique for remote sensing convection in the inner magnetosphere.

  16. Large-scale coordinated observations of Pc5 pulsation events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtumela, Zolile; Walker, Anthony D. M.; Stephenson, Judy A. E.; Kosch, Michael J.

    2016-09-01

    HF (high-frequency) radars belonging to SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) receive backscatter over substantial fields of view which, when combined, allow for simultaneous returns over extensive regions of the polar caps and midlatitudes. This makes them ideal instruments for the observation of pulsations in the Pc5 (1-5 mHz) frequency band. Relatively few pulsation events observed by multiple radars have been reported in the literature. Here we describe observations of three such events which extend over more than 120° of magnetic longitude in the Northern Hemisphere and one of which is also detected in the Southern Hemisphere. All three events show characteristics of field line resonances. In one case the pulsation has also been observed by magnetometers under or near the radar fields of view. The extensive longitudinal coverage allows accurate determination of azimuthal wave numbers. These are at the upper end of the lower values associated with external sources such as those in the solar wind. Such sources imply antisunward flow. However, the azimuthal wave number is negative, implying westward propagation at magnetic local times on both sides of noon, as would be expected from drift-bounce resonance with positive particles. Quiet conditions and a very low ring current during the events argue against this. The identification of the source of pulsations from a number of different mechanisms remains a problem of interest.

  17. Low-altitude satellite measurements of pulsating auroral electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and Reimei satellites, where common-volume high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging data are available. These satellite overpasses of ground-based all-sky imagers reveal the specific features of the electron populations responsible for different types of pulsating aurora modulations. The energies causing the pulsating aurora mostly range from 3 keV to 20 keV but can at times extend up to 30 keV. The secondary, low-energy electrons (<1 keV) are diminished from the precipitating distribution when there are strong temporal variations in auroral intensity. There are often persistent spatial structures present inside regions of pulsating aurora, and in these regions there are secondary electrons in the precipitating populations. The reduction of secondary electrons is consistent with the strongly temporally varying pulsating aurora being associated with field-aligned currents and hence parallel potential drops of up to 1 kV.

  18. Radar auroral observations during a burst of irregular magnetic pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Haldoupis, C.I.; Nielsen, E.; Holtet, J.A.; Egeland, A.; Chivers, H.A.

    1982-03-01

    Micropulsation data from an auroral state are compared with concurrent STARE radar observations from the E region above the station during a substorm event. The substorm onset is marked by a strong burst of irregular pulsations, (Pi B) accompanied by abrupt intensifications in the equivalent current, the backscatter intensity, and the riometer absorption. The magnetic Px and Py pulsation components have a reasonable degree of correlation and the polarization properties of the horizontal disturbance vetor exhibit well-defined changes during the first few minutes after onset. The radio signal undergoes deep quasiperiodic fading that is closely related to simultaneous PiB amplitude variations. The radar Dopplar data, which show normal fluctuations in the electron drift velocity, exclude modulation of radio backscatter by directional variations of the electric field. It is argued that the PiB pulsations and the variations seen in the backscatter are reflecting changes of the ionospheric currents due to conductivity modifications dictated by variations in the field-aligned currents flowing in the region. The possibility exists that the Pi B is closely related to precipitation pulsations as reported by Heacock and Hunsucker (1977).

  19. Observation of pulsating aurora signatures in cosmic noise absorption data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, M.; Kero, A.; Partamies, N.; McKay, D.; Whiter, D.; Kozlovsky, A.; Miyoshi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    This study investigates the contribution of energetic (E > 30 keV) particle precipitation during a pulsating aurora event over Kilpisjärvi (L = 6.2) on 26 February 2014. It is based on the comparison of auroral blue-line emission (427.8 nm) data from an all-sky camera and cosmic noise absorption (CNA) data obtained from a multibeam experiment of the Kilpisjärvi Atmospheric Imaging Receiver Array (KAIRA) riometer. The data sets are compared for three KAIRA beams close to magnetic zenith. Results show a clear correlation between the measured CNA and the auroral blue-line emission during the event, for each beam. In addition, individual pulsations are observed for the first time in the cosmic noise absorption data measured by KAIRA and are found to be close-to-identical to the optical pulsations. This suggests that the modulation of electron precipitation during pulsating aurora takes place in a consistent way over a broad range of energies.

  20. Photometric study of two β Cephei pulsators in eclipsing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drobek, D.; Pigulski, A.; Shobbrook, R. R.; Narwid, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present results of a photometric study of the young southern open cluster Stock 14. This cluster is known to contain two eclipsing systems with presumed β Cephei components, HD 101794 and HD 101838. We confirm variability due to pulsations and eclipses in both targets and announce the discovery of other variable stars in the observed field.

  1. Pulsational instabilities in hot pre-horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battich, Tiara; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2017-09-01

    The ɛ mechanism is a self-excitation mechanism of pulsations which acts on the regions where nuclear burning takes place. It has been shown that the ɛ mechanism can excite pulsations in models of hot helium-core flash, and that the pulsations of LS IV-14· 116, a He-enriched hot subdwarf star, could be explained that way. We aim to study the ɛmechanism effects on models of hot pre-horizontal branch stars and determine, if possible, a domain of instability in the log g — log Teff plane. We compute non-adiabatic non-radial pulsations on such stellar models, adopting different values of initial chemical abundances and mass of the hydrogen envelope at the time of the main helium flash. We find an instability domain of long-period (400 s ≲ P ≲ 2500 s) g-modes for models with 22000K ≲ Teff ≲ 50000K and 4.67 ≲ log g ≲ 6.15.

  2. Experimental and numerical study of pulsating transversal jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfeld, M. A.; Fedorova, N. N.; Fedorchenko, I. A.; Pozdnyakov, G. A.; Timofeev, K. Yu.; Zhakharova, Yu. V.

    2015-06-01

    Paper presents results of joint experimental and numerical investigation of pulsating jet penetration into still air and supersonic flow. Goal of the study is to investigate two-dimensional (2D) Hartmann generator (HG) properties and clear up its possibilities in providing better mixing between air and secondary (injected) gases.

  3. The triple-mode pulsating variable V823 Cassiopeiae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurcsik, J.; Szeidl, B.; Váradi, M.; Henden, A.; Hurta, Zs.; Lakatos, B.; Posztobányi, K.; Klagyivik, P.; Sódor, Á.

    2006-01-01

    Using extended multicolour CCD photometry of the triple-mode radial pulsator V823 Cas we studied the properties of the coupling frequencies invoked by nonlinear processes. Our results support that a resonance connection affects the mode coupling behaviour. The P1/P0 period ratio of V823 Cas has an “out of range” value if compared with the period ratios of the known double mode pulsators, while the P2/P1 period ratio is normal. The periods and period ratios cannot be consistently interpreted without conflict with pulsation and/or evolution models. We describe this failure with the suggestion that at present, the periods of V823 Cas are in a transient, resonance affected state, thus do not reflect the true parameters of the object. The anomalous period change behaviour of the fundamental and second overtone modes supports this idea. We have also raised the possibility that a f0 +f2 = 2f1 resonance may act in triple mode pulsators.

  4. New pulsational properties of eight `anomalous' RR Lyrae variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clementini, G.; Tosi, M.; Bragaglia, A.; Merighi, R.; Maceroni, C.

    1995-08-01

    CCD photometry in the V band is presented for seven field RR Lyrae stars selected from a sample of eight variables; these, according to data collected in the literature, are expected to be ab-type pulsators, to have short periods (and hence high metallicity), and to be located at a high z from the Galactic plane. New periods and epochs are derived for them. The new periods are only slightly shorter than the values published in the fourth edition of the General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS4). In six cases our amplitude of the light variation is significantly smaller than that published in the GCVS4, and in at least three cases the actual pulsation appears to be in the first harmonic rather than in the fundamental mode. All the suggested c-type pulsators show variations in the amplitude and/or quite scattered light curves. Some possible explanations are given. From a spectrophotometric analysis of the sample, only DL Com is confirmed to pulsate in the fundamental mode, to have a short period, and to be located at a relatively high z. However, a single object cannot be taken as evidence for a significant metal-rich population at a large distance from the Galactic plane.

  5. The detection of photospheric X-ray pulsations from PG 1159-035 with EXOSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Grauer, A. D.; Winget, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of soft X-ray pulsations from the hot, helium-rich, degenerate object, PG 1159-035 is reported. These observations, obtained with the Low Energy experiment on EXOSAT, show the presence of large-amplitude soft X-ray (44-150 A) pulsations analogous to several of the low-amplitude, nonradial, g-mode pulsations which are observed in the optical. These soft X-ray pulsations, with periods of 516 s, 524 s, and 539 s, arise from the photosphere of PG 1159-035 and constitute the first observations of stellar atmospheric pulsational phenomena in the X-ray band.

  6. A novel and sensitive method for measuring very weak magnetic fields of DA white dwarfs. A search for a magnetic field at the 250 G level in 40 Eridani B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landstreet, J. D.; Bagnulo, S.; Valyavin, G. G.; Gadelshin, D.; Martin, A. J.; Galazutdinov, G.; Semenko, E.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Searches for magnetic fields in white dwarfs have clarified both the frequency of occurrence and the global structure of the fields found down to field strengths of the order of 500 kG. Below this level, the situation is still very unclear. Aims: We are engaged in a project to find and study the weakest magnetic fields that are detectable in white dwarfs, in order to empirically determine how the frequency of occurrence and the structure of fields present changes with field strength. In this paper we report the successful testing of a very sensitive method of longitudinal field detection in DA white dwarfs. We use this method to carry out an extremely sensitive search for magnetism in the bright white dwarf 40 Eri B. Methods: The method of field measurement we use is to measure, at high spectral resolution, the polarisation signal V/I of the narrow non-LTE line core in Hα in DA stars. This small feature provides a much higher amplitude polarisation signal than the broad Balmer line wings. We test the usefulness of this technique by searching for a weak magnetic field in 40 Eri B. Results: One hour of observation of I and V Stokes components of the white dwarf 40 Eri B using ESPaDOnS at the CFHT is found to provide a standard error of measurement of the mean longitudinal magnetic field ⟨ Bz ⟩ of about 85 G. This is the smallest standard error of field measurement ever obtained for a white dwarf. The non-detections obtained are generally consistent with slightly less accurate measurements of 40 Eri B obtained with ISIS at the WHT and the Main Stellar Spectrograph at SAO, in order to provide comparison standards for the new method. These further measurements allow us to make a quantitative comparison of the relative efficiencies of low-resolution spectropolarimetery (using most or all of the Balmer lines) with the new method (using only the core of Hα). Conclusions: The new method of field detection reaches the level of sensitivity that was expected. It

  7. The Virtual Observatory Service TheoSSA: Establishing a Database of Synthetic Stellar Flux Standards I. NLTE Spectral Analysis of the DA-Type White Dwarf G191-B2B *,**,***,****

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims. We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods. In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results. TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at Teff =60 000 +/- 2000K and log g=7.60 +/- 0.05.We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions. The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare.

  8. ON THE POLARIZATION PROPERTIES OF MAGNETAR GIANT FLARE PULSATING TAILS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2015-12-10

    Three giant flares have been detected so far from soft gamma-ray repeaters, each characterized by an initial short hard spike and a pulsating tail. The observed pulsating tails are characterized by a duration of ∼100 s, an isotropic energy of ∼10{sup 44} erg, and a pulse period of a few seconds. The pulsating tail emission likely originates from the residual energy after the intense energy release during the initial spike, which forms a trapped fireball composed of a photon-pair plasma in a closed-field-line region of the magnetars. Observationally the spectra of pulsating tails can be fitted by the superposition of a thermal component and a power-law component, with the thermal component dominating the emission in the early and late stages of the pulsating-tail observations. In this paper, assuming that the trapped fireball is from a closed-field-line region in the magnetosphere, we calculate the atmospheric structure of the optically thick trapped fireball and the polarization properties of the trapped fireball. By properly treating the photon propagation in a hot, highly magnetized, electron–positron pair plasma, we tally photons in two modes (O mode and E mode) at a certain observational angle through Monte Carlo simulations. Our results suggest that the polarization degree depends on the viewing angle with respect to the magnetic axis of the magnetar, and can be as high as Π ≃ 30% in the 1–30 keV band, and Π ≃ 10% in the 30–100 keV band, if the line of sight is perpendicular to the magnetic axis.

  9. Asteroseismology of hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Arias, J. P.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus pulsating stars show acoustic (p) oscillation modes typical of δ Scuti variable stars, and gravity (g) pulsation modes characteristic of γ Doradus variable stars simultaneously excited. Observations from space missions such as MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler have revealed a large number of hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus pulsators, thus paving the way for an exciting new channel of asteroseismic studies. Aims: We perform detailed asteroseismological modelling of five hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus stars. Methods: A grid-based modeling approach was employed to sound the internal structure of the target stars using stellar models ranging from the zero-age main sequence to the terminal-age main sequence, varying parameters such as stellar mass, effective temperature, metallicity and core overshooting. Their adiabatic radial (ℓ = 0) and non-radial (ℓ = 1,2,3) p and g mode periods were computed. Two model-fitting procedures were used to search for asteroseismological models that best reproduce the observed pulsation spectra of each target star. Results: We derive the fundamental parameters and the evolutionary status of five hybrid δ Scuti-γ Doradus variable stars recently observed by the CoRoT and Kepler space missions: CoRoT 105733033, CoRoT 100866999, KIC 11145123, KIC 9244992, and HD 49434. The asteroseismological model for each star results from different criteria of model selection, in which we take full advantage of the richness of periods that characterises the pulsation spectra for this kind of star.

  10. Kappa effect pulsational instability for hot extreme helium stars

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    A long standing problem for the hydrogen deficient stars has been the mechanism for the pulsation instability for the hottest members of this class. The usual {kappa} mechanism works well for stars that are in the hydrogen and helium ionization instability strip, and this strip extends to perhaps 20,000K at high luminosity. However, several stars are definitely hotter. Investigations for another ionization instability strip, such as for carbon, have always shown that there is not enough carbon to produce a rapid enough increase of opacity with temperature to give the well-known {kappa} effect. This is so even though these hydrogen deficient stars do show enhanced carbon in their spectra. A strong stellar wind can produce the observed hydrogen deficiency. Another popular mechanism is mass loss in a binary system through the Roche lobe. It now is possible that the missing pulsational instability mechanism is the rapid increase of iron lines absorption as the temperature increases above about 150,000K in the low density envelopes of these luminous stars. Recent calculations shows that the n = 3 to n = 3 transitions in iron that were assumed unimportant in the earlier Los Alamos calculations can double or triple the opacity suddenly as the iron lines appear in a very sensitive part of the spectrum of the diffusing photons. It has been proposed that these iron lines also cause the many varieties of normal B star pulsations, and the hydrogen deficient stars are merely another example of this new {kappa} effect for pulsating stars. The extreme helium star V2076 Oph at 31,900K, and 38,900 L{sub {circle dot}} for a mass of 1.4 M{sub {circle dot}} pulsates in the radial fundamental model at about 1 day period with a very large linear growth rate when the iron lines more than double the opacity, but is stable otherwise.

  11. On the Polarization Properties of Magnetar Giant Flare Pulsating Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Zhang, Bing

    2015-12-01

    Three giant flares have been detected so far from soft gamma-ray repeaters, each characterized by an initial short hard spike and a pulsating tail. The observed pulsating tails are characterized by a duration of ˜100 s, an isotropic energy of ˜1044 erg, and a pulse period of a few seconds. The pulsating tail emission likely originates from the residual energy after the intense energy release during the initial spike, which forms a trapped fireball composed of a photon-pair plasma in a closed-field-line region of the magnetars. Observationally the spectra of pulsating tails can be fitted by the superposition of a thermal component and a power-law component, with the thermal component dominating the emission in the early and late stages of the pulsating-tail observations. In this paper, assuming that the trapped fireball is from a closed-field-line region in the magnetosphere, we calculate the atmospheric structure of the optically thick trapped fireball and the polarization properties of the trapped fireball. By properly treating the photon propagation in a hot, highly magnetized, electron-positron pair plasma, we tally photons in two modes (O mode and E mode) at a certain observational angle through Monte Carlo simulations. Our results suggest that the polarization degree depends on the viewing angle with respect to the magnetic axis of the magnetar, and can be as high as Π ≃ 30% in the 1-30 keV band, and Π ≃ 10% in the 30-100 keV band, if the line of sight is perpendicular to the magnetic axis.

  12. Conjugate Event Study of Geomagnetic ULF Pulsations with Wavelet-based Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Clauer, C. R.; Kim, H.; Weimer, D. R.; Cai, X.

