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Sample records for pulsed detonation tube

  1. Parametric Study of High Frequency Pulse Detonation Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, Anderw D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes development of high frequency pulse detonation tubes similar to a small pulse detonation engine (PDE). A high-speed valve injects a charge of a mixture of fuel and air at rates of up to 1000 Hz into a constant area tube closed at one end. The reactants detonate in the tube and the products exit as a pulsed jet. High frequency pressure transducers are used to monitor the pressure fluctuations in the device and thrust is measured with a balance. The effects of injection frequency, fuel and air flow rates, tube length, and injection location are considered. Both H2 and C2H4 fuels are considered. Optimum (maximum specific thrust) fuel-air compositions and resonant frequencies are identified. Results are compared to PDE calculations. Design rules are postulated and applications to aerodynamic flow control and propulsion are discussed.

  2. Modeling of Multi-Tube Pulse Detonation Engine Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebrahimi, Houshang B.; Mohanraj, Rajendran; Merkle, Charles L.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper explores some preliminary issues concerning the operational characteristics of multiple-tube pulsed detonation engines (PDEs). The study is based on a two-dimensional analysis of the first-pulse operation of two detonation tubes exhausting through a common nozzle. Computations are first performed to assess isolated tube behavior followed by results for multi-tube flow phenomena. The computations are based on an eight-species, finite-rate transient flow-field model. The results serve as an important precursor to understanding appropriate propellant fill procedures and shock wave propagation in multi-tube, multi-dimensional simulations. Differences in behavior between single and multi-tube PDE models are discussed, The influence of multi-tube geometry and the preferred times for injecting the fresh propellant mixture during multi-tube PDE operation are studied.

  3. Schlieren Imaging of a Single-Ejector, Multi-Tube Pulsed Detonation Engine (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    studies have shown the potential of an ejector to almost double the thrust of a pulsed detonation engine ( PDE ) tube [1-3]. Axial misalignment of the... Detonation Research Facility in the Air Force Research Laboratory were used for this study. The PDE utilizes automotive valving to feed up to four... detonation tubes. The damped thrust stand was setup to measure PDE thrust alone for baseline tests or total thrust from ejector and PDE . This

  4. Parametric Investigation of Thrust Augmentation by Ejectors on a Pulsed Detonation Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Sgondea, Alexandru; Paxson, Daniel E.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.

    2005-01-01

    A parametric investigation has been made of thrust augmentation of a 1 inch diameter pulsed detonation tube by ejectors. A set of ejectors was used which permitted variation of the ejector length, diameter, and nose radius, according to a statistical design of experiment scheme. The maximum augmentations for each ejector were fitted using a polynomial response surface, from which the optimum ejector diameters, and nose radius, were found. Thrust augmentations above a factor of 2 were measured. In these tests, the pulsed detonation device was run on approximately stoichiometric air-hydrogen mixtures, at a frequency of 20 Hz. Later measurements at a frequency of 40 Hz gave lower values of thrust augmentation. Measurements of thrust augmentation as a function of ejector entrance to detonation tube exit distance showed two maxima, one with the ejector entrance upstream, and one downstream, of the detonation tube exit. A thrust augmentation of 2.5 was observed using a tapered ejector.

  5. Parametric Investigation of Thrust Augmentation by Ejectors on a Pulsed Detonation Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Sgondea, Alexandru; Paxson, Daniel E.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.

    2006-01-01

    A parametric investigation has been made of thrust augmentation of a 1 in. diameter pulsed detonation tube by ejectors. A set of ejectors was used which permitted variation of the ejector length, diameter, and nose radius, according to a statistical design of experiment scheme. The maximum augmentation ratios for each ejector were fitted using a polynomial response surface, from which the optimum ratios of ejector diameter to detonation tube diameter, and ejector length and nose radius to ejector diameter, were found. Thrust augmentation ratios above a factor of 2 were measured. In these tests, the pulsed detonation device was run on approximately stoichiometric air-hydrogen mixtures, at a frequency of 20 Hz. Later measurements at a frequency of 40 Hz gave lower values of thrust augmentation. Measurements of thrust augmentation as a function of ejector entrance to detonation tube exit distance showed two maxima, one with the ejector entrance upstream, and one downstream, of the detonation tube exit. A thrust augmentation of 2.5 was observed using a tapered ejector.

  6. Pressure and Thrust Measurements of a High-Frequency Pulsed Detonation Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, N.; Cutler, A. D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of a small-scale, high-frequency pulsed detonation tube. The device utilized a mixture of H2 fuel and air, which was injected into the device at frequencies of up to 1200 Hz. Pulsed detonations were demonstrated in an 8-inch long combustion volume, at about 600 Hz, for the quarter wave mode of resonance. The primary objective of this experiment was to measure the generated thrust. A mean value of thrust was measured up to 6.0 lb, corresponding to H2 flow based specific impulse of 2970 s. This value is comparable to measurements in H2-fueled pulsed detonation engines (PDEs). The injection and detonation frequency for this new experimental case was much higher than typical PDEs, where frequencies are usually less than 100 Hz. The compact size of the device and high frequency of detonation yields a thrust-per-unit-volume of approximately 2.0 pounds per cubic inch, and compares favorably with other experiments, which typically have thrust-per-unit-volume of order 0.01 pound per cubic inch. This much higher volumetric efficiency results in a potentially much more practical device than the typical PDE, for a wide range of potential applications, including high-speed boundary layer separation control, for example in hypersonic engine inlets, and propulsion for small aircraft and missiles.

  7. Confined Detonations and Pulse Detonation Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    chemically reacting flow was described by the 2D Euler equations &q OF(q) +G(q) W (1) 75 CONFINED DETONATIONS AND PULSE DETONATION ENGINES where q = (p...DETONATIONS AND PULSE DETONATION ENGINES 5 CONCLUDING REMARKS Numerical investigations of RR and MR in a supersonic chemically reacting flows have...formalism of hetero- geneous medium mechanics supplemented with an overall chemical reaction was 141 CONFINED DETONATIONS AND PULSE DETONATION ENGINES

  8. Detonation Propagation Through Ducts in a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    PDE head. This convention is used based on the fill and purge flow directions, not the detonation direction. Figure 21. Adapter used to rotate ...presented for the development of a continuously operating pulsed detonation engine ( PDE ). A PDE without a high energy ignition system or a... detonation wave. Propagation is left to right in the bottom tube. ..... 19  Figure 15. Research PDE head

  9. Impulse generation by detonation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Marcia Ann

    Impulse generation with gaseous detonation requires conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy. This conversion process is well understood in rocket engines where the high pressure combustion products expand through a nozzle generating high velocity exhaust gases. The propulsion community is now focusing on advanced concepts that utilize non-traditional forms of combustion like detonation. Such a device is called a pulse detonation engine in which laboratory tests have proven that thrust can be achieved through continuous cyclic operation. Because of poor performance of straight detonation tubes compared to conventional propulsion systems and the success of using nozzles on rocket engines, the effect of nozzles on detonation tubes is being investigated. Although previous studies of detonation tube nozzles have suggested substantial benefits, up to now there has been no systematic investigations over a range of operating conditions and nozzle configurations. As a result, no models predicting the impulse when nozzles are used exist. This lack of data has severely limited the development and evaluation of models and simulations of nozzles on pulse detonation engines. The first experimental investigation measuring impulse by gaseous detonation in plain tubes and tubes with nozzles operating in varying environment pressures is presented. Converging, diverging, and converging-diverging nozzles were tested to determine the effect of divergence angle, nozzle length, and volumetric fill fraction on impulse. The largest increases in specific impulse, 72% at an environment pressure of 100 kPa and 43% at an environment pressure of 1.4 kPa, were measured with the largest diverging nozzle tested that had a 12° half angle and was 0.6 m long. Two regimes of nozzle operation that depend on the environment pressure are responsible for these increases and were first observed from these data. To augment this experimental investigation, all data in the literature regarding

  10. Direct Initiation Through Detonation Branching in a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    important features noted ................................. 33  Figure 20. GM Quad 4 engine head used as the PDE research engine with the detonation tube...Deflagration to Detonation Transition EF – Engine Frequency FF – Fill Fraction NPT – National Pipe Thread MPT – Male National Pipe Thread PDE – Pulsed... Detonation Engines ( PDE ) has increased greatly in recent years due in part to the potential for increased thermal efficiency derived from constant

  11. The Experimental Study about the Effect of Operating Conditions on Multi-tube Pulse Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Min; Han, Hyung-Seok; Choi, Jeong-Yeol

    2018-04-01

    This study examines a multi-tube pulse detonation engine (PDE) which has a type of constant volume combustion. We designed and made the multi-tube PDE and then conducted an experiment in various operating frequencies and equivalence ratios. First, experiments with operating frequencies of 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 Hz resulted in an average thrust and specific impulse 23.14 N and 42.34 s. The next experiment resulted in the equivalence ratio varying from 0.81 to 1.38, which resulted in an average thrust and specific impulse 22.36 N and 40.11 s. The average detonation velocity was 8% lower than that calculated according to C-J theory. The incidence ratios of the detonation wave were stable with the exception of the operating frequency of 200 Hz. However, at 200 Hz, the incidence ratio was less than 50%. We assumed that a low fill fraction occurred for this problem. The thrust of the PDE increased with the operating frequency. However, the thrust increase was at a lower rate than in previous studies, because of a lost thrust output result from the slow response time of the load cell amplifier.

  12. Effects of Fuel Distribution on Detonation Tube Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. Douglas; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2003-01-01

    A pulse detonation engine uses a series of high frequency intermittent detonation tubes to generate thrust. The process of filling the detonation tube with fuel and air for each cycle may yield non-uniform mixtures. Uniform mixing is commonly assumed when calculating detonation tube thrust performance. In this study, detonation cycles featuring idealized non-uniform Hz/air mixtures were analyzed using a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code with detailed chemistry. Mixture non-uniformities examined included axial equivalence ratio gradients, transverse equivalence ratio gradients, and partially fueled tubes. Three different average test section equivalence ratios were studied; one stoichiometric, one fuel lean, and one fuel rich. All mixtures were detonable throughout the detonation tube. Various mixtures representing the same average test section equivalence ratio were shown to have specific impulses within 1% of each other, indicating that good fuel/air mixing is not a prerequisite for optimal detonation tube performance under conditions investigated.

  13. The Ignition of Two Phase Detonation by a Branching Detonation Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Cha; Qiu, Hua; Lu, Qinwei

    2017-11-01

    A branching tube is available to deliver sufficient energy to directly initiate a detonation wave. But sustaining the detonation wave through a branching tube is a challenge. In this study, a preliminary exploration about a branching pulsed detonation engine with a gas-liquid mixture was carried out to evaluate filling conditions on detonation initiation. Two detonation tubes were connected by three different schemes, such as Tail-Tail, Tail-Mid, and Tail-Head. Experimental results showed only end-head connected tubes can be ignited by the branching tube, which is quite different from the results using gas fuels or pre-evaporated liquid fuel. Liquid fuel distribution is crucial for successful detonation traveling through the branching tube.

  14. Flowpath Design of a Three-Tube Valve-Less Pulse Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    traditional gas turbine engines since the detonation event produces a lower entropy rise and more available work than a Brayton cycle operating at similar...pressure process ( Brayton cycle), with the result that the combustion process ends at state 3a vice state 3.   6   Figure 3. Pressure – Volume Diagram... Brayton cycle, represented by A1, there is a significantly lower yield when compared to the Humphrey cycle, which envelops area A1+A2. It is

  15. Effects of Fuel Distribution on Detonation Tube Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Hugh Douglas

    2002-01-01

    A pulse detonation engine (PDE) uses a series of high frequency intermittent detonation tubes to generate thrust. The process of filling the detonation tube with fuel and air for each cycle may yield non-uniform mixtures. Lack of mixture uniformity is commonly ignored when calculating detonation tube thrust performance. In this study, detonation cycles featuring idealized non-uniform H2/air mixtures were analyzed using the SPARK two-dimensional Navier-Stokes CFD code with 7-step H2/air reaction mechanism. Mixture non-uniformities examined included axial equivalence ratio gradients, transverse equivalence ratio gradients, and partially fueled tubes. Three different average test section equivalence ratios (phi), stoichiometric (phi = 1.00), fuel lean (phi = 0.90), and fuel rich (phi = 1.10), were studied. All mixtures were detonable throughout the detonation tube. It was found that various mixtures representing the same test section equivalence ratio had specific impulses within 1 percent of each other, indicating that good fuel/air mixing is not a prerequisite for optimal detonation tube performance.

  16. Pulse Detonation Engine Test Bed Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin J.

    2002-01-01

    A detonation is a supersonic combustion wave. A Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) repetitively creates a series of detonation waves to take advantage of rapid burning and high peak pressures to efficiently produce thrust. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Branch has developed a PDE test bed that can reproduce the operating conditions that might be encountered in an actual engine. It allows the rapid and cost-efficient evaluation of the technical issues and technologies associated with these engines. The test bed is modular in design. It consists of various length sections of both 2- and 2.6- in. internal-diameter combustor tubes. These tubes can be bolted together to create a variety of combustor configurations. A series of bosses allow instrumentation to be inserted on the tubes. Dynamic pressure sensors and heat flux gauges have been used to characterize the performance of the test bed. The PDE test bed is designed to utilize an existing calorimeter (for heat load measurement) and windowed (for optical access) combustor sections. It uses hydrogen as the fuel, and oxygen and nitrogen are mixed to simulate air. An electronic controller is used to open the hydrogen and air valves (or a continuous flow of air is used) and to fire the spark at the appropriate times. Scheduled tests on the test bed include an evaluation of the pumping ability of the train of detonation waves for use in an ejector and an evaluation of the pollutants formed in a PDE combustor. Glenn's Combustion Branch uses the National Combustor Code (NCC) to perform numerical analyses of PDE's as well as to evaluate alternative detonative combustion devices. Pulse Detonation Engine testbed.

  17. Experimental Investigation of a Multi-Cycle Single-Tube Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine with a Coaxial Rotary Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Ken; Esumi, Motoki; Ikeguchi, Ken Bryan; Kasahara, Jiro; Matsuo, Akiko; Funaki, Ikkoh

    We developed a novel coaxial rotary valve for a multi-tube PDE. Since this single valve can supply three different gases (fuel, oxidizer and purge gas) into a combustor, the unification of the valve systems for three different gases is possible by using our newly designed valve. A PDRE system can be simple and lightweight by using this valve, and thus its thrust-weight ratio can be increased. We proposed the design of a multi-tube rotary-valved PDRE system by this rotary valve. Moreover, in preparation for a multi-tube rotary-valved PDRE, we carried out the multi-cycle operation experiment by the single-tube rotary-valved PDRE system. The combustion wave velocity was measured to confirm the operation of the PDRE system. Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) was confirmed and DDT distance decreased under the condition of high operation frequency. In addition, a maximum operation frequency was 159 Hz.

  18. Airbreathing Pulse Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents performance results for pulse detonation engines taking into account the effects of dissociation and recombination. The amount of sensible heat recovered through recombination in the PDE chamber and exhaust process was found to be significant. These results have an impact on the specific thrust, impulse and fuel consumption of the PDE.

