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Sample records for pulse electron spin

  1. Quantum Computing Using Pulse-Based Electron-Nuclear Double Resonance (endor):. Molecular Spin-Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Shigeki; Rahimi, Robabeh D.; Nishida, Shinsuke; Ise, Tomoaki; Shimoi, Daisuke; Toyota, Kazuo; Morita, Yasushi; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Carl, Parick; Höfner, Peter; Takui, Takeji

    2009-06-01

    Electrons with the spin quantum number 1/2, as physical qubits, have naturally been anticipated for implementing quantum computing and information processing (QC/QIP). Recently, electron spin-qubit systems in organic molecular frames have emerged as a hybrid spin-qubit system along with a nuclear spin-1/2 qubit. Among promising candidates for QC/QIP from the materials science side, the reasons for why electron spin-qubits such as molecular spin systems, i.e., unpaired electron spins in molecular frames, have potentialities for serving for QC/QIP will be given in the lecture (Chapter), emphasizing what their advantages or disadvantages are entertained and what technical and intrinsic issues should be dealt with for the implementation of molecular-spin quantum computers in terms of currently available spin manipulation technology such as pulse-based electron-nuclear double resonance (pulsed or pulse ENDOR) devoted to QC/QIP. Firstly, a general introduction and introductory remarks to pulsed ENDOR spectroscopy as electron-nuclear spin manipulation technology is given. Super dense coding (SDC) experiments by the use of pulsed ENDOR are also introduced to understand differentiating QC ENDOR from QC NMR based on modern nuclear spin technology. Direct observation of the spinor inherent in an electron spin, detected for the first time, will be shown in connection with the entanglement of an electron-nuclear hybrid system. Novel microwave spin manipulation technology enabling us to deal with genuine electron-electron spin-qubit systems in the molecular frame will be introduced, illustrating, from the synthetic strategy of matter spin-qubits, a key-role of the molecular design of g-tensor/hyperfine-(A-)tensor molecular engineering for QC/QIP. Finally, important technological achievements of recently-emerging CD ELDOR (Coherent-Dual ELectron-electron DOuble Resonance) spin technology enabling us to manipulate electron spin-qubits are described.

  2. Quantum computers based on electron spins controlled by ultrafast off-resonant single optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susan M; Fu, Kai-Mei C; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2007-07-27

    We describe a fast quantum computer based on optically controlled electron spins in charged quantum dots that are coupled to microcavities. This scheme uses broadband optical pulses to rotate electron spins and provide the clock signal to the system. Nonlocal two-qubit gates are performed by phase shifts induced by electron spins on laser pulses propagating along a shared waveguide. Numerical simulations of this scheme demonstrate high-fidelity single-qubit and two-qubit gates with operation times comparable to the inverse Zeeman frequency.

  3. Spin Flips versus Spin Transport in Nonthermal Electrons Excited by Ultrashort Optical Pulses in Transition Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokeen, V.; Sanchez Piaia, M.; Bigot, J.-Y.; Müller, T.; Elliott, P.; Dewhurst, J. K.; Sharma, S.; Gross, E. K. U.

    2017-09-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental investigation is performed to understand the underlying physics of laser-induced demagnetization in Ni and Co films with varying thicknesses excited by 10 fs optical pulses. Experimentally, the dynamics of spins is studied by determining the time-dependent amplitude of the Voigt vector, retrieved from a full set of magnetic and nonmagnetic quantities performed on both sides of films, with absolute time reference. Theoretically, ab initio calculations are performed using time-dependent density functional theory. Overall, we demonstrate that spin-orbit induced spin flips are the most significant contributors with superdiffusive spin transport, which assumes only that the transport of majority spins without spin flips induced by scattering does not apply in Ni. In Co it plays a significant role during the first ˜20 fs only. Our study highlights the material dependent nature of the demagnetization during the process of thermalization of nonequilibrium spins.

  4. A new six-pulse two-dimensional electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, R.; Zhong, Y. C.; Noble, C. J.; Pilbrow, J. R.; Hutton, D. R.

    1995-05-01

    A new six-pulse two-dimensional electron spin echo envelope modulation (2D ESEEM) method is introduced. It is based on augmenting the five-pulse sequence proposed by Gemperle, Schweiger and Ernst with an additional π pulse. It is shown that the intensity ratio of cross peaks to diagonal peaks is significantly enhanced compared with the four-pulse 2D ESEEM method of Höfer, Grupp, Nebenführ and Mehring. A single crystal of KCl doped with Fe(CN) 63- is used to demonstrate this new 2D ESEEM spectroscopy together with an effective phase cycling scheme.

  5. Pulsed Electron Double Resonance in Structural Studies of Spin-Labeled Nucleic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Fedorova, O. S.; Tsvetkov, Yu. D.

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with the application of the pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) method to studies of spin-labeled DNA and RNA with complicated spatial structures, such as tetramers, aptamers, riboswitches, and three- and four-way junctions. The use of this method for studying DNA damage sites is also described. PMID:23556128

  6. Pulse Electron Spin Resonance Studies of H and D Atoms in Impurity-Helium Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, E. P.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2008-02-01

    We have performed measurements of the two-pulse ESEEM (electron spin echo envelope modulation) spectra of H and D atoms within impurity-helium solids. The local environments of the atoms were determined from the modulation of the ESEEM signal by neighboring D2 and HD molecules. We have measured changes in the atom environments due to coalescence of the nanoclusters within the impurity-helium solids and due to the tunneling exchange chemical reaction D+HD→H+D2.

  7. Gradient ascent pulse engineering approach to CNOT gates in donor electron spin quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, D.-B.; Goan, H.-S.

    2008-11-07

    In this paper, we demonstrate how gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) optimal control methods can be implemented on donor electron spin qubits in semiconductors with an architecture complementary to the original Kane's proposal. We focus on the high fidelity controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate and we explicitly find the digitized control sequences for a controlled-NOT gate by optimizing its fidelity using the effective, reduced donor electron spin Hamiltonian with external controls over the hyperfine A and exchange J interactions. We then simulate the CNOT-gate sequence with the full spin Hamiltonian and find that it has an error of 10{sup -6} that is below the error threshold of 10{sup -4} required for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Also the CNOT gate operation time of 100 ns is 3 times faster than 297 ns of the proposed global control scheme.

  8. Phospholipid bilayer relaxation dynamics as revealed by the pulsed electron-electron double resonance of spin labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syryamina, V. N.; Dzuba, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the form of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) was applied to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayers containing lipids that were spin-labeled at different carbon positions along the lipid acyl chain. Pulsed ELDOR detects motionally induced spin flips of nitrogen nuclei in the nitroxide spin labels, which manifests itself as magnetization transfer (MT) in the nitroxide EPR spectrum. The MT effect was observed over a wide temperature range (100-225 K) on a microsecond time scale. In line with a previous study on molecular glasses [N. P. Isaev and S. A. Dzuba, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094508 (2011), 10.1063/1.3633241], the motions that induce MT effect were suggested to have the same nature as those in dielectric secondary (β) Johari-Goldstein fast relaxation. The results were compared with literature dielectric relaxation data for POPC bilayers, revealing some common features. Molecular motions resulting in MT are faster for deeper spin labels in the membrane interior. The addition of cholesterol to the bilayer suppresses the lipid motions near the steroid nucleus and accelerates the lipid motions beyond the steroid nucleus, in the bilayer interior. This finding was attributed to the lipid acyl chains being more ordered near the steroid nucleus and less ordered in the bilayer interior. The motions are absent in dry lipids, indicating that the motions are determined by intermolecular interactions in the bilayer.

  9. Phospholipid bilayer relaxation dynamics as revealed by the pulsed electron-electron double resonance of spin labels.

    PubMed

    Syryamina, V N; Dzuba, S A

    2012-10-14

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in the form of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) was applied to 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) phospholipid bilayers containing lipids that were spin-labeled at different carbon positions along the lipid acyl chain. Pulsed ELDOR detects motionally induced spin flips of nitrogen nuclei in the nitroxide spin labels, which manifests itself as magnetization transfer (MT) in the nitroxide EPR spectrum. The MT effect was observed over a wide temperature range (100-225 K) on a microsecond time scale. In line with a previous study on molecular glasses [N. P. Isaev and S. A. Dzuba, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 094508 (2011)], the motions that induce MT effect were suggested to have the same nature as those in dielectric secondary (β) Johari-Goldstein fast relaxation. The results were compared with literature dielectric relaxation data for POPC bilayers, revealing some common features. Molecular motions resulting in MT are faster for deeper spin labels in the membrane interior. The addition of cholesterol to the bilayer suppresses the lipid motions near the steroid nucleus and accelerates the lipid motions beyond the steroid nucleus, in the bilayer interior. This finding was attributed to the lipid acyl chains being more ordered near the steroid nucleus and less ordered in the bilayer interior. The motions are absent in dry lipids, indicating that the motions are determined by intermolecular interactions in the bilayer.

  10. Membrane-Sugar Interactions Probed by Pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of Spin Labels.

    PubMed

    Konov, Konstantin B; Leonov, Dmitry V; Isaev, Nikolay P; Fedotov, Kirill Yu; Voronkova, Violeta K; Dzuba, Sergei A

    2015-08-13

    Sugars can stabilize biological systems under extreme desiccation and freezing conditions. Hypothetical molecular mechanisms suggest that the stabilization effect may be determined either by specific interactions of sugars with biological molecules or by the influence of sugars on the solvating shell of the biomolecule. To explore membrane-sugar interactions, we applied electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy, a pulsed version of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), to phospholipid bilayers with spin-labeled lipids added and solvated by aqueous deuterated sucrose and trehalose solutions. The phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC). The spin-labeled lipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho(TEMPO)choline (T-PCSL), with spin-label TEMPO at the lipid polar headgroup. The deuterium ESEEM amplitude was calibrated using known concentrations of glassy deuterated sugar solvents. The data obtained indicated that the sugar concentration near the membrane surface obeyed a simple Langmuir model of monolayer adsorption, which assumes direct sugar-molecule bonding to the bilayer surface.

  11. Spin Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    is now well established in scientific and engineering communities that Moore’s Law, having been an excellent predictor of integrated circuit density...for semiconductor electronics, spin-electronic devices have the potential to achieve much higher integration densities. Conventional electronics is...devices would include non-volatility permitting data retention in non-powered conditions, increased integration densities, higher data processing

  12. Optical Pulse Control of Electron and Nuclear Spins in Quantum Dots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    2 T. Kennedy,1 A. Bracker,1 and T. Reinecke1 1Electronics Science and Technology Division 2George Mason University Introduction: Quantum information...decryption of codes with long encryption keys. Electron spins in quantum dots (QDs) are being widely investigated as qubits for storage and processing...field quantum dot la se r pu ls es z x y nuclear spins electron spin + nuclear spin field Sx El lip tic ity ( ra d) Delay time (ps) tim e Sy

  13. Reaction between ortho-semiquinones and oxygen: pulse radiolysis, electron spin resonance, and oxygen uptake studies.

    PubMed

    Kalyanaraman, B; Korytowski, W; Pilas, B; Sarna, T; Land, E J; Truscott, T G

    1988-10-01

    The cytotoxicity to tumor cells or cardiotoxic side effects of certain para-quinone antitumor drugs have been attributed to the corresponding semiquinones and derived superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. It has also been suggested that ortho-semiquinones, including those that arise during melanogenesis, produced via either the one-electron oxidation of catechol(amine)s or the one-electron reduction of the corresponding quinones, react with molecular oxygen to give superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore it has been shown that catechol(amine)s which form noncyclizable quinones are more cytotoxic toward melanogenic cells than those forming cyclizable quinones. In order to provide further kinetic information on the interaction of oxygen with ortho-semiquinones, using pulse radiolysis we directly measured the rates of reaction of various ortho-semiquinones with molecular oxygen. The semiquinones of the corresponding catechol(amine)s were also produced by the horseradish peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide system, and detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using the spin stabilization method. Oxygen consumption was monitored using a standard Clark oxygen electrode. Our data indicate that while ortho-semiquinones from catechol(amine)s and catechol estrogens do not react with molecular oxygen at a rate equal to or greater than k less than or equal to 10(5) M-1 s-1, semiquinones from hydroxy-substituted catechol(amine)s react with dioxygen with rates in the range k = 10(6)-10(7) M-1 s-1.

  14. Fourier-transform electron spin resonance with bandwidth-compensated chirp pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2014-09-01

    Electron spin echo experiments using chirp pulses at X-band around 9 GHz have been performed with a home-built spectrometer based on an arbitrary waveform generator. Primary echoes without phase dispersion were obtained by employing the Böhlen-Bodenhausen scheme with the refocusing pulse being half as long as the coherence-generating pulse. To account for physical bandwidth limitation by the resonator, the instantaneous sweep rate of the chirps was adapted to the spectrometer’s frequency response function, which can be recorded from the sample under study within a few minutes. Such bandwidth-compensated chirp pulses are experimentally shown to achieve an almost uniform excitation bandwidth that exceeds the resonator bandwidth. This uniform excitation allows for computing frequency-domain spectra by Fourier-transformation (FT) of the echo signal. For a nitroxide in dilute solid solution with a spectral width of 200 MHz, the FT EPR spectrum agrees remarkably well with a field-swept echo-detected EPR spectrum. The overall spectral perturbation for operation far beyond the resonator bandwidth was characterized by acquiring a 700 MHz wide spectral range of a copper (II) EPR spectrum with nearly uniform amplitude with excitation and refocusing pulses of 200 and 100 ns, respectively. Furthermore, peculiarities were observed in solid-state FT EPR spectra of disordered systems. To understand these peculiarities two-dimensional data sets were acquired that correlate the FT EPR spectrum to inversion recovery or nuclear modulation. The echo envelope modulation experiments reveal echo decay rates increased by enhanced instantaneous diffusion and passage-specific effects in the nuclear modulations. The latter effect can be suppressed by nuclear modulation averaging. Apparent longitudinal relaxation times for a given subset of orientations are influenced by nuclear modulation effects. Proper extraction of orientation-dependent relaxation times thus requires an experimental

  15. Fourier-transform electron spin resonance with bandwidth-compensated chirp pulses.

    PubMed

    Doll, Andrin; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2014-09-01

    Electron spin echo experiments using chirp pulses at X-band around 9GHz have been performed with a home-built spectrometer based on an arbitrary waveform generator. Primary echoes without phase dispersion were obtained by employing the Böhlen-Bodenhausen scheme with the refocusing pulse being half as long as the coherence-generating pulse. To account for physical bandwidth limitation by the resonator, the instantaneous sweep rate of the chirps was adapted to the spectrometer's frequency response function, which can be recorded from the sample under study within a few minutes. Such bandwidth-compensated chirp pulses are experimentally shown to achieve an almost uniform excitation bandwidth that exceeds the resonator bandwidth. This uniform excitation allows for computing frequency-domain spectra by Fourier-transformation (FT) of the echo signal. For a nitroxide in dilute solid solution with a spectral width of 200MHz, the FT EPR spectrum agrees remarkably well with a field-swept echo-detected EPR spectrum. The overall spectral perturbation for operation far beyond the resonator bandwidth was characterized by acquiring a 700MHz wide spectral range of a copper (II) EPR spectrum with nearly uniform amplitude with excitation and refocusing pulses of 200 and 100ns, respectively. Furthermore, peculiarities were observed in solid-state FT EPR spectra of disordered systems. To understand these peculiarities two-dimensional data sets were acquired that correlate the FT EPR spectrum to inversion recovery or nuclear modulation. The echo envelope modulation experiments reveal echo decay rates increased by enhanced instantaneous diffusion and passage-specific effects in the nuclear modulations. The latter effect can be suppressed by nuclear modulation averaging. Apparent longitudinal relaxation times for a given subset of orientations are influenced by nuclear modulation effects. Proper extraction of orientation-dependent relaxation times thus requires an experimental setup

  16. A New Wavelet Denoising Method for Experimental Time-Domain Signals: Pulsed Dipolar Electron Spin Resonance.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Madhur; Georgieva, Elka R; Freed, Jack H

    2017-03-30

    We adapt a new wavelet-transform-based method of denoising experimental signals to pulse-dipolar electron-spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS). We show that signal averaging times of the time-domain signals can be reduced by as much as 2 orders of magnitude, while retaining the fidelity of the underlying signals, in comparison with noiseless reference signals. We have achieved excellent signal recovery when the initial noisy signal has an SNR ≳ 3. This approach is robust and is expected to be applicable to other time-domain spectroscopies. In PDS, these time-domain signals representing the dipolar interaction between two electron spin labels are converted into their distance distribution functions P(r), usually by regularization methods such as Tikhonov regularization. The significant improvements achieved by using denoised signals for this regularization are described. We show that they yield P(r)'s with more accurate detail and yield clearer separations of respective distances, which is especially important when the P(r)'s are complex. Also, longer distance P(r)'s, requiring longer dipolar evolution times, become accessible after denoising. In comparison to standard wavelet denoising approaches, it is clearly shown that the new method (WavPDS) is superior.

  17. Theory of the Overhauser effect in the pulsed mode of EPR pumping: exploiting the advantages of coherent electron spin motion.

    PubMed

    Nasibulov, Egor A; Ivanov, Konstantin L; Yurkovskaya, Alexandra V; Vieth, Hans-Martin

    2012-05-14

    A theoretical approach is proposed to describe Overhauser-type Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) for pulsed EPR pumping by application of a train of short pulses with a duration on the nanosecond time scale. We obtained an elegant general expression for the NMR enhancement provided by the DNP effect. The expression for the enhancement is similar to that known for cw-pumping except for the saturation factor, which is re-defined as the deviation of the electron spin magnetization from its equilibrium value averaged over the cycle of the pulse sequence. It is shown that one can achieve the maximal theoretically allowed NMR enhancement for pulsed pumping even when the duty cycle of pumping is low. This becomes possible because coherent motion of the electron spins in the B(1)-field is exploited, a key feature of the pulsed DNP experiment also enabling optimization of the achievable NMR enhancement. The dependence of the effect on the duty cycle, pulse duration and electron spin relaxation times has been studied in detail. Once the lines in the EPR spectrum are inhomogeneously broadened, higher DNP effects are expected in the pulsed pumping mode than in the cw-mode for the same total power of microwave irradiation. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental data obtained for the pumping frequencies of 300 MHz and 1.4 GHz. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2012

  18. Note: High sensitivity pulsed electron spin resonance spectroscopy with induction detection.

    PubMed

    Twig, Ygal; Dikarov, Ekaterina; Hutchison, Wayne D; Blank, Aharon

    2011-07-01

    Commercial electron spin resonance spectroscopy and imaging systems make use of the so-called "induction" or "Faraday" detection, which is based on a radio frequency coil or a microwave resonator. The sensitivity of induction detection does not exceed ~3 × 10(8) spins/√Hz. Here we show that through the use of a new type of surface loop-gap microresonators (inner size of 20 μm), operating at cryogenic temperatures at a field of 0.5 T, one can improve upon this sensitivity barrier by more than 2 orders of magnitude and reach spin sensitivities of ~1.5 × 10(6) spins/√Hz or ~2.5 × 10(4) spins for 1 h.

  19. Effects of finite pulse width on two-dimensional Fourier transform electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zhichun; Crepeau, Richard H.; Freed, Jack H.

    2005-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform ESR techniques, such as 2D-ELDOR, have considerably improved the resolution of ESR in studies of molecular dynamics in complex fluids such as liquid crystals and membrane vesicles and in spin labeled polymers and peptides. A well-developed theory based on the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) has been successfully employed to analyze these experiments. However, one fundamental assumption has been utilized to simplify the complex analysis, viz. the pulses have been treated as ideal non-selective ones, which therefore provide uniform irradiation of the whole spectrum. In actual experiments, the pulses are of finite width causing deviations from the theoretical predictions, a problem that is exacerbated by experiments performed at higher frequencies. In the present paper we provide a method to deal with the full SLE including the explicit role of the molecular dynamics, the spin Hamiltonian and the radiation field during the pulse. The computations are rendered more manageable by utilizing the Trotter formula, which is adapted to handle this SLE in what we call a "Split Super-Operator" method. Examples are given for different motional regimes, which show how 2D-ELDOR spectra are affected by the finite pulse widths. The theory shows good agreement with 2D-ELDOR experiments performed as a function of pulse width.

  20. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2012-08-24

    We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at ~1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  1. Spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in retinal rod outer segment membranes studied by spin-labeling and pulsed electron double resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Hara, Hideyuki; Tokunaga, Fumio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Use of spin labeling and PELDOR to measure inter-rhodopsin distance in ROS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strong decay of PELDOR signal indicated a high density (mM range) of rhodopsin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decay was modeled by rhodopsin monomers dispersed in a planar membrane. -- Abstract: We have determined the spatial arrangement of rhodopsin in the retinal rod outer segment (ROS) membrane by measuring the distances between rhodopsin molecules in which native cysteines were spin-labeled at {approx}1.0 mol/mol rhodopsin. The echo modulation decay of pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR) from spin-labeled ROS curved slightly with strong background decay. This indicated that the rhodopsin was densely packed in the retina and that the rhodopsin molecules were not aligned well. The curve was simulated by a model in which rhodopsin is distributed randomly as monomers in a planar membrane.

  2. Photoexcitation of electron wave packets in quantum spin Hall edge states: Effects of chiral anomaly from a localized electric pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolcini, Fabrizio; Iotti, Rita Claudia; Montorsi, Arianna; Rossi, Fausto

    2016-10-01

    We show that, when a spatially localized electric pulse is applied at the edge of a quantum spin Hall system, electron wave packets of the helical states can be photoexcited by purely intrabranch electrical transitions, without invoking the bulk states or the magnetic Zeeman coupling. In particular, as long as the electric pulse remains applied, the photoexcited densities lose their character of right and left movers, whereas after the ending of the pulse they propagate in opposite directions without dispersion, i.e., maintaining their space profile unaltered. Notably we find that, while the momentum distribution of the photoexcited wave packets depends on the temperature T and the chemical potential μ of the initial equilibrium state and displays a nonlinear behavior on the amplitude of the applied pulse, in the mesoscopic regime the space profile of the wave packets is independent of T and μ . Instead, it depends purely on the applied electric pulse, in a linear manner, as a signature of the chiral anomaly characterizing massless Dirac electrons. We also discuss how the photoexcited wave packets can be tailored with the electric pulse parameters, for both low and finite frequencies.

  3. Quantum control of electron spins in the two-dimensional electron gas of a CdTe quantum well with a pair of Raman-resonant phase-locked laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Timothy M.; Phelps, Carey; Wang, Hailin

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrated optical spin control of a two-dimensional electron gas in a modulation-doped CdTe quantum well by driving a spin-flip Raman transition with a pair of phase-locked laser pulses. In contrast to single-pulse optical spin control, which features a fixed spin-rotation axis, manipulation of the initial relative phase of the pulse pair enables us to control the axis of the optical spin rotation. We show that the Raman pulse pair acts like an effective microwave field, mapping the relative optical phase onto the phase of the electron spin polarization and making possible ultrafast, all-optical, and full quantum control of the electron spins.

  4. Spin polarisation of ultrashort spin current pulses injected in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiato, M.

    2017-05-01

    Ultrashort spin current pulses have great potential to become carriers of information in future ultrafast spintronics. They present the outstanding property of an extremely compressed time profile, which can allow for the building up of spintronics operating at the unprecedented THz frequencies. The ultrashort spin pulses, however, still lack other desirable features. For instance the spatial profile resembles more that of a spill rather than that of a spatially compressed pulse. Moreover the ultrashort spin current pulses can travel only across small distances in metals. The injection of the ultrashort spin pulses from the metallic ferromagnet, where they have to be generated, into a semiconductor is proposed as the first step to overcome both issues by allowing the excited electrons to propagate in a medium with few scatterings. However designing efficient interfaces for the injection is challenging due to practical constraints like chemical and structural stability. This work therefore expands the study of injection to a broader range of interfaces, and analyses how different metallic layers and semiconductors influence the amplitude, the spin polarisation and duration of the ultrashort pulses. This provides guidelines for the selection of efficient interfaces and, equally importantly, experimentally testable trends.

  5. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  6. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  7. Broadband excitation by chirped pulses: application to single electron spins in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, I.; Shim, J. H.; Zhang, J.; Suter, D.; Taniguchi, T.; Teraji, T.; Abe, H.; Onoda, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Ohshima, T.; Isoya, J.; Jelezko, F.

    2013-03-01

    Pulsed excitation of broad spectra requires very high field strengths if monochromatic pulses are used. If the corresponding high power is not available or not desirable, the pulses can be replaced by suitable low-power pulses that distribute the power over a wider bandwidth. As a simple case, we use microwave pulses with a linear frequency chirp. We use these pulses to excite spectra of single nitrogen-vacancy centres in a Ramsey experiment. Compared to the conventional Ramsey experiment, our approach increases the bandwidth by at least an order of magnitude. Compared to the conventional continuous wave-ODMR experiment, the chirped Ramsey experiment does not suffer from power broadening and increases the resolution by at least an order of magnitude. As an additional benefit, the chirped Ramsey spectrum contains not only ‘allowed’ single quantum transitions, but also ‘forbidden’ zero- and double quantum transitions, which can be distinguished from the single quantum transitions by phase-shifting the readout pulse with respect to the excitation pulse or by variation of the external magnetic field strength.

  8. Electron spin relaxation and K39 pulsed ENDOR studies on Cr5+ -doped K3NbO8 at 9.7 and 240 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellutla, S.; Morley, G. W.; van Tol, J.; Pati, M.; Dalal, N. S.

    2008-08-01

    Cr5+ -doped K3NbO8 , considered to be useful as an electron spin qubit, has been investigated by pulsed X band (˜9.7GHz) and 240 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance and electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR). Comparison of the low temperature electronic spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 at 9.7 and 240 GHz shows that it is 250 times faster at 240 GHz than at X band. On the other hand, spin-spin relaxation rate 1/T2 appears largely frequency independent and is very likely related to the superhyperfine (SHF) coupling of the Cr5+ electron with the surrounding potassium and niobium nuclei. This coupling was investigated by hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy at 9.7 GHz and pulsed Mims ENDOR at 240 GHz. The use of high frequency and field enabled us to unambiguously measure the hyperfine and quadrupole couplings of the K39 in spite of its small magnetic moment. We find that the largest K39 SHF coupling is positive, with 0.522 and 0.20 MHz as its isotropic and dipolar parts, respectively. N93b ENDOR was dominantly due to its quadrupolar interaction with a coupling of about 0.8 MHz and a SHF coupling of about 0.08 MHz. The significance of these data to spin qubit studies is pointed out.

  9. Electron spin dynamics of Ce3 + ions in YAG crystals studied by pulse-EPR and pump-probe Faraday rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azamat, D. V.; Belykh, V. V.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Fobbe, F.; Feng, D. H.; Evers, E.; Jastrabik, L.; Dejneka, A.; Bayer, M.

    2017-08-01

    The spin relaxation dynamics of Ce3 + ions in heavily cerium-doped YAG crystals is studied using pulse-electron paramagnetic resonance and time-resolved pump-probe Faraday rotation. Both techniques address the 4 f ground state, while pump-probe Faraday rotation also provides access to the excited 5 d state. We measure a millisecond spin-lattice relaxation time T1, a microsecond spin coherence time T2, and a ˜10 ns inhomogeneous spin dephasing time T2* for the Ce3 + ground state at low temperatures. The spin-lattice relaxation of Ce3 + ions is due to modified Raman processes involving the optical phonon mode at ˜125 cm-1 . The relaxation at higher temperature goes through a first excited level of the 5/2 2F term at about ℏ ω ≈228 cm-1 . Effects provided by the hyperfine interaction of the Ce3 + with the 27Al nuclei are observed.

  10. Pulsed electron spin nutation spectroscopy for weakly exchange-coupled multi-spin molecular systems with nuclear hyperfine couplings: a general approach to bi- and triradicals and determination of their spin dipolar and exchange interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayabe, Kazuki; Sato, Kazunobu; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Nishida, Shinsuke; Sugisaki, Kenji; Ise, Tomoaki; Morita, Yasushi; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Kitagawa, Masahiro; Suzuki, Shuichi; Okada, Keiji; Takui, Takeji

    2013-10-01

    Weakly exchange-coupled biradicals have attracted much attention in terms of their dynamic nuclear polarisation application in NMR spectroscopy for biological systems or the use of synthetic electron-spin qubits in quantum information processing/quantum-computing technology. Analogues multi-partite molecular systems are important in entering a new phase of the relevant fields. Many stable organic biradicals known so far have nitrogen nuclei at their electron spin sites, where singly occupied molecular orbitals are dominating and large hyperfine couplings occur. A salient feature of such weakly exchange-coupled molecular systems in terms of electronic spin structures is underlain by small zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters comparable with nuclear hyperfine and/or exchange interactions. Pulse-based electron spin nutation (ESN) spectroscopy of weakly exchange-coupled biradicals, applicable to oriented or non-oriented media, has proven to be a useful and facile approach to the determination of ZFS parameters, which reflect relatively short distances between unpaired electron spins. In the present study, we first treat two-dimensional single-crystal ESN spectroscopy (Q-band) of a 15N-labelled weakly exchange-coupled biradical, showing the nuclear hyperfine effects on the ESN phenomena from both the experimental and theoretical side. ESN spectroscopy is transition moment spectroscopy, in which the nutation frequency as a function of the microwave irradiation strength ω1 (angular frequency) for any cases of weakly exchange-coupled systems can be treated. The results provide a testing ground for the simplified but general approach to the ESN analysis. In this study, we have invoked single-crystal electron-electron double resonance measurements on a typical biradical well incorporated in a diamagnetic host lattice and checked the accuracy of our ESN analysis for the spin dipolar tensor and exchange interaction. Next, we extend the general approach to analogues multi

  11. PREFACE: Spin Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieny, B.; Sousa, R.; Prejbeanu, L.

    2007-04-01

    Conventional electronics has in the past ignored the spin on the electron, however things began to change in 1988 with the discovery of giant magnetoresistance in metallic thin film stacks which led to the development of a new research area, so called spin-electronics. In the last 10 years, spin-electronics has achieved a number of breakthroughs from the point of view of both basic science and application. Materials research has led to several major discoveries: very large tunnel magnetoresistance effects in tunnel junctions with crystalline barriers due to a new spin-filtering mechanism associated with the spin-dependent symmetry of the electron wave functions new magnetic tunnelling barriers leading to spin-dependent tunnelling barrier heights and acting as spin-filters magnetic semiconductors with increasingly high ordering temperature. New phenomena have been predicted and observed: the possibility of acting on the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure with a spin-polarized current. This effect, due to a transfer of angular momentum between the spin polarized conduction electrons and the local magnetization, can be viewed as the reciprocal of giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. It can be used to switch the magnetization of a magnetic nanostructure or to generate steady magnetic excitations in the system. the possibility of generating and manipulating spin current without charge current by creating non-equilibrium local accumulation of spin up or spin down electrons. The range of applications of spin electronics materials and phenomena is expanding: the first devices based on giant magnetoresistance were the magnetoresistive read-heads for computer disk drives. These heads, introduced in 1998 with current-in plane spin-valves, have evolved towards low resistance tunnel magnetoresistice heads in 2005. Besides magnetic recording technology, these very sensitive magnetoresistive sensors are finding applications in other areas, in particular in biology. magnetic

  12. Electrical detection of coherent nuclear spin oscillations in phosphorus-doped silicon using pulsed ENDOR.

    PubMed

    Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Huebl, Hans; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S

    2011-05-06

    We demonstrate the electrical detection of pulsed X-band electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) in phosphorus-doped silicon at 5 K. A pulse sequence analogous to Davies ENDOR in conventional electron spin resonance is used to measure the nuclear spin transition frequencies of the (31)P nuclear spins, where the (31)P electron spins are detected electrically via spin-dependent transitions through Si/SiO(2) interface states, thus not relying on a polarization of the electron spin system. In addition, the electrical detection of coherent nuclear spin oscillations is shown, demonstrating the feasibility to electrically read out the spin states of possible nuclear spin qubits.

  13. Spin diffusion induced by pulsed-laser heating and the role of spin heat accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimling, Johannes; Cahill, David G.

    2017-01-01

    We present a model for describing spin diffusion in normal-metal/ferromagnetic-metal heterostructures induced by pulsed-laser heating. The model is based on the assumptions that electronic heat currents give rise to the spin-dependent Seebeck effect and that ultrafast demagnetization generates spin accumulation with a rate proportional to the demagnetization rate measured. Spin-diffusion currents are then driven by gradients in spin accumulation and electron temperature. The model considers spin-dependent thermal conductivity and electron-phonon coupling, which can give rise to different effective temperatures for majority and minority spins, known as spin heat accumulation. We find that spin heat accumulation can significantly enhance the spin-dependent Seebeck effect.

  14. Femtosecond Spin Current Pulses Generated by the Nonthermal Spin-Dependent Seebeck Effect and Interacting with Ferromagnets in Spin Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhin, Alexandr; Razdolski, Ilya; Ilin, Nikita; Meyburg, Jan P.; Diesing, Detlef; Roddatis, Vladimir; Rungger, Ivan; Stamenova, Maria; Sanvito, Stefano; Bovensiepen, Uwe; Melnikov, Alexey

    2017-07-01

    Using the sensitivity of optical second harmonic generation to currents, we demonstrate the generation of 250-fs long spin current pulses in Fe /Au /Fe /MgO (001 ) spin valves. The temporal profile of these pulses indicates ballistic transport of hot electrons across a sub-100 nm Au layer. The pulse duration is primarily determined by the thermalization time of laser-excited hot carriers in Fe. Considering the calculated spin-dependent Fe /Au interface transmittance we conclude that a nonthermal spin-dependent Seebeck effect is responsible for the generation of ultrashort spin current pulses. The demonstrated rotation of spin polarization of hot electrons upon interaction with noncollinear magnetization at Au /Fe interfaces holds high potential for future spintronic devices.

  15. Femtosecond Spin Current Pulses Generated by the Nonthermal Spin-Dependent Seebeck Effect and Interacting with Ferromagnets in Spin Valves.

    PubMed

    Alekhin, Alexandr; Razdolski, Ilya; Ilin, Nikita; Meyburg, Jan P; Diesing, Detlef; Roddatis, Vladimir; Rungger, Ivan; Stamenova, Maria; Sanvito, Stefano; Bovensiepen, Uwe; Melnikov, Alexey

    2017-07-07

    Using the sensitivity of optical second harmonic generation to currents, we demonstrate the generation of 250-fs long spin current pulses in Fe/Au/Fe/MgO(001) spin valves. The temporal profile of these pulses indicates ballistic transport of hot electrons across a sub-100 nm Au layer. The pulse duration is primarily determined by the thermalization time of laser-excited hot carriers in Fe. Considering the calculated spin-dependent Fe/Au interface transmittance we conclude that a nonthermal spin-dependent Seebeck effect is responsible for the generation of ultrashort spin current pulses. The demonstrated rotation of spin polarization of hot electrons upon interaction with noncollinear magnetization at Au/Fe interfaces holds high potential for future spintronic devices.

  16. Electron spin susceptibility of superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Levitov, L.S.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Eliashberg, G.M.

    1985-03-10

    The effect of spin polarization due to the Meissner currents on the electron spin susceptibility of a superconductor is studied. This effect accounts for a susceptibility considerably stronger than that of a normal metal. The spin distribution is discussed.

  17. Intersubunit distances in full-length, dimeric, bacterial phytochrome Agp1, as measured by pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) between different spin label positions, remain unchanged upon photoconversion.

    PubMed

    Kacprzak, Sylwia; Njimona, Ibrahim; Renz, Anja; Feng, Juan; Reijerse, Edward; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Krauss, Norbert; Scheerer, Patrick; Nagano, Soshichiro; Lamparter, Tilman; Weber, Stefan

    2017-05-05

    Bacterial phytochromes are dimeric light-regulated histidine kinases that convert red light into signaling events. Light absorption by the N-terminal photosensory core module (PCM) causes the proteins to switch between two spectrally distinct forms, Pr and Pfr, thus resulting in a conformational change that modulates the C-terminal histidine kinase region. To provide further insights into structural details of photoactivation, we investigated the full-length Agp1 bacteriophytochrome from the soil bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum using a combined spectroscopic and modeling approach. We generated seven mutants suitable for spin labeling to enable application of pulsed EPR techniques. The distances between attached spin labels were measured using pulsed electron-electron double resonance spectroscopy to probe the arrangement of the subunits within the dimer. We found very good agreement of experimental and calculated distances for the histidine-kinase region when both subunits are in a parallel orientation. However, experimental distance distributions surprisingly showed only limited agreement with either parallel- or antiparallel-arranged dimer structures when spin labels were placed into the PCM region. This observation indicates that the arrangements of the PCM subunits in the full-length protein dimer in solution differ significantly from that in the PCM crystals. The pulsed electron-electron double resonance data presented here revealed either no or only minor changes of distance distributions upon Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Florida State University is investigating the concept of pulsed electron beams for fly ash precipitation. This report describes the results and data on three of the subtasks of this project and preliminary work only on the remaining five subtasks. Described are the modification of precharger for pulsed and DC energization of anode; installation of the Q/A measurement system; and modification and installation of pulsed power supply to provide both pulsed and DC energization of the anode. The other tasks include: measurement of the removal efficiency for monodisperse simulated fly ash particles; measurement of particle charge; optimization of pulse energization schedule for maximum removal efficiency; practical assessment of results; and measurement of the removal efficiency for polydisperse test particles. 15 figs., 1 tab. (CK)

  19. Ultrafast Manipulation of Electron Spin Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, J. A.; Awschalom, D. D.; Knobel, R.; Samarth, N.

    2002-03-01

    A technique is developed with the potential for coherent all-optical control over electron spins in semiconductors on femtosecond time scales.footnote J.A. Gupta et al., Science 292, 2458 (2001) The experiments show that optical “tipping” pulses can enact significant rotations of electron spins through an effective magnetic field generated when the tipping pulse energy is tuned below the semiconductor bandgap (the optical Stark effect). Measurements of Stark shifts in ZnCdSe quantum wells suggest that field strengths of order 20T are achieved. Rotations due to this effective field approaching 90 degrees were measured as changes in the amplitude of spin precession following optical excitation in a transverse magnetic field. A prototype sequence of two tipping pulses indicates that the rotation is reversible, a result that establishes the coherent nature of the tipping process.

  20. Pulsed eldor measurement of nitrogen T1 in spin labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, James S.; Froncisz, W.; Mottley, C.

    1984-10-01

    A 180° pulse is delivered to one hyperfine line of a nitroxide spin label, and the arrival and disappearance of saturation at another hyperfine line is monitored with a second microwave field. Electron and nitrogen nuclear relaxation times are found to be in poor agreement ,vith the electron-nuclear dipolar (END) mechanism.

  1. Fast electron spin resonance controlled manipulation of spin injection into quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Andreas Siller, Jan; Schittny, Robert; Krämmer, Christoph; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2014-06-23

    In our spin-injection light-emitting diodes, electrons are spin-polarized in a semimagnetic ZnMnSe spin aligner and then injected into InGaAs quantum dots. The resulting electron spin state can be read out by measuring the circular polarization state of the emitted light. Here, we resonantly excite the Mn 3d electron spin system with microwave pulses and perform time-resolved measurements of the spin dynamics. We find that we are able to control the spin polarization of the injected electrons on a microsecond timescale. This electron spin resonance induced spin control could be one of the ingredients required to utilize the quantum dot electrons or the Mn spins as qubits.

  2. Coherent pump pulses in Double Electron Electron Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Claudia E.; Stoll, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The recent introduction of shaped pulses to Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) spectroscopy has led to significant enhancements in sensitivity through increased excitation bandwidths and improved control over spin dynamics. The application of DEER has so far relied on the presence of an incoherent pump channel to average out most undesired coherent effects of the pump pulse(s) on the observer spins. However, in fully coherent EPR spectrometers that are increasingly used to generate shaped pulses, the presence of coherent pump pulses means that these effects need to be explicitly considered. In this paper, we examine the effects of coherent rectangular and sech/tanh pump pulses in DEER experiments with up to three pump pulses. We show that, even in the absence of significant overlap of the observer and pump pulse excitation bandwidths, coherence transfer pathways involving both types of pulses generate spin echoes of considerable intensity. These echoes introduce artefacts, which, if not identified and removed, can easily lead to misinterpretation. We demonstrate that the observed echoes can be quantitatively modelled using a simple spin quantum dynamics approach that includes instrumental transfer functions. Based on an analysis of the echo crossing artefacts, we propose efficient phase cycling schemes for their suppression. This enables the use of advanced DEER experiments, characterized by high sensitivity and increased accuracy for long-distance measurements, on novel fully coherent EPR spectrometers. PMID:27339858

  3. Pulsed Electron Spin Resonance Resolves the Coordination Site of Cu2+ Ions in α1-Glycine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ruthstein, Sharon; Stone, Katherine M.; Cunningham, Timothy F.; Ji, Ming; Cascio, Michael; Saxena, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we identify the coordination environment of Cu2+ in the human α1-glycine receptor (GlyR). GlyRs are members of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel superfamily (pLGIC) that mediate fast signaling at synapses. Metal ions like Zn2+ and Cu2+ significantly modulate the activity of pLGICs, and metal ion coordination is essential for proper physiological postsynaptic inhibition by GlyR in vivo. Zn2+ can either potentiate or inhibit GlyR activity depending on its concentration, while Cu2+ is inhibitory. To better understand the molecular basis of the inhibitory effect we have used electron spin resonance to directly examine Cu2+ coordination and stoichiometry. We show that Cu2+ has one binding site per α1 subunit, and that five Cu2+ can be coordinated per GlyR. Cu2+ binds to E192 and H215 in each subunit of GlyR with a 40 μM apparent dissociation constant, consistent with earlier functional measurements. However, the coordination site does not include several residues of the agonist/antagonist binding site that were previously suggested to have roles in Cu2+ coordination by functional measurements. Intriguingly, the E192/H215 site has been proposed as the potentiating Zn2+ site. The opposing modulatory actions of these cations at a shared binding site highlight the sensitive allosteric nature of GlyR. PMID:20959090

  4. Generation and coherent control of pure spin currents via terahertz pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Michael; Berakdar, Jamal

    2014-04-01

    We inspect the time and spin-dependent, inelastic tunneling in engineered semiconductor-based double quantum well driven by time-structured terahertz pulses. An essential ingredient is an embedded spin-active structure with vibrational modes that scatter the pulse driven carriers. Due to the different time scales of the charge and spin dynamics, the spin-dependent electron-vibron coupling may result in pure net spin current (with negligible charge current). Heating the vibrational site may affect the resulting spin current. Furthermore, by controlling the charge dynamics, the spin dynamics and the generated spin current can be manipulated and switched on and off coherently.

  5. Pulsed plasma electron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-15

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E{<=}10{sup 5} V/cm and duration {<=}10{sup -5} s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  6. Electron Spin Density on the N-Donor Atoms of Cu(II)-(Bis)oxamidato Complexes As Probed by a Pulse ELDOR Detected NMR.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Azar; Zaripov, Ruslan; Salikhov, Kev; Voronkova, Violeta; Vavilova, Evgeniya; Abdulmalic, Mohammad A; Rüffer, Tobias; Büchner, Bernd; Kataev, Vladislav

    2015-10-29

    We have applied the pulse ELDOR detected NMR (EDNMR) technique to determine the tensors of the transferred Cu (S = 1/2) - (14)N (I = 1) hyperfine (HF) interaction in single crystals of diamagnetically diluted mononuclear o-phenylenebis(N(R)-oxamide) complexes of [(n)Bu4N]2[Cu(opboR2)] (R = Et 1, (n)Pr 2) (1%) in a host lattice of [(n)Bu4N]2[Ni(opboR2)] (R = Et 3, (n)Pr 4) (99%) (1@3 and 2@4)). To facilitate the analysis of our EDNMR data and to analyze possible manifestations of the nuclear quadrupole interaction in the EDNMR spectra, we have treated a model electron-nuclear system of the coupled S = 1/2 and I = 1 spins using the spin density matrix formalism. It appears that this interaction yields a peculiar asymmetry of the EDMR spectra that manifests not only in the shift of the positions of the EDNMR lines that correspond to the forbidden EPR transitions, as expected, but also in the intensities of the EDNMR lines. The symmetric shape of the experimental spectra suggests the conclusion that, in the studied complexes, the quadrupole interaction is negligible. This has simplified the analysis of the spectra. The HF tensors of all four N donor atoms could be accurately determined. On the basis of the HF tensors, an estimate of the spin density transferred from the central paramagnetic Cu(II) ion to the N donor atoms reveals its unequal distribution. We discuss possible implications of our estimates for the magnetic exchange paths and interaction strengths in respective trinuclear complexes [Cu3(opboR2) (pmdta)2](NO3)2 (R = Et 6, (n)Pr 7).

  7. ELECTRONIC PULSE SCALING CIRCUITS

    DOEpatents

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1958-11-18

    Electronic pulse scaling circults of the klnd comprlsing a serles of bi- stable elements connected ln sequence, usually in the form of a rlng so as to be cycllcally repetitive at the highest scallng factor, are described. The scaling circuit comprises a ring system of bi-stable elements each arranged on turn-off to cause, a succeeding element of the ring to be turned-on, and one being arranged on turn-off to cause a further element of the ring to be turned-on. In addition, separate means are provided for applying a turn-off pulse to all the elements simultaneously, and for resetting the elements to a starting condition at the end of each cycle.

  8. Generation of Quality Pulses for Control of Qubit/Quantum Memory Spin States: Experimental and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    simulation and experimental hardware development of pulsed modulated microwave/radio-frequency (RF) electronic control circuitry for control of electron ...4. An I/Q mixer drives ODMR spectroscopy to control spins of electrons ................................... 3 5. Schematic for electrical setup of...through the band-pass filter followed by an LNA .................. 16 Tables 1. The spin of the nucleus and electrons

  9. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic collection of a high resistivity aerosol using the Electron Beam Precipitator (EBP) collecting section was demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarter Five). Collection efficiency experiments were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. The reason for doing this was to attempt to improve upon the collection efficiency of the precipitator alone when testing with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. From the collector shakedown runs, a set of suitable operational parameters were determined for the downstream electrostatic collecting sections of the Electron Beam Precipitator wind tunnel. These parameters, along with those for the MINACC electron beam, will generally be held constant while the numerous precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge. The electrostatic collector experiments were part of a larger, comprehensive investigation on electron beam precharging of high resistivity aerosol particles performed during the period covered by Quarters Five, Six, and Seven. This body of work used the same experimental apparatus and procedures and the experimental run period lasted nearly continuously for six months. A summary of the Quarter Five work is presented in the following paragraphs. Section II-A of TPR 5 contains a report on the continuing effort which was expended on the modification and upgrade of the pulsed power supply and the monitoring systems prior to the initiation of the electron beam precharging experimental work.

  10. Measuring central-spin interaction with a spin-bath by pulsed ENDOR: Towards suppression of spin diffusion decoherence

    PubMed Central

    Balian, S. J.; Kunze, M. B. A.; Mohammady, M. H.; Morley, G. W.; Witzel, W. M.; Kay, C. W. M.; Monteiro, T. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments which enable us to characterize the coupling between bismuth donor spin-qubits in Si and the surrounding spin-bath of 29Si impurities which provides the dominant decoherence mechanism (nuclear spin diffusion) at low temperatures (< 16 K). Decoupling from the spin-bath is predicted and cluster correlation expansion simulations show near-complete suppression of spin diffusion, at optimal working points. The suppression takes the form of sharply peaked divergences of the spin diffusion coherence time, in contrast with previously identified broader regions of insensitivity to classical fluctuations. ENDOR data shows anisotropic contributions are comparatively weak, so the form of the divergences is independent of crystal orientation. PMID:23082071

  11. Heteronuclear dipolar coupling in spin-1 NQR pulsed spin locking.

    PubMed

    Malone, M W; Sauer, K L

    2014-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally the role of broadening due to heteronuclear dipolar coupling in spin-1 nuclear quadrupole resonance pulsed spin locking. We find the experimental conditions where heteronuclear dipolar coupling is refocused by a standard multipulse sequence. This experimental condition allows us to extend our previously reported ability to measure the homonuclear dipolar coupling of powder samples to include substances that have heteronuclear coupling. These results are useful for designing substance detection algorithms, and for performing sample characterization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-electron spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2017-10-01

    -only qubits which can be divided into short-ranged and long-ranged interactions. Both of these interaction types are expected to be necessary in a large-scale quantum computer. The short-ranged interactions use the exchange coupling by placing qubits next to each other and applying exchange-pulses (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Fong and Wandzura 2011 Quantum Inf. Comput. 11 1003, Setiawan et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 085314, Zeuch et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 045306, Doherty and Wardrop 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050503, Shim and Tahan 2016 Phys. Rev. B 93 121410), while the long-ranged interactions use the photons of a superconducting microwave cavity as a mediator in order to couple two qubits over long distances (Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 92 205412, Srinivasa et al 2016 Phys. Rev. B 94 205421). The nature of the three-electron qubit states each having the same total spin and total spin in z-direction (same Zeeman energy) provides a natural protection against several sources of noise (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502, Kempe et al 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 042307, Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 235411). The price to pay for this advantage is an increase in gate complexity. We also take into account the decoherence of the qubit through the influence of magnetic noise (Ladd 2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 125408, Mehl and DiVincenzo 2013 Phys. Rev. B 87 195309, Hung et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 045308), in particular dephasing due to the presence of nuclear spins, as well as dephasing due to charge noise (Medford et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050501, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502, Shim and Tahan 2016 Phys. Rev. B 93 121410, Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 235411, Fei et al 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 205434), fluctuations of the energy levels on each dot due to noisy gate voltages or the environment. Several techniques are discussed which partly decouple the qubit from magnetic noise (Setiawan et al 2014 Phys

  13. Three-electron spin qubits.

    PubMed

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2017-10-04

    -only qubits which can be divided into short-ranged and long-ranged interactions. Both of these interaction types are expected to be necessary in a large-scale quantum computer. The short-ranged interactions use the exchange coupling by placing qubits next to each other and applying exchange-pulses (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Fong and Wandzura 2011 Quantum Inf. Comput. 11 1003, Setiawan et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 085314, Zeuch et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 045306, Doherty and Wardrop 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050503, Shim and Tahan 2016 Phys. Rev. B 93 121410), while the long-ranged interactions use the photons of a superconducting microwave cavity as a mediator in order to couple two qubits over long distances (Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 92 205412, Srinivasa et al 2016 Phys. Rev. B 94 205421). The nature of the three-electron qubit states each having the same total spin and total spin in z-direction (same Zeeman energy) provides a natural protection against several sources of noise (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502, Kempe et al 2001 Phys. Rev. A 63 042307, Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 235411). The price to pay for this advantage is an increase in gate complexity. We also take into account the decoherence of the qubit through the influence of magnetic noise (Ladd 2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 125408, Mehl and DiVincenzo 2013 Phys. Rev. B 87 195309, Hung et al 2014 Phys. Rev. B 90 045308), in particular dephasing due to the presence of nuclear spins, as well as dephasing due to charge noise (Medford et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050501, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502, Shim and Tahan 2016 Phys. Rev. B 93 121410, Russ and Burkard 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 235411, Fei et al 2015 Phys. Rev. B 91 205434), fluctuations of the energy levels on each dot due to noisy gate voltages or the environment. Several techniques are discussed which partly decouple the qubit from magnetic noise (Setiawan et al 2014 Phys

  14. Does a flying electron spin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garraway, B. M.; Stenholm, S.

    2002-03-01

    In the late 1920s Niels Bohr propagated the idea that the magnetic moment of a free electron could not be observed. This derived from the idea that the spin degree of freedom characterized the electron only when it is bound in an atom. This view initiated a lively discussion, which involved many of the most prominent theoreticians of the time. The independent existence of the electron spin became an issue of principle. In particular it was deemed that quantum effects would destroy the separated classical trajectories in a Stern-- Gerlach type of experiment. We review these discussions and some later developments. Quantum effects do prove to be essential, but they do not overwhelm the magnetic effects of spin. In addition to these arguments, it has been possible experimentally to determine the electron g-factor with high accuracy in electromagnetic traps. In fact no principle seems to prevent the observation of the magnetic moment of the free electron.

  15. Spin-polarized Auger electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, H.; Semke, J.

    1990-12-01

    The spin polarization of Auger electrons will be discussed within the standard two-step model of the Auger emission process for different situations: target polarized, projectile polarized, targe and projectile unpolarized. In these three cases different interaction mechanisms are responsible for the polarization of the emitted Auger electrons. The present theoretical and experimental situation will be reviewed.

  16. Stark Tuning of Donor Electron Spins of Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, Forrest R.; Tyryshkin, Alexei M.; Sabouret, Guillaume; Bokor, Jeff; Schenkel, Thomas; Lyon, Stephen A.

    2006-03-23

    We report Stark shift measurements for {sup 121}Sb donor electron spins in silicon using pulsed electron spin resonance. Interdigitated metal gates on top of a Sb-implanted {sup 28}Si epi-layer are used to apply electric fields. Two Stark effects are resolved: a decrease of the hyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins of the donor and a decrease in electron Zeeman g-factor. The hyperfine term prevails at X-band magnetic fields of 0.35T, while the g-factor term is expected to dominate at higher magnetic fields. A significant linear Stark effect is also resolved presumably arising from strain.

  17. Imaging Electronic Motion with Attosecond Electron Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hua-Chieh; Starace, Anthony F.

    2010-03-01

    Ultrashort electron pulses have been proposed to observe time-dependent phenomena in atoms and molecules [1]. Owing to the temporal and spatial resolutions of short keV electron pulses, studying electronic motion in attosecond and sub-Angstrom regimes is feasible. We report benchmark calculations for oscillating electronic charge distributions in the H atom and in the H2^+ molecule to determine the effect of such charge oscillations on the elastic scattering cross section for a sub-fs electron pulse. In the pump/probe calculations, a femtosecond laser pulse is used to excite a coherent superposition of states, whose charge distribution oscillates with the beat frequency. The electron pulse scattering cross sections are calculated in the Born approximation. For the H atom, the cross section exhibits an oscillating effective radius. For the H2^+ molecules, the superposed state is chosen such that the electronic charge distribution oscillates from one nucleus to the other; hence, the differential cross section shows the localization of the electron.[4pt] [1] P. Baum and A.H. Zewail, PNAS 104, 18409 (2007).

  18. Specific features of optical orientation and relaxation of electron spins in quantum wells with a large spin splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Averkiev, N. S.; Glazov, M. M.

    2008-08-15

    The processes of optical spin orientation and spin relaxation of electrons are treated theoretically for semiconductor quantum wells, in which the spin splitting of the energy spectrum is comparable with the characteristic energy of charge carriers. The density matrix of photoexcited electrons at the instant of optical excitation is obtained in explicit form. A system of kinetic equations describing the behavior of the spin density matrix at an arbitrary relation between the average energy of charge carriers and the spin splitting is derived. It is demonstrated that, upon photoexcitation, a noticeable degree of orientation can be attained only in the pulse mode of operation, when the photoexcitation pulse duration is comparable with the period of spin precession in the field of spin splitting. It is shown that the total spin of the ensemble of electrons exhibits oscillations damping with time; the shape and damping time of the oscillations are sensitive to the parameters of photoexcitation and the spin splitting.

  19. Resonant spin amplification in nanostructures with anisotropic spin relaxation and spread of the electronic g factor

    SciTech Connect

    Glazov, M. M. Ivchenko, E. L.

    2008-08-15

    Spin dynamics of electrons in semiconductors and structures with quantum wells under conditions where pumping and probing are performed in the form of a periodical series of pulses is theoretically studied. It is shown that, at a fixed delay between the pump and probe pulses, the signal of spin amplification as a function of the magnetic field consists of a series of narrow peaks conditioned by commensurability of the period of spin precession and pulse repetition interval. In the case of anisotropic spin relaxation, the peak centered at the zero magnetic field is suppressed compared with the neighboring peaks. The role of inhomogeneous broadening of the frequency of the Larmor precession in the formation of the spin amplification signal is analyzed.

  20. Laser-induced ultrafast spin current pulses: a thermodynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Fognini, A; Michlmayr, T U; Vaterlaus, A; Acremann, Y

    2017-06-01

    The ultrafast demagnetization process allows for the generation of femtosecond spin current pulses. Here, we present a thermodynamic model of the spin current generation process, based on the chemical potential gradients as the driving force for the spin current. We demonstrate that the laser-induced spin current can be estimated by an easy to understand diffusion model.

  1. (Pulsed electron beam precharger)

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics on electron beam guns: Precharger Modification; Installation of Charge vs. Radius Apparatus; High Concentration Aerosol Generation; and Data Acquisition and Analysis System.