    2013-12-01

    The interactions between the solar wind and geomagnetic field produce a variety of space weather phenomena, which can impact the advanced technology systems of modern society including, for example, power systems, communication systems, and navigation systems. One type of phenomena is the geomagnetic ULF pulsation observed by ground-based or in-situ satellite measurements. Here, we describe a wavelet-based index and apply it to study the geomagnetic ULF pulsations observed in Antarctica and Greenland magnetometer arrays. The wavelet indices computed from these data show spectrum, correlation, and magnitudes information regarding the geomagnetic pulsations. The results show that the geomagnetic field at conjugate locations responds differently according to the frequency of pulsations. The index is effective for identification of the pulsation events and measures important characteristics of the pulsations. It could be a useful tool for the purpose of monitoring geomagnetic pulsations.

  13. New White Dwarf-Brown Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casewell, S. L.; Geier, S.; Lodieu, N.

    2017-03-01

    We present follow-up spectroscopy to 12 candidate white dwarf-brown dwarf binaries. We have confirmed that 8 objects do indeed have a white dwarf primary (7 DA, 1 DB) and two are hot subdwarfs. We have determined the Teff and log g for the white dwarfs and subdwarfs, and when combining these values with a model spectrum and the photometry, we have 3 probable white dwarf-substellar binaries with spectral types between M6 and L6.

  14. Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yagitani, S.; Inoue, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Jun, C. -W; Nomura, R.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Shoji, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2016-08-16

    To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2>+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensity showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. Furthermore, these results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.

  15. Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

    DOE PAGES

    Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; ...

    2016-08-16

    To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2>+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensitymore » showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. Furthermore, these results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.« less

  16. RADIAL STELLAR PULSATION AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTION. II. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTION IN FULL AMPLITUDE RADIAL PULSATION

    SciTech Connect

    Geroux, Chris M.; Deupree, Robert G.

    2013-07-10

    We have developed a three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code to simulate the interaction of convection and radial pulsation in classical variable stars. One key goal is the ability to carry these simulations to full amplitude in order to compare them with observed light curves. Previous multi-dimensional calculations were prevented from reaching full amplitude because of drift in the radial coordinate system, due to the algorithm defining radial movement of the coordinate system during the pulsation cycle. We have removed this difficulty by defining our radial coordinate flow algorithm to require that the mass in a spherical shell remain constant for every time step throughout the pulsation cycle. We have used our new code to perform two-dimensional (2D) simulations of the interaction of radial pulsation and convection. We have made comparisons between light curves from our 2D convective simulations with observed light curves and find that our 2D simulated light curves are better able to match the observed light curve shape near the red edge of the RR Lyrae instability strip than light curves from previous one-dimensional time-dependent convective models.

  17. Fast modulations of pulsating proton aurora related to subpacket structures of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations at subauroral latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, M.; Shiokawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Yagitani, S.; Inoue, T.; Ebihara, Y.; Jun, C. -W; Nomura, R.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Shoji, M.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M.; Jordanova, V. K.

    2016-08-16

    To understand the role of electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in determining the temporal features of pulsating proton aurora (PPA) via wave-particle interactions at subauroral latitudes, high-time-resolution (1/8 s) images of proton-induced N2>+ emissions were recorded using a new electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera, along with related Pc1 pulsations on the ground. The observed Pc1 pulsations consisted of successive rising-tone elements with a spacing for each element of 100 s and subpacket structures, which manifest as amplitude modulations with a period of a few tens of seconds. In accordance with the temporal features of the Pc1 pulsations, the auroral intensity showed a similar repetition period of 100 s and an unpredicted fast modulation of a few tens of seconds. Furthermore, these results indicate that PPA is generated by pitch angle scattering, nonlinearly interacting with Pc1/EMIC waves at the magnetic equator.

  18. Effects of self-pulsation on the spray characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Zhongtao; Li, Qinglian; Cheng, Peng; Zhang, Xinqiao; Wang, Zhen-guo

    2016-10-01

    To understand the influence of self-pulsation on the spray characteristics of gas-liquid swirl coaxial injector, a back-lighting photography technique has been employed to capture the instantaneous self-pulsated spray and stable spray images with a high speed camera. The diameter and velocity of the droplets in the spray have been characterized with a Dantec Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) system. The effects of self-pulsation on the spray pattern, primary breakup, spray angle, diameter and velocity distribution and mass flow rate distribution are analyzed and discussed. The results show that the spray morphology is greatly influenced by self-pulsation. The stable spray has a cone shape, while the self-pulsated spray looks like a Christmas tree. The main difference of these two sprays is the primary breakup. The liquid film of stable spray keeps stable while that of self-pulsated spray oscillates periodically. The film width of self-pulsated spray varies in a large range with 'neck' and 'shoulder' features existing. The liquid film of self-pulsated spray breaks up at the second neck, and then the second shoulder begins to breakup into ligaments. The self-pulsated spray produces droplet clusters periodically, varies horizontal spray width and mass flux periodically. From the point of spatial distribution, self-pulsation is good for the spray, it uniformizes the mass flux along radius and increases the spray angle. However, when self-pulsation occurs, the SMD distribution varies from an inverted V shape to a hollow cone shape, and SMD increases at all the measuring points. Namely, from the point of atomization performance, self-pulsation has negative effects even when the breakup length is smaller. The effects of self-pulsation on the diameter and velocity distributions of the spray are mainly in the center part of the spray. The periphery of stable and self-pulsated spray has similar diameter and velocity distribution.

  19. INTRODUCING CAFein, A NEW COMPUTATIONAL TOOL FOR STELLAR PULSATIONS AND DYNAMIC TIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Valsecchi, F.; Farr, W. M.; Willems, B.; Rasio, F. A.; Kalogera, V.

    2013-08-10

    Here we present CAFein, a new computational tool for investigating radiative dissipation of dynamic tides in close binaries and of non-adiabatic, non-radial stellar oscillations in isolated stars in the linear regime. For the latter, CAFein computes the non-adiabatic eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of detailed stellar models. The code is based on the so-called Riccati method, a numerical algorithm that has been successfully applied to a variety of stellar pulsators, and which does not suffer from the major drawbacks of commonly used shooting and relaxation schemes. Here we present an extension of the Riccati method to investigate dynamic tides in close binaries. We demonstrate CAFein's capabilities as a stellar pulsation code both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes, by reproducing previously published eigenfrequencies of a polytrope, and by successfully identifying the unstable modes of a stellar model in the {beta} Cephei/SPB region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Finally, we verify CAFein's behavior in the dynamic tides regime by investigating the effects of dynamic tides on the eigenfunctions and orbital and spin evolution of massive main sequence stars in eccentric binaries, and of hot Jupiter host stars. The plethora of asteroseismic data provided by NASA's Kepler satellite, some of which include the direct detection of tidally excited stellar oscillations, make CAFein quite timely. Furthermore, the increasing number of observed short-period detached double white dwarfs (WDs) and the observed orbital decay in the tightest of such binaries open up a new possibility of investigating WD interiors through the effects of tides on their orbital evolution.

  20. PULSATING REVERSE DETONATION MODELS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. I. DETONATION IGNITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, Eduardo; GarcIa-Senz, Domingo E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu

    2009-04-20

    Observational evidences point to a common explosion mechanism of Type Ia supernovae based on a delayed detonation of a white dwarf (WD). Although several scenarios have been proposed and explored by means of one, two, and three-dimensional simulations, the key point still is the understanding of the conditions under which a stable detonation can form in a destabilized WD. One of the possibilities that have been invoked is that an inefficient deflagration leads to the pulsation of a Chandrasekhar-mass WD, followed by formation of an accretion shock around a carbon-oxygen rich core. The accretion shock confines the core and transforms kinetic energy from the collapsing halo into thermal energy of the core, until an inward moving detonation is formed. This chain of events has been termed Pulsating Reverse Detonation (PRD). In this work we explore the robustness of the detonation ignition for different PRD models characterized by the amount of mass burned during the deflagration phase, M {sub defl}. The evolution of the WD up to the formation of the accretion shock has been followed with a three-dimensional hydrodynamical code with nuclear reactions turned off. We found that detonation conditions are achieved for a wide range of M {sub defl}. However, if the nuclear energy released during the deflagration phase is close to the WD binding energy ({approx}0.46 x 10{sup 51} erg {yields} M {sub defl} {approx} 0.30 M {sub sun}) the accretion shock cannot heat and confine the core efficiently and detonation conditions are not robustly achieved.

  1. Introducing CAFein, a New Computational Tool for Stellar Pulsations and Dynamic Tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsecchi, F.; Farr, W. M.; Willems, B.; Rasio, F. A.; Kalogera, V.

    2013-08-01

    Here we present CAFein, a new computational tool for investigating radiative dissipation of dynamic tides in close binaries and of non-adiabatic, non-radial stellar oscillations in isolated stars in the linear regime. For the latter, CAFein computes the non-adiabatic eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of detailed stellar models. The code is based on the so-called Riccati method, a numerical algorithm that has been successfully applied to a variety of stellar pulsators, and which does not suffer from the major drawbacks of commonly used shooting and relaxation schemes. Here we present an extension of the Riccati method to investigate dynamic tides in close binaries. We demonstrate CAFein's capabilities as a stellar pulsation code both in the adiabatic and non-adiabatic regimes, by reproducing previously published eigenfrequencies of a polytrope, and by successfully identifying the unstable modes of a stellar model in the β Cephei/SPB region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Finally, we verify CAFein's behavior in the dynamic tides regime by investigating the effects of dynamic tides on the eigenfunctions and orbital and spin evolution of massive main sequence stars in eccentric binaries, and of hot Jupiter host stars. The plethora of asteroseismic data provided by NASA's Kepler satellite, some of which include the direct detection of tidally excited stellar oscillations, make CAFein quite timely. Furthermore, the increasing number of observed short-period detached double white dwarfs (WDs) and the observed orbital decay in the tightest of such binaries open up a new possibility of investigating WD interiors through the effects of tides on their orbital evolution.

  2. Detection of Multiple Budding Yeast Cells and a Partial Sequence of 43-kDa Glycoprotein Coding Gene of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from a Case of Lacaziosis in a Female Pacific White-Sided Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens).

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Tomoko; Ueda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Miyuu; Tanaka, Natsuki; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Izawa, Takeshi; Konno, Toshihiro; Yamate, Jyoji; Itano, Eiko Nakagawa; Sano, Ayako; Wada, Shinpei

    2016-08-01

    Lacaziosis, formerly called as lobomycosis, is a zoonotic mycosis, caused by Lacazia loboi, found in humans and dolphins, and is endemic in the countries on the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean of Japanese coast. Susceptible Cetacean species include the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), the Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphin (T. aduncus), and the estuarine dolphin (Sotalia guianensis); however, no cases have been recorded in other Cetacean species. We diagnosed a case of Lacaziosis in a Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) nursing in an aquarium in Japan. The dolphin was a female estimated to be more than 14 years old at the end of June 2015 and was captured in a coast of Japan Sea in 2001. Multiple, lobose, and solid granulomatous lesions with or without ulcers appeared on her jaw, back, flipper and fluke skin, in July 2014. The granulomatous skin lesions from the present case were similar to those of our previous cases. Multiple budding and chains of round yeast cells were detected in the biopsied samples. The partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein coding gene confirmed by a nested PCR and sequencing, which revealed a different genotype from both Amazonian and Japanese lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins, and was 99 % identical to those derived from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis; a sister fungal species to L. loboi. This is the first case of lacaziosis in Pacific white-sided dolphin.

  3. A Statistical Study of Pulsating Aurora using THEMIS All-sky Ground Imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rychert, K. M.; Jones, S.; Lessard, M.; Donovan, E. F.; Spanswick, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    Pulsating aurora is a common phenomenon that occurs primarily in the aftermath of substorms where dim, long period pulsating patches appear. Previous studies on pulsating aurora have used minimal data sets to investigate pulsation periods and MLAT distribution. None of these studies were based on very large data sets, as we now have available. In this study, which includes over half a year of optical data, we determine occurrence rates of pulsating aurora in terms of magnetic latitude and local time, pulsating auroral onsets at different stations to show temporal evolution, relationship to substorms, etc. Preliminary results obtained from the Gillam All-Sky Camera (66°N, 327°E) over 119 days with good optical data beginning September 2007 through the end of March 2008, 74 of which contain pulsating aurora, include: 31.48% of all clear optical data exhibits pulsating aurora, 68.75% of all optically observed pulsating aurora onsets occur post substorm breakup, and a greater likelihood for observing pulsating aurora after midnight (54% probability versus a 14% probability before midnight)

  4. D-A type sensor array for differentiation and identification of white wine varieties based on specific solvent effect activated by CT-LE transition.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingqi; Zhang, Xin; Li, Hao; Hou, Yue; Hou, Jingdan; Li, Zhongfeng; Yang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Han, Tianyu

    2017-09-20

    In this work, we synthesize a series of compounds with electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) units. They show general solvent effect in aprotic solvents, suggesting a charge transfer (CT) process. While in protic solvents including water, ethanol and methanol, the spectra exert no polarity-dependence but a remarkable hypochromatic shift together with the fading of CT band. Dynamic analysis implies that intermolecular hydrogen bond will be formed between carboxylic acid and protic solvent, boosting another deactivation pathway that jumps off a bigger energy gap, in other words, favoring the locally excited (LE) state emission. The CT-LE transition involves variations in both absorption and emission spectra, and further poses competition with other mechanisms including activated/restricted intramolecular rotation (IR/RIR). Inspired by the cross-reactivity, we turn our attention to the development of sensor array, in order to identify white wine varieties. The differential spectral responses are recorded, generating multiple factors including absorption wavelength (λab), emission wavelength (λem), absorbance (Abs.) and emission intensity (Int.). These factors are processed with principal component analysis (PCA), creating a three-dimensional fingerprint data base for white wines. The data points in the coordinate system are clustered into 10 different groups, demonstrating a clear differentiation of all the white wines. More importantly, as our final test for whether the sensor array can identify the counterfeits, an adulterated liquor sample, which is provided by police officers, is fingerprinted on the three-dimensional diagram. Its canonical factors fall into an area distinct from the adulterated wine, indicating a clear identification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. When flux standards go wild: white dwarfs in the age of Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Gentile Fusillo, Nicola Pietro; Raddi, R.; Hollands, M. A.; Dennihy, E.; Fuchs, J. T.; Redfield, S.

    2017-06-01

    White dwarf stars have been used as flux standards for decades, thanks to their staid simplicity. We have empirically tested their photometric stability by analysing the light curves of 398 high-probability candidates and spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs observed during the original Kepler mission and later with K2 Campaigns 0-8. We find that the vast majority (>97 per cent) of non-pulsating and apparently isolated white dwarfs are stable to better than 1 per cent in the Kepler bandpass on 1-hr to 10-d time-scales, confirming that these stellar remnants are useful flux standards. From the cases that do exhibit significant variability, we caution that binarity, magnetism and pulsations are three important attributes to rule out when establishing white dwarfs as flux standards, especially those hotter than 30 000 K.

  6. Features of Pc5 pulsations in the geomagnetic field, auroral luminosity, and Riometer absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Samsonov, S. N.; Lorentsen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous morning Pc5 pulsations ( f ~ 3-5 mHz) in the geomagnetic field, aurora intensities (in the 557.7 and 630.0 nm oxygen emissions and the 471.0 nm nitrogen emission), and riometer absorption, were studied based on the CARISMA, CANMOS, and NORSTAR network data for the event of January 1, 2000. According to the GOES-8 satellite observations, these Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations are observed as incompressible Alfvén waves with toroidal polarization in the magnetosphere. Although the Pc5 pulsation frequencies in auroras, the geomagnetic field, and riometer absorption are close to one another, stable phase relationships are not observed between them. Far from all trains of geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations are accompanied by corresponding auroral pulsations; consequently, geomagnetic pulsations are primary with respect to auroral pulsations. Both geomagnetic and auroral pulsations propagate poleward, and the frequency decreases with increasing geomagnetic latitude. When auroral Pc5 pulsations appear, the ratio of the 557.7/630.0 nm emission intensity sharply increases, which indicates that auroral pulsations result from not simply modulated particle precipitation but also an additional periodic acceleration of auroral electrons by the wave field. A high correlation is not observed between Pc5 pulsations in auroras and the riometer absorption, which indicates that these pulsations have a common source but different generation mechanisms. Auroral luminosity modulation is supposedly related to the interaction between Alfvén waves and the region with the field-aligned potential drop above the auroral ionosphere, and riometer absorption modulation is caused by the scattering of energetic electrons by VLF noise pulsations.

  7. An asteroseismic test of diffusion theory in white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, T. S.; Nather, R. E.; Watson, T. K.; Kim, S.-L.; Park, B.-G.; Handler, G.