  19. Airbreathing Pulse Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents performance results for pulse detonation engines (PDE) taking into account the effects of dissociation and recombination. The amount of sensible heat recovered through recombination in the PDE chamber and exhaust process was found to be significant. These results have an impact on the specific thrust, impulse and fuel consumption of the PDE.

  20. Pulse Detonation Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    constant-pressure ( Brayton ) cycle used in gas turbines and ramjets. The advantages of PDE for air- breathing propulsion are simplicity and easy scaling...constant-volume, and detonative combustion cycles will be referred to as Brayton , Humphrey, and PDE cycles. The efficiency of thermodynamic cycles O’ODD...efficiency of Brayton cycle, as 0G HH =′ , i.e., 0==constpχ (3) Constant-volume combustion (point E in Fig. 1) results in temperature K 2647/0E

  1. Pulse detonation engines and components thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangirala, Venkat Eswarlu (Inventor); Rasheed, Adam (Inventor); Vandervort, Christian Lee (Inventor); Dean, Anthony John (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A pulse detonation engine comprises a primary air inlet; a primary air plenum located in fluid communication with the primary air inlet; a secondary air inlet; a secondary air plenum located in fluid communication with the secondary air inlet, wherein the secondary air plenum is substantially isolated from the primary air plenum; a pulse detonation combustor comprising a pulse detonation chamber, wherein the pulse detonation chamber is located downstream of and in fluid communication with the primary air plenum; a coaxial liner surrounding the pulse detonation combustor defining a cooling plenum, wherein the cooling plenum is in fluid communication with the secondary air plenum; an axial turbine assembly located downstream of and in fluid communication with the pulse detonation combustor and the cooling plenum; and a housing encasing the primary air plenum, the secondary air plenum, the pulse detonation combustor, the coaxial liner, and the axial turbine assembly.

  2. Pulse Detonation Rocket Magnetohydrodynamic Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Jones, J. E.; Dobson, C. C.; Cole, J. W.; Thompson, B. R.; Plemmons, D. H.; Turner, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    The production of onboard electrical power by pulse detonation engines is problematic in that they generate no shaft power; however, pulse detonation driven magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation represents one intriguing possibility for attaining self-sustained engine operation and generating large quantities of burst power for onboard electrical systems. To examine this possibility further, a simple heat-sink apparatus was developed for experimentally investigating pulse detonation driven MHD generator concepts. The hydrogen oxygen fired driver was a 90 cm long stainless steel tube having a 4.5 cm square internal cross section and a short Schelkin spiral near the head end to promote rapid formation of a detonation wave. The tube was intermittently filled to atmospheric pressure and seeded with a CsOH/methanol prior to ignition by electrical spark. The driver exhausted through an aluminum nozzle having an area contraction ratio of A*/A(sub zeta) = 1/10 and an area expansion ratio of A(sub zeta)/A* = 3.2 (as limited by available magnet bore size). The nozzle exhausted through a 24-electrode segmented Faraday channel (30.5 cm active length), which was inserted into a 0.6 T permanent magnet assembly. Initial experiments verified proper drive operation with and without the nozzle attachment, and head end pressure and time resolved thrust measurements were acquired. The exhaust jet from the nozzle was interrogated using a polychromatic microwave interferometer yielding an electron number density on the order of 10(exp 12)/cm at the generator entrance. In this case, MHD power generation experiments suffered from severe near-electrode voltage drops and low MHD interaction; i.e., low flow velocity, due to an inherent physical constraint on expansion with the available magnet. Increased scaling, improved seeding techniques, higher magnetic fields, and higher expansion ratios are expected to greatly improve performance.

  3. Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and Magnetohydrodynamic Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for realizing an integrated pulse detonation propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power system are examined. First, energy requirements for direct detonation initiation of various fuel-oxygen and fuel-air mixtures are deduced from available experimental data and theoretical models. Second, the pumping power requirements for effective chamber scavenging are examined through the introduction of a scavenging ratio parameter and a scavenging efficiency parameter. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the basic engineering performance characteristics of a pulse detonation-driven MHD electric power generator. In these experiments, stoichiometric oxy-acetylene mixtures seeded with a cesium hydroxide/methanol spray were detonated at atmospheric pressure in a 1-m-long tube having an i.d. of 2.54 cm. Experiments with a plasma diagnostic channel attached to the end of the tube confirmed the attainment of detonation conditions (p2/p1 approximately 34 and D approximately 2,400 m/sec) and enabled the direct measurement of current density and electrical conductivity (approximately = 6 S/m) behind the detonation wave front, In a second set of experiments, a 30-cm-long continuous electrode Faraday channel, having a height of 2.54 cm and a width of 2 cm, was attached to the end of the tube using an area transition duct. The Faraday channel was inserted in applied magnetic fields of 0.6 and 0.95 T, and the electrodes were connected to an active loading circuit to characterize power extraction dependence on load impedance while also simulating higher effective magnetic induction. The experiments indicated peak power extraction at a load impedance between 5 and 10 Omega. The measured power density was in reasonable agreement with a simple electrodynamic model incorporating a correction for near-electrode potential losses. The time-resolved thrust characteristics of the system were also measured, and it was found that the NM interaction

  4. Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and Magnetohydrodynamic Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, R. J.; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The prospects for realizing an integrated pulse detonation propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power system are examined. First, energy requirements for direct detonation initiation of various fuel-oxygen and fuel-air mixtures are deduced from available experimental data and theoretical models. Second, the pumping power requirements for effective chamber scavenging are examined through the introduction of a scavenging ratio parameter and a scavenging efficiency parameter. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the basic engineering performance characteristics of a pulse detonation-driven MHD electric power generator. In these experiments, stoichiometric oxy-acetylene mixtures seeded with a cesium hydroxide/methanol spray were detonated at atmospheric pressure in a 1-m-long tube having an i.d. of 2.54 cm. Experiments with a plasma diagnostic channel attached to the end of the tube confirmed the attainment of detonation conditions (p(sub 2)/p(sub 1) approx. 34 and D approx. 2,400 m/sec) and enabled the direct measurement of current density and electrical conductivity (=6 S/m) behind the detonation wave front. In a second set of experiments, a 30-cm-long continuous electrode Faraday channel, having a height of 2.54 cm and a width of 2 cm, was attached to the end of the tube using an area transition duct. The Faraday channel was inserted in applied magnetic fields of 0.6 and 0.95 T. and the electrodes were connected to an active loading circuit to characterize power extraction dependence on load impedance while also simulating higher effective magnetic induction. The experiments indicated peak power extraction at a load impedance between 5 and 10 Ohm. The measured power density was in reasonable agreement with a simple electrodynamic model incorporating a correction for near-electrode potential losses. The time-resolved thrust characteristics of the system were also measured, and it was found that the MHD interaction exerted a

  5. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  6. Investigation of Sustained Detonation Devices: the Pulse Detonation Engine-Crossover System and the Rotating Detonation Engine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Robert B.

    An experimental study is conducted on a Pulse Detonation Engine-Crossover System to investigate the feasibility of repeated, shock-initiated combustion and characterize the initiation performance. A PDE-crossover system can decrease deflagration-to-detonation transition length while employing a single spark source to initiate a multi-PDE system. Visualization of a transferred shock wave propagating through a clear channel reveals a complex shock train behind the leading shock. Shock wave Mach number and decay rate remains constant for varying crossover tube geometries and operational frequencies. A temperature gradient forms within the crossover tube due to forward flow of high temperature ionized gas into the crossover tube from the driver PDE and backward flow of ionized gas into the crossover tube from the driven PDE, which can cause intermittent auto-ignition of the driver PDE. Initiation performance in the driven PDE is strongly dependent on initial driven PDE skin temperature in the shock wave reflection region. An array of detonation tubes connected with crossover tubes is developed using optimized parameters and successful operation utilizing shock-initiated combustion through shock wave reflection is achieved and sustained. Finally, an air-breathing, PDE-Crossover System is developed to characterize the feasibility of shock-initiated combustion within an air-breathing pulse detonation engine. The initiation effectiveness of shock-initiated combustion is compared to spark discharge and detonation injection through a pre-detonator. In all cases, shock-initiated combustion produces improved initiation performance over spark discharge and comparable detonation transition run-up lengths relative to pre-detonator initiation. A computational study characterizes the mixing processes and injection flow field within a rotating detonation engine. Injection parameters including reactant flow rate, reactant injection area, placement of the fuel injection, and fuel

  7. Thrust Augmentation Measurements Using a Pulse Detonation Engine Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2005-01-01

    Results of an experimental effort on pulse detonation driven ejectors are presented and discussed. The experiments were conducted using a pulse detonation engine (PDE)/ejector setup that was specifically designed for the study and operated at frequencies up to 50 Hz. The results of various experiments designed to probe different aspects of the PDE/ejector setup are reported. The baseline PDE was operated using ethylene (C2H4) as the fuel and an oxygen/nitrogen O2 + N2) mixture at an equivalence ratio of one. The PDE only experiments included propellant mixture characterization using a laser absorption technique, high fidelity thrust measurements using an integrated spring-damper system, and shadowgraph imaging of the detonation/shock wave structure emanating from the tube. The baseline PDE thrust measurement results at each desired frequency agree with experimental and modeling results reported in the literature. These PDE setup results were then used as a basis for quantifying thrust augmentation for various PDE/ejector setups with constant diameter ejector tubes and various ejector lengths, the radius of curvature for the ejector inlets and various detonation tube/ejector tube overlap distances. For the studied experimental matrix, the results showed a maximum thrust augmentation of 106% at an operational frequency of 30 Hz. The thrust augmentation results are complemented by shadowgraph imaging of the flowfield in the ejector tube inlet area and high frequency pressure transducer measurements along the length of the ejector tube.

  8. Experimental Study of a Pulse Detonation Engine Driven Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh; Shehadeh, R.; Saretto, S.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Results of an experimental effort on pulse detonation driven ejectors are presented and discussed. The experiments were conducted using a pulse detonation engine (PDE)/ejector setup that was specifically designed for the study. The results of various experiments designed to probe different aspects of the PDE/ejector setup are reported. The baseline PDE was operated using ethylene (C2H4) as the fuel and an oxygen/nitrogen (O2 + N2) mixture at an equivalence ratio of one. The PDE only experiments included propellant mixture characterization using a laser absorption technique, high fidelity thrust measurements using an integrated spring-damper system, and shadowgraph imaging of the detonation/shock wave structure emanating from the tube. The baseline PDE thrust measurement results are in excellent agreement with experimental and modeling results reported in the literature. These PDE setup results were then used as a basis for quantifying thrust augmentation for various PDE/ejector setups with constant diameter ejector tubes and various detonation tube/ejector tube overlap distances. The results show that for the geometries studied here, a maximum thrust augmentation of 24% is achieved. Further increases are possible by tailoring the ejector geometry based on CFD predictions conducted elsewhere. The thrust augmentation results are complemented by shadowgraph imaging of the flowfield in the ejector tube inlet area and high frequency pressure transducer measurements along the length of the ejector tube.

  9. Flowfield characterization and model development in detonation tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Zachary Clark

    A series of experiments and numerical simulations are performed to advance the understanding of flowfield phenomena and impulse generation in detonation tubes. Experiments employing laser-based velocimetry, high-speed schlieren imaging and pressure measurements are used to construct a dataset against which numerical models can be validated. The numerical modeling culminates in the development of a two-dimensional, multi-species, finite-rate-chemistry, parallel, Navier-Stokes solver. The resulting model is specifically designed to assess unsteady, compressible, reacting flowfields, and its utility for studying multidimensional detonation structure is demonstrated. A reduced, quasi-one-dimensional model with source terms accounting for wall losses is also developed for rapid parametric assessment. Using these experimental and numerical tools, two primary objectives are pursued. The first objective is to gain an understanding of how nozzles affect unsteady, detonation flowfields and how they can be designed to maximize impulse in a detonation based propulsion system called a pulse detonation engine. It is shown that unlike conventional, steady-flow propulsion systems where converging-diverging nozzles generate optimal performance, unsteady detonation tube performance during a single-cycle is maximized using purely diverging nozzles. The second objective is to identify the primary underlying mechanisms that cause velocity and pressure measurements to deviate from idealized theory. An investigation of the influence of non-ideal losses including wall heat transfer, friction and condensation leads to the development of improved models that reconcile long-standing discrepancies between predicted and measured detonation tube performance. It is demonstrated for the first time that wall condensation of water vapor in the combustion products can cause significant deviations from ideal theory.

  10. Thrust Measurements for a Pulse Detonation Engine Driven Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pak, Sibtosh; Shehadeh, R.; Saretto, S. R.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Results of an experimental effort on pulse detonation driven ejectors aimed at probing different aspects of PDE ejector processes, are presented and discussed. The PDE was operated using ethylene as the fuel and an equimolar oxygen/nitrogen mixture as the oxidizer at an equivalence ratio of one. The thrust measurements for the PDE alone are in excellent agreement with experimental and modeling results reported in the literature and serve as a Baseline for the ejector studies. These thrust measurements were then used as a basis for quantifying thrust augmentation for various PDE/ejector setups using constant diameter ejector tubes and various detonation tube/ejector tube overlap distances. The results show that for the geometries studied here, a maximum thrust augmentation of 24% is achieved. The thrust augmentation results are complemented by shadowgraph imaging of the flowfield in the ejector tube inlet area and high frequency pressure transducer measurements along the length of the ejector tube.