  2. Two-Dimensional Electron-Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freed, Jack H.

    2000-03-01

    The extension of the concepts of 2D-NMR to ESR posed significant technological challenges, especially for liquids. ESR relaxation times are very short, as low as 10-15 ns. for T_2's. Spectral bandwidths are 100-250 MHz for nitroxide spin labels. Adequate coverage is obtained with 3-5 ns. π/2 (9-17 GHz) microwave pulses into a small low Q resonator. Dead-times are currently 25-30 ns. Additional requirements are rapid phase shifting for phase cycling, nsec. data acquisition, and fast repetition rates (10-100 kHz). 2D-ELDOR (electron-electron double resonance), which is a 3-pulse 2D-exchange experiment, takes about 30 minutes with just 0.5 nanomole spin-probe in solution (SNR 200). 2D-ELDOR is very useful in studies of molecular dynamics and local structure in complex fluids. For such media, the slow rotational dynamics requires a theory based upon the stochastic Liouville equation which enables quantitative interpretation of 2D-ELDOR experiments. In studies of spin-probes in a liquid crystal new insights could be obtained on the dynamic structure in different phases. One obtains, in addition to ordering and reorientation rates of the probes, details of the local dynamic cage: its orienting potential and (slow) relaxation rate. 2D-ELDOR overcomes the loss of resolution resulting from microscopically ordered but macroscopically disordered complex fluids. This is illustrated by studies of the dynamic structure of lipid membrane vesicles, and the effects of adding a peptide. The short dead times enable the observation of both the bulk lipids and the more immobilized lipids that coat (or are trapped) by the (aggregates of) peptides. Also, new developments of multi-quantum (2D) FT-ESR from nitroxide spin labels interacting by dipolar interactions show considerable promise in measuring distances of ca. 15-70A in macromolecules.

  3. Ultrafast imprinting of topologically protected magnetic textures via pulsed electrons

    DOE PAGES

    Schaffer, A. F.; Durr, H. A.; Berakdar, J.

    2017-07-17

    Short electron pulses are demonstrated to trigger and control magnetic excitations, even at low electron current densities. We show that the tangential magnetic field surrounding a picosecond electron pulse can imprint topologically protected magnetic textures such as skyrmions in a sample with a residual Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya spin-orbital coupling. Characteristics of the created excitations such as the topological charge can be steered via the duration and the strength of the electron pulses. Here, the study points to a possible way for a spatiotemporally controlled generation of skyrmionic excitations.

  4. Ultrafast imprinting of topologically protected magnetic textures via pulsed electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäffer, A. F.; Dürr, H. A.; Berakdar, J.

    2017-07-01

    Short electron pulses are demonstrated to trigger and control magnetic excitations, even at low electron current densities. We show that the tangential magnetic field surrounding a picosecond electron pulse can imprint topologically protected magnetic textures such as skyrmions in a sample with a residual Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya spin-orbital coupling. Characteristics of the created excitations such as the topological charge can be steered via the duration and the strength of the electron pulses. The study points to a possible way for a spatiotemporally controlled generation of skyrmionic excitations.

  5. Pulsed ELDOR in spin-labeled polypeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milov, Alexander D.; Maryasov, Alexander G.; Tsvetkov, Yuri D.; Raap, Jan

    1999-04-01

    The pulsed electron-electron double-resonance (PELDOR) technique was applied to obtain information about the structure of the synthetic polypeptide-biradical in a frozen glassy solution. From the concentration dependence of the PELDOR signal, the effects of intermolecular and intramolecular interactions were separated. It was found that the intramolecular dipole-dipole interactions in the biradical peptide led to the modulation effects in the PELDOR signal decay. This may be attributed to the existence of a conformational population having a distance between the two unpaired electrons of ˜20 Å with a distribution of (˜2 Å). Its fraction is estimated as about 25%.

  6. Electron spin from self interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Spavieri, G. |

    1992-06-01

    The author explores the possibility that the electron self-interaction is the origin of the spin and of the radiative effects of QED. The electron is conceived as a charged, massless, point particle with a quantum or stochastic, internal motion about its center of mass and bound by a self-interaction potential. The hydrodynamic equations of motion describing the electron in its center of mass frame are related to non-Markovian stochastic equations recently used to derive the Schroedinger equation. By averaging over this stochastic internal motion and identifying the energy with the rest mass energy, the angular momentum exhibits properties characteristic of spin. The electromagnetic self-interactions added to the Hamiltonian of the particle correct the g factor to yield the anomalous value (g{minus}2)/2 {approx} 1159.7(2.3) X 10{sup {minus}6} in agreement with experiment. Calculations of other {open_quotes}radiative{close_quotes} effects including the Lamb shift are presented. The results obtained are finite and suggest that the QED corrections attributed to radiative effects could be obtained classically, i.e., without second quantization and renormalization, by complementing the Dirac theory with this self-interaction mechanism. The g factor dependence on the external magnetic field of this and other spin models is compared with that of QED, showing that these theories can be tested by the present precision measurements of the g factor. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Pulsed electron beam precharger

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, W.C.; Shelton, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Electron beam precharging of a high resistivity aerosol was successfully demonstrated during this reporting period (Quarters Five and Six). The initial E-beam particle precharging experiments completed this term were designed to confirm and extend some of the work performed under the previous contract. There are several reasons for doing this: (1) to re-establish a baseline performance criterion for comparison to other runs, (2) to test several recently upgraded or repaired subsystems, and (3) to improve upon the collection efficiency of the electron beam precipitator when testing precharging effectiveness with a very high resistivity, moderate-to-high concentration dust load. In addition, these shakedown runs were used to determine a set of suitable operational parameters for the wind tunnel, the electrostatic collecting sections, and the MINACC E-beam accelerator. These parameters will generally be held constant while the precharging parameters are varied to produce an optimum particle charge.

  8. Theory of time-domain measurement of spin-dependent recombination with pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehme, Christoph; Lips, Klaus

    2003-12-01

    The theoretical foundations of the time domain measurement of spin-dependent charge carrier recombination by means of pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) are outlined. Pulsed EDMR is based on the transient measurement of electrical currents in semiconductors after a coherent manipulation of paramagnetic centers with pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR). A model of spin-dependent recombination is introduced combining features of previous models into one general picture that takes influences by spin-relaxation, singlet and triplet recombination as well as spin-spin interactions within recombining charge carrier pairs into account. Based thereon, predictions for excess charge carrier currents after short coherent pulse ESR excitations are made which show that spin coherence in semiconductors can be observed by means of current measurements and hence, microscopic, quantitative information about charge carrier recombination dynamics by means of pulsed EDMR is attainable.

  9. Locking electron spins into resonance by electron-nuclear feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowack, Katja

    2009-03-01

    All basic building blocks for spin-based quantum information processing using electron spins in GaAs quantum dots have recently been realized. Recent experiments have shown single-shot read-out of an individual spin [1], the implementation of the SWAP gate [2] and (magnetically induced) coherent single electron spin rotations [3]. However, the main drawback of using electron spins in a GaAs environment is the short spin coherence time, which is measured to be in the nanosecond range [2,4]. The source of this fast decoherence is the hyperfine interaction of the localized electron spin with the randomly fluctuating nuclear spins of the host lattice. The fluctuations of the nuclear spins have to be reduced to extend the electron spin coherence time. We therefore study the electron-nuclear spin interaction and use magnetically driven spin resonance to control the electron spin and indirectly manipulate the nuclear spins. We apply continuous microwave excitation to the electron spin and observe strong electron-nuclear feedback. One experimental signature of this feedback is the locking of the electron spin system into resonance with the microwaves. Once the electron spin is locked into resonance, this resonance condition remains fullfilled even when the external magnetic field or the microwave frequency is changed. This is due to dynamically build up nuclear polarizations (up to 500 mT) which generally counteract the external magnetic field. Locking of the electron spin system into resonance might indicate that the nuclear polarization exhibits stable configurations where fluctuations of the nuclear distribution are reduced [5]. [4pt] References [0pt] [1] J. M. Elzerman et al. , Nature 430, 431 (2004) [0pt] [2]. J. R. Petta et al., Science 309, 2180 (2005). [0pt] [3] F. H. L. Koppens et al., Nature 442, 766 (2006). [0pt] [4] F. H. L. Koppens et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 236802 (2008). [0pt] [5] J. Danon and Yu. V. Nazarov, private communication.

  10. Effective Spin Squeezing Through Optimized Pulse Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao; Duan, Luming

    2013-05-01

    Spin squeezed states have attracted a lot of interest due to both its role in the fundamental study of many-particle entanglement and its practical application to precision measurement with a Ramsey interferometer. In recent years, spin squeezing with one-axis twisting (OAT) has been demonstrated experimentally with spinor BECs with more than 103 atoms. Although the noise is below the standard quantum limit, OAT scheme cannot achieve the ultimate Heisenberg limit of noise. There have been different theoretical proposals to enhance OAT which suffer different problems. Here we propose an experimentally very simple scheme based on optimized quantum control to greatly enhance the performance of OAT, requiring only an OAT Hamiltonian and the use of several single-qubit coherent pulses. This new scheme offers an opportunity to trade preparation speed for squeezing quality continuously, including OAT as a special case. We believe our scheme can be readily implemented experimentally. This work was supported by the NBRPC(973 Program), the IARPA MUSIQC program, the DARPA OLE program, the ARO and the AFOSR MURI program.

  11. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, Leland G.; Szoke, Abraham

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  12. Impurities and electron spin relaxations in nanodiamonds studied by multi-frequency electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Franklin; Takahashi, Susumu

    2014-03-01

    Nano-sized diamond or nanodiamond is a fascinating material for potential applications of fluorescence imaging and magnetic sensing of biological systems via nitrogen-vacancy defect centers in diamonds. Sensitivity of the magnetic sensing strongly depends on coupling to surrounding environmental noises, thus understanding of the environment is critical to realize the application. In the present study, we employ multi-frequency (X-band, 115 GHz and 230 GHz) continuous-wave (cw) and pulsed electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to investigate impurity contents and spin relaxation properties in various sizes of nanodiamonds. Spectra taken with our home-built 230/115 GHz cw/pulsed ESR spectrometer shows presence of two major impurity contents; single substitutional nitrogen impurities (P1) also common in bulk diamonds and paramagnetic impurities (denoted as X) unique to nanodiamonds. The ESR measurement also shows a strong dependence of the population ratio between P1 and X on particle size. Furthermore, we will discuss the nature of spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of nanodiamonds studied by pulsed ESR measurements at X-band, 115 GHz and 230 GHz.

  13. A Q-band low noise GaAs pHEMT MMIC power amplifier for pulse electron spin resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitnikov, A.; Kalabukhova, E.; Oliynyk, V.; Kolisnichenko, M.

    2017-05-01

    We present the design and development of a single stage pulse power amplifier working in the frequency range 32-38 GHz based on a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC). We have designed the MMIC power amplifier by using the commercially available packaged GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor. The circuit fabrication and assembly process includes the elaboration of the matching networks for the MMIC power amplifier and their assembling as well as the topology outline and fabrication of the printed circuit board of the waveguide-microstrip line transitions. At room ambient temperature, the measured peak output power from the prototype amplifier is 35.5 dBm for 16.6 dBm input driving power, corresponding to 19 dB gain. The measured rise/fall time of the output microwave signal modulated by a high-speed PIN diode was obtained as 5-6 ns at 20-250 ns pulse width with 100 kHz pulse repetition rate frequency.

  14. A Q-band low noise GaAs pHEMT MMIC power amplifier for pulse electron spin resonance spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Sitnikov, A; Kalabukhova, E; Oliynyk, V; Kolisnichenko, M

    2017-05-01

    We present the design and development of a single stage pulse power amplifier working in the frequency range 32-38 GHz based on a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC). We have designed the MMIC power amplifier by using the commercially available packaged GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor. The circuit fabrication and assembly process includes the elaboration of the matching networks for the MMIC power amplifier and their assembling as well as the topology outline and fabrication of the printed circuit board of the waveguide-microstrip line transitions. At room ambient temperature, the measured peak output power from the prototype amplifier is 35.5 dBm for 16.6 dBm input driving power, corresponding to 19 dB gain. The measured rise/fall time of the output microwave signal modulated by a high-speed PIN diode was obtained as 5-6 ns at 20-250 ns pulse width with 100 kHz pulse repetition rate frequency.

  15. Stark tuning of donor electron spins in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Bradbury, F.R.; Tyryshkin, A.M.; Sabouret, G.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.; Lyon, S.A.

    2006-03-12

    We report Stark shift measurements for 121Sb donor electronspins in silicon using pulsed electron spin resonance. Interdigitatedmetal gates on top of a Sb-implanted 28Si epi-layer are used to applyelectric fields. Two Stark effects are resolved: a decrease of thehyperfine coupling between electron and nuclear spins of the donor and adecrease in electron Zeeman g-factor. The hyperfine term prevails atX-band magnetic fields of 0.35T, while the g-factor term is expected todominate at higher magnetic fields. A significant linear Stark effect isalso resolved presumably arising from strain.

  16. Spin Dynamics of Electrons Confined in Silicon Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jock, Ryan Michael

    The spin states of electrons confined in silicon heterostructures have shown promise as qubits for quantum information processing. Recently, a host of single and few electron silicon quantum dot device architectures have arisen as implementations for quantum computation. These devices often combine regions of low density two-dimensional (2D) electrons, localized electrons, and interfaces depleted of electrons. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a unique tool for probing the spin dynamics of both mobile and localized electrons at silicon heterointerfaces and investigating the effects limiting the ability to control electrons and their spin states in these structures. We use a continuous wave ESR method to examine localized 2D electron band-tail states at Si/SiO 2 interfaces in large area metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors. We compare two devices, fabricated in different laboratories, which display similar low temperature (4.2 K) peak mobilities. We find that one of the devices displays a smaller band-tail density of confined states and a shallower characteristic confinement. Thus, ESR reveals a difference in device quality, which is not apparent from mobility measurements, and is a valuable tool for evaluating the interface quality in Si/SiO2 heterostructures. Additionally, we use pulsed ESR techniques to study the spin dynamics of electrons confined in Si/SiGe heterostructures. For mobile 2D electrons, the density-dependent Dyakonov-Perel mechanism dominates spin relaxation. At low 2D densities, stronger electron-electron interactions cause an increase in the electron effective mass, leading to an increase in spin susceptibility. For very low densities, natural disorder localizes electrons at the silicon heterointerface. Naturally localized electrons in these structures display short spin relaxation times (< 0.1 ms). By electrostatically confining electrons to quantum dots, the spin relaxation time may be extended. We fabricate large-area dual-gated devices which

  17. Spin transport in tilted electron vortex beams

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we have enlightened the spin related issues of tilted Electron vortex beams. We have shown that in the skyrmionic model of electron we can have the spin Hall current considering the tilted type of electron vortex beam. We have considered the monopole charge of the tilted vortex as time dependent and through the time variation of the monopole charge we can explain the spin Hall effect of electron vortex beams. Besides, with an external magnetic field we can have a spin filter configuration.

  18. Electron Spin Precession at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Higinbotham

    2009-08-01

    The nuclear physics experiments at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility often require longitudinally polarized electrons to be simultaneously delivered to three experimental halls. The degree of longitudinal polarization to each hall varies as function of the accelerator settings, making it challenging in certain situations to deliver a high degree of longitudinal polarization to all the halls simultaneously. Normally, the degree of longitudinal polarization the halls receive is optimized by changing the initial spin direction at the beginning of the machine with a Wien filter. Herein, it is shown that it is possible to further improve the degree of longitudinal polarization for multiple experimental halls by redistributing the energy gain of the CEBAF linacs while keeping the total energy gain fixed.

  19. Coherence and control of single electron spins in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersypen, Lieven

    2008-03-01

    Following our earlier work on single-shot read-out and relaxation of a single spin in a quantum dot, we now demonstrate coherent control of a single spin (detection is done using a second spin in a neighbouring dot). First, we manipulate the spin using conventional magnetic resonance. Next, we show that we can also rotate the spin using electric fields instead of magnetic fields. In both cases, 90 rotations can be realized in about 50 ns or less. We use these control techniques to probe decoherence of an isolated electron spin. The spin dephases in about 30 ns, due to the hyperfine interaction with the uncontrolled nuclear spin bath in the host material of the dot. However, since the nuclear spin dynamics is very slow, this dephasing can be largely reversed using a spin-echo pulse. Echo decay times of about 0.5 us are obtained at 70 mT. In parallel, we have started work on quantum dots in graphene, which is expected to offer superior coherence times. As a first step, we have succeeded in opening a bandgap in bilayer graphene, necessary for electrostatic confinement of carriers. F.H.L. Koppens et al., Nature 446, 56 (2006). K.C. Nowack et al., Science Express, 1 Nov 2007. F.H.L. Koppens et al., arXiv:0711.0479. J.B. Oostinga, Nature Mat., in press.

  20. Versatile spin-polarized electron source

    DOEpatents

    Jozwiak, Chris; Park, Cheol -Hwan; Gotlieb, Kenneth; Louie, Steven G.; Hussain, Zahid; Lanzara, Alessandra

    2015-09-22

    One or more embodiments relate generally to the field of photoelectron spin and, more specifically, to a method and system for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for creating a controllable spin-polarized electron source comprising the following steps: providing one or more materials, the one or more materials having at least one surface and a material layer adjacent to said surface, wherein said surface comprises highly spin-polarized surface electrons, wherein the direction and spin of the surface electrons are locked together; providing at least one incident light capable of stimulating photoemission of said surface electrons; wherein the photon polarization of said incident light is tunable; and inducing photoemission of the surface electron states.

  1. Ultrafast control of nuclear spins using only microwave pulses: Towards switchable solid-state quantum gates

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrikas, George; Sanakis, Yiannis; Papavassiliou, Georgios

    2010-02-15

    We demonstrate the control of the {alpha}-proton nuclear spin, I =1/2, coupled to the stable radical {center_dot}CH(COOH){sub 2}, S =1/2, in a {gamma}-irradiated malonic acid single crystal using only microwave pulses. We show that, depending on the state of the electron spin (m{sub S}={+-}1/2), the nuclear spin can be locked in a desired state or oscillate between m{sub I}=+1/2 and m{sub I}=-1/2 on the nanosecond time scale. This approach provides a fast way of controlling nuclear spin qubits and also enables the design of switchable spin-based quantum gates by addressing only the electron spin.

  2. Ultrafast spintronics roadmap: from femtosecond spin current pulses to terahertz non-uniform spin dynamics via nano-confined spin transfer torques (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, Alexey; Razdolski, Ilya; Alekhin, Alexandr; Ilin, Nikita; Meyburg, Jan; Diesing, Detlef; Roddatis, Vladimir; Rungger, Ivan; Stamenova, Maria; Sanvito, Stefano; Bovensiepen, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Further development of spintronics requires miniaturization and reduction of characteristic timescales of spin dynamics combining the nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal ranges. These demands shift the focus of interest towards the fundamental open question of the interaction of femtosecond spin current (SC) pulses with a ferromagnet (FM). The spatio-temporal properties of the spin transfer torque (STT) exerted by ultrashort SC pulses on the FM open the time domain for studying STT fingerprint on spatially non-uniform magnetization dynamics. Using the sensitivity of magneto-induced second harmonic generation to SC, we develop technique for SC monitoring. With 20 fs resolution, we demonstrate the generation of 250 fs-long SC pulses in Fe/Au/Fe/MgO(001) structures. Their temporal profile indicates (i) nearly-ballistic hot electron transport in Au and (ii) that the pulse duration is primarily determined by the thermalization time of laser-excited hot carriers in Fe. Together with strongly spin-dependent Fe/Au interface transmission calculated for these carriers, this suggests the non-thermal spin-dependent Seebeck effect dominating the generation of ultrashort SC pulses. The analysis of SC transmission/reflection at the Au/Fe interface shows that hot electron spins orthogonal to the Fe magnetization rotate gaining huge parallel (anti-parallel) projection in transmitted (reflected) SC. This is accompanied by a STT-induced perturbation of the magnetization localized at the interface, which excites the inhomogeneous high-frequency spin dynamics in the FM. Time-resolved magneto-optical studies reveal the excitation of several standing spin wave modes in the Fe film with their spectrum extending up to 0.6 THz and indicating the STT spatial confinement to 2 nm.

  3. Multifrequency pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance on metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Lyubenova, Sevdalina; Maly, Thorsten; Zwicker, Klaus; Brandt, Ulrich; Ludwig, Bernd; Prisner, Thomas

    2010-02-16

    Metalloproteins often contain metal centers that are paramagnetic in some functional state of the protein; hence electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy can be a powerful tool for studying protein structure and function. Dipolar spectroscopy allows the determination of the dipole-dipole interactions between metal centers in protein complexes, revealing the structural arrangement of different paramagnetic centers at distances of up to 8 nm. Hyperfine spectroscopy can be used to measure the interaction between an unpaired electron spin and nuclear spins within a distance of 0.8 nm; it therefore permits the characterization of the local structure of the paramagnetic center's ligand sphere with very high precision. In this Account, we review our laboratory's recent applications of both dipolar and hyperfine pulsed EPR methods to metalloproteins. We used pulsed dipolar relaxation methods to investigate the complex of cytochrome c and cytochrome c oxidase, a noncovalent protein-protein complex involved in mitochondrial electron-transfer reactions. Hyperfine sublevel correlation spectroscopy (HYSCORE) was used to study the ligand sphere of iron-sulfur clusters in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and substrate binding to the molybdenum enzyme polysulfide reductase. These examples demonstrate the potential of the two techniques; however, they also highlight the difficulties of data interpretation when several paramagnetic species with overlapping spectra are present in the protein. In such cases, further approaches and data are very useful to enhance the information content. Relaxation filtered hyperfine spectroscopy (REFINE) can be used to separate the individual components of overlapping paramagnetic species on the basis of differences in their longitudinal relaxation rates; it is applicable to any kind of pulsed hyperfine or dipolar spectroscopy. Here, we show that the spectra of the iron-sulfur clusters in complex I can be separated by this

  4. Charge and spin current oscillations in a tunnel junction induced by magnetic field pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartora, C. A.; Nobrega, K. Z.; Cabrera, G. G.

    2016-08-01

    Usually, charge and spin transport properties in tunnel junctions are studied in the DC bias regime and/or in the adiabatic regime of time-varying magnetic fields. In this letter, the temporal dynamics of charge and spin currents in a tunnel junction induced by pulsed magnetic fields is considered. At low bias voltages, energy and momentum of the conduction electrons are nearly conserved in the tunneling process, leading to the description of the junction as a spin-1/2 fermionic system coupled to time-varying magnetic fields. Under the influence of pulsed magnetic fields, charge and spin current can flow across the tunnel junction, displaying oscillatory behavior, even in the absence of DC bias voltage. A type of spin capacitance function, in close analogy to electric capacitance, is predicted.

  5. Synthetic Approach To Determine the Effect of Nuclear Spin Distance on Electronic Spin Decoherence.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael J; Yu, Chung-Jui; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Wasielewski, Michael R; Freedman, Danna E

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear-electronic interactions are a fundamental phenomenon which impacts fields from magnetic resonance imaging to quantum information processing (QIP). The realization of QIP would transform diverse areas of research including accurate simulation of quantum dynamics and cryptography. One promising candidate for the smallest unit of QIP, a qubit, is electronic spin. Electronic spins in molecules offer significant advantages with regard to QIP, and for the emerging field of quantum sensing. Yet relative to other qubit candidates, they possess shorter superposition lifetimes, known as coherence times or T2, due to interactions with nuclear spins in the local environment. Designing complexes with sufficiently long values of T2 requires an understanding of precisely how the position of nuclear spins relative to the electronic spin center affects decoherence. Herein, we report the first synthetic study of the relationship between nuclear spin-electron spin distance and decoherence. Through the synthesis of four vanadyl complexes, (Ph4P)2[VO(C3H6S2)2] (1), (Ph4P)2[VO(C5H6S4)2] (2), (Ph4P)2[VO(C7H6S6)2] (3), and (Ph4P)2[VO(C9H6S8)2] (4), we are able to synthetically place a spin-laden propyl moiety at well-defined distances from an electronic spin center by employing a spin-free carbon-sulfur scaffold. We interrogate this series of molecules with pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to determine their coherence times. Our studies demonstrate a sharp jump in T2 when the average V-H distance is decreased from 6.6(6) to 4.0(4) Å, indicating that spin-active nuclei sufficiently close to the electronic spin center do not contribute to decoherence. These results illustrate the power of synthetic chemistry in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms underlying electronic polarization transfer and provide vital principles for the rational design of long-coherence electronic qubits.

  6. Generation of Femtosecond Electron Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Jinamoon, V.; Kusoljariyakul, K.; Rimjaem, S.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C.; Vilaithong, T.; Rhodes, M.W.; Wichaisirimongkol, P.; Chumphongphan, S.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-05-09

    At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University (Thailand), the SURIYA project has been established aiming to produce femtosecond electron pulses utilizing a combination of an S-band thermionic rf gun and a magnetic bunch compressor ({alpha}-magnet). A specially designed rf-gun has been constructed to obtain optimum beam characteristics for the best bunch compression. Simulation results show that bunch lengths as short as about 50 fs rms can be expected at the experimental station. The electron bunch lengths will be determined using autocorrelation of coherent transition radiation (TR) through a Michelson interferometer. The paper discusses beam dynamics studies, design, fabrication and cold tests of the rf-gun as well as presents the project current status and forth-coming experiments.

  7. Pulse Control Assisted Dynamical Decoupling in a Central Spin Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao-Yan; Wei, Yong-Bo; Wang, Zhao-Ming; Gu, Yong-Jian; Li, Wen-Dong; Ma, Xiao-Ping

    2017-02-01

    We study pulse control assisted dynamical decoupling through a central spin model in a total Hilbert space. We find that the effective decoupling can be realized by applying a sequence of external pulses. Compared with the bang-bang control which needs infinite strength and infinitesimal short pulses, we show that there is a large parameter space that allows an effective nonperturbative dynamical control. Furthermore, our numerical calculation shows that the reliability can be held for random pulses, such as random pulse time interval or random strength.

  8. A spin rotator for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohashi, Teruo; Konoto, Makoto; Koike, Kazuyuki

    2004-06-01

    A Wien filter, which is a common energy analyzer, was modified as a spin rotator for use in a spin-polarized scanning electron microscope. By switching the spin rotator on and off, magnetic domain images of all three magnetization vectors can be produced in one scan. The electrodes and the magnetic pole pieces were specially designed by using a three-dimensional computer simulation for electric and magnetic fields, electron trajectories, and spin rotation; the broad beam of the secondary electrons passes through to the spin detector with a 90° rotation. The structure is simple with only two electrodes that have hyperbolically curved surfaces to create a stigmatic focusing effect, while the surfaces of the magnetic pole pieces are flat to enable a uniform rotation of all electron spins. The performance was tested and confirmed to be effective by observing the magnetic domain structures of Fe(001) with in-surface-plane magnetization and a TbFeCo magneto-optical medium with surface normal magnetization.

  9. Spin in the extended electron model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Thomas; Hofer, Werner

    2017-06-01

    It has been found that a model of extended electrons is more suited to describe theoretical simulations and experimental results obtained via scanning tunnelling microscopes, but while the dynamic properties are easily incorporated, magnetic properties, and in particular electron spin properties pose a problem due to their conceived isotropy in the absence of measurement. The spin of an electron reacts with a magnetic field and thus has the properties of a vector. However, electron spin is also isotropic, suggesting that it does not have the properties of a vector. This central conflict in the description of an electron's spin, we believe, is the root of many of the paradoxical properties measured and postulated for quantum spin particles. Exploiting a model in which the electron spin is described consistently in real three-dimensional space-an extended electron model-we demonstrate that spin may be described by a vector and still maintain its isotropy. In this framework, we re-evaluate the Stern-Gerlach experiments, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen experiments, and the effect of consecutive measurements and find in all cases a fairly intuitive explanation.

  10. Electron spin polarization transfer from photogenerated spin-correlated radical pairs to a stable radical observer spin.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Michael T; Carmieli, Raanan; Miura, Tomoaki; Richert, Sabine; Gardner, Daniel M; Smeigh, Amanda L; Dyar, Scott M; Conron, Sarah M; Ratner, Mark A; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2013-06-27

    A series of donor-chromophore-acceptor-stable radical (D-C-A-R(•)) molecules having well-defined molecular structures were synthesized to study the factors affecting electron spin polarization transfer from the photogenerated D(+•)-C-A(-•) spin-correlated radical pair (RP) to the stable radical R(•). Theory suggests that the magnitude of this transfer depends on the spin-spin exchange interaction (2JDA) of D(+•)-C-A(-•). Yet, the generality of this prediction has never been demonstrated. In the D-C-A-R(•) molecules described herein, D is 4-methoxyaniline (MeOAn), 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-6-amine (DioxAn), or benzobisdioxole aniline (BDXAn), C is 4-aminonaphthalene-1,8-dicarboximide, and A is naphthalene-1,8:4,5-bis(dicarboximide) (1A,B-3A,B) or pyromellitimide (4A,B-6A,B). The terminal imide of the acceptors is functionalized with either a hydrocarbon (1A-6A) or a 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxyl radical (R(•)) (1B-6B). Photoexcitation of C with 416-nm laser pulses results in two-step charge separation to yield D(+•)-C-A(-•)-(R(•)). Time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) spectroscopy using continuous-wave (CW) microwaves at both 295 and 85 K and pulsed microwaves at 85 K (electron spin-echo detection) was used to probe the initial formation of the spin-polarized RP and the subsequent polarization of the attached R(•) radical. The TREPR spectra show that |2JDA| for D(+•)-C-A(-•) decreases in the order MeOAn(+•) > DioxAn(+•) > BDXAn(+•) as a result of their spin density distributions, whereas the spin-spin dipolar interaction (dDA) remains nearly constant. Given this systematic variation in |2JDA|, electron spin-echo-detected EPR spectra of 1B-6B at 85 K show that the magnitude of the spin polarization transferred from the RP to R(•) depends on |2JDA|.

  11. Coherent state transfer between an electron and nuclear spin in (15)N@C(60).

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard M; Tyryshkin, Alexei M; Porfyrakis, Kyriakos; Gauger, Erik M; Lovett, Brendon W; Ardavan, Arzhang; Lyon, S A; Briggs, G Andrew D; Morton, John J L

    2011-03-18

    Electron spin qubits in molecular systems offer high reproducibility and the ability to self-assemble into larger architectures. However, interactions between neighboring qubits are "always on," and although the electron spin coherence times can be several hundred microseconds, these are still much shorter than typical times for nuclear spins. Here we implement an electron-nuclear hybrid scheme which uses coherent transfer between electron and nuclear spin degrees of freedom in order to both effectively turn on or off interqubit coupling mediated by dipolar interactions and benefit from the long nuclear spin decoherence times (T(2n)). We transfer qubit states between the electron and (15)N nuclear spin in (15)N@C(60) with a two-way process fidelity of 88%, using a series of tuned microwave and radio frequency pulses and measure a nuclear spin coherence lifetime of over 100 ms.

  12. Miniature Magnet for Electron Spin Resonance Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, L. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes commercially available permanent magnets that have been incorporated in a compact and inexpensive structure providing both field sweep and modulation suitable for electron spin resonance at microwave frequencies. (MLH)

  13. Spin-electron acoustic soliton and exchange interaction in separate spin evolution quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2016-01-15

    Separate spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics is generalized to include the Coulomb exchange interaction, which is considered as interaction between the spin-down electrons being in quantum states occupied by one electron. The generalized model is applied to study the non-linear spin-electron acoustic waves. Existence of the spin-electron acoustic soliton is demonstrated. Contributions of concentration, spin polarization, and exchange interaction to the properties of the spin electron acoustic soliton are studied.

  14. Separated spin-up and spin-down quantum hydrodynamics of degenerated electrons: Spin-electron acoustic wave appearance.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2015-03-01

    The quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model of charged spin-1/2 particles contains physical quantities defined for all particles of a species including particles with spin-up and with spin-down. Different populations of states with different spin directions are included in the spin density (the magnetization). In this paper I derive a QHD model, which separately describes spin-up electrons and spin-down electrons. Hence electrons with different projections of spins on the preferable direction are considered as two different species of particles. It is shown that the numbers of particles with different spin directions do not conserve. Hence the continuity equations contain sources of particles. These sources are caused by the interactions of the spins with the magnetic field. Terms of similar nature arise in the Euler equation. The z projection of the spin density is no longer an independent variable. It is proportional to the difference between the concentrations of the electrons with spin-up and the electrons with spin-down. The propagation of waves in the magnetized plasmas of degenerate electrons is considered. Two regimes for the ion dynamics, the motionless ions and the motion of the degenerate ions as the single species with no account of the spin dynamics, are considered. It is shown that this form of the QHD equations gives all solutions obtained from the traditional form of QHD equations with no distinction of spin-up and spin-down states. But it also reveals a soundlike solution called the spin-electron acoustic wave. Coincidence of most solutions is expected since this derivation was started with the same basic equation: the Pauli equation. Solutions arise due to the different Fermi pressures for the spin-up electrons and the spin-down electrons in the magnetic field. The results are applied to degenerate electron gas of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic metals in the external magnetic field. The dispersion of the spin-electron acoustic waves in the partially spin

  15. Extraordinary spin-electron acoustic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, Pavel A.

    2017-02-01

    The extraordinary waves in spin-1/2 quantum plasma are studied. The evolutions of spin-up and spin-down electrons are considered separately. Hence, the separate spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics is used as the tool of research. It is demonstrated that the spin polarization of electrons modifies the spectrum of the lower extraordinary wave (LEW). An increase of the frequency at the large wave vector due to the spin modified Fermi pressure is found for the cyclotron frequency smaller than the Langmuir frequency. Existence of the extraordinary spin electron acoustic wave (SEAW) is demonstrated. Spectrum of the extraordinary SEAW is calculated. This spectrum is located below the spectrum of the LEW for the cyclotron frequency smaller than the Langmuir frequency and the spectrum located between spectrums of the upper extraordinary wave and the LEW for the cyclotron frequency larger than the Langmuir frequency. Presence of the extraordinary SEAW spectrum in the area usually occupied by the LEW spectrum decreases frequency of the LEW for large wave vectors, if the cyclotron frequency is larger than the Langmuir frequency. At the intermediate wave vectors, the LEW frequency is increased by the spin modified Fermi pressure.

  16. Electrically and mechanically tunable electron spins in silicon carbide color centers.

    PubMed

    Falk, Abram L; Klimov, Paul V; Buckley, Bob B; Ivády, Viktor; Abrikosov, Igor A; Calusine, Greg; Koehl, William F; Gali, Adám; Awschalom, David D

    2014-05-09

    The electron spins of semiconductor defects can have complex interactions with their host, particularly in polar materials like SiC where electrical and mechanical variables are intertwined. By combining pulsed spin resonance with ab initio simulations, we show that spin-spin interactions in 4H-SiC neutral divacancies give rise to spin states with a strong Stark effect, sub-10(-6) strain sensitivity, and highly spin-dependent photoluminescence with intensity contrasts of 15%-36%. These results establish SiC color centers as compelling systems for sensing nanoscale electric and strain fields.

  17. All-optical tomography of electron spins in (In,Ga)As quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varwig, S.; René, A.; Economou, Sophia E.; Greilich, A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Reinecke, T. L.; Bayer, M.

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate the basic features of an all-optical spin tomography on picosecond time scale. The magnetization vector associated with a mode-locked electron spin ensemble in singly charged quantum dots is traced by ellipticity measurements using picosecond laser pulses. After optical orientation the spins precess about a perpendicular magnetic field. By comparing the dynamics of two interacting ensembles with the dynamics of a single ensemble we find buildup of a spin component along the magnetic field in the two-ensemble case. This component arises from a Heisenberg-like spin-spin interaction.

  18. Direct observation of the electron spin relaxation induced by nuclei in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, P.-F.; Lombez, L.; Marie, X.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Renucci, P.; Lagarde, D.; Kalevich, V. K.; Kavokin, K. V.; Krebs, O.; Voisin, P.

    2006-02-01

    We have investigated the electron and hole spin dynamics in p-doped semiconductor InAs/GaAs quantum dots by time resolved photoluminescence. We observe a decay of the average electron spin polarisation down to 1/3 of its initial value with a characteristic time of T Δ ~ 500ps. We attribute this decay to the hyperfine interaction of the electron spin with randomly orientated nuclear spins. Magnetic field dependent studies reveal that this efficient spin relaxation mechanism can be suppressed by a field in the order of 100mT. In pump-probe like experiments we demonstrate that the resident hole spin, "written" with a first pulse, remains stable long enough to be "read" 15ns later with a second pulse.

  19. Spin decomposition of the electron in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Xiangdong; Schäfer, Andreas; Yuan, Feng; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    A systematic study on the spin decomposition of an electron in QED at one-loop order was researched. It is found that the electron orbital angular momentum defined in Jaffe-Manohar and Ji spin sum rules agree with each other, and the so-called potential angular momentum vanishes at this order. The calculations are performed in both dimensional regularization and Pauli-Villars regularization for the ultraviolet divergences, and they lead to consistent results. We further investigate the calculations in terms of light-front wave functions and find a missing contribution from the instantaneous interaction in light-front quantization. This clarifies the confusing issues raised recently in the literature on the spin decomposition of an electron and will help consolidate the spin physics program for nucleons in QCD.

  20. Spin blockade and coherent dynamics of high-spin states in a three-electron double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bao-Bao; Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Hu, Xuedong; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Asymmetry in a three-electron double quantum dot (DQD) allows spin blockade, when spin-3/2 (quadruplet) states and spin-1/2 (doublet) states have different charge configurations. We have observed this DQD spin blockade near the (1,2)-(2,1) charge transition using a pulsed-gate technique and a charge sensor. We, then, use this spin blockade to detect Landau-Zener-Stückelberg interference and coherent oscillations between the spin quadruplet and doublet states. Such studies add to our understandings of coherence and control properties of three-spin states in a double dot, which, in turn, would benefit explorations into various qubit encoding schemes in semiconductor nanostructures.

  1. Spin readout of trapped electron qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Pai; Matthiesen, Clemens; Häffner, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    We propose a scheme to read out the spin of a single electron quantum bit in a surface Paul trap using oscillating magnetic-field gradients. The readout sequence is composed of cooling, driving, amplification, and detection of the electron's motion. We study the scheme in the presence of noise and trap anharmonicities at liquid-helium temperatures. An analysis of the four procedures shows short measurement times (25 μ s ) and high fidelities (99.7 % ) are achievable with realistic experimental parameters. Our scheme performs the function of fluorescence detection in ion trapping schemes, highlighting the potential to build all-electric quantum computers based on trapped electron-spin qubits.

  2. Spin-orbit-based device for electron spin polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avishai, Y.; Band, Y. B.

    2017-03-01

    We propose quantum devices having spin-orbit coupling (but no magnetic fields or magnetic materials) that, when attached to leads, yield a high degree of transmitted electron polarization. An example of such a simple device is treated within a tight binding model composed of two one-dimensional chains coupled by several consecutive rungs (i.e., a ladder) and subject to a gate voltage. The ensuing scattering problem (with Rashba spin-orbit coupling) is solved, and a sizable polarization is predicted. When the ladder is twisted into a helix (as in DNA), the curvature energy augments the polarization. For a system with random spin-orbit coupling, the distribution of polarization is broad; hence a high degree of polarization can be obtained in a measurement of a given disorder realization. When disorder occurs in a double helix structure then, depending on scattering energy, the variance of the polarization distribution can increase even further due to helix curvature.

  3. Probing Electron Spin Resonance in Monolayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, T. J.; Sichau, J.; Dorn, A.; Centeno, A.; Pesquera, A.; Zurutuza, A.; Blick, R. H.

    2017-08-01

    The precise value of the g factor in graphene is of fundamental interest for all spin-related properties and their application. We investigate monolayer graphene on a Si /SiO2 substrate by resistively detected electron spin resonance. Surprisingly, the magnetic moment and corresponding g factor of 1.952 ±0.002 is insensitive to charge carrier type, concentration, and mobility.

  4. Quantum computing with an electron spin ensemble.

    PubMed

    Wesenberg, J H; Ardavan, A; Briggs, G A D; Morton, J J L; Schoelkopf, R J; Schuster, D I; Mølmer, K

    2009-08-14

    We propose to encode a register of quantum bits in different collective electron spin wave excitations in a solid medium. Coupling to spins is enabled by locating them in the vicinity of a superconducting transmission line cavity, and making use of their strong collective coupling to the quantized radiation field. The transformation between different spin waves is achieved by applying gradient magnetic fields across the sample, while a Cooper pair box, resonant with the cavity field, may be used to carry out one- and two-qubit gate operations.

  5. Extended pump-probe Faraday rotation spectroscopy of the submicrosecond electron spin dynamics in n -type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belykh, V. V.; Evers, E.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Fobbe, F.; Greilich, A.; Bayer, M.

    2016-12-01

    We develop an extended pump-probe Faraday rotation technique to study submicrosecond electron spin dynamics with picosecond time resolution in a wide range of magnetic fields. The electron spin dephasing time T2* and the longitudinal spin relaxation time T1, both approaching 250 ns in weak fields, are measured thereby in n -type bulk GaAs. By tailoring the pump pulse train through increasing the contained number of pulses, the buildup of resonant spin amplification is demonstrated for the electron spin polarization. The spin precession amplitude in high magnetic fields applied in the Voigt geometry shows a nonmonotonic dynamics deviating strongly from a monoexponential decay and revealing slow beatings. The beatings indicate a two spin component behavior with a g -factor difference of Δ g ˜4 ×10-4 , much smaller than the Δ g expected for free and donor-bound electrons. This g -factor variation indicates efficient, but incomplete spin exchange averaging.

  6. Anisotropic spin dephasing of impurity-bound electron spins in ZnO

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jieun; Sih, Vanessa; Venugopal, Aneesh

    2015-01-05

    We investigate the electron spin dynamics of n-type c-axis oriented bulk zinc oxide (ZnO) by using time-resolved Kerr rotation and resonant spin amplification measurements. Calculating resonant spin amplification using an anisotropic spin dephasing model reveals that there are two species involved in the spin dynamics, which we attribute to conduction and impurity-bound electron spins, respectively. We find that the impurity-bound electron spin dephasing mechanism is strongly anisotropic due to anisotropic exchange interactions. The identification of the two spin species and their dephasing mechanisms is further supported by the temperature, power, and wavelength dependence of the spin coherence measurements.

  7. A multifrequency high-field pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance/electron-nuclear double resonance spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Gavin W.; Brunel, Louis-Claude; van Tol, Johan

    2008-06-01

    We describe a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer operating at several frequencies in the range of 110-336GHz. The microwave source at all frequencies consists of a multiplier chain starting from a solid state synthesizer in the 12-15GHz range. A fast p-i-n-switch at the base frequency creates the pulses. At all frequencies a Fabry-Pérot resonator is employed and the π /2 pulse length ranges from ˜100ns at 110GHzto˜600ns at 334GHz. Measurements of a single crystal containing dilute Mn2+ impurities at 12T illustrate the effects of large electron spin polarizations. The capabilities also allow for pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) experiments as demonstrated by Mims ENDOR of K39 nuclei in Cr :K3NbO8.

  8. Timekeeping with electron spin states in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, J. S.; Yao, N. Y.; Maclaurin, D.; Rastogi, C.; Lukin, M. D.; Englund, D.

    2013-03-01

    Frequency standards based on atomic states, such as Rb or Cs vapors, or single-trapped ions, are the most precise measures of time. Here we propose and analyze a precision oscillator approach based upon spins in a solid-state system, in particular, the nitrogen-vacancy defect in single-crystal diamond. We show that this system can have stability approaching portable atomic standards and is readily incorporable as a chip-scale device. Using a pulsed spin-echo technique, we anticipate an Allan deviation of σy=10-7τ-1/2 limited by thermally-induced strain variations; in the absence of such thermal fluctuations, the system is limited by spin dephasing and harbors an Allan deviation nearing ˜10-12τ-1/2. Potential improvements based upon advanced diamond material processing, temperature stabilization, and nanophotonic engineering are discussed.

  9. Spin Polarized Electron Probes and Magnetic Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. Mills

    2003-10-15

    OAK B188 This report summarizes progress to date in our theoretical research program, for the period from July 1, 2002 to November 1, 2003. In addition, our research priorities for the coming year are set forth. The reporting period has been a most exciting and significant one. For the past several years, one of our principal thrust areas has been development of the theory of spin dynamics in magnetic nanostructures with emphasis on the use of spin polarized electrons as probes of short wavelength spin dynamics in such entities. Our program stimulated the first experiment which detected large wave vector spin waves in ultrathin films in 1999 through spin polarized electron loss spectroscopy (SPEELS); the publication which announced this discovery was a joint publication between a group in Halle (Germany) with our theory effort. The continued collaboration has led to the design and implementation of the new SPEELS spectrometer and we now have in hand the first detailed measurements of spin wave dispersion in an ultrathin film. A second such spectrometer is now operational in the laboratory of Prof. H. Hopster, at UC Irvine. We are thus entering a most exciting new era in the spectroscopy of spin excitations in magnetic nanostructures. During the reporting period, we have completed very important new analyses which predict key aspects of the spectra which will be uncovered by these new instruments, and the calculations continue to be developed and to expand our understanding. In addition, we have initiated a new series of theoretical studies directed toward spin dynamics of single magnetic adatoms on metal surfaces, with STM based studies of this area n mind. In the near future, these studies will continue, and we will expand our effort into new areas of spin dynamics in magnetic nanostructures.

  10. Time-bin state transfer to electron spin coherence in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaka, Hideo; Inagaki, Takahiro; Hitomi, Ryuta; Izawa, Fumishige; Mitsumori, Yasuyoshi; Edamatsu, Keiichi; Rikitake, Yoshiaki; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2014-12-04

    We demonstrate that a coherent superposition state of two temporally separated optical pulses, called a time-bin state, can be transferred to that of up/down electron spins in a semiconductor by synchronizing the time separation to the precession period of either electrons or holes. The time-bin transfer scheme does not require polarization mode degeneracy and can map the time-bin state to the electron spin state that is not accessible directly using only polarization. The scheme offers a new approach for quantum interfaces between photons and electron spins.

  11. Entangled electron and nuclear spin states in 15N@C60: Density matrix tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Werner; Mehring, Michael

    2008-02-01

    Procedures of the preparation and detection of entangled electron-nuclear spin states in N15@C60 by combining electron spin resonance and electron nuclear double resonance pulse techniques are presented. A quantitative evaluation of the complete density matrix is obtained by a special density matrix tomography. All four Bell states of a two qubit subsystem were analyzed and experimental decoherence times are presented. In addition, we estimate a quantum critical temperature of Tq=7.76K for this system at an electron spin resonance frequency of 95GHz.

  12. Driven coherent oscillations of a single electron spin in a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppens, Frank; Buizert, Christo; Tielrooij, Klaas-Jan; Vink, Ivo; Nowack, Katja; Meunier, Tristan; Kouwenhoven, Leo; Vandersypen, Lieven

    2007-03-01

    The ability to control the quantum state of a single electron spin in a quantum dot is at the heart of recent developments towards a scalable spin-based quantum computer. In combination with the recently demonstrated controlled exchange gate between two neighbouring spins [1], driven coherent single spin rotations would permit universal quantum operations. In this talk, I will discuss the experimental realization of single electron spin rotations in a gate-defined GaAs double quantum dot. We coherently control the quantum state of the electron spin by applying short bursts of an on-chip generated oscillating magnetic field [2]. This allows us to observe up to eight Rabi oscillations of the electron spin in a microsecond burst. Via Ramsey-type pulse sequences we measure an apparent time-averaged coherence time which is limited by the hyperfine interaction with the nuclear spins. We erase these nuclear spin effects to a large extend via spin-echo pulse sequences and recover the intrinsic coherence time. [1] J.R. Petta et al., Science 309, 2180--2184 (2005). [2] F.H.L. Koppens et al., Nature 442, 766-771 (2006).

  13. Reconstitution and electron spin resonance spin labeling studies of nucleosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, D.C.F.; Grover, T.A.; Piette, L.H.

    1980-10-01

    The spin label, N-(2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-carbonylpyrrolidine-1-oxyl)-imidazole, was used to study the mode of reconstitution of nucleosome core particles. The histone cores in 2 M NaCl were first reacted with the imidazole spin label. After the removal of unreacted label, the histone cores were mixed with purified core DNA (145 base pairs) in 2 M NaCl. The mixture was then reconstituted by salt step-gradient dialysis according to Tatchell and Van Holde. At each step of the dialysis, an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum of the labeled tyrosyls was recorded and the correlation time of the label determined. As the ionic strength was gradually decreased, the correlation time of the spin label increased. This is in contrast to what we observed previously for the histone core alone, in which a decrease in the ionic strength caused the histone core (in the absence of DNA) to dissociate, freeing up the label and decreasing its correlation tie. Judging from the change in rotational correlation times for the spin label, we concluded that the histone core binds progressively to the DNA in the range of 2 M-0.3 M NaCl. When the ionic strength is <0.3 M, full association between the histone core and DNA takes place. These reconstituted spin labelled nucleosome core complexes, purified by isokinetic sucrose gradient, were found to have identical physical properties (histone content, sedimentation coefficient, thermal melting profile, and ciruclar dichroism) as the native particle.

  14. Ultra-low power microwave manipulation of electron spin ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigillito, A. J.; Malissa, H.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators are a promising alternative to standard dielectric resonators for many electron spin resonance experiments. Their high sensitivity and low power requirements make them particularly well suited to applications where the sample volume is small and when microwave heating is a concern. Experiments utilizing rectangular pulses are possible with a peak microwave power of less than 1uW for 400ns pi-rotations, and under 100 uW of peak power for 40ns pi-rotations. However, CPW resonators have an inherently inhomogeneous microwave magnetic field (B1) . Therefore, to uniformly rotate all spins in a sample, adiabatic microwave pulses must be used. Here we report on the use of such pulses to correct B1 inhomogeneities spanning an order of magnitude. We also present data indicating single shot sensitivity to 1x107 phosphorus donors in isotopically enriched 28Si at 1.7K. These show that superconducting CPW resonators are fully compatible with experiments requiring rapid manipulation of spins in dilution refrigerators. This work was supported in part by NSF through the Materials World Network program (DMR-1107606) and the Princeton MRSEC (DMR-0819860), and in part by the U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-13-1-0179).

  15. Coherent control with optical pulses for deterministic spin-photon entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truex, Katherine; Webster, L. A.; Duan, L.-M.; Sham, L. J.; Steel, D. G.

    2013-11-01

    We present a procedure for the optical coherent control of quantum bits within a quantum dot spin-exciton system, as a preliminary step to implementing a proposal by Yao, Liu, and Sham [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.030504 95, 030504 (2005)] for deterministic spin-photon entanglement. The experiment proposed here utilizes a series of picosecond optical pulses from a single laser to coherently control a single self-assembled quantum dot in a magnetic field, creating the precursor state in 25 ps with a predicted fidelity of 0.991. If allowed to decay in an appropriate cavity, the ideal precursor superposition state would create maximum spin-photon entanglement. Numerical simulations using values typical of InAs quantum dots give a predicted entropy of entanglement of 0.929, largely limited by radiative decay and electron spin flips.

  16. Ultrafast spin-transfer torque driven by femtosecond pulsed-laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koopmans, Bert

    A hot topic in the field of ultrafast laser-induced manipulation of the magnetic state is that of the role and exploitation of laser-induced spin currents. Intense debate has been triggered by claims that such a spin-transfer, e.g. in the form of super-diffusive spin currents over tens of nanometers, might be a main contributor to the demagnetization process in ferromagnetic thin films after femtosecond laser excitation. In this presentation the underlying concepts will be introduced and recent developments reviewed. Particularly we demonstrate the possibility to apply a laser-induced spin transfer torque on a free magnetic layer, using a non-collinear multilayer configuration consisting of a free in-plane layer on top of a perpendicularly magnetized injection layer, as separated by a nonmagnetic spacer. Interestingly, this approach allows for a quantitative measurement of the amount of spin transfer. Moreover, it might provide access to novel device architectures in which the magnetic state is controlled by fs laser pulses. Careful analysis of the resulting precession of the free layer allows us to quantify the applied torque, and distinguish between driving mechanisms based on laser-induced transfer of hot electrons versus a spin Seebeck effect due to the large thermal gradients. Further engineering of the layered structures in order to gain fundamental understanding and optimize efficiencies will be reported. A simple model that treats local non-equilibrium magnetization dynamics to spin transport effects via a spin-dependent chemical potential will be introduced.

  17. Electron trajectories in pulsed radiation fields

    SciTech Connect

    Einwohner, T.; Lippmann, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The work reported here analyzes the dynamical behavior of an electron, initially at rest, when subjected to a radiation pulse of arbitrary, but integrable, shape. This is done by a general integration procedure that has been programmed in VAXIMA. Upon choosing a specific shape for the pulse, VAXIMA finds both the space-time trajectory and the four-momentum of the electron. These are obtained in analytic or numerical form - or both - at the choice of the user. Several examples of analytical and numerical solutions, for different pulse shapes, are given.

  18. Undergraduate Electron-Spin-Resonance Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, James S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the basic procedures for use of an electron-spin resonance spectrometer and potassium azide (KN3) in an experiment which extends from the phase of sample preparation (crystal growth, sample mounting, and orientation) through data taking to the stages of calculation and theoretical explanation. (Author/DS)

  19. Undergraduate Electron-Spin-Resonance Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, James S.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the basic procedures for use of an electron-spin resonance spectrometer and potassium azide (KN3) in an experiment which extends from the phase of sample preparation (crystal growth, sample mounting, and orientation) through data taking to the stages of calculation and theoretical explanation. (Author/DS)

  20. Electron beam stimulated spin reorientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchesky, T. L.; Unguris, J.; Celotta, R. J.

    2003-05-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis, we observed the electron beam induced switching of the magnetic state of epitaxial single-crystal Fe(110) films grown on atomically flat cleaved GaAs(110). For low film thickness the magnetization lies along the [-110] in-plane direction, while above a thickness of 19 monolayers, the ground state magnetization configuration switches to the [001] in-plane direction. If Fe films are grown to a thickness greater than the critical thickness of the reorientation, the magnetization is caught in a metastable state, oriented along [-110]. We discovered that we can locally switch the metastable state to the stable [001] direction by irradiating the metastable magnetic state with a suitable electron current density. The reversal proceeds by the nucleation and growth of lancet-shaped domains that move in discrete jumps between pinning sites. Our results show that there is a permanent reduction of the strength of defect sites without a permanent change in the overall anisotropy. We demonstrate how an electron beam can be used to locally control domain structure.

  1. Pulse-noise approach for classical spin systems.

    PubMed

    Garanin, D A

    2017-01-01

    For systems of classical spins interacting with the bath via damping and thermal noise, an approach is suggested to replace the white noise by a pulse noise acting at regular time intervals Δt, within which the system evolves conservatively. The method is working well in the typical case of a small dimensionless damping constant λ and allows a considerable speedup of computations by using high-order numerical integrators with a large time step δt (up to a fraction of the precession period), while keeping δt≪Δt to reduce the relative contribution of noise-related operations. In cases when precession can be discarded, δt can be increased up to a fraction of the relaxation time ∝1/λ that leads to a further speedup. This makes equilibration speed comparable with that of the Metropolis Monte Carlo method. The pulse-noise approach is tested on single-spin and multispin models.

  2. Pulse-noise approach for classical spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garanin, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    For systems of classical spins interacting with the bath via damping and thermal noise, an approach is suggested to replace the white noise by a pulse noise acting at regular time intervals Δ t , within which the system evolves conservatively. The method is working well in the typical case of a small dimensionless damping constant λ and allows a considerable speedup of computations by using high-order numerical integrators with a large time step δ t (up to a fraction of the precession period), while keeping δ t ≪Δ t to reduce the relative contribution of noise-related operations. In cases when precession can be discarded, δ t can be increased up to a fraction of the relaxation time ∝1 /λ that leads to a further speedup. This makes equilibration speed comparable with that of the Metropolis Monte Carlo method. The pulse-noise approach is tested on single-spin and multispin models.

  3. High field electron spin resonance experiments on spin - Peierls compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palme, W.; Schmidt, S.; Lüthi, B.; Boucher, J. P.; Weiden, M.; Hauptmann, R.; Geibel, C.; Revcolevschi, A.; Dhalenne, G.

    1998-05-01

    The spin-Peierls (SP) transition is still one of the most challenging effects in quasi-one-dimensional magnetism. A few years ago the first inorganic spin-Peierls compound CuGeO 3 with TSP=14.3 K was discovered, and recently α‧-NaV 2O 5 was found to be another inorganic SP system with the highest transition temperature so far observed: TSP=35 K. Electron spin resonance (ESR) is the only direct way to probe electron spin dynamics in magnetic fields higher than 12 T, where a transition to an incommensurate magnetic phase can occur. We present ESR results on single crystals of pure and Si-doped CuGeO 3 and pure α‧-NaV 2O 5. Our experiments were done in a wide frequency range 35-440 GHz in magnetic fields up to 16 T, covering a large temperature range 1.5-100 K. The temperature dependence of the ESR absorption in the D-phase in α‧-NaV 2O 5 points to transitions among triplet states, which are separated from the singlet ground state by an energy gap Δ≈85 K for T →0 . In contrast to χ( T) the ESR absorption does not stay finite for T →0 . In the incommensurate phase of slightly Si-doped CuGeO 3 (0.2% Si) ESR signals were observed, but their behaviour is much different from the ones in the pure compound.