    2005-05-01

    The helium-atmosphere (DB) white dwarfs are commonly thought to be the descendants of the hotter PG 1159 stars, which initially have uniform He/C/O atmospheres. In this evolutionary scenario, diffusion builds a pure He surface layer which gradually thickens as the star cools. In the temperature range of the pulsating DB white dwarfs (T_eff ˜ 25 000 K) this transformation is still taking place, allowing asteroseismic tests of the theory. We have obtained dual-site observations of the pulsating DB star CBS 114, to complement existing observations of the slightly cooler star GD 358. We recover the 7 independent pulsation modes that were previously known, and we discover 4 new ones to provide additional constraints on the models. We perform objective global fitting of our updated double-layered envelope models to both sets of observations, leading to determinations of the envelope masses and pure He surface layers that qualitatively agree with the expectations of diffusion theory. These results provide new asteroseismic evidence supporting one of the central assumptions of spectral evolution theory, linking the DB white dwarfs to PG 1159 stars.

  8. The occurrence of non-pulsating stars in the γ Dor and δ Sct pulsation instability regions: Results from Kepler quarter 14–17 data

    DOE PAGES

    Guzik, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Jackiewicz, J.; ...

    2015-04-21

    In this study, the high precision long time-series photometry of the NASA Kepler spacecraft provides an excellent means to discover and characterize variability in main-sequence stars, and to make progress in interpreting the pulsations to derive stellar interior structure and test stellar models. For stars of spectral types A–F, the Kepler data revealed a number of surprises, such as more hybrid pulsating Sct and Dor pulsators than expected, pulsators lying outside of the instability regions predicted by theory, and stars that were expected to pulsate, but showed no variability. In our 2013 Astronomical Review article, we discussed the statistics ofmore » variability for 633 faint (Kepler magnitude 14–16) spectral type A–F stars observed by Kepler during Quarters 6–13 (June 2010–June 2012).« less

  9. The occurrence of non-pulsating stars in the γ Dor and δ Sct pulsation instability regions: Results from Kepler quarter 14–17 data

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Jackiewicz, J.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Kinemuchi, K.

    2015-04-21

    In this study, the high precision long time-series photometry of the NASA Kepler spacecraft provides an excellent means to discover and characterize variability in main-sequence stars, and to make progress in interpreting the pulsations to derive stellar interior structure and test stellar models. For stars of spectral types A–F, the Kepler data revealed a number of surprises, such as more hybrid pulsating Sct and Dor pulsators than expected, pulsators lying outside of the instability regions predicted by theory, and stars that were expected to pulsate, but showed no variability. In our 2013 Astronomical Review article, we discussed the statistics of variability for 633 faint (Kepler magnitude 14–16) spectral type A–F stars observed by Kepler during Quarters 6–13 (June 2010–June 2012).

  10. Quantitative results of stellar evolution and pulsation theories.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, K.; Stobie, R. S.; Strittmatter, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The discrepancy between the masses of Cepheid variables deduced from evolution theory and pulsation theory is examined. The effect of input physics on evolutionary tracks is first discussed; in particular, changes in the opacity are considered. The sensitivity of pulsation masses to opacity changes and to the ascribed values of luminosity and effective temperature are then analyzed. The Cepheid mass discrepancy is discussed in the light of the results already obtained. Other astronomical evidence, including the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars, the solar neutrino flux, and cluster ages are also considered in an attempt to determine the most likely source of error in the event that substantial mass loss has not occurred.

  11. Quasi-periodic pulsations in partially occulted flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szaforz, Zaneta; Tomczak, Michal

    The model of oscillating magnetic traps (OMT) suggests that the cusp-like magnetic structures located in an upper part of flare loops are responsible for quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) observed sometimes in hard X-rays (HXR). Electrons within these oscillating traps are efficiently accelerated and confined, therefore the traps should be recognize as loop-top HXR sources. However, these sources are difficult for reconstruction in the presence of the stronger footpoint HXR sources. To overcome this problem, we analyzed partially occulted flares, observed by Yohkoh, from the survey of Tomczak (2009). We will present the correlation between the diameter of the loop-top HXR source and the period of pulsations. We will present also some interesting examples of observations, for which changes in QPPs coincide with the changes in appearance of loop-top sources.

  12. Pulsating aurora induced by upper atmospheric barium releases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deehr, C.; Romick, G.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reports the apparent generation of pulsating aurora by explosive releases of barium vapor near 250 km altitude. This effect occurred only when the explosions were in the path of precipitating electrons associated with the visible aurora. Each explosive charge was a standard 1.5 kg thermite mixture of Ba and CuO with an excess of Ba metal which was vaporized and dispersed by the thermite explosion. Traces of Sr, Na, and Li were added to some of the charges, and monitoring was achieved by ground-based spectrophotometric observations. On March 28, 1976, an increase in emission at 5577 A and at 4278 A was observed in association with the first two bursts, these emissions pulsating with roughly a 10 sec period for approximately 60 to 100 sec after the burst.

  13. Comparative pulsation calculations with OP and OPAL opacities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbur, Shashi M.; Simon, Norman R.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative linear nonadiabatic pulsation calculations are presented using the OPAL and Opacity Project opacities. The two sets of opacities include effects due to intermediate coupling and fine structure as well as new abundances. We used two mass luminosity (M-L) relations, one standard (BIT), and one employing substantial convective core overshoot (COV). The two sets of opacities cannot be differentiated on the basis of the stellar pulsation calculations presented here. The BIT relation can model the beat and bump Cepheids with masses between 4 and 7 solar mass, while if the overshoot relation is used, masses between 2 and 6 solar mass are required. In the RR Lyrae regime, we find the inferred masses of globular cluster RRd stars to be little influenced by the choice of OPAL or OP. Finally, the limited modeling we have done is not able to constrain the Cepheid M-L relation based upon period ratios observed in the beat and bump stars.

  14. New radial pulsation constants for the Beta Cephei variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shobbrook, R. R.

    1985-05-01

    Recent new calibrations of luminosities, temperatures and bolometric corrections for B stars in terms of the β index and the Strömgren parameter c0 have necessitated the recalculation of the radial pulsation constants, Q, for the β Cephei (of β Canis Majoris) variable stars. Corrections for the effect of binaries on the absolute magnitudes, derived both from the luminosity calibration and from the mean distance moduli of those variables in clusters, are calculated in an Appendix. The mean value of Q, although determined from absolute magnitudes which are about 0.4 mag fainter than those from previous calibrations of the β index, still suggests that the majority of the variables are pulsating in the first overtone radial mode, as have most investigations in recent years.

  15. The unique dynamical system underlying RR Lyrae pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollath, Z.

    2016-05-01

    Hydrodynamic models of RR Lyrae pulsation display a very rich behaviour. Contrary to earlier expectations, high order resonances play a crucial role in the nonlinear dynamics representing the interacting modes. Chaotic attractors can be found at different time scales: both in the pulsation itself and in the amplitude equations shaping the possible modulation of the oscillations. Although there is no one-to-one connection between the nonlinear features found in the numerical models and the observed behaviour, the richness of the found phenomena suggests that the interaction of modes should be taken seriously in the study of the still unsolved puzzle of Blazhko effect. One of the main lessons of this complex system is that we should rethink the simple interpretation of the observed effect of resonances.

  16. Some insights into stellar structure from nonlinear pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goupil, M. J.

    1993-12-01

    Efficient tools of investigation of stellar pulsation are the integral relations which link oscillation frequencies to the static structure of stellar models, as provided by the linear theory of pulsation. Similarly, oscillation amplitudes and phases, which arise from nonlinear processes, can be related to the stellar structure by means of amplitude equation formalisms. For the simple case of a monoperiodic oscillation, involving only one unstable marginal mode, such a formalism shows that the (limit cycle) radius variations, at time t and mass level m, can be approximated, up to second order of approximation. The nonlinear, nonadiabatic coefficients, are integrals over mass of kernels which depend on eigenfrequencies, eigenfunctions, on second and third order Taylor quantities from the equations modelling the star. They can either be computed from static models (Klapp et al., 1985) or obtained by numerical fits of hydrodynamical results (Kovacs and Buchler, 1989).

  17. Comparative pulsation calculations with OP and OPAL opacities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanbur, Shashi M.; Simon, Norman R.

    1994-01-01

    Comparative linear nonadiabatic pulsation calculations are presented using the OPAL and Opacity Project opacities. The two sets of opacities include effects due to intermediate coupling and fine structure as well as new abundances. We used two mass luminosity (M-L) relations, one standard (BIT), and one employing substantial convective core overshoot (COV). The two sets of opacities cannot be differentiated on the basis of the stellar pulsation calculations presented here. The BIT relation can model the beat and bump Cepheids with masses between 4 and 7 solar mass, while if the overshoot relation is used, masses between 2 and 6 solar mass are required. In the RR Lyrae regime, we find the inferred masses of globular cluster RRd stars to be little influenced by the choice of OPAL or OP. Finally, the limited modeling we have done is not able to constrain the Cepheid M-L relation based upon period ratios observed in the beat and bump stars.

  18. Quantitative results of stellar evolution and pulsation theories.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, K.; Stobie, R. S.; Strittmatter, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The discrepancy between the masses of Cepheid variables deduced from evolution theory and pulsation theory is examined. The effect of input physics on evolutionary tracks is first discussed; in particular, changes in the opacity are considered. The sensitivity of pulsation masses to opacity changes and to the ascribed values of luminosity and effective temperature are then analyzed. The Cepheid mass discrepancy is discussed in the light of the results already obtained. Other astronomical evidence, including the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars, the solar neutrino flux, and cluster ages are also considered in an attempt to determine the most likely source of error in the event that substantial mass loss has not occurred.

  19. Experimental investigation on a pulsating heat pipe with hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, H. R.; Liu, Y. M.; Ma, R. F.; Han, D. Y.; Gan, Z. H.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The pulsating heat pipe (PHP) has been increasingly studied in cryogenic application, for its high transfer coefficient and quick response. Compared with Nb3Sn and NbTi, MgB2 whose critical transformation temperature is 39 K, is expected to replace some high-temperature superconducting materials at 25 K. In order to cool MgB2, this paper designs a Hydrogen Pulsating Heat Pipe, which allows a study of applied heat, filling ratio, turn number, inclination angle and length of adiabatic section on the thermal performance of the PHP. The thermal performance of the hydrogen PHP is investigated for filling ratios of 35%, 51%, 70% at different heat inputs, and provides information regarding the starting process is received at three filling ratios.

  20. The first detection of ionized helium in the local ISM - EUVE and IUE spectroscopy of the hot DA white dwarf GD 246

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Dupuis, Jean; Rumph, Todd; Drake, Jeremy; Bowyer, Stuart; Chayer, Pierre; Fontaine, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    We report observations of the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the hot degenerate star GD 246 obtained with the EUVE. Our initial attempt at modeling the photospheric emission from the white dwarf reveals a relatively uncontaminated pure H spectrum in the range above 200 A, allowing a study of interstellar continuum absorption features in the line of sight of GD 246. Modeling of the He I autoionization transition discussed by Rumph et al. (1993), and the EUV continuum using the white dwarf as a source of background radiation provides measurements of both neutral and, for the first time, singly ionized He column densities in the local ISM (LISM). We estimate the He ionization fraction He II/(He I + He II) at roughly 25 percent with a total He column of 1.40-1.65 x 10 exp 18/sq cm. We have measured and compared H I column densities from the saturated Ly-alpha ISM absorption in IUE high-dispersion spectroscopy and from EUV continuum absorption: the two measurements are in good agreement with a total H column of 1.2-1.6 x 10 exp 19/sq cm. We discuss some implications for the nature of the LISM, particularly in the context of current models of the EUV radiation field.

  1. Self-Sustained Ultrafast Pulsation in Coupled VCSELs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2001-01-01

    High frequency, narrow-band self-pulsating operation is demonstrated in two coupled vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The coupled VCSELs provide an ideal source for high-repetition rate (over 40 GHz), sinusoidal-like modulated laser source with Gaussian-like near- and far-field profiles. We also show that the frequency of the modulation can be tuned by the inter-VCSEL separation or by DC-bias level.

  2. The effect of cushion-ram pulsation on hot stamping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgrebe, Dirk; Rautenstrauch, Anja; Kunke, Andreas; Polster, Stefan; Kriechenbauer, Sebastian; Mauermann, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Hot stamping is an important technology for manufacturing high-strength components. This technology offers the possibility to achieve significant weight reductions. In this study, cushion-ram pulsation (CRP), a new technology for hot stamping on servo-screw presses, was investigated and applied for hot stamping. Compared to a conventional process, the tests yielded a significantly higher drawing depth. In this paper, the CRP technology and the first test results with hot stamping were described in comparison to the conventional process.

  3. Self-pulsation threshold of Raman amplified Brillouin fiber cavities.

    PubMed

    Ott, J R; Pedersen, M E V; Rottwitt, K

    2009-08-31

    An implicit equation for the oscillation threshold of stimulated Brillouin scattering from Raman amplified signals in fibers with external feedback is derived under the assumption of no depletion. This is compared to numerical investigations of Raman amplification schemes showing good agreement for high reflectivities. For low reflectivities and high attenuation or long fibers, the assumption of no depletion is shown not to be valid. In these cases the effects of the depletion on the self-pulsation is examined.

  4. Pulsating stars as distance indicators and stellar population tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musella, I.

    Pulsating stars can play a fundamental role as distance indicators to set the astronomical distance scale and to trace different stellar populations to infer information on the star formation history of the host galaxy. The most interesting variables are Classical Cepheids and RR Lyrae. A review of the properties of these variables and of the theoretical and observational approaches adopted in the literature are presented.

  5. Photometric Analysis of Two Candidate Pulsating Early Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnett, S. M.; Dukes, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    Both HD199122 and HD213617 are found to be periodic with frequencies within the characteristic range of g-mode pulsation for either the Slowly Pulsating B Stars (SPBs) or the Gamma Doradus stars. We began observing HD199122 as a SPB based on its appearance in the list of such stars found through Hipparcos data examination by Koen (MNRAS, 321, 44, 2001). However, as noted by Koen, its reported spectral type A2 is late for an SPB. Based on published photometric indices, he suggests that its spectral type is closer to B7 and thus it is likely to be a SPB. Using Stromgren uvby photometry, we have examined over 600 differential measures of this star. We find two clear frequencies of f1 = 0.80209 c/d and f2 = 0.82444 c/d, which is within the characteristic range for g-mode pulsation of hotter main sequence stars. Our data suggests the possible presence of a third frequency, but confirmation is pending more data analysis. A preliminary analysis of Hipparcos satellite data for HD 213617 proposes a frequency of 0.55672 c/d (Handler, G.MNRAS 309, L19-L23,1999). However, Castellano (private communication) has found a period closer to 0.8 c/d from his analysis of the Hipparcos data. Since this star is an early F type, confirmation of this pulsational value could classify this star as a Gamma Doradus variable. We are presently obtaining observations for both subjects and will continue analysis as data arrives. Observations of HD213617 were begun as part of a summer project as part of the NASA Academy at Ames. This work has been supported by South Carolina Space Grant and NSF grant AST-0071260 to the College of Charleston,.

  6. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Deibert, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have used systematic, sustained visual observations from the AAVSO International Database and the AAVSO time-series analysis package VSTAR to study the unexplained "long secondary periods" (LSPs) in 27 pulsating red giants. In our sample, the LSPs range from 479 to 2967 days, and are on average 8.1 +/- 1.3 times the excited pulsation period. There is no evidence for more than one LSP in each star. In stars with both the fundamental and first overtone radial period present, the LSP is more often about 10 times the latter. The visual amplitudes of the LSPs are typically 0.1 magnitude and do not correlate with the LSP. The phase curves tend to be sinusoidal, but at least two are sawtooth. The LSPs are stable, within their errors, over the timespan of our data, which is typically 25,000 days. The amplitudes, however, vary by up to a factor of two or more on a time scale of roughly 20-30 LSPs. There is no obvious difference between the carbon (C) stars and the normal oxygen (M) stars. Previous multicolor observations showed that the LSP color variations are similar to those of the pulsation period, and of the LSPs in the Magellanic Clouds, and not like those of eclipsing stars. We note that the LSPs are similar to the estimated rotation periods of the stars, though the latter have large uncertainties. This suggests that the LSP phenomenon may be a form of modulated rotational variability.

  7. Interhemispheric asymmetry of the amplitudes of Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilig, B.; Pilipenko, V.; Sutcliffe, P.