  11. Pulse Detonation Rocket MHD Power Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A pulse detonation research engine (MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) Model PDRE (Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine) G-2) has been developed for the purpose of examining integrated propulsion and magnetohydrodynamic power generation applications. The engine is based on a rectangular cross-section tube coupled to a converging-diverging nozzle, which is in turn attached to a segmented Faraday channel. As part of the shakedown testing activity, the pressure wave was interrogated along the length of the engine while running on hydrogen/oxygen propellants. Rapid transition to detonation wave propagation was insured through the use of a short Schelkin spiral near the head of the engine. The measured detonation wave velocities were in excess of 2500 m/s in agreement with the theoretical C-J velocity. The engine was first tested in a straight tube configuration without a nozzle, and the time resolved thrust was measured simultaneously with the head-end pressure. Similar measurements were made with the converging-diverging nozzle attached. The time correlation of the thrust and head-end pressure data was found to be excellent. The major purpose of the converging-diverging nozzle was to configure the engine for driving an MHD generator for the direct production of electrical power. Additional tests were therefore necessary in which seed (cesium-hydroxide dissolved in methanol) was directly injected into the engine as a spray. The exhaust plume was then interrogated with a microwave interferometer in an attempt to characterize the plasma conditions, and emission spectroscopy measurements were also acquired. Data reduction efforts indicate that the plasma exhaust is very highly ionized, although there is some uncertainty at this time as to the relative abundance of negative OH ions. The emission spectroscopy data provided some indication of the species in the exhaust as well as a measurement of temperature. A 24-electrode-pair segmented Faraday channel and 0.6 Tesla permanent

  12. Initiation Mechanisms of Low-loss Swept-ramp Obstacles for Deflagration to Detonation Transition in Pulse Detonation Combustors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    minimal pressure losses. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 113 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Detonation Combustors, PDC, Pulse Detonation Engines, PDE , PDE ...Postgraduate School PDC Pulse Detonation Combustor PDE Pulse Detonation Engine RAM Random Access Memory RDT Research, Design and Test RPL...inhibiting the implementation of this advanced propulsion system. The primary advantage offered by pulse detonation engines ( PDEs ) is the high efficiency

  13. Thrust Augmentation Measurements Using a Pulse Detonation Engine Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    The present NASA GRC-funded three-year research project is focused on studying PDE driven ejectors applicable to a hybrid Pulse Detonation/Turbofan Engine. The objective of the study is to characterize the PDE-ejector thrust augmentation. A PDE-ejector system has been designed to provide critical experimental data for assessing the performance enhancements possible with this technology. Completed tasks include demonstration of a thrust stand for measuring average thrust for detonation tube multi-cycle operation, and design of a 72-in.-long, 2.25-in.-diameter (ID) detonation tube and modular ejector assembly. This assembly will allow testing of both straight and contoured ejector geometries. Initial ejectors that have been fabricated are 72-in.-long-constant-diameter tubes (4-, 5-, and 6-in.-diameter) instrumented with high-frequency pressure transducers. The assembly has been designed such that the detonation tube exit can be positioned at various locations within the ejector tube. PDE-ejector system experiments with gaseous ethylene/ nitrogen/oxygen propellants will commence in the very near future. The program benefits from collaborations with Prof. Merkle of University of Tennessee whose PDE-ejector analysis helps guide the experiments. The present research effort will increase the TRL of PDE-ejectors from its current level of 2 to a level of 3.

  14. Development of a Gas-Fed Pulse Detonation Research Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Hutt, John (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In response to the growing need for empirical data on pulse detonation engine performance and operation, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and placed into operation a low-cost gas-fed pulse detonation research engine. The guiding design strategy was to achieve a simple and flexible research apparatus, which was inexpensive to build and operate. As such, the engine was designed to operate as a heat sink device, and testing was limited to burst-mode operation with run durations of a few seconds. Wherever possible, maximum use was made of standard off-the-shelf industrial or automotive components. The 5-cm diameter primary tube is about 90-cm long and has been outfitted with a multitude of sensor and optical ports. The primary tube is fed by a coaxial injector through an initiator tube, which is inserted directly into the injector head face. Four auxiliary coaxial injectors are also integrated into the injector head assembly. All propellant flow is controlled with industrial solenoid valves. An automotive electronic ignition system was adapted for use, and spark plugs are mounted in both tubes so that a variety of ignition schemes can be examined. A microprocessor-based fiber-optic engine control system was developed to provide precise control over valve and ignition timing. Initial shakedown testing with hydrogen/oxygen mixtures verified the need for Schelkin spirals in both the initiator and primary tubes to ensure rapid development of the detonation wave. Measured pressure wave time-of-flight indicated detonation velocities of 2.4 km/sec and 2.2 km/sec in the initiator and primary tubes, respectively. These values implied a fuel-lean mixture corresponding to an H2 volume fraction near 0.5. The axial distribution for the detonation velocity was found to be essentially constant along the primary tube. Time-resolved thrust profiles were also acquired for both underfilled and overfilled tube conditions. These profiles are consistent with previous time

  15. Development and testing of pulsed and rotating detonation combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. George, Andrew C.

    Detonation is a self-sustaining, supersonic, shock-driven, exothermic reaction. Detonation combustion can theoretically provide significant improvements in thermodynamic efficiency over constant pressure combustion when incorporated into existing cycles. To harness this potential performance benefit, countless studies have worked to develop detonation combustors and integrate these devices into existing systems. This dissertation consists of a series of investigations on two types of detonation combustors: the pulse detonation combustor (PDC) and the rotating detonation combustor (RDC). In the first two investigations, an array of air-breathing PDCs is integrated with an axial power turbine. The system is initially operated with steady and pulsed cold air flow to determine the effect of pulsed flow on turbine performance. Various averaging approaches are employed to calculate turbine efficiency, but only flow-weighted (e.g., mass or work averaging) definitions have physical significance. Pulsed flow turbine efficiency is comparable to steady flow efficiency at high corrected flow rates and low rotor speeds. At these conditions, the pulse duty cycle expands and the variation of the rotor incidence angle is constrained to a favorable range. The system is operated with pulsed detonating flow to determine the effect of frequency, fill fraction, and rotor speed on turbine performance. For some conditions, output power exceeds the maximum attainable value from steady constant pressure combustion due to a significant increase in available power from the detonation products. However, the turbine component efficiency estimated from classical thermodynamic analysis is four times lower than the steady design point efficiency. Analysis of blade angles shows a significant penalty due to the detonation, fill, and purge processes simultaneously imposed on the rotor. The latter six investigations focus on fundamental research of the RDC concept. A specially-tailored RDC data

  16. Transient Heat Transfer Properties in a Pulse Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    strategies for future systems. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Detonation Engines, PDE , Heat Transfer 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...GUI Graphical User Interface NPS Naval Postgraduate School PDC Pulse Detonation Combustion PDE Pulse Detonation Engine RPL Rocket...a tactical missile with a Pulse Detonation Engine ( PDE ) and provide greater range for the same amount of fuel as compared to other current

  17. Branch Detonation of a Pulse Detonation Engine With Flash Vaporized JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Mark F. Reeder (Member) date iii Abstract Pulse Detonation Engines ( PDE ) operating on liquid hydrocarbon fuels are... Detonation Transition FF – Fill Fraction FN – Flow Number NPT – National Pipe Thread OH – Hydroxyl PDE – Pulse Detonation Engine PF – Purge...Introduction Motivation Research on Pulsed Detonation Engines ( PDE ) has increased over the past ten years due to the potential for increased

  18. Pulse Detonation Engines for High Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2002-01-01

    Revolutionary concepts in propulsion are required in order to achieve high-speed cruise capability in the atmosphere and for low cost reliable systems for earth to orbit missions. One of the advanced concepts under study is the air-breathing pulse detonation engine. Additional work remains in order to establish the role and performance of a PDE in flight applications, either as a stand-alone device or as part of a combined cycle system. In this paper, we shall offer a few remarks on some of these remaining issues, i.e., combined cycle systems, nozzles and exhaust systems and thrust per unit frontal area limitations. Currently, an intensive experimental and numerical effort is underway in order to quantify the propulsion performance characteristics of this device. In this paper, we shall highlight our recent efforts to elucidate the propulsion potential of pulse detonation engines and their possible application to high-speed or hypersonic systems.

  19. Composite Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.; Cloyd, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the design of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube cryocooler reduces axial thermal conductance while preserving radial thermal conductance. It is desirable to minimize axial thermal conductance in the pulse-tube wall to minimize leakage of heat between the warm and cold ends of the pulse tube. At the same time, it is desirable to maximize radial thermal conductance at the cold end of the pulse tube to ensure adequate thermal contact between (1) a heat exchanger in the form of a stack of copper screens inside the pulse tube at the cold end and (2) the remainder of the cold tip, which is the object to which the heat load is applied and from which heat must be removed. The modified design yields a low-heat-leak pulse tube that can be easily integrated with a cold tip. A typical pulse tube of prior design is either a thin-walled metal tube or a metal tube with a nonmetallic lining. It is desirable that the outer surface of a pulse tube be cylindrical (in contradistinction to tapered) to simplify the design of a regenerator that is also part of the cryocooler. Under some conditions, it is desirable to taper the inner surface of the pulse tube to reduce acoustic streaming. The combination of a cylindrical outer surface and a tapered inner surface can lead to unacceptably large axial conduction if the pulse tube is made entirely of metal. Making the pulse-tube wall of a nonmetallic, lowthermal- conductivity material would not solve the problem because the wall would not afford the needed thermal contact for the stack of screens in the cold end. The modified design calls for fabricating the pulse tube in two parts: a longer, nonmetallic part that is tapered on the inside and cylindrical on the outside and a shorter, metallic part that is cylindrical on both the inside and the outside. The nonmetallic part can be made from G-10 fiberglass-reinforced epoxy or other low-thermal-conductivity, cryogenically compatible material. The metallic part must have high

  20. Performance Characterization of Swept Ramp Obstacle Fields in Pulse Detonation Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    field of practical obstacle geometries. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 97 14. SUBJECT TERMS Pulse Detonation , PDE , Transient Plasma Ignition, TPI, Swept... Detonation Transition NI - National Instruments NPS - Naval Postgraduate School PDC - Pulse Detonation Combustor PDE - Pulse Detonation Engine...with incredible grace. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION Pulse detonation engines ( PDE ) continue to be explored due to

  1. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in gases in tubes with cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Phylippov, Yu. G.

    2010-12-01

    The existence of a supersonic second combustion mode — detonation — discovered by Mallard and Le Chatelier and by Berthélot and Vieille in 1881 posed the question of mechanisms for transition from one mode to the other. In the period 1959-1969, experiments by Salamandra, Soloukhin, Oppenheim, and their coworkers provided insights into this complex phenomenon. Since then, among all the phenomena related to combustion processes, deflagration-to-detonation transition is, undoubtedly, the most intriguing one. Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in gases is connected with gas and vapor explosion safety issues. Knowing mechanisms of detonation onset control is of major importance for creating effective mitigation measures addressing two major goals: to prevent DDT in the case of mixture ignition, or to arrest the detonation wave in the case where it has been initiated. A new impetus to the increase in interest in deflagration-to-detonation transition processes was given by the recent development of pulse detonation devices. The probable application of these principles to creation of a new generation of engines put the problem of effectiveness of pulse detonating devices at the top of current research needs. The effectiveness of the pulse detonation cycle turned out to be the key factor characterizing the Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE), whose operation modes were shown to be closely related to periodical onset and degeneration of a detonation wave. Those unsteady-state regimes should be self-sustained to guarantee a reliable operation of devices using the detonation mode of burning fuels as a constitutive part of their working cycle. Thus deflagration-to-detonation transition processes are of major importance for the issue. Minimizing the predetonation length and ensuring stability of the onset of detonation enable one to increase the effectiveness of a PDE. The DDT turned out to be the key factor characterizing the PDE operating cycle. Thus, the problem of

  2. Thermodynamic Cycle and CFD Analyses for Hydrogen Fueled Air-breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis of a pulse detonation engine (PDE) using a hydrogen-air mixture at static conditions. The cycle performance results, namely the specific thrust, fuel consumption and impulse are compared to a single cycle CFD analysis for a detonation tube which considers finite rate chemistry. The differences in the impulse values were indicative of the additional performance potential attainable in a PDE.

  3. Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tward, E.; Nguyen, T.; Godden, J.; Toma, G.

    2004-06-01

    A high capacity miniature pulse tube cooler for space that is scaled from the High Efficiency Cryocooler (HEC) is being developed. The low mass (1.5 kg) integral pulse tube cryocooler can provide large cooling power over a wide temperature range (e.g., 5 W at 95 K). The cooler is designed to be compatible with the existing HEC flight electronics. A small back-to-back flexure compressor drives a pulse tube cold head which is integrated with the compressor. The cooler has been tested with both linear and coaxial cold heads. A description of the cooler and its performance in both linear and coaxial cold head versions is presented.

  4. Thrust Augmentation Measurements for a Pulse Detonation Engine Driven Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pal, S.; Santoro, Robert J.; Shehadeh, R.; Saretto, S.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Thrust augmentation results of an ongoing study of pulse detonation engine driven ejectors are presented and discussed. The experiments were conducted using a pulse detonation engine (PDE) setup with various ejector configurations. The PDE used in these experiments utilizes ethylene (C2H4) as the fuel, and an equi-molar mixture of oxygen and nitrogen as the oxidizer at an equivalence ratio of one. High fidelity thrust measurements were made using an integrated spring damper system. The baseline thrust of the PDE engine was first measured and agrees with experimental and modeling results found in the literature. Thrust augmentation measurements were then made for constant diameter ejectors. The parameter space for the study included ejector length, PDE tube exit to ejector tube inlet overlap distance, and straight versus rounded ejector inlets. The relationship between the thrust augmentation results and various physical phenomena is described. To further understand the flow dynamics, shadow graph images of the exiting shock wave front from the PDE were also made. For the studied parameter space, the results showed a maximum augmentation of 40%. Further increase in augmentation is possible if the geometry of the ejector is tailored, a topic currently studied by numerous groups in the field.

  5. Transient analysis of a pulsed detonation combustor using the numerical propulsion system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasler, Anthony Scott

    The performance of a hybrid mixed flow turbofan (with detonation tubes installed in the bypass duct) is investigated in this study and compared with a baseline model of a mixed flow turbofan with a standard combustion chamber as a duct burner. Previous studies have shown that pulsed detonation combustors have the potential to be more efficient than standard combustors, but they also present new challenges that must be overcome before they can be utilized. The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) will be used to perform the analysis with a pulsed detonation combustor model based on a numerical simulation done by Endo, Fujiwara, et. al. Three different cases will be run using both models representing a take-off situation, a subsonic cruise and a supersonic cruise situation. Since this study investigates a transient analysis, the pulse detonation combustor is run in a rig setup first and then its pressure and temperature are averaged for the cycle to obtain quasi-steady results.

  6. Investigation of the effect of the ejector on the performance of the pulse detonation engine nozzle extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobov, A. E.; Golovastov, S. V.

    2015-11-01

    Influence of an ejector nozzle extension on gas flow at a pulse detonation engine was investigated numerically and experimentally. Detonation formation was organized in stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture in cylindrical detonation tube. Cylindrical ejector was constructed and mounted at the open end of the tube. Thrust, air consumption and parameters of the detonation were measured in single and multiple regimes of operation. Axisymmetric model was used in numerical investigation. Equations of Navies-Stokes were solved using a finite-difference scheme Roe of second order of accuracy. Initial conditions were estimated on a base of experimental data. Numerical results were validated with experiments data.

  7. Ignition Study on a Rotary-valved Air-breathing Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yuwen; Han, Qixiang; Shen, Yujia; Zhao, Wei

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the ignition effect on detonation initiation was investigated in the air-breathing pulse detonation engine. Two kinds of fuel injection and ignition methods were applied. For one method, fuel and air was pre-mixed outside the PDE and then injected into the detonation tube. The droplet sizes of mixtures were measured. An annular cavity was used as the ignition section. For the other method, fuel-air mixtures were mixed inside the PDE, and a pre-combustor was utilized as the ignition source. At firing frequency of 20 Hz, transition to detonation was obtained. Experimental results indicated that the ignition position and initial flame acceleration had important effects on the deflagration-to-detonation transition.

  8. Multiple-cycle Simulation of a Pulse Detonation Engine Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, S.; Perkins, H. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study involving single and multiple-cycle numerical simulations of various PDE-ejector configurations utilizing hydrogen-oxygen mixtures. The objective was to investigate the thrust, impulse and mass flow rate characteristics of these devices. The results indicate that ejector systems can utilize the energy stored in the strong shock wave exiting the detonation tube to augment the impulse obtained from the detonation tube alone. Impulse augmentation ratios of up to 1.9 were achieved. The axial location of the converging-diverging ejectors relative to the end of the detonation tube were shown to affect the performance of the system.