  4. Electron-nuclear spin dynamics of Ga2 + paramagnetic centers probed by spin-dependent recombination: A master equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V. G.; Sandoval-Santana, J. C.; Azaizia, S.; Carrère, H.; Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Kalevich, V. K.; Ivchenko, E. L.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Balocchi, A.; Kunold, A.

    2017-05-01

    Similar to nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond and impurity atoms in silicon, interstitial gallium deep paramagnetic centers in GaAsN have been proven to have useful characteristics for the development of spintronic devices. Among other interesting properties, under circularly polarized light, gallium centers act as spin filters that dynamically polarize free and bound electrons reaching record spin polarizations (close to 100%). Furthermore, the recent observation of the amplification of the spin filtering effect under a Faraday configuration magnetic field has suggested that the hyperfine interaction that couples bound electrons and nuclei permits the optical manipulation of the nuclear spin polarization. Even though the mechanisms behind the nuclear spin polarization in gallium centers are fairly well understood, the origin of nuclear spin relaxation and the formation of an Overhauser-like magnetic field remain elusive. In this work we develop a model based on the master equation approach to describe the evolution of electronic and nuclear spin polarizations of gallium centers interacting with free electrons and holes. Our results are in good agreement with existing experimental observations. In particular, we are able to reproduce the amplification of the spin filtering effect under a circularly polarized excitation in a Faraday configuration magnetic field. In regard to the nuclear spin relaxation, the roles of nuclear dipolar and quadrupolar interactions are discussed. Our findings show that, besides the hyperfine interaction, the spin relaxation mechanisms are key to understand the amplification of the spin filtering effect and the appearance of the Overhauser-like magnetic field. To gain a deeper insight in the interplay of the hyperfine interaction and the relaxation mechanisms, we have also performed calculations in the pulsed excitation regime. Our model's results allow us to propose an experimental protocol based on time-resolved spectroscopy. It

  5. Observation of Excited State Spin Ordering under Pulsed Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaya, Kiichi; Karaki, Yoshitomo; Yamada, Norikatsu; Haseda, Taiichiro

    1981-10-01

    Spin ordering among excited levels in NaNi Acac3\\cdotbenzene is observed in the course of pulsed adiabatic magnetization with sweep rate of 105 T/sec. For initial temperatures below 1 K, dM/dt signals give the characteristic double peaks around the field of 2.11 T where the excited singlet and the upper state of the ground doublet crosses.

  6. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Luyi

    2013-05-17

    suppressed by electron-electron interactions, leading to remarkable resistance to diffusive spreading of the drifting pulse of spin polarization. Finally, we show that spin helices continue propagate at the same speed as the Fermi sea even when the electron drift velocity exceeds the Fermi velocity of 107 cm s-1.

  7. Electron Tunneling in Lithium Ammonia Solutions Probed by Frequency-Dependent Electron-Spin Relaxation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T.J.; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H.; Edwards, Peter P.

    2012-01-01

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T1) and spin-spin (T2) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multi-exponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1–10)×10−12 s over a temperature range 230–290K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a timescale of ca. 10−13 s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great potential

  8. Electron tunneling in lithium-ammonia solutions probed by frequency-dependent electron spin relaxation studies.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kiminori; Lodge, Matthew T J; Harmer, Jeffrey; Freed, Jack H; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-06-06

    Electron transfer or quantum tunneling dynamics for excess or solvated electrons in dilute lithium-ammonia solutions have been studied by pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at both X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) frequencies. The electron spin-lattice (T(1)) and spin-spin (T(2)) relaxation data indicate an extremely fast transfer or quantum tunneling rate of the solvated electron in these solutions which serves to modulate the hyperfine (Fermi-contact) interaction with nitrogen nuclei in the solvation shells of ammonia molecules surrounding the localized, solvated electron. The donor and acceptor states of the solvated electron in these solutions are the initial and final electron solvation sites found before, and after, the transfer or tunneling process. To interpret and model our electron spin relaxation data from the two observation EPR frequencies requires a consideration of a multiexponential correlation function. The electron transfer or tunneling process that we monitor through the correlation time of the nitrogen Fermi-contact interaction has a time scale of (1-10) × 10(-12) s over a temperature range 230-290 K in our most dilute solution of lithium in ammonia. Two types of electron-solvent interaction mechanisms are proposed to account for our experimental findings. The dominant electron spin relaxation mechanism results from an electron tunneling process characterized by a variable donor-acceptor distance or range (consistent with such a rapidly fluctuating liquid structure) in which the solvent shell that ultimately accepts the transferring electron is formed from random, thermal fluctuations of the liquid structure in, and around, a natural hole or Bjerrum-like defect vacancy in the liquid. Following transfer and capture of the tunneling electron, further solvent-cage relaxation with a time scale of ∼10(-13) s results in a minor contribution to the electron spin relaxation times. This investigation illustrates the great

  9. Dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins interacting with nuclear spin baths in quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragar, Igor; Cywiński, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    We study the dynamics of entanglement of two electron spins in two quantum dots, in which each electron is interacting with its nuclear spin environment. Focusing on the case of uncoupled dots, and starting from either Bell or Werner states of two qubits, we calculate the decay of entanglement due to the hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. We mostly focus on the regime of magnetic fields in which the bath-induced electron spin flips play a role, for example, their presence leads to the appearance of entanglement sudden death at finite time for two qubits initialized in a Bell state. For these fields, the intrabath dipolar interactions and spatial inhomogeneity of hyperfine couplings are irrelevant on the time scale of coherence (and entanglement) decay, and most of the presented calculations are performed using the uniform-coupling approximation to the exact hyperfine Hamiltonian. We provide a comprehensive overview of entanglement decay in this regime, considering both free evolution of the qubits, and an echo protocol with simultaneous application of π pulses to the two spins. All the currently relevant for experiments bath states are considered: the thermal state, narrowed states (characterized by diminished uncertainty of one of the components of the Overhauser field) of two uncorrelated baths, and a correlated narrowed state with a well-defined value of the z component of the Overhauser field interdot gradient. While we mostly use concurrence to quantify the amount of entanglement in a mixed state of the two electron spins, we also show that their entanglement dynamics can be reconstructed from measurements of the currently relevant for experiments entanglement witnesses and the fidelity of quantum teleportation, performed using a partially disentangled state as a resource.

  10. Electron Ion Collider transverse spin physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prokudin, Alexei

    2011-07-01

    Electron Ion Collider is a future high energy facility for studies of the structure of the nucleon. Three-dimensional parton structure is one of the main goals of EIC. In momentum space Transverse Momentum Dependent Distributions (TMDs) are the key ingredients to map such a structure. At leading twist spin structure of spin-1/2 hadron can be described by 8 TMDs. Experimentally these functions can be studied in polarised SIDIS experiments. We discuss Sivers distribution function that describes distribution of unpolarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon and transversity that measures distribution of transversely polarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon

  11. Electron Ion Collider transverse spin physics

    SciTech Connect

    Prokudin, Alexei

    2011-07-15

    Electron Ion Collider is a future high energy facility for studies of the structure of the nucleon. Three-dimensional parton structure is one of the main goals of EIC. In momentum space Transverse Momentum Dependent Distributions (TMDs) are the key ingredients to map such a structure. At leading twist spin structure of spin-1/2 hadron can be described by 8 TMDs. Experimentally these functions can be studied in polarised SIDIS experiments. We discuss Sivers distribution function that describes distribution of unpolarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon and transversity that measures distribution of transversely polarised quarks in a transversely polarised nucleon.

  12. Manipulation of mobile spin coherence using magnetic-field-free electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, H.; Kunihashi, Y.; Gotoh, H.; Onomitsu, K.; Kohda, M.; Nitta, J.; Santos, P. V.; Sogawa, T.

    2013-05-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) has applications in the manipulation of individual electron spins for quantum information processing. In general, ESR requires two external magnetic fields: a static field (B0) to split the spin states in energy and an oscillating field (B1) with the frequency resonant to the splitting energy. However, spin manipulation methods relying on real magnetic fields--much broader than the size of individual electrons--are energetically inefficient and unsuitable for future device applications. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach where the spin-orbit interaction of trajectory-controlled electrons induces effective B0 and B1 fields. These fields are created when electron spins surf on sound waves along winding semiconductor channels. The resultant spin dynamics--mobile spin resonance--is equivalent to the usual ESR but requires neither static nor time-dependent real magnetic fields to manipulate electron spin coherence.

  13. Optical control and coherence of electron or hole spins in coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Samuel

    2013-03-01

    The spin of an electron or hole in an InAs quantum dot is an attractive qubit because it combines the advantages of a semiconductor platform with the power of ultrafast optical coherent control techniques. In the last few years, basic quantum operations such as initialization, rotation, and readout have become possible using single spins, but now improvements in spin coherence and demonstrations of multi-qubit systems are needed. In this work, we combine advances in the design and growth of coupled quantum dots with optical coherent control techniques to demonstrate ultrafast manipulation and coherence improvements for one or two interacting electron or hole spins in a coupled pair of InAs dots. For each of these spin systems, we use a sequence of picosecond and nanosecond pulses to initialize, manipulate, and measure the coherent spin dynamics. These dynamics include precession about a magnetic field and also entangling dynamics from the exchange interaction for coupled spins. For a single electron spin, precession dephases after only a few nanoseconds due to the hyperfine interaction with nuclear spins. For hole spins, we measure a dephasing time an order of magnitude longer due to a weaker hyperfine interaction. Coupled electron and hole spins are essential for multi-qubit systems, and they can also be used to decrease sensitivity to the environment. In these systems, we typically measure the coherent dynamics of the singlet-triplet states (ms = 0), which are much less sensitive to the nuclear environment. At present, dephasing is due to fluctuations in the electrical environment. With careful sample design, we can make these systems much less sensitive to electrical fluctuations, giving a powerful combination of long coherence times and ultrafast gates. Finally, we demonstrate that these spin qubits can be incorporated into a photonic crystal cavity and manipulated with optical pulses, a major step toward a quantum interface between photons and these spin

  14. Pulsed EPR Determination of Water Accessibility to Spin-Labeled Amino Acid Residues in LHCIIb

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, A.; Dockter, C.; Bund, T.; Paulsen, H.; Jeschke, G.

    2009-01-01

    Membrane proteins reside in a structured environment in which some of their residues are accessible to water, some are in contact with alkyl chains of lipid molecules, and some are buried in the protein. Water accessibility of residues may change during folding or function-related structural dynamics. Several techniques based on the combination of pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) with site-directed spin labeling can be used to quantify such water accessibility. Accessibility parameters for different residues in major plant light-harvesting complex IIb are determined by electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy in the presence of deuterated water, deuterium contrast in transversal relaxation rates, analysis of longitudinal relaxation rates, and line shape analysis of electron-spin-echo-detected EPR spectra as well as by the conventional techniques of measuring the maximum hyperfine splitting and progressive saturation in continuous-wave EPR. Systematic comparison of these parameters allows for a more detailed characterization of the environment of the spin-labeled residues. These techniques are applicable independently of protein size and require ∼10–20 nmol of singly spin-labeled protein per sample. For a residue close to the N-terminus, in a domain unresolved in the existing x-ray structures of light-harvesting complex IIb, all methods indicate high water accessibility. PMID:19186148

  15. Hybrid quantum magnetic-field sensor with an electron spin and a nuclear spin in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Shimo-Oka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Semba, Kouichi; Mizuochi, Norikazu

    2016-11-01

    Recently, magnetic-field sensors based on an electron spin of a nitrogen vacancy center in diamond have been studied both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. This system provides a nanoscale magnetometer, and it is possible to detect a precession of a single spin. In this paper, we propose a sensor consisting of an electron spin and a nuclear spin in diamond. Although the electron spin has a reasonable interaction strength with magnetic field, the coherence time of the spin is relatively short. On the other hand, the nuclear spin has a longer lifetime while the spin has a negligible interaction with magnetic fields. We show that, through the combination of such two different spins via the hyperfine interaction, it is possible to construct a magnetic-field sensor with the sensitivity far beyond that of previous sensors using just a single electron spin.

  16. Kondo spin screening cloud in two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit couplings.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2011-03-16

    A spin-1/2 Anderson impurity in a semiconductor quantum well with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings is studied by using a variational wavefunction method. The local magnetic moment is found to be quenched at low temperatures. The spin-spin correlations of the impurity and the conduction electron density show anisotropy in both spatial and spin spaces, which interpolates the Kondo spin screenings of a conventional metal and of a surface of three-dimensional topological insulators.

  17. Electron-Spin Filters Would Offer Spin Polarization Greater than 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.

    2009-01-01

    A proposal has been made to develop devices that would generate spin-polarized electron currents characterized by polarization ratios having magnitudes in excess of 1. Heretofore, such devices (denoted, variously, as spin injectors, spin polarizers, and spin filters) have typically offered polarization ratios having magnitudes in the approximate range of 0.01 to 0.1. The proposed devices could be useful as efficient sources of spin-polarized electron currents for research on spintronics and development of practical spintronic devices.

  18. Exactly solvable spin dynamics of an electron coupled to a large number of nuclei; the electron-nuclear spin echo in a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, G. G.

    2007-10-15

    The model used to describe the spin dynamics in quantum dots after optical excitation is considered. Problems of the electron-spin polarization decay and the dependence of the steady-state polarization on magnetic field are solved on the basis of exact diagonalization of the model Hamiltonian. An important role of the nuclear state is shown and methods of its calculation for different regimes of optical excitation are proposed. The effect of spin echo generation after application of a {pi} pulse of a magnetic field is predicted for the system under consideration.

  19. Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy powered by a free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Brunel, L-C; Edwards, D T; van Tol, J; Ramian, G; Han, S; Sherwin, M S

    2012-09-20

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy interrogates unpaired electron spins in solids and liquids to reveal local structure and dynamics; for example, EPR has elucidated parts of the structure of protein complexes that other techniques in structural biology have not been able to reveal. EPR can also probe the interplay of light and electricity in organic solar cells and light-emitting diodes, and the origin of decoherence in condensed matter, which is of fundamental importance to the development of quantum information processors. Like nuclear magnetic resonance, EPR spectroscopy becomes more powerful at high magnetic fields and frequencies, and with excitation by coherent pulses rather than continuous waves. However, the difficulty of generating sequences of powerful pulses at frequencies above 100 gigahertz has, until now, confined high-power pulsed EPR to magnetic fields of 3.5 teslas and below. Here we demonstrate that one-kilowatt pulses from a free-electron laser can power a pulsed EPR spectrometer at 240 gigahertz (8.5 teslas), providing transformative enhancements over the alternative, a state-of-the-art ∼30-milliwatt solid-state source. Our spectrometer can rotate spin-1/2 electrons through π/2 in only 6 nanoseconds (compared to 300 nanoseconds with the solid-state source). Fourier-transform EPR on nitrogen impurities in diamond demonstrates excitation and detection of EPR lines separated by about 200 megahertz. We measured decoherence times as short as 63 nanoseconds, in a frozen solution of nitroxide free-radicals at temperatures as high as 190 kelvin. Both free-electron lasers and the quasi-optical technology developed for the spectrometer are scalable to frequencies well in excess of one terahertz, opening the way to high-power pulsed EPR spectroscopy up to the highest static magnetic fields currently available.

  20. Electron-Spin Resonance in Boron Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles; Venturini, Eugene L.; Azevedo, Larry J.; Emin, David

    1987-01-01

    Samples exhibit Curie-law behavior in temperature range of 2 to 100 K. Technical paper presents studies of electron-spin resonance of samples of hot pressed B9 C, B15 C2, B13 C2, and B4 C. Boron carbide ceramics are refractory solids with high melting temperatures, low thermal conductives, and extreme hardnesses. They show promise as semiconductors at high temperatures and have unusually large figures of merit for use in thermoelectric generators.

  1. Electron spin resonance identification of irradiated fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffi, Jacques J.; Agnel, Jean-Pierre L.

    The electron spin resonance spectrum of achenes, pips, stalks and stones from irradiated fruits (strawberry, raspberry, red currant, bilberry, apple, pear, fig, french prune, kiwi, water-melon and cherry) always displays, just after γ-treatment, a weak triplet ( aH≈30 G) due to a cellulose radical; its left line (lower field) can be used as an identification test of irradiation, at least for strawberries, rapsberries, red currants or bilberries irradiated in order to improve their storage time.

  2. Electron doping a kagome spin liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Z. A.; Gallagher, M. J.; McQueen, T. M.

    2016-10-13

    Herbertsmithite, ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2, is a two-dimensional kagome lattice realization of a spin liquid, with evidence for fractionalized excitations and a gapped ground state. Such a quantum spin liquid has been proposed to underlie high-temperature superconductivity and is predicted to produce a wealth of new states, including a Dirac metal at 1/3 electron doping. Here, we report the topochemical synthesis of electron-doped ZnLixCu3(OH)6Cl2 from x=0 to x=1.8 (3/5 per Cu2+). Contrary to expectations, no metallicity or superconductivity is induced. Instead, we find a systematic suppression of magnetic behavior across the phase diagram. Lastly, our results demonstrate that significant theoretical work is needed to understand and predict the role of doping in magnetically frustrated narrow band insulators, particularly the interplay between local structural disorder and tendency toward electron localization, and pave the way for future studies of doped spin liquids.

  3. Electron Doping a Kagome Spin Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Z. A.; Gallagher, M. J.; McQueen, T. M.

    2016-10-01

    Herbertsmithite, ZnCu3 (OH )6Cl2 , is a two-dimensional kagome lattice realization of a spin liquid, with evidence for fractionalized excitations and a gapped ground state. Such a quantum spin liquid has been proposed to underlie high-temperature superconductivity and is predicted to produce a wealth of new states, including a Dirac metal at 1 /3 electron doping. Here, we report the topochemical synthesis of electron-doped ZnLix Cu3 (OH )6Cl2 from x =0 to x =1.8 (3 /5 per Cu2 + ). Contrary to expectations, no metallicity or superconductivity is induced. Instead, we find a systematic suppression of magnetic behavior across the phase diagram. Our results demonstrate that significant theoretical work is needed to understand and predict the role of doping in magnetically frustrated narrow band insulators, particularly the interplay between local structural disorder and tendency toward electron localization, and pave the way for future studies of doped spin liquids.

  4. Electron doping a kagome spin liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Kelly, Z. A.; Gallagher, M. J.; McQueen, T. M.

    2016-10-13

    Herbertsmithite, ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2, is a two-dimensional kagome lattice realization of a spin liquid, with evidence for fractionalized excitations and a gapped ground state. Such a quantum spin liquid has been proposed to underlie high-temperature superconductivity and is predicted to produce a wealth of new states, including a Dirac metal at 1/3 electron doping. Here, we report the topochemical synthesis of electron-doped ZnLixCu3(OH)6Cl2 from x=0 to x=1.8 (3/5 per Cu2+). Contrary to expectations, no metallicity or superconductivity is induced. Instead, we find a systematic suppression of magnetic behavior across the phase diagram. Lastly, our results demonstrate that significant theoretical work is neededmore » to understand and predict the role of doping in magnetically frustrated narrow band insulators, particularly the interplay between local structural disorder and tendency toward electron localization, and pave the way for future studies of doped spin liquids.« less

  5. Pulsed Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance of 2D Electrons in a Si/SiGe Quantum Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen; Jantsch, Wolfgang; Schaffler, Friedrich

    2005-03-01

    We have developed a new method of pulsed EDMR (Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance) and applied it to measure spin relaxation times of 2D electrons in a Si/SiGe quantum well. The method is based on spin-dependent transport in the 2D channel: Conduction electrons scatter off each other, and their scattering cross section depends on the relative orientation of their spins [1]. The initial, thermal polarization of 2D electron spins (at H=350 mT and T=4 K) is altered by applying the resonant 10 GHz microwave pulses. A change in the spin polarization results in a variation of the device conductivity (˜10-4), and its recovery back to the thermal equilibrium is measured after the microwave pulse. The recovery time measures the spin relaxation, and we find T1 = 1.4 μs for 2D electrons in a modulation-doped Si quantum well, the same time as we measure with conventional pulsed spin resonance. This new pulsed EDMR method will allow the measurement of T1 and T2 on small semiconductor structures with sensitivity down to a few spins, possibly a single spin. [1] Ghosh and Silsbee, Phys. Rev. B 42, 12508(1992).

  6. Inverse spin Hall effect from pulsed spin current in organic semiconductors with tunable spin-orbit coupling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dali; van Schooten, Kipp J; Kavand, Marzieh; Malissa, Hans; Zhang, Chuang; Groesbeck, Matthew; Boehme, Christoph; Valy Vardeny, Z

    2016-08-01

    Exploration of spin currents in organic semiconductors (OSECs) induced by resonant microwave absorption in ferromagnetic substrates is appealing for potential spintronics applications. Owing to the inherently weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of OSECs, their inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) response is very subtle; limited by the microwave power applicable under continuous-wave (cw) excitation. Here we introduce a novel approach for generating significant ISHE signals in OSECs using pulsed ferromagnetic resonance, where the ISHE is two to three orders of magnitude larger compared to cw excitation. This strong ISHE enables us to investigate a variety of OSECs ranging from π-conjugated polymers with strong SOC that contain intrachain platinum atoms, to weak SOC polymers, to C60 films, where the SOC is predominantly caused by the curvature of the molecule's surface. The pulsed-ISHE technique offers a robust route for efficient injection and detection schemes of spin currents at room temperature, and paves the way for spin orbitronics in plastic materials.

  7. From spin flip excitations to the spin susceptibility enhancement of a two-dimensional electron gas.

    PubMed

    Perez, F; Aku-leh, C; Richards, D; Jusserand, B; Smith, L C; Wolverson, D; Karczewski, G

    2007-07-13

    The g-factor enhancement of the spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas was measured directly over a wide range of spin polarizations, using spin flip resonant Raman scattering spectroscopy on two-dimensional electron gases embedded in Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te semimagnetic quantum wells. At zero Raman transferred momentum, the single-particle spin flip excitation, energy Z*, coexists in the Raman spectrum with the spin flip wave of energy Z, the bare giant Zeeman splitting. We compare the measured g-factor enhancement with recent spin-susceptibility enhancement theories and deduce the spin-polarization dependence of the mass renormalization.

  8. A compact high current pulsed electron gun with subnanosecond electron pulse widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetically-collimated, double-pulsed electron gun capable of generating electron pulses with a peak instantaneous current of approximately 70 microamps and a temporal width of 0.35 ns (FWHM) has been developed. Calibration is accomplished by measuring the lifetime of the well known 2(1P)-to-1(1S) transition in helium (58.4nm) at a near-threshold electron-impact energy by use of the delayed-coincidence technique.

  9. A compact high current pulsed electron gun with subnanosecond electron pulse widths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khakoo, M. A.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetically-collimated, double-pulsed electron gun capable of generating electron pulses with a peak instantaneous current of approximately 70 microamps and a temporal width of 0.35 ns (FWHM) has been developed. Calibration is accomplished by measuring the lifetime of the well known 2(1P)-to-1(1S) transition in helium (58.4nm) at a near-threshold electron-impact energy by use of the delayed-coincidence technique.

  10. Demonstration of a Coherent Electronic Spin Cluster in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Helena S.; Kara, Dhiren M.; Atatüre, Mete

    2016-09-01

    An obstacle for spin-based quantum sensors is magnetic noise due to proximal spins. However, a cluster of such spins can become an asset, if it can be controlled. Here, we polarize and readout a cluster of three nitrogen electron spins coupled to a single nitrogen-vacancy spin in diamond. We further achieve sub-nm localization of the cluster spins. Finally, we demonstrate coherent spin exchange between the species by simultaneous dressing of the nitrogen-vacancy and the nitrogen states. These results establish the feasibility of environment-assisted sensing and quantum simulations with diamond spins.

  11. Process integration and electron spin coherence of donor atom implants in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenkel, T.; Persaud, A.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; Bokor, J.; Lo, C. C.; Desousa, R.; Chakarov, I.

    2007-03-01

    We implanted low doses (2 to 4 x 10^11cm-2) of P, Sb, and Bi ions into isotopically enriched silicon (28-Si) and characterized diffusion, electrical activation and electron spin coherence after rapid thermal annealing. Phosphorus and bismuth both exhibit enhanced segregation to an imperfect Si/SiO2 interface, while dopant movement is suppressed for antimony ions. Pulsed electron spin resonance shows that spin echo decay is sensitive to the dopant depths, and the interface quality. At 5.2 K, a spin de-coherence time, T2, of 0.3 ms is found for Sb profiles peaking 50 nm below a Si/SiO2 interface, increasing to 0.75 ms when the surface is passivated with hydrogen. These measurements provide benchmark data for the development of devices in which quantum information is encoded in donor electron spins [1]. [1] T. Schenkel, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 112101 (2006).

  12. Charge and spin dynamics driven by ultrashort extreme broadband pulses: A theory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, Andrey S.; Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Berakdar, Jamal

    2017-02-01

    This article gives an overview on recent theoretical progress in controlling the charge and spin dynamics in low-dimensional electronic systems by means of ultrashort and ultrabroadband electromagnetic pulses. A particular focus is put on sub-cycle and single-cycle pulses and their utilization for coherent control. The discussion is mostly limited to cases where the pulse duration is shorter than the characteristic time scales associated with the involved spectral features of the excitations. The relevant current theoretical knowledge is presented in a coherent, pedagogic manner. We work out that the pulse action amounts in essence to a quantum map between the quantum states of the system at an appropriately chosen time moment during the pulse. The influence of a particular pulse shape on the post-pulse dynamics is reduced to several integral parameters entering the expression for the quantum map. The validity range of this reduction scheme for different strengths of the driving fields is established and discussed for particular nanostructures. Acting with a periodic pulse sequence, it is shown how the system can be steered to and largely maintained in predefined states. The conditions for this nonequilibrium sustainability are worked out by means of geometric phases, which are identified as the appropriate quantities to indicate quasistationarity of periodically driven quantum systems. Demonstrations are presented for the control of the charge, spin, and valley degrees of freedom in nanostructures on picosecond and subpicosecond time scales. The theory is illustrated with several applications to one-dimensional semiconductor quantum wires and superlattices, double quantum dots, semiconductor and graphene quantum rings. In the case of a periodic pulsed driving the influence of the relaxation and decoherence processes is included by utilizing the density matrix approach. The integrated and time-dependent spectra of the light emitted from the driven system deliver

  13. Evolution of electron spin polarization in semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pershin, Yuriy; Privman, Vladimir

    2004-03-01

    Last years theoretical and experimental investigations of electron spin-related effects in semiconductor heterostructures have received much consideration because of idea to create a semiconductor device based on the manipulation of electron spin. High degree of electron spin polarization is of crucial importance in operation of spintronic devices. We study possibilities to increase electron spin relaxation time by different means in systems where the D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation mechanism is dominant. Specifically, we show that the electron spin relaxation time in a two-dimensional electron gas with an antidote lattice increases exponentially with antidote radius for certain values of parameters. In another approach, we propose to use electron spin polarization having non-homogeneous direction of spin polarization vector in operation of a spintronic device. It is found that that the electron spin relaxation time essentially depends on the initial spin polarization distribution. This effect has its origin in the coherent spin precession of electrons diffusing in the same direction. We predict a long spin relaxation time of a novel structure: a spin coherence standing wave and discuss its experimental realization.

  14. Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins

    SciTech Connect

    Artzi, Yaron; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-23

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ∼34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging.

  15. Induction-detection electron spin resonance with spin sensitivity of a few tens of spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artzi, Yaron; Twig, Ygal; Blank, Aharon

    2015-02-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is a spectroscopic method that addresses electrons in paramagnetic materials directly through their spin properties. ESR has many applications, ranging from semiconductor characterization to structural biology and even quantum computing. Although it is very powerful and informative, ESR traditionally suffers from low sensitivity, requiring many millions of spins to get a measureable signal with commercial systems using the Faraday induction-detection principle. In view of this disadvantage, significant efforts were made recently to develop alternative detection schemes based, for example, on force, optical, or electrical detection of spins, all of which can reach single electron spin sensitivity. This sensitivity, however, comes at the price of limited applicability and usefulness with regard to real scientific and technological issues facing modern ESR which are currently dealt with conventional induction-detection ESR on a daily basis. Here, we present the most sensitive experimental induction-detection ESR setup and results ever recorded that can detect the signal from just a few tens of spins. They were achieved thanks to the development of an ultra-miniature micrometer-sized microwave resonator that was operated at ˜34 GHz at cryogenic temperatures in conjunction with a unique cryogenically cooled low noise amplifier. The test sample used was isotopically enriched phosphorus-doped silicon, which is of significant relevance to spin-based quantum computing. The sensitivity was experimentally verified with the aid of a unique high-resolution ESR imaging approach. These results represent a paradigm shift with respect to the capabilities and possible applications of induction-detection-based ESR spectroscopy and imaging.

  16. Implanted bismuth donors in 28-Si: Process development and electron spin resonance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, C. D.; Lo, C. C.; Lang, V.; George, R. E.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Bokor, J.; Lyon, S. A.; Morton, J. J. L.; Schenkel, T.

    2012-02-01

    Spins of donor atoms in silicon are excellent qubit candidates. Isotope engineered substrates provide a nuclear spin free host environment, resulting in long spin coherence times [1,2]. The capability of swapping quantum information between electron and nuclear spins can enable quantum communication and gate operation via the electron spin and quantum memory via the nuclear spin [2]. Spin properties of donor qubit candidates in silicon have been studied mostly for phosphorous and antimony [1-3]. Bismuth donors in silicon exhibit a zero field splitting of 7.4 GHz and have attracted attention as potential nuclear spin memory and spin qubit candidates [4,5] that could be coupled to superconducting resonators [4,6]. We report on progress in the formation of bismuth doped 28-Si epi layers by ion implantation, electrical dopant activation and their study via pulsed electron spin resonance measurements showing narrow linewidths and good coherence times. [4pt] [1] A. M. Tyryshkin, et al. arXiv: 1105.3772 [2] J. J. L. Morton, et al. Nature (2008) [3] T. Schenkel, et al APL 2006; F. R. Bradbury, et al. PRL (2006) [4] R. E. George, et al. PRL (2010) [5] G. W. Morley, et al. Nat Mat (2010) [6] M. Hatridge, et al. PRB (2011), R. Vijay, et al. APL (2010) This work was supported by NSA (100000080295) and DOE (DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  17. Actinide covalency measured by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formanuik, Alasdair; Ariciu, Ana-Maria; Ortu, Fabrizio; Beekmeyer, Reece; Kerridge, Andrew; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J. L.; Mills, David P.

    2017-06-01

    Our knowledge of actinide chemical bonds lags far behind our understanding of the bonding regimes of any other series of elements. This is a major issue given the technological as well as fundamental importance of f-block elements. Some key chemical differences between actinides and lanthanides—and between different actinides—can be ascribed to minor differences in covalency, that is, the degree to which electrons are shared between the f-block element and coordinated ligands. Yet there are almost no direct measures of such covalency for actinides. Here we report the first pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of actinide compounds. We apply the hyperfine sublevel correlation technique to quantify the electron-spin density at ligand nuclei (via the weak hyperfine interactions) in molecular thorium(III) and uranium(III) species and therefore the extent of covalency. Such information will be important in developing our understanding of the chemical bonding, and therefore the reactivity, of actinides.

  18. Entanglement between an Electron and a Nuclear Spin 1/2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehring, M.; Mende, J.; Scherer, W.

    2003-04-01

    We report on the preparation and detection of entangled states between an electron spin 1/2 and a nuclear spin 1/2 in a molecular single crystal. These were created by applying pulses at ESR (9.5GHz) and NMR (21MHz, 46MHz) frequencies. Entanglement was detected by using a special entanglement detector sequence based on a unitary back transformation including phase rotation.

  19. Optimization of spin-torque switching using AC and DC pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Tom; Kamenev, Alex

    2014-06-21

    We explore spin-torque induced magnetic reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions using combined AC and DC spin-current pulses. We calculate the optimal pulse times and current strengths for both AC and DC pulses as well as the optimal AC signal frequency, needed to minimize the Joule heat lost during the switching process. The results of this optimization are compared against numeric simulations. Finally, we show how this optimization leads to different dynamic regimes, where switching is optimized by either a purely AC or DC spin-current, or a combination AC/DC spin-current, depending on the anisotropy energies and the spin-current polarization.

  20. Spintronics: a spin-based electronics vision for the future.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S A; Awschalom, D D; Buhrman, R A; Daughton, J M; von Molnár, S; Roukes, M L; Chtchelkanova, A Y; Treger, D M

    2001-11-16

    This review describes a new paradigm of electronics based on the spin degree of freedom of the electron. Either adding the spin degree of freedom to conventional charge-based electronic devices or using the spin alone has the potential advantages of nonvolatility, increased data processing speed, decreased electric power consumption, and increased integration densities compared with conventional semiconductor devices. To successfully incorporate spins into existing semiconductor technology, one has to resolve technical issues such as efficient injection, transport, control and manipulation, and detection of spin polarization as well as spin-polarized currents. Recent advances in new materials engineering hold the promise of realizing spintronic devices in the near future. We review the current state of the spin-based devices, efforts in new materials fabrication, issues in spin transport, and optical spin manipulation.

  1. Electron Spin Dephasing and Decoherence by Interaction with Nuclear Spins in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard; Whale, K. Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Electron spin dephasing and decoherence by its interaction with nuclear spins in self-assembled quantum dots are investigated in the framework of the empirical tight-binding model. Electron spin dephasing in an ensemble of dots is induced by the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of the electron among dots, while electron spin decoherence in a single dot arises from the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of nuclear spins in the dot. For In(x)Ga(1-x) As self-assembled dots containing 30000 nuclei, the dephasing and decoherence times are predicted to be on the order of 100 ps and 1 (micro)s.

  2. Electron Spin Dephasing and Decoherence by Interaction with Nuclear Spins in Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; vonAllmen, Paul; Oyafuso, Fabiano; Klimeck, Gerhard; Whale, K. Birgitta

    2004-01-01

    Electron spin dephasing and decoherence by its interaction with nuclear spins in self-assembled quantum dots are investigated in the framework of the empirical tight-binding model. Electron spin dephasing in an ensemble of dots is induced by the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of the electron among dots, while electron spin decoherence in a single dot arises from the inhomogeneous precession frequencies of nuclear spins in the dot. For In(x)Ga(1-x) As self-assembled dots containing 30000 nuclei, the dephasing and decoherence times are predicted to be on the order of 100 ps and 1 (micro)s.

  3. Spin Interactions and Spin Dynamics in Electronic Nanostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    and of nanomagnet dynamics excited by spin polarized currents. Major accomplishments achieved during this project include the development and...Reversal Induced by a Spin - Polarized Current,” E. B Myers, F. J. Albert, J. C. Sankey, E. Bonet, R. A. Buhrman, and D. C. Ralph, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89...196801 (2002). 4. “Using single quantum states as spin filters to study spin polarization in ferromagnets,” Mandar M. Deshmukh and D. C. Ralph, Phys

  4. Electron spin relaxation in zinc-blende heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, L. E.; Averkiev, N. S.; Willander, M.

    2000-12-01

    Spin relaxation in-plane anisotropy is predicted for heterostructures based on zinc-blende semiconductors. It is shown that it manifests itself especially clearly if the two contributions to the D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation mechanism (due to the bulk spin-orbit interaction term and the Rashba term) are comparable in efficiency. Concentration dependences of spin relaxation rates for a heterostructure grown along the [001] direction are plotted for different electron spin orientations.

  5. Zeeman energy and spin relaxation in a one-electron quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Hanson, R; Witkamp, B; Vandersypen, L M K; van Beveren, L H Willems; Elzerman, J M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2003-11-07

    We have measured the relaxation time, T1, of the spin of a single electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot (a proposed quantum bit). In a magnetic field, applied parallel to the two-dimensional electron gas in which the quantum dot is defined, Zeeman splitting of the orbital states is directly observed by measurements of electron transport through the dot. By applying short voltage pulses, we can populate the excited spin state with one electron and monitor relaxation of the spin. We find a lower bound on T1 of 50 micros at 7.5 T, only limited by our signal-to-noise ratio. A continuous measurement of the charge on the dot has no observable effect on the spin relaxation.

  6. Pulsed electron-nuclear-electron triple resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, Hans; Bernardo, Marcelino

    1990-05-01

    A new experimental technique, pulsed electron-nuclear-electron triple resonance spectroscopy, is demonstrated. It is based on a modification of the pulse sequence for electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) in which two EPR and one NMR transition are irradiated. The irradiation of one EPR transition is detected via a second EPR transition. The nuclear hyperfine coupling, which separates these EPR transition frequencies, is the irradiated NMR transition. The major advantages of triple resonance spectroscopy include the ability to resolve overlapping nuclear resonances in the ENDOR spectrum and a more direct quantitative assignment of nuclear hyperfine and quadrupole couplings. The triple resonance experiment is an alternative to the recently proposed method of employing rapid magnetic field jumps between microwave pulses for generating hyperfine selective ENDOR spectra.

  7. Generating Coherent Phonons and Spin Excitations with Ultrafast Light Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Recent work on the generation of coherent low-lying excitations by ultrafast laser pulses will be reviewed, emphasizing the microscopic mechanisms of light-matter interaction. The topics covered include long-lived phonons in ZnO [C. Aku-Leh, J. Zhao, R. Merlin, J. Men'endez and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev.B 71, 205211 (2005)], squeezed magnons [J. Zhao, A. V. Bragas, D. J. Lockwood and R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107203 (2004)], spin- and charge-density fluctuations [J. M. Bao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 236601 (2004)] and cyclotron resonance [J. K. Wahlstrand, D. M. Wang, P. Jacobs, J. M. Bao, R. Merlin, K. W. West and L. N. Pfeiffer, AIP Conference Proceedings 772 (2005), p. 1313] in GaAs quantum wells. In addition, unpublished results on surface -avoiding phonons in GaAs-AlAs superlattices [M. Trigo et al., unpublished] and magnons in ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxAs [D. M. Wang et al., unpublished] will be discussed. It will also be shown that frequencies can be measured using pump-probe techniques with a precision comparable to that of Brillouin scattering. It is now widely accepted that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is (often but not always) the mechanism responsible for the coherent coupling. Results will be presented showing that SRS is described by two separate tensors, one of which accounts for the excitation-induced modulation of the susceptibility, and the other one for the dependence of the amplitude of the oscillation on the light intensity [T. E. Stevens, J. Kuhl and R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. B 65, 144304 (2002)]. These tensors have the same real component, associated with impulsive coherent generation, but different imaginary parts. If the imaginary term dominates, that is, for strongly absorbing substances, the mechanism for two-band processes becomes displacive in nature, as in the DECP (displacive excitation of coherent phonons) model. It will be argued that DECP is not a separate mechanism, but a particular case of SRS. In the final part of the talk, an

  8. Control and manipulation of quantum spin switching and spin correlations in [Tb2] molecular magnet under a pulse magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farberovich, Oleg V.; Bazhanov, Dmitry I.

    2017-10-01

    A general study of [Tb2] molecular magnet is presented using the general spin Hamiltonian formalism. A spin-spin correlators determined for a spin wave functions in [Tb2] are analyzed numerically and compared in details with the results obtained by means of conventional quantum mechanics. It is shown that the various expectation values of the spin operators and a study of their corresponding probability distributions allow to have a novel understanding in spin dynamics of entangled qubits in quantum [Tb2] system. The obtained results reveal that the properties of spin-spin correlators are responsible for the entanglement of the spin qubit under a pulse magnetic field. It allows us to present some quantum circuits determined for quantum computing within SSNQ based on [Tb2] molecule, including the CNOT and SWAP gates.

  9. Torque detected broad band electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    El Hallak, Fadi; van Slageren, Joris; Dressel, Martin

    2010-09-01

    We present a novel technique to measure high frequency electron spin resonance spectra in a broad frequency range (30-1440 GHz) with high sensitivity. We use a quasioptical setup with tunable frequency sources to induce magnetic resonance transitions. These transitions are detected by measuring the change in the magnetic torque signal by means of cantilever torque magnetometry. The setup allows tuning of the frequency, magnetic field, polarization, and the angle between the sample and the external magnetic field. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by showing preliminary results obtained on a single crystal of an Fe(4) molecular nanomagnet.

  10. Electron spin resonance dosimetric properties of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Caracelli, I.; Terrile, M.C.; Mascarenhas, S.

    1986-02-01

    The characteristics of electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry using bovine bone samples are described. The number of paramagnetic centers created by gamma radiation in the inorganic bone matrix was measured as a function of absorbed dose. The minimum detectable dose was 0.5 Gy for 60Co gamma rays. The response was linear up to the maximum dose studied (30 Gy) and independent of dose rate up to the maximum dose rate used (1.67 Gy min-1). For different bone samples the reproducibility was 5%. This method may be valuable for nuclear accident dosimetry.

  11. High-fidelity adiabatic inversion of a {sup 31}P electron spin qubit in natural silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Laucht, Arne Kalra, Rachpon; Muhonen, Juha T.; Dehollain, Juan P.; Mohiyaddin, Fahd A.; Hudson, Fay; Dzurak, Andrew S.; Morello, Andrea; McCallum, Jeffrey C.; Jamieson, David N.

    2014-03-03

    The main limitation to the high-fidelity quantum control of spins in semiconductors is the presence of strongly fluctuating fields arising from the nuclear spin bath of the host material. We demonstrate here a substantial improvement in single-qubit inversion fidelities for an electron spin qubit bound to a {sup 31}P atom in natural silicon, by applying adiabatic sweeps instead of narrow-band pulses. We achieve an inversion fidelity of 97%, and we observe signatures in the spin resonance spectra and the spin coherence time that are consistent with the presence of an additional exchange-coupled donor. This work highlights the effectiveness of simple adiabatic inversion techniques for spin control in fluctuating environments.

  12. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luyi

    by electron-electron interactions, leading to remarkable resistance to diffusive spreading of the drifting pulse of spin polarization. Finally, we show that spin helices continue propagate at the same speed as the Fermi sea even when the electron drift velocity exceeds the Fermi velocity of 107 cm s-1. We also use this phase-resolved Doppler velocimetry technique to perform the first simultaneous measurements of drift and diffusion of electron-hole packets in the same two-dimensional electron gas. The results that we obtain strongly violate the picture of electron-hole transport that is presented in the classic textbook treatments of ambipolar dynamics. We find that the rates of transport are controlled almost entirely by the intrinsic frictional force exerted between electrons and holes, rather than the interaction of carriers with phonons or impurities. From the experimental data we obtain the first measurement of the "Coulomb drag" friction between electrons and holes coexisting in the same two-dimensional layer. Moreover, we show that the frictional force thus obtained is in quantitative agreement with theoretically predicted values, which follow entirely from electron density, temperature and fundamental constants, i.e. no adjustable parameters. The understanding of ambipolar transport that we have achieved is an essential prerequisite to the design of those spintronic devices in which spin current is carried by the drift of polarized electrons and holes.

  13. Design and implementation of an FPGA-based timing pulse programmer for pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Savory, Joshua J; Warncke, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    The design, construction and implementation of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) -based pulse programmer for pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments is described. The FPGA pulse programmer offers advantages in design flexibility and cost over previous pulse programmers, that are based on commercial digital delay generators, logic pattern generators, and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs. The FPGA pulse progammer features a novel transition-based algorithm and command protocol, that is optimized for the timing structure required for most pulsed magnetic resonance experiments. The algorithm was implemented by using a Spartan-6 FPGA (Xilinx), which provides an easily accessible and cost effective solution for FPGA interfacing. An auxiliary board was designed for the FPGA-instrument interface, which buffers the FPGA outputs for increased power consumption and capacitive load requirements. Device specifications include: Nanosecond pulse formation (transition edge rise/fall times, ≤3 ns), low jitter (≤150 ps), large number of channels (16 implemented; 48 available), and long pulse duration (no limit). The hardware and software for the device were designed for facile reconfiguration to match user experimental requirements and constraints. Operation of the device is demonstrated and benchmarked by applications to 1-D electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) and 2-D hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) experiments. The FPGA approach is transferrable to applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), and to pulse perturbation and detection bandwidths in spectroscopies up through the optical range.

  14. Design and implementation of an FPGA-based timing pulse programmer for pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance applications

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Savory, Joshua J.; Warncke, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    The design, construction and implementation of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) -based pulse programmer for pulsed-electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments is described. The FPGA pulse programmer offers advantages in design flexibility and cost over previous pulse programmers, that are based on commercial digital delay generators, logic pattern generators, and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designs. The FPGA pulse progammer features a novel transition-based algorithm and command protocol, that is optimized for the timing structure required for most pulsed magnetic resonance experiments. The algorithm was implemented by using a Spartan-6 FPGA (Xilinx), which provides an easily accessible and cost effective solution for FPGA interfacing. An auxiliary board was designed for the FPGA-instrument interface, which buffers the FPGA outputs for increased power consumption and capacitive load requirements. Device specifications include: Nanosecond pulse formation (transition edge rise/fall times, ≤3 ns), low jitter (≤150 ps), large number of channels (16 implemented; 48 available), and long pulse duration (no limit). The hardware and software for the device were designed for facile reconfiguration to match user experimental requirements and constraints. Operation of the device is demonstrated and benchmarked by applications to 1-D electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) and 2-D hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) experiments. The FPGA approach is transferrable to applications in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR; magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), and to pulse perturbation and detection bandwidths in spectroscopies up through the optical range. PMID:25076864

  15. Spin relaxation of electrons in bulk CdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprinzl, Daniel; Nahalkova, Petra; Kunc, Jan; Maly, Petr; Horodysky, Petr; Grill, Roman; Belas, Eduard; Franc, Jan; Nemec, Petr

    2007-03-01

    We report on the measurements of the spin relaxation time T1 of photo-excited electrons in bulk CdTe. The carrier dynamics were investigated by transient absorption experiments using 80 fs circularly polarized laser pulses at sample temperatures from 20 to 300 K. We studied both p and n type doped CdTe samples, which were prepared in the form of thin platelets from the crystals grown by the modified Bridgman method. The obtained results are compared with the spin relaxation times reported for other semiconductors with the same crystal structure (e.g., GaAs [1]). Finally, the relative contributions of the D'yakonov-Perel, Elliott-Yafet, Bir-Aronov-Pikus, and other mechanisms to the measured spin relaxation times in CdTe are discussed. This work was supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (grant 202/03/H003), by the Ministry of Education of the Czech Republic in the framework of the research centre LC510 and the research plan MSM 0021620834. [1] J. M. Kikkawa and D. D. Awschalom, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4313 (1998).

  16. Selection rules for probing biexcitons and electron spin transitions in isotropic quantum dot ensembles.

    PubMed

    Scholes, Gregory D

    2004-11-22

    Three-dimensional rotational averages are evaluated for third-order nonlinear spectroscopic measurements of quantum dots. Photon echo, transient grating, and transient absorption are explicitly considered. It is shown that (a) biexciton formation can be suppressed relative to other contributions to nonlinear spectroscopies for isotropic nanocrystal ensembles by choice of polarizations for the excitation pulses; (b) circularly polarized excitation light can differentiate between exciton spin states in nonlinear optical experiments; and (c) electron spin state flip kinetics can be probed directly in an isotropic quantum dot system by using certain sequences of linear cross-polarized pulses. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-08-23

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.

  18. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible.

  19. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible. PMID:27550534

  20. Magnetic defects in chemically converted graphene nanoribbons: electron spin resonance investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Singamaneni, Srinivasa Rao; Stesmans, Andre; Tol, Johan van; Kosynkin, D. V.; Tour, James M.

    2014-04-15

    Electronic spin transport properties of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are influenced by the presence of adatoms, adsorbates and edge functionalization. To improve the understanding of the factors that influence the spin properties of GNRs, local (element) spin-sensitive techniques such as electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy are important for spintronics applications. Here, we present results of multi-frequency continuous wave (CW), pulse and hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) ESR spectroscopy measurements performed on oxidatively unzipped graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), which were subsequently chemically converted (CCGNRs) with hydrazine. ESR spectra at 336 GHz reveal an isotropic ESR signal from the CCGNRs, of which the temperature dependence of its line width indicates the presence of localized unpaired electronic states. Upon functionalization of CCGNRs with 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate, the ESR signal is found to be 2 times narrower than that of pristine ribbons. NH{sub 3} adsorption/desorption on CCGNRs is shown to narrow the signal, while retaining the signal intensity and g value. The electron spin-spin relaxation process at 10 K is found to be characterized by slow (163 ns) and fast (39 ns) components. HYSCORE ESR data demonstrate the explicit presence of protons and {sup 13}C atoms. With the provided identification of intrinsic point magnetic defects such as proton and {sup 13}C has been reported, which are roadblocks to spin travel in graphene-based materials, this work could help in advancing the present fundamental understanding on the edge-spin (or magnetic)-based transport properties of CCGNRs.

  1. Transient effects on electron spin observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, J.; Garraway, B. M.; Stenholm, S.

    2004-03-01

    In an earlier publication we addressed the problem of splitting an electron beam in the Stern-Gerlach experiment. In contrast to arguments put forward in the early days of quantum theory, we concluded that there are no issues of principle preventing the observation of electron spin during free flight. In that paper, however, we considered only a sudden switch off of the separating magnetic field. In this work we consider the possible effects of finite switching times at the beginning and the end of the interaction period. We consider a model where the coupling between the electron and the field is time dependent. As a result of the time dependence, the field also acquires an electric component, but this seems to cause no significant change of our conclusions. On the other hand, the smooth change of the interaction enforces the same longitudinal velocity on the electron both at the beginning and end of the interaction period because of conservation laws; this effect was missing in our earlier calculations. As the electrons are supposed to travel as a beam, this feature helps by restoring the beam quality after the interaction.

  2. Ultrafast Electron Pulse (e,2e) Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Hua-Chieh; Starace, Anthony; Madsen, Lars

    2012-06-01

    Techniques for producing ultrafast electron pulses have been proposedootnotetextP. Baum and A.H. Zewail, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18409 (2007); S.A. Hilbert, C. Ulterwaal, B. Barwick, H. Betalaan, and A.H. Zewail, ibid. 106, 10558 (2009). and prospects for using such pulses to image electron dynamics in the H atom and the hydrogen molecular ion have been theoretically demonstrated.ootnotetextH.-C. Shao and A.F. Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 263201 (2010). The (e,2e) process provides a means to directly image the momentum distribution of the target.ootnotetextM.A. Coplan, J.H. Moore, and J.P. Doering, Rev. Mod. Phys. 66, 985 (1994). We explore here the possibility of observing the time dependence of a coherent superposition of target orbitals by means of the (e,2e) process with ultrafast incident electron pulses. Using scattering theory for a longitudinally coherent beam,ootnotetextF. Robicheaux, Phys. Rev. A 62, 062706 (2000). we find that the momentum distribution of a coherent state of the H atom can be retrieved.

  3. Shaped electric fields for fast optimal manipulation of electron spin and position in a double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budagosky, J. A.; Khomitsky, D. V.; Sherman, E. Ya.; Castro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    We use quantum optimal control theory algorithms to design external electric fields that drive the coupled spin and orbital dynamics of an electron in a double quantum dot, subject to the spin-orbit coupling and Zeeman magnetic fields. We obtain time profiles of multifrequency electric field pulses which increase the rate of spin-flip transitions by several orders of magnitude in comparison with monochromatic fields, where the spin Rabi oscillations were predicted to be very slow. This precise (with fidelity higher than 1 ×10-4 ) and fast (at the time scale of the order of 0.1 ns, comparable with the Zeeman spin rotation and the interdot tunneling time) simultaneous control of the spin and position is achieved while keeping the electron in the four lowest tunneling- and Zeeman-split levels through the duration of the pulse. The proposed algorithms suggest effective applications in spintronics and quantum information devices.

  4. Bulk Quantum Computation with Pulsed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance: Simulations of Single-Qubit Error Correction Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishmuratov, I. K.; Baibekov, E. I.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the possibility to restore transient nutations of electron spin centers embedded in the solid using specific composite pulse sequences developed previously for the application in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We treat two types of systematic errors simultaneously: (i) rotation angle errors related to the spatial distribution of microwave field amplitude in the sample volume, and (ii) off-resonance errors related to the spectral distribution of Larmor precession frequencies of the electron spin centers. Our direct simulations of the transient signal in erbium- and chromium-doped CaWO4 crystal samples with and without error corrections show that the application of the selected composite pulse sequences can substantially increase the lifetime of Rabi oscillations. Finally, we discuss the applicability limitations of the studied pulse sequences for the use in solid-state electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  5. Clarification of the measurement of surface spin relaxation via conduction electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigler, D. M.; Schultz, S.

    1982-12-01

    We clarify the parameterization of the probability of transverse conduction electron spin relaxation. ɛ, at the surface of a metal. Using Walker's boundary condition on the transverse spin magnetization, we have calculated the ɛ and thickness dependence of the spin resonance linewidth. The results are discussed in simple physical terms. The recent work of Allam and Vigouroux is shown to contain errors.

  6. Generation of Quality Pulses for Control of Qubit/Quantum Memory Spin States: Experimental and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3046 September 2016 GENERATION OF QUALITY PULSES FOR CONTROL OF QUBIT/QUANTUM MEMORY SPIN STATES: EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION...nuclear spin states of qubits/quantum memory applicable to semiconductor, superconductor, ionic, and superconductor-ionic hybrid technologies. As the...expected control of the spin flipping and rotation in the Bloch sphere

  7. Double quantum coherence electron spin resonance on coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, James S.; Saxena, Sunil

    2005-10-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the ability to generate double quantum coherences (DQCs) for the case of Cu(II). We show that small splittings (˜7 MHz) from the Cu(II)-Cu(II) electron-electron magnetic dipolar interaction can be reliably resolved even though the inhomogeneously broadened Cu(II) linewidth is ˜2 GHz. A Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.0 nm was measured on a model peptide system, thus, demonstrating that distances on the nanometer scale may be measured using DQC electron spin resonance (ESR).

  8. Controlling the spins angular momentum in ferromagnets with sequences of picosecond acoustic pulses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Wan; Vomir, Mircea; Bigot, Jean-Yves

    2015-02-17

    Controlling the angular momentum of spins with very short external perturbations is a key issue in modern magnetism. For example it allows manipulating the magnetization for recording purposes or for inducing high frequency spin torque oscillations. Towards that purpose it is essential to modify and control the angular momentum of the magnetization which precesses around the resultant effective magnetic field. That can be achieved with very short external magnetic field pulses or using intrinsically coupled magnetic structures, resulting in a transfer of spin torque. Here we show that using picosecond acoustic pulses is a versatile and efficient way of controlling the spin angular momentum in ferromagnets. Two or three acoustic pulses, generated by femtosecond laser pulses, allow suppressing or enhancing the magnetic precession at any arbitrary time by precisely controlling the delays and amplitudes of the optical pulses. A formal analogy with a two dimensional pendulum allows us explaining the complex trajectory of the magnetic vector perturbed by the acoustic pulses.

  9. Ultrafast optical coherent control of individual electron and hole spins in a semiconductor quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Greve, Kristiaan

    2012-02-01

    We report on the complete optical coherent control of individual electron and hole spin qubits in InAs quantum dots. With a magnetic field in Voigt geometry, broadband, detuned optical pulses couple the spin-split ground states, resulting in Rabi flopping. In combination with the Larmor precession around the external magnetic field, this allows an arbitrary single-qubit operation to be realized in less than 20 picoseconds [1,2]. Slow fluctuations in the spin's environment lead to shot-to-shot variations in the Larmor precession frequency. In a time-ensemble measurement, these would prevent a measurement of the true decoherence of the qubit, and instead give rise to ensemble dephasing. This effect was overcome by implementing a spin echo measurement scheme for both electron and hole spins, where an optical π-pulse refocuses the spin coherence and filters out the slow variations in Larmor precession frequency. We measured coherence times up to 3 microseconds [2,3]. Finally, our optical pulse manipulation scheme allows us to probe the hyperfine interaction between the single spin and the nuclei in the quantum dot. Interesting non-Markovian dynamics could be observed in the free-induction decay of a single electron spin, whereas the complete absence of such effects illustrates the reduction of the hyperfine interaction for hole spin qubits. We measured and modeled these effects, and explain the non-Markovian electron spin dynamics as involving a feedback effect resulting from both the strong Overhauser shift of the electron spin and spin dependent nuclear relaxation [2,4]. [4pt] [1] D. Press, T. D. Ladd, B. Zhang and Y. Yamamoto, Nature 456, 218 (2008)[0pt] [2] K. De Greve, P. McMahon, D. Press et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 872 (2011)[0pt] [3] D. Press, K. De Greve, P. McMahon et al., Nat. Phot. 4, 367 (2010)[0pt] [4] T. D. Ladd, D. Press, K. De Greve et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 107401 (2010)

  10. Arbitrary nuclear-spin gates in diamond mediated by a nitrogen-vacancy-center electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, J.; Wang, Z.-Y.; Plenio, M. B.