    2012-04-01

    The interhemispheric asymmetry between the amplitude of geomagnetic pulsations was realised already in the 1960s'. Most of the observers (Yumoto et al., 1988; Saito et al., 1989; Takahashi et al., 1994; Obana et al., 2005) reported that the energy of Pc3 (Pc4) pulsations were found to be significantly larger on the winter hemisphere (i.e. in December on the Northern hemisphere and in June in the Southern hemisphere) when comparing conjugate observations. The authors linked this behaviour to the seasonal conductivity changes of the ionosphere, however, no modelling effort were made to explain the observed behaviour. In the presented paper we make an attempt to model the seasonal asymmetry based on the model of Pilipenko et al (2008). Using data recorded at geomagnetically conjugate stations, Tihany (THY, Hungary) and Hermanus (HER, South Africa) between 2002 and 2007 we present a case where an anomalous seasonal variation can be observed. The observed amplitudes were significantly larger in local summer than in local winter, but only in years near the sunspot maximum. This is exactly the opposite what was found for other station pairs. It was also observed that the range of the seasonal variation of the HER/THY ratio diminishes with the decrease of the solar index F10.7. The phenomenon was first realised by Vero (1965) who linked the anomalous winter attenuation of pulsations to the anomalously high F2 region electron density of the ionosphere. A clear physical interpretation of these results is still missing.

  8. Temporal Characteristics and Energy Deposition of Pulsating Auroral Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Mann, I. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a careful statistical analysis of pulsating aurora (PA) using all-sky green line (557.7 nm) images obtained at 3.3 Hz. Six well-defined individual PA patches are identified and extracted using a contouring technique. Quantitative parameters such as the patch duration (on-time and off-time), peak intensity, and integrated intensity are determined for each patch and each pulsation. The resulting characteristics serve as strict observational constraints that any of the many competing theories attempting to explain PA must predict. The purpose of this paper is to determine the characteristics of PA patches in order to provide better observational constraints on the suggested mechanisms. All aspects of the temporal behavior of the individual patches appear to be erratic. Historically, PA has been defined very loosely and we argue that the use of the term pulsating is inappropriate since our findings and other published results are not regularly periodic and thus a more appropriate term may be fluctuating aurora. Further, we find that the observational constraints do not fit well with the flow cyclotron maser theory, which in particular is suggested to create PA patches. There is no clear candidate of the suggested mechanisms and drivers to explain the observational constraints set by the PA patches in a satisfactory manner.

  9. Mass-spring model of a self-pulsating drop.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Charles; Pimienta, Véronique

    2013-12-03

    Self-pulsating sessile drops are a striking example of the richness of far-from-equilibrium liquid/liquid systems. The complex dynamics of such systems is still not fully understood, and simple models are required to grasp the mechanisms at stake. In this article, we present a simple mass-spring mechanical model of the highly regular drop pulsations observed in Pimienta, V.; Brost, M.; Kovalchuk, N.; Bresch, S.; Steinbock, O. Complex shapes and dynamics of dissolving drops of dichloromethane. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2011, 50, 10728-10731. We introduce an effective time-dependent spreading coefficient that sums up all of the forces (due to evaporation, solubilization, surfactant transfer, coffee ring effect, solutal and thermal Marangoni flows, drop elasticity, etc.) that pull or push the edge of a dichloromethane liquid lens, and we show how to account for the periodic rim breakup. The model is examined and compared against experimental observations. The spreading parts of the pulsations are very rapid and cannot be explained by a constant positive spreading coefficient or superspreading.

  10. Development of a balloon volume sensor for pulsating balloon catheters.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Timothy D C; Hattler, Brack G; Federspiel, William J

    2004-01-01

    Helium pulsed balloons are integral components of several cardiovascular devices, including intraaortic balloon pumps (IABP) and a novel intravenous respiratory support catheter. Effective use of these devices clinically requires full inflation and deflation of the balloon, and improper operating conditions that lead to balloon under-inflation can potentially reduce respiratory or cardiac support provided to the patient. The goal of the present study was to extend basic spirographic techniques to develop a system to dynamically measure balloon volumes suitable for use in rapidly pulsating balloon catheters. The dynamic balloon volume sensor system (DBVSS) developed here used hot wire anemometry to measure helium flow in the drive line from console to catheter and integrated the flow to determine the volume delivered in each balloon pulsation. An important component of the DBVSS was an algorithm to automatically detect and adjust flow signals and measured balloon volumes in the presence of gas composition changes that arise from helium leaks occurring in these systems. The DBVSS was capable of measuring balloon volumes within 5-10% of actual balloon volumes over a broad range of operating conditions relevant to IABP and the respiratory support catheter. This includes variations in helium concentration from 70-100%, pulsation frequencies from 120-480 beats per minute, and simulated clinical conditions of reduced balloon filling caused by constricted vessels, increased driveline, or catheter resistance.

  11. THE PULSATION MODE AND DISTANCE OF THE CEPHEID FF AQUILAE

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D. G.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Luck, R. E.; Berdnikov, L. N. E-mail: val@deneb1.odessa.ua E-mail: leonid.berdnikov@gmail.com

    2013-07-20

    The determination of pulsation mode and distance for field Cepheids is a complicated problem best resolved by a luminosity estimate. For illustration a technique based on spectroscopic luminosity discrimination is applied to the 4.47 day s-Cepheid FF Aql. Line ratios in high dispersion spectra of the variable yield values of (M{sub V} ) = -3.40 {+-} 0.02 s.e. ({+-}0.04 s.d.), average effective temperature T{sub eff} = 6195 {+-} 24 K, and intrinsic color ((B) - (V)){sub 0} = +0.506 {+-} 0.007, corresponding to a reddening of E{sub B-V} = 0.25 {+-} 0.01, or E{sub B-V}(B0) = 0.26 {+-} 0.01. The skewed light curve, intrinsic color, and luminosity of FF Aql are consistent with fundamental mode pulsation for a small-amplitude classical Cepheid on the blue side of the instability strip, not a sinusoidal pulsator. A distance of 413 {+-} 14 pc is estimated from the Cepheid's angular diameter in conjunction with a mean radius of (R) = 39.0 {+-} 0.7 R{sub Sun} inferred from its luminosity and effective temperature. The dust extinction toward FF Aql is described by a ratio of total-to-selective extinction of R{sub V} = A{sub V} /E(B - V) = 3.16 {+-} 0.34 according to the star's apparent distance modulus.

  12. Temporal characteristics and energy deposition of pulsating auroral patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Mann, I. R.

    2016-07-01

    We present a careful statistical analysis of pulsating aurora (PA) using all-sky green line (557.7 nm) images obtained at 3.3 Hz. Six well-defined individual PA patches are identified and extracted using a contouring technique. Quantitative parameters such as the patch duration (on-time and off-time), peak intensity, and integrated intensity are determined for each patch and each pulsation. The resulting characteristics serve as strict observational constraints that any of the many competing theories attempting to explain PA must predict. The purpose of this paper is to determine the characteristics of PA patches in order to provide better observational constraints on the suggested mechanisms. All aspects of the temporal behavior of the individual patches appear to be erratic. Historically, PA has been defined very loosely and we argue that the use of the term "pulsating" is inappropriate since our findings and other published results are not regularly periodic and thus a more appropriate term may be fluctuating aurora. Further, we find that the observational constraints do not fit well with the flow cyclotron maser theory, which in particular is suggested to create PA patches. There is no clear candidate of the suggested mechanisms and drivers to explain the observational constraints set by the PA patches in a satisfactory manner.

  13. An Observational Study of Pulsations in Proto-Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Lu, Wenxian; Henson, Gary D.; Hillwig, Todd C.

    2016-01-01

    We have been carrying out a long-term monitoring program to study the light variability in proto-planetary nebulae (PPNe). PPNe are post-Asymptotic Giant Branch objects in transition between the AGB and PN phases in the evolution of low and intermediate-mass stars. As such, it is not surprising that they display pulsational variability. We have been carrying out photometric monitoring of 30 of these at the Valparaiso University campus observatory over the last 20 years, with the assistance of undergraduate students. The sample size has been enlarged over the past six years by observations made using telescopes in the SARA consortium at KPNO and CTIO. Periods have been determined for those of F-G spectral types. We have also enlarged the sample with PPNe from outside the Milky Way by determining periods of eight PPNe in the lower metalicity environment of the Magellanic Clouds. Periods for the entire sample range from 35 to 160 days. Some clear patterns have emerged, with those of higher temperature possessing shorter periods and smaller amplitudes, indicating a reduction in period and pulsation amplitude as the objects evolve. Radial velocity monitoring of several of the brightest of these has allowed us to document their changes in brightness, color, and size during a pulsation cycle. The results of this study will be presented. This research is supported by grants from the National Science Foundation (most recently AST 1413660), with additional student support from the Indiana Space Grant Consortium.

  14. RR Lyrae pulsators as helium indicators in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, F.; Tornambe, A.; Castellani, V.

    1980-02-01

    Synthetic Horizontal Branches have been constructed adopting evolutionary horizontal branch models computed by Caputo, Castellani, and Wood for the case Z = 10-3 and assuming Y = 0.20, 0.25, and 0.30. On this basis the expected evolutionary properties of RR Lyrae pulsators in population II Clusters have been studied. It has been found that some pulsational quantities (Pminab, ¯P and ¯Pab) are strongly correlated with the original helium content Y and that, under fairly wide assumptions, they do not depend on evolutionary parameters such as mass loss and/or mass dispersion. From the above quoted RR Lyrae properties one obtains suggestions for an original He content Y ˜ 0.30 in Oosterhoff type I Globular Clusters. Some theoretical results have been found which disagree with observations. From the latter, it is inferred that in the adopted evolutionary computations lifetimes in the last phases of horizontal branch evolution are likely to be overestimated; this is tentatively confirmed by comparing with the computations of Sweigart and Gross. Pulsational properties are little affected by such an occurrence.

  15. Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-03-01

    This sludge mixing/mobilization system was developed in Russia. A prototype system was evaluated by the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) and Industry and University Programs (INDP). The Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump showed promise for mixing highly viscous sludges. This project is to refine the system design (especially the control subsystem) and manufacture the system in Russia in accordance with quality standards required for deployment in radioactive waste storage tanks. Specifications and requirements are being developed by the TFA and INDP. The requirements may call for two or three of the sludge mixing systems to be delivered to Oak Ridge. DOE-Oak Ridge and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will deploy the pulsating mixing pump system in their Gunite Tanks. These tanks are being emptied and cleaned prior to closure. Oak Ridge has deployed a number of innovative technologies in these efforts. If successful at Oak Ridge, the pulsating mixing pump system has potential application at several other DOE sites, including Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho.

  16. Heavy Metal Stars: puzzling pulsations and chaotic kinematics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Simon; Martin, Pamela; N, Naslim

    2015-08-01

    A new group of chemically-peculiar stars has been discovered in recent years. Being blue and less luminous than main-sequence stars of the same colour, they are members of the much larger class of hot subdwarfs. They form a tiny subgroup of a small subgroup which are moderately enriched in helium. Their spectra show lines of ions never before observed in stellar spectra, and represent an excess relative to solar of up to 4.5 dex in zirconium, strontium, yttrium, germanium and even lead. The most likely explanation is radiatively-driven diffusion concentrating these ions in a very thin layer of the photosphere. At least one of these peculiar stars pulsates, although the driving mechansim for the pulsations in LS IV-14 116 remains a mystery. All three heavy-metal subdwarfs have unmeasurably small rotation velocities, but halo-like space velocities. We will discuss how these characteristics, along with Hubble Space Telescope and ESO Very Large Telescope observations to be obtained just after the General Assembly, will attempt to solve the mystery of their unknown origin and unexplained pulsations.

  17. Are dayside long-period pulsations related to the cusp?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.; Yeoman, T.

    2015-03-01

    We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave activity from a Svalbard/IMAGE fluxgate magnetometer latitudinal profile covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrowband Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of return signal of the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, augmented whenever possible by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of broadband dayside Pc5-6 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. The earlier claims of the dayside monochromatic Pc5 wave association with the open-closed boundary also seems doubtful. Transient currents producing broadband Pc5-6 probably originate at the low-latitude boundary layer/central plasma sheet (LLBL/CPS) interface, though such identification with available DMSP data is not very precise. The occurrence of broadband Pc5-6 pulsations in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  18. The pulsating laminar flow in a rectangular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valueva, E. P.; Purdin, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    The finite difference method is used to solve the task of the developed pulsating laminar flow in a rectangular channel. The optimum of the difference scheme parameters was determined. Data on the amplitude and phase of the longitudinal velocity oscillations, the hydraulic and friction drag coefficients, the shear stress on the wall have been obtained. Using the dimensionless value of the frequency pulsations two characteristic regimes — the quasisteady-state regime and the high-frequency regime have been identified. In the quasi-steady-state regime, the values of all hydrodynamic quantities at each instant of time correspond to the velocity value averaged over the cross section at a given moment of time. It is shown that in the high-frequency regime, the dependences on the dimensionless oscillation frequency of oscillating components of hydrodynamic quantities are identical for rectilinear channels with a different cross-sectional form (round pipe, flat and a rectangular channels). The effect of the aspect ratio of the rectangular channel sides channel on the pulsating flow dynamics has been analyzed.

  19. Temporal Characteristics and Energy Deposition of Pulsating Auroral Patches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humberset, B. K.; Gjerloev, J. W.; Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Mann, I. R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a careful statistical analysis of pulsating aurora (PA) using all-sky green line (557.7 nm) images obtained at 3.3 Hz. Six well-defined individual PA patches are identified and extracted using a contouring technique. Quantitative parameters such as the patch duration (on-time and off-time), peak intensity, and integrated intensity are determined for each patch and each pulsation. The resulting characteristics serve as strict observational constraints that any of the many competing theories attempting to explain PA must predict. The purpose of this paper is to determine the characteristics of PA patches in order to provide better observational constraints on the suggested mechanisms. All aspects of the temporal behavior of the individual patches appear to be erratic. Historically, PA has been defined very loosely and we argue that the use of the term pulsating is inappropriate since our findings and other published results are not regularly periodic and thus a more appropriate term may be fluctuating aurora. Further, we find that the observational constraints do not fit well with the flow cyclotron maser theory, which in particular is suggested to create PA patches. There is no clear candidate of the suggested mechanisms and drivers to explain the observational constraints set by the PA patches in a satisfactory manner.

  20. CALIBRATION OF THE MIXING-LENGTH THEORY FOR CONVECTIVE WHITE DWARF ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Steffen, M.

    2015-02-01

    A calibration of the mixing-length parameter in the local mixing-length theory (MLT) is presented for the lower part of the convection zone in pure-hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs. The parameterization is performed from a comparison of three-dimensional (3D) CO5BOLD simulations with a grid of one-dimensional (1D) envelopes with a varying mixing-length parameter. In many instances, the 3D simulations are restricted to the upper part of the convection zone. The hydrodynamical calculations suggest, in those cases, that the entropy of the upflows does not change significantly from the bottom of the convection zone to regions immediately below the photosphere. We rely on this asymptotic entropy value, characteristic of the deep and adiabatically stratified layers, to calibrate 1D envelopes. The calibration encompasses the convective hydrogen-line (DA) white dwarfs in the effective temperature range 6000 ≤ T {sub eff} (K) ≤15, 000 and the surface gravity range 7.0 ≤ log g ≤ 9.0. It is established that the local MLT is unable to reproduce simultaneously the thermodynamical, flux, and dynamical properties of the 3D simulations. We therefore propose three different parameterizations for these quantities. The resulting calibration can be applied to structure and envelope calculations, in particular for pulsation, chemical diffusion, and convective mixing studies. On the other hand, convection has no effect on the white dwarf cooling rates until there is a convective coupling with the degenerate core below T {sub eff} ∼ 5000 K. In this regime, the 1D structures are insensitive to the MLT parameterization and converge to the mean 3D results, hence they remain fully appropriate for age determinations.

  1. Investigations on the Aerodynamic Characteristics and Blade Excitations of the Radial Turbine with Pulsating Inlet Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce; Yang, Dengfeng; Zhang, Rui

    2016-04-01

    The aerodynamic performance, detailed unsteady flow and time-based excitations acting on blade surfaces of a radial flow turbine have been investigated with pulsation flow condition. The results show that the turbine instantaneous performance under pulsation flow condition deviates from the quasi-steady value significantly and forms obvious hysteretic loops around the quasi-steady conditions. The detailed analysis of unsteady flow shows that the characteristic of pulsation flow field in radial turbine is highly influenced by the pulsation inlet condition. The blade torque, power and loading fluctuate with the inlet pulsation wave in a pulse period. For the blade excitations, the maximum and the minimum blade excitations conform to the wave crest and wave trough of the inlet pulsation, respectively, in time-based scale. And toward blade chord direction, the maximum loading distributes along the blade leading edge until 20% chord position and decreases from the leading to trailing edge.

  2. Double throat pressure pulsation dampener for oil-free screw compressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael J.