  9. On the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) process with added energetic solid particles for pulse detonation engines (PDE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, V. B.; Li, J.; Chang, P.-H.; Phan, Q. T.; Teo, C. J.; Khoo, B. C.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations are performed to study the dynamics of the deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in pulse detonation engines (PDE) using energetic aluminum particles. The DDT process and detonation wave propagation toward the unburnt hydrogen/air mixture containing solid aluminum particles is numerically studied using the Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. A hybrid numerical methodology combined with appropriate sub-models is used to capture the gas dynamic characteristics, particle behavior, combustion characteristics, and two-way solid-particle-gas flow interactions. In our approach, the gas mixture is expressed in the Eulerian frame of reference, while the solid aluminum particles are tracked in the Lagrangian frame of reference. The implemented computer code is validated using published benchmark problems. The obtained results show that the aluminum particles not only shorten the DDT length but also reduce the DDT time. The improvement of DDT is primarily attributed to the heat released from surface chemical reactions on the aluminum particles. The temperatures associated with the DDT process are greater than the case of non-reacting particles added, with an accompanying rise in the pressure. For an appropriate range of particle volume fraction, particularly in this study, the higher volume fraction of the micro-aluminum particles added in the detonation chamber can lead to more heat energy released and more local instabilities in the combustion process (caused by the local high temperature), thereby resulting in a faster DDT process. In essence, the aluminum particles contribute to the DDT process of successfully transitioning to detonation waves for (failure) cases in which the fuel gas mixture can be either too lean or too rich. With a better understanding of the influence of added aluminum particles on the dynamics of the DDT and detonation process, we can apply it to modify the geometry of the detonation chamber (e.g., the length of

  10. Pulse Detonation Physiochemical and Exhaust Relaxation Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    based on total time to detonation and detonation percentage. Nomenclature A = Arrehenius Constant Ea = Activation Energy Ecrit = Critical...the precision uncertainties vary for each data point. Therefore, the total experimental uncertainty will vary by data point. A comprehensive bias

  11. Heat Transfer Experiments on a Pulse Detonation Driven Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    steps that need to take place before such a hybrid is successfully developed. PDEs obtain their increased efficiency by means of detonation , a pressure...combustion in the Brayton cycle. A PDE utilizes detonations , which offer much higher pressures at the site of fuel ignition, generating less...HEAT TRANSFER EXPERIMENTS ON A PULSE DETONATION DRIVEN COMBUSTOR THESIS Nicholas C. Longo, Captain, USAF AFIT/GAE/ENY/11-M18

  12. Numerical study of chemically reacting viscous flow relevant to pulsed detonation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tae-Hyeong

    2005-11-01

    A computational fluid dynamics code for two-dimensional, multi-species, laminar Navier-Stokes equations is developed to simulate a recently proposed engine concept for a pulsed detonation based propulsion system and to investigate the feasibility of the engine of the concept. The governing equations that include transport phenomena such as viscosity, thermal conduction and diffusion are coupled with chemical reactions. The gas is assumed to be thermally perfect and in chemically non-equilibrium. The stiffness due to coupling the fluid dynamics and the chemical kinetics is properly taken care of by using a time-operator splitting method and a variable coefficient ordinary differential equation solver. A second-order Roe scheme with a minmod limiter is explicitly used for space descretization, while a second-order, two-step Runge-Kutta method is used for time descretization. In space integration, a finite volume method and a cell-centered scheme are employed. The first-order derivatives in the equations of transport properties are discretized by a central differencing with Green's theorem. Detailed chemistry is involved in this study. Two chemical reaction mechanisms are extracted from GRI-Mech, which are forty elementary reactions with thirteen species for a hydrogen-air mixture and twenty-seven reactions with eight species for a hydrogen-oxygen mixture. The code is ported to a high-performance parallel machine with Message-Passing Interface. Code validation is performed with chemical kinetic modeling for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixture, an one-dimensional detonation tube, a two-dimensional, inviscid flow over a wedge and a viscous flow over a flat plate. Detonation is initiated using a numerically simulated arc-ignition or shock-induced ignition system. Various freestream conditions are utilized to study the propagation of the detonation in the proposed concept of the engine. Investigation of the detonation propagation is performed for a pulsed detonation

  13. Determination of Effective Crossover Location and Dimensions for Branched Detonation in a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    location is varied from the aft end of the detonation tube to the middle of the detonation tube while the crossover width is varied from 2.5 in to 0.5...the other end where the tube is connected to a source of fuel, oxidizer, and ignition .7 The engine cycle is divided into three equal phases: fill...location and width of the crossover duct for hydrogen, ethylene and an n-alkane. The crossover location is varied from the aft end of the

  14. Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. I.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDB) have generated considerable research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional gas turbines and rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a theoretical thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional engines. However, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to all pulse detonation devices has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance of PDES problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models.

  15. Quasi-One-Dimensional Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2002-01-01

    Pulsed detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated considerable research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred a great deal of interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the difficulties in comparing the available experimental measurements with numerical models. In a previous paper by the author, parametric studies of the performance of a single, straight-tube PDRE were reported. A 1-D, unsteady method of characteristics code, employing a constant-gamma assumption behind the detonation front, was developed for that study. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and are particularly useful for parametric performance comparisons. For example, a plot showing the specific impulse of various PDRE and steady-state rocket engine (SSRE) configurations as a function of blowdown pressure ratio. The performance curves clearly indicate that a straight-tube PDRE is superior in specific impulse to a SSRE with a sonic nozzle over the entire range of pressure ratios. Note, however, that a straight-tube PDRE in general does not compare favorably to a SSRE fitted with an optimized de Laval supersonic nozzle, particularly at the high pressure ratios typical for boost or in-space rocket applications. However, the calculations also show that if a dynamically optimized, supersonic de Laval nozzle could be could be fitted to a PDRE, then the specific impulse of the device would exceed that of a comparable SSRE

  16. A Performance Map for Ideal Air Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of an ideal, air breathing Pulse Detonation Engine is described in a manner that is useful for application studies (e.g., as a stand-alone, propulsion system, in combined cycles, or in hybrid turbomachinery cycles). It is shown that the Pulse Detonation Engine may be characterized by an averaged total pressure ratio, which is a unique function of the inlet temperature, the fraction of the inlet flow containing a reacting mixture, and the stoichiometry of the mixture. The inlet temperature and stoichiometry (equivalence ratio) may in turn be combined to form a nondimensional heat addition parameter. For each value of this parameter, the average total enthalpy ratio and total pressure ratio across the device are functions of only the reactant fill fraction. Performance over the entire operating envelope can thus be presented on a single plot of total pressure ratio versus total enthalpy ratio for families of the heat addition parameter. Total pressure ratios are derived from thrust calculations obtained from an experimentally validated, reactive Euler code capable of computing complete Pulse Detonation Engine limit cycles. Results are presented which demonstrate the utility of the described method for assessing performance of the Pulse Detonation Engine in several potential applications. Limitations and assumptions of the analysis are discussed. Details of the particular detonative cycle used for the computations are described.

  17. Rotary wave-ejector enhanced pulse detonation engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalim, M. R.; Izzy, Z. A.; Akbari, P.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a non-steady ejector based on wave rotor technology is modeled for pulse detonation engine performance improvement and for compatibility with turbomachinery components in hybrid propulsion systems. The rotary wave ejector device integrates a pulse detonation process with an efficient momentum transfer process in specially shaped channels of a single wave-rotor component. In this paper, a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model is developed to help design the basic geometry and operating parameters of the device. The unsteady combustion and flow processes are simulated and compared with a baseline PDE without ejector enhancement. A preliminary performance assessment is presented for the wave ejector configuration, considering the effect of key geometric parameters, which are selected for high specific impulse. It is shown that the rotary wave ejector concept has significant potential for thrust augmentation relative to a basic pulse detonation engine.

  18. Micro-blast waves using detonation transmission tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelraj, I. Obed; Jagadeesh, G.; Kontis, K.

    2013-07-01

    Micro-blast waves emerging from the open end of a detonation transmission tube were experimentally visualized in this study. A commercially available detonation transmission tube was used (Nonel tube, M/s Dyno Nobel, Sweden), which is a small diameter tube coated with a thin layer of explosive mixture (HMX + traces of Al) on its inner side. The typical explosive loading for this tube is of the order of 18 mg/m of tube length. The blast wave was visualized using a high speed digital camera (frame rate 1 MHz) to acquire time-resolved schlieren images of the resulting flow field. The visualization studies were complemented by computational fluid dynamic simulations. An analysis of the schlieren images showed that although the blast wave appears to be spherical, it propagates faster along the tube axis than along a direction perpendicular to the tube axis. Additionally, CFD analysis revealed the presence of a barrel shock and Mach disc, showing structures that are typical of an underexpanded jet. A theory in use for centered large-scale explosions of intermediate strength (10 < Δ {p}/{p}_0 ≲ 0.02) gave good agreement with the blast trajectory along the tube axis. The energy of these micro-blast waves was found to be 1.25 ± 0.94 J and the average TNT equivalent was found to be 0.3. The repeatability in generating these micro-blast waves using the Nonel tube was very good (± 2 %) and this opens up the possibility of using this device for studying some of the phenomena associated with muzzle blasts in the near future.

  19. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Lord Kahil

    A number of promising alternative rocket propulsion concepts have been developed over the past two decades that take advantage of unsteady combustion waves in order to produce thrust. These concepts include the Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE), in which repetitive ignition, propagation, and reflection of detonations and shocks can create a high pressure chamber from which gases may be exhausted in a controlled manner. The Pulse Detonation Rocket Induced Magnetohydrodynamic Ejector (PDRIME) is a modification of the basic PDRE concept, developed by Cambier (1998), which has the potential for performance improvements based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thrust augmentation. The PDRIME has the advantage of both low combustion chamber seeding pressure, per the PDRE concept, and efficient energy distribution in the system, per the rocket-induced MHD ejector (RIME) concept of Cole, et al. (1995). In the initial part of this thesis, we explore flow and performance characteristics of different configurations of the PDRIME, assuming quasi-one-dimensional transient flow and global representations of the effects of MHD phenomena on the gas dynamics. By utilizing high-order accurate solvers, we thus are able to investigate the fundamental physical processes associated with the PDRIME and PDRE concepts and identify potentially promising operating regimes. In the second part of this investigation, the detailed coupling of detonations and electric and magnetic fields are explored. First, a one-dimensional spark-ignited detonation with complex reaction kinetics is fully evaluated and the mechanisms for the different instabilities are analyzed. It is found that complex kinetics in addition to sufficient spatial resolution are required to be able to quantify high frequency as well as low frequency detonation instability modes. Armed with this quantitative understanding, we then examine the interaction of a propagating detonation and the applied MHD, both in one-dimensional and two

  20. Gaseous Detonation-Driven Fracture of Tubes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    understanding, in addition to leading to safer piping system design in nuclear power plants, can also assist accident investigators in learning what type...load, there are derived expressions in the literature from which one can learn about some essential features of mode I dynamic fracture. For a...along a 0.2-mm deep longitudinal groove. Pressure histories were measured by pressure transducers mounted inside the tube, axial and circumferen- tial

  1. Numerical investigation of combustion phenomena in pulse detonation engine with different fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Noor; Sharma, K. K.; Pandey, K. M.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of different fuel-air mixture on the cyclic operation of pulse detonation engine (PDE) are numerically investigated. The present simulation is to be consider 1200 mm long straight tube combustor channel and 60 mm internal diameter, and filled with stoichiometric ethane-air and ethylene-air (C2H6-air & C2H4) fuel mixture at atmospheric pressure and temperature of 0.1 MPa and 300 K respectively. The obstacles of blockage ratio (BR) 0.5 and having 60 mm spacing among them are allocated inside the combustor tube. There are realizable k-ɛ turbulence model used to analyze characteristic of combustion flame. The objective of present simulation is to analyze the variation in combustion mechanism for two different fuels with one-step reduced chemical reaction model. The obstacles were creating perturbation inside the PDE tube. Therefore, flame surface area increases and reduces deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) run-up length.

  2. Real Gas Effects on the Performance of Hydrocarbon-fueled Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Yungster, Shaye

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results for a single-pulse detonation tube wherein the effects of high temperature dissociation and the subsequent recombination influence the sensible heat release available for providing propulsive thrust. The study involved the use of ethylene and air at equivalence ratios of 0.7 and 1.0. The real gas effects on the sensible heat release were found to be significantly large so as to have an impact on the thrust, impulse and fuel consumption of a PDE.

  3. Design and Evaluation of a Single-Inlet Pulse Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Kilogram/second m/s Meters/ second N Nitrogen NPS Naval Postgraduate School O Oxygen PDC Pulse Detonation Combustion PDE Pulse Detonation Engine...EVALUATION OF A SINGLE-INLET PULSE DETONATION COMBUSTOR by Danny Soria June 2011 Thesis Advisor: Christopher M. Brophy Second Reader: Garth V...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Design and Evaluation of a Single-Inlet Pulse Detonation Combustor 6. AUTHOR(S) Danny Soria 5

  4. Overview of Pulse Detonation Propulsion Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    PROPULSION TECHNOLOGY M. L. Coleman CHEMICAL PROPULSION INFORMATION AGENCY THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. WHITING SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING -COLUMBIA...U. 20 R. Santoro, "Advanced Propulsion Research: A Focus of the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center," Chemical Propulsion Information...Detonation Engine ," AIAA 95-3155 (July 1995), U-A. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Space Transportation Day 2000 Presentation Material, Advance Chemical

  5. On the Exit Boundary Condition for One-Dimensional Calculations of Pulsed Detonation Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2002-01-01

    In one-dimensional calculations of pulsed detonation engine (PDE) performance, the exit boundary condition is frequently taken to be a constant static pressure. In reality, for an isolated detonation tube, after the detonation wave arrives at the exit plane, there will be a region of high pressure, which will gradually return to ambient pressure as an almost spherical shock wave expands away from the exit, and weakens. Initially, the flow is supersonic, unaffected by external pressure, but later becomes subsonic. Previous authors have accounted for this situation either by assuming the subsonic pressure decay to be a relaxation phenomenon, or by running a two-dimensional calculation first, including a domain external to the detonation tube, and using the resulting exit pressure temporal distribution as the boundary condition for one-dimensional calculations. These calculations show that the increased pressure does affect the PDE performance. In the present work, a simple model of the exit process is used to estimate the pressure decay time. The planar shock wave emerging from the tube is assumed to transform into a spherical shock wave. The initial strength of the spherical shock wave is determined from comparison with experimental results. Its subsequent propagation, and resulting pressure at the tube exit, is given by a numerical blast wave calculation. The model agrees reasonably well with other, limited, results. Finally, the model was used as the exit boundary condition for a one-dimensional calculation of PDE performance to obtain the thrust wall pressure for a hydrogen-air detonation in tubes of length to diameter ratio (L/D) of 4, and 10, as well as for the original, constant pressure boundary condition. The modified boundary condition had no performance impact for values of L/D > 10, and moderate impact for L/D = 4.