    2017-09-01

    We show that arbitrary N -qubit interactions among nuclear spins can be achieved efficiently in solid state quantum platforms, such as nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond, by exerting control only on the electron spin coupled to the nuclei. This allows to exploit nuclear spins as robust quantum registers and the direct measurement of nuclear many-body correlators. The method takes advantage of recently introduced dynamical decoupling techniques and avoids the necessity of external, slow, control on the nuclei. Our protocol is general, being applicable to other nuclear spin-based platforms with electronic spin defects acting as mediators as silicon carbide.

  11. Study of electronic structure and spin polarization of dysprosium

    SciTech Connect

    Mund, H. S.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, I have presented the spin-dependent momentum density of ferromagnetic dysprosium using spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method. A fully relativistic approach has been used to determine the magnetic Compton profile. The density of state in term of majority-spin and minority-spin of Dy also calculated using SPR-KKR. The magnetic Compton profile discussed in term of 4f and diffused electrons.

  12. Spin relaxation in bilayer graphene: the role of electron-electron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Saurabh; Ghosh, Bahniman; Salimath, Akshay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the influence of electron-electron scattering on spin relaxation length in bilayer graphene using semiclassical Monte Carlo simulation. Both D'yakonov-P'erel and Elliot-Yafet mechanisms are considered for spin relaxation. It is shown that spin relaxation length decreases by 17 % at 300 K on including electron-electron scattering. The reason of this variation in spin relaxation length is that the ensemble spin is modified upon an e-e collision, and also e-e scattering rate is greater than phonon scattering rate which causes change in spin transport profile.

  13. A Ku band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer using an arbitrary waveform generator for quantum control experiments at millikelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, Yung Szen; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Negoro, Makoto; Kagawa, Akinori; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    We present a 17 GHz (Ku band) arbitrary waveform pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for experiments down to millikelvin temperatures. The spectrometer is located at room temperature, while the resonator is placed either in a room temperature magnet or inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator; the operating temperature range of the dilution unit is from ca. 10 mK to 8 K. This combination provides the opportunity to perform quantum control experiments on electron spins in the pure-state regime. At 0.6 T, spin echo experiments were carried out using γ-irradiated quartz glass from 1 K to 12.3 mK. With decreasing temperatures, we observed an increase in spin echo signal intensities due to increasing spin polarizations, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Through experimental data fitting, thermal spin polarization at 100 mK was estimated to be at least 99%, which was almost pure state. Next, to demonstrate the ability to create arbitrary waveform pulses, we generate a shaped pulse by superposing three Gaussian pulses of different frequencies. The resulting pulse was able to selectively and coherently excite three different spin packets simultaneously—a useful ability for analyzing multi-spin system and for controlling a multi-qubit quantum computer. By applying this pulse to the inhomogeneously broadened sample, we obtain three well-resolved excitations at 8 K, 1 K, and 14 mK.

  14. A Ku band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer using an arbitrary waveform generator for quantum control experiments at millikelvin temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, Yung Szen; Tabuchi, Yutaka; Negoro, Makoto; Kagawa, Akinori; Kitagawa, Masahiro

    2015-06-15

    We present a 17 GHz (Ku band) arbitrary waveform pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer for experiments down to millikelvin temperatures. The spectrometer is located at room temperature, while the resonator is placed either in a room temperature magnet or inside a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator; the operating temperature range of the dilution unit is from ca. 10 mK to 8 K. This combination provides the opportunity to perform quantum control experiments on electron spins in the pure-state regime. At 0.6 T, spin echo experiments were carried out using γ-irradiated quartz glass from 1 K to 12.3 mK. With decreasing temperatures, we observed an increase in spin echo signal intensities due to increasing spin polarizations, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Through experimental data fitting, thermal spin polarization at 100 mK was estimated to be at least 99%, which was almost pure state. Next, to demonstrate the ability to create arbitrary waveform pulses, we generate a shaped pulse by superposing three Gaussian pulses of different frequencies. The resulting pulse was able to selectively and coherently excite three different spin packets simultaneously—a useful ability for analyzing multi-spin system and for controlling a multi-qubit quantum computer. By applying this pulse to the inhomogeneously broadened sample, we obtain three well-resolved excitations at 8 K, 1 K, and 14 mK.

  15. Spin decoherence and electron spin bath noise of a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Takahashi, Susumu

    2013-03-01

    We theoretically investigate spin decoherence of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Using the spin coherent-state P-representation method, we simulate coherence evolution of the NV center coupled to surrounding nitrogen electron (N) spins. In the system, the strength of N-N coupling is the same order as that of NV-N coupling (the strong intrabath coupling regime). We find that spin decoherence time as well as free-induction decay of the NV center depend on the spatial configuration of N spins. Both the spin decoherence rate (1/T2) and dephasing rate (1/T2*) of the NV center increase linearly with the concentration of the N spins. Using the P-representation method, we also demonstrate extracting the noise spectrum of the N spin bath. The capability to calculate the noise spectrum will provide promising pathways to suppress decoherence of spin systems in the strong intrabath coupling regime.

  16. Millisecond Coherence Time in a Tunable Molecular Electronic Spin Qubit

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing (QIP) could revolutionize areas ranging from chemical modeling to cryptography. One key figure of merit for the smallest unit for QIP, the qubit, is the coherence time (T2), which establishes the lifetime for the qubit. Transition metal complexes offer tremendous potential as tunable qubits, yet their development is hampered by the absence of synthetic design principles to achieve a long T2. We harnessed molecular design to create a series of qubits, (Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1), (Ph4P)2[V(β-C3S5)3] (2), (Ph4P)2[V(α-C3S5)3] (3), and (Ph4P)2[V(C3S4O)3] (4), with T2s of 1–4 μs at 80 K in protiated and deuterated environments. Crucially, through chemical tuning of nuclear spin content in the vanadium(IV) environment we realized a T2 of ∼1 ms for the species (d20-Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1′) in CS2, a value that surpasses the coordination complex record by an order of magnitude. This value even eclipses some prominent solid-state qubits. Electrochemical and continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal variation in the electronic influence of the ligands on the metal ion across 1–4. However, pulsed measurements indicate that the most important influence on decoherence is nuclear spins in the protiated and deuterated solvents utilized herein. Our results illuminate a path forward in synthetic design principles, which should unite CS2 solubility with nuclear spin free ligand fields to develop a new generation of molecular qubits. PMID:27163013

  17. Millisecond Coherence Time in a Tunable Molecular Electronic Spin Qubit.

    PubMed

    Zadrozny, Joseph M; Niklas, Jens; Poluektov, Oleg G; Freedman, Danna E

    2015-12-23

    Quantum information processing (QIP) could revolutionize areas ranging from chemical modeling to cryptography. One key figure of merit for the smallest unit for QIP, the qubit, is the coherence time (T 2), which establishes the lifetime for the qubit. Transition metal complexes offer tremendous potential as tunable qubits, yet their development is hampered by the absence of synthetic design principles to achieve a long T 2. We harnessed molecular design to create a series of qubits, (Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1), (Ph4P)2[V(β-C3S5)3] (2), (Ph4P)2[V(α-C3S5)3] (3), and (Ph4P)2[V(C3S4O)3] (4), with T 2s of 1-4 μs at 80 K in protiated and deuterated environments. Crucially, through chemical tuning of nuclear spin content in the vanadium(IV) environment we realized a T 2 of ∼1 ms for the species (d 20-Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1') in CS2, a value that surpasses the coordination complex record by an order of magnitude. This value even eclipses some prominent solid-state qubits. Electrochemical and continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal variation in the electronic influence of the ligands on the metal ion across 1-4. However, pulsed measurements indicate that the most important influence on decoherence is nuclear spins in the protiated and deuterated solvents utilized herein. Our results illuminate a path forward in synthetic design principles, which should unite CS2 solubility with nuclear spin free ligand fields to develop a new generation of molecular qubits.

  18. Torque for electron spin induced by electron permanent electric dipole moment

    SciTech Connect

    Senami, Masato E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukuda, Masahiro E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Ogiso, Yoji E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tachibana, Akitomo E-mail: akitomo@scl.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-06

    The spin torque of the electron is studied in relation to the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the electron. The spin dynamics is known to be given by the spin torque and the zeta force in quantum field theory. The effect of the EDM on the torque of the spin brings a new term in the equation of motion of the spin. We study this effect for a solution of the Dirac equation with electromagnetic field.

  19. Strong-field Breit-Wheeler pair production in short laser pulses: Relevance of spin effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, M. J. A.; Kamiński, J. Z.; Krajewska, K.; Müller, C.

    2016-07-01

    Production of electron-positron pairs in the collision of a high-energy photon with a high-intensity few-cycle laser pulse is studied. By utilizing the frameworks of laser-dressed spinor and scalar quantum electrodynamics, a comparison between the production of pairs of Dirac and Klein-Gordon particles is drawn. Positron energy spectra and angular distributions are presented for various laser parameters. We identify conditions under which predictions from Klein-Gordon theory either closely resemble or largely differ from those of the proper Dirac theory. In particular, we address the question to which extent the relevance of spin effects is influenced by the short duration of the laser pulse.

  20. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thai; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-05-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this novel system, we also investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect.

  1. Electron spin echo study of Nd3 + solvation in methanol glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janakiraman, R.; Kevan, Larry

    1981-08-01

    Electron spin echo modulation studies have been carried out for Nd3+ in methanol glasses at 4.2 K. By using the partially deuterated methanols (CH3OD and CD3OH), analysis of deuterium modulation in three-pulse electron spin echo decay curves gives the distances and numbers of Nd-D(OD) and Nd-D(CD3) interactions. It is found that Nd3+ is coordinated by nine equivalent methanol molecules, with distances of Nd-H (OH) of 3.1 Å and Nd-H (CH3) of 4.0 Å. These distances establish that the molecular dipole of methanol is oriented toward Nd3+.

  2. Two-dimensional spatially selective spin inversion and spin-echo refocusing with a single nuclear magnetic resonance pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottomley, Paul A.; Hardy, Christopher J.

    1987-11-01

    A new class of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulses that provides simultaneous spatially selective inversion of nuclear spins in two dimensions following a single pulse application is described and demonstrated. The two-dimensional selective pulses consist of a single square- or amplitude-modulated π rf pulse applied in the presence of an amplitude-modulated magnetic field gradient that reorients through the two dimensions during the rf pulse. For example, square and Gaussian rf pulses produce sharply peaked sombrero-, egg-carton-, and stalagmite-shaped profiles of spin inversion in the xz plane when applied in the presence of a gradient that rotates or describes a figure eight in the xz plane. The theoretical profiles, computed by numerical integration of the Bloch equation, are in good agreement with experimental results obtained by incorporating the pulses into a conventional NMR imaging sequence. The pulses are directly applicable to restricted field-of-view high-resolution imaging for the amelioration of aliasing signal artifacts, and when combined with one-dimensional localized phosphorus (31P) chemical shift spectroscopy techniques that employ surface detection coils, should permit complete three-dimensionally localized 31P NMR spectroscopy. The π pulses provide similar two-dimensional spatial selectivity of the transverse nuclear magnetization when used for refocusing Hahn spin echoes.

  3. Understanding and controlling spin-systems using electron spin resonance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Mathew

    Single molecule magnets (SMMs) posses multi-level energy structures with properties that make them attractive candidates for implementation into quantum information technologies. However there are some major hurdles that need to be overcome if these systems are to be used as the fundamental components of an eventual quantum computer. One such hurdle is the relatively short coherence times these systems display which severely limits the amount of time quantum information can remain encoded within them. In this dissertation, recent experiments conducted with the intent of bringing this technology closer to realization are presented. The detailed knowledge of the spin Hamiltonian and mechanisms of decoherence in SMMs are absolutely essential if these systems are to be used in technologies. To that effect, experiments were done on a particularly promising SMM, the complex K6[VIV15AsIII 6O42(H2O)] · 8H2O, known as V15. High-field electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements were performed on this system at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. The resulting spectra allowed for detailed analysis of the V15 spin Hamiltonian which will be presented as well as the most precise values yet reported for the g-factors of this system. Additionally, the line widths of the ESR spectra are studied in depth and found to reveal that fluctuations within the spin-orbit interaction are a mechanism for decoherence in V15. A new model for decoherence is presented that describes very well both the temperature and field orientation dependences of the measured ESR line widths. Also essential is the ability to control spin-states of SMMs. Presented in this dissertation as well is the demonstration of the coherent manipulation of the multi-state spin system Mn2+ diluted in MgO by means of a two-tone pulse drive. Through the detuning between the excitation and readout radio frequency pulses it is possible to select the number of photons involved in a Rabi oscillation as well as increase

  4. Theory of ultrafast optical manipulation of electron spins in quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jinshuang; Li, Xin-Qi

    2005-12-01

    Based on a multiparticle-state stimulated Raman adiabatic passage approach, a comprehensive theoretical study of the ultrafast optical manipulation of electron spins in quantum wells is presented. In addition to corroborating experimental findings [Gupta et al., Science 292, 2458 (2001)], we improve the expression for the optical-pulse-induced effective magnetic field, in comparison with the one obtained via the conventional single-particle ac Stark shift. Further study of the effect of hole-spin relaxation reveals that, while the coherent optical manipulation of electron spin in undoped quantum wells would deteriorate in the presence of relatively fast hole-spin relaxation, the coherent control in doped systems can be quite robust against decoherence. The implications of the present results on quantum dots will also be discussed.

  5. Dynamic field-frequency lock for tracking magnetic field fluctuations in electron spin resonance experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfaw, Abraham; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Lyon, Stephen

    Global magnetic field fluctuations present significant challenges to pulsed electron spin resonance experiments on systems with long spin coherence times. We will discuss results from experiments in which we follow instantaneous changes in magnetic field by locking to the free induction decay of a proton NMR signal using a phase-locked loop. We extend conventional field-frequency locking techniques used in NMR to follow slow magnetic field drifts by using a modified Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence in which the phase of the pi-pulses follows the phase of the proton spins at all times. Hence, we retain the ability of the CPMG pulse sequence to refocus local magnetic field inhomogeneities without refocusing global magnetic field fluctuations. In contrast with conventional field-frequency locking techniques, our experiments demonstrate the potential of this method to dynamically track global magnetic field fluctuations on timescales of about 2 seconds and with rates faster than a kHz. This frequency range covers the dominant noise frequencies in our electron spin resonance experiments as previously reported.

  6. Structure dependent spin selectivity in electron transport through oligopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiran, Vankayala; Cohen, Sidney R.; Naaman, Ron

    2017-03-01

    The chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect entails spin-selective electron transmission through chiral molecules. In the present study, the spin filtering ability of chiral, helical oligopeptide monolayers of two different lengths is demonstrated using magnetic conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Spin-specific nanoscale electron transport studies elucidate that the spin polarization is higher for 14-mer oligopeptides than that of the 10-mer. We also show that the spin filtering ability can be tuned by changing the tip-loading force applied on the molecules. The spin selectivity decreases with increasing applied force, an effect attributed to the increased ratio of radius to pitch of the helix upon compression and increased tilt angles between the molecular axis and the surface normal. The method applied here provides new insights into the parameters controlling the CISS effect.

  7. Electron acceleration by a propagating laser pulse in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fengchao; Shen Baifei; Zhang Xiaomei; Li Xuemei; Jin Zhangying

    2007-08-15

    Electrons accelerated by a propagating laser pulse of linear or circular polarization in vacuum have been investigated by one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations and analytical modeling. A stopping target is used to stop the laser pulse and extract the energetic electrons from the laser field. The effect of the reflected light is taken into account. The maximum electron energy depends on the laser intensity and initial electron energy. There is an optimal acceleration length for electrons to gain maximum energy where electrons meet the peak of the laser pulse. The optimal acceleration length depends strongly on the laser pulse duration and amplitude.

  8. Sensitive surface loop-gap microresonators for electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Twig, Ygal; Suhovoy, Ekaterina; Blank, Aharon

    2010-10-01

    This work presents the design, construction, and experimental testing of unique sensitive surface loop-gap microresonators for electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. These resonators are made of "U"-shaped gold structures with typical sizes of 50 and 150 μm that are deposited on a thin (220 μm) rutile substrate and fed from the rear by a microstrip line. This allows accommodating a large flat sample above the resonator in addition to having variable coupling properties. Such resonators have a very small volume which, compared to previous designs, improves their absolute spin sensitivity by a factor of more than 2 (based on experimental results). They also have a very high microwave field-power conversion ratio of up to 86 gauss/√Hz. This could facilitate the use of very short excitation pulses with relatively low microwave power. Following the presentation and the discussion of the experimental results, ways to further increase sensitivity significantly are outlined.

  9. Spin orbit torque based electronic neuron

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Abhronil Choday, Sri Harsha; Kim, Yusung; Roy, Kaushik

    2015-04-06

    A device based on current-induced spin-orbit torque (SOT) that functions as an electronic neuron is proposed in this work. The SOT device implements an artificial neuron's thresholding (transfer) function. In the first step of a two-step switching scheme, a charge current places the magnetization of a nano-magnet along the hard-axis, i.e., an unstable point for the magnet. In the second step, the SOT device (neuron) receives a current (from the synapses) which moves the magnetization from the unstable point to one of the two stable states. The polarity of the synaptic current encodes the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the neuron input and determines the final orientation of the magnetization. A resistive crossbar array, functioning as synapses, generates a bipolar current that is a weighted sum of the inputs. The simulation of a two layer feed-forward artificial neural network based on the SOT electronic neuron shows that it consumes ∼3× lower power than a 45 nm digital CMOS implementation, while reaching ∼80% accuracy in the classification of 100 images of handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset.

  10. Electron spin relaxation in carbon nanotubes: Dyakonov-Perel mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Yuriy; Zavada, John; Kim, Ki Wook

    2010-03-01

    The long standing problem of unaccountable short spin relaxation in carbon nanotubes (CNT) meets a disclosure in terms of curvature-mediated spin-orbital interaction that leads to spin fluctuating precession analogous to Dyakonov-Perel mechanism. Strong anisotropy imposed by arbitrary directed magnetic field has been taken into account in terms of extended Bloch equations. Especially, stationary spin current through CNT can be controlled by spin-flip processes with relaxation time as less as 150 ps, the rate of transversal polarization (i.e. decoherence) runs up to 1/(70 ps) at room temperature while spin interference of the electrons related to different valleys can be responsible for shorter spin dephasing. Dependencies of spin-relaxation parameters on magnetic field strength and orientation, CNT curvature and chirality have been analyzed.

  11. Charge and spin response of the spin-polarized electron gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, K.S. |; Quinn, J.J. |

    1996-11-01

    The charge and spin response of a spin-polarized electron gas is investigated including terms beyond the random-phase approximation. We evaluate the charge response, the longitudinal and transverse spin response, and the mixed spin-charge response self-consistently in terms of the susceptibility functions of a noninteracting system. Exchange-correlation effects between electrons of spin {sigma} and {sigma}{prime} are included following Kukkonen and Overhauser, by using spin-polarization-dependent generalized Hubbard local-field factors {ital G}{sub {sigma}}{sup {plus_minus}} and {ital G}{sub {bar {sigma}}}{sup {plus_minus}}. The general condition for charge-density and spin-density-wave excitations of the system is discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Electron spin resonance and spin-valley physics in a silicon double quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaojie; Ruskov, Rusko; Xiao, Ming; Tahan, Charles; Jiang, HongWen

    2014-05-14

    Silicon quantum dots are a leading approach for solid-state quantum bits. However, developing this technology is complicated by the multi-valley nature of silicon. Here we observe transport of individual electrons in a silicon CMOS-based double quantum dot under electron spin resonance. An anticrossing of the driven dot energy levels is observed when the Zeeman and valley splittings coincide. A detected anticrossing splitting of 60 MHz is interpreted as a direct measure of spin and valley mixing, facilitated by spin-orbit interaction in the presence of non-ideal interfaces. A lower bound of spin dephasing time of 63 ns is extracted. We also describe a possible experimental evidence of an unconventional spin-valley blockade, despite the assumption of non-ideal interfaces. This understanding of silicon spin-valley physics should enable better control and read-out techniques for the spin qubits in an all CMOS silicon approach.

  13. Coherent electron-spin-resonance manipulation of three individual spins in a triple quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Noiri, A.; Yoneda, J.; Nakajima, T.; Otsuka, T.; Delbecq, M. R.; Takeda, K.; Tarucha, S.; Amaha, S.; Allison, G.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2016-04-11

    Quantum dot arrays provide a promising platform for quantum information processing. For universal quantum simulation and computation, one central issue is to demonstrate the exhaustive controllability of quantum states. Here, we report the addressable manipulation of three single electron spins in a triple quantum dot using a technique combining electron-spin-resonance and a micro-magnet. The micro-magnet makes the local Zeeman field difference between neighboring spins much larger than the nuclear field fluctuation, which ensures the addressable driving of electron-spin-resonance by shifting the resonance condition for each spin. We observe distinct coherent Rabi oscillations for three spins in a semiconductor triple quantum dot with up to 25 MHz spin rotation frequencies. This individual manipulation over three spins enables us to arbitrarily change the magnetic spin quantum number of the three spin system, and thus to operate a triple-dot device as a three-qubit system in combination with the existing technique of exchange operations among three spins.

  14. Tailored terahertz pulses from a laser-modulated electron beam.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J M; Hao, Z; Martin, M C; Robin, D S; Sannibale, F; Schoenlein, R W; Zholents, A A; Zolotorev, M S

    2006-04-28

    We present a new method to generate steady and tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. We have demonstrated this in the electron storage ring at the Advanced Light Source. Interaction of an electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse copropagating through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration of the laser pulse. The bunch develops a longitudinal density perturbation due to the dispersion of electron trajectories, and the resulting hole emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. We present measurements of the intensity and spectra of these pulses. This technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulse by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse.

  15. Tailored Terahertz Pulses from a Laser-Modulated Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Hao, Z.; Martin, M.C.; Robin, D.S.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Zholents, A.A.; Zolotorev, M.S.

    2006-04-28

    We present a new method to generate steady and tunable, coherent, broadband terahertz radiation from a relativistic electron beam modulated by a femtosecond laser. We have demonstrated this in the electron storage ring at the Advanced Light Source. Interaction of an electron beam with a femtosecond laser pulse copropagating through a wiggler modulates the electron energies within a short slice of the electron bunch with about the same duration of the laser pulse. The bunch develops a longitudinal density perturbation due to the dispersion of electron trajectories, and the resulting hole emits short pulses of temporally and spatially coherent terahertz pulses synchronized to the laser. We present measurements of the intensity and spectra of these pulses. This technique allows tremendous flexibility in shaping the terahertz pulse by appropriate modulation of the laser pulse.

  16. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet light pulses from high-order harmonic generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plötzing, M.; Adam, R.; Weier, C.; Plucinski, L.; Eich, S.; Emmerich, S.; Rollinger, M.; Aeschlimann, M.; Mathias, S.; Schneider, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    The fundamental mechanism responsible for optically induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been under intense debate since almost two decades. Currently, numerous competing theoretical models are in strong need for a decisive experimental confirmation such as monitoring the triggered changes in the spin-dependent band structure on ultrashort time scales. Our approach explores the possibility of observing femtosecond band structure dynamics by giving access to extended parts of the Brillouin zone in a simultaneously time-, energy- and spin-resolved photoemission experiment. For this purpose, our setup uses a state-of-the-art, highly efficient spin detector and ultrashort, extreme ultraviolet light pulses created by laser-based high-order harmonic generation. In this paper, we present the setup and first spin-resolved spectra obtained with our experiment within an acquisition time short enough to allow pump-probe studies. Further, we characterize the influence of the excitation with femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by comparing the results with data acquired using a continuous wave light source with similar photon energy. In addition, changes in the spectra induced by vacuum space-charge effects due to both the extreme ultraviolet probe- and near-infrared pump-pulses are studied by analyzing the resulting spectral distortions. The combination of energy resolution and electron count rate achieved in our setup confirms its suitability for spin-resolved studies of the band structure on ultrashort time scales.

  17. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet light pulses from high-order harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Plötzing, M.; Adam, R. Weier, C.; Plucinski, L.; Schneider, C. M.; Eich, S.; Emmerich, S.; Rollinger, M.; Aeschlimann, M.; Mathias, S.

    2016-04-15

    The fundamental mechanism responsible for optically induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been under intense debate since almost two decades. Currently, numerous competing theoretical models are in strong need for a decisive experimental confirmation such as monitoring the triggered changes in the spin-dependent band structure on ultrashort time scales. Our approach explores the possibility of observing femtosecond band structure dynamics by giving access to extended parts of the Brillouin zone in a simultaneously time-, energy- and spin-resolved photoemission experiment. For this purpose, our setup uses a state-of-the-art, highly efficient spin detector and ultrashort, extreme ultraviolet light pulses created by laser-based high-order harmonic generation. In this paper, we present the setup and first spin-resolved spectra obtained with our experiment within an acquisition time short enough to allow pump-probe studies. Further, we characterize the influence of the excitation with femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by comparing the results with data acquired using a continuous wave light source with similar photon energy. In addition, changes in the spectra induced by vacuum space-charge effects due to both the extreme ultraviolet probe- and near-infrared pump-pulses are studied by analyzing the resulting spectral distortions. The combination of energy resolution and electron count rate achieved in our setup confirms its suitability for spin-resolved studies of the band structure on ultrashort time scales.

  18. Electron spin transport through an Aharonov Bohm ring—a spin switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Cheng-Long; Wang, Shun-Jin; Luo, Hong-Gang; An, Jun-Hong

    2004-03-01

    Electron spin transport through an Aharonov-Bohm ring driven by time-dependent inhomogeneous magnetic fields is treated. The system possesses an su(2)l × su(2)s dynamical symmetry in both orbital angular momentum space and spin space, and is thus proved to be integrable according to algebraic dynamics. Based on the analytical solutions, the relevant physical quantities such as electric current, spin current, magnetization and conductance are calculated. It is found that for a magnetic field with pgr/2 twist angle, the direction of spin-polarization will be reversed at zero magnetic flux. In the resonant rotating magnetic field, the spin transmission is oscillating with time t, and can reach unity, so that a complete spin flip can also be induced. The results obtained may be of practical significance for the design of nano-electromagnetic spin devices, such as a spin switch, in a controllable way.

  19. Dependence of Distance Distributions Derived from Double Electron-Electron Resonance Pulsed EPR on Pulse Sequence Time**

    PubMed Central

    Louis, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed double electron-electron resonance (DEER) provides pairwise P(r) distance distributions in doubly spin-labeled proteins. We report that in protonated proteins P(r) is dependent on the length of the second echo period T owing to local environmental effects on spin-label phase memory relaxation time Tm. For the protein ABD, this effect results in a 1.4 Å increase in the P(r) maximum from T = 6 to 20 μs. Protein A has a bimodal P(r) distribution and the relative height of the shorter distance peak at T = 10 μs, the shortest value required to obtain a reliable P(r), is reduced by 40% relative to that obtained by extrapolation to T = 0. Our results indicate that data at a series of T values are essential for quantitative interpretation of DEER to determine the extent of the T dependence and to extrapolate the results to T= 0. Complete deuteration (99%) of the protein is accompanied by a significant increase in Tm and effectively abolishes the P(r) dependence on T. PMID:25757985

  20. Direct Excitation of Propagating Spin Waves by Focused Ultrashort Optical Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Y.; Dvornik, M.; Davison, T.; Ahmad, E.; Keatley, P. S.; Vansteenkiste, A.; Van Waeyenberge, B.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2013-03-01

    An all-optical experiment long utilized to image phonons excited by ultrashort optical pulses has been applied to a magnetic sample. In addition to circular ripples due to surface acoustic waves, we observe an X-shaped pattern formed by propagating spin waves. The emission of spin waves from the optical pulse epicenter in the form of collimated beams is qualitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. We explain the observed pattern in terms of the group velocity distribution of Damon-Eshbach magnetostatic spin waves in the reciprocal space and the wave vector spectrum of the focused ultrafast laser pulse.

  1. Direct excitation of propagating spin waves by focused ultrashort optical pulses.

    PubMed

    Au, Y; Dvornik, M; Davison, T; Ahmad, E; Keatley, P S; Vansteenkiste, A; Van Waeyenberge, B; Kruglyak, V V

    2013-03-01

    An all-optical experiment long utilized to image phonons excited by ultrashort optical pulses has been applied to a magnetic sample. In addition to circular ripples due to surface acoustic waves, we observe an X-shaped pattern formed by propagating spin waves. The emission of spin waves from the optical pulse epicenter in the form of collimated beams is qualitatively reproduced by micromagnetic simulations. We explain the observed pattern in terms of the group velocity distribution of Damon-Eshbach magnetostatic spin waves in the reciprocal space and the wave vector spectrum of the focused ultrafast laser pulse.

  2. Spin-flip induction of Fano resonance upon electron tunneling through atomic-scale spin structures

    SciTech Connect

    Val'kov, V. V. Aksenov, S. V.; Ulanov, E. A.

    2013-05-15

    The inclusion of inelastic spin-dependent electron scatterings by the potential profiles of a single magnetic impurity and a spin dimer is shown to induce resonance features due to the Fano effect in the transport characteristics of such atomic-scale spin structures. The spin-flip processes leading to a configuration interaction of the system's states play a fundamental role for the realization of Fano resonance and antiresonance. It has been established that applying an external magnetic field and a gate electric field allows the conductive properties of spin structures to be changed radically through the Fano resonance mechanism.

  3. Kinetics of ultrashort relativistic electron pulses emitted from solid targets.

    PubMed

    Fill, Ernst E

    2004-09-01

    Interaction of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses with solid targets generates relativistic electrons which escape from the target. The kinetics of these ultrashort electron pulses is governed by self-fields generated by the charge of the electron cloud. In this paper an analytical theory is developed which allows calculation of electron trajectories, electron fluxes, and electron spectra at any distance from the target. The theory is exact for two limiting cases: (a) a monoenergetic electron pulse with an arbitrary temporal shape; (b) an infinitely short electron pulse with an arbitrary energy spectrum. These results have applications in high-intensity irradiation experiments, e.g., in experiments irradiating samples with ultrashort electron or x-ray pulses, in developing optics for fourth-generation light sources, and in work relating to x-ray lasers.

  4. Electron-Nuclear Spin Transfer in Triple Quantum Dot Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prada, Marta; Toonen, Ryan; Harrison, Paul

    2005-03-01

    We investigate the conductance spectra of coupled quantum dots to study systematically the nuclear spin relaxation of delta- and y-junction networks and observe spin blockade dependence on the electronic configurations. We derive the conductance using the Beenakker approach generalised to an array of quantum dots where we consider the nuclear spin transfer to electrons by hyperfine coupling. This allows us to predict the relevant memory effects on the different electronic states by studying the evolution of the single electron resonances in presence of nuclear spin relaxation. We find that the gradual depolarisation of the nuclear system is imprinted in the conductance spectra of the multidot system. Our calculations of the temporal evolution of the conductance resonance reveal that spin blockade can be lifted by hyperfine coupling.

  5. Electron nuclear spin transfer in quantum-dot networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prada, M.; Toonen, R. C.; Blick, R. H.; Harrison, P.

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the conductance spectra of coupled quantum dots to study systematically the nuclear spin relaxation of different geometries of a two-dimensional network of quantum dots and observe spin blockade dependence on the electronic configurations. We derive the conductance using the Beenakker approach generalized to an array of quantum dots where we consider the nuclear spin transfer to electrons by hyperfine coupling. This allows us to predict the relevant memory effects on the different electronic states by studying the evolution of the single electron resonances in the presence of nuclear spin relaxation. We find that the gradual depolarization of the nuclear system is imprinted in the conductance spectra of the multidot system. Our calculations of the temporal evolution of the conductance resonance reveal that spin blockade can be lifted by hyperfine coupling.

  6. Electron spin dynamics in cubic GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buß, J. H.; Schupp, T.; As, D. J.; Brandt, O.; Hägele, D.; Rudolph, J.

    2016-12-01

    The electron spin dynamics in cubic GaN is comprehensively investigated by time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr-rotation spectroscopy over a wide range of temperatures, magnetic fields, and doping densities. The spin dynamics is found to be governed by the interplay of spin relaxation of localized electrons and Dyakonov-Perel relaxation of delocalized electrons. Localized electrons significantly contribute to spin relaxation up to room temperature at moderate doping levels, while Dyakonov-Perel relaxation dominates for high temperatures or degenerate doping levels. Quantitative agreement to Dyakonov-Perel theory requires a larger value of the spin-splitting constant than theoretically predicted. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed, including the role of charged dislocations.

  7. Spin-dependent Electron Correlations of a System with Broken Spin Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K. S.; Kim, J. I.; Kim, J. S.

    2001-04-01

    The spin-dependent local field corrections Gσ, σ'/ (q, ω) of a spin-polarized electron gas(SPEG) are examined within a genralized RPA. Numerical results of Gσ, σ/ (q, 0) for both the majority and minority spin electrons of SPEG show a complicated but interesting behavior as one varies the spin polarization ζ of the SPEG. A pronounced maximum in Gσ, σ/ (q, 0) is observed and the location of the peaks are found to depend strongly on the values of ζ. We also show some numerical results of the mixed susceptibilities χem and χme, which are finite and not identical in SPEG.

  8. Electron Spin Relaxation and Coherence Times in Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jock, R. M.; He, Jianhua; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, S.-H.; Liu, C. W.

    2013-03-01

    Single electron spin states in Si/SiGe quantum dots have shown promise as qubits for quantum information processing. Recently, electron spins in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots have displayed relaxation (T1) and coherence (T2) times of 250 μs at 350mK. The experiments used conventional X-band (10 GHz) pulsed Electron Spin Resonance (pESR) on a large area (3.5 x 20 mm2) , double gated, undoped Si/SiGe heterostructure, which was patterned with 2 x 108 quantum dots using e-beam lithography. Dots with 150 nm radii and 700 nm period are induced in a natural Si quantum well by the gates. Smaller dots are expected to reduce the effects of nearly degenerate valley states and spin-orbit coupling on the electron spin coherence. However, the small number of spins makes signal recovery extremely challenging. We have implemented a broadband cryogenic HEMT low-noise-amplifier and a high-speed single-pole double-throw switch operating at liquid helium temperatures. The switch and preamp have improved our signal to noise by an order of magnitude, allowing for smaller samples and shorter measurement times. We will describe these improvements and the data they have enabled. supported by the ARO

  9. Long Spin Relaxation and Coherence Times of Electrons In Gated Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianhua; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; Lee, C.-H.; Huang, S.-H.; Liu, C. W.

    2012-02-01

    Single electron spin states in semiconductor quantum dots are promising candidate qubits. We report the measurement of 250 μs relaxation (T1) and coherence (T2) times of electron spins in gated Si/SiGe quantum dots at 350 mK. The experiments used conventional X-band (10 GHz) pulsed electron spin resonance (pESR), on a large area (3.5 x 20 mm^2) dual-gate undoped high mobility Si/SiGe heterostructure sample, which was patterned with 2 x 10^8 quantum dots using e-beam lithography. Dots having 150 nm radii with a 700 nm period are induced in a natural Si quantum well by the gates. The measured T1 and T2 at 350 mK are much longer than those of free 2D electrons, for which we measured T1 to be 10 μs and T2 to be 6.5 μs in this gated sample. The results provide direct proof that the effects of a fluctuating Rashba field have been greatly suppressed by confining the electrons in quantum dots. From 0.35 K to 0.8 K, T1 of the electron spins in the quantum dots shows little temperature dependence, while their T2 decreased to about 150 μs at 0.8 K. The measured 350 mK spin coherence time is 10 times longer than previously reported for any silicon 2D electron-based structures, including electron spins confined in ``natural quantum dots'' formed by potential disorder at the Si/SiO2ootnotetextS. Shankar et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 195323 (2010) or Si/SiGe interface, where the decoherence appears to be controlled by spin exchange.

  10. Putting a new spin on unoccupied electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Inverse photoemission provides experimental information on the unoccupied electronic states, which is complementary to that obtained by photoemission about the occupied states. The first experimental demonstration of inverse photoemission in the vacuum ultraviolet energy range in 1977 was followed by an important add-on in 1982, the use of spin-polarized electrons. This pioneering experiment opened the way to reveal the spin character of unoccupied electron states in ferromagnets. In this contribution, I will describe the technical development of spin-resolved inverse photoemission with respect to efficiency as well as energy, momentum and spin resolution since the beginning until today. I will give a review about important results obtained by this technique. For about three decades, exchange-split electron states of majority and minority spin character at ferromagnetic surfaces and in ultrathin films were the topics of interest. Since recently, spin textures in momentum space caused by spin-orbit interaction in Rashba systems and topological insulators offer a new field of application for spin-resolved inverse photoemission. I will present a selection of examples, from small and giant Rashba splittings to rotating spins with chiral texture, influenced by the specific symmetry of the system and the orbital character of the respective states.

  11. Anomalous organic magnetoresistance from competing carrier-spin-dependent interactions with localized electronic and nuclear spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatté, Michael E.

    Transport of carriers through disordered electronic energy landscapes occurs via hopping or tunneling through various sites, and can enhance the effects of carrier spin dynamics on the transport. When incoherent hopping preserves the spin orientation of carriers, the magnetic-field-dependent correlations between pairs of spins influence the charge conductivity of the material. Examples of these phenomena have been identified in hopping transport in organic semiconductors and colloidal quantum dots, as well as tunneling through oxide barriers in complex oxide devices, among other materials. The resulting room-temperature magnetic field effects on the conductivity or electroluminescence require external fields of only a few milliTesla. These magnetic field effects can be dramatically modified by changes in the local spin environment. Recent theoretical and experimental work has identified a regime for low-field magnetoresistance in organic semiconductors in which the spin-relaxing effects of localized nuclear spins and electronic spins interfere1. The regime is studied experimentally by the controlled addition of localized electronic spins, through the addition of a stable free radical (galvinoxyl) to a material (MEH-PPV) that exhibits substantial room-temperature magnetoresistance (20 initially suppressed by the doping, as the localized electronic spin mixes one of the two spins whose correlation controls the transport. At intermediate doping, when one spin is fully decohered but the other is not, there is a regime where the magnetoresistance is insensitive to the doping level. For much greater doping concentrations the magnetoresistance is fully suppressed as both spins that control the charge conductivity of the material are mixed. The behavior is described within a theoretical model describing the effect of carrier spin dynamics on the current. Generalizations to amorphous and other disordered crystalline semiconductors will also be described. This work was

  12. Optical detection of spin-filter effect for electron spin polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.; Majee, S.; Lampel, G.; Lassailly, Y.; Paget, D.; Peretti, J.; Tereshchenko, O. E.

    2014-08-04

    We have monitored the cathodoluminescence (CL) emitted upon injection of free electrons into a hybrid structure consisting of a thin magnetic Fe layer deposited on a p-GaAs substrate, in which InGaAs quantum wells are embedded. Electrons transmitted through the unbiased metal/semiconductor junction recombine radiatively in the quantum wells. Because of the electron spin-filtering across the Fe/GaAs structure, the CL intensity, collected from the backside, is found to depend on the relative orientation between the injected electronic spin polarization and the Fe layer magnetization. The spin asymmetry of the CL intensity in such junction provides a compact optical method for measuring spin polarization of free electrons beams or of hot electrons in solid-state devices.

  13. Diagnostic Potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trebeschi, Stefano; Riederer, Isabelle; Preibisch, Christine; Bohn, Karl P.; Förster, Stefan; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S.; Valentinitsch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimers disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Although the underlying pathology is still not completely understood, several diagnostic methods are available. Frequently, the most accurate methods are also the most invasive. The present work investigates the diagnostic potential of Pulsed Arterial Spin Labeling (PASL) for AD: a non-invasive, MRI-based technique for the quantification of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In particular, we propose a pilot computer aided diagnostic (CAD) procedure able to discriminate between healthy and diseased subjects, and at the same time, providing visual informative results. This method encompasses the creation of a healthy model, the computation of a voxel-wise likelihood function as comparison between the healthy model and the subject under examination, and the correction of the likelihood function via prior distributions. The discriminant analysis is carried out to maximize the accuracy of the classification. The algorithm has been trained on a dataset of 81 subjects and achieved a sensitivity of 0.750 and a specificity of 0.875. Moreover, in accordance with the current pathological knowledge, the parietal lobe, and limbic system are shown to be the main discriminant factors. PMID:27147946

  14. Quantum many-body theory for electron spin decoherence in nanoscale nuclear spin baths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen; Ma, Wen-Long; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Decoherence of electron spins in nanoscale systems is important to quantum technologies such as quantum information processing and magnetometry. It is also an ideal model problem for studying the crossover between quantum and classical phenomena. At low temperatures or in light-element materials where the spin-orbit coupling is weak, the phonon scattering in nanostructures is less important and the fluctuations of nuclear spins become the dominant decoherence mechanism for electron spins. Since the 1950s, semi-classical noise theories have been developed for understanding electron spin decoherence. In spin-based solid-state quantum technologies, the relevant systems are in the nanometer scale and nuclear spin baths are quantum objects which require a quantum description. Recently, quantum pictures have been established to understand the decoherence and quantum many-body theories have been developed to quantitatively describe this phenomenon. Anomalous quantum effects have been predicted and some have been experimentally confirmed. A systematically truncated cluster-correlation expansion theory has been developed to account for the many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths that are built up during electron spin decoherence. The theory has successfully predicted and explained a number of experimental results in a wide range of physical systems. In this review, we will cover this recent progress. The limitations of the present quantum many-body theories and possible directions for future development will also be discussed.

  15. Quantum many-body theory for electron spin decoherence in nanoscale nuclear spin baths.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Ma, Wen-Long; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2017-01-01

    Decoherence of electron spins in nanoscale systems is important to quantum technologies such as quantum information processing and magnetometry. It is also an ideal model problem for studying the crossover between quantum and classical phenomena. At low temperatures or in light-element materials where the spin-orbit coupling is weak, the phonon scattering in nanostructures is less important and the fluctuations of nuclear spins become the dominant decoherence mechanism for electron spins. Since the 1950s, semi-classical noise theories have been developed for understanding electron spin decoherence. In spin-based solid-state quantum technologies, the relevant systems are in the nanometer scale and nuclear spin baths are quantum objects which require a quantum description. Recently, quantum pictures have been established to understand the decoherence and quantum many-body theories have been developed to quantitatively describe this phenomenon. Anomalous quantum effects have been predicted and some have been experimentally confirmed. A systematically truncated cluster-correlation expansion theory has been developed to account for the many-body correlations in nanoscale nuclear spin baths that are built up during electron spin decoherence. The theory has successfully predicted and explained a number of experimental results in a wide range of physical systems. In this review, we will cover this recent progress. The limitations of the present quantum many-body theories and possible directions for future development will also be discussed.

  16. Maximal charge injection of consecutive electron pulses with uniform temporal pulse separation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. L.; Zhang, P.; Chen, S. H.; Ang, L. K.

    2015-08-15

    A charge sheet model is proposed for the study of the space-charge limited density of consecutive electron pulses injected to in a diode with uniform temporal pulse separation. Based on the model, an analytical formula is derived for expressing the dependency of the charge density limit on the gap spacing, gap voltage, and pulse separation. The theoretical results are verified by numerical solutions up to electron energy of a few MeV, including relativistic effects. The model can be applied to the design of multiple-pulse electron beams for time resolved electron microscopy and free electron lasers.

  17. Studies of electron spin in GaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Daniel; Colton, John; Park, Tyler; White, Phil

    2013-03-01

    We have studied electron spins in GaAs quantum dots with a pump-probe technique that normally yields the T1 spin lifetime, the time required for initially polarized electrons to relax and randomize. Using a circularly polarized laser tuned to the wavelength response of the quantum dot we can ``pump'' the spins into alignment. After aligning the spins we can detect them using a second, linearly polarized ``probe'' laser. By changing the delay between the two lasers we can trace out the spin response over time. In contrast with other samples (bulk GaAs and a GaAs quantum well), where the spin response decayed exponentially with time, initial data on the quantum dots has shown an unexpected, oscillating behavior which dies out on the order of 700 ns, independent of both temperature and magnetic field.

  18. Pulse saturation recovery, pulse ELDOR, and free induction decay electron paramagnetic resonance detection using time-locked subsampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froncisz, W.; Camenisch, Theodore G.; Ratke, Joseph J.; Hyde, James S.

    2001-03-01

    Time locked subsampling (TLSS) in electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) involves the steps of (i) translation of the signal from a microwave carrier to an intermediate frequency (IF) carrier where the (IF) offset between the signal oscillator and local oscillator frequencies is synthesized, (ii) sampling the IF carrier four times in an odd number of cycles, say 4 in 3, where the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter is driven by a frequency synthesizer that has the same clock input as the IF synthesizer, (iii) signal averaging as required for adequate signal to noise, (iv) separating the even and odd digitized words into two separate signal channels, which correspond to signals in phase and in quadrature with respect to the IF carrier, i.e., I and Q, and (v) detecting the envelope of I and also of Q by changing the signs of alternate words in each of the two channels. TLSS detection has been demonstrated in three forms of pulse EPR spectroscopy at X band: saturation recovery, pulse electron-electron double resonance, and free induction decay. The IF was 187.5 MHz, the A/D converter frequency was 250 MHz, the overall bandwidth was 125 MHz, and the bandwidths for the separate I and Q channels were each 62.5 MHz. Experiments were conducted on nitroxide radical spin labels. The work was directed towards development of methodology to monitor bimolecular collisions of oxygen with spin labels in a context of site-directed spin labeling.

  19. Pulse requirements for electron diffraction imaging of single biological molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Hau-Riege, S; London, R; Chapman, H

    2004-10-20

    The pulse requirements for electron diffraction imaging of single biological molecules are calculated. We find that the electron fluence and pulse length requirements imposed by the damage limit and by the need to classify the diffraction patterns according to their angular orientation cannot be achieved with today's electron beam technology. A simple analytical model shows that the pulse requirements cannot be achieved due to beam broadening due to spacecharge effects.

  20. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thai M; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-07-19

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  1. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-07-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin-optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  2. Spin fluctuations of nonequilibrium electrons and excitons in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, M. M.

    2016-03-01

    Effects that are related to deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium have a special place in modern physics. Among these, nonequilibrium phenomena in quantum systems attract the highest interest. The experimental technique of spin-noise spectroscopy has became quite widespread, which makes it possible to observe spin fluctuations of charge carriers in semiconductors under both equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. This calls for the development of a theory of spin fluctuations of electrons and electron-hole complexes for nonequilibrium conditions. In this paper, we consider a range of physical situations where a deviation from equilibrium becomes pronounced in the spin noise. A general method for the calculation of electron and exciton spin fluctuations in a nonequilibrium state is proposed. A short review of the theoretical and experimental results in this area is given.

  3. Electron spin changes during general anesthesia in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Turin, Luca; Skoulakis, Efthimios M. C.; Horsfield, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the general anesthetics xenon, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, and chloroform cause rapid increases of different magnitude and time course in the electron spin content of Drosophila. With the exception of CHCl3, these changes are reversible. Anesthetic-resistant mutant strains of Drosophila exhibit a different pattern of spin responses to anesthetic. In two such mutants, the spin response to CHCl3 is absent. We propose that these spin changes are caused by perturbation of the electronic structure of proteins by general anesthetics. Using density functional theory, we show that general anesthetics perturb and extend the highest occupied molecular orbital of a nine-residue α-helix. The calculated perturbations are qualitatively in accord with the Meyer–Overton relationship and some of its exceptions. We conclude that there may be a connection between spin, electron currents in cells, and the functioning of the nervous system. PMID:25114249

  4. Flux noise in SQUIDs: Electron versus nuclear spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, Rogerio; Laforest, Stephanie

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are limited by intrinsic flux noise whose origin is unknown. We develop a method to accurately calculate the flux produced by spin impurities in realistic superconducting thin film wires, and show that the flux produced by each spin is much larger than anticipated by former calculations. Remarkably, the total flux noise power due to electron spins at the thin side surface of the wires is found to be of similar magnitude as the one due to electrons at the wide top surface of the wires. In addition, flux noise due to lattice nuclear spins in the bulk of the wires is found to be a sizable fraction of the total noise for some SQUID geometries. We discuss the relative importance of electron and nuclear spin species in determining the total noise power, and propose strategies to design SQUIDs with lower flux noise. We acknowledge support from the Canadian agency NSERC through its Discovery and Engage programs.

  5. Resolving the role of femtosecond heated electrons in ultrafast spin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Mendil, J.; Nieves, P.; Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.; Walowski, J.; Santos, T.; Pisana, S.; Münzenberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetization manipulation is essential for basic research and applications. A fundamental question is, how fast can the magnetization be reversed in nanoscale magnetic storage media. When subject to an ultrafast laser pulse, the speed of the magnetization dynamics depends on the nature of the energy transfer pathway. The order of the spin system can be effectively influenced through spin-flip processes mediated by hot electrons. It has been predicted that as electrons drive spins into the regime close to almost total demagnetization, characterized by a loss of ferromagnetic correlations near criticality, a second slower demagnetization process takes place after the initial fast drop of magnetization. By studying FePt, we unravel the fundamental role of the electronic structure. As the ferromagnet Fe becomes more noble in the FePt compound, the electronic structure is changed and the density of states around the Fermi level is reduced, thereby driving the spin correlations into the limit of critical fluctuations. We demonstrate the impact of the electrons and the ferromagnetic interactions, which allows a general insight into the mechanisms of spin dynamics when the ferromagnetic state is highly excited, and identifies possible recording speed limits in heat-assisted magnetization reversal. PMID:24496221

  6. Generation of Quality Pulses for Control of Qubit/Quantum Memory Spin States: Experimental and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 3046 September 2016 GENERATION OF QUALITY PULSES FOR CONTROL OF QUBIT/QUANTUM MEMORY SPIN STATES: EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION...frequencies. The shape of the Gaussian is generally distorted using these amplifiers ............... 9 14. Measurements taken in the frequency...power, and duration to control the spin. An I/Q mixer is used to generate these microwave and RF pulses with enough efficiency to appropriately

  7. Long-lived Spin Relaxation and Spin Coherence of Electrons in Monolayer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luyi

    Monolayer MoS2 and related transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are direct-gap semiconductors in which strong spin-orbit coupling and a lack of structural inversion symmetry give rise to new coupled spin-valley physics. Although robust spin and valley degrees of freedom have been inferred from polarized photoluminescence (PL) studies of excitons, PL timescales are necessarily constrained by short (3-100 ps) electron-hole recombination. Direct probes of spin/valley dynamics of resident carriers in electron (or hole)-doped TMDs, which may persist long after recombination ceases, are still at an early stage. Here we directly measure the coupled spin-valley dynamics of resident electrons in n-type monolayer MoS2 using optical Kerr-rotation spectroscopy, and reveal very long spin lifetimes exceeding 3ns at 5K (orders of magnitude longer than typical exciton lifetimes). In contrast with conventional III-V or II-VI semiconductors, spin relaxation accelerates rapidly in small transverse magnetic fields. This suggests a novel mechanism of electron spin dephasing in monolayer TMDs, driven by rapidly-fluctuating internal spin-orbit fields due to fast intervalley scattering. Additionally, a small but very long-lived oscillatory signal is observed, indicating spin coherence of localized states. These studies provide direct insight into the physics underpinning the spin and valley dynamics of electrons in monolayer TMDs. In collaboration with S.A. Crooker & N.A. Sinitsyn (Los Alamos), W. Chen, J. Yuan, J. Zhang & J. Lou (Rice University), K.M. McCreary & B.T. Jonker (Naval Research Lab), and supported by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  8. Spin dynamics simulation of electron spin relaxation in Ni{sup 2+}(aq)

    SciTech Connect

    Rantaharju, Jyrki Mareš, Jiří Vaara, Juha

    2014-07-07

    The ability to quantitatively predict and analyze the rate of electron spin relaxation of open-shell systems is important for electron paramagnetic resonance and paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. We present a combined molecular dynamics (MD), quantum chemistry (QC), and spin dynamics simulation method for calculating such spin relaxation rates. The method is based on the sampling of a MD trajectory by QC calculations, to produce instantaneous parameters of the spin Hamiltonian used, in turn, to numerically solve the Liouville-von Neumann equation for the time evolution of the spin density matrix. We demonstrate the approach by simulating the relaxation of electron spin in an aqueous solution of Ni{sup 2+} ion. The spin-lattice (T{sub 1}) and spin-spin (T{sub 2}) relaxation rates are extracted directly from the simulations of the time dependence of the longitudinal and transverse magnetization, respectively. Good agreement with the available, indirectly obtained experimental data is obtained by our method.

  9. Time-domain shape of electron spin echo signal of spin-correlated radical pairs in polymer/fullerene blends.

    PubMed

    Popov, Alexander A; Lukina, Ekaterina A; Rapatskiy, Leonid; Kulik, Leonid V

    2017-03-01

    Temporal shape of electron spin echo (ESE) signal of photoinduced spin-correlated radical pairs (SCRP) in composite of conductive polymer P3HT and substituted fullerene PCBM is studied in details. ESE signals of radical pairs (RP) P3HT(+)/PCBM(-) are calculated in realistic model, taking into account finite microwave pulse length. Inhomogeneous broadening of resonant lines and interradical distance distribution are included. Experimentally observed ESE time-domain shape was found to contradict predictions of conventional SCRP theory, which would be valid in the case of very fast electron transfer. Thus, instantaneous formation of singlet SCRP is not the case for P3HT(+)/PCBM(-) pair, and spin system has enough time to evolve coherently during sequential electron transfer. While it is impossible to reproduce experimental data within simple singlet SCRP model, assumption of presence of additional - with respect to what is predicted by singlet SCRP theory - AE (absorption/emission) spin polarization gives convincing accordance with the experiment. Density matrix of RP P3HT(+)/PCBM(-) is a superposition of two contributions, namely the parts reflecting (i) antiphase polarization of original singlet-born SCRP and (ii) additional AE-polarization which is generated during initial stage of charge separation. AE-polarization affects experimental ESEEM (electron spin echo envelope modulation) traces, as well as ESE shape, making impossible their interpretation via simple singlet SCRP model. However, this effect can be eliminated by averaging of ESEEM traces over EPR spectral positions. Finally, choosing the optimal gate for ESE time-domain integration and proper microwave detection phase tuning are considered.

  10. Time-domain shape of electron spin echo signal of spin-correlated radical pairs in polymer/fullerene blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Alexander A.; Lukina, Ekaterina A.; Rapatskiy, Leonid; Kulik, Leonid V.

    2017-03-01

    Temporal shape of electron spin echo (ESE) signal of photoinduced spin-correlated radical pairs (SCRP) in composite of conductive polymer P3HT and substituted fullerene PCBM is studied in details. ESE signals of radical pairs (RP) P3HT+/PCBM- are calculated in realistic model, taking into account finite microwave pulse length. Inhomogeneous broadening of resonant lines and interradical distance distribution are included. Experimentally observed ESE time-domain shape was found to contradict predictions of conventional SCRP theory, which would be valid in the case of very fast electron transfer. Thus, instantaneous formation of singlet SCRP is not the case for P3HT+/PCBM- pair, and spin system has enough time to evolve coherently during sequential electron transfer. While it is impossible to reproduce experimental data within simple singlet SCRP model, assumption of presence of additional - with respect to what is predicted by singlet SCRP theory - AE (absorption/emission) spin polarization gives convincing accordance with the experiment. Density matrix of RP P3HT+/PCBM- is a superposition of two contributions, namely the parts reflecting (i) antiphase polarization of original singlet-born SCRP and (ii) additional AE-polarization which is generated during initial stage of charge separation. AE-polarization affects experimental ESEEM (electron spin echo envelope modulation) traces, as well as ESE shape, making impossible their interpretation via simple singlet SCRP model. However, this effect can be eliminated by averaging of ESEEM traces over EPR spectral positions. Finally, choosing the optimal gate for ESE time-domain integration and proper microwave detection phase tuning are considered.

  11. Ultrafast control of electron spin in a quantum dot using geometric phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovsky, V. S.; Rudin, S.

    2012-12-01

    We propose a scheme to perform arbitrary unitary operations on a single electron-spin qubit in a quantum dot. The design is solely based on the geometrical phase that the qubit state acquires after a cyclic evolution in the parameter space. The scheme is utilizing ultrafast linearly-chirped pulses providing adiabatic excitation of the qubit states and the geometric phase is fully controlled by the relative phase between pulses. The analytic expression of the evolution operator for the electron spin in a quantum dot, which provides a clear geometrical interpretation of the qubit dynamics is obtained. Using parameters of InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlN quantum dots we provide an estimate for the time scale of the qubit rotations and parameters of the external fields.