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes a recent invention at Ingersoll-Rand for reducing the pressure pulsations in an oil-free screw compressor. Pressure pulsation is a term used in the air compressor industry to describe the rapid change in pressure with time measured in the downstream piping of the air compressor. The pulsations are due to the rapid opening and closing of the screws as the compressed air is eject from the compressor into the piping system. The pulsations are known to produce excessive noise levels and high levels of vibration in the piping system. Reducing these pulsations is critical to achieving a quiet running compressor. This paper will describe the methodology used to analyze the data and show both computational and experimental results achieved using the pulsation dampener. A patent for this design has been filed with the US patent office.

  3. Reducing the effect of penstock pressure pulsations on hydro electric plant power system stabilizer signals

    SciTech Connect

    Nettleton, L.D.; Gurney, J.H.; Bollinger, K.E.

    1993-12-01

    A characteristic trait of Francis turbines operating at low-head is pressure pulsations that occur during certain load levels of the generator. These stem from pressure variations across the turbine due to pulsating flow in the draft-tube. This surging action of the water column is related to draft-tube geometry and flow-rate of water in the penstock. The pressure pulsations cause torque variations on the turbine and corresponding electric power pulsations. If electric power is used as a feedback signal to the Power System Stabilizer (PSS), then Mvar and terminal voltage pulsations will occur when the generator is operating in the ``rough zone``. This paper describes field test results for investigating feedforward control from the penstock, draft tube and spiral case pressure to reduce the effects of Mw pulsations on PSS output signals. This investigation involved a PSS with generator power as the feedback signal and the PSS tuned for local and inter-area damping.

  4. EMPIRICAL DETERMINATION OF CONVECTION PARAMETERS IN WHITE DWARFS. I. WHOLE EARTH TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF EC14012-1446

    SciTech Connect

    Provencal, J. L.; Thompson, S. E.; Dalessio, J.; Shipman, H. L.; and others

    2012-06-01

    We report on an analysis of 308.3 hr of high-speed photometry targeting the pulsating DA white dwarf EC14012-1446. The data were acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope during the 2008 international observing run XCOV26. The Fourier transform of the light curve contains 19 independent frequencies and numerous combination frequencies. The dominant peaks are 1633.907, 1887.404, and 2504.897 {mu}Hz. Our analysis of the combination amplitudes reveals that the parent frequencies are consistent with modes of spherical degree l = 1. The combination amplitudes also provide m identifications for the largest amplitude parent frequencies. Our seismology analysis, which includes 2004-2007 archival data, confirms these identifications, provides constraints on additional frequencies, and finds an average period spacing of 41 s. Building on this foundation, we present nonlinear fits to high signal-to-noise light curves from the SOAR 4.1 m, McDonald 2.1 m, and KPNO 2 m telescopes. The fits indicate a time-averaged convective response timescale of {tau}{sub 0} = 99.4 {+-} 17 s, a temperature exponent N = 85 {+-} 6.2, and an inclination angle of {theta}{sub i} = 32.{sup 0}9 {+-} 3.{sup 0}2. We present our current empirical map of the convective response timescale across the DA instability strip.

  5. Numerical Simulations of High-Amplitude Delta Scuti Star Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, M. R.

    1999-12-01

    We present the results of a theoretical program to model high-amplitude delta Scuti (HADS) stars. We base this study on field HADS, and on the MACHO Project delta Scuti stars. We have generated a grid of evolution models with (X,Y,Z) = (0.76,0.24,0.0001) to (0.58,0.36,0.06) covering the delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis region of the instability strip. Linear pulsation tests were done to make theoretical Petersen diagrams for the double-mode pulsators, and to make period-luminosity relations. Petersen diagrams are consistent with previous observational and theoretical work, with all fundamental-first overtone pulsators having period ratios around 0.77. For a single metallicity, stars with masses separated by 0.1 Msun have distinct tracks in the Petersen diagram, which permits mass and age estimates for stars of known abundance. We also find that period ratios drop rapidly as these stars evolve toward the red giant branch. The two MACHO delta Scuti stars with period ratios around 0.75 may be highly evolved, cool (T = 6700 K) delta Scuti stars. Period-luminosity relations for stars of different masses but the same abundances have a large intrinsic scatter, indicating that a color term must be included in the P-L relation for delta Scuti stars. Hydrodynamic models of HADS have also been tested, using a variant of the Los Alamos DYNSTAR code (Ostlie and Cox, 1993, Astrophys. Space Sci 210, 311), modified to include the OPAL96 tabular opacities. We have obtained light curves that are similar to those of observed HADS, over a range of temperatures and masses. Our results are consistent with those of Bono et al. (1997; ApJ 477, 346) in that the light curves of fundamental mode pulsators are more sinusoidal than those of overtone pulsators. Work on the hydrodynamic models is being expanded to test the effects of helium enrichment on light curve shape, and to include convection in cooler HADS to better model the red edge of the instability strip.

  6. Investigation on the Possible Relationship between Magnetic Pulsations and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jusoh, M.; Liu, H.; Yumoto, K.; Uozumi, T.; Takla, E. M.; Yousif Suliman, M. E.; Kawano, H.; Yoshikawa, A.; Asillam, M.; Hashim, M.

    2012-12-01

    The sun is the main source of energy to the solar system, and it plays a major role in affecting the ionosphere, atmosphere and the earth surface. The connection between solar wind and the ground magnetic pulsations has been proven empirically by several researchers previously (H. J. Singer et al., 1977, E. W. Greenstadt, 1979, I. A. Ansari 2006 to name a few). In our preliminary statistical analysis on relationship between solar and seismic activities (Jusoh and Yumoto, 2011, Jusoh et al., 2012), we observed a high possibility of solar-terrestrial coupling. We observed high tendency of earthquakes to occur during lower phase solar cycles which significantly related with solar wind parameters (i.e solar wind dynamic pressure, speed and input energy). However a clear coupling mechanism was not established yet. To connect the solar impact on seismicity, we investigate the possibility of ground magnetic pulsations as one of the connecting agent. In our analysis, the recorded ground magnetic pulsations are analyzed at different ranges of ultra low frequency; Pc3 (22-100 mHz), Pc4 (6.7-22 mHz) and Pc5 (1.7-6.7 mHz) with the occurrence of local earthquake events at certain time periods. This analysis focuses at 2 different major seismic regions; north Japan (mid latitude) and north Sumatera, Indonesia (low latitude). Solar wind parameters were obtained from the Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA via the OMNIWeb Data Explorer and the Space Physics Data Facility. Earthquake events were extracted from the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) database. The localized Pc3-Pc5 magnetic pulsations data were extracted from Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS)/Circum Pan Magnetic Network (CPMN) located at Ashibetsu (Japan); for earthquakes monitored at north Japan and Langkawi (Malaysia); for earthquakes observed at north Sumatera. This magnetometer arrays has established by International Center for Space Weather Science and Education, Kyushu University, Japan. From the

  7. Detection of new pulsations in the roAp star HD 177765

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2016-10-01

    We report the discovery of 2 previously undetected pulsation frequencies in the known roAp star HD 177765. Photometric observations by the Kepler space telescope during K2 Campaign 7 show low-amplitude pulsations (4-11 micro mag) previously unseen in photometry. We show the pulsations to be stable over the observation period, and demonstrate that the separation of the frequencies is not representative of the large frequency separation quantity needed to perform asteroseismic analysis.

  8. Substructures with luminosity modulation and horizontal oscillation in pulsating patch: Principal component analysis application to pulsating aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Takanori; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Katoh, Yuto; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Kataoka, Ryuho; Okano, Shoichi

    2016-03-01

    We observed a mesoscale aurora (100 km × 100 km) with patchy structure and equatorward propagation at Poker Flat Research Range on 1 December 2011. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis revealed that this pulsating patch clearly exhibited temporal variations that can be categorized into two types: on-off pulsation (7.8-10 s) with large amplitudes and luminosity modulations excited during on phase with a frequency of about 3.0 Hz. In addition, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to time series image data of the pulsating aurora for the first time. Time coefficients were estimated by PCA for the whole patch and the substructures were consistent with those obtained from the FFT analysis, and therefore, we concluded that PCA is capable of decomposing several structures that have different coherent spatiotemporal characteristics. Another new insight in this study is that the rapid variations were highly localized; they were excited in only the substructures embedded in the whole structure. Moreover, the whole patch propagated equatorward because of E × B drift of cold plasma, while the substructures did not show such systematic propagation but rather forward-backward oscillations. The horizontal scale of the substructures was estimated to be no smaller than 410 km at the magnetic equator, which is comparable to that of the wave packet structure of a whistler mode chorus perpendicular to the field line. We suggest that the apparent horizontal oscillation of the substructures is associated with field-aligned propagations of the whistler mode chorus in a duct.

  9. Pulsation tectonics as the control of continental breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Robert E.

    1987-11-01

    New data from the recent IPOD drilling of DSDP Site 534 in the Blake-Bahama Basin give a definitive age for the spreading-center shift involved in the breakup of the North American Atlantic margin. A basal Callovian age (~155 m.y.) is determined for the Blake Spur anomaly marking this spreading-center shift that signals the birth of the modern North Atlantic Ocean. This is some 20 m.y. younger than previously thought. One implication of this result is that this spreading-center shift starting North Atlantic breakup is now of an age which could be assigned to the spreading-center shift needed to end the rifting in the Gulf of Mexico. It is suggested that this might be one and the same event. Another implication of this younger age for the Blake Spur event is that relatively high spreading rates are now required for the Jurassic outer magnetic quiet zone along the North American margin. This association of a relatively high spreading rate with a magnetic quiet zone is similar to that for the mid-Cretaceous and implies a link between the processes controlling plate spreading, which are in the upper mantle, and the processes controlling the magnetic field, which are in the outer core. The cycles of fast and slow spreading and quiet and reversing magnetic field have a period of 60-100 m.y. A theory of pulsation tectonics involving the cyclic eruption of plumes of hot mantle material from the lowermost D″ layer of the mantle could explain the correlation. Plumes carry heat away from the core/mantle boundary and later reach the asthenosphere and lithosphere to induce faster spreading. The pulse of fast spreading in the Jurassic apparently caused the breakup of the North Atlantic. Other pulses of fast spreading appear to correlate with major ocean openings on various parts of the globe, implying that this might be a prevalent process. I suggest rifting of passive margins may be controlled by the more fundamental global processes described by the theory of pulsation

  10. A systematic search for new X-ray pulsators in ROSAT fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, G. L.

    1996-10-01

    For some 30 of the galactic X-ray sources, with a luminosity greater than 10^35 erg/s, it has been possible to detect a periodic modulation in the X-ray flux. These periodic signals often arise from the rotation of a compact magnetic star, or the orbital motion of a binary system. The accurate measurement of these periods provides a tool of paramount importance. For instance, in the early 1970s the measurement of the orbital period and the secular changes of the spin period in binary X-ray pulsars proved that the X-ray emission in these systems is powered by accretion and allowed to obtain the first measurements of neutron star masses. The study of periodicities yields also important insights into physical processes occurring close to the surface of the compact objects, such as white dwarfs and neutron stars, where strong gravitational and magnetic field effects play an important role. It is often possible to obtain fundamental additional information, such as the compact object angular momentum history, magnetic field strength and system orbital parameters (if in a binary system). Several other periodic or quasi-periodic phenomena in X-ray sources have been discovered over a variety of timescales (from milliseconds to years). Their interpretation comprises, e.g., precession, radial oscillations, accretion disc-magnetosphere interactions, motions or occultations in an accretion disc and activity of the companion star. Several populations of X-ray sources are expected to show coherent periodicities in their flux. These include X-ray binaries hosting a neutron star or even a black hole and cataclysmic variables where the accreting object is a white dwarf. It is plausible that also an isolated neutron star (not in binary systems) emits X-ray radiation as a result of material accreted from the interstellar medium or molecular cloud. Pulsations at soft (less than 2 keV) X-ray energies are expected to arise from the rotation of these isolated neutron stars. Rotation

  11. Observations of candidate oscillating eclipsing binaries and two newly discovered pulsating variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liakos, A.; Niarchos, P.

    2009-03-01

    CCD observations of 24 eclipsing binary systems with spectral types ranging between A0-F0, candidate for containing pulsating components, were obtained. Appropriate exposure times in one or more photometric filters were used so that short-periodic pulsations could be detected. Their light curves were analyzed using the Period04 software in order to search for pulsational behaviour. Two new variable stars, namely GSC 2673-1583 and GSC 3641-0359, were discov- ered as by-product during the observations of eclipsing variables. The Fourier analysis of the observations of each star, the dominant pulsation frequencies and the derived frequency spectra are also presented.

  12. Cepheids in Magellanic Cloud star clusters - Fundamental and overtone pulsators in NGC 2157

    SciTech Connect

    Mateo, M.; Olszewski, E.W.; Madore, B.F. Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ JPL, Pasadena, CA )

    1990-04-01

    CCD survey data are employed to examine Cepheids in young Magellanic Cloud star clusters. The properties of three Cepheids observed in NGC 2157 are described. It is detected that the two short-period (3 days) Cepheids have photometric properties that correspond to overtone pulsators and the long-period (7.7 days) Cepheid pulses in the fundamental mode. The pulsational masses for the three Cepheids are calculated to be about 5 solar masses. This mass value does not correlate with the average pulsational mass for Cepheids of 3.0 + or - 0.4 solar masses. The potential cause of this deviation in evolutionary/pulsational mass is investigated. 23 refs.

  13. First Satellite Imaging of Auroral Pulsations by the Fast Auroral Imager on e-POP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A.; Cogger, L.; Howarth, A. D.; Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    We report the first satellite imaging of auroral pulsations by the Fast Auroral Imager (FAI) onboard the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP) satellite. The near-infrared camera of FAI is capable of providing up to two auroral images per second, ideal for investigation of pulsating auroras. The auroral pulsations were observed within the auroral bulge formed during a substorm interval on 2014 February 19. This first satellite view of these pulsations from FAI reveals that (1) several pulsating auroral channels (PACs) occur within the auroral bulge, (2) periods of the intensity pulsations span over one decade within the auroral bulge, and (3) there is no apparent trend of longer pulsation periods associated with higher latitudes for these PACs. Although PACs resemble in some respect stable pulsating auroras reported previously but they have several important differences in characteristics.PACs are not embedded in or emerging from omega bands or torches and are located at significant distances from the equatorward boundary of the auroral oval, unlike the characteristics of stable pulsating auroras.

  14. Analysis of a subdwarf B pulsator observed during Campaign 2 of K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketzer, Laura; Baran, Andrzej; Reed, Mike; Telting, John H.; Nemeth, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We present an analysis of the pulsating subdwarf B (sdB) star EPIC 203948264, observed during Campaign 2 of the extended Kepler mission. A time series analysis of the short cadence data set has revealed a rich g-mode pulsation spectrum with 17 independent pulsation periods between 0.5 and 2.8 hours. All of the pulsations fit the asymptotic period sequences for ell=1 or 2, with average period spacings of 259+/-1.4 and 149+/-0.3 s, respectively. The pulsation amplitudes range from 0.77 to the detection limit at 0.26 ppt, with amplitudes that vary over time. Radial velocity measurements give no indication for binarity in this star. We did not find rotationally induced pulsation multiplets, which indicates that the rotation period of the star is longer than about 45 days, which would make the data too short to resolve multiplets. By characterizing the various pulsation modes present in pulsating sdB stars, and by examining the time-dependence of pulsation amplitudes, we can constrain structural models of the interiors of sdB stars. This is a promising approach to enhancing our understanding of these stars.