  6. On the propagation mechanism of a detonation wave in a round tube with orifice plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccarelli, G.; Cross, M.

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the investigation of the detonation propagation mechanism in a circular tube with orifice plates. Experiments were performed with hydrogen air in a 10-cm-inner-diameter tube with the second half of the tube filled with equally spaced orifice plates. A self-sustained Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation wave was initiated in the smooth first half of the tube and transmitted into the orifice-plate-laden second half of the tube. The details of the propagation were obtained using the soot-foil technique. Two types of foils were used between obstacles, a wall-foil placed on the tube wall, and a flat-foil (sooted on both sides) placed horizontally across the diameter of the tube. When placed after the first orifice plate, the flat foil shows symmetric detonation wave diffraction and failure, while the wall foil shows re-initiation via multiple local hot spots created when the decoupled shock wave interacts with the tube wall. At the end of the tube, where the detonation propagated at an average velocity much lower than the theoretical CJ value, the detonation propagation is much more asymmetric with only a few hot spots on the tube wall leading to local detonation initiation. Consecutive foils also show that the detonation structure changes after each obstacle interaction. For a mixture near the detonation propagation limit, detonation re-initiation occurs at a single wall hot spot producing a patch of small detonation cells. The local overdriven detonation wave is short lived, but is sufficient to keep the global explosion front propagating. Results associated with the effect of orifice plate blockage and spacing on the detonation propagation mechanism are also presented.

  7. Metallized Gelled Propellants Combustion Experiments in a Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan; Jurns, John; Breisacher, Kevin; Kearns, Kim

    2006-01-01

    A series of combustion tests were performed with metallized gelled JP 8/aluminum fuels in a Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE). Nanoparticles of aluminum were used in the 60 to 100 nanometer diameter. Gellants were also of a nanoparticulate type composed of hydrocarbon alkoxide materials. Using simulated air (a nitrogen-oxygen mixture), the ignition potential of metallized gelled fuels with nanoparticle aluminum was investigated. Ignition of the JP 8/aluminum was possible with less than or equal to a 23-wt% oxygen loading in the simulated air. JP 8 fuel alone was unable to ignite with less than 30 percent oxygen loaded simulated air. The tests were single shot tests of the metallized gelled fuel to demonstrate the capability of the fuel to improve fuel detonability. The tests were conducted at ambient temperatures and with maximal detonation pressures of 1340 psia.

  8. Comparative Analysis of a High Bypass Turbofan Using a Pulsed Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Thrust Specific Fuel Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 xiii List of Abbreviations Abbreviation Page PDE Pulsed Detonation Engine...past ten years to develop pulsed det- onation engines ( PDE ) as a means of aircraft propulsion. Detonation combustion holds the promise of a more...aviation engine, and detonation creates more of it than previous aircraft engines. It is hoped that a marriage of the PDE with traditional

  9. Towards Integrated Pulse Detonation Propulsion and MHD Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litchford, Ron J.; Thompson, Bryan R.; Lineberry, John T.

    1999-01-01

    The interest in pulse detonation engines (PDE) arises primarily from the advantages that accrue from the significant combustion pressure rise that is developed in the detonation process. Conventional rocket engines, for example, must obtain all of their compression from the turbopumps, while the PDE provides additional compression in the combustor. Thus PDE's are expected to achieve higher I(sub sp) than conventional rocket engines and to require smaller turbopumps. The increase in I(sub sp) and the decrease in turbopump capacity must be traded off against each other. Additional advantages include the ability to vary thrust level by adjusting the firing rate rather than throttling the flow through injector elements. The common conclusion derived from these aggregated performance attributes is that PDEs should result in engines which are smaller, lower in cost, and lighter in weight than conventional engines. Unfortunately, the analysis of PDEs is highly complex due to their unsteady operation and non-ideal processes. Although the feasibility of the basic PDE concept has been proven in several experimental and theoretical efforts, the implied performance improvements have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. Also, there are certain developmental issues affecting the practical application of pulse detonation propulsion systems which are yet to be fully resolved. Practical detonation combustion engines, for example, require a repetitive cycle of charge induction, mixing, initiation/propagation of the detonation wave, and expulsion/scavenging of the combustion product gases. Clearly, the performance and power density of such a device depends upon the maximum rate at which this cycle can be successfully implemented. In addition, the electrical energy required for direct detonation initiation can be significant, and a means for direct electrical power production is needed to achieve self-sustained engine operation. This work addresses the technological issues associated

  10. Performance and environmental impact assessment of pulse detonation based engine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Aaron J.

    Experimental research was performed to investigate the feasibility of using pulse detonation based engine systems for practical aerospace applications. In order to carry out this work a new pulse detonation combustion research facility was developed at the University of Cincinnati. This research covered two broad areas of application interest. The first area is pure PDE applications where the detonation tube is used to generate an impulsive thrust directly. The second focus area is on pulse detonation based hybrid propulsion systems. Within each of these areas various studies were performed to quantify engine performance. Comparisons of the performance between detonation and conventional deflagration based engine cycles were made. Fundamental studies investigating detonation physics and flow dynamics were performed in order to gain physical insight into the observed performance trends. Experimental studies were performed on PDE-driven straight and diverging ejectors to determine the system performance. Ejector performance was quantified by thrust measurements made using a damped thrust stand. The effects of PDE operating parameters and ejector geometric parameters on thrust augmentation were investigated. For all cases tested, the maximum thrust augmentation is found to occur at a downstream ejector placement. The optimum ejector geometry was determined to have an overall length of LEJECT/DEJECT =5.61, including an intermediate-straight section length of LSTRT /DEJECT=2, and diverging exhaust section with 4 deg half-angle. A maximum thrust augmentation of 105% was observed while employing the optimized ejector geometry and operating the PDE at a fill-fraction of 0.6 and a frequency of 10 Hz. When operated at a fill-fraction of 1.0 and a frequency of 30 Hz, the thrust augmentation of the optimized PDE-driven ejector system was observed to be 71%. Static pressure was measured along the interior surface of the ejector, including the inlet and exhaust sections. The

  11. Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Research at NASA Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2003-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modeling task. A quasi 1-D, finite-rate chemistry CFD model for a PDRE is described and implemented. A parametric study of the effect of blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of an optimized, fixed PDRE nozzle configuration is reported. The results are compared to a steady-state rocket system using similar modeling assumptions.

  12. The development and testing of pulsed detonation engine ground demonstrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panicker, Philip Koshy

    2008-10-01

    on a 25 mm i.d. PDE. The dual-stage PDE was run at both 1 Hz and 10 Hz using solenoid valves. The two types of valves have their drawbacks and advantages which are discussed, along with ways to enhance their functionality. Rotary valves with stepper motor drives are recommended to be used for air flow control, while an array of solenoid injectors may be used for liquid or gaseous fuel injection. Various DDT enhancing devices were tested, including Shchelkin spirals (with varying thicknesses, lengths and pitches), grooved sleeves and converging-diverging nozzles. The Shchelkin spirals are found to be the most effective of all, at blockage ratios in the region of 50 to 55%. To improve the durability of Shchelkin spirals, it is recommended that they be grooved into the inside of tubes or inserted as replaceable sleeves. Orifice plates with high blockage ratios, in the region of 50 to 80%, are also recommended due to their simple and rugged design. All these devices along with the PDE combustor will require a strong cooling system to prevent damage from the extreme detonation temperatures. High energy (HE) and low energy (LE) ignition systems were tested and compared along with various designs of igniters and automotive spark plugs. It is concluded that while HE ignition may help unsensitized fuel-air mixtures to achieve detonations faster than LE systems, the former have severe drawbacks. The HE igniters get damaged quickly, and require large and heavy power supplies. While the HE ignition is able to reduce ignition delay in a propane-oxygen pre-detonator, it did not show a significant improvement in bringing about DDT in the main combustor using propane-air mixtures. The compact pre-detonator design with a gradual area change transitioning to a larger combustor is found to be effective for detonation initiation, but the pre-detonator concept is recommended for high-speed applications only, since higher speeds requires more sensitive, easily detonable fuels that have

  13. Optimal Area Profiles for Ideal Single Nozzle Air-Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of cross-sectional area variation on idealized Pulse Detonation Engine performance are examined numerically. A quasi-one-dimensional, reacting, numerical code is used as the kernel of an algorithm that iteratively determines the correct sequencing of inlet air, inlet fuel, detonation initiation, and cycle time to achieve a limit cycle with specified fuel fraction, and volumetric purge fraction. The algorithm is exercised on a tube with a cross sectional area profile containing two degrees of freedom: overall exit-to-inlet area ratio, and the distance along the tube at which continuous transition from inlet to exit area begins. These two parameters are varied over three flight conditions (defined by inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure and ambient static pressure) and the performance is compared to a straight tube. It is shown that compared to straight tubes, increases of 20 to 35 percent in specific impulse and specific thrust are obtained with tubes of relatively modest area change. The iterative algorithm is described, and its limitations are noted and discussed. Optimized results are presented showing performance measurements, wave diagrams, and area profiles. Suggestions for future investigation are also discussed.

  14. A Hydrocarbon Fuel Flash Vaporization System for a Pulsed Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Experiments were performed in the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Pulsed Detonation Research Facility at Wright Patterson AFB, Ohio. The PDE ...AFRL-MN-EG-TP-2006-7420 A HYDROCARBON FUEL FLASH VAPORIZATION SYSTEM FOR A PULSED DETONATION ENGINE (PREPRINT) K. Colin Tucker...85,7<&/$66,),&$7,212) E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH A Hydrocarbon Fuel Flash Vaporization System for a Pulsed Detonation Engine K

  15. Review on factors affecting the performance of pulse detonation engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Saurabh; Pandey, Krishna Murari

    2018-04-01

    Now a day's rocket engines (air-breathing type) are being used for aerospace purposes but the studies have shown that these are less efficient, so alternatives are being searched for these. Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) is one such efficient engine which can replace the rocket engines. In this review paper, different researches have been cited. As can be observed from various researches, insertion of obstacles is better. Deflagration to Detonation(DDT) transition process is found to be most important factor. So a lot of researches are being done considering this DDT chamber. Also, the ignition chamber and ejector were found to improve the effectiveness of PDE. The PDE works with a range of Mach 0-4. Flame acceleration is also found to increase the DDT process. Use of valve and valveless engine has also been compared. Various other factors have been focused in this review paper which is found to boost PDE performance.

  16. Simplified Analysis of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Blowdown Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. I.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) offer potential performance improvements over conventional designs, but represent a challenging modellng task. A simplified model for an idealized, straight-tube, single-shot PDRE blowdown process and thrust determination is described and implemented. In order to form an assessment of the accuracy of the model, the flowfield time history is compared to experimental data from Stanford University. Parametric Studies of the effect of mixture stoichiometry, initial fill temperature, and blowdown pressure ratio on the performance of a PDRE are performed using the model. PDRE performance is also compared with a conventional steady-state rocket engine over a range of pressure ratios using similar gasdynamic assumptions.

  17. Preliminary Studies of a Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambier, Jean-Luc; Adelman, H. G.; Menees, G. P.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    In the new era of space exploration, there is a strong need for more efficient, cheaper and more reliable propulsion devices. With dramatic increase in specific impulse, the overall mass of fuel to be lifted into orbit is decreased, and this leads, in turn, to much lower mass requirements at lift-off, higher payload ratios and lower launch costs. The Pulsed Detonation engine (PDE) has received much attention lately due to its unique combination of simplicity, light-weight and efficiency. Current investigations focus principally on its use as a low speed, airbreathing engine, although other applications have also been proposed. Its use as a rocket propulsion device was first proposed in 1988 by the present authors. The superior efficiency of the Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine (PDRE) is due to the near constant volume combustion process of a detonation wave. Our preliminary estimates suggest that the PDRE is theoretically capable of achieving specific impulses as high as 720 sec, a dramatic improvement over the current 480 sec of conventional rocket engines, making it competitive with nuclear thermal rockets. In addition to this remarkable efficiency, the PDRE may eliminate the need for high pressure cryogenic turbopumps, a principal source of failures. The heat transfer rates are also much lower, eliminating the need for nozzle cooling. Overall, the engine is more reliable and has a much lower weight. This paper will describe in detail the operation of the PDRE and calculate its performance, through numerical simulations. Engineering issues will be addressed and discussed, and the impact on mission profiles will also be presented. Finally, the performance of the PDRE using in-situ resources, such as CO and O2 from the martian atmosphere, will also be computed.

  18. Impact of Dissociation and Sensible Heat Release on Pulse Detonation and Gas Turbine Engine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2001-01-01

    A thermodynamic cycle analysis of the effect of sensible heat release on the relative performance of pulse detonation and gas turbine engines is presented. Dissociation losses in the PDE (Pulse Detonation Engine) are found to cause a substantial decrease in engine performance parameters.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Gasdynamics and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the numerical modeling of pulse detonation rocket engines (PDRE), with an emphasis on the Gasdynamics and performance analysis of these engines. The topics include: 1) Performance Analysis of PDREs; 2) Simplified PDRE Cycle; 3) Comparison of PDRE and Steady-State Rocket Engines (SSRE) Performance; 4) Numerical Modeling of Quasi 1-D Rocket Flows; 5) Specific PDRE Geometries Studied; 6) Time-Accurate Thrust Calculations; 7) PDRE Performance (Geometries A B C and D); 8) PDRE Blowdown Gasdynamics (Geom. A B C and D); 9) PDRE Geometry Performance Comparison; 10) PDRE Blowdown Time (Geom. A B C and D); 11) Specific SSRE Geometry Studied; 12) Effect of F-R Chemistry on SSRE Performance; 13) PDRE/SSRE Performance Comparison; 14) PDRE Performance Study; 15) Grid Resolution Study; and 16) Effect of F-R Chemistry on SSRE Exit Species Mole Fractions.

  20. Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine Research at NASA Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation provides an overview of research being conducted on Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines (PDRE) by the Propulsion Research Center (PRC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. PDREs have a theoretical thermodynamic advantage over Steady-State Rocket Engines (SSREs) although unsteady blowdown processes complicate effective use of this advantage in practice; PRE is engaged in a fundamental study of PDRE gas dynamics to improve understanding of performance issues. Topics covered include: simplified PDRE cycle, comparison of PDRE and SSRE performance, numerical modeling of quasi 1-D rocket flows, time-accurate thrust calculations, finite-rate chemistry effects in nozzles, effect of F-R chemistry on specific impulse, effect of F-R chemistry on exit species mole fractions and PDRE performance optimization studies.