  12. Geometric quantum gates for an electron-spin qubit in a quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovsky, Vladimir; Rudin, Sergey

    2012-06-01

    A scheme to perform arbitrary unitary operations on a single electron-spin qubit in a quantum dot is proposed. The design is based on the geometrical phase acquired after a cyclic evolution by the qubit state. The scheme is utilizing ultrafast linearly-chirped pulses providing adiabatic excitation of the qubit states and the geometric phase is fully controlled by the relative phase between pulses. The analytic expression of the evolution operator for the electron spin in a quantum dot, which provides a clear geometrical interpretation of the qubit dynamics, is obtained. Using parameters of InGAN/GaN, GaN/AlN quantum dots we provide an estimate for the time scale of the qubit rotations and parameters of the external fields. Robustness of the proposed scheme against external noise is also discussed.

  13. Spin labeling and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) to Deconstruct Conformational Ensembles of HIV Protease.

    PubMed

    Casey, Thomas M; Fanucci, Gail E

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of macromolecular conformational equilibrium in biological systems is oftentimes essential to understand function, dysfunction, and disease. For the past few years, our lab has been utilizing site-directed spin labeling (SDSL), coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to characterize the conformational ensemble and ligand-induced conformational shifts of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1PR). The biomedical importance of characterizing the fractional occupancy of states within the conformational ensemble critically impacts our hypothesis of a conformational selection mechanism of drug-resistance evolution in HIV-1PR. The purpose of the following chapter is to give a timeline perspective of our SDSL EPR approach to characterizing conformational sampling of HIV-1PR. We provide detailed instructions for the procedure utilized in analyzing distance profiles for HIV-1PR obtained from pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR). Specifically, we employ a version of PELDOR known as double electron-electron resonance (DEER). Data are processed with the software package "DeerAnalysis" (http://www.epr.ethz.ch/software), which implements Tikhonov regularization (TKR), to generate a distance profile from electron spin-echo amplitude modulations. We assign meaning to resultant distance profiles based upon a conformational sampling model, which is described herein. The TKR distance profiles are reconstructed with a linear combination of Gaussian functions, which is then statistically analyzed. In general, DEER has proven powerful for observing structural ensembles in proteins and, more recently, nucleic acids. Our goal is to present our advances in order to aid readers in similar applications.

  14. Comparison of pulse sequences for R1-based electron paramagnetic resonance oxygen imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.

    2015-05-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-lattice relaxation (SLR) oxygen imaging has proven to be an indispensable tool for assessing oxygen partial pressure in live animals. EPR oxygen images show remarkable oxygen accuracy when combined with high precision and spatial resolution. Developing more effective means for obtaining SLR rates is of great practical, biological and medical importance. In this work we compared different pulse EPR imaging protocols and pulse sequences to establish advantages and areas of applicability for each method. Tests were performed using phantoms containing spin probes with oxygen concentrations relevant to in vivo oxymetry. We have found that for small animal size objects the inversion recovery sequence combined with the filtered backprojection reconstruction method delivers the best accuracy and precision. For large animals, in which large radio frequency energy deposition might be critical, free induction decay and three pulse stimulated echo sequences might find better practical usage.

  15. Suppressing the spin relaxation of electrons in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalaev, Oleg; Song, Yang; Dery, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Uniaxial compressive strain along the [001] direction strongly suppresses the spin relaxation in silicon. When the strain level is large enough so that electrons are redistributed only in the two valleys along the strain axis, the dominant scattering mechanisms are quenched and electrons mainly experience intra-axis scattering processes (intravalley or intervalley scattering within valleys on the same crystal axis). We first derive the spin-flip matrix elements due to intra-axis electron scattering off impurities, and then provide a comprehensive model of the spin relaxation time due to all possible interactions of conduction-band electrons with impurities and phonons. We predict a nearly three orders of magnitude improvement in the spin relaxation time of ˜1019cm-3 antimony-doped silicon (Si:Sb) at low temperatures.

  16. Coupling of Photonic and Electronic Spin Catalyzed by Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Timothy

    2011-05-01

    Recent experiments involving the collisions of polarized photons or polarized electrons with simple diatomic molecules have shown novel ways in which the net spin of electrons can be converted into the net spin of photons following the collisions, or vice versa. I will discuss three recent experiments that illustrate such transformations: the production of nuclear rotational spin in nitrogen molecules excited by polarized electrons with the subsequent emission of polarized photons, the excitation by polarized electrons of rotational eigenstates of hydrogen molecules and the subsequent emission of circularly-polarized light, and the photolysis of hydrogen molecules by circularly-polarized light yielding photofragments that ``spin the wrong way.'' To our knowledge, these latter measurements represent the first observation of photofragment orientation by direct observation of the polarization of the photofragment fluoresence. Work supported by the NSF through grant PHY-0821385, the DOE through the use of the ALS at LBL, and ANSTO (Access to Major Research Facilities Programme).

  17. Electronic spin transport and spin precession in single graphene layers at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Jozsa, Csaba; Popinciuc, Mihaita; Jonkman, Harry T.; van Wees, Bart J.

    2007-08-01

    Electronic transport in single or a few layers of graphene is the subject of intense interest at present. The specific band structure of graphene, with its unique valley structure and Dirac neutrality point separating hole states from electron states, has led to the observation of new electronic transport phenomena such as anomalously quantized Hall effects, absence of weak localization and the existence of a minimum conductivity. In addition to dissipative transport, supercurrent transport has also been observed. Graphene might also be a promising material for spintronics and related applications, such as the realization of spin qubits, owing to the low intrinsic spin orbit interaction, as well as the low hyperfine interaction of the electron spins with the carbon nuclei. Here we report the observation of spin transport, as well as Larmor spin precession, over micrometre-scale distances in single graphene layers. The `non-local' spin valve geometry was used in these experiments, employing four-terminal contact geometries with ferromagnetic cobalt electrodes making contact with the graphene sheet through a thin oxide layer. We observe clear bipolar (changing from positive to negative sign) spin signals that reflect the magnetization direction of all four electrodes, indicating that spin coherence extends underneath all of the contacts. No significant changes in the spin signals occur between 4.2K, 77K and room temperature. We extract a spin relaxation length between 1.5 and 2μm at room temperature, only weakly dependent on charge density. The spin polarization of the ferromagnetic contacts is calculated from the measurements to be around ten per cent.

  18. Ponderomotive acceleration of electrons by a self focused laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Rohtash; Sharma, A. K.

    2010-12-15

    Ponderomotive acceleration of electrons by a short laser pulse undergoing relativistic self-focusing in a plasma is investigated. The saturation in nonlinear plasma permittivity causes periodic self-focusing of the laser. The periodicity lengths are different for different axial segments of the pulse. As a result, pulse shape is distorted. An electron initially on the laser axis and at the front of the self-focusing pulse gains energy from the pulse until it is run over by the pulse peak. By the time electron reaches the tail, if pulse begins diverging, the deceleration of the electron is slower and the electron is left with net energy gain. The electrons slightly off the laser axis see a radial ponderomotive force too. Initially, when they are accelerated by the pulse front the acceleration is strong as they are closer to the axis. When they see the tail of the pulse (after being run by the pulse), they are farther from the axis and the retardation ponderomotive force is weaker. Thus, there is net energy gain.

  19. Dissipative long-range entanglement generation between electronic spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, M.; Schuetz, M. J. A.; Cirac, J. I.; Platero, G.; Giedke, G.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a scheme for deterministic generation and long-term stabilization of entanglement between two electronic spin qubits confined in spatially separated quantum dots. Our approach relies on an electronic quantum bus, consisting either of quantum Hall edge channels or surface acoustic waves, that can mediate long-range coupling between localized spins over distances of tens of micrometers. Since the entanglement is actively stabilized by dissipative dynamics, our scheme is inherently robust against noise and imperfections.

  20. Spatially resolved two-dimensional Fourier transform electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewert, Uwe; Crepeau, Richard H.; Lee, Sanghyuk; Dunnam, Curt R.; Xu, Dajiang; Freed, Jack H.

    1991-09-01

    Fourier transform ESR methods have been extended to permit spatially resolved two-dimensional (2D)-ESR experiments. This is illustrated for the case of 2D-electron-electron double resonance (2D-ELDOR) spectra of nitroxides in a liquid that exhibits appreciable cross-peaks due to Heisenberg spin exchange. The use of spin-echo decays in spatially resolved FT-ESR is also demonstrated.

  1. Selective RF pulses in NMR and their effect on coupled and uncoupled spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotboom, J.

    1993-10-01

    This thesis describes various aspects of the usage of shaped RF-pulses for volume selection and spectral editing. Contents: Introduction--The History of Magnetic Resonance in a Nutshell, and The Usage of RF Pulses in Contemporary MRS and MRI; Theoretical and Practical Aspects of Localized NMR Spectroscopy; The Effects of RF Pulse Shape Discretization on the Spatially Selective Performance; Design of Frequency-Selective RF Pulses by Optimizing a Small Number of Pulse Parameters; A Single-Shot Localization Pulse Sequence Suited for Coils with Inhomogeneous RF Fields Using Adiabatic Slice-Selective RF Pulses; The Bloch Equations for an AB System and the Design of Spin State Selective RF Pulses for Coupled Spin Systems; The Effects of Frequency Selective RF Pulses on J Coupled Spin-1/2 Systems; A Quantitative (1)H MRS in vivo Study of the Effects of L-Ornithine-L-Aspartate on the Development of Mild Encephalopathy Using a Single Shot Localization Technique Based on SAR Reduced Adiabatic 2(pi) Pulses.

  2. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

    PubMed

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2013-05-07

    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Electron Spin Relaxation in Irradiated Solids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-03-01

    the development and use of ELDOR techniques to study the spectral diffusion in irradiated L-alanine and other irradiated organic solids. Pulsed STELDOR...and pulsed two-frequency ELDOR methods were developed and the details of the implementation is reported. The assignment of relaxation times that gave

  4. Hanle spin precession in a two-dimensional electron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczmik, T.; Oltscher, M.; Bayer, A.; Schuh, D.; Bougeard, D.; Ciorga, M.; Weiss, D.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the nonlocal Hanle effect in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems using (Ga,Mn)As/GaAs spin Esaki diodes as spin selective contacts. Spin signals in these systems can be strongly affected by dynamic nuclear polarization, which mimics long spin-relaxation times extracted from the measured Hanle curves. Here, we introduce a method which largely suppresses these effects by using an ac injection-detection setup. This allows us to extract from the measurements realistic spin lifetimes on the order of single nanoseconds. As the detection of Hanle signals is also strongly affected by offset signals we discuss the magnetic field dependence of these background voltages observed in lateral nonlocal spin injection devices. We show how the strength of the background magnetoresistance can be minimized by choosing a proper device geometry.

  5. Rashba spin-splitting of single electrons and Cooper pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhter, R. I.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Jonson, M.; Aharony, A.

    2017-02-01

    Electric weak links, the term used for those parts of an electrical circuit that provide most of the resistance against the flow of an electrical current, are important elements of many nanodevices. Quantum dots, nanowires and nano-constrictions that bridge two bulk conductors (or superconductors) are examples of such weak links. Here we consider nanostructures where the electronic spin-orbit interaction is strong in the weak link but is un-important in the bulk conductors, and explore theoretically the role of the spin-orbit active weak link (which we call a "Rashba spin splitter") as a source of new spin-based functionality in both normal and superconducting devices. Some recently predicted phenomena, including mechanically-controlled spin- and charge currents as well as the effect of spin polarization of superconducting Cooper pairs, are reviewed.

  6. Directing Nuclear Spin Flips in InAs Quantum Dots Using Detuned Optical Pulse Trains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-24

    magnetic field for the electron ( Overhauser shift). This leads to an apparent e-spin dephasing time T2 of a few nanoseconds and a varying spin splitting...takes a random walk, as does the Overhauser shifted e-spin precession frequency, until reaching a syn- chronized precession frequency with a lower nuclear

  7. Foucault's pendulum, a classical analog for the electron spin state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linck, Rebecca A.

    Spin has long been regarded as a fundamentally quantum phenomena that is incapable of being described classically. To bridge the gap and show that aspects of spin's quantum nature can be described classically, this work uses a classical Lagrangian based on the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum as an analog for the electron spin state in an external magnetic field. With this analog it is possible to demonstrate that Foucault's pendulum not only serves as a basis for explaining geometric phase, but is also a basis for reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured electron spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  8. Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrish Miah, M.

    2010-09-01

    Dephasing of optically generated electron spins in the presence of the external magnetic field and electric bias in semiconductor nano-structures has been studied by time- and polarization-resolved spectrometry. The obtained experimental data are presented in dependence of the strength of the magnetic field. The optically generated electron-spin precession frequency and dephasing time and rate are estimated. It is found that both the spin precession frequency and dephasing rate increase linearly with the external magnetic field up to about 9 T. However, the spin dephasing time is within sub- μs and is found to decrease exponentially with the strength of the external magnetic field. The results are discussed by exploring possible mechanisms of spin dephasing in low-dimensional semiconductor structures, where the quantum-confinement persists within the nano-range.

  9. Spin fluctuations of nonequilibrium electrons and excitons in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Glazov, M. M.

    2016-03-15

    Effects that are related to deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium have a special place in modern physics. Among these, nonequilibrium phenomena in quantum systems attract the highest interest. The experimental technique of spin-noise spectroscopy has became quite widespread, which makes it possible to observe spin fluctuations of charge carriers in semiconductors under both equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions. This calls for the development of a theory of spin fluctuations of electrons and electron–hole complexes for nonequilibrium conditions. In this paper, we consider a range of physical situations where a deviation from equilibrium becomes pronounced in the spin noise. A general method for the calculation of electron and exciton spin fluctuations in a nonequilibrium state is proposed. A short review of the theoretical and experimental results in this area is given.

  10. Nanometer-scale probing of spin waves using single electron spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a new approach to exploring magnetic excitations in correlated-electron systems, based on single electronic spins in atom-like defects diamond known as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers. We demonstrate the power of this approach by detecting spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc with nanoscale spatial sensitivity over a broad range of frequencies and magnetic fields. We show how spin-wave resonances can be exploited for on-chip amplification of microwave magnetic fields, allowing strongly increased spin manipulation rates and single-spin magnetometry with enhanced sensitivity. Finally, we show the possibility to detect the magnetic spin noise produced by a thin (~ 30 nm) layer of a patterned ferromagnet. For the interpretation of our results, we develop a general framework describing single-spin stray field detection in terms of a filter function sensitive mostly to spin fluctuations with wavevector ~ 1 / d , where d is the NV-ferromagnet distance. Our results pave the way towards quantitative and non-perturbative detection of spectral properties in nanomagnets, establishing NV center magnetometry as an emergent probe of collective spin dynamics in condensed matter.

  11. Spin precession and spin waves in a chiral electron gas: Beyond Larmor's theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Shahrzad; Baboux, Florent; Perez, Florent; Ullrich, Carsten A.; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    Larmor's theorem holds for magnetic systems that are invariant under spin rotation. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling this invariance is lost and Larmor's theorem is broken: for systems of interacting electrons, this gives rise to a subtle interplay between the spin-orbit coupling acting on individual single-particle states and Coulomb many-body effects. We consider a quasi-two-dimensional, partially spin-polarized electron gas in a semiconductor quantum well in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Using a linear-response approach based on time-dependent density-functional theory, we calculate the dispersions of spin-flip waves. We obtain analytic results for small wave vectors and up to second order in the Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling strengths α and β . Comparison with experimental data from inelastic light scattering allows us to extract α and β as well as the spin-wave stiffness very accurately. We find significant deviations from the local density approximation for spin-dependent electron systems.

  12. Spin dynamics of a confined electron interacting with magnetic or nuclear spins: A semiclassical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietl, Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    A physically transparent and mathematically simple semiclassical model is employed to examine dynamics in the central-spin problem. The results reproduce previous findings obtained by various quantum approaches and, at the same time, provide information on the electron spin dynamics and Berry's phase effects over a wider range of experimentally relevant parameters than available previously. This development is relevant to dynamics of bound magnetic polarons and spin dephasing of an electron trapped by an impurity or a quantum dot, and coupled by a contact interaction to neighboring localized magnetic impurities or nuclear spins. Furthermore, it substantiates the applicability of semiclassical models to simulate dynamic properties of spintronic nanostructures with a mesoscopic number of spins.

  13. Pulsed magnetic field-electron cyclotron resonance ion source operation

    SciTech Connect

    Muehle, C.; Ratzinger, U.; Joest, G.; Leible, K.; Schennach, S.; Wolf, B.H.

    1996-03-01

    The pulsed magnetic field (PuMa)-electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source uses a pulsed coil to improve the peak current by opening the magnetic bottle along the beam axis. After demonstration of the principle of the pulsed magnetic extraction, the ion source was tested with different gases. We received promising results from helium to krypton. The influence of the current in the pulsed coil on the analyzed ion current was measured. With increased current levels within the pulsed coil not only the pulse height of the PuMa pulse, but the pulse length can also be controlled. By using the pulsed coil the maximum of the charge state distribution can be shifted to higher charge states. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Visualization of Distance Distribution from Pulsed Double Electron-Electron Resonance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Michael K.; Maryasov, Alexander G.; Kim, Nak-Kyoon; DeRose, Victoria J.

    2004-01-01

    Double electron-electron resonance (DEER), also known as pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR), is a time-domain electron paramagnetic resonance method that can measure the weak dipole-dipole interactions between unpaired electrons. DEER has been applied to discrete pairs of free radicals in biological macromolecules and to clusters containing small numbers of free radicals in polymers and irradiated materials. The goal of such work is to determine the distance or distribution of distances between radicals, which is an underdetermined problem. That is, the spectrum of dipolar interactions can be readily calculated for any distribution of free radicals, but there are many, quite different distributions of radicals that could produce the same experimental dipolar spectrum. This paper describes two methods that are useful for approximating the distance distributions for the large subset of cases in which the mutual orientations of the free radicals are uncorrelated and the width of the distribution is more than a few percent of its mean. The first method relies on a coordinate transformation and is parameter free, while the second is based on iterative least-squares with Tikhonov regularization. Both methods are useful in DEER studies of spin labeled biomolecules containing more than two labels.

  15. Optimizing chirped laser pulse parameters for electron acceleration in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Akhyani, Mina; Jahangiri, Fazel; Niknam, Ali Reza; Massudi, Reza

    2015-11-14

    Electron dynamics in the field of a chirped linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Variations of electron energy gain versus chirp parameter, time duration, and initial phase of laser pulse are studied. Based on maximizing laser pulse asymmetry, a numerical optimization procedure is presented, which leads to the elimination of rapid fluctuations of gain versus the chirp parameter. Instead, a smooth variation is observed that considerably reduces the accuracy required for experimentally adjusting the chirp parameter.

  16. Determining the exchange parameters of spin-1 metal-organic molecular magnets in pulsed magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, Ross D; Singleton, John; Lancaster, Tom; Goddard, Paul; Manson, Jamie

    2011-01-14

    the Cu-pyz-Cu directions. The structure of the two compounds is similar, but in the case of the Cu-compound the Cu-Cu pathways are linear, whereas in the Ni-compound they are kinked. The pulsed-field data combined with information from temperature-dependent susceptibility, muon-spin rotation, electron-spin resonance and ligand-field calculations suggest that, far from being magnetically Q2D, the Ni-compound is fairly one-dimensional with the dominant exchange (J{sub 1D} = 3.1 K and J{sub {perpendicular}}/J{sub 1D} = 0.63) directed along the Ni-FHF-Ni direction. Ni(NCS){sub 2}(pyzdo){sub 2} was also investigated. Previous ultra-high field measurements using the 100 T magnet have shown that this compound has a saturation field close to 80 T. The purpose of the present studies is to map out the phase diagram of this material at mid-range fields. The data are shown in the inset to the figure. This continuing project probes the ability of organic ligands to mediate magnetic exchange, the link between structure, dimensionality and bulk magnetic properties, as well as the role of spin number in quantum magnets. Ultimately the investigations aim to determine to what extent it is possible to produce self-assembly molecular materials with tailor-made magnetic characteristics.

  17. Wedge-shaped slice-selective adiabatic inversion pulse for controlling temporal width of bolus in pulsed arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Buxton, Richard B.; Wong, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) methods, arterial blood is labeled via inverting a slab with uniform thickness, resulting in different temporal widths of boluses in vessels with different flow velocities. This limits the temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency gains in PASL-based methods intended for high temporal resolution and SNR efficiency, such as Turbo-ASL and Turbo-QUASAR. Theory and Methods A novel wedge-shaped (WS) adiabatic inversion pulse is developed by adding in-plane gradient pulses to a slice-selective (SS) adiabatic inversion pulse to linearly modulate the inversion thicknesses at different locations while maintaining the adiabatic properties of the original pulse. A hyperbolic secant (HS) based WS inversion pulse was implemented. Its performance was tested in simulations, phantom and human experiments, and compared to an SS HS inversion pulse. Results Compared to the SS inversion pulse, the WS inversion pulse is capable of inducing different inversion thicknesses at different locations. It can be adjusted to generate a uniform temporal width of boluses in arteries at locations with different flow velocities. Conclusion The WS inversion pulse can be used to control the temporal widths of labeled boluses in PASL experiments. This should benefit PASL experiments by maximizing labeling duty cycle, and improving temporal resolution and SNR efficiency. PMID:26451521

  18. Electron spin control of optically levitated nanodiamonds in vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Li, Tongcang

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining NV spins with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centres in low vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. To better understand this system, we investigate the effects of trap power and measure the absolute internal temperature of levitated nanodiamonds with ESR after calibration of the strain effect. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centres, indicating potential applications of NV centres in oxygen gas sensing. Our results pave the way towards a levitated spin–optomechanical system for studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. PMID:27432560

  19. Isolated electron spins in silicon carbide with millisecond coherence times.

    PubMed

    Christle, David J; Falk, Abram L; Andrich, Paolo; Klimov, Paul V; Hassan, Jawad Ul; Son, Nguyen T; Janzén, Erik; Ohshima, Takeshi; Awschalom, David D

    2015-02-01

    The elimination of defects from SiC has facilitated its move to the forefront of the optoelectronics and power-electronics industries. Nonetheless, because certain SiC defects have electronic states with sharp optical and spin transitions, they are increasingly recognized as a platform for quantum information and nanoscale sensing. Here, we show that individual electron spins in high-purity monocrystalline 4H-SiC can be isolated and coherently controlled. Bound to neutral divacancy defects, these states exhibit exceptionally long ensemble Hahn-echo spin coherence times, exceeding 1 ms. Coherent control of single spins in a material amenable to advanced growth and microfabrication techniques is an exciting route towards wafer-scale quantum technologies.

  20. Isolated electron spins in silicon carbide with millisecond coherence times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christle, David J.; Falk, Abram L.; Andrich, Paolo; Klimov, Paul V.; Hassan, Jawad Ul; Son, Nguyen T.; Janzén, Erik; Ohshima, Takeshi; Awschalom, David D.

    2015-02-01

    The elimination of defects from SiC has facilitated its move to the forefront of the optoelectronics and power-electronics industries. Nonetheless, because certain SiC defects have electronic states with sharp optical and spin transitions, they are increasingly recognized as a platform for quantum information and nanoscale sensing. Here, we show that individual electron spins in high-purity monocrystalline 4H-SiC can be isolated and coherently controlled. Bound to neutral divacancy defects, these states exhibit exceptionally long ensemble Hahn-echo spin coherence times, exceeding 1 ms. Coherent control of single spins in a material amenable to advanced growth and microfabrication techniques is an exciting route towards wafer-scale quantum technologies.

  1. One-electron versus electron-electron interaction contributions to the spin-spin coupling mechanism in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: analysis of basic electronic effects.

    PubMed

    Gräfenstein, Jürgen; Cremer, Dieter

    2004-12-22

    For the first time, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin-spin coupling mechanism is decomposed into one-electron and electron-electron interaction contributions to demonstrate that spin-information transport between different orbitals is not exclusively an electron-exchange phenomenon. This is done using coupled perturbed density-functional theory in conjunction with the recently developed J-OC-PSP [=J-OC-OC-PSP: Decomposition of J into orbital contributions using orbital currents and partial spin polarization)] method. One-orbital contributions comprise Ramsey response and self-exchange effects and the two-orbital contributions describe first-order delocalization and steric exchange. The two-orbital effects can be characterized as external orbital, echo, and spin transport contributions. A relationship of these electronic effects to zeroth-order orbital theory is demonstrated and their sign and magnitude predicted using simple models and graphical representations of first order orbitals. In the case of methane the two NMR spin-spin coupling constants result from totally different Fermi contact coupling mechanisms. (1)J(C,H) is the result of the Ramsey response and the self-exchange of the bond orbital diminished by external first-order delocalization external one-orbital effects whereas (2)J(H,H) spin-spin coupling is almost exclusively mitigated by a two-orbital steric exchange effect. From this analysis, a series of prediction can be made how geometrical deformations, electron lone pairs, and substituent effects lead to a change in the values of (1)J(C,H) and (2)J(H,H), respectively, for hydrocarbons.

  2. Electric-field-induced interferometric resonance of a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Yuansen; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2016-12-01

    The efficient control of electron spins is of crucial importance for spintronics, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing. We theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to probe the electron spin dynamics, by focusing on a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. We find that this proposed external-field-controlled scheme should be regarded as a new type of quantum-dot-based interferometry. This interferometry has potential applications in precise measurements of relevant experimental parameters, such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupling strengths, as well as the Landé factor.

  3. Electric-field-induced interferometric resonance of a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled electron.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Yuansen; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2016-12-14

    The efficient control of electron spins is of crucial importance for spintronics, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing. We theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to probe the electron spin dynamics, by focusing on a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. We find that this proposed external-field-controlled scheme should be regarded as a new type of quantum-dot-based interferometry. This interferometry has potential applications in precise measurements of relevant experimental parameters, such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupling strengths, as well as the Landé factor.

  4. Electric-field-induced interferometric resonance of a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled electron

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Yuansen; Chen, Gang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The efficient control of electron spins is of crucial importance for spintronics, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing. We theoretically formulate an electric mechanism to probe the electron spin dynamics, by focusing on a one-dimensional spin-orbit-coupled nanowire quantum dot. Owing to the existence of spin-orbit coupling and a pulsed electric field, different spin-orbit states are shown to interfere with each other, generating intriguing interference-resonant patterns. We also reveal that an in-plane magnetic field does not affect the interval of any neighboring resonant peaks, but contributes a weak shift of each peak, which is sensitive to the direction of the magnetic field. We find that this proposed external-field-controlled scheme should be regarded as a new type of quantum-dot-based interferometry. This interferometry has potential applications in precise measurements of relevant experimental parameters, such as the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupling strengths, as well as the Landé factor. PMID:27966598

  5. Generation of ultrashort electron bunches by colliding laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, C B; Lee, P B; Wurtele, J S; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    1999-05-01

    A proposed laser-plasma-based relativistic electron source [E. Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2682 (1997)] using laser-triggered injection of electrons is investigated. The source generates ultrashort electron bunches by dephasing and trapping background plasma electrons undergoing fluid oscillations in an excited plasma wake. The plasma electrons are dephased by colliding two counterpropagating laser pulses which generate a slow phase velocity beat wave. Laser pulse intensity thresholds for trapping and the optimal wake phase for injection are calculated. Numerical simulations of test particles, with prescribed plasma and laser fields, are used to verify analytic predictions and to study the longitudinal and transverse dynamics of the trapped plasma electrons. Simulations indicate that the colliding laser pulse injection scheme has the capability to produce relativistic femtosecond electron bunches with fractional energy spread of order a few percent and normalized transverse emittance less than 1 mm mrad using 1 TW injection laser pulses.

  6. Tunable Few-Electron Quantum Dots as Spin Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzerman, Jeroen; Hanson, Ronald; Greidanus, Jacob; Willems van Beveren, Laurens; de Franceschi, Silvano; Vandersypen, Lieven; Tarucha, Seigo; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    2003-03-01

    Recently it was proposed to make a quantum bit using the spin of an electron in a quantum dot. We present the first experimental steps towards realizing a system of two coupled qubits. The Zeeman splitting between the two spin states defining the qubit is measured for a one-electron dot in a parallel magnetic field. For a two-electron dot, we control the spin singlet-triplet energy difference with a perpendicular magnetic field, and we induce a transition from singlet to triplet ground state. We find relaxation from triplet to singlet to be extremely slow (> 1 mus), which is promising for quantum computing. We couple two few-electron dots, creating the first fully tunable few-electron double dot. Its charge configuration can be read out with a nearby QPC acting as an integrated charge detector.

  7. Spin-Polarizing Interferometric Beam Splitter for Free Electrons.

    PubMed

    Dellweg, Matthias M; Müller, Carsten

    2017-02-17

    A spin-polarizing electron beam splitter is described that relies on an arrangement of linearly polarized laser waves of nonrelativistic intensity. An incident electron beam is first coherently scattered off a bichromatic laser field, splitting the beam into two portions, with electron spin and momentum being entangled. Afterwards, the partial beams are coherently superposed in an interferometric setup formed by standing laser waves. As a result, the outgoing electron beam is separated into its spin components along the laser magnetic field, which is shown by both analytical and numerical solutions of Pauli's equation. The proposed laser field configuration thus exerts the same effect on free electrons as an ordinary Stern-Gerlach magnet does on atoms.

  8. Spin-Polarizing Interferometric Beam Splitter for Free Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellweg, Matthias M.; Müller, Carsten

    2017-02-01

    A spin-polarizing electron beam splitter is described that relies on an arrangement of linearly polarized laser waves of nonrelativistic intensity. An incident electron beam is first coherently scattered off a bichromatic laser field, splitting the beam into two portions, with electron spin and momentum being entangled. Afterwards, the partial beams are coherently superposed in an interferometric setup formed by standing laser waves. As a result, the outgoing electron beam is separated into its spin components along the laser magnetic field, which is shown by both analytical and numerical solutions of Pauli's equation. The proposed laser field configuration thus exerts the same effect on free electrons as an ordinary Stern-Gerlach magnet does on atoms.

  9. Electron spin echo envelope modulation of molecular motions of deuterium nuclei.

    PubMed

    Syryamina, V N; Maryasov, A G; Bowman, M K; Dzuba, S A

    2015-12-01

    Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the study of hyperfine interactions between an unpaired electron and nearby nuclei in solids, and is employed in quantitative structural studies. Here, we describe the use of ESEEM to study the slow motion of deuterium nuclei using their nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) line shapes. Two ESEEM techniques were employed: the conventional three-pulse ESEEM experiment, π/2 - τ - π/2 - T- π/2 - τ - echo, and the four-pulse ESEEM, π/2 - τ - π/2 - T/2 - π - T/2 - π/2 - τ - echo, with the time variable T scanned in both cases. The nitroxide free radical 4-tert-butyliminomethyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl(d12)-3-imidazoline-1-oxyl with four deuterated methyl groups was investigated in a glassy ortho-terphenyl matrix over a wide temperature range. It was shown that four-pulse ESEEM allowed measurement of the nearly pure (2)H NQR line shape. Between 90K and 120K, the ESEEM spectra change drastically. At low temperatures, four-pulse ESEEM spectra show a Pake-like pattern, which evolves into a single line at higher temperatures, which is typical for NQR of rotating methyl CD3 groups. Comparison with literature data on NQR allows estimation of the reorientation rate, k. At ∼100K, where the spectral changes are most pronounced, k was found to be ∼10(5)s(-1). The spectral linewidths for the three-pulse ESEEM were found to decrease similarly with increasing temperature; so the three-pulse technique is also capable to detect motion of this type. The ESEEM approach, along with site-directed spin labeling, may be useful for detection of motional transitions near the spin labels in biological systems, when information on motion is required in a wide temperature range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Electron spin echo envelope modulation of molecular motions of deuterium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syryamina, V. N.; Maryasov, A. G.; Bowman, M. K.; Dzuba, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy is a powerful technique for the study of hyperfine interactions between an unpaired electron and nearby nuclei in solids, and is employed in quantitative structural studies. Here, we describe the use of ESEEM to study the slow motion of deuterium nuclei using their nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) line shapes. Two ESEEM techniques were employed: the conventional three-pulse ESEEM experiment, π/2 - τ - π/2 - T- π/2 - τ - echo, and the four-pulse ESEEM, π/2 - τ - π/2 - T/2 - π - T/2 - π/2 - τ - echo, with the time variable T scanned in both cases. The nitroxide free radical 4-tert-butyliminomethyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl(d12)-3-imidazoline-1-oxyl with four deuterated methyl groups was investigated in a glassy ortho-terphenyl matrix over a wide temperature range. It was shown that four-pulse ESEEM allowed measurement of the nearly pure 2H NQR line shape. Between 90 K and 120 K, the ESEEM spectra change drastically. At low temperatures, four-pulse ESEEM spectra show a Pake-like pattern, which evolves into a single line at higher temperatures, which is typical for NQR of rotating methyl CD3 groups. Comparison with literature data on NQR allows estimation of the reorientation rate, k. At ∼100 K, where the spectral changes are most pronounced, k was found to be ∼105 s-1. The spectral linewidths for the three-pulse ESEEM were found to decrease similarly with increasing temperature; so the three-pulse technique is also capable to detect motion of this type. The ESEEM approach, along with site-directed spin labeling, may be useful for detection of motional transitions near the spin labels in biological systems, when information on motion is required in a wide temperature range.

  11. The Boersch effect in a picosecond pulsed electron beam emitted from a semiconductor photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Makoto; Nambo, Yoshito; Aoki, Kota; Sameshima, Kensuke; Jin, Xiuguang; Ujihara, Toru; Asano, Hidefumi; Saitoh, Koh; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-07-01

    The space charge effect has been clearly observed in the energy distributions of picosecond pulse beams from a spin-polarized electron microscope, and was found to depend upon the quantity of charge per pulse. The non-linear phenomena associated with this effect have also been replicated in beam simulations that take into account of a three-dimensional space charge. The results show that a charge of 500 aC/pulse provides the highest brightness with a 16-ps pulse duration, a 30-keV beam energy, and an emission spot of 1.8 μm. Furthermore, the degeneracy of the wave packet of the pulsed electron beam has been evaluated to be 1.6 × 10-5 with a charge of 100 aC/pulse, which is higher than that for a continuously emitted electron beam despite the low beam energy of 30 keV. The high degeneracy and high brightness contribute to the realization of high temporal and energy resolutions in low-voltage electron microscopy, which will serve to reduce radiolysis damage and enhance scattering contrast.

  12. The Boersch effect in a picosecond pulsed electron beam emitted from a semiconductor photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, Makoto Ujihara, Toru; Saitoh, Koh; Nambo, Yoshito; Aoki, Kota; Sameshima, Kensuke; Asano, Hidefumi; Jin, Xiuguang; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-07-04

    The space charge effect has been clearly observed in the energy distributions of picosecond pulse beams from a spin-polarized electron microscope, and was found to depend upon the quantity of charge per pulse. The non-linear phenomena associated with this effect have also been replicated in beam simulations that take into account of a three-dimensional space charge. The results show that a charge of 500 aC/pulse provides the highest brightness with a 16-ps pulse duration, a 30-keV beam energy, and an emission spot of 1.8 μm. Furthermore, the degeneracy of the wave packet of the pulsed electron beam has been evaluated to be 1.6 × 10{sup −5} with a charge of 100 aC/pulse, which is higher than that for a continuously emitted electron beam despite the low beam energy of 30 keV. The high degeneracy and high brightness contribute to the realization of high temporal and energy resolutions in low-voltage electron microscopy, which will serve to reduce radiolysis damage and enhance scattering contrast.

  13. Solid effect in the electron spin dressed state: A new approach for dynamic nuclear polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, V.; Bennati, M.; Rosay, M.; Griffin, R. G.

    2000-10-01

    We describe a new type of solid effect for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) that is based on simultaneous, near resonant microwave (mw) and radio frequency (rf) irradiation of a coupled electron nuclear spin system. The interaction of the electron spin with the mw field is treated as an electron spin dressed state. In contrast to the customary laboratory frame solid effect, it is possible to obtain nuclear polarization with the dressed state solid effect (DSSE) even in the absence of nonsecular hyperfine coupling. Efficient, selective excitation of dressed state transitions generates nuclear polarization in the nuclear laboratory frame on a time scale of tens of μs, depending on the strength of the electron-nuclear coupling, the mw and rf offset and field strength. The experiment employs both pulsed mw and rf irradiation at a repetition rate comparable to T1e-1, where T1e is the electronic spin lattice relaxation time. The DSSE is demonstrated on a perdeuterated BDPA radical in a protonated matrix of polystyrene.

  14. Spin Measurements of an Electron Bound to a Single Phosphorous Donor in Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhman, D. R.; Nguyen, K.; Tracy, L. A.; Carr, S. M.; Borchardt, J.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten Eyck, G. A.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J.; Carroll, M. S.; Lilly, M. P.

    2014-03-01

    The spin of an electron bound to a single donor implanted in silicon is potentially useful for quantum information processing. We report on our efforts to measure and manipulate the spin of an electron bound to a single P donor in silicon. A low number of P donors are implanted using a self-aligned process into a silicon substrate in close proximity to a single-electron-transistor (SET) defined by lithographically patterned polysilicon gates. The SET is used to sense the occupancy of the electron on the donor and for spin read-out. An adjacent transmission line allows the application of microwave pulses to rotate the spin of the electron. We will present data from various experiments designed to exploit these capabilities. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Pulsed electron beam generator for application in materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerk, J.; Ratzel, F.

    1980-08-01

    A pulsed electron beam generator for the purpose of transient annealing was developed. The principle of operation of the generator is the production of an electron beam by means of a triggered vacuum discharge burning between metallic electrodes. The maximum energy of the electrons of a pulsed beam may be varied between 10 keV and 25 keV. The pulse length is about 300 nsec. The energy density at the sample location can be easily adjusted between 0.3 and 2.5 Joules/cm(2). The diameter of the electron beam is about 5 cm.

  16. Spin labeling and Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) to Deconstruct Conformational Ensembles of HIV Protease

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Thomas M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of macromolecular conformational equilibrium in biological systems is oftentimes essential to understand function, dysfunction, and disease. For the past few years, our lab has been utilizing site-directed spin labeling (SDSL), coupled with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, to characterize the conformational ensemble and ligand-induced conformational shifts of HIV-1 protease (HIV-1PR). The biomedical importance of characterizing the fractional occupancy of states within the conformational ensemble critically impacts our hypothesis of a conformational selection mechanism of drug-resistance evolution in HIV-1PR. The purpose of the following chapter is to give a timeline perspective of our SDSL EPR approach to characterizing conformational sampling of HIV-1PR. We provide detailed instructions for the procedure utilized in analyzing distance profiles for HIV-1PR obtained from pulsed electron–electron double resonance (PELDOR). Specifically, we employ a version of PELDOR known as double electron–electron resonance (DEER). Data are processed with the software package “DeerAnalysis” (http://www.epr.ethz.ch/software), which implements Tikhonov regularization (TKR), to generate a distance profile from electron spin-echo amplitude modulations. We assign meaning to resultant distance profiles based upon a conformational sampling model, which is described herein. The TKR distance profiles are reconstructed with a linear combination of Gaussian functions, which is then statistically analyzed. In general, DEER has proven powerful for observing structural ensembles in proteins and, more recently, nucleic acids. Our goal is to present our advances in order to aid readers in similar applications. PMID:26477251

  17. Electron Spin Coherence of Shallow Donors in Natural and Isotopically Enriched Germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigillito, A. J.; Jock, R. M.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Beeman, J. W.; Haller, E. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Lyon, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Germanium is a widely used material for electronic and optoelectronic devices and recently it has become an important material for spintronics and quantum computing applications. Donor spins in silicon have been shown to support very long coherence times (T2 ) when the host material is isotopically enriched to remove any magnetic nuclei. Germanium also has nonmagnetic isotopes so it is expected to support long T2's while offering some new properties. Compared to Si, Ge has a strong spin-orbit coupling, large electron wave function, high mobility, and highly anisotropic conduction band valleys which will all give rise to new physics. In this Letter, the first pulsed electron spin resonance measurements of T2 and the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) times for 75As and 31P donors in natural and isotopically enriched germanium are presented. We compare samples with various levels of isotopic enrichment and find that spectral diffusion due to 73Ge nuclear spins limits the coherence in samples with significant amounts of 73Ge. For the most highly enriched samples, we find that T1 limits T2 to T2=2 T1. We report an anisotropy in T1 and the ensemble linewidths for magnetic fields oriented along different crystal axes but do not resolve any angular dependence to the spectral-diffusion-limited T2 in samples with 73Ge.

  18. Deficiencies of active electronic radiation protection dosimeters in pulsed fields.

    PubMed

    Ankerhold, U; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays nearly all radiation fields used for X-ray diagnostics are pulsed. These fields are characterised by a high dose rate during the pulse and a short pulse duration in the range of a few milliseconds. The use of active electronic dosimeters has increased in the past few years, but these types of dosimeters might possibly not measure reliably in pulsed radiation fields. Not only personal dosimeters but also area dosimeters that are used mainly for dose rate measurements are concerned. These cannot be substituted by using passive dosimeter types. The characteristics of active electronic dosimeters determined in a continuous radiation field cannot be transferred to those in pulsed fields. Some provisional measurements with typical electronic dosimeters in pulsed radiation fields are presented to reveal this basic problem.

  19. Proposal for a High-Brightness Pulsed Electron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotorev, M.; Commins, E.D.; Heifets, S.; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /SLAC

    2006-10-16

    We propose a novel scheme for a high-brightness pulsed electron source, which has the potential for many useful applications in electron microscopy, inverse photo-emission, low energy electron scattering experiments, and electron holography. A description of the proposed scheme is presented.

  20. Flue gas dry scrubbing using pulsed electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1996-02-20

    Electron beam dry scrubbing is a technique for removing in a single step both nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the off-gas generated by utilities burning high sulfur coal. The use of pulsed electron beams may provide the most cost-effective solution to the implementation of this technique. This paper presents the results of plasma chemistry calculations to study the effect of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate on pulsed electron beam processing of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in flue gases. The main objective is to determine if the proposed combinations of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate would have any deleterious effect on the utilization of radicals for pollutant removal. For a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second and a pulse length of 30 nanoseconds, the average dose per pulse is sufficiently low to prevent any deleterious effect on process efficiency because of radical-radical recombination reactions. During each post-pulse period, the radicals are utilized in the oxidation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in a timescale of around 200 microseconds; thus, with pulse frequencies of around 5 kilohertz or less, the radical concentrations remain sufficiently low to prevent any significant competition between radical-pollutant and radical-radical reactions. The main conclusion is that a pulsed electron beam reactor, operating with a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second, pulse length of 30 ns and pulse repetition rate of up to around 5 kHz, will have the same plasma chemistry efficiency as an electron beam reactor operating with a very low dose rate in continuous mode.

  1. Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chuan; Zhang Yong; Jin Guangsheng

    2011-09-15

    We present an entanglement purification protocol and an entanglement concentration protocol for electron-spin entangled states, resorting to quantum-dot spin and optical-microcavity-coupled systems. The parity-check gates (PCGs) constructed by the cavity-spin-coupling system provide a different method for the entanglement purification of electron-spin entangled states. This protocol can efficiently purify an electron ensemble in a mixed entangled state. The PCGs can also concentrate electron-spin pairs in less-entangled pure states efficiently. The proposed methods are more flexible as only single-photon detection and single-electron detection are needed.

  2. Absorption and generation of femtosecond laser-pulse excited spin currents in noncollinear magnetic bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalieu, M. L. M.; Helgers, P. L. J.; Koopmans, B.

    2017-07-01

    Spin currents can be generated on an ultrafast time scale by excitation of a ferromagnetic (FM) thin film with a femtosecond laser pulse. Recently, it has been demonstrated that these ultrafast spin currents can transport angular momentum to neighboring FM layers, being able to change both the magnitude and orientation of the magnetization in the adjacent layer. In this paper, both the generation and absorption of these optically excited spin currents are investigated. This is done using noncollinear magnetic bilayers, i.e., two FM layers separated by a conductive spacer. Spin currents are generated in a Co/Ni multilayer with out-of-plane (OOP) anisotropy, and absorbed by a Co layer with an in-plane (IP) anisotropy. This behavior is confirmed by careful analysis of the laser-pulse induced magnetization dynamics, whereafter it is demonstrated that the transverse spin current is absorbed very locally near the injection interface of the IP layer (90 % within the first ≈2 nm). Moreover, it will also be shown that this local absorption results in the excitation of THz standing spin waves within the IP layer. The dispersion measured for these high-frequency spin waves shows a discrepancy with respect to the theoretical predictions, for which an explanation involving intermixed interface regions is proposed. Lastly, the spin current generation is investigated by using magnetic bilayers with a different number of repeats for the Co/Ni multilayer, which proves to be of great relevance for identifying the optical spin current generation mechanism.

  3. Quantum and classical correlations in electron-nuclear spin echo

    SciTech Connect

    Zobov, V. E.

    2014-11-15

    The quantum properties of dynamic correlations in a system of an electron spin surrounded by nuclear spins under the conditions of free induction decay and electron spin echo have been studied. Analytical results for the time evolution of mutual information, classical part of correlations, and quantum part characterized by quantum discord have been obtained within the central-spin model in the high-temperature approximation. The same formulas describe discord in both free induction decay and spin echo although the time and magnetic field dependences are different because of difference in the parameters entering into the formulas. Changes in discord in the presence of the nuclear polarization β{sub I} in addition to the electron polarization β{sub S} have been calculated. It has been shown that the method of reduction of the density matrix to a two-spin electron-nuclear system provides a qualitatively correct description of pair correlations playing the main role at β{sub S} ≈ β{sub I} and small times. At large times, such correlations decay and multispin correlations ensuring nonzero mutual information and zero quantum discord become dominant.

  4. Chirped imaging pulses in four-dimensional electron microscopy: femtosecond pulsed hole burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Tae; Kwon, Oh-Hoon; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2012-05-01

    The energy and time correlation, i.e. the chirp, of imaging electron pulses in dispersive propagation is measured by time-slicing (temporal hole burning) using photon-induced near-field electron microscopy. The chirp coefficient and the degree of correlation are obtained in addition to the duration of the electron pulse and its energy spread. Improving temporal and energy resolutions by time-slicing and energy-selection is discussed here and we explore their utility in imaging with time and energy resolutions below those of the generated ultrashort electron pulse. Potential applications for these imaging capabilities are discussed.

  5. Gate-controlled electron spins in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Prabhakar, Sanjay; Melnik, Roderick; Bonilla, Luis L.

    2013-12-16

    In this paper we study the properties of anisotropic semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) formed in the conduction band in the presence of the magnetic field. The Kane-type model is formulated and is analyzed by using both analytical and finite element techniques. Among other things, we demonstrate that in such quantum dots, the electron spin states in the phonon-induced spin-flip rate can be manipulated with the application of externally applied anisotropic gate potentials. More precisely, such potentials enhance the spin flip rates and reduce the level crossing points to lower quantum dot radii. This happens due to the suppression of the g-factor towards bulk crystal. We conclude that the phonon induced spin-flip rate can be controlled through the application of spin-orbit coupling. Numerical examples are shown to demonstrate these findings.

  6. Pulse Splitting in Short Wavelength Seeded Free Electron Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Labat, M.; Couprie, M. E.; Joly, N.; Bruni, C.

    2009-12-31

    We investigate a fundamental limitation occurring in vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet seeded free electron lasers (FELs). For a given electron beam and undulator configuration, an increase of the FEL output energy at saturation can be obtained via an increase of the seed pulse duration. We put in evidence a complex spatiotemporal deformation of the amplified pulse, leading ultimately to a pulse splitting effect. Numerical studies of the Colson-Bonifacio FEL equations reveal that slippage length and seed laser pulse wings are core ingredients of the dynamics.

  7. Manipulation of the nuclear spin ensemble in a quantum dot with chirped magnetic resonance pulses.

    PubMed

    Munsch, Mathieu; Wüst, Gunter; Kuhlmann, Andreas V; Xue, Fei; Ludwig, Arne; Reuter, Dirk; Wieck, Andreas D; Poggio, Martino; Warburton, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    The nuclear spins in nanostructured semiconductors play a central role in quantum applications. The nuclear spins represent a useful resource for generating local magnetic fields but nuclear spin noise represents a major source of dephasing for spin qubits. Controlling the nuclear spins enhances the resource while suppressing the noise. NMR techniques are challenging: the group III and V isotopes have large spins with widely different gyromagnetic ratios; in strained material there are large atom-dependent quadrupole shifts; and nanoscale NMR is hard to detect. We report NMR on 100,000 nuclear spins of a quantum dot using chirped radiofrequency pulses. Following polarization, we demonstrate a reversal of the nuclear spin. We can flip the nuclear spin back and forth a hundred times. We demonstrate that chirped NMR is a powerful way of determining the chemical composition, the initial nuclear spin temperatures and quadrupole frequency distributions for all the main isotopes. The key observation is a plateau in the NMR signal as a function of sweep rate: we achieve inversion at the first quantum transition for all isotopes simultaneously. These experiments represent a generic technique for manipulating nanoscale inhomogeneous nuclear spin ensembles and open the way to probe the coherence of such mesoscopic systems.

  8. Optically-pumped spin-exchange polarized electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirbhai, Munir Hussein

    Polarized electron beams are an indispensable probe of spin-dependent phenomena in fields of atomic and molecular physics, magnetism and biophysics. While their uses have become widespread, the standard source based on negative electron affinity gallium arsenide (GaAs) remains technically complicated. This has hindered progress on many experiments involving spin-polarized electrons, especially those using target gas loads, which tend to adversely affect the performance of GaAs sources. A robust system based on an alternative way to make polarized electron beams has been devised in this study, which builds on previous work done in our lab. It involves spin-exchange collisions between free, unpolarized electrons and oriented rubidium atoms in the presence of a quenching gas. This system has less stringent vacuum requirements than those of GaAs sources, and is capable of operating in background pressures of ~1mTorr. Beams with ~24% polarization and 4μA of current have been recorded, which is comparable to the performance obtained with the earlier version built in our lab. The present system is however not as unstable as in the previous work, and has the potential to be developed into a "turn-key" source of polarized electron beams. It has also allowed us to undertake a study to find factors which affect the beam polarization in this scheme of producing polarized electrons. Such knowledge will help us to design better optically-pumped spin-exchange polarized electron sources.

  9. Access to long-term optical memories using photon echoes retrieved from electron spins in semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltavtsev, S. V.; Langer, L.; Yugova, I. A.; Salewski, M.; Kapitonov, Y. V.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.; Akimov, I. A.; Bayer, M.

    2016-10-01

    We use spontaneous (two-pulse) and stimulated (three-pulse) photon echoes for studying the coherent evolution of optically excited ensemble of trions which are localized in semiconductor CdTe/CdMgTe quantum well. Application of transverse magnetic field leads to the Larmor precession of the resident electron spins, which shuffles optically induced polarization between optically accessible and inaccessible states. This results in several spectacular phenomena. First, magnetic field induces oscillations of spontaneous photon echo amplitude. Second, in three-pulse excitation scheme, the photon echo decay is extended by several orders of magnitude. In this study, short-lived optical excitation which is created by the first pulse is coherently transferred into a long-lived electron spin state using the second optical pulse. This coherent spin state of electron ensemble persists much longer than any optical excitation in the system, preserving information on initial optical field, which can be retrieved as a photon echo by means of third optical pulse.

  10. Ultra-bright pulsed electron beam with low longitudinal emittance

    DOEpatents

    Zolotorev, Max

    2010-07-13

    A high-brightness pulsed electron source, which has the potential for many useful applications in electron microscopy, inverse photo-emission, low energy electron scattering experiments, and electron holography has been described. The source makes use of Cs atoms in an atomic beam. The source is cycled beginning with a laser pulse that excites a single Cs atom on average to a band of high-lying Rydberg nP states. The resulting valence electron Rydberg wave packet evolves in a nearly classical Kepler orbit. When the electron reaches apogee, an electric field pulse is applied that ionizes the atom and accelerates the electron away from its parent ion. The collection of electron wave packets thus generated in a series of cycles can occupy a phase volume near the quantum limit and it can possess very high brightness. Each wave packet can exhibit a considerable degree of coherence.

  11. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    DOE PAGES

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-10-26

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonancemore » can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.« less

  12. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe

    SciTech Connect

    Mkhitaryan, V. V.; Jelezko, F.; Dobrovitski, V. V.

    2015-10-26

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonance can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10–100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. As a result, the method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.

  13. Electron Spin Resonance at the Level of 1 04 Spins Using Low Impedance Superconducting Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, C.; Sigillito, A. J.; Lyon, S. A.; Petta, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    We report on electron spin resonance measurements of phosphorus donors localized in a 200 μ m2 area below the inductive wire of a lumped element superconducting resonator. By combining quantum limited parametric amplification with a low impedance microwave resonator design, we are able to detect around 2 ×1 04 spins with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 in a single shot. The 150 Hz coupling strength between the resonator field and individual spins is significantly larger than the 1-10 Hz coupling rates obtained with typical coplanar waveguide resonator designs. Because of the larger coupling rate, we find that spin relaxation is dominated by radiative decay into the resonator and dependent upon the spin-resonator detuning, as predicted by Purcell.

  14. Highly selective detection of individual nuclear spins with rotary echo on an electron spin probe.

    PubMed

    Mkhitaryan, V V; Jelezko, F; Dobrovitski, V V

    2015-10-26

    We consider an electronic spin, such as a nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, weakly coupled to a large number of nuclear spins, and subjected to the Rabi driving with a periodically alternating phase. We show that by switching the driving phase synchronously with the precession of a given nuclear spin, the interaction to this spin is selectively enhanced, while the rest of the bath remains decoupled. The enhancement is of resonant character. The key feature of the suggested scheme is that the width of the resonance is adjustable, and can be greatly decreased by increasing the driving strength. Thus, the resonance can be significantly narrowed, by a factor of 10-100 in comparison with the existing detection methods. Significant improvement in selectivity is explained analytically and confirmed by direct numerical many-spin simulations. The method can be applied to a wide range of solid-state systems.

  15. Surface spin-electron acoustic waves in magnetically ordered metals

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Pavel A. Kuz'menkov, L. S.

    2016-05-09

    Degenerate plasmas with motionless ions show existence of three surface waves: the Langmuir wave, the electromagnetic wave, and the zeroth sound. Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to half-space plasma, we demonstrate the existence of the surface spin-electron acoustic wave (SSEAW). We study dispersion of the SSEAW. We show that there is hybridization between the surface Langmuir wave and the SSEAW at rather small spin polarization. In the hybridization area, the dispersion branches are located close to each other. In this area, there is a strong interaction between these waves leading to the energy exchange. Consequently, generating the Langmuir waves with the frequencies close to hybridization area we can generate the SSEAWs. Thus, we report a method of creation of the spin-electron acoustic waves.

  16. Ultrafast spin-transfer torque driven by femtosecond pulsed-laser excitation.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, A J; Kuiper, K C; de Wit, R R J C; Koopmans, B

    2014-07-10

    Spin currents have an important role in many proposed spintronic devices, as they govern the switching process of magnetic bits in random access memories or drive domain wall motion in magnetic shift registers. The generation of these spin currents has to be fast and energy efficient for realization of these envisioned devices. Recently it has been shown that femtosecond pulsed-laser excitation of thin magnetic films creates intense and ultrafast spin currents. Here we utilize this method to change the orientation of the magnetization in a magnetic bilayer by spin-transfer torque on sub-picosecond timescales. By analysing the dynamics of the magnetic bilayer after laser excitation, the rich physics governing ultrafast spin-transfer torque are elucidated opening up new pathways to ultrafast magnetization reversal, but also providing a new method to quantify optically induced spin currents generated on femtosecond timescales.

  17. Electron-Spin Filters Based on the Rashba Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.-Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier; McGill, Thomas C.; Moon, Jeong S.; Chow, David H.; Schulman, Joel N.; Smith, Darryl L.

    2004-01-01

    Semiconductor electron-spin filters of a proposed type would be based on the Rashba effect, which is described briefly below. Electron-spin filters more precisely, sources of spin-polarized electron currents have been sought for research on, and development of, the emerging technological discipline of spintronics (spin-based electronics). There have been a number of successful demonstrations of injection of spin-polarized electrons from diluted magnetic semiconductors and from ferromagnetic metals into nonmagnetic semiconductors. In contrast, a device according to the proposal would be made from nonmagnetic semiconductor materials and would function without an applied magnetic field. The Rashba effect, named after one of its discoverers, is an energy splitting, of what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. The present proposal evolved from recent theoretical studies that suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling. Accordingly, a device according to the proposal would be denoted an asymmetric resonant interband tunneling diode [a-RITD]. An a-RITD could be implemented in a variety of forms, the form favored in the proposal being a double-barrier heterostructure containing an asymmetric quantum well. It is envisioned that a-RITDs would be designed and fabricated in the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system for several reasons: Heterostructures in this material system are strong candidates for pronounced Rashba spin splitting because InAs and GaSb exhibit large spin-orbit interactions and because both InAs and GaSb would be available for the construction of highly asymmetric

  18. Electron spin resonance studies on reduction process of nitroxyl spin radicals used in molecular imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Jawahar, A.