  15. The virtual observatory service TheoSSA: Establishing a database of synthetic stellar flux standards. I. NLTE spectral analysis of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Bohlin, R.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Hydrogen-rich, DA-type white dwarfs are particularly suited as primary standard stars for flux calibration. State-of-the-art NLTE models consider opacities of species up to trans-iron elements and provide reliable synthetic stellar-atmosphere spectra to compare with observations. Aims: We will establish a database of theoretical spectra of stellar flux standards that are easily accessible via a web interface. Methods: In the framework of the Virtual Observatory, the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory developed the registered service TheoSSA. It provides easy access to stellar spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and is intended to ingest SEDs calculated by any model-atmosphere code. In case of the DA white dwarf G191-B2B, we demonstrate that the model reproduces not only its overall continuum shape but also the numerous metal lines exhibited in its ultraviolet spectrum. Results: TheoSSA is in operation and contains presently a variety of SEDs for DA-type white dwarfs. It will be extended in the near future and can host SEDs of all primary and secondary flux standards. The spectral analysis of G191-B2B has shown that our hydrostatic models reproduce the observations best at and log g = 7.60 ± 0.05. We newly identified Fe vi, Ni vi, and Zn iv lines. For the first time, we determined the photospheric zinc abundance with a logarithmic mass fraction of -4.89 (7.5 × solar). The abundances of He (upper limit), C, N, O, Al, Si, O, P, S, Fe, Ni, Ge, and Sn were precisely determined. Upper abundance limits of about 10% solar were derived for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Co. Conclusions: The TheoSSA database of theoretical SEDs of stellar flux standards guarantees that the flux calibration of all astronomical data and cross-calibration between different instruments can be based on the same models and SEDs calculated with different model-atmosphere codes and are easy to compare. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope

  16. Empirical Determination of Convection Parameters in White Dwarfs. I. Whole Earth Telescope Observations of EC14012-1446

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Kanaan, A.; Thompson, S. E.; Dalessio, J.; Shipman, H. L.; Childers, D.; Clemens, J. C.; Rosen, R.; Henrique, P.; Bischoff-Kim, A.; Strickland, W.; Chandler, D.; Walter, B.; Watson, T. K.; Castanheira, B.; Wang, S.; Handler, G.; Wood, M.; Vennes, S.; Nemeth, P.; Kepler, S. O.; Reed, M.; Nitta, A.; Kleinman, S. J.; Brown, T.; Kim, S.-L.; Sullivan, D.; Chen, W. P.; Yang, M.; Shih, C. Y.; Jiang, X. J.; Sergeev, A. V.; Maksim, A.; Janulis, R.; Baliyan, K. S.; Vats, H. O.; Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W.; Paparo, M.; Bognar, Z.; Papics, P.; Kilkenny, D.; Sefako, R.; Buckley, D.; Loaring, N.; Kniazev, A.; Silvotti, R.; Galleti, S.; Nagel, T.; Vauclair, G.; Dolez, N.; Fremy, J. R.; Perez, J.; Almenara, J. M.; Fraga, L.

    2012-06-01

    We report on an analysis of 308.3 hr of high-speed photometry targeting the pulsating DA white dwarf EC14012-1446. The data were acquired with the Whole Earth Telescope during the 2008 international observing run XCOV26. The Fourier transform of the light curve contains 19 independent frequencies and numerous combination frequencies. The dominant peaks are 1633.907, 1887.404, and 2504.897 μHz. Our analysis of the combination amplitudes reveals that the parent frequencies are consistent with modes of spherical degree l = 1. The combination amplitudes also provide m identifications for the largest amplitude parent frequencies. Our seismology analysis, which includes 2004-2007 archival data, confirms these identifications, provides constraints on additional frequencies, and finds an average period spacing of 41 s. Building on this foundation, we present nonlinear fits to high signal-to-noise light curves from the SOAR 4.1 m, McDonald 2.1 m, and KPNO 2 m telescopes. The fits indicate a time-averaged convective response timescale of τ0 = 99.4 ± 17 s, a temperature exponent N = 85 ± 6.2, and an inclination angle of θ i = 32fdg9 ± 3fdg2. We present our current empirical map of the convective response timescale across the DA instability strip. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  17. The domains of instability for the pulsating PG1159 stars.

    SciTech Connect

    Quirion, P.-O.; Fontaine, Gilles.; Brassard, Pierre; Herwig, F. H.

    2004-01-01

    The fact that we find pulsating and nonpulsating stars mixed together in the PG 1159 region of the log g - T{sub eff} diagram has been a long standing puzzle. The poor understanding of the driving mechanism in those stars has been the reason why it has taken so long to address properly this problem. Following the work of Saio (1996) and Gautschy (1997) based on the OPAL opacities, Quirion, Fontaine, & Brassard (2004) recently showed that we are now able to understand and reproduce the ranges of observed periods in the pulsating PG 1159 stars in terms of the original {kappa}-mechanism associated with the partial ionization of the K-shell electrons of C and O which, along with He, make up the composition of the envelope of those stars. Contrary to others, those three studies agree in that no composition gradients are needed between the atmospheric layers and the driving region. Furthermore, the cohabitation of pulsating and nonpulsating PG 1159 stars is naturally explained in terms of a dispersion in atmospheric parameters and in terms of a variation in surface composition from star to star. In particular, the most He-rich stars tend to be stable. We go beyond the findings discussed by Quirion et al. (2004) in this paper, and present the results of additional calculations aimed at describing better the role of the chemical composition (in particular the role of metallicity) as well as that of the stellar mass on the boundaries of the instability domain in the log g - T{sub eff} plane.

  18. DARK STARS: IMPROVED MODELS AND FIRST PULSATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rindler-Daller, T.; Freese, K.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Paxton, B.

    2015-02-01

    We use the stellar evolution code MESA to study dark stars (DSs). DSs, which are powered by dark matter (DM) self-annihilation rather than by nuclear fusion, may be the first stars to form in the universe. We compute stellar models for accreting DSs with masses up to 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. The heating due to DM annihilation is self-consistently included, assuming extended adiabatic contraction of DM within the minihalos in which DSs form. We find remarkably good overall agreement with previous models, which assumed polytropic interiors. There are some differences in the details, with positive implications for observability. We found that, in the mass range of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}, our DSs are hotter by a factor of 1.5 than those in Freese et al., are smaller in radius by a factor of 0.6, denser by a factor of three to four, and more luminous by a factor of two. Our models also confirm previous results, according to which supermassive DSs are very well approximated by (n = 3)-polytropes. We also perform a first study of DS pulsations. Our DS models have pulsation modes with timescales ranging from less than a day to more than two years in their rest frames, at z ∼ 15, depending on DM particle mass and overtone number. Such pulsations may someday be used to identify bright, cool objects uniquely as DSs; if properly calibrated, they might, in principle, also supply novel standard candles for cosmological studies.

  19. Optical pulsations from the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U0142+61.

    PubMed

    Kern, B; Martin, C

    2002-05-30

    Anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) differ from ordinary radio pulsars in that their X-ray luminosity is orders of magnitude greater than their rate of rotational energy loss, and so they require an additional energy source. One possibility is that AXPs are highly magnetized neuron stars or 'magnetars' having surface magnetic fields greater than 10(14) G. This would make them similar to the soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), but alternative models that do not require extreme magnetic fields also exist. An optical counterpart to the AXP 4U0142+61 was recently discovered, consistent with emission from a magnetar, but also from a magnetized hot white dwarf, or an accreting isolated neutron star. Here we report the detection of optical pulsations from 4U0142+61. The pulsed fraction of optical light (27 per cent) is five to ten times greater than that of soft X-rays, from which we conclude that 4U0142+61 is a magnetar. Although this establishes a direct relationship between AXPs and the soft gamma-ray repeaters, the evolutionary connection between AXPs, SGRs and radio pulsars remains controversial.

  20. A Study of Short-term White Dwarf Variability Using gPhoton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Michael; Fleming, Scott W.; Caton, Daniel B.; Million, Chase; Shiao, Bernie

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) was a UV space telescope that operated from 2003 until 2013. A new project at MAST, gPhoton takes advantage of the microchannel-plate photon detector aboard GALEX, which catalogued and time-stamped every photon event by putting the one trillion photon events into a database. Utilizing associated open-source software, gPhoton can create coadd images, movies and light curves at user-defined spatial and temporal scales. As part of early science investigations with gPhoton, 364 white dwarf stars from the McCook-Sion catalog with ample GALEX coverage were photometrically inspected for inter-visit variations during an REU program at STScI. Out of the 364 white dwarfs that were studied, three previously documented pulsating white dwarf stars were confirmed in the UV and (at least) three new pulsating white dwarf stars were discovered. Follow-up observations are conducted at Appalachian State University using optical telescopes at the Dark Sky Observatory. We compare optical and UV light curves of these new white dwarf pulsators and show a selection of other variables found with gPhoton.

  1. Dissipative double-well potential: Nonlinear stationary and pulsating modes

    SciTech Connect

    Zezyulin, Dmitry A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.; Alfimov, Georgy L.

    2010-11-15

    The analysis of nonlinear modes in a complex absorbing double-well potential supported by linear gain is presented. Families of the nonlinear modes and their bifurcations are found numerically by means of the properly modified 'shooting' method. Linear stability and dynamics of the modes are studied. It is shown that no stable modes exist in the case of attractive nonlinearity, while stable modes, including nonsymmetric ones, are found when the nonlinearity is repulsive. Varying a control parameter (e.g., the height of barrier between the wells) results in switching from one mode to another. Apart from stationary modes we have found pulsating solutions emergent from unstable modes.

  2. Electrodynamic response of the middle atmosphere to auroral pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, R. A.; Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Barcus, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    The MAC/EPSILON observational campaign encompassed the use of two Nike Orion rocket payloads which studied the effects of auroral energetics on the middle atmosphere. While one payload was launched during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic substorm, during fairly stable auroral conditions, the other was launched during highly active postbreakup conditions during which Pc5 pulsations were in progress. The energetic radiation of the first event was composed almost entirely of relativistic electrons below 200 keV, while that of the second was dominated by much softer electrons whose high X-ray fluxes exceeded the cosmic ray background as an ionizing source down to below 30 km.

  3. Limits in the application of harmonic analysis to pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Granado, J.; Garrido, R.; Suárez, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    Using ultra-precise data from space instrumentation, we found that the underlying functions of stellar light curves from some AF pulsating stars are non-analytic, and consequently their Fourier expansion is not guaranteed. This result demonstrates that periodograms do not provide a mathematically consistent estimator of the frequency content for this type of variable stars. More importantly, this constitutes the first counterexample against the current paradigm, which considers that any physical process is described by a continuous (band-limited) function that is infinitely differentiable.

  4. Entropic rectification and current inversion in a pulsating channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carusela, M. Florencia; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2017-05-01

    We show the existence of a resonant behavior of the current of Brownian particles confined in a pulsating channel. The interplay between the periodic oscillations of the shape of the channel and a force applied along its axis leads to an increase of the particle current as a function of the diffusion coefficient. A regime of current inversion is also observed for particular values of the oscillation frequency and the applied force. The model proposed is based on the Fick-Jacobs equation in which the entropic barrier and the effective diffusion coefficient depend on time. The phenomenon observed could be used to optimize transport in microfluidic devices or biological channels.

  5. White Rock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    White Rock is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during NASA Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970 and is now shown here in an image from NASA Mars Odyssey spacecraft.

  6. White Dwarf Mass Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Koester, D.; Romero, A. D.; Ourique, G.; Pelisoli, I.

    2017-03-01

    We present the mass distribution for all S/N ≥ 15 DA white dwarfs detected in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey up to Data Release 12 in 2015, fitted with Koester models for ML2/α=0.8 (Teff≥ 10000 K), and for DBs with S/N ≥ 10, fitted with ML2/α=1.25, for Teff >16 000 K. These mass distributions are for logg≥6.5 stars, i.e., excluding the Extremely Low Mass white dwarfs. We also present the mass distributions corrected by volume with the 1/Vmax approach, for stars brighter than g=19. Both distributions have a maximum at M=0.624 M ⊙ but very distinct shapes.

  7. White Dwarf Stars: A Brief Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Charpinet, S.; Randall, S. K.; Van Grootel, V.

    2013-12-01

    We present a brief summary of what is currently known about white dwarf stars, with an emphasis on their evolutionary and internal properties. As is well known, white dwarfs represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, bear the signatures of past events (such as mass-loss, mixing phases, loss and redistribution of angular momentum, and thermonuclear burning) that are of essential importance in the evolution of stars in general. In addition, white dwarf stars represent ideal testbeds for our understanding of matter under extreme conditions, and work on their constitutive physics (neutrino production rates, conductive and radiative opacities, interior liquid and solid equations of state, partially ionized and partially degenerate envelope equations of state, diffusion coefficients, line broadening mechanisms) is still being actively pursued. Given a set of constitutive physics, cooling white dwarfs can be used advantageously as cosmochronometers. Moreover, the field has been blessed by the existence of four distinct families of pulsating white dwarfs, each mapping a different evolutionary phase, and this allows the application of the asteroseismological method to probe and test their internal structure and evolutionary state.

  8. Radial stellar pulsation and three-dimensional convection. III. Comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional convection effects on radial pulsation

    SciTech Connect

    Geroux, Christopher M.; Deupree, Robert G.

    2014-03-10

    We have developed a multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics code to simulate the interaction of radial stellar pulsation and convection for full-amplitude pulsating models. Convection is computed using large eddy simulations. Here, we perform three-dimensional (3D) simulations of RR Lyrae stars for comparison with previously reported 2D simulations. We find that the time-dependent behavior of the peak convective flux on pulsation phase is very similar in both the 2D and 3D calculations. The growth rates of the pulsation in the 2D calculations are about 0.1% higher than in the 3D calculations. The amplitude of the light curve for a 6500 K RR Lyrae model is essentially the same for our 2D and 3D calculations, as is the rising light curve. There are differences in the slope at various times during falling light.

  9. Search for A-F Spectral type pulsating components in Algol-type eclipsing binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.-L.; Lee, J. W.; Kwon, S.-G.; Youn, J.-H.; Mkrtichian, D. E.; Kim, C.

    2003-07-01

    We present the results of a systematic search for pulsating components in Algol-type eclipsing binary systems. A total number of 14 eclipsing binaries with A-F spectral type primary components were observed for 22 nights. We confirmed small-amplitude oscillating features of a recently detected pulsator TW Dra, which has a pulsating period of 0.053 day and a semi-amplitude of about 5 mmag in B-passband. We discovered new pulsating components in two eclipsing binaries of RX Hya and AB Per. The primary component of RX Hya is pulsating with a dominant period of 0.052 day and a semi-amplitude of about 7 mmag. AB Per has also a pulsating component with a period of 0.196 day and a semi-amplitude of about 10 mmag in B-passband. We suggest that these two new pulsators are members of the newly introduced group of mass-accreting pulsating stars in semi-detached Algol-type eclipsing binary systems. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/405/231

  10. Searching for frequency multiplets in the pulsating subdwarf B star PG 1219+534

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crooke, John; Roessler, Ryan; Reed, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Subdwarf B (sdB) stars represent the stripped cores of horizontal branch stars. Pulsating sdB stars allow us to probe this important stage in evolution. Thanks to Kepler data, we now know that sdB star rotation periods are long; on the order of tens of days. This explains why they were not measured using ground-based follow-up data, which typically only spanned a week or two. Azimuthal pulsation degeneracies are removed by rotation, and so by detected pulsation frequency multiplets, we can determine pulsation modes and apply constraints to models, which tell us stellar structure. We need the ground-based observations as Kepler did not detect many p-mode pulsators, but rather almost exclusively g-mode pulsators. The shorter-period p-modes occur in hotter sdB stars, and so we need these to measure the pulsation dependence across the horizontal branch. During 2015, we observed PG 1219+534 (hereafter PG1219) over several months using our local 16 inch robotic telescope. Here we report preliminary results of processing those data to search for pulsation multiplets.

  11. Nonisothermal flow of a polymeric liquid under a pulsating pressure gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Shul'man, Z.P.; Khusid, B.M.; Shabunina, Z.A.

    1987-03-01

    Increasing flow rates is a major problem in transporting petroleum as well as polymer solutions and melts. Industrial methods are often directed to reducing the effective viscosity: heating and pulsation. The latter is related to the nonlinearity in the properties. This paper studies the effects of pressure-gradient pulsations on the nonisothermal flow of a nonlinear liquid with memory in an annular channel.

  12. THE DETONATION MECHANISM OF THE PULSATIONALLY ASSISTED GRAVITATIONALLY CONFINED DETONATION MODEL OF Type Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G. C. IV; Graziani, C.; Weide, K.; Norris, J.; Hudson, R.; Lamb, D. Q.; Fisher, R. T.; Townsley, D. M.; Meakin, C.; Reid, L. B.

    2012-11-01

    We describe the detonation mechanism composing the 'pulsationally assisted' gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae. This model is analogous to the previous GCD model reported in Jordan et al.; however, the chosen initial conditions produce a substantively different detonation mechanism, resulting from a larger energy release during the deflagration phase. The resulting final kinetic energy and {sup 56}Ni yields conform better to observational values than is the case for the 'classical' GCD models. In the present class of models, the ignition of a deflagration phase leads to a rising, burning plume of ash. The ash breaks out of the surface of the white dwarf, flows laterally around the star, and converges on the collision region at the antipodal point from where it broke out. The amount of energy released during the deflagration phase is enough to cause the star to rapidly expand, so that when the ash reaches the antipodal point, the surface density is too low to initiate a detonation. Instead, as the ash flows into the collision region (while mixing with surface fuel), the star reaches its maximally expanded state and then contracts. The stellar contraction acts to increase the density of the star, including the density in the collision region. This both raises the temperature and density of the fuel-ash mixture in the collision region and ultimately leads to thermodynamic conditions that are necessary for the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism to produce a detonation. We demonstrate feasibility of this scenario with three three-dimensional (3D), full star simulations of this model using the FLASH code. We characterized the simulations by the energy released during the deflagration phase, which ranged from 38% to 78% of the white dwarf's binding energy. We show that the necessary conditions for detonation are achieved in all three of the models.