  1. Numerical study of nonequilibrium plasma assisted detonation initiation in detonation tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Siyin; Wang, Fang; Che, Xueke; Nie, Wansheng

    2016-12-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma has shown great merits in ignition and combustion nowadays, which should be especially useful for hypersonic propulsion. A coaxial electrodes configuration was established to investigate the effect of alternating current (AC) dielectric barrier discharge nonequilibrium plasma on the detonation initiation process in a hydrogen-oxygen mixture. A discharge simulation-combustion simulation loosely coupled method was used to simulate plasma assisted detonation initiation. First, the dielectric barrier discharge in the hydrogen-oxygen mixture driven by an AC voltage was simulated, which takes 17 kinds of particles (including positively charged particles, negatively charged particles, and neutral particles) and 47 reactions into account. The temporal and spatial characteristics of the discharge products were obtained. Then, the discharge products were incorporated into the combustion model of a detonation combustor as the initial conditions for the later detonation initiation simulation. Results showed that the number density distributions of plasma species are different in space and time, and develop highly nonuniformly from high voltage electrode to grounded electrode at certain times. All the active species reach their highest concentration at approximately 0.6T (T denotes a discharge cycle). Compared with the no plasma case, the differences of flowfield shape mainly appear in the early stage of the deflagration to detonation transition process. None of the sub-processes (including the very slow combustion, deflagration, over-driven detonation, detonation decay, and propagation of a self-sustained stable detonation wave) have been removed by the plasma. After the formation of a C-J detonation wave, the whole flowfield remains unchanged. With the help of plasma, the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) time and distance are reduced by about 11.6% and 12.9%, respectively, which should be attributed to the active particles effect of

  2. Axisymmetric Numerical Modeling of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Christopher I.

    2005-01-01

    Pulse detonation rocket engines (PDREs) have generated research interest in recent years as a chemical propulsion system potentially offering improved performance and reduced complexity compared to conventional rocket engines. The detonative mode of combustion employed by these devices offers a thermodynamic advantage over the constant-pressure deflagrative combustion mode used in conventional rocket engines and gas turbines. However, while this theoretical advantage has spurred considerable interest in building PDRE devices, the unsteady blowdown process intrinsic to the PDRE has made realistic estimates of the actual propulsive performance problematic. The recent review article by Kailasanath highlights some of the progress that has been made in comparing the available experimental measurements with analytical and numerical models. In recent work by the author, a quasi-one-dimensional, finite rate chemistry CFD model was utilized to study the gasdynamics and performance characteristics of PDREs over a range of blowdown pressure ratios from 1-1000. Models of this type are computationally inexpensive, and enable first-order parametric studies of the effect of several nozzle and extension geometries on PDRE performance over a wide range of conditions. However, the quasi-one-dimensional approach is limited in that it cannot properly capture the multidimensional blast wave and flow expansion downstream of the PDRE, nor can it resolve nozzle flow separation if present. Moreover, the previous work was limited to single-pulse calculations. In this paper, an axisymmetric finite rate chemistry model is described and utilized to study these issues in greater detail. Example Mach number contour plots showing the multidimensional blast wave and nozzle exhaust plume are shown. The performance results are compared with the quasi-one-dimensional results from the previous paper. Both Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated in order to determine the effect of viscous

  3. Studies of Operating Frequency Effects On Ejector-based Thrust Augmentation in a Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were performed in order to characterize the thrust augmentation potential of an ejector in a Pulse Detonation Engine application. A 49-mm diameter tube of 0.914-m length was constructed with one open end and one closed end. Ethylene, oxygen, and nitrogen were introduced into the tube at the closed end through the implementation of a fast mixing injector. The tube was completely filled with a stoichiometric mixture containing a one to one molar ratio of nitrogen to oxygen. Ethylene was selected as the fuel due to its detonation sensitivity and the molar ratio of the oxidizer was chosen for heat transfer purposes. Detonations were initiated in the tube through the use of a spark ignition system. The PDE was operated in a multi-cycle mode at frequencies ranging from 20-Hz to 50-Hz. Baseline thrust measurements with no ejector present were performed while operating the engine at various frequencies and compared to theoretical estimates. The baseline values were observed to agree with the theoretical model at low operating frequencies and proved to be increasingly lower than the predicted values as the operating frequency was increased. The baseline thrust measurements were observed to agree within 15 percent of the model for all operating frequencies. A straight 152-mm diameter ejector was installed and thrust augmentation percentages were measured. The length of the ejector was varied while the overlap percentage (percent of the ejector length which overlapped the tube) was maintained at 25 percent for all tests. In addition, the effect of ejector inlet geometry was investigated by comparing results with a straight inlet to those of a 38-mm inlet diameter. The thrust augmentation of the straight inlet ejector proved to be independent of engine operating frequency, augmenting thrust by 40 percent for the 0.914-m length ejector. In contrast, the rounded lip ejector of the same length seemed to be highly dependent on the engine operating frequency. An optimum

  4. Numerical Analysis of a Pulse Detonation Cross Flow Heat Load Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Naples, Andrew .; Hoke, John L.; Schauer, Fred

    2011-01-01

    A comparison between experimentally measured and numerically simulated, time-averaged, point heat transfer rates in a pulse detonation (PDE) engine is presented. The comparison includes measurements and calculations for heat transfer to a cylinder in crossflow and to the tube wall itself using a novel spool design. Measurements are obtained at several locations and under several operating conditions. The measured and computed results are shown to be in substantial agreement, thereby validating the modeling approach. The model, which is based in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is then used to interpret the results. A preheating of the incoming fuel charge is predicted, which results in increased volumetric flow and subsequent overfilling. The effect is validated with additional measurements.

  5. Research on laser detonation pulse circuit with low-power based on super capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-yu; Hong, Jin; He, Aifeng; Jing, Bo; Cao, Chun-qiang; Ma, Yue; Chu, En-yi; Hu, Ya-dong

    2018-03-01

    According to the demand of laser initiating device miniaturization and low power consumption of weapon system, research on the low power pulse laser detonation circuit with super capacitor. Established a dynamic model of laser output based on super capacitance storage capacity, discharge voltage and programmable output pulse width. The output performance of the super capacitor under different energy storage capacity and discharge voltage is obtained by simulation. The experimental test system was set up, and the laser diode of low power pulsed laser detonation circuit was tested and the laser output waveform of laser diode in different energy storage capacity and discharge voltage was collected. Experiments show that low power pulse laser detonation based on super capacitor energy storage circuit discharge with high efficiency, good transient performance, for a low power consumption requirement, for laser detonation system and low power consumption and provide reference light miniaturization of engineering practice.

  6. High Performance Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J. R.; Roth, E.; Champagne, P.; Evtimov, B.; Nast, T. C.

    2008-03-01

    Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center has been developing pulse tube cryocoolers for more than ten years. Recent innovations include successful testing of four-stage coldheads, no-load temperature below 4 K, and the recent development of a high-efficiency compressor. This paper discusses the predicted performance of single and multiple stage pulse tube coldheads driven by our new 6 kg "M5Midi" compressor, which is capable of 90% efficiency with 200 W input power, and a maximum input power of 1000 W. This compressor retains the simplicity of earlier LM-ATC compressors: it has a moving magnet and an external electrical coil, minimizing organics in the working gas and requiring no electrical penetrations through the pressure wall. Motor losses were minimized during design, resulting in a simple, easily-manufactured compressor with state-of-the-art motor efficiency. The predicted cryocooler performance is presented as simple formulae, allowing an engineer to include the impact of a highly-optimized cryocooler into a full system analysis. Performance is given as a function of the heat rejection temperature and the cold tip temperatures and cooling loads.

  7. Investigation on Novel Methods to Increase Specific Thrust in Pulse Detonation Engines via Imploding Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Malliakos. Detonation cell size measurements in high-temperature hydrogen- air-steam mixtures at the bnl high-temperature combustion facility. Technical...Report NUREG/CR-6391, BNL -NUREG-52482, Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1997. [13] W.B. Benedick, R. Knystautas, and J.H.S. Lee. Large-scale

  8. Fuel Composition and Performance Analysis of Endothermically Heated Fuels for Pulse Detonation Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Waste heat from a pulse detonation engine (PDE) was extracted via concentric, counter flow heat exchangers to produce supercritical pyrolytic...mass spectrometry HLPC = High performance liquid chromatography NPT = National pipe thread PAH = Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon PDE = Pulse...Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The resulting “stressed” fuel showed a 29 shift to lower molecular weight compounds, as well as the production

  9. Characterization and Performance of a Liquid Hydrocarbon-Fueled Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    head wall pressure (P3) and the two sensors at the end of the tube provided indication of detonation wave passage (Wave1 and Wave2 ). These data...wave speed using the time of passage at Wave1 and Wave2 and the user-defined value of the distance between each sensor (this distance varied slightly...for each tube extension). A detonation velocity of zero was returned for any event in which neither Wave1 or Wave2 sensed a pressure rise of

  10. Swept-Ramp Detonation Initiation Performance in a High-Pressure Pulse Detonation Combustor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    conditions at sea level, but at elevated temperatures of 300–500°F in the combustor. The current work was motivated by a need to experimentally...The current work was motivated by a need to experimentally evaluate the detonation initiation performance of a PDC at elevated combustor pressures...High-Speed Propulsion Technologies (After [3]) .....................2 Figure 2. Stationary One-Dimensional Combustion Wave Model (From [7

  11. Effect of Detonation through a Turbine Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Matthew T.

    2004-01-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDE) have been investigated as a more efficient means of propulsion due to its constant volume combustion rather than the more often used constant pressure combustion of other propulsion systems. It has been proposed that a hybrid PDE-gas turbine engine would be a feasible means of improving the efficiency of the typical constant pressure combustion gas turbine cycle. In this proposed system, multiple pulse detonation tubes would replace the conventional combustor. Also, some of the compressor stages may be removed due to the pressure rise gained across the detonation wave. The benefits of higher thermal efficiency and reduced compressor size may come at a cost. The first question that arises is the unsteadiness in the flow created by the pulse detonation tubes. A constant pressure combustor has the advantage of supplying a steady and large mass flow rate. The use of the pulse detonation tubes will create an unsteady mass flow which will have currently unknown effects on the turbine located downstream of the combustor. Using multiple pulse detonation tubes will hopefully improve the unsteadiness. The interaction between the turbine and the shock waves exiting the tubes will also have an unknown effect. Noise levels are also a concern with this hybrid system. These unknown effects are being investigated using TURBO, an unsteady turbomachinery flow simulation code developed at Mississippi State University. A baseline case corresponding to a system using a constant pressure combustor with the same mass flow rate achieved with the pulse detonation hybrid system will be investigated first.

  12. A review of pulse tube refrigeration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radebaugh, Ray

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of the three types of pulse tube refrigerators: basic, resonant, and orifice types. The principles of operation are given. It is shown that the pulse tube refrigerator is a variation of the Stirling-cycle refrigerator, where the moving displacer is substituted by a heat transfer mechanism or by an orifice to bring about the proper phase shifts between pressure and mass flow rate. A harmonic analysis with phasors is described which gives reasonable results for the refrigeration power, yet is simple enough to make clear the processes which give rise to the refrigeration. The efficiency and refrigeration power are compared with those of other refrigeration cycles. A brief review is given of the research being done at various laboratories on both one- and two-stage pulse tubes. A preliminary assessment of the role of pulse tube refrigerators is discussed.

  13. Dissociation and Recombination Effects on the Performance of Pulse Detonation Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes major theoretical results for pulse detonation engine performance taking into account real gas chemistry, as well as significant performance differences resulting from the presence of ram and compression heating. An unsteady CFD analysis, as well as a thermodynamic cycle analysis, was conducted in order to determine the actual and the ideal performance for an air-breathing pulse detonation engine (PDE) using either a hydrogen-air or ethylene-air mixture over a flight Mach number range from 0 to 4. The results clearly elucidate the competitive regime of PDE application relative to ramjets and gas turbines.

  14. Assessment of Blasting Performance Using Electronic Vis-à-Vis Shock Tube Detonators in Strong Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Suresh Kumar; Rai, Piyush

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative investigation of the shock tube and electronic detonating systems practised in bench blasting. The blast trials were conducted on overburden rocks of Garnet Biotite Sillimanite Gneiss formations in one of the largest metalliferous mine of India. The study revealed that the choice of detonating system was crucial in deciding the fragment size and its distribution within the blasted muck-piles. The fragment size and its distribution affected the digging rate of excavators. Also, the shape of the blasted muck-pile was found to be related to the degree of fragmentation. From the present work, it may be inferred that in electronic detonation system, timely release of explosive energy resulted in better overall blasting performance. Hence, the precision in delay time must be considered in designing blast rounds in such overburden rock formations. State-of-art image analysis, GPS based muck-pile profile plotting techniques were rigorously used in the investigation. The study revealed that a mean fragment size (K50) value for shock tube detonated blasts (0.55-0.59 m) was higher than that of electronically detonated blasts (0.43-0.45 m). The digging rate of designated shovels (34 m3) with electronically detonated blasts was consistently more than 5000 t/h, which was almost 13 % higher in comparison to shock tube detonated blasts. Furthermore, favourable muck-pile shapes were witnessed in electronically detonated blasts from the observations made on the dozer performance.

  15. Ultimate Temperature of Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    An ideal pulse tube cryocooler using an ideal gas can operate at any temperature. This is not true for real gases. The enthalpy flow resulting from the real gas effects of He-3, He-4, and their mixtures in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers puts limits on the operating temperature of pulse tube cryocoolers. The discussion of these effects follows a previous description of the real gas effects in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers and makes use of models of the thermophysical properties of He-3 and He-4. Published data is used to extend the analysis to mixtures of He-3 and He-4. The analysis was done for pressures below 2 MPa and temperatures below 2.5 K. Both gases and their mixtures show low temperature limits for pulse tube cryocoolers. These limits are in the 0.5-2.2 K range and depend on pressure and mixture. In some circumstances, even lower temperatures may be possible. Pulse tube cryocoolers using the two-fluid properties of dilute 3He in superfluid He-4 appear to have no limit.

  16. Ultimate Temperature of Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    An ideal pulse tube cryocooler using an ideal gas can operate at any temperature. This is not true for real gases. The enthalpy flow resulting from the real gas effects of 3He, 4He, and their mixtures in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers puts limits on the operating temperature of pulse tube cryocoolers. The discussion of these effects follows a previous description of the real gas effects in ideal pulse tube cryocoolers and makes use of models of the thermophysical properties of 3He and 4He. Published data is used to extend the analysis to mixtures of 3He and 4He. The analysis was done for pressures below 2 MPa and temperatures below 2.5 K. Both gases and their mixtures show low temperature limits for pulse tube cryocoolers. These limits are in the 0.5-2.2 K range and depend on pressure and mixture. In some circumstances, even lower temperatures may be possible. Pulse tube cryocoolers using the ha-fluid properties of dilute 3He in superfluid 4He appear to have no limit.