    2014-04-24

    The Electron spin resonance studies on the reduction process of nitroxyl spin probes were carried out for 1mM {sup 14}N labeled nitroxyl radicals in pure water and 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid as a function of time. The electron spin resonance parameters such as signal intensity ratio, line width, g-value, hyperfine coupling constant and rotational correlation time were determined. The half life time was estimated for 1mM {sup 14}N labeled nitroxyl radicals in 1 mM concentration of ascorbic acid. The ESR study reveals that the TEMPONE has narrowest line width and fast tumbling motion compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL. From the results, TEMPONE has long half life time and high stability compared with TEMPO and TEMPOL radical. Therefore, this study reveals that the TEMPONE radical can act as a good redox sensitive spin probe for molecular imaging.

  19. Foucault's Pendulum, Analog for an Electron Spin State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linck, Rebecca

    2012-11-01

    The classical Lagrangian that describes the coupled oscillations of Foucault's pendulum presents an interesting analog to an electron's spin state in an external magnetic field. With a simple modification, this classical Lagrangian yields equations of motion that directly map onto the Schrodinger-Pauli Equation. This analog goes well beyond the geometric phase, reproducing a broad range of behavior from Zeeman-like frequency splitting to precession of the spin state. By demonstrating that unmeasured spin states can be fully described in classical terms, this research opens the door to using the tools of classical physics to examine an inherently quantum phenomenon.

  20. Spin-polarized electron transport through helicene molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ting-Rui; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2016-12-01

    Recently, the spin-selectivity effect of chiral molecules has been attracting extensive and growing interest among the scientific communities. Here, we propose a model Hamiltonian to study spin-dependent electron transport through helicene molecules which are connected by two semi-infinite graphene nanoribbons and try to elucidate a recent experiment of the spin-selectivity effect observed in the helicene molecules. The results indicate that the helicene molecules can present a significant spin-filtering effect in the case of extremely weak spin-orbit coupling, which is three orders of magnitude smaller than the hopping integral. The underlying physics is attributed to intrinsic chiral symmetry of the helicene molecules. When the chirality is switched from the right-handed species to the left-handed species, the spin polarization is reversed exactly. These results are consistent with a recent experiment [V. Kiran et al., Adv. Mater. 28, 1957 (2016), 10.1002/adma.201504725]. In addition, the spin-filtering effect of the helicene molecules is robust against molecular lengths, dephasing strengths, and space position disorder. This theoretical work may motivate further studies on chiral-induced spin selectivity in molecular systems.

  1. Electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Struzhkin, Viktor V.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Shu, Jinfu; Hemley, Russell J.; Fei, Yingwei; Mysen, Bjorn; Dera, Przemek; Prakapenka, Vitali; Shen, Guoyin

    2004-01-01

    The electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite is one of the fundamental parameters that governs the physics and chemistry of the most voluminous and massive shell in the Earth. We present experimental evidence for spin-pairing transition in aluminum-bearing silicate perovskite (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O3 under the lower mantle pressures. Our results demonstrate that as pressure increases, iron in perovskite transforms gradually from the initial high-spin state toward the final low-spin state. At 100 GPa, both aluminum-free and aluminum-bearing samples exhibit a mixed spin state. The residual magnetic moment in the aluminum-bearing perovskite is significantly higher than that in its aluminum-free counterpart. The observed spin evolution with pressure can be explained by the presence of multiple iron species and the occurrence of partial spin-paring transitions in the perovskite. Pressure-induced spin-pairing transitions in the perovskite would have important bearing on the magnetic, thermoelastic, and transport properties of the lower mantle, and on the distribution of iron in the Earth's interior. PMID:15377786

  2. Strong mechanical driving of a single electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfuss, A.; Teissier, J.; Neu, E.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Maletinsky, P.

    2015-10-01

    Quantum devices for sensing and computing applications require coherent quantum systems, which can be manipulated in fast and robust ways. Such quantum control is typically achieved using external electromagnetic fields, which drive the system’s orbital, charge or spin degrees of freedom. However, most existing approaches require complex and unwieldy gate structures, and with few exceptions are limited to the regime of weak coherent driving. Here, we present a novel approach to coherently drive a single electronic spin using internal strain fields in an integrated quantum device. Specifically, we employ time-varying strain in a diamond cantilever to induce long-lasting, coherent oscillations of an embedded nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre spin. We perform direct spectroscopy of the phonon-dressed states emerging from this drive and observe hallmarks of the sought-after strong-driving regime, where the spin rotation frequency exceeds the spin splitting. Furthermore, we employ our continuous strain driving to significantly enhance the NV’s spin coherence time. Our room-temperature experiments thereby constitute an important step towards strain-driven, integrated quantum devices and open new perspectives to investigate unexplored regimes of strongly driven multilevel systems and exotic spin dynamics in hybrid spin-oscillator devices.

  3. Reduced matrix elements of spin-spin interactions for the atomic f-electron configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, Y. Y.

    2014-03-01

    A re-examination of some major references on the intra-atomic magnetic interactions over the last six decades reveals that there exist some gaps or puzzles concerning the previous studies of the spin-spin interactions for the atomic f-shell electrons. Hence, tables are provided for the relevant reduced matrix elements of the four double-tensor operators zr (r=1,2,3, and 4) of rank 2 in both the orbital and spin spaces. The range of the tables covers all states of the configurations from f4 to f7.

  4. Hot electron spin transport in C60 fullerene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueso, Luis Eduardo; Gobbi, Marco; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Golmar, Federico; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Felix

    2012-02-01

    Carbon-based molecular materials are interesting for spin transport application mainly due to their small sources of spin relaxation [1]. However, spin coherence lengths reported in many molecular films do not exceed a few tens of nanometers [2]. In this work we will present results showing how hot spin-polarized electrons injected well above the Fermi level in C60 fullerene films travel coherently for hundreds of nanometers. We fabricated hot-electron vertical transistors, in which the current created across an Al/Al2O3 junction is polarized by a metallic Co/Cu/Py spin valve trilayer and subsequently injected in the molecular thin film. This geometry allows us to determine the energy level alignment at each interface between different materials. Moreover, the collector magnetocurrent excess 85%, even for C60 films thicknesses of 300 nm. We believe these results show the importance of hot spin-polarized electron injection and propagation in molecular materials. [1] V. Dediu, L.E. Hueso, I. Bergenti, C. Taliani, Nature Mater. 8, 707 (2009) [2] M. Gobbi, F. Golmar, R. Llopis, F. Casanova, L.E. Hueso, Adv. Mater. 23, 1609 (2011)

  5. Comparison of electron paramagnetic resonance methods to determine distances between spin labels on human carbonic anhydrase II.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, M; Harbridge, J R; Hammarström, P; Mitri, R; Mårtensson, L G; Carlsson, U; Eaton, G R; Eaton, S S

    2001-01-01

    Four doubly spin-labeled variants of human carbonic anhydrase II and corresponding singly labeled variants were prepared by site-directed spin labeling. The distances between the spin labels were obtained from continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra by analysis of the relative intensity of the half-field transition, Fourier deconvolution of line-shape broadening, and computer simulation of line-shape changes. Distances also were determined by four-pulse double electron-electron resonance. For each variant, at least two methods were applicable and reasonable agreement between methods was obtained. Distances ranged from 7 to 24 A. The doubly spin-labeled samples contained some singly labeled protein due to incomplete labeling. The sensitivity of each of the distance determination methods to the non-interacting component was compared. PMID:11371461

  6. Metastable and spin-polarized states in electron systems with localized electron-electron interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablikov, Vladimir A.; Shchamkhalova, Bagun S.

    2014-05-01

    We study the formation of spontaneous spin polarization in inhomogeneous electron systems with pair interaction localized in a small region that is not separated by a barrier from surrounding gas of non-interacting electrons. Such a system is interesting as a minimal model of a quantum point contact in which the electron-electron interaction is strong in a small constriction coupled to electron reservoirs without barriers. Based on the analysis of the grand potential within the self-consistent field approximation, we find that the formation of the polarized state strongly differs from the Bloch or Stoner transition in homogeneous interacting systems. The main difference is that a metastable state appears in the critical point in addition to the globally stable state, so that when the interaction parameter exceeds a critical value, two states coexist. One state has spin polarization and the other is unpolarized. Another feature is that the spin polarization increases continuously with the interaction parameter and has a square-root singularity in the critical point. We study the critical conditions and the grand potentials of the polarized and unpolarized states for one-dimensional and two-dimensional models in the case of extremely small size of the interaction region.

  7. A two-dimensional Fourier transform electron-spin resonance (ESR) study of nuclear modulation and spin relaxation in irradiated malonic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghyuk; Patyal, Baldev R.; Freed, Jack H.

    1993-03-01

    Nuclear modulation in electron-spin-echo spectroscopy is conventionally studied by one-dimensional electron-spin-echo envelope modulation (1D-ESEEM). Two-dimensional Fourier transform electron-spin resonance (2D-FTESR) studies of nuclear modulation have the promise of enhancing the spectral resolution and clarifying the key details of the relaxation processes. We present a 2D-FTESR study on single proton nuclear modulation from γ-irradiated malonic acid single crystals to test the validity of the Gamliel-Freed theory and to assess the value of the new methods. The two pulse spin-echo correlation spectroscopy (SECSY) spectra as a function of orientation of the single crystal show very good agreement with the Gamliel-Freed theory extended to the general case of nonaxially symmetric hyperfine interaction. It is very simply affected by spin relaxation, such that relative intensities are essentially unaffected. Thus SECSY-ESR can most reliably be utilized for studying nuclear modulation. Stimulated SECSY provides the simplest nuclear modulation patterns, which, however, do exhibit the suppression effect well known in three-pulse ESEEM studies. Two-dimensional electron-electron double resonance (2D-ELDOR) provides nuclear modulation patterns similar to that of SECSY-ESR, so the suppression effect is absent. Both three-pulse methods exhibit complex relaxation behavior which can affect relative intensities. This is a feature characteristic of three-pulse ESEEM, but is not well understood. It is shown how the 2D-FTESR methods enable one to obtain the details of the complex spin relaxation, and in the process, obtain very good agreement between experiment and theory. 2D-ELDOR exhibits exchange cross peaks as well as coherence peaks from the nuclear modulation. It is shown how experiments, as a function of mixing time, enable one to separate the effects of the two. It is pointed out that such experiments are in the spirit of 3D spectroscopy. A new observation of the

  8. Solid-State Electronic Spin Coherence Time Approaching One Second

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-23

    Methods) allows for common-mode rejection of noise, but does not remove the effect of pulse errors. We noticed a modest reduction in signal contrast and...for natural abundance diamond (1.1% 13C), as the dynamical decoupling sequences we employ are also effective in suppressing dephasing caused by the...since for ensembles of NVs in the presence of 13C nuclear spins, additional decoherence is caused by variations in the effective Larmor frequency of

  9. Temporal lenses for attosecond and femtosecond electron pulses

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Shawn A.; Uiterwaal, Cornelis; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2009-01-01

    Here, we describe the “temporal lens” concept that can be used for the focus and magnification of ultrashort electron packets in the time domain. The temporal lenses are created by appropriately synthesizing optical pulses that interact with electrons through the ponderomotive force. With such an arrangement, a temporal lens equation with a form identical to that of conventional light optics is derived. The analog of ray diagrams, but for electrons, are constructed to help the visualization of the process of compressing electron packets. It is shown that such temporal lenses not only compensate for electron pulse broadening due to velocity dispersion but also allow compression of the packets to durations much shorter than their initial widths. With these capabilities, ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy can be extended to new domains,and, just as importantly, electron pulses can be delivered directly on an ultrafast techniques target specimen. PMID:19541639

  10. Temporal lenses for attosecond and femtosecond electron pulses.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Shawn A; Uiterwaal, Cornelis; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2009-06-30

    Here, we describe the "temporal lens" concept that can be used for the focus and magnification of ultrashort electron packets in the time domain. The temporal lenses are created by appropriately synthesizing optical pulses that interact with electrons through the ponderomotive force. With such an arrangement, a temporal lens equation with a form identical to that of conventional light optics is derived. The analog of ray diagrams, but for electrons, are constructed to help the visualization of the process of compressing electron packets. It is shown that such temporal lenses not only compensate for electron pulse broadening due to velocity dispersion but also allow compression of the packets to durations much shorter than their initial widths. With these capabilities, ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy can be extended to new domains,and, just as importantly, electron pulses can be delivered directly on an ultrafast techniques target specimen.

  11. A high-duty-cycle long-pulse electron gun for electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahim, N.A.; Thrasher, M.H. )

    1990-11-01

    We describe the design and operation of a long-pulse (200--300 {mu}s), high-duty-cycle (5%--6%), 8-mm-diam dispenser cathode, electrically isolated, modulating Wehnelt electron gun for applications in a high-average-power electron linear accelerator. The electron optics design was optimized with computer modeling of the electron trajectories and equipotentials. The gun performance was established in a series of experimental measurements in a test stand. Excellent pulse-to-pulse emission current reproducibility and electron-beam pulse profile stability were obtained.

  12. Probing Electron Dynamics in Simple Molecules with Attosecond Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivière, Paula; Palacios, Alicia; Pérez-Torres, Jhon Fredy; Martín, Fernando

    Attosecond pulses are an ideal tool to explore electron and nuclear dynamics in atoms and molecules. Either as single attosecond pulses (SAP), in attosecond pulse trains (APT), or in combination with infrared (IR) pulses, these pulses, with frequencies in the VUV-XUV regime, have been widely used to probe ionization, electron tunneling, or autoionization in atoms. More recently, similar processes have been studied in molecules. A correct theoretical description of such processes in molecules often requires a fully dimensional treatment due to the important role of nuclear motion and electron correlation. This restricts ab initio calculations to the simplest molecules. In this chapter, we discuss single ionization of hydrogen molecules (H2 and D2) induced by time-delayed SAP+IR and APT+IR schemes. Ab initio time-dependent theoretical calculations are compared with existing experiments.

  13. Simulating electron spin entanglement in a double quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Moreno, M. A.; Hernandez de La Luz, A. D.; Meza-Montes, Lilia

    2011-03-01

    One of the biggest advantages of having a working quantum-computing device when compared with a classical one, is the exponential speedup of calculations. This exponential increase is based on the ability of a quantum system to create and operate on entangled states. In order to study theoretically the entanglement between two electron spins, we simulate the dynamics of two electron spins in an electrostatically-defined double quantum dot with a finite barrier height between the dots. Electrons are initially confined to separated quantum dots. Barrier height is varied and the spin entanglement as a function of this variation is investigated. The evolution of the system is simulated by using a numerical approach for solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for two particles. Partially supported by VIEP-BUAP.

  14. Electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Struzhkin, V.; Mao, H.-k.; Shu, J.; Hemley, R.; Fei, Y.; Mysen, B.; Dera, P.; Parapenka, V.; Shen, G.

    2010-11-16

    The electronic spin state of iron in lower mantle perovskite is one of the fundamental parameters that governs the physics and chemistry of the most voluminous and massive shell in the Earth. We present experimental evidence for spin-pairing transition in aluminum-bearing silicate perovskite (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} under the lower mantle pressures. Our results demonstrate that as pressure increases, iron in perovskite transforms gradually from the initial high-spin state toward the final low-spin state. At 100 GPa, both aluminum-free and aluminum-bearing samples exhibit a mixed spin state. The residual magnetic moment in the aluminum-bearing perovskite is significantly higher than that in its aluminum-free counterpart. The observed spin evolution with pressure can be explained by the presence of multiple iron species and the occurrence of partial spin-paring transitions in the perovskite. Pressure-induced spin-pairing transitions in the perovskite would have important bearing on the magnetic, thermoelastic, and transport properties of the lower mantle, and on the distribution of iron in the Earth's interior. The lower mantle constitutes more than half of the Earth's interior by volume (1), and it is believed to consist predominantly (80-100%) of (Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)O{sub 3} perovskite (hereafter called perovskite), with up to 20% (Mg,Fe)O ferropericlase (2). The electronic spin state of iron has direct influence on the physical properties and chemical behavior of its host phase. Hence, knowledge on the spin state of iron is important for the interpretation of seismic observations, geochemical modeling, and geodynamic simulation of the Earth's deep interior (3, 4). Crystal field theory (4, 5) and band theory (6) predicted that a high-spin to low-spin transition would occur as a result of compression. To date, no experimental data exist on the spin sate of iron in Al-bearing perovskite. To detect possible spinpairing transition of iron in perovskite under the lower mantle

  15. Spin and orbital rotation of electrons and photons via spin-orbit interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, C. C.; Raymer, M. G.; Enk, S. J. van

    2009-12-15

    We show that when an electron or photon propagates in a cylindrically symmetric waveguide, its spin angular momentum (SAM) and its orbital angular momentum (OAM) interact. Remarkably, we find that the dynamics resulting from this spin-orbit interaction are quantitatively described by a single expression applying to both electrons and photons. This leads to the prediction of several rotational effects: the spatial or time evolution of either particle's spin-polarization vector is controlled by its OAM quantum number or, conversely, its spatial wave function is controlled by its SAM. We show that the common origin of these effects in electrons and photons is a universal geometric phase. We demonstrate how these phenomena can be used to reversibly transfer entanglement between the SAM and OAM degrees of freedom of two-particle states.

  16. Electron and nuclear spin polarization in Rb-Xe spin-exchange optical hyperpolarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Repiský, Michal; Mareš, Jiří; Saam, Brian; Vaara, Juha

    2017-03-01

    Spin-exchange optical hyperpolarization of 129Xe gas enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. The governing parameter of the Rb-Xe spin-exchange process, the so-called enhancement factor, was recently reevaluated experimentally. However, the underlying hyperfine coupling and atomic interaction potential as functions of the internuclear distance of the open-shell Rb-Xe dimer have not been accurately determined to date. We present a piecewise approximation based on first-principles calculations of these parameters contributing to the NMR and EPR frequency shifts in the low-density Rb-Xe gas mixture of relevance to hyperpolarization experiments. Both Rb electron and 129Xe nuclear spin polarizations are estimated based on a combination of electronic-structure calculations, observed frequency shifts, and an estimate of the Rb number density. Finally, an expression for the enhancement factor in terms of modern electronic-structure theory is obtained.

  17. Electron beam switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Pleasance, Lyn D.; Murray, John R.; Goldhar, Julius; Bradley, Laird P.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  18. Compact pulsed electron beam system for microwave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Banerjee, P.; Prabaharan, T.; Adhikary, B.; Verma, R.; Sharma, A.; Shyam, A.

    2012-11-01

    A compact 180 kV electron beam system is designed for high power microwave generation. The electron beam system is consists of a secondary energy storage device, which can deliver energy to the load at faster rate than usual primary energy storage system such as tesla transformers or marx generator. The short duration, high voltage pulse with fast rise time and good flattop is applied to vacuum diode for high power microwave generation. The compact electron beam system is made up of single turn primary tesla transformer which charges a helical pulse forming line and transfers its energy to vacuum diode through a high voltage pressurized spark gap switch. We have used helical pulse forming line which has higher inductance as compared to coaxial pulse forming line, which in turns increases, the pulse width and reduce the length of the pulse forming line. Water dielectric medium is used because of its high dielectric constant, high dielectric strength and efficient energy storage capability. The time dependent breakdown property and high relative permittivity of water makes it an ideal choice for this system. The high voltage flat-top pulse of 90 kV, 260 ns is measured across the matched load. In this article we have reported the design details, simulation and initial experimental results of 180 kV pulsed electron beam system for high power microwave generation.

  19. All-optical three-dimensional electron pulse compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie Wong, Liang; Freelon, Byron; Rohwer, Timm; Gedik, Nuh; Johnson, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical, three-dimensional electron pulse compression scheme in which Hermite-Gaussian optical modes are used to fashion a three-dimensional optical trap in the electron pulse’s rest frame. We show that the correct choices of optical incidence angles are necessary for optimal compression. We obtain analytical expressions for the net impulse imparted by Hermite-Gaussian free-space modes of arbitrary order. Although we focus on electrons, our theory applies to any charged particle and any particle with non-zero polarizability in the Rayleigh regime. We verify our theory numerically using exact solutions to Maxwell’s equations for first-order Hermite-Gaussian beams, demonstrating single-electron pulse compression factors of \\gt {{10}2} in both longitudinal and transverse dimensions with experimentally realizable optical pulses. The proposed scheme is useful in ultrafast electron imaging for both single- and multi-electron pulse compression, and as a means of circumventing temporal distortions in magnetic lenses when focusing ultrashort electron pulses. Other applications include the creation of flat electron beams and ultrashort electron bunches for coherent terahertz emission.

  20. NMR spin locking of proton magnetization under a frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg pulse sequence.

    PubMed

    Fu, Riqiang; Tian, Changlin; Cross, Timothy A

    2002-01-01

    The spin dynamics of NMR spin locking of proton magnetization under a frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg (FSLG) pulse sequence is investigated for a better understanding of the line-narrowing mechanism in PISEMA experiments. For the sample of oriented 15N(1,3,5,7)-labeled gramicidin A in hydrated DMPC bilayers, it is found that the spin-lattice relaxation time T(1rho)(H) in the tilted rotating frame is about five times shorter when the 1H magnetization is spin locked at the magic angle by the FSLG sequence compared to the simple Lee-Goldburg sequence. It is believed that the rapid phase alternation of the effective fields during the FSLG cycles results in averaging of the spin lock field so that the spin lock becomes less efficient. A FSLG supercycle has been suggested here to slow the phase alternation. It has been demonstrated experimentally that a modified PISEMA pulse sequence with such supercycles gives rise to about 30% line narrowing in the dipolar dimension in the PISEMA spectra compared to a standard PISEMA pulse sequence.

  1. Electron-Spin Dynamics in Strongly Correlated Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dóra, Balázs; Simon, Ferenc

    2009-04-01

    The temperature dependence of the electron-spin lifetime T1 and the g factor are anomalous in alkali fullerides (K,Rb)3C60, which cannot be explained by the canonical Elliott-Yafet theory. These materials are archetypes of strongly correlated and narrow band metals. We introduce the concept of a “complex electron-spin resonance frequency shift” to treat these measurables in a unified manner within the Kubo formalism. The theory is applicable for metals with nearly degenerate conduction bands and large momentum scattering even with an anomalous temperature dependence and sizable residual value.

  2. Use of high observing power in electron spin resonance saturation-recovery experiments in spin-labeled membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Hyde, James S.

    1989-11-01

    Biomolecular collision rates of 14N-containing nitroxide radical labeled stearic acid with similar 15N-containing species in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes have been determined using the saturation-recovery electron spin resonance (ESR) method. It is shown that high microwave observing powers can be used to obtain these rates, thereby increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by about ten times relative to methods previously used. The data are analyzed using the rate-equation approach with inclusion of the observing transition probability. A number of solutions to these equations for other experimental situations and for pulse and continuous wave electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) are also presented. The bimolecular collision rate of labels at the C16 position was found to be 20% greater than for labels at the C12 position, suggesting that the interaction distance differs at these two positions. Even though the high observing power does not affect the ability to extract bimolecular collision rates, the effective spin-lattice relaxation rates are altered. Plots of these latter rates versus power are linear and the slope can be used to determine the absolute microwave field at the sample for a given input power.

  3. Pulse-Width Dependent Radiation Effects on Electronic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    d’un accelerateur lineaire ( LINAC ) a et6 realisee par le CRDO et d’autres groupes. Par contre, l’emploi du LINAC donne normalement des impulsions plus... LINAC ) has been performed by DREO and other groups. However, the use of a LINAC normally entails wider pulses than those expected on the battlefield...nuclear weapon on electronics, an electron linear accelerator ( LINAC ) is often used. The pulse widths available from most LINACs are longer than the

  4. Pulse-Width Dependent Radiation Effects on Electronic Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    lineaire ( LINAC ) a ete realisee par le CRDO et d’autres groupes. Par contre, l’emploi du LINAC donne normalement des impulsions plus larges que celles...xtyibudon UnUSIId~ Z -!_ ABSTRACT The simulation of the prompt gamma-ray pulse effects on electronics with an electron linear accelerator ( LINAC ) has been...performed by DREO and other groups. However, the use of a LINAC normally entails wider pulses than those expected on the battlefield. This rcport

  5. Directly probing spin dynamics in insulating antiferromagnets using ultrashort terahertz pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee; Trugman, Stuart Alan; Wang, X.; Dai, Yaomin; Cheong, S.-W.; Bauer, Eric Dietzgen; Taylor, Antoinette Jane; Yarotski, Dmitry Anatolievitch; Prasankumar, Rohit Prativadi

    2016-11-22

    We investigate spin dynamics in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) multiferroic TbMnO3 using opticalpump, terahertz (THz)-probe spectroscopy. Photoexcitation results in a broadband THz transmission change, with an onset time of 25 ps at 6 K that becomes faster at higher temperatures. We attribute this time constant to spin-lattice thermalization. The excellent agreement between our measurements and previous ultrafast resonant x-ray diffraction measurements on the same material confirms that our THz pulse directly probes spin order. We suggest that this could be the case in general for insulating AFM materials, if the origin of the static absorption in the THz spectral range is magnetic.

  6. Electronic measurement of strain effects on spin transport in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Lan; Tinkey, Holly; Appelbaum, Ian

    Spin transport in silicon is limited by the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism, which is driven by scattering between degenerate conduction band valleys. Mechanical strain along a valley axis partially breaks this degeneracy, and will ultimately quench intervalley spin relaxation for transitions between states on orthogonal axes. Using a custom-designed and constructed strain probe, we study the effects of uniaxial compressive strain along the < 100 > direction on ballistic tunnel junction devices used to inject spin-polarized electrons into silicon. The effects of strain-induced valley splitting will be presented and compared to our theoretical model. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract No. N000141410317, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. ECCS-1231855, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under Contract No. HDTRA1-13-1-0013, and the Maryland NanoCenter.

  7. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Xie, Lei; Shi, Zhi-Gui; Li, Shun; Zhang, Jian

    2016-11-01

    We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ˜-π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  8. Electron Spin Resonance as a route to Spin-Gap detection in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, Darryl H.; Leclair, Andre'; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2012-02-01

    The recent observation of a charge-neutral excitation gap in ultraclean carbon nanotubesootnotetext[1]V. V. Deshpande et al., Science 323, 106 (2009) raises the intriguing possibility of a phase with gapless charge spectrum and gapped spin spectrum: the Luther-Emery liquid. We note that ESR would be an ideal probe to directly test whether the observed gap is a spin-gap, as it probes the non-local correlations of conduction electron spins. We focus on the Luther-Emery point (Ks=1/2, also known as free fermion point) where an explicit calculation of relevant spin-spin correlation function is possible, to calculate the ESR signal in a Luther-Emery liquid. At high frequencies of φ>2 δs where δs is the spin-gap, the ESR signal of the Luther-Emery liquid will exhibits a second peak at magnetic fields away from the resonance condition of B=φ/μBg Ks. We discuss how to measure the spin-gap from the location of this additional peak as a function of applied field strength.

  9. Spin-Polarized Electrons: Generation and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Clendenin, James E

    1999-01-05

    Current progress in experimental and theoretical investigations of polarized electron emission from semiconductor heterostructures as well as in the development of photoemitters of highly polarized electrons is reviewed. Special attention is paid to the problems of the optimal choice of the photocathode structure, kinetics in the band bending region, and emission current and charge limitations in the case of intense optical pumping. Examples of the application of highly-polarized electron sources in medium- and high-energy physics and in the investigation of surface magnetism are discussed.

  10. Dynamics of CO2- radiation defects in natural calcite studied by ESR, electron spin echo and electron spin relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wencka, M.; Lijewski, S.; Hoffmann, S. K.

    2008-06-01

    ESR spectra were recorded in the X-band (9.6 GHz) and in the W-band (94 GHz) and electron spin relaxation was measured by electron spin echo (ESE) in the temperature range 4.2-300 K for radicals in natural calcite samples obtained from a cave stalactite and a dripstone layer. Four types of carbonate radical spectra and two sulfate radical spectra were identified and high accuracy g-factors were derived. Time and temperature behaviour of the spectra show that the dominating CO2- radicals are rigidly bonded or undergo free reorientations, whereas CO3-, SO2- and SO3- only undergo free reorientations. Below 200 K the free reorientations of CO2- are suppressed and a hindered rotation around single local axis appears. The ESE detected spectrum proves that the lines of free rotating radicals are homogeneously broadened, thus they cannot participate in electron spin echo formation. Spin-lattice relaxation data show that CO2- radicals are decoupled from lattice phonons and relax via local mode tunnelling motion between inequivalent oxygen positions of CO2- molecules. The tunnelling appears in two excited vibrational states of energy 71 and 138 cm-1. Librational motions of CO2- molecules were detected by electron spin echo decay (phase relaxation) with energy 153 cm-1. Two kinds of impurity hydrogen atoms were distinguished from ESEEM: in-water inclusions and water coordinated to the calcium ions.

  11. Phase-controllable spin wave generation in iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimine, Isao; Iida, Ryugo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Satoh, Takuya; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej; Maziewski, Andrzej

    2014-07-28

    A phase-controlled spin wave was non-thermally generated in bismuth-doped rare-earth iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses. We controlled the initial phase of the spin wave continuously within a range of 180° by changing the polarization azimuth of the excitation light. The azimuth dependences of the initial phase and amplitude of the spin wave were attributed to a combination of the inverse Cotton-Mouton effect and photoinduced magnetic anisotropy. Temporally and spatially resolved spin wave propagation was observed with a CCD camera, and the waveform was in good agreement with calculations. A nonlinear effect of the spin excitation was observed for excitation fluences higher than 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Electron Spin Qubits in Si/SiGe Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, Mark

    2010-10-01

    It is intriguing that silicon, the central material of modern classical electronics, also has properties well suited to quantum electronics. Recent advances in Si/SiGe quantum devices have enabled the creation of high-quality silicon quantum dots, also known as artificial atoms. Motivated in part by the potential for very long spin coherence times in this material, we are pursuing the development of individual electron spin qubits in silicon quantum dots. I will discuss recent demonstrations of single-shot spin measurement in a Si/SiGe quantum dot spin qubit, and the demonstration of spin-relaxation times longer than one second in such a system. These and similar measurements depend on a knowledge of tunnel rates between quantum dots and nearby reservoirs or between pairs of quantum dots. Measurements of such rates provide an opportunity to revisit classic experiments in quantum mechanics. At the same time, the unique features of the silicon conduction band lead to novel and unexpected effects, demonstrating that Si/SiGe quantum dots provide a highly controlled experimental system in which to study ideas at the heart of quantum physics.

  13. Electron Spin Relaxation: The Role of Spin-Orbit Coupling in Organic Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M.; Nuccio, L.; Schulz, L.; Gillin, W.; Kreouzis, T.; Pratt, F.; Lord, J.; Heeney, M.; Fratini, S.; Bernhard, C.; Drew, A.

    2012-02-01

    Rapid development of organic materials has lead to their availability in commercial products. Until now, the spin degree of freedom has not generally been used in organic materials. As well as engineering difficulties, there are fundamental questions with respect to the electron spin relaxation (eSR) mechanisms in organic molecules. Muons used as a microscopic spin probe, localized to a single molecule, can access information needed to identify the relevant model for eSR. In this presentation I will introduce the ALC-MuSR technique describing how eSR can be extracted and the expected effects. I will show how the technique has been applied to small organic molecules such as the group III Quinolate series and functionalized molecules with a pentacene-like backbone. Lastly I will present the Z-number and temperature dependence in these organic molecules and show strong evidence for a spin-orbit based eSR mechanism.

  14. Synchronization of sub-picosecond electron and laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Le Sage, G.P.

    1999-07-01

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is sub-picosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next generation experiments. The design of a microwave timing modulator system is now being investigated in more detail. (AIP) {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Synchronization of sub-picosecond electron and laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J. B.; Le Sage, G. P.

    1999-07-12

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is sub-picosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next generation experiments. The design of a microwave timing modulator system is now being investigated in more detail.

  16. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1984-03-22

    An electron beam accelerator is described comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of greater than or equal to .1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electron by about .1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of less than or equal to 1 ..mu..sec.

  17. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1987-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially 0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  18. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1988-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .gtoreq.0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  19. Oblique propagation of longitudinal waves in magnetized spin-1/2 plasmas: Independent evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Pavel A. Kuz’menkov, L.S.

    2015-10-15

    We consider quantum plasmas of electrons and motionless ions. We describe separate evolution of spin-up and spin-down electrons. We present corresponding set of quantum hydrodynamic equations. We assume that plasmas are placed in an uniform external magnetic field. We account different occupation of spin-up and spin-down quantum states in equilibrium degenerate plasmas. This effect is included via equations of state for pressure of each species of electrons. We study oblique propagation of longitudinal waves. We show that instead of two well-known waves (the Langmuir wave and the Trivelpiece–Gould wave), plasmas reveal four wave solutions. New solutions exist due to both the separate consideration of spin-up and spin-down electrons and different occupation of spin-up and spin-down quantum states in equilibrium state of degenerate plasmas.

  20. Zitterbewegung of electrons in carbon nanotubes created by laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Rusin, T M; Zawadzki, W

    2014-05-28

    We describe a possibility of creating non-stationary electron wave packets in zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNT) illuminated by short laser pulses. After the disappearance of the pulse the packet experiences a trembling motion (Zitterbewegung, ZB). The band structure of CNT is calculated using the tight-binding approximation generalized for the presence of radiation. By employing realistic pulse and CNT parameters we obtain the ZB oscillations with interband frequencies corresponding to specific pairs of energy bands. A choice of optimal parameters is presented in order to observe the phenomenon of ZB experimentally. The use of Gaussian wave packets to trigger the electron Zitterbewegung, as used in the literature, is critically reexamined.

  1. Spin Relaxation in III-V Semiconductors in various systems: Contribution of Electron-Electron Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Fatih; Kesserwan, Hasan; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-03-01

    In spintronics, most of the phenomena that we are interested happen at very fast time scales and are rich in structure in time domain. Our understanding, on the other hand, is mostly based on energy domain calculations. Many of the theoretical tools use approximations and simplifications that can be perceived as oversimplifications. We compare the structure, material, carrier density and temperature dependence of spin relaxation time in n-doped III-V semiconductors using Elliot-Yafet (EY) and D'yakanov-Perel'(DP) with real time analysis using kinetic spin Bloch equations (KSBE). The EY and DP theories fail to capture details as the system investigated is varied. KSBE, on the other hand, incorporates all relaxation sources as well as electron-electron interaction which modifies the spin relaxation time in a non-linear way. Since el-el interaction is very fast (~ fs) and spin-conserving, it is usually ignored in the analysis of spin relaxation. Our results indicate that electron-electron interaction cannot be neglected and its interplay with the other (spin and momentum) relaxation mechanisms (electron-impurity and electron-phonon scattering) dramatically alters the resulting spin dynamics. We use each interaction explicitly to investigate how, in the presence of others, each relaxation source behaves. We use GaAs and GaN for zinc-blend structure, and GaN and AlN for the wurtzite structure.

  2. Quantum information processing with electronic and nuclear spins in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Paul Victor

    Traditional electronic and communication devices operate by processing binary information encoded as bits. Such digital devices have led to the most advanced technologies that we encounter in our everyday lives and they influence virtually every aspect of our society. Nonetheless, there exists a much richer way to encode and process information. By encoding information in quantum mechanical states as qubits, phenomena such as coherence and entanglement can be harnessed to execute tasks that are intractable to digital devices. Under this paradigm, it should be possible to realize quantum computers, quantum communication networks and quantum sensors that outperform their classical counterparts. The electronic spin states of color-center defects in the semiconductor silicon carbide have recently emerged as promising qubit candidates. They have long-lived quantum coherence up to room temperature, they can be controlled with mature magnetic resonance techniques, and they have a built-in optical interface operating near the telecommunication bands. In this thesis I will present two of our contributions to this field. The first is the electric-field control of electron spin qubits. This development lays foundation for quantum electronics that operate via electrical gating, much like traditional electronics. The second is the universal control and entanglement of electron and nuclear spin qubits in an ensemble under ambient conditions. This development lays foundation for quantum devices that have a built-in redundancy and can operate in real-world conditions. Both developments represent important steps towards practical quantum devices in an electronic grade material.

  3. Sample heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kohashi, Teruo; Motai, Kumi

    2013-08-01

    A sample-heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) has been developed and used for microscopic magnetization analysis at temperatures up to 500°C. In this system, a compact ceramic heater and a preheating operation keep the ultra-high vacuum conditions while the sample is heated during spin SEM measurement. Moreover, the secondary-electron collector, which is arranged close to the sample, was modified so that it is not damaged at high temperatures. The system was used to heat a Co(1000) single-crystal sample from room temperature up to 500°C, and the magnetic-domain structures were observed. Changes of the domain structures were observed around 220 and 400°C, and these changes are considered to be due to phase transitions of this sample.

  4. Design and optimization of a modular setup for measurements of three-dimensional spin polarization with ultrafast pulsed sources

    SciTech Connect

    Pincelli, T. Rossi, G.; Petrov, V. N.; Brajnik, G.; Carrato, S.; Ciprian, R.; Torelli, P.; Krizmancic, D.; Salvador, F.; De Luisa, A.; Panaccione, G.; Lollobrigida, V.; Sergo, R.; Gubertini, A.; Cautero, G.

    2016-03-15

    ULTRASPIN is an apparatus devoted to the measurement of the spin polarization (SP) of electrons ejected from solid surfaces in a UHV environment. It is designed to exploit ultrafast light sources (free electron laser or laser high harmonic generation) and to perform (photo)electron spin analysis by an arrangement of Mott scattering polarimeters that measure the full SP vector. The system consists of two interconnected UHV vessels: one for surface science sample cleaning treatments, e-beam deposition of ultrathin films, and low energy electron diffraction/AES characterization. The sample environment in the polarimeter allows for cryogenic cooling and in-operando application of electric and magnetic fields. The photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic accelerator and transport lens that form a periaxial beam that is subsequently directed by a Y-shaped electrostatic deflector to either one of the two orthogonal Mott polarimeters. The apparatus has been designed to operate in the extreme conditions of ultraintense single-X-ray pulses as originated by free electron lasers (up to 1 kHz), but it allows also for the single electron counting mode suitable when using statistical sources such as synchrotron radiation, cw-laser, or e-gun beams (up to 150 kcps).

  5. Design and optimization of a modular setup for measurements of three-dimensional spin polarization with ultrafast pulsed sources.

    PubMed

    Pincelli, T; Petrov, V N; Brajnik, G; Ciprian, R; Lollobrigida, V; Torelli, P; Krizmancic, D; Salvador, F; De Luisa, A; Sergo, R; Gubertini, A; Cautero, G; Carrato, S; Rossi, G; Panaccione, G

    2016-03-01

    ULTRASPIN is an apparatus devoted to the measurement of the spin polarization (SP) of electrons ejected from solid surfaces in a UHV environment. It is designed to exploit ultrafast light sources (free electron laser or laser high harmonic generation) and to perform (photo)electron spin analysis by an arrangement of Mott scattering polarimeters that measure the full SP vector. The system consists of two interconnected UHV vessels: one for surface science sample cleaning treatments, e-beam deposition of ultrathin films, and low energy electron diffraction/AES characterization. The sample environment in the polarimeter allows for cryogenic cooling and in-operando application of electric and magnetic fields. The photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic accelerator and transport lens that form a periaxial beam that is subsequently directed by a Y-shaped electrostatic deflector to either one of the two orthogonal Mott polarimeters. The apparatus has been designed to operate in the extreme conditions of ultraintense single-X-ray pulses as originated by free electron lasers (up to 1 kHz), but it allows also for the single electron counting mode suitable when using statistical sources such as synchrotron radiation, cw-laser, or e-gun beams (up to 150 kcps).

  6. Design and optimization of a modular setup for measurements of three-dimensional spin polarization with ultrafast pulsed sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pincelli, T.; Petrov, V. N.; Brajnik, G.; Ciprian, R.; Lollobrigida, V.; Torelli, P.; Krizmancic, D.; Salvador, F.; De Luisa, A.; Sergo, R.; Gubertini, A.; Cautero, G.; Carrato, S.; Rossi, G.; Panaccione, G.

    2016-03-01

    ULTRASPIN is an apparatus devoted to the measurement of the spin polarization (SP) of electrons ejected from solid surfaces in a UHV environment. It is designed to exploit ultrafast light sources (free electron laser or laser high harmonic generation) and to perform (photo)electron spin analysis by an arrangement of Mott scattering polarimeters that measure the full SP vector. The system consists of two interconnected UHV vessels: one for surface science sample cleaning treatments, e-beam deposition of ultrathin films, and low energy electron diffraction/AES characterization. The sample environment in the polarimeter allows for cryogenic cooling and in-operando application of electric and magnetic fields. The photoelectrons are collected by an electrostatic accelerator and transport lens that form a periaxial beam that is subsequently directed by a Y-shaped electrostatic deflector to either one of the two orthogonal Mott polarimeters. The apparatus has been designed to operate in the extreme conditions of ultraintense single-X-ray pulses as originated by free electron lasers (up to 1 kHz), but it allows also for the single electron counting mode suitable when using statistical sources such as synchrotron radiation, cw-laser, or e-gun beams (up to 150 kcps).

  7. Multi-electron double quantum dot spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Erik; Kestner, Jason; Barnes, Edwin; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2013-03-01

    Double quantum dot (DQD) spin quits in a solid state environment typically consist of two electron spins confined to a DQD potential. We analyze the viability and potential advantages of DQD qubits which use greater then two electrons, and present results for six-electron qubits using full configuration interaction methods. The principal results of this work are that such six electron DQDs can retain an isolated low-energy qubit space that is more robust to charge noise due to screening. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. Towards force detected single electron spin resonance at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. C.; Payne, A.; Ambal, K.; Boehme, C.

    2013-03-01

    Electrically detected magnetic resonance (EDMR) spectroscopy has shown that electron tunneling at or within silicon dioxide layers is strongly dependent on spin-selection rules. Also demonstrated is the detection of single electron tunneling events by electrostatic force with sub-nanometer spatial resolution. Here we propose to combine force detected single electron tunneling microscopy with EDMR to demonstrate a new kind of single spin force microscope. This approach has much better sensitivity than magnetic force based single spin microscopes, since electrostatic forces are much larger than corresponding magnetic forces. In this method, a paramagnetic state in an oxidized AFM probe tip is brought within tunneling range of a paramagnetic state in an oxide surface. Under appropriate energy conditions, one of the unpaired electrons can randomly tunnel between the two states causing a random telegraph signal (RTS) to appear on the AFM cantilever frequency. Simulations predict that if magnetic resonance conditions are achieved, a measurable change in the RTS signal is detectable at room temperature. The theory and a quantitative simulation of this atomic scale spin resonance measurement will be presented, along with experimentally observed random telegraph signals.

  9. Spatially-distributed pulsed gradient spin echo NMR using single-wire proximity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Paul T.; Stepisnik, Janez

    1995-12-01

    NMR microimaging may be used to observe the effect of molecular diffusion in the vicinity of a thin wire subjected to current pulses. By this means the pulsed gradient spin echo technique can utilize very large pulsed magnetic field gradients, on the order of 100 T m-1. The quadratic dependence of gradient amplitude on distance from the wire leads to large dynamic range while the distribution of local gradient vectors makes it possible to image anisotropic diffusion. We demonstrate these properties in measurements on polymer solutions and liquid crystals.

  10. Sensitivity enhancement of MQMAS NMR spectra of spin 3/2 nuclei using hyperbolic secant pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Renée; Nakashima, Thomas T.; Wasylishen, Roderick E.

    2005-02-01

    The use of hyperbolic secant (HS) pulses to enhance the intensity of the central transition in MQMAS experiments for spin 3/2 quadrupolar nuclei is investigated by examining 87Rb NMR spectra of a powder sample of RbNO 3. The application of HS pulses prior to the triple-quantum (3Q) excitation provides sensitivity enhancements in MQMAS spectra that are superior to those previously reported. For the conversion of 3Q to single-quantum (1Q) observables, the HS pulses have an efficiency similar to that reported for double frequency sweeps (DFS) but greater than that of the fast amplitude modulation (FAM) technique.

  11. Spin coherence and 14N ESEEM effects of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond with X-band pulsed ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, B. C.; Weis, C. D.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Schenkel, T.; Lyon, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed ESR experiments are reported for ensembles of negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV$^-$) in diamonds at X-band magnetic fields (280-400 mT) and low temperatures (2-70 K). The NV$^-$ centers in synthetic type IIb diamonds (nitrogen impurity concentration $<1$~ppm) are prepared with bulk concentrations of $2\\cdot 10^{13}$ cm$^{-3}$ to $4\\cdot 10^{14}$ cm$^{-3}$ by high-energy electron irradiation and subsequent annealing. We find that a proper post-radiation anneal (1000$^\\circ$C for 60 mins) is critically important to repair the radiation damage and to recover long electron spin coherence times for NV$^-$s. After the annealing, spin coherence times of T$_2 = 0.74$~ms at 5~K are achieved, being only limited by $^{13}$C nuclear spectral diffusion in natural abundance diamonds. At X-band magnetic fields, strong electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) is observed originating from the central $^{14}$N nucleus. The ESEEM spectral analysis allows for accurate determination of the $^{14}$N nuclear hypefine and quadrupole tensors. In addition, the ESEEM effects from two proximal $^{13}$C sites (second-nearest neighbor and fourth-nearest neighbor) are resolved and the respective $^{13}$C hyperfine coupling constants are extracted.

  12. Slice-selective broadband refocusing pulses for the robust generation of crushed spin-echoes.

    PubMed

    Janich, Martin A; McLean, Mary A; Noeske, Ralph; Glaser, Steffen J; Schulte, Rolf F

    2012-10-01

    A major challenge for in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy with point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) is the low signal intensity for the measurement of weakly scalar coupled spins, for example lactate. The chemical-shift displacement error between the two coupling partners of the lactate molecule leads to a signal decrease. The chemical-shift displacement error is decreased and therefore the lactate signal is increased by using refocusing pulses with a broad bandwidth. Previously, slice-selective broadband universal rotation pulses (S-BURBOP) were designed and applied as refocusing pulses in the PRESS pulse sequence (Janich MA, et al., Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 2011, 213, 126-135). However, S-BURBOP pulses leave a phase error across the slice which is superimposed on the spectra when spatially resolving the PRESS voxel. In the present novel design of slice-selective broadband refocusing pulses (S-BREBOP) this phase error is avoided. S-BREBOP pulses obtain 2.5 times the bandwidth of conventional Shinnar-Le Roux pulses and are robust against ±20% miscalibration of the B(1) amplitude. S-BREBOP pulses were validated in phantoms and in a low-grade brain tumor of a patient. Compared to conventional Shinnar-Le Roux pulses they lead to a decrease of the chemical-shift displacement error and consequently a lactate signal increase.

  13. Long-lived nanosecond spin relaxation and spin coherence of electrons in monolayer MoS2 and WS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luyi; Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Chen, Weibing; Yuan, Jiangtan; Zhang, Jing; Lou, Jun; Crooker, Scott A.

    2015-10-01

    The recently discovered monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) provide a fertile playground to explore new coupled spin-valley physics. Although robust spin and valley degrees of freedom are inferred from polarized photoluminescence (PL) experiments, PL timescales are necessarily constrained by short-lived (3-100 ps) electron-hole recombination. Direct probes of spin/valley polarization dynamics of resident carriers in electron (or hole)-doped TMDCs, which may persist long after recombination ceases, are at an early stage. Here we directly measure the coupled spin-valley dynamics in electron-doped MoS2 and WS2 monolayers using optical Kerr spectroscopy, and reveal very long electron spin lifetimes, exceeding 3 ns at 5 K (two to three orders of magnitude longer than typical exciton recombination times). In contrast with conventional III-V or II-VI semiconductors, spin relaxation accelerates rapidly in small transverse magnetic fields. Supported by a model of coupled spin-valley dynamics, these results indicate a novel mechanism of itinerant electron spin dephasing in the rapidly fluctuating internal spin-orbit field in TMDCs, driven by fast inter-valley scattering. Additionally, a long-lived spin coherence is observed at lower energies, commensurate with localized states. These studies provide insight into the physics underpinning spin and valley dynamics of resident electrons in atomically thin TMDCs.

  14. Attosecond x-ray pulses for molecular electronic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Mark Joseph

    Attosecond pulses are opening a wide new field on the border of chemistry and physics. They offer the opportunity to initiate and probe electronic rearrangement of atoms, molecules, solids and clusters on the natural timescale of the electron motion. This thesis is about making and measuring attosecond pulses, with the ultimate goal of applying attosecond spectroscopy to molecules. In chapter 1, attosecond spectroscopy is reviewed in general. The applications of attosecond pulses to atoms and molecules, including successful experiments and theoretical predictions, are discussed. In chapter 2, techniques for making and measuring attosecond radiation are presented. This chapter focuses on high harmonic generation from tabletop laser sources, since synchrotron- and free-electron laser-based techniques are not yet experimentally demonstrated. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss in detail the laboratory setup for attosecond pulse generation, including the laser source, optical diagnostics, and attosecond delay line. The attosecond control of free electron motion with few-cycle laser pulses is presented in chapter 5. There, the carrier-envelope phase (CEP), and thus the attosecond temporal evolution of the laser field, leads to quantum interferences between free electron wavefunctions and lends control over the direction of electron emission. Attosecond pulse production is achieved in chapter 6 by gating harmonic generation on the leading edge of the driving laser pulse. The gate mechanism is shown to rely on the macroscopic ionization of the harmonic generation medium. This final chapter also demonstrates a new technique for assessing attosecond pulse temporal structure based on the inversion of the driving laser field in the laboratory frame of reference, called CEP-scanning.

  15. High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Optical Spectroscopy of Electron Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salewski, M.; Poltavtsev, S. V.; Yugova, I. A.; Karczewski, G.; Wiater, M.; Wojtowicz, T.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Akimov, I. A.; Meier, T.; Bayer, M.

    2017-07-01

    Multidimensional coherent optical spectroscopy is one of the most powerful tools for investigating complex quantum mechanical systems. While it was conceived decades ago in magnetic resonance spectroscopy using microwaves and radio waves, it has recently been extended into the visible and UV spectral range. However, resolving MHz energy splittings with ultrashort laser pulses still remains a challenge. Here, we analyze two-dimensional Fourier spectra for resonant optical excitation of resident electrons to localized trions or donor-bound excitons in semiconductor nanostructures subject to a transverse magnetic field. Particular attention is devoted to Raman coherence spectra, which allow one to accurately evaluate tiny splittings of the electron ground state and to determine the relaxation times in the electron spin ensemble. A stimulated steplike Raman process induced by a sequence of two laser pulses creates a coherent superposition of the ground-state doublet which can be retrieved only optically because of selective excitation of the same subensemble with a third pulse. This provides the unique opportunity to distinguish between different complexes that are closely spaced in energy in an ensemble. The related experimental demonstration is based on photon-echo measurements in an n -type CdTe /(Cd ,Mg )Te quantum-well structure detected by a heterodyne technique. The difference in the sub-μ eV range between the Zeeman splittings of donor-bound electrons and electrons localized at potential fluctuations can be resolved even though the homogeneous linewidth of the optical transitions is larger by 2 orders of magnitude.

  16. Uniform spinning sampling gradient electron paramagnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David H; Ahmad, Rizwan; Liu, Yangping; Chen, Zhiyu; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L

    2014-02-01

    To improve the quality and speed of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) acquisition by combining a uniform sampling distribution with spinning gradient acquisition. A uniform sampling distribution was derived for spinning gradient EPRI acquisition (uniform spinning sampling, USS) and compared to the existing (equilinear spinning sampling, ESS) acquisition strategy. Novel corrections were introduced to reduce artifacts in experimental data. Simulations demonstrated that USS puts an equal number of projections near each axis whereas ESS puts excessive projections at one axis, wasting acquisition time. Artifact corrections added to the magnetic gradient waveforms reduced noise and correlation between projections. USS images had higher SNR (85.9 ± 0.8 vs. 56.2 ± 0.8) and lower mean-squared error than ESS images. The quality of the USS images did not vary with the magnetic gradient orientation, in contrast to ESS images. The quality of rat heart images was improved using USS compared to that with ESS or traditional fast-scan acquisitions. A novel EPRI acquisition which combines spinning gradient acquisition with a uniform sampling distribution was developed. This USS spinning gradient acquisition offers superior SNR and reduced artifacts compared to prior methods enabling potential improvements in speed and quality of EPR imaging in biological applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Uniform Spinning Sampling Gradient Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David H.; Ahmad, Rizwan; Liu, Yangping; Chen, Zhiyu; Samouilov, Alexandre; Zweier, Jay L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To improve the quality and speed of electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) acquisition by combining a uniform sampling distribution with spinning gradient acquisition. Theory and Methods A uniform sampling distribution was derived for spinning gradient EPRI acquisition (Uniform Spinning Sampling, USS) and compared to the existing (Equilinear Spinning Sampling, ESS) acquisition strategy. Novel corrections were introduced to reduce artifacts in experimental data. Results Simulations demonstrated that USS puts an equal number of projections near each axis whereas ESS puts excessive projections at one axis, wasting acquisition time. Artifact corrections added to the magnetic gradient waveforms reduced noise and correlation between projections. USS images had higher SNR (85.9±0.8 vs. 56.2±0.8) and lower mean-squared error than ESS images. The quality of the USS images did not vary with the magnetic gradient orientation, in contrast to ESS images. The quality of rat heart images was improved using USS compared to that with ESS or traditional fast-scan acquisitions. Conclusion A novel EPRI acquisition which combines spinning gradient acquisition with a uniform sampling distribution was developed. This USS spinning gradient acquisition offers superior SNR and reduced artifacts compared to prior methods enabling potential improvements in speed and quality of EPR imaging in biological applications. PMID:23475830

  18. Measurements of spin life time of an antimony-bound electron in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, T. M.; Bishop, N. C.; Tracy, L. A.; Blume-Kohout, R.; Pluym, T.; Wendt, J. R.; Dominguez, J.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    We report our measurements of spin life time of an antimony-bound electron in silicon. The device is a double-top-gated silicon quantum dot with antimony atoms implanted near the quantum dot region. A donor charge transition is identified by observing a charge offset in the transport characteristics of the quantum dot. The tunnel rates on/off the donor are first characterized and a three-level pulse sequence is then used to measure the spin populations at different load-and-wait times in the presence of a fixed magnetic field. The spin life time is extracted from the exponential time dependence of the spin populations. A spin life time of 1.27 seconds is observed at B = 3.25 T. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by the Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Collective Dynamics in Spin-Textured Electronic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement H.

    2010-06-01

    In chapter I and II, we develop the hydrodynamic theory of collinear spin currents coupled to magnetization dynamics in metallic ferromagnets. The collective spin density couples to the spin current through a U(1) Berry-phase gauge field determined by the local texture and dynamics of the magnetization. We determine phenomenologically the dissipative corrections to the equation of motion for the electronic current, which consist of a dissipative spin-motive force generated by magnetization dynamics and a magnetic texture-dependent resistivity tensor. The reciprocal dissipative, adiabatic spin torque on the magnetic texture follows from the Onsager principle. By applying general thermodynamic relations, we determine a lower bound on the magnetic-texture resistivity. We investigate the effects of thermal fluctuations and find that electronic dynamics contribute to a nonlocal Gilbert damping tensor in the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the magnetization. In chapter III, we apply our general theory to soliton dynamics in spin-textured metals. We find it necessary to modify the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation and the corresponding solitonic equations of motion to include higher-order texture effects stemming hydrodynamic backaction. As an example, we consider the gyration of a vortex in a point-contact spin valve, and discuss modifications of orbit radius, frequency, and dissipation power. In chapter IV, we generalize our hydrodynamic theory to a kinetic equation, which we derive in a semiclassical expansion of the density-matrix equation of motion up to the first order in quantum mechanical corrections for a general two-band Hamiltonian. We find, in addition to corrections to the single-particle equation of motion due to Berry curvatures, a modification to the phase-space density of states, and interband terms associated with transport through a general curved phase space. We apply our kinetic equation to the case of inhomogeneities stemming from gauge

  20. Electron spin coherence and electron nuclear double resonance of Bi donors in natural Si.

    PubMed

    George, Richard E; Witzel, Wayne; Riemann, H; Abrosimov, N V; Nötzel, N; Thewalt, Mike L W; Morton, John J L

    2010-08-06

    Donors in silicon hold considerable promise for emerging quantum technologies, due to their uniquely long electron spin coherence times. Bismuth donors in silicon differ from more widely studied group V donors, such as phosphorous, in several significant respects: They have the strongest binding energy (70.98 meV), a large nuclear spin (I=9/2), and a strong hyperfine coupling constant (A=1475.4  MHz). These larger energy scales allow us to perform a detailed test of theoretical models describing the spectral diffusion mechanism that is known to govern the electron spin decoherence of P donors in natural silicon. We report the electron-nuclear double resonance spectra of the Bi donor, across the range 200 MHz to 1.4 GHz, and confirm that coherence transfer is possible between electron and nuclear spin degrees of freedom at these higher frequencies.