  13. The Detonation Mechanism of the Pulsationally Assisted Gravitationally Confined Detonation Model of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, G. C., IV; Graziani, C.; Fisher, R. T.; Townsley, D. M.; Meakin, C.; Weide, K.; Reid, L. B.; Norris, J.; Hudson, R.; Lamb, D. Q.

    2012-11-01

    We describe the detonation mechanism composing the "pulsationally assisted" gravitationally confined detonation (GCD) model of Type Ia supernovae. This model is analogous to the previous GCD model reported in Jordan et al.; however, the chosen initial conditions produce a substantively different detonation mechanism, resulting from a larger energy release during the deflagration phase. The resulting final kinetic energy and 56Ni yields conform better to observational values than is the case for the "classical" GCD models. In the present class of models, the ignition of a deflagration phase leads to a rising, burning plume of ash. The ash breaks out of the surface of the white dwarf, flows laterally around the star, and converges on the collision region at the antipodal point from where it broke out. The amount of energy released during the deflagration phase is enough to cause the star to rapidly expand, so that when the ash reaches the antipodal point, the surface density is too low to initiate a detonation. Instead, as the ash flows into the collision region (while mixing with surface fuel), the star reaches its maximally expanded state and then contracts. The stellar contraction acts to increase the density of the star, including the density in the collision region. This both raises the temperature and density of the fuel-ash mixture in the collision region and ultimately leads to thermodynamic conditions that are necessary for the Zel'dovich gradient mechanism to produce a detonation. We demonstrate feasibility of this scenario with three three-dimensional (3D), full star simulations of this model using the FLASH code. We characterized the simulations by the energy released during the deflagration phase, which ranged from 38% to 78% of the white dwarf's binding energy. We show that the necessary conditions for detonation are achieved in all three of the models.

  14. Pruning The ELM Survey: Characterizing Candidate Low-mass White Dwarfs through Photometric Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Keaton J.; Gianninas, A.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Kilic, Mukremin; Montgomery, M. H.; Castanheira, B. G.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, K. I.; Brown, Warren R.

    2017-02-01

    We assess the photometric variability of nine stars with spectroscopic Teff and log g values from the ELM Survey that locates them near the empirical extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarf instability strip. We discover three new pulsating stars: SDSS J135512.34+195645.4, SDSS J173521.69+213440.6, and SDSS J213907.42+222708.9. However, these are among the few ELM Survey objects that do not show radial velocity (RV) variations that confirm the binary nature expected of helium-core white dwarfs. The dominant 4.31 hr pulsation in SDSS J135512.34+195645.4 far exceeds the theoretical cut-off for surface reflection in a white dwarf, and this target is likely a high-amplitude δ Scuti pulsator with an overestimated surface gravity. We estimate the probability to be less than 0.0008 that the lack of measured RV variations in four of eight other pulsating candidate ELM white dwarfs could be due to low orbital inclination. Two other targets exhibit variability as photometric binaries. Partial coverage of the 19.342 hr orbit of WD J030818.19+514011.5 reveals deep eclipses that imply a primary radius >0.4 R⊙—too large to be consistent with an ELM white dwarf. The only object for which our time series photometry adds support to ELM white dwarf classification is SDSS J105435.78‑212155.9, which has consistent signatures of Doppler beaming and ellipsoidal variations. We conclude that the ELM Survey contains multiple false positives from another stellar population at Teff ≲ 9000 K, possibly related to the sdA stars recently reported from SDSS spectra.

  15. V2653 Ophiuchii with a pulsating component and Ppuls - Porb, Ppuls - g correlations for γ Dor type pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakırlı, Ö.; Ibanoglu, C.

    2016-05-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the double-lined eclipsing binary V2653 Ophiuchii. The photometric observations obtained by ASAS were analyzed and combined with the analysis of radial velocities for deriving the absolute parameters of the components. Masses and radii were determined for the first time as Mp = 1.537 ± 0.021 M⊙ and Rp = 2.215 ± 0.055 R⊙, Ms = 1.273 ± 0.019 M⊙ and Rs = 2.000 ± 0.056 R⊙ for the components of V2653 Oph. We estimate an interstellar reddening of 0.15 ± 0.08 mag and a distance of 300 ± 50 pc for the system, both supporting the membership of the open cluster Collinder 359. Using the out-of-eclipse photometric data we have made frequency analysis and detected a periodic signal at 1.0029 ± 0.0019 c/d. This frequency and the location of the more massive star on the HR diagram lead to classification of a γ Dor type variable. Up to date only eleven γ Dor type pulsators in the eclipsing binaries have been discovered. For six out of 11 systems, the physical parameters were determined. Although a small sample, we find empirical relations that Ppuls ∝ Porb0.43 and Ppuls ∝ g-0.83. While the pulsation periods increase with longer orbital periods, they decrease with increasing surface gravities of pulsating components and gravitational pull exerted by the companions. We present, briefly, the underlying physics behind the correlations we derived.

  16. Pulsation versus metallicism in Am stars as revealed by LAMOST and WASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, B.; Antoci, V.; Holdsworth, D. L.; Kurtz, D. W.; Murphy, S. J.; De Cat, P.; Anderson, D. R.; Catanzaro, G.; Cameron, A. Collier; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Norton, A. J.; Pollacco, D.; Ripepi, V.; West, R. G.; Wheatley, P. J.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of a study of a large sample of A and Am stars with spectral types from Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) and light curves from Wide Area Search for Planets (WASP). We find that, unlike normal A stars, δ Sct pulsations in Am stars are mostly confined to the effective temperature range 6900 < {{T_eff}} < 7600 K. We find evidence that the incidence of pulsations in Am stars decreases with increasing metallicism (degree of chemical peculiarity). The maximum amplitude of the pulsations in Am stars does not appear to vary significantly with metallicism. The amplitude distributions of the principal pulsation frequencies for both A and Am stars appear very similar and agree with results obtained from Kepler photometry. We present evidence that suggests turbulent pressure is the main driving mechanism in pulsating Am stars, rather than the κ-mechanism, which is expected to be suppressed by gravitational settling in these stars.

  17. K2 observations of pulsating subdwarf B stars: Analysis of EPIC 203948264 observed during Campaign 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketzer, L.; Reed, M. D.; Baran, A. S.; Németh, P.; Telting, J. H.; Østensen, R. H.; Jeffery, C. S.

    2017-01-01

    We apply asteroseismic tools to the newly-discovered pulsator EPIC 203948264, observed with K2, the two-gyro mission of the Kepler space telescope. A time series analysis of the 83 day Campaign 2 (C2) short cadence data set has revealed a g -mode pulsation spectrum with 22 independent pulsation periods between 0.5 and 2.8 hours. Most of the pulsations fit the asymptotic period sequences for ℓ = 1 or 2, with average period spacings of 261.3 ± 1.1 s and 151.18 ± 0.37 s, respectively. The pulsation amplitudes are below 0.77 ppt and vary over time. We include updated spectroscopic parameters, including atmospheric abundances and radial velocities which give no indication for binarity in this star. We detect one possible low-amplitude multiplet which corresponds to a rotation period of 46 days or longer. EPIC 203948264 appears as another slowly rotating sdB star.

  18. Enhancing cell viability with pulsating flow in a hollow fiber bioartificial liver.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Diem T; Brotherton, John D; Chau, Pao C

    2005-10-01

    A pulsating flow of medium was used to alleviate diffusion and transport limitations in a hollow fiber bioreactor containing a human hepatoblastoma cell line. The strategy is easy to implement but effective. The pulsating flow is introduced by a solenoid pinch valve at the outlet of the bioreactor and regulated by a timing circuit. In a permeability test, the system with pulsating flow had much less membrane fouling as compared to the control, a conventional hollow fiber unit. In hepatocyte culture test runs, the pulsating-flow bioreactor demonstrated the ability to maintain a higher cell viability. Histological sections indicated significantly smaller necrotic regions in the pulsating-flow bioreactor as compared to the conventional unit.

  19. Searching for X-ray Pulsations from Neutron Stars Using NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Bogdanov, Slavko; Bult, Peter; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Guillot, Sebastien; Kust Harding, Alice; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lamb, Frederick K.; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Miller, M. Coleman; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Wolff, Michael Thomas

    2017-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) presents an exciting new capability for discovering new modulation properties of X-ray emitting neutron stars, including large area, low background, extremely precise absolute time stamps, superb low-energy response and flexible scheduling. The Pulsation Searches and Multiwavelength Coordination working group has designed a 2.5 Ms observing program to search for pulsations and characterize the modulation properties of about 30 known or suspected neutron star sources across a number of source categories. A key early goal will be to search for pulsations from millisecond pulsars that might exhibit thermal pulsations from the surface suitable for pulse profile modeling to constrain the neutron star equation of state. In addition, we will search for pulsations from transitional millisecond pulsars, isolated neutron stars, LMXBs, accretion-powered millisecond pulsars, central compact objects and other sources. We will present our science plan and initial results from the first months of the NICER mission.

  20. Tidally Induced Pulsations in Kepler Eclipsing Binary KIC 3230227

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhao; Gies, Douglas R.; Fuller, Jim

    2017-01-01

    KIC 3230227 is a short period (P ≈ 7.0 days) eclipsing binary with a very eccentric orbit (e = 0.6). From combined analysis of radial velocities and Kepler light curves, this system is found to be composed of two A-type stars, with masses of M1 = 1.84 ± 0.18 M⊙, M2 = 1.73 ± 0.17 M⊙ and radii of R1 = 2.01 ± 0.09 R⊙, R2 = 1.68 ± 0.08 R⊙ for the primary and secondary, respectively. In addition to an eclipse, the binary light curve shows a brightening and dimming near periastron, making this a somewhat rare eclipsing heartbeat star system. After removing the binary light curve model, more than 10 pulsational frequencies are present in the Fourier spectrum of the residuals, and most of them are integer multiples of the orbital frequency. These pulsations are tidally driven, and both the amplitudes and phases are in agreement with predictions from linear tidal theory for l = 2, m = ‑2 prograde modes.

  1. Pulsational instability of complex charge-fluctuating magnetized turbulent astroclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Pralay Kumar; Haloi, Archana

    2017-09-01

    We develop a theoretic model to study the linear stability behaviour of pulsational (gravito-electrostatic) mode in a self-gravitating, magnetized, collisional, turbulent and unbounded dust molecular cloud (DMC). The analytic model consists of lighter electrons and ions; and massive charged dust grains with partial ionization over the geometrically infinite extension. The semi-empirically obtained Larson logatropic equation of state, correlating all the thermo-turbo-magnetic pressures concurrently, is included afresh to model the constituent fluid turbulence pressures arising because of multiple randomized aperiodic flow scales of space and time. A linear normal mode analysis over the slightly perturbed composite cloud, relative to the defined homogeneous hydrostatic equilibrium, results in a unique mathematical construct of generalized polynomial (octic) dispersion relation with different coefficients sensitively dependent upon the diversified equilibrium cloud parameters. The main features of the modified pulsational mode dynamics are numerically explored over a commodious window of parametric values. It is shown and established that the grain mass introduces a dispersive stabilizing effect to the mode (with enhancement in phase speed), and vice-versa. A spatiotemporal illustrative tapestry is also portrayed for further confirmation of the dispersive mode with sporadic properties. The tentative application of our findings in different space and astrophysical circumstances is briefly outlined.

  2. Pulsating fronts in periodically modulated neural field models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombes, S.; Laing, C. R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a coarse-grained neural field model for synaptic activity in spatially extended cortical tissue that possesses an underlying periodicity in its microstructure. The model is written as an integrodifferential equation with periodic modulation of a translationally invariant spatial kernel. This modulation can have a strong effect on wave propagation through the tissue, including the creation of pulsating fronts with widely varying speeds and wave-propagation failure. Here we develop a new analysis for the study of such phenomena, using two complementary techniques. The first uses linearized information from the leading edge of a traveling periodic wave to obtain wave speed estimates for pulsating fronts, and the second develops an interface description for waves in the full nonlinear model. For weak modulation and a Heaviside firing rate function the interface dynamics can be analyzed exactly and gives predictions that are in excellent agreement with direct numerical simulations. Importantly, the interface dynamics description improves on the standard homogenization calculation, which is restricted to modulation that is both fast and weak.

  3. Pulsation Properties of Carbon and Oxygen Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Huang, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    We have used up to 12 decades of AAVSO visual observations, and the AAVSO VSTAR software package to determine new and/or improved periods of 5 pulsating biperiodic carbon (C-type) red giants, and 12 pulsating biperiodic oxygen (M-type) red giants. We have also determined improved periods for 43 additional C-type red giants, in part to search for more biperiodic C-type stars, and also for 46 M-type red giants. For a small sample of the biperiodic C-type and M-type stars, we have used wavelet analysis to determine the time scales of the cycles of amplitude increase and decrease. The C-type and M-type stars do not differ significantly in their period ratios (first overtone to fundamental). There is a marginal difference in the lengths of their amplitude cycles. The most important result of this study is that, because of the semiregularity of these stars, and the presence of alias, harmonic, and spurious periods, the periods which we and others derive for these stars—especially the smaller-amplitude ones—must be determined and interpreted with great care and caution. For instance: spurious periods of a year can produce an apparent excess of stars, at that period, in the period distribution.

  4. V2551 Cyg: a pulsating star with enigmatic peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, Diana P.; Popov, Velimir A.; Marchev, Dragomir V.; Menzies, Kenneth T.; Petrov, Nikola I.

    2017-07-01

    Intensive photometric and spectral observations of the variable star V2551 Cyg are presented. The light curve shape reveals that the target is a pulsating star, contrary to its previous classification as an eclipsing binary. The period and amplitude of the light curve, the amplitudes of color changes and the radial velocity curve of V2551 Cyg are similar to those of a high-amplitude δ Scuti variable. The target seems to pulsate with the fundamental mode. However, V2551 Cyg exhibits several important peculiarities: (i) the decreasing branch of its light curve is steeper than the increasing one; (ii) the radial velocity curve has a flat section in the phase range 0.7-1.2 and short increase of the negative radial velocity at phase 0.7; (iii) the rotational velocity is quite big for a HADS star; (iv) the Fourier coefficients of V2551 Cyg are quite different from those of HADS stars. The target classification is difficult due to these peculiarities.

  5. Fundamental parameters of pulsating stars from atmospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcza, S.

    2006-12-01

    A purely photometric method is reviewed to determine distance, mass, equilibrium temperature, and luminosity of pulsating stars by using model atmospheres and hydrodynamics. T Sex is given as an example: on the basis of Kurucz atmospheric models and UBVRI (in both Johnson and Kron-Cousins systems) data, variation of angular diameter, effective temperature, and surface gravity is derived as a function of phase, mass M=(0.76± 0.09) M⊙, distance d=530± 67 pc, Rmax=2.99R⊙, Rmin=2.87R⊙, magnitude averaged visual absolute brightness < MVmag>=1.17± 0.26 mag are found. During a pulsation cycle four standstills of the atmosphere are pointed out indicating the occurrence of two shocks in the atmosphere. The derived equilibrium temperature Teq=7781 K and luminosity (28.3± 8.8)L⊙ locate T Sex on the blue edge of the instability strip in a theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The differences of the physical parameters from this study and Liu & Janes (1990) are discussed.

  6. Pulsations of the polar cusp aurora at Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmaerts, B.; Radioti, A.; Roussos, E.; Grodent, D.; Gérard, J.-C.; Krupp, N.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    The magnetospheric cusp is a region connecting the interplanetary environment to the ionosphere and enabling solar wind particles to reach the ionosphere. We report the detection of several isolated high-latitude auroral emissions with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph of the Cassini spacecraft. We suggest that these auroral spots, located in the dawn-to-noon sector and poleward of the main emission, are the ionospheric signatures of the magnetospheric cusp, in agreement with some previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-latitude cusp auroral signature has been associated with high-latitude lobe reconnection in the presence of a southward interplanetary magnetic field. The occurrence rate of the polar cusp aurora suggests that lobe reconnection is frequent at Saturn. Several auroral imaging sequences reveal a quasiperiodic brightening of the polar cusp aurora with a period in the range of 60 to 70 min. Similar pulsations in the energetic electron fluxes and in the azimuthal component of the magnetic field are simultaneously observed by Cassini instruments, suggesting the presence of field-aligned currents. Pulsed dayside magnetopause reconnection is a likely common triggering process for the cusp auroral brightenings at Saturn and the quasiperiodic pulsations in the high-latitude energetic electron fluxes.