  17. Laser High-Cycle Thermal Fatigue of Pulse Detonation Engine Combustor Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dong-Ming; Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Pulse detonation engines (PDE's) have received increasing attention for future aerospace propulsion applications. Because the PDE is designed for a high-frequency, intermittent detonation combustion process, extremely high gas temperatures and pressures can be realized under the nearly constant-volume combustion environment. The PDE's can potentially achieve higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust density in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines (ref. 1). However, the development of these engines requires robust design of the engine components that must endure harsh detonation environments. In particular, the detonation combustor chamber, which is designed to sustain and confine the detonation combustion process, will experience high pressure and temperature pulses with very short durations (refs. 2 and 3). Therefore, it is of great importance to evaluate PDE combustor materials and components under simulated engine temperatures and stress conditions in the laboratory. In this study, a high-cycle thermal fatigue test rig was established at the NASA Glenn Research Center using a 1.5-kW CO2 laser. The high-power laser, operating in the pulsed mode, can be controlled at various pulse energy levels and waveform distributions. The enhanced laser pulses can be used to mimic the time-dependent temperature and pressure waves encountered in a pulsed detonation engine. Under the enhanced laser pulse condition, a maximum 7.5-kW peak power with a duration of approximately 0.1 to 0.2 msec (a spike) can be achieved, followed by a plateau region that has about one-fifth of the maximum power level with several milliseconds duration. The laser thermal fatigue rig has also been developed to adopt flat and rotating tubular specimen configurations for the simulated engine tests. More sophisticated laser optic systems can be used to simulate the spatial distributions of the temperature and shock waves in the engine. Pulse laser high

  18. Pressure and Thrust Measurements of a High-Frequency Pulsed-Detonation Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Namtran C.; Cutler, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a small-scale, high-frequency pulsed detonation actuator. The device utilized a fuel mixture of H2 and air, which was injected into the device at frequencies of up to 1200 Hz. Pulsed detonations were demonstrated in an 8-inch long combustion volume, at approx.600 Hz, for the lambda/4 mode. The primary objective of this experiment was to measure the generated thrust. A mean value of thrust was measured up to 6.0 lb, corresponding to specific impulse of 2611 s. This value is comparable to other H2-fueled pulsed detonation engines (PDEs) experiments. The injection and detonation frequency for this new experimental case was approx.600 Hz, and was much higher than typical PDEs, where frequencies are usually less than 100 Hz. The compact size of the model and high frequency of detonation yields a thrust-per-unit-volume of approximately 2.0 lb/cu in, and compares favorably with other experiments, which typically have thrust-per-unit-volume values of approximately 0.01 lb/cu in.

  19. Fuel Composition Analysis of Endothermically Heated JP-8 Fuel for Use in a Pulse Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    detonation engine (PDE) was extracted via zeolite catalyst coated concentric tube-counter flow heat exchangers to produce supercritical pyrolytic conditions...gas chromatography flame ionization and thermal conductivity detectors ............................................. 68 Table B.1. Elemental bias... chromatography ...................... 98 Table D.1b. Products found in the liquid sample by gas chromatography (continued) ... 99 Table D.1c

  20. Pulse tube cryocoolers for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. L.; Martin, C. M.

    2002-05-01

    Stirling-type, high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers have received considerable interest in the past decade due to their high reliability, low vibration, and high efficiency. Most of the previous development of Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers has focused on relatively small machines with cooling powers in the range of 5 W at 80 K. In this paper, we discuss the extension of Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers to higher capacities for industrial applications. Mesoscopic Devices is currently developing a family of pulse tube cryocoolers with capacities ranging from 10 W at 80 K to over 1300 W at 80 K. Each of these machines uses a 50 or 60 Hz moving magnet linear compressor, inertance tube phase shift network, and either in-line or coaxial pulse tube expanders. With input powers of up to 20 kW, these large cryocoolers require different heat exchanger and regenerator designs to efficiently exchange heat with the load and environment. Design and construction techniques for the expander and heat exchangers are discussed.

  1. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    use of high-order numerical methods can also be a powerful tool in the analysis of such complex flows, but we need to understand the interaction of...computational physics, 43(2):357372, 1981. [47] B. Einfeldt. On godunov-type methods for gas dynamics . SIAM Journal on Numerical Analysis , pages 294...dimensional effects with complex reaction kinetics, the simple one-dimensional detonation structure provides a rich spectrum of dynamical features which are

  2. Fluidically Augmented Nozzles for Pulse Detonation Engine Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    25 captured the flow soon after the leading shock wave passed through the diverging section of the nozzle. As can be seen, the “pillow” has begun to...35 Figure 25. Initial Detonation Wave Enters the Diverging Section of the Nozzle...charging the combustor with an appropriate fuel/air mixture. This mixture is then ignited, producing a flame that is initially a deflagration wave . A

  3. Role of Air-Breathing Pulse Detonation Engines in High Speed Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, Louis A.; Lee, Jin-Ho; Anderberg, Michael O.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of flight Mach number on the relative performance of pulse detonation engines and gas turbine engines is investigated. The effect of ram and mechanical compression on combustion inlet temperature and the subsequent sensible heat release is determined. Comparison of specific thrust, fuel consumption and impulse for the two engines show the relative benefits over the Mach number range.

  4. Air liquide's space pulse tube cryocooler systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Buquet, J.; Ravex, A.

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to important development efforts completed with ESA funding, Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA), is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), SIFTI, etc… The Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) is lifting up to 2.47W@80K with 50W compressor input power and 10°C rejection temperature. The weight is 2.8 kg. The Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is providing 2.3W@50K for 160W input power and 10°C rejection temperature. This product is weighing 5.1 kg. The two pulse tube coolers thermo-mechanical units are qualified against environmental constraints as per ECSS-E-30. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor (partly supported by the French Agency CNES). This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects.

  5. Performance improvement of multi-stage pulse tube cryocoolers with a self-precooled pulse tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. M.; Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Cao, Q.; Gan, Z. H.

    2012-10-01

    Reducing the pulse tube losses is significant for improving the cooling performance of pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) in particular for multi-stage ones, although ignored to a certain extent. A simple method called self-precooled pulse tube for multi-stage PTCs is comprehensively studied in order to reduce the entropy flow inside the pulse tube. Different from the complex multi-bypass or extra cryocooler or cryogens for precooling, the key of the idea is to directly precool some part of the lower stage pulse tube by using a small amount of cooling power from the upper stage through a thermal bridge. A two-stage separate Stirling PTC was chosen to demonstrate the effects of self-precooled pulse tube. Theoretical calculation showed that both the precooling temperature and position of the pulse tube affected the performance of the cryocooler. The experiment results showed that the cooling performance of the second stage with self-precooled pulse tube was remarkably improved as the bottom temperature decreased from 26.60 K to 18.02 K. The cooling power was notably increased with minor performance reduction of the first stage. By further optimizing the operation parameters, a no-load temperature of 15.87 K was achieved, which is the lowest temperature ever obtained by a two-stage Stirling PTC with only an inertance shifter. The study proves that the precooled pulse tube can help hot end heat exchanger reject the heat inside pulse tube, reduce the heat losses of the cold end and consequently improve the cooling performance of the cryocooler.

  6. Detonation re-initiation in a concentric tube arrangement for C_2H_2/O_2/Ar mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Lee, J. H. S.; Weng, C.

    2017-05-01

    Re-initiation of detonation in a concentric tube arrangement where a detonation exiting from a small diameter inner tube to a large diameter outer tube has been investigated. The outer tube diameter D is 50.8 mm and inner tube diameters d are 38, 25.4, and 12.7 mm giving diameter ratios D/d=1.34, 2, and 4. Stoichiometric C_2H_2-O_2 mixtures with argon dilution of 0, 25, 50, and 70% are used in the present study. Velocity measurements are made using photodiodes, and smoked foils downstream of the exit of the inner tube are also used to record the re-initiation process. Upon exit from the inner tube, the detonation suffers an abrupt decrease in velocity and at critical conditions, the velocity downstream of the exit is of the order of 50% of the Chapman-Jouguet velocity. It is found that re-initiation generally occurs within 10 tube diameters downstream of the exit. If re-initiation is not successful, the detonation continues to propagate at a low velocity for distances of the order of 30 tube diameters without any indication of flame acceleration of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT). Thus, the re-initiation process is clearly defined and distinct from the usual DDT in a smooth tube. The critical d/λ value ratio in the concentric tube is significantly lower than the usual unconfined case of d/λ =13 where λ is the detonation cell size. Thus, it is a result of re-initiation at the Mach stem of the reflected shock from the wall of the outer concentric tube. If re-initiation is not successful upon the first reflection, then subsequent multiple reflections at the tube axis and wall of the outer tube can also result in re-initiation. However, this is only observed for undiluted mixtures. For high-argon-diluted mixtures, re-initiation only occurs at the Mach stem of the first reflection.

  7. Evaluation of Catalytic and Thermal Cracking in a JP-8 Fueled Pulsed Detonation Engine (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    this research. Each 0.91-m-long heat exchanger was fabricated with a 50.8-mm-dia, inconel - 625 , Schedule-10 inner tube and a 63.5-mm-dia, inconel -600...detonation tube had an inconel heat exchanger (described later). The PDE cycle consisted of three equally timed phases--fill, fire, and purge, as shown in...prevent phase change. The fuel was pressure fed to the inlet of the fuel heating system (FHS). The FHS consisted of two inconel heat exchangers, a

  8. Unsteady Specific Work and Isentropic Efficiency of a Radial Turbine Driven by Pulsed Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    iv AFIT/DS/ENY/12-25 Abstract There has been longstanding government and industry interest in pressure-gain combustion for use in Brayton cycle...10 III.A. Unsteady Flow in Conventional Brayton Cycle Turbines ........................10 III.B. Unsteady Flow in Pulsed Detonation Driven...Szpynda and Nalim 2007) 114 Figure 69. Heiser and Pratt comparison of ideal PDE, Humphrey, and Brayton cycles on a temperature-entropy diagram (Heiser

  9. Cavity Ignition in Supersonic Flow by Spark Discharge and Pulse Detonation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-18

    the super- sonic flow at takeover flight speeds (Mach num- bers ɝ) prohibit auto - ignition . Therefore energy addition techniques typically need to be...locate/proci of the Combustion InstituteCavity ignition in supersonic flow by spark discharge and pulse detonation Timothy M. Ombrello a,⇑, Campbell D...45430, USA c Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, OH 45459, USA Available online 18 August 2014Abstract Ignition of an ethylene fueled cavity

  10. MULTI-ELECTRODE TUBE PULSE MEMORY CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Gundlach, J.C.; Reeves, J.B.

    1958-05-20

    Control circuits are described for pulse memory devices for scalers and the like, and more particularly to a driving or energizing circuit for a polycathode gaseous discharge tube having an elongated anode and a successive series of cathodes spaced opposite the anode along its length. The circuit is so arranged as to utilize an arc discharge between the anode and a cathode to count a series of pulses. Upon application of an input pulse the discharge is made to occur between the anode and the next successive cathode, and an output pulse is produced when a particular subsequent cathode is reached. The circuit means for transfering the discharge by altering the anode potential and potential of the cathodes and interconnecting the cathodes constitutes the novel aspects of the invention. A low response time and reduced number of circuit components are the practical advantages of the described circuit.

  11. Detonation control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Bronisz, Lawrence E.

    2016-10-25

    Detonation control modules and detonation control circuits are provided herein. A trigger input signal can cause a detonation control module to trigger a detonator. A detonation control module can include a timing circuit, a light-producing diode such as a laser diode, an optically triggered diode, and a high-voltage capacitor. The trigger input signal can activate the timing circuit. The timing circuit can control activation of the light-producing diode. Activation of the light-producing diode illuminates and activates the optically triggered diode. The optically triggered diode can be coupled between the high-voltage capacitor and the detonator. Activation of the optically triggered diode causes a power pulse to be released from the high-voltage capacitor that triggers the detonator.

  12. Magnetohydrodynamic Augmentation of Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-28

    augmentation of the thrust . Ejectors typically transfer energy between streams through shear stress between separate flow streams, where a portion of the...the opportunity to extract energy and apply it to a separate stream where the net thrust can be increased. With MHD augmentation , such as in the Pulse...with the PDRIME for separate or additional thrust augmentation . Results show potential performance gains under many flight and operating conditions

  13. Raytheon Stirling/pulse Tube Cryocooler Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Hon, R. C.; Kesler, C. H.; Roberts, T.

    2008-03-01

    The first generation flight-design Stirling/pulse tube "hybrid" two-stage cryocooler has entered initial performance and environmental testing. The status and early results of the testing are presented. Numerous improvements have been implemented as compared to the preceding brassboard versions to improve performance, extend life, and enhance launch survivability. This has largely been accomplished by incorporating successful flight-design features from the Raytheon Stirling one-stage cryocooler product line. These design improvements are described. In parallel with these mechanical cryocooler development efforts, a third generation electronics module is being developed that will support hybrid Stirling/pulse tube and Stirling cryocoolers. Improvements relative to the second generation design relate to improved radiation hardness, reduced parts count, and improved vibration cancellation capability. Progress on the electronics is also presented.

  14. Gaseous detonation initiation via wave implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Scott Irving

    Efficient detonation initiation is a topic of intense interest to designers of pulse detonation engines. This experimental work is the first to detonate propane-air mixtures with an imploding detonation wave and to detonate a gas mixture with a non-reflected, imploding shock. In order to do this, a unique device has been developed that is capable of generating an imploding toroidal detonation wave inside of a tube from a single ignition point without any obstruction to the tube flow path. As part of this study, an initiator that creates a large-aspect-ratio planar detonation wave in gas-phase explosive from a single ignition point has also been developed. The effectiveness of our initiation devices has been evaluated. The minimum energy required by the imploding shock for initiation was determined to scale linearly with the induction zone length, indicating the presence of a planar initiation mode. The imploding toroidal detonation initiator was found to be more effective at detonation initiation than the imploding shock initiator, using a comparable energy input to that of current initiator tubes.

  15. CFD simulation of the gas flow in a pulse tube cryocooler with two pulse tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, in order to instruct the next optimization work, a two-dimension Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model is developed to simulate temperature distribution and velocity distribution of oscillating fluid in the DPTC by individual phase-shifting. It is found that the axial temperature distribution of regenerator is generally uniform and the temperatures near the center at the same cross setion of two pulse tubes are obviously higher than their near wall temperatures. The wall temperature difference about 0-7 K exists between the two pulse tubes. The velocity distribution near the center of the regenerator is uniform and there is obvious injection stream coming at the center of the pulse tubes from the hot end. The formation reason of temperature distribution and velocity distribution is explained.

  16. Raytheon advanced pulse-tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Ted; Yates, Ryan; Kuo, Daniel; Schaefer, Brian; Arnoult, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Recently, Raytheon has developed an advanced regenerator technology capable of operating efficiently at high frequencies and outperforming traditional screen regenerators. The Raytheon Advanced Miniature (RAM-100) cryocooler, a flight packaged, high frequency, single stage pulse tube cooler with an integrated surge volume and inertance tube, has been designed for use with this regenerator. Design details and experimentally measured performance of two iterations of the RAM cryocooler are presented in this paper.