  1. Self-diffusion in nanopores studied by the NMR pulse gradient spin echo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepišnik, Janez; Fritzinger, Bernd; Scheler, Ulrich; Mohorič, Aleš

    2012-06-01

    NMR pulse gradient spin echo is the most efficient method for non-invasive elucidation of molecular transport in heterogeneous media. With a proper interpretation of experimental data, the method can also be applied to investigate molecular self-diffusion in pores small enough that the characteristic diffusion times are much shorter than time, needed to build up the spin phase structure by the pulse of magnetic field gradient. This is demonstrated by the analysis of restricted self-diffusion measurement of water molecules trapped in a polyamide membrane. The results are presented as a distribution of spin-relaxation rates and pore sizes in this nanoporous system that also present the method in its true colors as a useful tool in the bio-nanotechology.

  2. Generation of Quality Pulses for Control of Qubit/Quantum Memory Spin States: Experimental and Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    nuclear spin states of qubits/quantum memory applicable to semiconductor, superconductor, ionic, and superconductor-ionic hybrid technologies. As the...multiplexer. The output of the multiplexer is amplified and then passed into a directional coupler. One output is passed through a schottky diode and...electronic control circuitry for control of electron/nuclear spin states of qubits/quantum memory applicable to semiconductor, superconductor, ionic

  3. Nanometre-scale probing of spin waves using single-electron spins

    PubMed Central

    van der Sar, Toeno; Casola, Francesco; Walsworth, Ronald; Yacoby, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Pushing the frontiers of condensed-matter magnetism requires the development of tools that provide real-space, few-nanometre-scale probing of correlated-electron magnetic excitations under ambient conditions. Here we present a practical approach to meet this challenge, using magnetometry based on single nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. We focus on spin-wave excitations in a ferromagnetic microdisc, and demonstrate local, quantitative and phase-sensitive detection of the spin-wave magnetic field at ∼50 nm from the disc. We map the magnetic-field dependence of spin-wave excitations by detecting the associated local reduction in the disc's longitudinal magnetization. In addition, we characterize the spin–noise spectrum by nitrogen-vacancy spin relaxometry, finding excellent agreement with a general analytical description of the stray fields produced by spin–spin correlations in a 2D magnetic system. These complementary measurement modalities pave the way towards imaging the local excitations of systems such as ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, skyrmions, atomically assembled quantum magnets, and spin ice. PMID:26249673

  4. Electron spin resonance and muon spin relaxation studies of single molecule magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blundell, Stephen

    2005-03-01

    We use a combination of electron spin resonance, muon-spin relaxation and SQUID magnetometry to study polycrystalline and single crystal samples of various novel single molecule magnets (SMMs). We also describe a theoretical framework which can be used to analyse the results from each technique. Electron spin resonance measurements are performed using a millimetre vector network analyser and data are presented on several SMM systems using microwave frequencies from 40-300 GHz. Muon-spin relaxation measurements have been performed on several SMM systems in applied longitudinal magnetic field and in temperatures down to 20 mK. The results suggest that dynamic local magnetic field fluctuations are responsible for the relaxation of the muon spin ensemble. We discuss what can be learned from these experiments concerning SMMs and suggest experiments which can probe the quantum nature of SMMs. (Work in collaboration with S Sharmin, T Lancaster, A Ardavan, F L Pratt, E J L McInnes and R E P Winpenny) References: S. J. Blundell and F. L. Pratt, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, R771 (2004); T. Lancaster et al., J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, S4563 (2004); S. Sharmin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. in press.

  5. Growth and Electronic Structure of Heusler Compounds for Use in Electron Spin Based Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    spectroscopy (ARPES) at the beamlines i3 and i4 of MAX-lab in Lund University, SE as well as x-ray diffraction and SQUID magnetometry using a Quantum ...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spintronic devices, where information is carried by the quantum spin state of the electron instead of purely its charge...Title Spintronic devices, where information is carried by the quantum spin state of the electron instead of purely its charge, have gained considerable

  6. Electron acceleration by a chirped Gaussian laser pulse in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Sohbatzadeh, F.; Mirzanejhad, S.; Ghasemi, M.

    2006-12-15

    Electron acceleration by a chirped Gaussian laser pulse is investigated numerically. A linear and negative chirp is employed in this study. At first, a simple analytical description for the chirp effect on the electron acceleration in vacuum is provided in one-dimensional model. The chirp mechanism is then extended to the interaction of a femtosecond laser pulse and electron. The electron final energy is obtained as a function of laser beam waist, laser intensity, chirp parameter, and initial phase of the laser pulse. It is shown that the electron final energy depends strongly on the chirp parameter and the initial phase of the laser pulse. There is an optimal value for the chirp parameter in which the electron acceleration takes place effectively. The energy gain increases with laser beam waist and intensity. It is also shown that the electron is accelerated within a few degrees to the axial direction. Emphasis is on the important aspect of the chirp effect on the energy gained by an electron from the electromagnetic wave.

  7. Separating the Spin States of a Free Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Neil

    2008-10-01

    In 1922 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach set out to test the spacial quantization of the electron by passing a beam of neutral silver atoms through a transverse magnetic field. The interaction of the two projections of the electron's magnetic moment with the magnetic field resulted in a splitting of the beam. However, for some sixty years it was generally accepted that the spin of free electrons, and thus their magnetic moment, could not be measured with an experiment similar to that of Stern and Gerlach. The reason being that the lorentz force on charged particles is far greater than the force due to the magnetic moment of the electron, thus blurring any desired results. To reduce the lorentz force, the electrons could be passed through a magnetic field whose gradient is in the direction of the electrons' momentum. This longitudinal Stern-Gerlach device, with a superconducting magnet, could polarize the tails of a low energy electron beam.

  8. Pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the enviromental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    1997-05-01

    The project of pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the environmental applications is considered. An accelerator consists of high voltage generator with vacuum insulation and vacuum diode with plasma cathode on the basis discharge on the surface of dielectric of large dimensions. The main parameters of electron accelerators are following: kinetic energy 0.2 - 2.0 MeV, electron beam current 1 - 30 kA and pulse duration 1- 5 microseconds. The main applications of accelerator for decomposition of wastewaters are considered.

  9. Electronic measurement of microchannel plate pulse height distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Gamboa, E. J.; Huntington, C. M.; Harding, E. C.; Drake, R. P.

    2010-10-15

    Microchannel plates are a central component of the x-ray framing cameras used as analog imagers in many plasma experiment diagnostic systems. The microchannel plate serves as an amplifying element, increasing the electronic signal from incident radiation by factors of 10{sup 3}-10{sup 5}, with a broad pulse-height distribution. Seeking to optimize the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency and noise distribution of x-ray cameras, we will characterize the pulse-height distribution of the electron output from a single microchannel plate. Replacing the framing camera's phosphor-coated fiber optic screen with a charge-collection plate and coupling to a low-noise multichannel analyzer, we quantified the distribution in the total charge generated per photon event. The electronically measured pulse height distribution is used to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio of radiographic images from framing cameras.

  10. Role of the Electron Spin Polarization in Water Splitting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We show that in an electrochemical cell, in which the photoanode is coated with chiral molecules, the overpotential required for hydrogen production drops remarkably, as compared with cells containing achiral molecules. The hydrogen evolution efficiency is studied comparing seven different organic molecules, three chiral and four achiral. We propose that the spin specificity of electrons transferred through chiral molecules is the origin of a more efficient oxidation process in which oxygen is formed in its triplet ground state. The new observations are consistent with recent theoretical works pointing to the importance of spin alignment in the water-splitting process. PMID:26615833

  11. Dose rate effect on micronuclei induction in human blood lymphocytes exposed to single pulse and multiple pulses of electrons.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Santhosh; Bhat, N N; Joseph, Praveen; Sanjeev, Ganesh; Sreedevi, B; Narayana, Y

    2011-05-01

    The effects of single pulses and multiple pulses of 7 MV electrons on micronuclei (MN) induction in cytokinesis-blocked human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) were investigated over a wide range of dose rates per pulse (instantaneous dose rate). PBLs were exposed to graded doses of 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 Gy of single electron pulses of varying pulse widths at different dose rates per pulse, ranging from 1 × 10(6) Gy s(-1) to 3.2 × 10(8) Gy s(-1). Different dose rates per pulse were achieved by changing the dose per electron pulse by adjusting the beam current and pulse width. MN yields per unit absorbed dose after irradiation with single electron pulses were compared with those of multiple pulses of electrons. A significant decrease in the MN yield with increasing dose rates per pulse was observed, when dose was delivered by a single electron pulse. However, no reduction in the MN yield was observed when dose was delivered by multiple pulses of electrons. The decrease in the yield at high dose rates per pulse suggests possible radical recombination, which leads to decreased biological damage. Cellular response to the presence of very large numbers of chromosomal breaks may also alter the damage.

  12. Pulse structure dependence of proton spin polarization rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Tomomi; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Youhei; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Wakui, Takashi

    2009-10-01

    A polarized proton solid target for RI beam experiments has been developed at Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo [1]. The proton is polarized by transferring population difference in photo-excited triplet states of aromatic molecule. Through this method proton polarization of about 20% have been obtained at 0.1 T and in 100 K. Although this target has been successfully applied to RI beam experiments [2,3], further improvement in the polarization is desirable for future applications. To pursuit possible improvement in photo-excitation power, we have examined pulse-structure dependence of proton polarization rate. The excitation light is provided by a cw Ar-ion laser and pulsed by an optical chopper. We have found that proton polarization depends strongly on the pulse structure and the optimum condition is found to be a duty factor of 50% and a repetition frequency of 10 kHz. At this condition, the polarization rate can be increased by a factor 2.5 or more compared with the old settings, where a duty factor and a repetition frequency were 5% and 2.5 kHz, respectively. [1] T. Wakui et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 550 (2005) 521. [2] M. Hatano et al., Eur. Phys. J. A 25 (2005) 255. [3] S. Sakaguchi et al., CNS Annual Report 2006 (2007).

  13. On Cu(II) Cu(II) distance measurements using pulsed electron electron double resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhongyu; Becker, James; Saxena, Sunil

    2007-10-01

    The effects of orientational selectivity on the 4-pulse electron electron double resonance (PELDOR) ESR spectra of coupled Cu(II)-Cu(II) spins are presented. The data were collected at four magnetic fields on a poly-proline peptide containing two Cu(II) centers. The Cu(II)-PELDOR spectra of this peptide do not change appreciably with magnetic field at X-band. The data were analyzed by adapting the theory of Maryasov, Tsvetkov, and Raap [A.G. Maryasov, Y.D. Tsvetkov, J. Raap, Weakly coupled radical pairs in solids:ELDOR in ESE structure studies, Appl. Magn. Reson. 14 (1998) 101-113]. Simulations indicate that orientational effects are important for Cu(II)-PELDOR. Based on simulations, the field-independence of the PELDOR data for this peptide is likely due to two effects. First, for this peptide, the Cu(II) g-tensor(s) are in a very specific orientation with respect to the interspin vector. Second, the flexibility of the peptide washes out the orientation effects. These effects reduce the suitability of the poly-proline based peptide as a good model system to experimentally probe orientational effects in such experiments. An average Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.1-2.2 nm was determined, which is consistent with earlier double quantum coherence ESR results.

  14. Shutterless ion mobility spectrometer with fast pulsed electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunert, E.; Heptner, A.; Reinecke, T.; Kirk, A. T.; Zimmermann, S.

    2017-02-01

    Ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) are devices for fast and very sensitive trace gas analysis. The measuring principle is based on an initial ionization process of the target analyte. Most IMS employ radioactive electron sources, such as 63Ni or 3H. These radioactive materials have the disadvantage of legal restrictions and the electron emission has a predetermined intensity and cannot be controlled or disabled. In this work, we replaced the 3H source of our IMS with 100 mm drift tube length with our nonradioactive electron source, which generates comparable spectra to the 3H source. An advantage of our emission current controlled nonradioactive electron source is that it can operate in a fast pulsed mode with high electron intensities. By optimizing the geometric parameters and developing fast control electronics, we can achieve very short electron emission pulses for ionization with high intensities and an adjustable pulse width of down to a few nanoseconds. This results in small ion packets at simultaneously high ion densities, which are subsequently separated in the drift tube. Normally, the required small ion packet is generated by a complex ion shutter mechanism. By omitting the additional reaction chamber, the ion packet can be generated directly at the beginning of the drift tube by our pulsed nonradioactive electron source with only slight reduction in resolving power. Thus, the complex and costly shutter mechanism and its electronics can also be omitted, which leads to a simple low-cost IMS-system with a pulsed nonradioactive electron source and a resolving power of 90.

  15. Hot-electron effect in spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic Germanium.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Wu, M W

    2015-07-01

    The hot-electron effect in the spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic germanium is investigated by the kinetic spin Bloch equations both analytically and numerically. It is shown that in the weak-electric-field regime with E ≲ 0.5 kV cm(-1), our calculations have reasonable agreement with the recent transport experiment in the hot-electron spin-injection configuration (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 257204). We reveal that the spin relaxation is significantly enhanced at low temperature in the presence of weak electric field E ≲ 50 V cm(-1), which originates from the obvious center-of-mass drift effect due to the weak electron-phonon interaction, whereas the hot-electron effect is demonstrated to be less important. This can explain the discrepancy between the experimental observation and the previous theoretical calculation (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 085202), which deviates from the experimental results by about two orders of magnitude at low temperature. It is further shown that in the strong-electric-field regime with 0.5 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1), the spin relaxation is enhanced due to the hot-electron effect, whereas the drift effect is demonstrated to be marginal. Finally, we find that when 1.4 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1) which lies in the strong-electric-field regime, a small fraction of electrons (≲5%) can be driven from the L to Γ valley, and the spin relaxation rates are the same for the Γ and L valleys in the intrinsic sample without impurity. With the negligible influence of the spin dynamics in the Γ valley to the whole system, the spin dynamics in the L valley can be measured from the Γ valley by the standard direct optical transition method.

  16. Spin coherence of the two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, A. V.

    2015-01-15

    The coherent spin dynamics of the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well is experimentally investigated using the time-resolved spin Kerr effect in an optical cryostat with a split coil inducing magnetic fields of up to 6 T at a temperature of about 2 K. The electron spin dephasing times and degree of anisotropy of the spin relaxation of electrons are measured in zero magnetic field at different electron densities. The dependence of the spin-orbit splitting on the electron-gas density is established. In the integral quantum-Hall-effect mode, the unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time of 2D electrons of the lower Landau spin sublevel near the odd occupation factor ν = 3 is found. The experimentally observed unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time can be explained in terms of new-type cyclotron modes that occur in a liquid spin texture.

  17. Electron-spin motion: a new tool to study ferromagnetic films and surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, P.; Weber, W.

    2011-11-01

    When electrons are interacting with a ferromagnetic material, their spin-polarization vector is expected to move. This spin motion, comprising an azimuthal precession and a polar rotation about the magnetization direction of the ferromagnet, has been studied in spin-polarized electron scattering experiments both in transmission and reflection geometry. In this review we show that electron-spin motion can be considered as a new tool to study ferromagnetic films and surfaces and we discuss its application to a number of different problems: (a) the transmission of spin-polarized electrons across ferromagnetic films, (b) the influence of spin-dependent gaps in the electronic band structure on the spin motion in reflection geometry, (c) interference experiments with spin-polarized electrons and (d) the influence of lattice relaxations in ferromagnetic films on the spin motion.

  18. Controlling Electron Dynamics of Oriented Molecules Using Attosecond Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyabe, S.; Lucchese, R.; Rescigno, T.; Midorikawa, K.; McCurdy, C. W.

    2016-05-01

    Attosecond pulses offer routes to study and potentially manipulate ultrafast electron dynamics of atoms and molecules on their intrinsic time scale, and therefore attracted attention from various disciplines. In this report we show that for a molecule, oriented in space and excited by an attosecond pulse, the amount of electronic coherence left in the ion depends not only on the orientation of the electric field polarization vector in the molecular-frame, but also on the angular distribution in molecular-frame of electrons ejected in different ionization channels. In our numerical simulation we use one-photon single ionization amplitudes calculated using the complex-Kohn variational method, and we express the amount of coherence in the ion in terms of the (N+1)-electron reduced density matrix of the full N-electron system of the ion plus ionized electron.

  19. Reactions of hydrated electron with various radicals: spin factor in diffusion-controlled reactions.

    PubMed

    Ichino, Takatoshi; Fessenden, Richard W

    2007-04-05

    The reactions of hydrated electron (eaq-) with various radicals have been studied in pulse radiolysis experiments. These radicals are hydroxyl radical (*OH), sulfite radical anion (*SO3-), carbonate radical anion (CO3*-), carbon dioxide radical anion (*CO2-), azidyl radical (*N3), dibromine radical anion (Br2*-), diiodine radical anion (I2*-), 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radical (*C(CH3)2OH), 2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-propyl radical ((*CH2)(CH3)2COH), hydroxycyclohexadienyl radical (*C6H6OH), phenoxyl radical (C6H5O*), p-methylphenoxyl radical (p-(H3C)C6H4O*), p-benzosemiquinone radical anion (p-OC6H4O*-), and phenylthiyl radical (C6H5S*). The kinetics of eaq- was followed in the presence of the counter radicals in transient optical absorption measurements. The rate constants of the eaq- reactions with radicals have been determined over a temperature range of 5-75 degrees C from the kinetic analysis of systems of multiple second-order reactions. The observed high rate constants for all the eaq- + radical reactions have been analyzed with the Smoluchowski equation. This analysis suggests that many of the eaq- + radical reactions are diffusion-controlled with a spin factor of 1/4, while other reactions with *OH, *N3, Br2*-, I2*-, and C6H5S* have spin factors significantly larger than 1/4. Spin dynamics for the eaq-/radical pairs is discussed to explain the different spin factors. The reactions with *OH, *N3, Br2*-, and I2*- have also been found to have apparent activation energies less than that for diffusion control, and it is suggested that the spin factors for these reactions decrease with increasing temperature. Such a decrease in spin factor may reflect a changing competition between spin relaxation/conversion and diffusive escape from the radical pairs.

  20. Pulsed Power for a Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    dehope, w j; browning, n; campbell, g; cook, e; king, w; lagrange, t; reed, b; stuart, b; Shuttlesworth, R; Pyke, B

    2009-06-25

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has converted a commercial 200kV transmission electron microscope (TEM) into an ultrafast, nanoscale diagnostic tool for material science studies. The resulting Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscope (DTEM) has provided a unique tool for the study of material phase transitions, reaction front analyses, and other studies in the fields of chemistry, materials science, and biology. The TEM's thermionic electron emission source was replaced with a fast photocathode and a laser beam path was provided for ultraviolet surface illumination. The resulting photoelectron beam gives downstream images of 2 and 20 ns exposure times at 100 and 10 nm spatial resolution. A separate laser, used as a pump pulse, is used to heat, ignite, or shock samples while the photocathode electron pulses, carefully time-synchronized with the pump, function as probe in fast transient studies. The device functions in both imaging and diffraction modes. A laser upgrade is underway to make arbitrary cathode pulse trains of variable pulse width of 10-1000 ns. Along with a fast e-beam deflection scheme, a 'movie mode' capability will be added to this unique diagnostic tool. This talk will review conventional electron microscopy and its limitations, discuss the development and capabilities of DTEM, in particularly addressing the prime and pulsed power considerations in the design and fabrication of the DTEM, and conclude with the presentation of a deflector and solid-state pulser design for Movie-Mode DTEM.

  1. Vacuum electron acceleration by using two variable frequency laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Saberi, H.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-12-15

    A method is proposed for producing a relativistic electron bunch in vacuum via direct acceleration by using two frequency-chirped laser pulses. We consider the linearly polarized frequency-chiped Hermit-Gaussian 0, 0 mode lasers with linear chirp in which the local frequency varies linearly in time and space. Electron motion is investigated through a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional particle trajectory code in which the relativistic Newton's equations of motion with corresponding Lorentz force are solved. Two oblique laser pulses with proper chirp parameters and propagation angles are used for the electron acceleration along the z-axis. In this way, an electron initially at rest located at the origin could achieve high energy, γ=319 with the scattering angle of 1.02{sup ∘} with respect to the z-axis. Moreover, the acceleration of an electron in different initial positions on each coordinate axis is investigated. It was found that this mechanism has the capability of producing high energy electron microbunches with low scattering angles. The energy gain of an electron initially located at some regions on each axis could be greatly enhanced compared to the single pulse acceleration. Furthermore, the scattering angle will be lowered compared to the acceleration by using laser pulses propagating along the z-axis.

  2. BANSHEE: High-voltage repetitively pulsed electron-beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    VanHaaften, F.

    1992-01-01

    BANSHEE (Beam Accelerator for a New Source of High-Energy Electrons) this is a high-voltage modulator is used to produce a high-current relativistic electron beam for high-power microwave tube development. The goal of the BANSHEE research is first to achieve a voltage pulse of 700--750 kV with a 1-{mu}s pulse width driving a load of {approximately}100 {Omega}, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a few hertz. The ensuing goal is to increase the pulse amplitude to a level approaching 1 MV. We conducted tests using half the modulator with an output load of 200 {Omega}, up to a level of {approximately}650 kV at a PRF of 1 Hz and 525 kV at a PRF of 5 Hz. We then conducted additional testing using the complete system driving a load of {approximately}100 {Omega}.

  3. BANSHEE: High-voltage repetitively pulsed electron-beam driver

    SciTech Connect

    VanHaaften, F.

    1992-08-01

    BANSHEE (Beam Accelerator for a New Source of High-Energy Electrons) this is a high-voltage modulator is used to produce a high-current relativistic electron beam for high-power microwave tube development. The goal of the BANSHEE research is first to achieve a voltage pulse of 700--750 kV with a 1-{mu}s pulse width driving a load of {approximately}100 {Omega}, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of a few hertz. The ensuing goal is to increase the pulse amplitude to a level approaching 1 MV. We conducted tests using half the modulator with an output load of 200 {Omega}, up to a level of {approximately}650 kV at a PRF of 1 Hz and 525 kV at a PRF of 5 Hz. We then conducted additional testing using the complete system driving a load of {approximately}100 {Omega}.

  4. Pulsed-Electron-Beam Processing of Materials for Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koval, N. N.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Teresov, A. D.; Denisova, Yu. A.; Petrikova, E. A.

    2014-02-01

    The data on investigation of sample materials used for fabrication of medical implants (stainless steel 316L, and VT1-0 and CoCrMo (Wironit) alloys) are reported, which were subjected to surface treatment with the pulsed electron beam having the following parameters: pulse duration - 20-200 μs, energy density per pulse - 8-20 J/cm2, number of pulses - 1-5, and pulse repetition frequency - 0.3-1 Hz. A significant structure rearrangement is revealed, which is followed by changes in the modified surface layer properties of these materials. The surface roughness is found to decrease, while the corrosion resistance is improved; slight changes are also observed in the modified layer microhardness compared to the initial state.

  5. Electron density magnification of the collective spin-orbit field in quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baboux, F.; Perez, F.; Ullrich, C. A.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2015-09-01

    The spin-orbit field acting on the spin waves of a spin-polarized electron gas is studied by inelastic light scattering on a CdMnTe quantum well. Above-barrier illumination allows us to vary the electronic density and control the collective Rashba and Dresselhaus coupling constants. We demonstrate that the enhancement between the single-particle and the collective spin-orbit field increases with increasing electronic density. This result is reproduced by a first-principles calculation. This behavior, which is opposite to usual Coulombic spin enhancements, reveals a novel aspect of the interplay of spin-orbit and Coulomb interactions in collective spin modes.

  6. Effects of the electron-electron interaction in the spin resonance in 2D systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Krishtopenko, S. S.

    2015-02-15

    The effect of the electron-electron interaction on the spin-resonance frequency in two-dimensional electron systems with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling is investigated. The oscillatory dependence of many-body corrections on the magnetic field is demonstrated. It is shown that the consideration of many-body interaction leads to a decrease or an increase in the spin-resonance frequency, depending on the sign of the g factor. It is found that the term cubic in quasimomentum in Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling partially decreases exchange corrections to the spin resonance energy in a two-dimensional system.

  7. Electron beam-switched discharge for rapidly pulsed lasers

    DOEpatents

    Pleasance, L.D.; Murray, J.R.; Goldhar, J.; Bradley, L.P.

    1979-12-11

    A method and apparatus are designed for electrical excitation of a laser gas by application of a pulsed voltage across the gas, followed by passage of a pulsed, high energy electron beam through the gas to initiate a discharge suitable for laser excitation. This method improves upon current power conditioning techniques and is especially useful for driving rare gas halide lasers at high repetition rates.

  8. Pulse-assisted homonuclear dipolar recoupling of half-integer quadrupolar spins in magic-angle spinning NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edén, Mattias; Annersten, Hans; Zazzi, Åsa

    2005-07-01

    We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that zero-quantum homonuclear dipolar recoupling techniques employing rotor-synchronized 180° pulses, previously introduced for spin-1/2 applications, are useful also for magnetization transfers between half-integer quadrupolar nuclei in rotating solids. The recoupling sequences are incorporated as mixing periods in two-dimensional experimental protocols, that correlate either single-quantum coherences of coupled spins, or triple-quantum with single-quantum coherences for improving spectral resolution. We present 23Na and 27Al NMR experiments on powders of sodium sulphite [Na 2SO 3], YAG [Y 3Al 5O 12] and a synthetic chlorite mineral [Mg 4.5Al 3Si 2.5O 10(OH) 8].

  9. Distance measurements across randomly distributed nitroxide probes from the temperature dependence of the electron spin phase memory time at 240 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Devin T.; Takahashi, Susumu; Sherwin, Mark S.; Han, Songi

    2012-10-01

    At 8.5 T, the polarization of an ensemble of electron spins is essentially 100% at 2 K, and decreases to 30% at 20 K. The strong temperature dependence of the electron spin polarization between 2 and 20 K leads to the phenomenon of spin bath quenching: temporal fluctuations of the dipolar magnetic fields associated with the energy-conserving spin "flip-flop" process are quenched as the temperature of the spin bath is lowered to the point of nearly complete spin polarization. This work uses pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 240 GHz to investigate the effects of spin bath quenching on the phase memory times (TM) of randomly-distributed ensembles of nitroxide molecules below 20 K at 8.5 T. For a given electron spin concentration, a characteristic, dipolar flip-flop rate (W) is extracted by fitting the temperature dependence of TM to a simple model of decoherence driven by the spin flip-flop process. In frozen solutions of 4-Amino-TEMPO, a stable nitroxide radical in a deuterated water-glass, a calibration is used to quantify average spin-spin distances as large as r¯=6.6 nm from the dipolar flip-flop rate. For longer distances, nuclear spin fluctuations, which are not frozen out, begin to dominate over the electron spin flip-flop processes, placing an effective ceiling on this method for nitroxide molecules. For a bulk solution with a three-dimensional distribution of nitroxide molecules at concentration n, we find W∝n∝1/r, which is consistent with magnetic dipolar spin interactions. Alternatively, we observe W∝n for nitroxides tethered to a quasi two-dimensional surface of large (Ø ˜ 200 nm), unilamellar, lipid vesicles, demonstrating that the quantification of spin bath quenching can also be used to discern the geometry of molecular assembly or organization.

  10. Electron spin relaxation in x-lithium phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hideo; Dalton, Lauraine A; Ha, Duc; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2007-07-19

    Continuous-wave linewidths and spin susceptibilities, spin-spin relaxation rates (1/T2), and spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) for two sources of x-LiPc were measured at 9.5 GHz between 15 and 298 K. Relaxation rates at 34 GHz were measured between 80 and 298 K. Room-temperature relaxation rates also were measured at 250 MHz, 1.9 GHz, and 2.76 GHz. The temperature dependences of linewidths and spin susceptibilities are characteristic of 1-D organic conductors. The ratio of populations of localized and delocalized electrons varies with sample preparation. For a single needle between 15 and about 200 K, 1/T2 is higher for the parallel orientation, but 1/T1 is higher for the perpendicular orientation, consistent with predictions based on dipolar interactions. Between about 60 and 150 K, which is the temperature regime in which spin susceptibility is changing rapidly with temperature, 1/T1 exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on temperature and is lower at 34 GHz than at 9.5 GHz. In other organic conductors, this dependence has been attributed to a bottleneck mechanism of relaxation. At higher temperatures, 1/T1 becomes less orientation-dependent. At room temperature, T1 increases rapidly between 250 MHz (3.0 micros) and 2.76 GHz (6.3 micros) and then shows less frequency dependence up to 34 GHz (9.8 micros). The relaxation rate near room temperature might have a substantial contribution from spin hopping perpendicular to the stacking axis of the molecules.

  11. Dynamics Of Electronic Excitation Of Solids With Ultrashort Laser Pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Nikita; Rethfeld, Baerbel

    2010-10-08

    When ultrashort laser pulses irradiate a solid, photoabsorption by electrons in conduction band produces nonequilibrium highly energetic free electrons gas. We study the ionization and excitation of the electronic subsystem in a semiconductor and a metal (solid silicon and aluminum, respectively). The irradiating femtosecond laser pulse has a duration of 10 fs and a photon energy of h-bar {omega} = 38 eV. The classical Monte Carlo method is extended to take into account the electronic band structure and Pauli's principle for electrons excited to the conduction band. In the case of semiconductors this applies to the holes as well. Conduction band electrons and valence band holes induce secondary excitation and ionization processes which we simulate event by event. We discuss the transient electron dynamics with respect to the differences between semiconductors and metals. For metals the electronic distribution is split up into two branches: a low energy distribution as a slightly distorted Fermi-distribution and a long high energy tail. For the case of semiconductors it is split into two parts by the band gap. To thermalize, these excited electronic subsystems need longer times than the characteristic pulse duration. Therefore, the analysis of experimental data with femtosecond lasers must be based on non-equilibrium concepts.

  12. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; Stern, M.; Zhou, X.; Lo, C. C.; Weis, C. D.; Schenkel, T.; Thewalt, M. L. W.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Julsgaard, B.; Mølmer, K.; Morton, J. J. L.; Bertet, P.

    2015-12-14

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here in this work, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. In conclusion, the detection volume of our resonator is ~0.02nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.

  13. Spin tuning of electron-doped metal-phthalocyanine layers.

    PubMed

    Stepanow, Sebastian; Lodi Rizzini, Alberto; Krull, Cornelius; Kavich, Jerald; Cezar, Julio C; Yakhou-Harris, Flora; Sheverdyaeva, Polina M; Moras, Paolo; Carbone, Carlo; Ceballos, Gustavo; Mugarza, Aitor; Gambardella, Pietro

    2014-04-09

    The spin state of organic-based magnets at interfaces is to a great extent determined by the organic environment and the nature of the spin-carrying metal center, which is further subject to modifications by the adsorbate-substrate coupling. Direct chemical doping offers an additional route for tailoring the electronic and magnetic characteristics of molecular magnets. Here we present a systematic investigation of the effects of alkali metal doping on the charge state and crystal field of 3d metal ions in Cu, Ni, Fe, and Mn phthalocyanine (Pc) monolayers adsorbed on Ag. Combined X-ray absorption spectroscopy and ligand field multiplet calculations show that Cu(II), Ni(II), and Fe(II) ions reduce to Cu(I), Ni(I), and Fe(I) upon alkali metal adsorption, whereas Mn maintains its formal oxidation state. The strength of the crystal field at the Ni, Fe, and Mn sites is strongly reduced upon doping. The combined effect of these changes is that the magnetic moment of high- and low-spin ions such as Cu and Ni can be entirely turned off or on, respectively, whereas the magnetic configuration of MnPc can be changed from intermediate (3/2) to high (5/2) spin. In the case of FePc a 10-fold increase of the orbital magnetic moment accompanies charge transfer and a transition to a high-spin state.

  14. Half-metallic alloys: electronic structure, magnetism and spin polarization.

    PubMed

    Dederichs, P H; Galanakis, I; Mavropoulos, Ph

    2005-01-01

    Using the state-of-the-art screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green function method we study the electronic and magnetic properties of NiMnSb and similar Heusler alloys. We show that all these compounds are half-metals, e.g. the minority-spin band is semiconducting and the Fermi level falls within this gap resulting in 100% spin polarization at the Fermi level. The total spin moment M(t) shows the so-called Slater-Pauling behaviour and scales with the total valence charge Z(t) following the rule M(t) = Z(t) - 18 for half and M(t) = Z(t) - 24 for full Heusler alloys. These rules are connected to the origin of the gap. Finally we show that the inclusion of the spin-orbit interaction in our calculations kills the half-metallic gap but the spin-polarization at the Fermi level can be still very high, approximately 99% for NiMnSb, but much lower for a half-metallic compound like zinc-blende MnBi (77%).

  15. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance

    DOE PAGES

    Bienfait, A.; Pla, J. J.; Kubo, Y.; ...

    2015-12-14

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here in this work, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improvemore » the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. In conclusion, the detection volume of our resonator is ~0.02nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.« less

  16. Reaching the quantum limit of sensitivity in electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Bienfait, A; Pla, J J; Kubo, Y; Stern, M; Zhou, X; Lo, C C; Weis, C D; Schenkel, T; Thewalt, M L W; Vion, D; Esteve, D; Julsgaard, B; Mølmer, K; Morton, J J L; Bertet, P

    2016-03-01

    The detection and characterization of paramagnetic species by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is widely used throughout chemistry, biology and materials science, from in vivo imaging to distance measurements in spin-labelled proteins. ESR relies on the inductive detection of microwave signals emitted by the spins into a coupled microwave resonator during their Larmor precession. However, such signals can be very small, prohibiting the application of ESR at the nanoscale (for example, at the single-cell level or on individual nanoparticles). Here, using a Josephson parametric microwave amplifier combined with high-quality-factor superconducting microresonators cooled at millikelvin temperatures, we improve the state-of-the-art sensitivity of inductive ESR detection by nearly four orders of magnitude. We demonstrate the detection of 1,700 bismuth donor spins in silicon within a single Hahn echo with unit signal-to-noise ratio, reduced to 150 spins by averaging a single Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill sequence. This unprecedented sensitivity reaches the limit set by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field instead of thermal or technical noise, which constitutes a novel regime for magnetic resonance. The detection volume of our resonator is ∼ 0.02 nl, and our approach can be readily scaled down further to improve sensitivity, providing a new versatile toolbox for ESR at the nanoscale.

  17. Oxidative reactions during early stages of beer brewing studied by electron spin resonance and spin trapping.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Anne M; Festersen, Rikke M; Andersen, Mogens L

    2008-09-24

    An electron spin resonance (ESR)-based method was used for evaluating the levels of radical formation during mashing and in sweet wort. The method included the addition of 5% (v/v) ethanol together with the spin trap alpha-4-pyridyl(1-oxide)- N- tert-butylnitrone (POBN) to wort, followed by monitoring the rate of formation of POBN spin adducts during aerobic heating of the wort. The presence of ethanol makes the spin trapping method more selective and sensitive for the detection of highly reactive radicals such as hydroxyl and alkoxyl radicals. Samples of wort that were collected during the early stages of the mashing process gave higher rates of spin adduct formation than wort samples collected during the later stages. The lower oxidative stability of the early wort samples was confirmed by measuring the rate of oxygen consumption during heating of the wort. The addition of Fe(II) to the wort samples increased the rate of spin adduct formation, whereas the addition of Fe(II) during the mashing had no effect on the oxidative stability of the wort samples. Analysis of the iron content in the sweet wort samples demonstrated that iron added during the mashing had no effect on the iron level in the wort. The moderate temperatures during the early steps of mashing allow the endogenous malt enzymes to be active. The potential antioxidative effects of different redox-active enzymes during mashing were tested by measuring the rate of spin adduct formation in samples of wort. Surprisingly, a high catalase dosage caused a significant, 20% reduction of the initial rate of radical formation, whereas superoxide dismutase had no effect on the oxidation rates. This suggests that hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are not the only intermediates that play a role in the oxidative reactions occurring during aerobic oxidation of sweet wort.

  18. Origin of the decoherence of the extended electron spin state in Ti-doped β-Ga2O3.

    PubMed

    Mentink-Vigier, F; Binet, L; Gourier, D; Vezin, H

    2013-08-07

    The mechanism of decoherence of the electron spin of Ti(3+) in β-Ga2O3 was investigated by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance. At 4.2 K, both instantaneous and spectral diffusion contribute to the decoherence. For electron spin concentrations ≈10(25) m(-3) in the studied samples, calculations indicate that electron-electron couplings and electron couplings with (69)Ga and (71)Ga nuclei yield similar contributions to the spectral diffusion, but that electron-nuclei interactions could become the dominant cause of spectral diffusion for only slightly lower spin concentrations. Above 20 K, an additional contribution to the decoherence as well as to the spin-lattice relaxation arises from a two-optical-phonon Raman process, which becomes the leading decoherence mechanism for T > 39 K. Rabi oscillations with a damping time of about 79 ns at 4.2 K could also be observed. The damping of the Rabi oscillations, independent of the oscillation frequency, is suspected to arise from electron-nuclei interactions.

  19. Spin-resolved inelastic mean free path of slow electrons in Fe.

    PubMed

    Zdyb, R; Bauer, E

    2013-07-10

    The spin-dependent reflectivity of slow electrons from ultrathin Fe films on W(110) has been measured with spin polarized low energy electron microscopy. From the amplitude of the quantum size oscillations observed in the reflectivity curves the spin-dependent inelastic mean free path (IMFP) of electrons in Fe has been determined in the energy range from 5 to 16 eV above the vacuum level. The resulting IMFP values for the spin-up electrons are clearly larger than those for the spin-down electrons and the difference between the two values decreases with increasing electron energy in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  20. Spatially modulated laser pulses for printing electronics.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Raymond C Y; Kim, Heungsoo; Mathews, Scott; Piqué, Alberto

    2015-11-01

    The use of a digital micromirror device (DMD) in laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) is reviewed. Combining this technique with high-viscosity donor ink (silver nanopaste) results in laser-printed features that are highly congruent in shape and size to the incident laser beam spatial profile. The DMD empowers LIFT to become a highly parallel, rapidly reconfigurable direct-write technology. By adapting half-toning techniques to the DMD bitmap image, the laser transfer threshold fluence for 10 μm features can be reduced using an edge-enhanced beam profile. The integration of LIFT with this beam-shaping technique allows the printing of complex large-area patterns with a single laser pulse.

  1. Theory of coupled spin-charge transport due to spin-orbit interaction in inhomogeneous two-dimensional electron liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ka; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.

    2014-12-01

    Spin-orbit interactions in two-dimensional electron liquids are responsible for many interesting transport phenomena in which particle currents are converted to spin polarizations and spin currents and vice versa. Prime examples are the spin Hall effect, the Edelstein effect, and their inverses. By similar mechanisms, it is also possible to partially convert an optically induced electron-hole density wave to a spin density wave and vice versa. In this paper, we present a unified theoretical treatment of these effects based on quantum kinetic equations that include not only the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling from the band structure of the host material, but also the spin-orbit coupling due to an external electric field and a random impurity potential. The drift-diffusion equations we derive in the diffusive regime are applicable to a broad variety of experimental situations, both homogeneous and nonhomogeneous, and include on equal footing "skew scattering" and "side jump" from electron-impurity collisions. As a demonstration of the strength and usefulness of the theory we apply it to the study of several effects of current experimental interest: the inverse Edelstein effect, the spin-current swapping effect, and the partial conversion of an electron-hole density wave to a spin density wave in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, subject to an electric field.

  2. Electron-spin-reversal phenomenon in optically pumped rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Norrgard, E. B.; Dreiling, J. M.; Gay, T. J.; Tupa, D.

    2010-09-15

    We have studied the optical pumping of mixtures of Rb vapor and N{sub 2} buffer gas by laser light tuned to the D{sub 1} transition having a spectral width of {approx}500 MHz. The Rb densities are of the order of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, while the buffer-gas pressures range from 0.1 to 10 torr. As the frequency of the right-hand circularly polarized laser is varied across the D{sub 1} absorption profile, the electron spin polarization of the Rb is found to take on negative values for small negative values of pump detuning from the absorption profile center. This occurs for N{sub 2} pressures below {approx}1 torr; at 10 torr the electron spins consistently point in the same direction as the angular momentum of the pump light. The spin-reversal effect can be understood in terms of populations of the F=2 ({sup 85}Rb) and F=1 ({sup 87}Rb) states caused by small unpolarized fractions in the pump beam and its elimination in terms of pressure broadening caused by the N{sub 2} buffer gas. We speculate that this effect could be used for fast Rb spin modulation.

  3. Cantilever detection of electron spin resonance in the terahertz region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Ohmichi, Eiji; Ohta, Hitoshi

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) is used in a wide range of research areas. Most commercially available spectrometers operate at the X- band (~10 GHz). However, high-frequency ESR (>100 GHz) has many advantages, such as the high spectral resolution, the ESR detection beyond the zero-field splitting etc. We report the cantilever detection of electron spin resonance in the terahertz region. This technique mechanically detects ESR as a change in magnetic torque that acts on the cantilever, while the conventional method, such as the cavity perturbation and the transmission method, directly measures the absorption of electromagnetic wave power. Backward wave oscillators (BWO) were used as THz-wave sources. Despite the small sample mass (m = 4 μg) and low power output of the BWO (P < 4 mW above 1 THz), we observed ESR absorption of Co Tutton salt, Co(NH4)2(SO4)2 .6H2O, in frequencies of up to 1.1 THz. Spin sensitivity was estimated to be the order of 1011-1012 spins/gauss above 1 THz. This technique will not only broaden the scope of ESR spectroscopy application but also lead to high-spectral-resolution ESR imaging.[1] H. Takahashi, E. Ohmichi and H. Ohta, Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 182405 (2015).

  4. Self Assembled Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Spin Based All Optical and Electronic Quantum Computing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-17

    2007). 23 24. S. Pramanik, S. Bandyopadhyay and M. Cahay, “Energy dispersion relations of spin split subbands and gate control of spin polarization ...inorganics. Consider the case of a spin valve made from Co, organic and Ni. Both Co and Ni have negative spin polarizations at the Fermi energy...flipped spins have the same polarization as the d-electrons at the Fermi energy in Ni. Thus, spin flip events increase the current through the device

  5. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-14

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  6. Synchronization of Sub-Picosecond Electron and Laser Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Le Sage G.P.

    2000-08-15

    Sub-picosecond laser-electron synchronization is required to take full advantage of the experimental possibilities arising from the marriage of modern high intensity lasers and high brightness electron beams in the same laboratory. Two particular scenarios stand out in this regard, injection of ultra-short electron pulses in short wavelength laser-driven plasma accelerators, and Compton scattering of laser photons from short electron pulses. Both of these applications demand synchronization, which is subpicosecond, with tens of femtosecond synchronization implied for next-generation experiments. Typically, an RF electron accelerator is synchronized to a short pulse laser system by detecting the repetition signal of a laser oscillator, adjusted to an exact subharmonic of the linac RF frequency, and multiplying or phase locking this signal to produce the master RF clock. Pulse-to-pulse jitter characteristic of self-mode-locked laser oscillators represents a direct contribution to the ultimate timing jitter between a high intensity laser focus and electron beam at the interaction point, or a photocathode drive laser in an RF photoinjector. This timing jitter problem has been addressed most seriously in the context of the RF photoinjector, where the electron beam properties are sensitive functions of relative timing jitter. The timing jitter achieved in synchronized photocathode drive laser systems is near, or slightly below one picosecond. The ultimate time of arrival jitter of the beam at the photoinjector exit is typically a bit smaller than the photocathode drive-laser jitter due to velocity compression effects in the first RF cell of the gun. This tendency of the timing of the electron beam arrival at a given spatial point to lock to the RF lock is strongly reinforced by use of magnetic compression.

  7. Interplay of Electron and Nuclear Spin Noise in n -Type GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berski, Fabian; Hübner, Jens; Oestreich, Michael; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, A. D.; Glazov, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    We present spin-noise spectroscopy measurements on an ensemble of donor-bound electrons in ultrapure GaAs:Si covering temporal dynamics over 6 orders of magnitude from milliseconds to nanoseconds. The spin-noise spectra detected at the donor-bound exciton transition show the multifaceted dynamical regime of the ubiquitous mutual electron and nuclear spin interaction typical for III-V-based semiconductor systems. The experiment distinctly reveals the finite Overhauser shift of an electron spin precession at zero external magnetic field and a second contribution around zero frequency stemming from the electron spin components parallel to the nuclear spin fluctuations. Moreover, at very low frequencies, features related with time-dependent nuclear spin fluctuations are clearly resolved making it possible to study the intricate nuclear spin dynamics at zero and low magnetic fields. The findings are in agreement with the developed model of electron and nuclear spin noise.

  8. Actin-binding cleft closure in myosin II probed by site-directed spin labeling and pulsed EPR.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jennifer C; Burr, Adam R; Svensson, Bengt; Kennedy, Daniel J; Allingham, John; Titus, Margaret A; Rayment, Ivan; Thomas, David D

    2008-09-02

    We present a structurally dynamic model for nucleotide- and actin-induced closure of the actin-binding cleft of myosin, based on site-directed spin labeling and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in Dictyostelium myosin II. The actin-binding cleft is a solvent-filled cavity that extends to the nucleotide-binding pocket and has been predicted to close upon strong actin binding. Single-cysteine labeling sites were engineered to probe mobility and accessibility within the cleft. Addition of ADP and vanadate, which traps the posthydrolysis biochemical state, influenced probe mobility and accessibility slightly, whereas actin binding caused more dramatic changes in accessibility, consistent with cleft closure. We engineered five pairs of cysteine labeling sites to straddle the cleft, each pair having one label on the upper 50-kDa domain and one on the lower 50-kDa domain. Distances between spin-labeled sites were determined from the resulting spin-spin interactions, as measured by continuous wave EPR for distances of 0.7-2 nm or pulsed EPR (double electron-electron resonance) for distances of 1.7-6 nm. Because of the high distance resolution of EPR, at least two distinct structural states of the cleft were resolved. Each of the biochemical states tested (prehydrolysis, posthydrolysis, and rigor), reflects a mixture of these structural states, indicating that the coupling between biochemical and structural states is not rigid. The resulting model is much more dynamic than previously envisioned, with both open and closed conformations of the cleft interconverting, even in the rigor actomyosin complex.

  9. Flue Gas Treatment by Intense Pulsed Relativistic Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegaki, Takuro; Seino, Satoshi; Oda, Yasuyuki; Matsuda, Takuya; Imada, Go; Jiang, Weihua; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    2001-02-01

    Removal of NOX has been studied using an intense pulsed relativistic electron beam (IREB). The chamber is 20 cm long, and is irradiated by the IREB of 2 MV or 8 MV with the pulse width of 50 ns (full width at half maximum: FWHM). With the initial NO concentration of 100 ppm and pressure of 120 kPa, ˜50% of NO is removed by firing of 10 shots of IREB, yielding 5 ppm/shot. The NOX removal amount in one shot does not depend on the initial NO concentration and electron energy.

  10. Pulsed electron beams for flue-gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesyats, Gennady A.; Novoselov, Yuri N.; Kuznetsov, D. L.

    1995-03-01

    The development of industrial society creates serious threats to the safe existence of the biosphere, including man. Cleaning air from toxic exhausts becomes therefore one of the challenges. The global problem of air cleaning can be solved in a number of ways. We restrict our attention to one of the possible methods, the use of pulsed electron beams to clean sulfur oxides from the flue gases of power plants. Irradiation of flue gases by the increased density of pulsed electron beams permits a charges, excited particle concentration that is optical for the removal of specific toxic impurities. We present the most important results of these experiments.

  11. Pulsed-electron-beam annealing of ion-implantation damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwald, A. C.; Kirkpatrick, A. R.; Little, R. G.; Minnucci, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Short-duration high-intensity pulsed electron beams have been used to anneal ion-implantation damage in silicon and to electrically activate the dopant species. Lattice regrowth and dopant activation were determined using He(+)-4 backscattering, SEM, TEM, and device performance characteristics as diagnostic techniques. The annealing mechanism is believed to be liquid-phase epitaxial regrowth initiating from the substrate. The high-temperature transient pulse produced by the electron beam causes the dopant to diffuse rapidly in the region where the liquid state is achieved.

  12. Graphene-diamond interface: Gap opening and electronic spin injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yandong; Dai, Ying; Guo, Meng; Huang, Baibiao

    2012-06-01

    Creating a finite band gap, injecting electronic spin, and finding a suitable substrate are the three important challenges for building graphene-based devices. Here, first-principles calculations are performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of graphene adsorbed on the (111) surface of diamond, which is synthesized experimentally [Nature10.1038/nature09979 472, 74 (2011); J. Appl. Phys.10.1063/1.3627370 110, 044324 (2011); Nano Lett.10.1021/nl204545q 12, 1603 (2012); ACS Nano10.1021/nn204362p 6, 1018 (2012)]. Our results reveal that the graphene adsorbed on the diamond surface is a semiconductor with a finite gap depending on the adsorption arrangements due to the variation of on-site energy induced by the diamond surface, with the extra advantage of maintaining main characters of the linear band dispersion of graphene. More interestingly, different from typical graphene/semiconductor hybrid systems, we find that electronic spin can arise ``intrinsically'' in graphene owing to the exchange proximity interaction between electrons in graphene and localized electrons in the diamond surface rather than the characteristic graphene states. These predications strongly revive this new synthesized system as a viable candidate to overcome all the aforementioned challenges, providing an ideal platform for future graphene-based electronics.

  13. Synthesis Properties and Electron Spin Resonance Properties of Titanic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jung Min; Lee, Jun; Kim, Tak Hee; Sun, Min Ho; Jang, Young Bae; Cho, Sung June

    2009-04-19

    Titanic materials were synthesized by hydrothermal method of TiO{sub 2} anatase in 10M LiOH, 10M NaOH, and 14M KOH at 130 deg. C for 30 hours. Alkaline media were removed from the synthesized products using 0.1N HCl aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm, and electron spin resonance. Different shapes of synthesized products were observed through the typical electron microscope and indicated that the formation of the different morphologies depends on the treatment conditions of highly alkaline media. Many micropores were observed in the cubic or octahedral type of TiO{sub 2} samples through the typical electron microscope and Langmuir adsorption-desorption isotherm of liquid nitrogen at 77 deg. K. Electron spin resonance studies have also been carried out to verify the existence of paramagnetic sites such as oxygen vacancies on the titania samples. The effect of alkali metal ions on the morphologies and physicochemical properties of nanoscale titania are discussed.

  14. Magnus expansion paradoxes in the study of equilibrium magnetization and entanglement in multi-pulse spin locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, E. I.; Fel'dman, E. B.; Feldman, D. E.

    2016-06-01

    Divergence of the Magnus expansion leads to paradoxes in the spin dynamics of solid-state NMR and in quantum informatics. This review presents results on quasi-equilibrium magnetization in a system of dipole-dipole (DD) coupled spins at times T_2\\ll t \\ll T1ρ in multiple-pulse spin locking ( T_2 is the transverse spin relaxation time and T1ρ is the rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation time). It is shown how contradictions between the results obtained with the Magnus expansion and experimental data can be removed. Systems of two and three DD coupled spins in multi-pulse spin locking are considered, and the entanglement evolution is investigated using both the Magnus expansion and the exact solution. The critical temperature for an entangled state is also found.

  15. High fidelity readout of a single electron spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keselman, Anna; Glickman, Yinnon; Akerman, Nitzan; Kotler, Shlomi; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2010-03-01

    We use the two spin states of the valence electron of a single trapped ^88Sr^+ ion as a physical qubit implementation. For qubit readout one of the qubit states is shelved to a metastable D level using a narrow linewidth 674nm diode laser followed by state-selective fluorescence detection. Careful analysis of the resulting photon detection statistics allows for a minimal detection error of 2 . 10-3, compatible with recent estimates of the fault-tolerance required error threshold.

  16. A Lagrangian theory of the classical spinning electron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    A Lagrangian is defined that governs the dynamics of a classical electron with spin, moving under the influence of electromagnetic forces. The Euler-Lagrange equations associated with this Lagrangian for space-time position x exp-alpha provide a generalization of the Lorentz force law. The remaining Euler-Lagrange equations lead directly to the (generalized) Frenkel (1926)-Thomas (1927)-BMT (1959) equations.

  17. The role of spinning electrons in paramagnetic phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain paramagnetic phenomena without assuming the orientation of a molecule or ion in a magnetic field. Only the spin angular momentum is assumed to be responsible. A derivative of the Gurie-Langevin law and the magnetic moments of ions are given as a function of the number of electrons in an inner, incomplete shell. An explanation of Gerlach's experiments with iron and nickel vapors is attempted. An explanation of magnetomechanical experiments with ferromagne elements is given.

  18. Fundamental Study of Three-dimensional Fast Spin-echo Imaging with Spoiled Equilibrium Pulse.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Masashi; Kaji, Naoto; Tsuchihashi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional fast spin-echo (3D FSE) imaging with variable refocusing flip angle has been recently applied to pre- or post-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. To reduce the acquisition time, this sequence requires higher echo train length (ETL), which potentially causes decreased T1 contrast. Spoiled equilibrium (SpE) pulse consists of a resonant +90° radiofrequency (RF) pulse and is applied at the end of the echo train. This +90° RF pulse brings residual transverse magnetization to the negative longitudinal axis, which makes it possible to increase T1 contrast. The purpose of our present study was to examine factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse and the relationship between T1 contrast improvement and imaging parameters and to understand the characteristics of spoiled equilibrium pulse. Phantom studies were conducted using an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom made of polyvinyl alcohol gel. To evaluate the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse with changes in repetition time (TR), ETL, and refocusing flip angle, we measured the signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse was evaluated by calculating the enhancement rate of CNR. The factors that influence the effect of spoiled equilibrium pulse are TR, ETL, and relaxation time of tissues. Spoiled equilibrium pulse is effective with increasing TR and decreasing ETL. The shorter the T1 value, the better the spoiled equilibrium pulse functions. However, for tissues in which the T1 value is long (>600 ms), at a TR of 600 ms, improvement in T1 contrast by applying spoiled equilibrium pulse cannot be expected.

  19. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy of small ensemble paramagnetic spins using a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywardana, Chathuranga; Stepanov, Viktor; Cho, Franklin H.; Takahashi, Susumu

    2016-09-01

    A nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond is a promising sensor for nanoscale magnetic sensing. Here, we report on electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy using a single NV center in diamond. First, using a 230 GHz ESR spectrometer, we performed ensemble ESR of a type-Ib sample crystal and identified a substitutional single nitrogen impurity as a major paramagnetic center in the sample crystal. Then, we carried out free-induction decay and spin echo measurements of the single NV center to study static and dynamic properties of nanoscale bath spins surrounding the NV center. We also measured ESR spectrum of the bath spins using double electron-electron resonance spectroscopy with the single NV center. The spectrum analysis of the NV-based ESR measurement identified that the detected spins are the nitrogen impurity spins. The experiment was also performed with several other single NV centers in the diamond sample and demonstrated that the properties of the bath spins are unique to the NV centers indicating the probe of spins in the microscopic volume using NV-based ESR. Finally, we discussed the number of spins detected by the NV-based ESR spectroscopy. By comparing the experimental result with simulation, we estimated the number of the detected spins to be ≤50 spins.

  20. Controlled electron emission and vacuum breakdown with nanosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seznec, B.; Dessante, Ph; Caillault, L.; Babigeon, J.-L.; Teste, Ph; Minea, T.

    2016-06-01

    Vacuum electron sources exploiting field emission are generally operated in direct current (DC) mode. The development of nanosecond and sub-nanosecond pulsed power supplies facilitates the emission of compact bunches of electrons of high density. The breakdown level is taken as the highest value of the voltage avoiding the thermo-emission instability. The effect of such ultra-fast pulses on the breakdown voltage and the emitted electron current is discussed as a result of the thermo-emission modelling applied to a significant protrusion. It is found that pulsing very rapidly the vacuum breakdown occurs at higher voltage values than for the DC case, because it rises faster than the heat diffusion. In addition, the electron emission current increases significantly regardless of the theoretical approach is used. A comparative study of this theoretical work is discussed for several different forms of the protrusion (elliptic and hyperbolic) and different metals (hence varying the melting point), particularly refractory (tungsten) versus conductor (titanium). Pulsed mode operation can provide an increase on breakdown voltage (up to 18%) and a significant increase (up to 330%) of the electron extracted current due to its high non-linear dependency with the voltage, for the case for the case with a hyperbolic protrusion.