  7. Numerical simulation of pressure pulsations in Francis turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnoli, M. V.; Schilling, R.

    2012-11-01

    In the last decades, hydraulic turbines have experienced the increase of their power density and the extension of their operating range, leading the fluid and mechanical dynamic effects to become significantly more pronounced. The understanding of the transient fluid flow and of the associated unsteady effects is essential for the reduction of the pressure pulsation level and improvement of the machine dynamic behaviour. In this study, the instationary fluid flow through the complete turbine was numerically calculated for an existing Francis machine with high specific speed. The hybrid turbulence models DES (detached eddy simulation) and SAS (scale adaptive simulation) allowed the accurate simulation of complex dynamic flow effects, such as the rotor-stator-interaction and the draft tube instabilities. Different operating conditions, as full load, part load, higher part load and deep part load, were successfully simulated and showed very tight agreement with the experimental results from the model tests. The transient pressure field history, obtained from the CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulation and stored for each time step, was used as input for the full instationary FEA (finite element analysis) of turbine components. The assessment of the machine dynamic motion also offered the possibility to contribute to the understanding of the pressure pulsation effects and to further increase the turbine stability. This research project was developed at the Institute of Fluid Mechanics of the TU München.

  8. Pulsations of rapidly rotating stars with compositional discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel R.; Lara, Francisco Espinosa; Rieutord, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Recent observations of rapidly rotating stars have revealed the presence of regular patterns in their pulsation spectra. This has raised the question as to their physical origin, and, in particular, whether they can be explained by an asymptotic frequency formula for low-degree acoustic modes, as recently discovered through numerical calculations and theoretical considerations. In this context, a key question is whether compositional/density gradients can adversely affect such patterns to the point of hindering their identification. To answer this question, we calculate frequency spectra using two-dimensional ESTER stellar models. These models use a multi-domain spectral approach, allowing us to easily insert a compositional discontinuity while retaining a high numerical accuracy. We analyse the effects of such discontinuities on both the frequencies and eigenfunctions of pulsation modes in the asymptotic regime. We find that although there is more scatter around the asymptotic frequency formula, the semi-large frequency separation can still be clearly identified in a spectrum of low-degree acoustic modes.

  9. Characterization of ultra low frequency (ULF) pulsations and the investigation of their possible source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mthembu, S. H.; Malinga, S. B.; Walker, A. D. M.; Magnus, L.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we present the results from the observation of ultra low frequency (ULF) pulsations in the Doppler velocity data from SuperDARN HF radar located at Goose Bay (61.94° N, 23.02° E, geomagnetic). Fourier spectral techniques were used to determine the spectral content of the data and the results show Pc 5 ULF pulsations (with a frequency range of 1 to 4 mHz) where the magnetic field lines were oscillating at discrete frequencies of about 1.3 and 1.9 mHz. These pulsations are classified as field lines resonance (FLR) since the 1.9 mHz component exhibited an enhancement in amplitude with an associated phase change of approximately 180° across a resonance latitude of 71.3°. The spatial and temporal structure of the ULF pulsations was examined by investigating their instantaneous amplitude which was calculated as the amplitude of the analytic signal. The results presented a full field of view which exhibit pulsations activity simultaneously from all beams. This representation shows that the peak amplitude of the 1.9 mHz component was observed over the longitudinal range of 13°. The temporal structure of the pulsations was investigated from the evolution of the 1.9 mHz component and the results showed that the ULF pulsations had a duration of about 1 h. Wavelet analysis was used to investigate solar wind as a probable source of the observed ULF pulsations. The time delay compared well with the solar wind travel time estimates and the results suggest a possible link between the solar wind and the observed pulsations. The sudden change in dynamic pressure also proved to be a possible source of the observed ULF pulsations.

  10. Ventricular dilation and elevated aqueductal pulsations in a new experimental model of communicating hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Wagshul, M E; McAllister, J P; Rashid, S; Li, J; Egnor, M R; Walker, M L; Yu, M; Smith, S D; Zhang, G; Chen, J J; Benveniste, H

    2009-07-01

    In communicating hydrocephalus (CH), explanations for the symptoms and clear-cut effective treatments remain elusive. Pulsatile flow through the cerebral aqueduct is often significantly elevated, but a clear link between abnormal pulsations and ventriculomegaly has yet to be identified. We sought to demonstrate measurement of pulsatile aqueductal flow of CSF in the rat, and to characterize the temporal changes in CSF pulsations in a new model of CH. Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the basal cisterns of adult rats (n = 18). Ventricular volume and aqueductal pulsations were measured on a 9.4 T MRI over a one month period. Half of the animals developed ventricular dilation, with increased ventricular volume and pulsations as early as one day post-induction, and marked chronic elevations compared to intact controls (volume: 130.15 +/- 83.21 microl vs. 15.52 +/- 2.00 microl; pulsations: 114.51 nl +/- 106.29 vs. 0.72 +/- 0.13 nl). Similar to the clinical presentation, the relationship between ventricular size and pulsations was quite variable. However, the pulsation time-course revealed two distinct sub-types of hydrocephalic animals: those with markedly elevated pulsations which persisted over time, and those with mildly elevated pulsations which returned to near normal levels after one week. These groups were associated with severe and mild ventriculomegaly respectively. Thus, aqueductal flow can be measured in the rat using high-field MRI and basal cistern-induced CH is associated with an immediate change in CSF pulsatility. At the same time, our results highlight the complex nature of aqueductal pulsation and its relationship to ventricular dilation.

  11. Ventricular dilation and elevated aqueductal pulsations in a new experimental model of communicating hydrocephalus

    SciTech Connect

    Wagshul, M.; Smith, S.; Wagshul, M.; McAllister, J.P.; Rashid, S.; Li, J.; Egnor, M.R.; Walker, M.L.; Yu, M.; Smith, S.D.; Zhang, G.; Chen, J.J.; Beneveniste, H.

    2009-03-01

    In communicating hydrocephalus (CH), explanations for the symptoms and clear-cut effective treatments remain elusive. Pulsatile flow through the cerebral aqueduct is often significantly elevated, but a clear link between abnormal pulsations and ventriculomegaly has yet to be identified. We sought to demonstrate measurement of pulsatile aqueductal flow of CSF in the rat, and to characterize the temporal changes in CSF pulsations in a new model of CH. Hydrocephalus was induced by injection of kaolin into the basal cisterns of adult rats (n = 18). Ventricular volume and aqueductal pulsations were measured on a 9.4 T MRI over a one month period. Half of the animals developed ventricular dilation, with increased ventricular volume and pulsations as early as one day post-induction, and marked chronic elevations compared to intact controls (volume: 130.15 {+-} 83.21 {mu}l vs. 15.52 {+-} 2.00 {mu}l; pulsations: 114.51 nl {+-} 106.29 vs. 0.72 {+-} 0.13 nl). Similar to the clinical presentation, the relationship between ventricular size and pulsations was quite variable. However, the pulsation time-course revealed two distinct sub-types of hydrocephalic animals: those with markedly elevated pulsations which persisted over time, and those with mildly elevated pulsations which returned to near normal levels after one week. These groups were associated with severe and mild ventriculomegaly respectively. Thus, aqueductal flow can be measured in the rat using high-field MRI and basal cistern-induced CH is associated with an immediate change in CSF pulsatility. At the same time, our results highlight the complex nature of aqueductal pulsation and its relationship to ventricular dilation.

  12. Rotation Velocities of White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, C.; Napiwotzki, R.; Heber, U.; Dreizler, S.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.

    White dwarfs are the compact remnants of low and intermediate mass stars (M < 8Msolar). Due to the conservation of angular momentum white dwarfs should be very fast rotators, if a significant fraction of the angular momentum of the progenitor stars were preserved. The existence of sharp NLTE cores of the hydrogen Hα line in high resolution spectra (obtained at the Keck observatory) of DA white dwarfs allowed us to determine (projected) rotational velocities v sin i for white dwarfs. Among those of our targets lying close to the ZZ Ceti instability many show evidence for extra broadening similar to rotation, whereas stars at higher temperatures (and therefore younger ones) rotate more slowly or not at all. Our result based on a large sample is in accordance with previous results presented by Koester et al. (1998). We discuss possible explanations for this astonishing result.

  13. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  14. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  15. Classical Cepheid Pulsation Models. IX. New Input Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Silvia; Bono, Giuseppe; Marconi, Marcella; Stellingwerf, Robert F.

    2003-12-01

    We constructed several sequences of classical Cepheid envelope models at solar chemical composition (Y=0.28,Z=0.02) to investigate the dependence of the pulsation properties predicted by linear and nonlinear hydrodynamic models on input physics. To study the dependence on the equation of state (EOS) we performed several numerical experiments by using the simplified analytical EOS originally developed by Stellingwerf and the recent analytical EOS developed by Irwin. Current findings suggest that the pulsation amplitudes, as well as the topology of the instability strip, marginally depend on the adopted EOS. To compromise between accuracy and numerical complexity we computed new EOS tables using the Irwin analytical EOS. We found that the difference between analytical and tabular thermodynamic quantities and their derivatives are smaller than 2% when adopting suitable steps in temperature and density. To improve the numerical accuracy of physical quantities, we are now adopting bicubic splines to interpolate both opacity and EOS tables. The new approach presents a substantial advantage to avoiding numerical derivatives in both linear and nonlinear models. The EOS first- and second-order derivatives are estimated by means of the analytical EOS or by means of analytical derivatives of the interpolating function. The opacity first-order derivatives are evaluated by means of analytical derivatives of the interpolating function. We also investigated the dependence of observables predicted by theoretical models on the mass-luminosity (ML) relation and on the spatial resolution across the hydrogen and the helium partial ionization regions. We found that nonlinear models are marginally affected by these physical and numerical assumptions. In particular, the difference between new and old models in the location as well as in the temperature width of the instability strip is, on average, less than 200 K. However, the spatial resolution somehow affects the pulsation properties

  16. The magnetic field of the pulsating subdwarf Balloon 090100001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanov, I. S.; Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    We have analyzed polarization observations of the subdwarf Bal 09, which is one of a group of hybrid sdB stars that display simultaneously both short- and long-period pulsations. Certain properties previously unknown for subdwarfs have been established for Bal 09, such as variations of the pulsation amplitude of the main oscillation mode, rotational splitting of multiplets, and variations of this splitting. Information about the stellar magnetic field must be considered if we wish to explain these properties. New observational data enabling estimation of the longitudinal magnetic field of Bal 09 have been obtained on the main stellar spectrograph of the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. Studies of the longitudinal component of the magnetic field < B z > were carried out using a regression analysis. This method simultaneously yields estimates of the uncertainty in < B z >. Test measurements of < B z > were carried out using the same method. For the star HD 158974, which has zero total magnetic field, the estimated longitudinal magnetic field is < B z > = -4 ± 5 G. The standard magnetic field for the Ap star α 2CVn was measured to be -363 ± 17 G, in very good agreement with measurements in the literature. The estimated longitudinal magnetic field for Bal 09 is 34 ± 63G—appreciably lower than values established earlier for six subdwarfs, ≈1.5 kG. The results of the regression analysis for both individual spectral subranges and for intervals containing characteristic spectral features did not indicate reliable detections of a magnetic field exceeding the uncertainties in < B z >. The uncertainty in < B z >, which was 60-80 G for the entire spectral range and 140-200 G for selected spectral intervals, leads to an estimated upper limit on the longitudinal magnetic field < B z > for Bal 09. This estimate for < B z > can place observational constraints on theoretical explanations for the amplitude variations of the pulsations, rotational

  17. Soft X-Ray Pulsations in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Hudson, H. S.; Fletcher, L.

    2015-12-01

    The soft X-ray emissions ( hν>1.5 keV) of solar flares mainly come from the bright coronal loops at the highest temperatures normally achieved in the flare process. Their ubiquity has led to their use as a standard measure of flare occurrence and energy, although the overwhelming bulk of the total flare energy goes elsewhere. Recently Dolla et al. ( Astrophys. J. Lett. 749, L16, 2012) noted quasi-periodic pulsations (QPP) in the soft X-ray signature of the X-class flare SOL2011-02-15, as observed by the standard photometric data from the GOES ( Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite) spacecraft. In this article we analyse the suitability of the GOES data for this type of analysis and find them to be generally valuable after September, 2010 (GOES-15). We then extend the result of Dolla et al. to a complete list of X-class flares from Cycle 24 and show that most of them (80 %) display QPPs in the impulsive phase. The pulsations show up cleanly in both channels of the GOES data, making use of time-series of irradiance differences (the digital time derivative on the 2-s sampling). We deploy different techniques to characterise the periodicity of GOES pulsations, considering the red-noise properties of the flare signals, finding a range of characteristic time scales of the QPPs for each event, but usually with no strong signature of a single period dominating in the power spectrum. The QPP may also appear on somewhat longer time scales during the later gradual phase, possibly with a greater tendency towards coherence, but the sampling noise in GOES difference data for high irradiance values (X-class flares) makes these more uncertain. We show that there is minimal phase difference between the differenced GOES energy channels, or between them and the hard X-ray variations on short time scales. During the impulsive phase, the footpoints of the newly forming flare loops may also contribute to the observed soft X-ray variations.

  18. Retinal venous pulsation: Expanding our understanding and use of this enigmatic phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Morgan, William H; Hazelton, Martin L; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2016-11-01

    Retinal vein pulsation was first noted soon after the invention of the ophthalmoscope 170 years ago and was seen to change with cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) variation in the 1920s. The classical explanation for vein pulsation was that the cardiac cycle induced systolic peak in intraocular pressure (IOP) tended to intermittently collapse the retinal vein close to its exit in the central optic disk, causing pulsation to be counter-phase to IOP. Recently, improved ophthalmodynamometry and video recording techniques have allowed us to explore the fundamentals of retinal vein pulsation. This demonstrates that retinal venous collapse is in phase with both IOP and CSFP diastole, indicating the dependence upon CSFP pulse. We describe in some detail the mathematical and physical models of Starling resistors and how their results can be applied to understand the physiology of retinal vein pulsation. We discuss various techniques for measuring retinal venous pulsation, including a novel modified photo-plethysmographic technique developed in our laboratory. With these techniques, non-invasive measurement of CSFP is beginning to look feasible. Venous pulsation properties also have significant prognostic value in predicting long-term outcomes for both glaucoma and central retinal vein occlusion, as well as utility in other retinal vasculopathies and orbital disease. We demonstrate the potential use of modified photo-plethysmographic images in assessing these various disorders. A revised understanding of retinal vein pulse wave transmission along with improved measurement techniques may generate useful clinical tools for assessing these disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Coupled pulsating and cellular structure in the propagation of globally planar detonations in free space

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Wenhu; Gao, Yang; Wang, Cheng; Law, Chung K.

    2015-10-15

    The globally planar detonation in free space is numerically simulated, with particular interest to understand and quantify the emergence and evolution of the one-dimensional pulsating instability and the two-dimensional cellular structure which is inherently also affected by pulsating instability. It is found that the pulsation includes three stages: rapid decay of the overdrive, approach to the Chapman-Jouguet state and emergence of weak pulsations, and the formation of strong pulsations; while evolution of the cellular structure also exhibits distinct behavior at these three stages: no cell formation, formation of small-scale, irregular cells, and formation of regular cells of a larger scale. Furthermore, the average shock pressure in the detonation front consists of fine-scale oscillations reflecting the collision dynamics of the triple-shock structure and large-scale oscillations affected by the global pulsation. The common stages of evolution between the cellular structure and the pulsating behavior, as well as the existence of shock-front pressure oscillation, suggest highly correlated mechanisms between them. Detonations with period doubling, period quadrupling, and chaotic amplitudes were also observed and studied for progressively increasing activation energies.

  20. Dependence of the spectrum of Pc 3-4 pulsations on the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, K.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Terasawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    Dependence of the power spectrum of Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations observed at the ATS 6 geosynchronous satellite on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has been studied. Pulsation events that were observed near noon and exhibited harmonic structure are chosen for analysis. Further selected are pulsation events with identical fundamental frequency to study dependence of the power of pulsations at different harmonic bands on the IMF. A weak negative correlation is observed between the IMF cone angle theta-XB and the power of pulsations in the frequency range 20-70 mHz. Also, a positive correlation between the intensity of the IMF B(IMF) and the power of pulsations at 50-70 mHz is found. This B(IMF) control is present at all ranges of the cone angle. A comparison is conducted of this observation with the frequency of bow shock associated upstream waves predicted from a model of wave generation by a cyclotron resonance of ions reflected at the bow shock. The predicted frequency depends on the IMF as B(IMF) (cos theta-XB)-squared. Although this relation gives a proportionality between the frequency and B(IMF) qualitatively consistent with the observation, it does not explain the most obvious IMF control of the spectrum of the pulsations.