  1. Position, spin, and orbital angular momentum of a relativistic electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y.; Dennis, Mark R.; Nori, Franco

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by recent interest in relativistic electron vortex states, we revisit the spin and orbital angular momentum properties of Dirac electrons. These are uniquely determined by the choice of the position operator for a relativistic electron. We consider two main approaches discussed in the literature: (i) the projection of operators onto the positive-energy subspace, which removes the Zitterbewegung effects and correctly describes spin-orbit interaction effects, and (ii) the use of Newton-Wigner-Foldy-Wouthuysen operators based on the inverse Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We argue that the first approach [previously described in application to Dirac vortex beams in K. Y. Bliokh et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 174802 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.174802] has a more natural physical interpretation, including spin-orbit interactions and a nonsingular zero-mass limit, than the second one [S. M. Barnett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 114802 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.114802].

  2. Magic-angle sample spinning electron paramagnetic resonance--instrumentation, performance, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hessinger, D; Bauer, C; Hubrich, M; Jeschke, G; Spiess, H W

    2000-12-01

    An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) setup for line narrowing experiments with fast sample spinning at variable angles between the rotation axis and the static magnetic field is described and applied in the magic-angle sample spinning (MAS) EPR experiment at X-band frequencies (9.5 GHz). Sample spinning speeds up to 17 kHz at temperatures down to 200 K can be achieved with rotors of 4-mm outer and 2.5-mm inner diameter without severe losses in microwave amplitude compared to standard pulse EPR probeheads. A phase cycle is introduced that provides pure absorption MAS EPR spectra and allows one to distinguish between positive and negative frequency offsets (pseudo-quadrature detection). Possible broadening mechanisms in MAS EPR spectra are discussed. It is demonstrated both by theory and by experiment that the MAS EPR experiment requires excitation bandwidths that are comparable to the total spectral width, since otherwise destructive interference between contributions of spins with similar resonance offsets suppresses the signal. Experimental observations on the E(1) center in gamma-irradiated silica glass and on the SO(-)(3) radical in gamma-irradiated sulfamic acid are reported.

  3. Pulsed field gradient multiple-quantum MAS NMR spectroscopy of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyfe, C. A.; Skibsted, J.; Grondey, H.; Meyer zu Altenschildesche, H.

    1997-12-01

    Pulsed field gradients (PFGs) have been applied to select coherence transfer pathways in multiple-quantum (MQ) MAS NMR spectra of half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei in rigid solids. 27Al triple-quantum (3Q) MAS NMR spectra of the aluminophosphate molecular sieves VPI-5 and AlPO 4-18 have been used to demonstrate the selection of the (0)→(3)→(-1) coherence transfer pathway using PFGs and no phase cycling. Compared to MQMAS experiments that employ phase cycling schemes, the main advantage of the PFG-MQMAS technique is its simplicity, which should facilitate the combination of MQMAS with other pulse sequences.

  4. Room-temperature electron spin relaxation of nitroxides immobilized in trehalose: Effect of substituents adjacent to NO-group.

    PubMed

    Kuzhelev, Andrey A; Strizhakov, Rodion K; Krumkacheva, Olesya A; Polienko, Yuliya F; Morozov, Denis A; Shevelev, Georgiy Yu; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V; Kirilyuk, Igor A; Fedin, Matvey V; Bagryanskaya, Elena G

    2016-05-01

    Trehalose has been recently promoted as efficient immobilizer of biomolecules for room-temperature EPR studies, including distance measurements between attached nitroxide spin labels. Generally, the structure of nitroxide influences the electron spin relaxation times, being crucial parameters for room-temperature pulse EPR measurements. Therefore, in this work we investigated a series of nitroxides with different substituents adjacent to NO-moiety including spirocyclohexane, spirocyclopentane, tetraethyl and tetramethyl groups. Electron spin relaxation times (T1, Tm) of these radicals immobilized in trehalose were measured at room temperature at X- and Q-bands (9/34GHz). In addition, a comparison was made with the corresponding relaxation times in nitroxide-labeled DNA immobilized in trehalose. In all cases phase memory times Tm were close to 700ns and did not essentially depend on structure of substituents. Comparison of temperature dependences of Tm at T=80-300K shows that the benefit of spirocyclohexane substituents well-known at medium temperatures (∼100-180K) becomes negligible at 300K. Therefore, unless there are specific interactions between spin labels and biomolecules, the room-temperature value of Tm in trehalose is weakly dependent on the structure of substituents adjacent to NO-moiety of nitroxide. The issues of specific interactions and stability of nitroxide labels in biological media might be more important for room temperature pulsed dipolar EPR than differences in intrinsic spin relaxation of radicals.

  5. Monte Carlo method for studies of spin relaxation in degenerate electron gas: Application to monolayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek

    2017-07-01

    Monte Carlo method allowing to account for the effect of Pauli Exclusion Principle in the case of spin polarized electron gas is demonstrated. Modeling requires calculation of electron states occupancy accounting for the direction of the spin of the scattered electron. As an example of application, calculations for the case of spin and energy relaxation of initially polarized electrons in monolayer graphene have been performed. Model includes D'yakonov-Perel' and Elliot-Yafet relaxation mechanisms. It is demonstrated that electron distribution function and energy relaxation follow the spin polarization relaxation and they are mainly governed by spin related scattering processes.

  6. Detection of pulsed neutrons with solid-state electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatzakis, J.; Rigakis, I.; Hassan, S. M.; Clark, E. L.; Lee, P.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of the spatial and time-resolved characteristics of pulsed neutron sources require large area detection materials and fast circuitry that can process the electronic pulses readout from the active region of the detector. In this paper, we present a solid-state detector based on the nuclear activation of materials by neutrons, and the detection of the secondary particle emission of the generated radionuclides’ decay. The detector utilizes a microcontroller that communicates using a modified SPI protocol. A solid-state, pulse shaping filter follows a charge amplifier, and it is designed as an inexpensive, low-noise solution for measuring pulses measured by a digital counter. An imaging detector can also be made by using an array of these detectors. The system can communicate with an interface unit and pass an image to a personal computer.

  7. Ultimate Limit of Electron-Spin Precession upon Reflection in Ferromagnetic Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallal, A.; Berdot, T.; Dey, P.; Bismaths, L. Tati; Joly, L.; Bourzami, A.; Scheurer, F.; Bulou, H.; Henk, J.; Alouani, M.; Weber, W.

    2011-08-01

    We report the discovery of 180° electron-spin precession in spin-polarized electron-reflection experiments on Fe films on Ag(001), the largest possible precession angle in a single electron reflection. Both experiments as a function of Fe film thickness and ab initio calculations show that the appearance of this ultimate spin precession depends with utmost sensitivity on the relaxation of the Fe surface layers during growth. Similar spin precession is also predicted for other ferromagnetic films.

  8. Spin precession by pulsed inductive magnetometry in thin amorphous plates

    SciTech Connect

    Magni, Alessandro; Bottauscio, Oriano; Caprile, Ambra Celegato, Federica; Ferrara, Enzo; Fiorillo, Fausto

    2014-05-07

    Broadband magnetic loss and damping behavior of Co-based amorphous ribbons and thin films have been investigated. The permeability and loss response of the transverse anisotropy ribbon samples in the frequency range DC to 1 GHz is interpreted in terms of combined and distinguishable contributions to the magnetization process by domain wall displacements and magnetization rotations. The latter alone are shown to survive at the highest frequencies, where the losses are calculated via coupled Maxwell and Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert (LLG) equations. Remarkably high values of the LLG damping coefficient α = 0.1–0.2 are invoked in this theoretical prediction. Direct measurements of α by pulsed inductive microwave magnetometry are thus performed, both in these laminae and in amorphous films of identical composition, obtaining about one order of magnitude increase of the α value upon the 100 nm÷10 μm thickness range. This confirms that dissipation by eddy currents enters the LLG equation via large increase of the damping coefficient.

  9. Development of an (e,2e) electron momentum spectroscopy apparatus using an ultrashort pulsed electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, M.; Kasai, Y.; Oishi, K.; Nakazawa, H.; Takahashi, M.

    2013-06-15

    An (e,2e) apparatus for electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) has been developed, which employs an ultrashort-pulsed incident electron beam with a repetition rate of 5 kHz and a pulse duration in the order of a picosecond. Its instrumental design and technical details are reported, involving demonstration of a new method for finding time-zero. Furthermore, EMS data for the neutral Ne atom in the ground state measured by using the pulsed electron beam are presented to illustrate the potential abilities of the apparatus for ultrafast molecular dynamics, such as by combining EMS with the pump-and-probe technique.

  10. Pulsed electron beam propagation in argon and nitrogen gas mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Zhirkov, I. S.

    2015-10-15

    The paper presents the results of current measurements for the electron beam, propagating inside a drift tube filled in with a gas mixture (Ar and N{sub 2}). The experiments were performed using the TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The main characteristics of electron beam were as follows: 60 ns pulse duration, up to 200 J energy, and 5 cm diameter. The electron beam propagated inside the drift tube assembled of three sections. Gas pressures inside the drift tube were 760 ± 3, 300 ± 3, and 50 ± 1 Torr. The studies were performed in argon, nitrogen, and their mixtures of 33%, 50%, and 66% volume concentrations, respectively.

  11. Single laser pulse induces spin state transition within the hysteresis loop of an Iron compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freysz, E.; Montant, S.; Létard, S.; Létard, J.-F.

    2004-08-01

    Within the thermal hysteresis loop of the [Fe(PM-BiA) 2(NCS) 2] compound, a single laser pulse of 14 mJ cm -2 induces a photo-conversion from the low spin (LS, S = 0) to the high spin (HS, S = 2) state of the Fe 2+ metallic center. The temporal dynamic of this phenomena indicates that the system is firstly photo-excited into the HS state and then slowly relaxes to a mixture of HS/LS state. Subsequent laser pulses do not affect the HS/LS ratio. The system can be brought back to its initial LS state by adjusting the temperature of the compound. A simple model accounts qualitatively for the observed phenomenon.

  12. Generation of spin waves by a train of fs-laser pulses: a novel approach for tuning magnon wavelength.

    PubMed

    Savochkin, I V; Jäckl, M; Belotelov, V I; Akimov, I A; Kozhaev, M A; Sylgacheva, D A; Chernov, A I; Shaposhnikov, A N; Prokopov, A R; Berzhansky, V N; Yakovlev, D R; Zvezdin, A K; Bayer, M

    2017-07-18

    Currently spin waves are considered for computation and data processing as an alternative to charge currents. Generation of spin waves by ultrashort laser pulses provides several important advances with respect to conventional approaches using microwaves. In particular, focused laser spot works as a point source for spin waves and allows for directional control of spin waves and switching between their different types. For further progress in this direction it is important to manipulate with the spectrum of the optically generated spin waves. Here we tackle this problem by launching spin waves by a sequence of femtosecond laser pulses with pulse interval much shorter than the relaxation time of the magnetization oscillations. This leads to the cumulative phenomenon and allows us to generate magnons in a specific narrow range of wavenumbers. The wavelength of spin waves can be tuned from 15 μm to hundreds of microns by sweeping the external magnetic field by only 10 Oe or by slight variation of the pulse repetition rate. Our findings expand the capabilities of the optical spin pump-probe technique and provide a new method for the spin wave generation and control.

  13. Polarizing the electronic and nuclear spin of the NV-center in diamond in arbitrary magnetic fields: analysis of the optical pumping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy; Zhang, Jingfu; Suter, Dieter

    2017-07-01

    Initializing a set of qubits to a given quantum state is a basic prerequisite for the physical implementation of quantum-information protocols. Here, we discuss the polarization of the electronic and nuclear spin in a single nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. Our initialization scheme uses a sequence of laser, microwave and radio-frequency pulses, and we optimize the pumping parameters of the laser pulse. A rate equation model is formulated that explains the effect of the laser pulse on the spin system. We have experimentally determined the population of the relevant spin states as a function of the duration of the laser pulse by measuring Rabi oscillations and Ramsey-type free-induction decays. The experimental data have been analyzed to determine the pumping rates of the rate equation model.

  14. Establishing the fundamental magnetic interactions in the chiral Skyrmionic Mott insulator Cu(2)OSeO(3) by terahertz electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Ozerov, M; Romhányi, J; Belesi, M; Berger, H; Ansermet, J-Ph; van den Brink, Jeroen; Wosnitza, J; Zvyagin, S A; Rousochatzakis, I

    2014-10-10

    The recent discovery of Skyrmions in Cu(2)OSeO(3) has established a new platform to create and manipulate Skyrmionic spin textures. We use high-field electron spin resonance with a terahertz free-electron laser and pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T to probe and quantify its microscopic spin-spin interactions. In addition to the previously observed long-wavelength Goldstone mode, this technique probes also the high-energy part of the excitation spectrum which is inaccessible by standard low-frequency electron spin resonance. Fitting the behavior of the observed modes in magnetic field to a theoretical framework establishes experimentally that the fundamental magnetic building blocks of this Skyrmionic magnet are rigid, highly entangled and weakly coupled tetrahedra.

  15. Establishing the Fundamental Magnetic Interactions in the Chiral Skyrmionic Mott Insulator Cu2OSeO3 by Terahertz Electron Spin Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozerov, M.; Romhányi, J.; Belesi, M.; Berger, H.; Ansermet, J.-Ph.; van den Brink, Jeroen; Wosnitza, J.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Rousochatzakis, I.

    2014-10-01

    The recent discovery of Skyrmions in Cu2OSeO3 has established a new platform to create and manipulate Skyrmionic spin textures. We use high-field electron spin resonance with a terahertz free-electron laser and pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T to probe and quantify its microscopic spin-spin interactions. In addition to the previously observed long-wavelength Goldstone mode, this technique probes also the high-energy part of the excitation spectrum which is inaccessible by standard low-frequency electron spin resonance. Fitting the behavior of the observed modes in magnetic field to a theoretical framework establishes experimentally that the fundamental magnetic building blocks of this Skyrmionic magnet are rigid, highly entangled and weakly coupled tetrahedra.

  16. Ultrashort laser pulse driven inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Moody, J. T.; Anderson, S. G.; Anderson, G.; ...

    2016-02-29

    In this paper we discuss the ultrashort pulse high gradient Inverse Free Electron laser accelerator experiment carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which demonstrated gra- dients exceeding 200 MV/m using a 4 TW 100 fs long 800 nm Ti:Sa laser pulse. Due to the short laser and electron pulse lengths, synchronization was determined to be one of the main challenges in this experiment. This made necessary the implementation of a single-shot, non destructive, electro-optic sampling based diagnostics to enable time-stamping of each laser accelerator shot with < 100 fs accuracy. The results of this experiment are expected tomore » pave the way towards the development of future GeV-class IFEL accelerators.« less

  17. Laser pulse evolution and electron acceleration in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esarey, Eric

    2000-04-01

    Laser-driven plasma-based accelerators(For a review see, E. Esarey et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 24, 252 (1996).) require the propagation of intense laser pulses over long distances in plasmas, the generation of large amplitude wakefields, and the injection and acceleration of electrons. This talk will discuss the nonlinear propagation of short laser pulses in plasmas, with or without channels. Non-paraxial effects will be analyzed and simulated, including finite pulse duration, finite group velocity, and dispersion(E. Esarey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., submitted.). These effects on the evolution of the forward Raman and self-modulation instabilities, that lead the generation of wakefields, will be examined. Also discussed are methods for self-trapping and injecting electrons into the wakefield. Application to ongoing experiments at LBNL(W.P. Leemans et al., Phys. Plasma 5, 1615 (1998); in preparation.) will be discussed.

  18. The envelope Hamiltonian for electron interaction with ultrashort pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Koudai; Saalmann, Ulf; Rost, Jan M.

    2015-07-01

    For ultrashort VUV pulses with a pulse length comparable to the orbital time of the bound electrons they couple to, we propose a simplified envelope Hamiltonian. It is based on the Kramers-Henneberger representation in connection with a Floquet expansion of the strong-field dynamics but keeps the time dependence of the pulse envelope explicit. Thereby, the envelope Hamiltonian captures the essence of the physics—light-induced shifts of bound states, single-photon absorption, and non-adiabatic electronic transitions. It delivers quantitatively accurate ionization dynamics and allows for a physical insight into the processes occurring. Its minimal requirements for construction in terms of laser parameters make it ideally suited for a large class of atomic and molecular problems.

  19. Ultrashort laser pulse driven inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, J. T.; Anderson, S. G.; Anderson, G.; Betts, S.; Fisher, S.; Tremaine, A.; Musumeci, P.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we discuss the ultrashort pulse high gradient inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which demonstrated gradients exceeding 200 MV /m using a 4 TW 100 fs long 800 nm Ti :Sa laser pulse. Due to the short laser and electron pulse lengths, synchronization was determined to be one of the main challenges in this experiment. This made necessary the implementation of a single-shot, nondestructive, electro-optic sampling based diagnostics to enable time-stamping of each laser accelerator shot with <100 fs accuracy. The results of this experiment are expected to pave the way towards the development of future GeV-class IFEL accelerators.

  20. Electron spin-lattice relaxation in radicals containing two methyl groups, generated by /γ-irradiation of polycrystalline solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbridge, James R.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2002-12-01

    The effects of methyl rotation on electron spin-lattice relaxation times were examined by pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance for the major radicals in γ-irradiated polycrystalline α-amino isobutyric acid, dimethyl-malonic acid, and L-valine. The dominant radical is the same in irradiated dimethyl-malonic acid and α-amino isobutyric acid. Continuous wave saturation recovery was measured between 10 and 295 K at S-band and X-band. Inversion recovery, echo-detected saturation recovery, and pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) data were obtained between 77 and 295 K. For the radicals in the three solids, recovery time constants measured by the various techniques were not the same, because spectral diffusion processes contribute differently for each measurement. Hyperfine splitting due to the protons of two methyl groups is resolved in the EPR spectra for each of the samples. Pulsed ELDOR data were obtained to characterize the spectral diffusion processes that transfer magnetization between hyperfine lines. Time constants were obtained for electron spin-lattice relaxation ( T1e), nuclear spin relaxation ( T1n), cross-relaxation ( Tx1), and spin diffusion ( Ts). Between 77 and 295 K rapid cross-relaxation (Δ Ms=±1, Δ MI=∓1) was observed for each sample, which is attributed to methyl rotation at a rate that is approximately equal to the electron Larmor frequency. The large temperature range over which cross-relaxation was observed suggests that methyl groups in the radical and in the lattice, with different activation energies for rotation, contribute to the rapid cross-relaxation. Activation energies for methyl and amino group rotation between 160 and 1900 K (1.3-16 kJ/mol) were obtained by analysis of the temperature dependence of 1/ T1e at S-band and X-band in the temperature intervals where the dynamic process dominates T1e.

  1. First-principles electron dynamics control simulation of diamond under femtosecond laser pulse train irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cong; Jiang, Lan; Wang, Feng; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yanping; Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Lu, Yongfeng

    2012-07-11

    A real-time and real-space time-dependent density functional is applied to simulate the nonlinear electron-photon interactions during shaped femtosecond laser pulse train ablation of diamond. Effects of the key pulse train parameters such as the pulse separation, spatial/temporal pulse energy distribution and pulse number per train on the electron excitation and energy absorption are discussed. The calculations show that photon-electron interactions and transient localized electron dynamics can be controlled including photon absorption, electron excitation, electron density, and free electron distribution by the ultrafast laser pulse train.

  2. Electron rescattering at metal nanotips induced by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, G.; Lemell, C.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2014-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the interaction of moderate intensity near-infrared few cycle laser pulses with nano-scale metal tips. Local field enhancement in a nanometric region around the tip apex triggers coherent electron emission on the nanometer length and femtosecond time scale. The quantum dynamics at the surface are simulated with time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and interpreted based on the simple man's model. We investigate the dependence of the emitted electron spectra on the laser wavelength.

  3. Directly probing spin dynamics in insulating antiferromagnets using ultrashort terahertz pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee; Trugman, Stuart Alan; Wang, X.; ...

    2016-11-22

    We investigate spin dynamics in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) multiferroic TbMnO3 using opticalpump, terahertz (THz)-probe spectroscopy. Photoexcitation results in a broadband THz transmission change, with an onset time of 25 ps at 6 K that becomes faster at higher temperatures. We attribute this time constant to spin-lattice thermalization. The excellent agreement between our measurements and previous ultrafast resonant x-ray diffraction measurements on the same material confirms that our THz pulse directly probes spin order. We suggest that this could be the case in general for insulating AFM materials, if the origin of the static absorption in the THz spectral range ismore » magnetic.« less

  4. Millisecond coherence time in a tunable molecular electronic spin qubit [An unprecedented coherence time in a tunable molecular V(IV) electronic spin qubit

    DOE PAGES

    Zadrozny, Joseph M.; Niklas, Jens; Poluektov, Oleg G.; ...

    2015-12-02

    Here, quantum information processing (QIP) could revolutionize areas ranging from chemical modeling to cryptography. One key figure of merit for the smallest unit for QIP, the qubit, is the coherence time (T2), which establishes the lifetime for the qubit. Transition metal complexes offer tremendous potential as tunable qubits, yet their development is hampered by the absence of synthetic design principles to achieve a long T2. We harnessed molecular design to create a series of qubits, (Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] (1), (Ph4P)2[V(β-C3S5)3] (2), (Ph4P)2[V(α-C3S5)3] (3), and (Ph4P)2[V(C3S4O)3] (4), with T2s of 1–4 μs at 80 K in protiated and deuterated environments. Crucially, through chemicalmore » tuning of nuclear spin content in the vanadium(IV) environment we realized a T2 of ~1 ms for the species (d20-Ph4P)2[V(C8S8)3] in CS2, a value that surpasses the coordination complex record by an order of magnitude. This value even eclipses some prominent solid-state qubits. Electrochemical and continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data reveal variation in the electronic influence of the ligands on the metal ion across 1–4. However, pulsed measurements indicate that the most important influence on decoherence is nuclear spins in the protiated and deuterated solvents utilized herein. Our results illuminate a path forward in synthetic design principles, which should unite CS2 solubility with nuclear spin free ligand fields to develop a new generation of molecular qubits.« less

  5. Possibility of introducing spin into attoscience with spin-polarized electrons produced by a bichromatic circularly polarized laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milošević, D. B.

    2016-05-01

    We show that the electrons, produced in strong-bicircular-field-induced above-threshold ionization of inert-gas atoms, have a large spin asymmetry if the ions exhibit fine-structure splitting. For a bicircular field, which consists of two coplanar counterrotating circularly polarized fields of frequencies ω and 2 ω , the spin-asymmetry parameter changes rapidly with the electron energy. Since the electron-parent-ion rescattering in a counterrotating bicircular field is characterized on the attosecond time scale, this spin asymmetry may introduce the spin degree of freedom into attoscience. We show that the high-energy backward and low-energy forward scattered electrons, which are produced on the scale of a fraction of the laser cycle, exhibit spin asymmetry.

  6. Evidence of Spin-Injection-Induced Cooper Pair Breaking in Perovskite Ferromagnet-Insulator-Superconductor Heterostructures via Pulsed Current Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, N. C.; Samoilov, A. V.; Veasquez, R. P.; Li, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of spin-polarized currents on the critical current densities of cuprate superconductors is investigated in perovskite ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor heterostructures with a pulsed current technique.

  7. Evidence of Spin-Injection-Induced Cooper Pair Breaking in Perovskite Ferromagnet-Insulator-Superconductor Heterostructures via Pulsed Current Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, N. C.; Samoilov, A. V.; Veasquez, R. P.; Li, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of spin-polarized currents on the critical current densities of cuprate superconductors is investigated in perovskite ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor heterostructures with a pulsed current technique.

  8. Growth and Electronic Structure of Heusler Compounds for Use in Electron Spin Based Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Sahil Jaykumar

    Spintronic devices, where information is carried by the quantum spin state of the electron instead of purely its charge, have gained considerable interest for their use in future computing technologies. For optimal performance, a pure spin current, where all electrons have aligned spins, must be generated and transmitted across many interfaces and through many types of materials. While conventional spin sources have historically been elemental ferromagnets, like Fe or Co, these materials pro duce only partially spin polarized currents. To increase the spin polarization of the current, materials like half-metallic ferromagnets, where there is a gap in the minority spin density of states around the Fermi level, or topological insulators, where the current transport is dominated by spin-locked surface states, show promise. A class of materials called Heusler compounds, with electronic structures that range from normal metals, to half metallic ferromagnets, semiconductors, superconductors and even topological insulators, interfaces well with existing device technologies, and through the use of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) high quality heterostructures and films can be grown. This dissertation examines the electronic structure of surfaces and interfaces of both topological insulator (PtLuSb-- and PtLuBi--) and half-metallic ferromagnet (Co2MnSi-- and Co2FeSi--) III-V semiconductor heterostructures. PtLuSb and PtLuBi growth by MBE was demonstrated on Alx In1--xSb (001) ternaries. PtLuSb (001) surfaces were observed to reconstruct with either (1x3) or c(2x2) unit cells depending on Sb overpressure and substrate temperature. viii The electronic structure of these films was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and photoemission spectroscopy. STS measurements as well as angle resolved photoemission spectropscopy (ARPES) suggest that PtLuSb has a zero-gap or semimetallic band structure. Additionally, the observation of linearly dispersing surface

  9. Compact femtosecond electron diffractometer with 100 keV electron bunches approaching the single-electron pulse duration limit

    SciTech Connect

    Waldecker, Lutz Bertoni, Roman; Ernstorfer, Ralph

    2015-01-28

    We present the design and implementation of a highly compact femtosecond electron diffractometer working at electron energies up to 100 keV. We use a multi-body particle tracing code to simulate electron bunch propagation through the setup and to calculate pulse durations at the sample position. Our simulations show that electron bunches containing few thousands of electrons per bunch are only weakly broadened by space-charge effects and their pulse duration is thus close to the one of a single-electron wavepacket. With our compact setup, we can create electron bunches containing up to 5000 electrons with a pulse duration below 100 fs on the sample. We use the diffractometer to track the energy transfer from photoexcited electrons to the lattice in a thin film of titanium. This process takes place on the timescale of few-hundred femtoseconds and a fully equilibrated state is reached within 1 ps.

  10. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Spin Relaxation of Electrons in Single InAs Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shan-Shan; Dou, Xiu-Ming; Chang, Xiu-Ying; Sun, Bao-Quan; Xiong, Yong-Hua; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Ni, Hai-Qiao

    2009-11-01

    By using polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectra, we study the electron spin relaxation in single InAs quantum dots (QDs) with the configuration of positively charged excitons X+ (one electron, two holes). The spin relaxation rate of the hot electrons increases with the increasing energy of exciting photons. For electrons localized in QDs the spin relaxation is induced by hyperfine interaction with the nuclei. A rapid decrease of polarization degree with increasing temperature suggests that the spin relaxation mechanisms are mainly changed from the hyperfine interaction with nuclei into an electron-hole exchange interaction.

  11. Rashba Spin Orbit Interaction and Birefringent Electron Optics in Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Mahmoud; Ulloa, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    Analogies between geometrical optics and electron trajectories have resulted in a number of interesting proposals for device applications, where material interfaces play a similar role to that of transparent interfaces in physical optics. Optical birefringence in materials arising from crystal anisotropies are manifested as different group velocities for different polarizations of light. By making use of analytical solutions of the Dirac equation, and extending the partial wave component method of scattering to include spin dependent observables, we show that an equivalent phenomenon to optical birefringence in electron optics is feasible in two dimensional graphene. The electronic birefringence arises from the intrinsic graphene structure and requires the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction. The different group velocities depend on the chirality of the electronic states, mimicking the light polarization dependence of the group velocities in optical birefringent materials. In circular regions containing large Rashba interaction and reversed charge density (Veselago lenses), we predict the formation of sets of double caustics and cusps, where the spacing between the two different chiral cusps is proportional to the strength of the Rashba interaction in the system. Supported by NSF MWN/CIAM and NSF PIRE.

  12. Broadband geodesic pulses for three spin systems: time-optimal realization of effective trilinear coupling terms and indirect SWAP gates.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Timo O; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2003-11-01

    Broadband implementations of time-optimal geodesic pulse elements are introduced for the efficient creation of effective trilinear coupling terms for spin systems consisting of three weakly coupled spins 1/2. Based on these pulse elements, the time-optimal implementation of indirect SWAP operations is demonstrated experimentally. The duration of indirect SWAP gates based on broadband geodesic sequence is reduced by 42.3% compared to conventional approaches.

  13. Fatty Acid Desaturase Mutants of Yeast: Growth Requirements and Electron Spin Resonance Spin-Label Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Wisnieski, Bernadine J.; Kiyomoto, Richard K.

    1972-01-01

    Two respiratory-sufficient and one respiratory-deficient (nuclear petite) strains of yeast Δ9-desaturase mutants were analyzed to determine which fatty acids would serve as replacements for the naturally occurring fatty acids, 16:1 Δ9cis and 18:1 Δ9cis. The requirement can be satisfied by several fatty acids differing in double-bond position, steric configuration, chain length, and degree of unsaturation. The features common to growth-supporting fatty acids are presented and the effects of varying the carbon source and temperature are considered. In addition, we illustrate several pitfalls encountered in membrane studies which exploit lipid-requiring organisms. Since the membrane fatty acid composition of these mutants can be modified readily, electron spin resonance spectroscopy is used to compare membranes of mutant strains enriched for different fatty acids. The lipid distribution pattern of the most commonly employed electron spin resonance spin-label, 12-nitroxide stearate, was ascertained and compared to that of 18:1 Δ9cis. PMID:4333377

  14. Spin noise of localized electrons: Interplay of hopping and hyperfine interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, M. M.

    2015-05-01

    The theory of spin fluctuations is developed for an ensemble of localized electrons, taking into account both the hyperfine interaction of electron and nuclear spins and electron hopping between the sites. The analytical expression for the spin noise spectrum is derived for an arbitrary relation between the electron spin precession frequency in a field of nuclear fluctuations and the hopping rate. An increase in the hopping rate results in a drastic change in the spin noise spectrum. The effect of an external magnetic field is briefly addressed.

  15. Pulse Duration of Seeded Free-Electron Lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Finetti, Paola; Hoppner, Hauke; Allaria, Enrico; ...

    2017-06-16

    The pulse duration, and, more generally, the temporal intensity profile of free-electron laser (FEL) pulses, is of utmost importance for exploring the new perspectives offered by FELs; it is a nontrivial experimental parameter that needs to be characterized. We measured the pulse shape of an extreme ultraviolet externally seeded FEL operating in high-gain harmonic generation mode. Two different methods based on the cross-correlation of the FEL pulses with an external optical laser were used. The two methods, one capable of single-shot performance, may both be implemented as online diagnostics in FEL facilities. The measurements were carried out at the seededmore » FEL facility FERMI. The FEL temporal pulse characteristics were measured and studied in a range of FEL wavelengths and machine settings, and they were compared to the predictions of a theoretical model. Finally, the measurements allowed a direct observation of the pulse lengthening and splitting at saturation, in agreement with the proposed theory.« less

  16. Nuclear Spin Locking and Extended Two-Electron Spin Decoherence Time in an InAs Quantum Dot Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Colin; Ross, Aaron; Steel, Duncan; Sham, L. J.; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The spin eigenstates for two electrons confined in a self-assembled InAs quantum dot molecule (QDM) consist of the spin singlet state, S, with J = 0 and the triplet states T-, T0 and T+, with J = 1. When a transverse magnetic field (Voigt geometry) is applied, the two-electron system can be initialized to the different states with appropriate laser excitation. Under the excitation of a weak probe laser, non-Lorentzian lineshapes are obtained when the system is initialized to either T- or T+, where T- results in a ``resonance locking'' lineshape while T+ gives a ``resonance avoiding '' lineshape: two different manifestations of hysteresis showing the importance of memory in the system. These observations signify dynamic nuclear spin polarization (DNSP) arising from a feedback mechanism involving hyperfine interaction between lattice nuclei and delocalized electron spins, and Overhauser shift due to nuclear spin polarization. Using pump configurations that generate coherent population trapping, the isolation of the electron spin from the optical excitation shows the stabilization of the nuclear spin ensemble. The dark-state lineshape measures the lengthened electron spin decoherence time, from 1 ns to 1 μs. Our detailed spectra highlight the potential of QDM for realizing a two-qubit gate. This work is supported by NSF, ARO, AFOSR, DARPA, and ONR.

  17. Electron density and electron temperature measurements in nanosecond pulse discharges over liquid water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeni Simeni, M.; Roettgen, A.; Petrishchev, V.; Frederickson, K.; Adamovich, I. V.

    2016-12-01

    Time-resolved electron density, electron temperature, and gas temperature in nanosecond pulse discharges in helium and O2-He mixtures near liquid water surface are measured using Thomson/pure rotational Raman scattering, in two different geometries, (a) ‘diffuse filament’ discharge between a spherical high-voltage electrode and a grounded pin electrode placed in a reservoir filled with distilled water, with the tip exposed, and (b) dielectric barrier discharge between the high-voltage electrode and the liquid water surface. A diffuse plasma filament generated between the electrodes in helium during the primary discharge pulse exhibits noticeable constriction during the secondary discharge pulse several hundred ns later. Adding oxygen to the mixture reduces the plasma filament diameter and enhances constriction during the secondary pulse. In the dielectric barrier discharge, diffuse volumetric plasma occupies nearly the entire space between the high voltage electrode and the liquid surface, and extends radially along the surface. In the filament discharge in helium, adding water to the container results in considerable reduction of plasma lifetime compared to the discharge in dry helium, by about an order of magnitude, indicating rapid electron recombination with water cluster ions. Peak electron density during the pulse is also reduced, by about a factor of two, likely due to dissociative attachment to water vapor during the discharge pulse. These trends become more pronounced as oxygen is added to the mixture, which increases net rate of dissociative attachment. Gas temperature during the primary discharge pulse remains near room temperature, after which it increases up to T ~ 500 K over 5 µs and decays back to near room temperature before the next discharge pulse several tens of ms later. As expected, electron density and electron temperature in diffuse DBD plasmas are considerably lower compared to peak values in the filament discharge. Use of Thomson

  18. Superradiance of short electron pulses in regular and corrugated waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N.S.; Konoplev, I.V.; Sergeev, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    The report is devoted to theoretical and experimental study of superradiance of short electron pulses moving through waveguide systems. It is suggested that electrons oscillate or in undulator field (undulator SR) or in homogeneous magnetic field (cyclotron SR). We studied specific regimes of SR which may occur due to peculiarities of waveguide dispersion. Among them there are regimes of radiation near cut-off frequency as well as regimes of group synchronism. At the last operating regimes an electron bunch longitudinal velocity coincide with group velocity of e.m. wave. It is found the increasing of the SR instability grows rate and energy extraction efficiency in such regimes. It is also possible to observe the same enhancement using external feedback in periodically corrugated waveguide when Bragg resonance condition with forward propagated e.m. wave is fulfill. For experimental observation of cyclotron SR we intend to use compact subnanosecond accelerator RADAN 303B on the base of the high voltage generator with special subnansecond transformer. Accelerator generates short 0.3ns electron pulses with current about 1kA and particles energy 200keV. Design of magnetic confound system provide possibility to install an active locker to impose to electrons cyclotron rotation with pitch-factor about 1-1.5. According to numerical simulation at the mm and submm wavebands it is possible to achieve radiation pick power about 5-10MW with pulse duration less than 1ns.

  19. Ab initio calculations of correlated electron dynamics in ultrashort pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    The availability of ultrashort and intense light pulses on the femtosecond and attosecond timescale promises to allow to directly probe and control electron dynamics on their natural timescale. A crucial ingredient to understanding the dynamics in many-electron systems is the influence of electron correlation, induced by the interelectronic repulsion. In order to study electron correlation in ultrafast processes, we have implemented an ab initio simulation of the two-electron dynamics in helium atoms. We solve the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation in its full dimensionality, with one temporal and five spatial degrees of freedom in linearly polarized laser fields. In our computational approach, the wave function is represented through a combination of time-dependent close coupling with the finite element discrete variable representation, while time propagation is performed using an Arnoldi-Lanczos approximation with adaptive step size. This approach is optimized to allow for efficient parallelization of the program and has been shown to scale linearly using up to 1800 processor cores for typical problem sizes. This has allowed us to perform highly accurate and well- converged computations for the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with He. I will present some recent results on using attosecond and femtosecond pulses to probe and control the temporal structure of the ionization process. This work was performed in collaboration with Stefan Nagele, Renate Pazourek, Andreas Kaltenb"ack, Emil Persson, Barry I. Schneider, Lee A. Collins, and Joachim Burgd"orfer.

  20. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  1. Pulsed lasers on plasmas produced by electron beams and discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Tarasenko, Viktor F; Yakovlenko, Sergei I

    2003-02-28

    The use of electron beams for pumping dense gases made it possible to obtain lasing on atomic and molecular transitions in different spectral ranges and to develop high-power pulsed lasers. N.G. Basov and coworkers made a substantial contribution to the formation and advancement of this field. A brief review of the research on efficient elevated-pressure active media and high-power pulsed lasers utilising plasmas produced both by an electron beam and an electron-beam-controlled discharge is presented. These are excimer and exciplex lasers, lasers utilising atomic transitions in xenon and neon, an Ar -N{sub 2} mixture laser, a molecular nitrogen ion laser, and a high-pressure CO{sub 2} laser. Data obtained in the investigation of the radiation of rare-gas halide complexes are given. (special issue devoted to the 80th anniversary of academician n g basov's birth)

  2. Probing spin-orbit-interaction-induced electron dynamics in the carbon atom by multiphoton ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, H. F.; van der Hart, H. W.

    2014-09-01

    We use R-matrix theory with time dependence (RMT) to investigate multiphoton ionization of ground-state atomic carbon with initial orbital magnetic quantum number ML=0 and ML=1 at a laser wavelength of 390 nm and peak intensity of 1014W/cm2. Significant differences in ionization yield and ejected-electron momentum distribution are observed between the two values for ML. We use our theoretical results to model how the spin-orbit interaction affects electron emission along the laser polarization axis. Under the assumption that an initial C atom is prepared at zero time delay with ML=0, the dynamics with respect to time delay of an ionizing probe pulse modeled by using RMT theory is found to be in good agreement with available experimental data.

  3. Phase relaxed localized excitation pulses for inner volume fast spin echo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hajnal, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To design multidimensional spatially selective radiofrequency (RF) pulses for inner volume imaging (IVI) with three‐dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE) sequences. Enhanced background suppression is achieved by exploiting particular signal properties of FSE sequences. Theory and Methods The CPMG condition dictates that echo amplitudes will rapidly decrease if a 90° phase difference between excitation and refocusing pulses is not present, and refocusing flip angles are not precisely 180°. This mechanism is proposed as a means for generating additional background suppression for spatially selective excitation, by biasing residual excitation errors toward violating the CPMG condition. 3D RF pulses were designed using this method with a 3D spherical spiral trajectory, under‐sampled by factor 5.6 for an eight‐channel PTx system, at 3 Tesla. Results 3D‐FSE IVI with pulse durations of approximately 12 ms was demonstrated in phantoms and for T2‐weighted brain imaging in vivo. Good image quality was obtained, with mean background suppression factors of 103 and 82 ± 6 in phantoms and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Inner Volume Imaging with 3D‐FSE has been demonstrated in vivo with tailored 3D‐RF pulses. The proposed design methods are also applicable to 2D pulses. Magn Reson Med 76:848–861, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine PMID:26451691

  4. Ozone Production by Irradiation of Intense, Pulsed Relativistic Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, Go; Morishima, Nobuyuki; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    Characteristics of ozone production have been investigated by irradiation of intense, pulsed relativistic electron beam (IREB). The 1.8-m-long gas-treatment chamber is filled up with dry-N2-balanced O2 gas mixture with the pressure of 98 kPa and is irradiated by IREB. The kinetic energy, current and pulse width of the IREB are - 2 MeV, - 2.9 kA, and - 80 ns (FWHM), respectively. It is found that - 340 ppm of ozone is produced by firing 10 shots of the IREB. We have also obtained the production yield of ozone of 9 - 21 g/kWh.

  5. Measuring multimegavolt pulsed voltages using Compton-generated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Pereira, N. R.; Hinshelwood, D. D.; Stephanakis, S. J.; Young, F. C.

    2004-01-01

    The "Compton-Hall" voltmeter is a radiation-based voltage diagnostic that has been developed to measure voltages on high-power (TW) pulsed generators. The instrument collimates photons generated from bremsstrahlung produced in the diode onto an aluminum target to generate Compton-generated electrons. Permanent magnets bend the Compton electron orbits that escape the target toward a silicon pin diode detector. A GaAs photoconductive detector (PCD) detects photons that pass through the Compton target. The diode voltage is determined from the ratio of the electron dose in the pin detector to the x-ray dose in the PCD. The Integrated Tiger Series of electron-photon transport codes is used to determine the relationship between the measured dose ratio and the diode voltage. Variations in the electron beam's angle of incidence on the bremsstrahlung target produce changes in the shape of the photon spectrum that lead to large variations in the voltage inferred from the voltmeter. The voltage uncertainty is minimized when the voltmeter is fielded at an angle of 45° with respect to the bremsstrahlung target. In this position, the photon spectra for different angles of incidence all converge onto a single spectrum reducing the uncertainty in the voltage to less than 10% for voltages below 4 MV. Higher and lower voltages than the range considered in this article can be measured by adjusting the strength of the applied magnetic field or the position of the electron detector relative to the Compton target. The instrument was fielded on the Gamble II pulsed-power generator configured with a plasma opening switch. Measurements produced a time-dependent voltage with a peak (3.7 MV) that agrees with nuclear activation measurements and a pulse shape that is consistent with the measured radiation pulse shape.

  6. Spin-photo-currents generated by femtosecond laser pulses in a ferrimagnetic GdFeCo/Pt bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, T. J.; Ciccarelli, C.; Tsukamoto, A.; Mikhaylovskiy, R. V.; Rasing, Th.; Kimel, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    Using THz emission spectroscopy, we detect spin-photo-currents from a ferrimagnetic amorphous alloy GdFeCo to an adjacent Pt capping layer. The currents are generated upon excitation of a GdFeCo/Pt heterostructure with femtosecond laser pulses. It is found that the polarization of the spin-polarized current is determined by magnetic sublattice sensitivity rather than the total magnetization, allowing for spin-polarized current generation when the net magnetization is zero.

  7. Injection and acceleration of electron bunch in a plasma wakefield produced by a chirped laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Afhami, Saeedeh; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2014-06-15

    An ultrashort laser pulse propagating in plasma can excite a nonlinear plasma wakefield which can trap and accelerate charged particles up to GeV. One-dimensional analysis of electron injection, trapping, and acceleration by different chirped pulses propagating in plasma is investigated numerically. In this paper, we inject electron bunches in front of the chirped pulses. It is indicated that periodical chirped laser pulse can trap electrons earlier than other pulses. It is shown that periodical chirped laser pulses lead to decrease the minimum momentum necessary to trap the electrons. This is due to the fact that periodical chirped laser pulses are globally much efficient than nonchirped pulses in the wakefield generation. It is found that chirped laser pulses could lead to much larger electron energy than that of nonchirped pulses. Relative energy spread has a lower value in the case of periodical chirped laser pulses.

  8. Spin coherence and 14N ESEEM effects of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond with X-band pulsed ESR

    DOE PAGES

    Rose, B. C.; Weis, C. D.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; ...

    2016-12-20

    Pulsed ESR experiments are reported for ensembles of negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV  - ) in diamonds at X-band magnetic fields (280–400 mT) and low temperatures (2–70 K). The NV  - centers in synthetic type IIa diamonds (nitrogen impurity concentration   < 1 ppm) are prepared with bulk concentrations of 2 • 10 13 cm  -3 to 4• 10 14 cm  -3 by high-energy electron irradiation and subsequent annealing. We find that a proper post-radiation anneal (1000°C for 60 min) is very important to repair the radiation damage and to recover long electron spin coherence times for NV  - s. After themore » annealing, spin coherence times of T 2  = 0.74ms at 5 K are achieved, being only limited by 13 C nuclear spectral diffusion in natural abundance diamonds. By measuring the temperature dependence of T 2 in the under-annealed diamonds (900°C) we directly extract the density (10 14 -16 cm  -3 ) and activation energy (2.5 meV) of unannealed defects responsible for the faster NV  - decoherence. At X-band magnetic fields, strong electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) is observed originating from the central 14 N nucleus, and we extract accurate 14 N nuclear hypefine and quadrupole tensors. In addition, the ESEEM effects from two proximal 13 C sites (second-nearest neighbor and fourth-nearest neighbor) are resolved and the respective 13 C hyperfine coupling constants are extracted.« less

  9. Spin coherence and 14N ESEEM effects of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond with X-band pulsed ESR

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, B. C.; Weis, C. D.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Schenkel, T.; Lyon, S. A.

    2016-12-20

    Pulsed ESR experiments are reported for ensembles of negatively-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV  - ) in diamonds at X-band magnetic fields (280–400 mT) and low temperatures (2–70 K). The NV  - centers in synthetic type IIa diamonds (nitrogen impurity concentration   < 1 ppm) are prepared with bulk concentrations of 2 • 10 13 cm  -3 to 4• 10 14 cm  -3 by high-energy electron irradiation and subsequent annealing. We find that a proper post-radiation anneal (1000°C for 60 min) is very important to repair the radiation damage and to recover long electron spin coherence times for NV  - s. After the annealing, spin coherence times of T 2  = 0.74ms at 5 K are achieved, being only limited by 13 C nuclear spectral diffusion in natural abundance diamonds. By measuring the temperature dependence of T 2 in the under-annealed diamonds (900°C) we directly extract the density (10 14 -16 cm  -3 ) and activation energy (2.5 meV) of unannealed defects responsible for the faster NV  - decoherence. At X-band magnetic fields, strong electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) is observed originating from the central 14 N nucleus, and we extract accurate 14 N nuclear hypefine and quadrupole tensors. In addition, the ESEEM effects from two proximal 13 C sites (second-nearest neighbor and fourth-nearest neighbor) are resolved and the respective 13 C hyperfine coupling constants are extracted.

  10. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Spin-dependent electron transport of a waveguide with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in an electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Xian-Bo; Li, Xiao-Mao; Chen, Yu-Guang

    2009-12-01

    We investigate theoretically the spin-dependent electron transport in a straight waveguide with Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) under the irradiation of a transversely polarized electromagnetic (EM) field. Spin-dependent electron conductance and spin polarization are calculated as functions of the emitting energy of electrons or the strength of the EM field by adopting the mode matching approach. It is shown that the spin polarization can be manipulated by external parameters when the strength of Rashba SOC is strong. Furthermore, a sharp step structure is found to exist in the total electron conductance. These results can be understood by the nontrivial Rashba subbands intermixing and the electron intersubband transition when a finite-range transversely polarized EM field irradiates a straight waveguide.

  11. Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chunming; Yuan, Hongtao; Wang, Xinqiang; Liu, Shitao; Zhang, Shan; Tang, Ning; Xu, Fujun; Chen, Zhuoyu; Shimotani, Hidekazu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Chen, Yonghai; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2013-05-08

    Electrically manipulating electron spins based on Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is a key pathway for applications of spintronics and spin-based quantum computation. Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) offer a particularly important SOC platform, where spin polarization can be tuned with an electric field perpendicular to the 2DES. Here, by measuring the tunable circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), we present a room-temperature electric-field-modulated spin splitting of surface electrons on InN epitaxial thin films that is a good candidate to realize spin injection. The surface band bending and resulting CPGE current are successfully modulated by ionic liquid gating within an electric double-layer transistor configuration. The clear gate voltage dependence of CPGE current indicates that the spin splitting of the surface electron accumulation layer is effectively tuned, providing a way to modulate the injected spin polarization in potential spintronic devices.

  12. Attosecond control of spin polarization in electron-ion recollision driven by intense tailored fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayuso, David; Jiménez-Galán, Alvaro; Morales, Felipe; Ivanov, Misha; Smirnova, Olga

    2017-07-01

    Tunnel ionization of noble gas atoms driven by a strong circularly polarized laser field in combination with a counter-rotating second harmonic generates spin-polarized electrons correlated to the spin-polarized ionic core. Crucially, such two-color field can bring the spin-polarized electrons back to the parent ion, enabling the scattering of the spin-polarized electron on the spin-polarized parent ion. Here we show how one can control the degree of spin polarization as a function of electron energy and recollision time by tuning the laser parameters, such as the relative intensities of the counter-rotating fields. The attosecond precision of the control over the degree of spin polarization opens the door for attosecond control and spectroscopy of spin-resolved dynamics.

  13. Force detected electron spin resonance at 94 GHz.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Paul A S; Smith, Graham M

    2007-01-01

    Force detected electron spin resonance (FDESR) detects the presence of unpaired electrons in a sample by measuring the change in force on a mechanical resonator as the magnetization of the sample is modulated under magnetic resonance conditions. The magnetization is coupled to the resonator via a magnetic field gradient. It has been used to both detect and image distributions of electron spins, and it offers both extremely high absolute sensitivity and high spatial imaging resolution. However, compared to conventional induction mode ESR the technique also has a comparatively poor concentration sensitivity and it introduces complications in interpreting and combining both spectroscopy and imaging. One method to improve both sensitivity and spectral resolution is to operate in high magnetic fields in order to increase the sample magnetization and g-factor resolution. In this article we present FDESR measurements on the organic conductor (fluoranthene)(2)PF(6) at 3.2 T, with a corresponding millimeter-wave frequency of 93.5 GHz, which we believe are the highest field results for FDESR reported in the literature to date. A magnet-on-cantilever approach was used, with a high-anisotropy microwave ferrite as the gradient source and employing cyclic saturation to modulate the magnetization at the cantilever fundamental frequency.

  14. Electron spin resonance in Eu-based iron pnictides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krug von Nidda, H.-A.; Kraus, S.; Schaile, S.; Dengler, E.; Pascher, N.; Hemmida, M.; Eom, M. J.; Kim, J. S.; Jeevan, H. S.; Gegenwart, P.; Deisenhofer, J.; Loidl, A.

    2012-09-01

    The phase diagrams of EuFe2-xCoxAs2 (0≤x≤0.4) and EuFe2As2-yPy (0≤y≤0.43) are investigated by Eu2+ electron spin resonance (ESR) in single crystals. From the temperature dependence of the linewidth ΔH(T) of the exchange narrowed ESR line, the spin-density wave (SDW) (TTSDW) are clearly distinguished. At T>TSDW the isotropic linear increase of the linewidth is driven by the Korringa relaxation which measures the conduction-electron density of states at the Fermi level. For Telectrons is strongly weakened. With increasing substitution of x or y the transition temperature TSDW decreases linearly accompanied by a linear decrease of the Korringa-relaxation rate from 8 Oe/K at x=y=0 down to 3 Oe/K at the onset of superconductivity. For x>0.2 and y>0.3 it remains nearly constant. Comparative ESR measurements on single crystals of the Eu diluted SDW compound Eu0.2Sr0.8Fe2As2 and superconducting (SC) Eu0.22Sr0.78Fe1.72Co0.28As2 corroborate the leading influence of the ligand field on the Eu2+ spin relaxation in the SDW regime as well as the Korringa relaxation in the normal metallic regime. A coherence peak is not detected in the latter compound below Tc=21 K, which is in agreement with the expected complex anisotropic SC gap structure. In contrast, indications for phase coexistence and BCS-type superconductivity are found in EuFe2As1.57P0.43.

  15. Controlling fast-electron-beam divergence using two laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Scott, R H H; Beaucourt, C; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Markey, K; Lancaster, K L; Ridgers, C P; Brenner, C M; Pasley, J; Gray, R J; Musgrave, I O; Robinson, A P L; Li, K; Notley, M M; Davies, J R; Baton, S D; Santos, J J; Feugeas, J-L; Nicolaï, Ph; Malka, G; Tikhonchuk, V T; McKenna, P; Neely, D; Rose, S J; Norreys, P A

    2012-07-06

    This Letter describes the first experimental demonstration of the guiding of a relativistic electron beam in a solid target using two colinear, relativistically intense, picosecond laser pulses. The first pulse creates a magnetic field that guides the higher-current, fast-electron beam generated by the second pulse. The effects of intensity ratio, delay, total energy, and intrinsic prepulse are examined. Thermal and Kα imaging show reduced emission size, increased peak emission, and increased total emission at delays of 4-6 ps, an intensity ratio of 10∶1 (second:first) and a total energy of 186 J. In comparison to a single, high-contrast shot, the inferred fast-electron divergence is reduced by 2.7 times, while the fast-electron current density is increased by a factor of 1.8. The enhancements are reproduced with modeling and are shown to be due to the self-generation of magnetic fields. Such a scheme could be of considerable benefit to fast-ignition inertial fusion.

  16. Anterior capsulotomy with a pulsed-electron avalanche knife

    PubMed Central

    Palanker, Daniel; Nomoto, Hiroyuki; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Chang, David F.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate a new pulsed-electron avalanche knife (PEAK) design for creating a continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) and compare the CCC with a mechanical capsulorhexis. SETTING Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. METHODS In this study, CCCs were created in freshly enucleated bovine eyes and in rabbit eyes in vivo. The cutting velocity was adjusted by controlling the burst repetition rate, voltage amplitude, and burst duration. Tissue samples were fixed and processed for histology and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) immediately after surgery. RESULTS The study included 50 bovine eyes and 10 rabbit eyes. By adjusting the electrosurgical waveforms, gas-bubble formation was minimized to permit good surgical visualization. The optimum voltage level was determined to be ±410 V with a burst duration of 20 μs. Burst repetition rate, continuously adjustable from 20 to 200 Hz with footpedal control, allowed the surgeon to vary linear cutting velocity up to 2.0 mm/second. Histology and SEM showed that the pulsed-electron avalanche knife produced sharp-edged capsule cutting without radial nicks or tears. CONCLUSIONS The pulsed-electron probe duplicated the surgical feel of a 25-gauge cystotome and created a histologically smooth capsule cut. PMID:20117716

  17. Broadband electron spin resonance at low frequency without resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Z.; Suh, B.; Corti, M.; Cattaneo, L.; Hajny, D.; Borsa, F.; Luban, M.

    2008-04-09

    We have developed a nonconventional broadband electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer operating continuously in the frequency range from 0.5 to 9 GHz. Dual antenna structure and the microwave absorbing environment differentiate the setup from the conventional one and enable broadband operation with any combination of frequency or magnetic field modulation and frequency or magnetic field sweeping. Its performance has been tested with the measurements on a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) sample and with the measurements on the single molecular magnet, V6, in solid state at low temperature.

  18. Magnetism of gold nanorods probed using electron spin resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Y.; Yonemura, H.; Sakai, N.; Makihara, Y.; Kawae, T.; Yamada, S.

    2016-08-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been performed for gold nanorods (AuNRs) of four different sizes covered with a diamagnetic stabilizing component, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. ESR signals were detected in AuNRs except the largest one. Two smallest AuNRs showed an abrupt change in the temperature dependence of resonance field and line width at around 60 K, indicating ferromagnetic phase transition. In medium-size AuNRs, the resonance with a large shift was observed below 100 K. The resonance field shifts at the lowest temperature exhibit systematic variation with the system size, which is explained by considering magnetic anisotropy for the ferromagnetic resonance.

  19. Magnetism of gold nanorods probed using electron spin resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Inagaki, Y. Kawae, T.; Yonemura, H.; Yamada, S.; Sakai, N.; Makihara, Y.

    2016-08-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been performed for gold nanorods (AuNRs) of four different sizes covered with a diamagnetic stabilizing component, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. ESR signals were detected in AuNRs except the largest one. Two smallest AuNRs showed an abrupt change in the temperature dependence of resonance field and line width at around 60 K, indicating ferromagnetic phase transition. In medium-size AuNRs, the resonance with a large shift was observed below 100 K. The resonance field shifts at the lowest temperature exhibit systematic variation with the system size, which is explained by considering magnetic anisotropy for the ferromagnetic resonance.

  20. Electronic Quasiparticle Renormalization on the Spin Wave Energy Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, J.; Schrupp, D.; Rotenberg, Eli; Rossnagel, K.; Koh, H.; Blaha, P.; Claessen, R.

    2004-03-01

    High-resolution photoemission data of the (110) iron surface reveal the existence of well-defined metallic surface resonances in good correspondence to band calculations. Close to the Fermi level, their dispersion and momentum broadening display anomalies characteristic of quasiparticle renormalization due to coupling to bosonic excitations. Its energy scale exceeds that of phonons by far, and is in striking coincidence with that of the spin wave spectrum in iron. The self-energy behavior thus gives spectroscopic evidence of a quasiparticle mass enhancement due to electron-magnon coupling.