  17. A Resonant Pulse Detonation Actuator for High-Speed Boundary Layer Separation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, B. T.; Cutler, A. D.; Drummond, J. P.; Jones, S. B.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of different types of actuators have been previously investigated as flow control devices. Potential applications include the control of boundary layer separation in external flows, as well as jet engine inlet and diffuser flow control. The operating principles for such devices are typically based on either mechanical deflection of control surfaces (which include MEMS flap devices), mass injection (which includes combustion driven jet actuators), or through the use of synthetic jets (diaphragm devices which produce a pulsating jet with no net mass flow). This paper introduces some of the initial flow visualization work related to the development of a relatively new type of combustion-driven jet actuator that has been proposed based on a pulse detonation principle. The device is designed to utilize localized detonation of a premixed fuel (Hydrogen)-air mixture to periodically inject a jet of gas transversely into the primary flow. Initial testing with airflow successfully demonstrated resonant conditions within the range of acoustic frequencies expected for the design. Schlieren visualization of the pulsating air jet structure revealed axially symmetric vortex flow, along with the formation of shocks. Flow visualization of the first successful sustained oscillation condition is also demonstrated for one configuration of the current test section. Future testing will explore in more detail the onset of resonant combustion and the approach to conditions of sustained resonant detonation.

  18. Fast cooldown coaxial pulse tube microcooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, T.; Olson, J. R.; Champagne, P.; Roth, E.; Kaldas, G.; Saito, E.; Loung, V.; McCay, B. S.; Kenton, A. C.; Dobbins, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report the development and initial testing of the Lockheed Martin first-article, single-stage, compact, coaxial, Fast Cooldown Pulse Tube Microcryocooler (FC-PTM). The new cryocooler supports cooling requirements for emerging large, high operating temperature (105-150K) infrared focal plane array sensors with nominal cooling loads of ~300 mW @105K @293K ambient. This is a sequel development that builds on our inline and coaxial pulse tube microcryocoolers reported at CEC 20137, ICC188,9, and CEC201510. The new FC-PTM and the prior units all share our long life space technology attributes, which typically have 10 year life requirements1. The new prototype microcryocooler builds on the previous development by incorporating cold head design improvements in two key areas: 1) reduced cool-down time and 2) novel repackaging that greatly reduces envelope. The new coldhead and Dewar were significantly redesigned from the earlier versions in order to achieve a cooldown time of 2-3 minutes-- a projected requirement for tactical applications. A design approach was devised to reduce the cold head length from 115mm to 55mm, while at the same time reducing cooldown time. We present new FC-PTM performance test measurements with comparisons to our previous pulse-tube microcryocooler measurements and design predictions. The FC-PTM exhibits attractive small size, volume, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) features with sufficient cooling capacity over required ambient conditions that apply to an increasing variety of space and tactical applications.

  19. Theoretical Analysis of a Pulse Tube Regenerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Kashani, Ali; Lee, J. M.; Cheng, Pearl L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the behavior of a typical pulse tube regenerator has been carried out. Assuming simple sinusoidal oscillations, the static and oscillatory pressures, velocities and temperatures have been determined for a model that includes a compressible gas and imperfect thermal contact between the gas and the regenerator matrix. For realistic material parameters, the analysis reveals that the pressure and, velocity oscillations are largely independent of details of the thermal contact between the gas and the solid matrix. Only the temperature oscillations depend on this contact. Suggestions for optimizing the design of a regenerator are given.

  20. Development of the Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, N.; Yasukawa, Y.; Ohshima, K.; Toyama, K.; Tsukahara, Y.; Kamoshita, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2004-06-01

    Fuji Electric has developed a pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) with in-line configuration with a cooling capacity of 3 W at 70 K and requiring 100 W of electrical input power. The emphasis has been on compactness, lightweight, high performance and low cost. In particular, the dimensions of the PTC have been reduced to a width of 190 mm and a height of 300 mm. Presently, we are developing a U-shaped PTC based on the technology of the in-line PTC. The advantage of the U-shaped PTC is that the cold head is located at the end for easy accessing. The key issue for developing the U-shaped PTC is the design of the flow straightener at the cold head. As a first step in the development we visualized the inside of the pulse tube by using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The design of the flow straightener is based on the visualization results. Preliminary tests indicated that the cooling performance of the U-shaped PTC is 2 W at 70 K while requiring 51 W PV power. We will present the test results on the U-shaped PTC as well as the in-line PTC.

  1. Experimental study of a valveless pulse detonation rocket engine using nontoxic hypergolic propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Brandon K.

    A pulsed detonation rocket engine concept was explored through the use of hypergolic propellants in a fuel-centered pintle injector combustor. The combustor design yielded a simple open ended chamber with a pintle type injection element and pressure instrumentation. High-frequency pressure measurements from the first test series showed the presence of large pressure oscillations in excess of 2000 psia at frequencies between 400-600 hz during operation. High-speed video confirmed the high-frequency pulsed behavior and large amounts of after burning. Damaged hardware and instrumentation failure limited the amount of data gathered in the first test series, but the experiments met original test objectives of producing large over-pressures in an open chamber. A second test series proceeded by replacing hardware and instrumentation, and new data showed that pulsed events produced under expanded exhaust prior to pulsing, peak pressures around 8000 psi, and operating frequencies between 400-800 hz. Later hot-fires produced no pulsed behavior despite undamaged hardware. The research succeeded in producing pulsed combustion behavior using hypergolic fuels in a pintle injector setup and provided insights into design concepts that would assist future injector designs and experimental test setups.

  2. Pulse tube cryocooler for IR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korf, H.; Ruhlich, I.; Mai, M.; Thummes, G.

    2005-05-01

    Pulse tube cryocoolers (PTC) can be regarded as the next step in the development of the Stirling cooler. The major advantage vs. the Stirling cooler is the omission of any moving part in the cold head, resulting in significantly increased MTTF. Further advantages are higher mechanical robustness and stability and the potential for cost reduction. AIM developed PTC's for several years in close cooperation with the University of Giessen. As a recent result at AIM, Coaxial PTC cold head are available within the outline dimension of typical IR Stirling cold head of 13mm diameter. The achieved performance data are comparable to the serial data of the Stirling cold head. This PTC cold head is designed to be operated in the orifice mode without a double inlet which is known to cause instabilities. Technical details and performance data represent the current technical status at AIM.

  3. Performance of a Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, N.; Yasukawa, Y.; Ohshima, K.; Minematsu, S.; Takeuchi, T.; Yoshizawa, K.; Matsushita, T.; Mizoguchi, Y.

    2006-04-01

    Fuji Electric Group has developed a miniature pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) of U-shaped configuration with a specific cooling capacity of 2W at 70K and requiring 100W of electrical input power. The emphasis has been on compactness, light weight, high performance, high reliability and low cost. This PTC is for commercial applications: for example, semiconductivity and high temperature superconductivity (HTS) devices used in wireless telecommunication systems and imaging sensors. The dimensions of the PTC have been reduced to 246mm wide by 232mm high and a weight of 8.5kg as integral configurations. The linear compressor motor uses two sets of moving coils to drive twin pistons supported by flexure bearings in a dual opposed configuration. The phase shifter, consisting of an inertance tube and reservoir tank, has been optimized. We produced and tested a prototype reduced-cost PTC. The prototype has a cooling capacity greater than 2.5W at 70K with 100W of electrical input power. The vibration of the cold head is less than 2 micrometers (peak to peak) when the hot-end side flange of the expander is fixed. This paper describes in detail its performance including inclination and vibration.

  4. Generation of nanosecond neutron pulses in vacuum accelerating tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, A. N.; Shikanov, A. E.; Rashchikov, V. I.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2014-06-01

    The generation of neutron pulses with a duration of 1-100 ns using small vacuum accelerating tubes is considered. Two physical models of acceleration of short deuteron bunches in pulse neutron generators are described. The dependences of an instantaneous neutron flux in accelerating tubes on the parameters of pulse neutron generators are obtained using computer simulation. The results of experimental investigation of short-pulse neutron generators based on the accelerating tube with a vacuum-arc deuteron source, connected in the circuit with a discharge peaker, and an accelerating tube with a laser deuteron source, connected according to the Arkad'ev-Marx circuit, are given. In the experiments, the neutron yield per pulse reached 107 for a pulse duration of 10-100 ns. The resultant experimental data are in satisfactory agreement with the results of computer simulation.

  5. Innovative phase shifter for pulse tube operating below 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, Jean-Marc; Charles, Ivan; Daniel, Christophe; André, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    Stirling type pulse tubes are classically based on the use of an inertance phase shifter to optimize their cooling power. The limitations of the phase shifting capabilities of these inertances have been pointed out in various studies. These limitations are particularly critical for low temperature operation, typically below about 50 K. An innovative phase shifter using an inertance tube filled with liquid, or fluid with high density or low viscosity, and separated by a sealed metallic diaphragm has been conceived and tested. This device has been characterized and validated on a dedicated test bench. Operation on a 50-80 K pulse tube cooler and on a low temperature (below 8 K) pulse tube cooler have been demonstrated and have validated the device in operation. These developments open the door for efficient and compact low temperature Stirling type pulse tube coolers. The possibility of long life operation has been experimentally verified and a design for space applications is proposed.

  6. Pulse tube cooler having 1/4 wavelength resonator tube instead of reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An improved pulse tube cooler having a resonator tube connected in place of a compliance volume or reservoir. The resonator tube has a length substantially equal to an integer multiple of 1/4 wavelength of an acoustic wave in the working gas within the resonator tube at its operating frequency, temperature and pressure. Preferably, the resonator tube is formed integrally with the inertance tube as a single, integral tube with a length approximately 1/2 of that wavelength. Also preferably, the integral tube is spaced outwardly from and coiled around the connection of the regenerator to the pulse tube at a cold region of the cooler and the turns of the coil are thermally bonded together to improve heat conduction through the coil.

  7. Development of a Low Cost High Frequency Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Caughley, A. J.; Haywood, D. J.

    2008-03-01

    In cooperation with Industrial Research Ltd (IRL), Cryomech, Inc. is developing a low cost high frequency pulse tube cryocooler. The valveless compressor, developed at IRL, employs two S.S. diaphragms and a novel kinematics driven mechanism. The pulse tube cold head has co-axial configuration. It is separated from the compressor with a SS flexible line of 1 meter long. The test results demonstrate a very small orientation effect of the cold head (<3 K at any orientation). This pulse tube cryocooler provides flexibility for user's integration. It can provide 108W at 77K with an electric input power of 3.7 kW in the primary test.

  8. Recirculating 1-K-Pot for Pulse-Tube Cryostats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Christopher T.; Naylor, Bret J.; Prouve, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A paper describes a 1-K-pot that works with a commercial pulse tube cooler for astrophysics instrumentation testbeds that require temperatures <1.7 K. Pumped liquid helium-4 cryostats were commonly used to achieve this temperature. However, liquid helium-4 cryostats are being replaced with cryostats using pulse tube coolers. The closed-cycle 1K-pot system for the pulse tube cooler requires a heat exchanger on the pulse tube, a flow restriction, pump-out line, and pump system that recirculates helium-4. The heat exchanger precools and liquefies helium- 4 gas at the 2.5 to 3.5 K pulse tube cold head. This closed-cycle 1-K-pot system was designed to work with commercially available laboratory pulse tube coolers. It was built using common laboratory equipment such as stainless steel tubing and a mechanical pump. The system is self-contained and requires only common wall power to operate. The lift of 15 mW at 1.1 K and base temperature of 0.97 K are provided continuously. The system can be scaled to higher heat lifts of .30 to 50 mW if desired. Ground-based telescopes could use this innovation to improve the efficiency of existing cryo

  9. Unsteady specific work and isentropic efficiency of a radial turbine driven by pulsed detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouser, Kurt P.

    There has been longstanding government and industry interest in pressure-gain combustion for use in Brayton cycle based engines. Theoretically, pressure-gain combustion allows heat addition with reduced entropy loss. The pulsed detonation combustor (PDC) is a device that can provide such pressure-gain combustion and possibly replace typical steady deflagration combustors. The PDC is inherently unsteady, however, and comparisons with conventional steady deflagration combustors must be based upon time-integrated performance variables. In this study, the radial turbine of a Garrett automotive turbocharger was coupled directly to and driven, full admission, by a PDC in experiments fueled by hydrogen or ethylene. Data included pulsed cycle time histories of turbine inlet and exit temperature, pressure, velocity, mass flow, and enthalpy. The unsteady inlet flowfield showed momentary reverse flow, and thus unsteady accumulation and expulsion of mass and enthalpy within the device. The coupled turbine-driven compressor provided a time-resolved measure of turbine power. Peak power increased with PDC fill fraction, and duty cycle increased with PDC frequency. Cycle-averaged unsteady specific work increased with fill fraction and frequency. An unsteady turbine efficiency formulation is proposed, including heat transfer effects, enthalpy flux-weighted total pressure ratio, and ensemble averaging over multiple cycles. Turbine efficiency increased with frequency but was lower than the manufacturer reported conventional steady turbine efficiency.

  10. Design of the glass pulse-tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z.; Bernhardt, C.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    With the purpose of generating the curiosity of the public, a pulse-tube cryocooler with regenerator, pulse-tube, inertance tube and reservoir made of glass has been designed constructed and operated. The dimensions of the glass regenerator have been determined using REGEN3.3 [1] from given parameters of the conductive porous medium inside of the regenerator and a 150K target cooling temperature at the cold head. The geometry of the glass pulse-tube and glass inertance tube has been fixed using an approximate design method [2], and the entire system parameters checked using SAGE [3]. The thickness of each glass component is based on a charge pressure of around 7 bar and a pressure ratio of about 1.35. The dimensions of the after-cooler are calculated using ISOHX [4] assuming a gas temperature of 300 K at the inlet of the regenerator.

  11. Study of low vibration 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingyao; Nakano, Kyosuke; Saito, Motokazu; Takayama, Hirokazu; Tsuchiya, Akihiro; Maruyama, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been continuously improving the efficiency and reducing the vibration of a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. One advantage of a pulse tube cryocooler over a GM cryocooler is low vibration. In order to reduce vibration, both the displacement and the acceleration have to be reduced. The vibration acceleration can be reduced by splitting the valve unit from the cold head. One simple way to reduce vibration displacement is to increase the wall thickness of the tubes on the cylinder. However, heat conduction loss increases while the wall thickness increases. To overcome this dilemma, a novel concept, a tube with non-uniform wall thickness, is proposed. Theoretical analysis of this concept, and the measured vibration results of an SHI lowvibration pulse tube cryocooler, will be introduced in this paper.

  12. An Integrated Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler at 80K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. L.; Yang, L. W.; Cai, J. H.; Liang, J. T.; Zhang, L.; Zhou, Y.

    2008-03-01

    Two integrated models of coaxial miniature pulse tube coolers based on an experimental model are manufactured. Performance of the integrated models is compared to that of the experimental model. Reliability and stability of an integrated model are tested and improved.

  13. Experimental Characterisation of a Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Ground Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, I.; Duband, L.; Martin, J.-Y.; Mullié, J. C.; Bruins, P. C.

    2004-06-01

    Developments on high frequency high heat lift pulse tubes are carried out at CEA/SBT. Based on a previous study on an in line configuration, two new pulse tube cold fingers have been manufactured: a coaxial configuration and a U-shape configuration. Measurements performed with the coaxial configuration have demonstrated cooling power in excess of 6 W at 80 K with 140 W of mechanical input power. The results obtained with these two configurations are presented. The impact of the rejection temperature has also been studied and is discussed. In parallel, a new compressor with pistons supported by flexure bearings has been designed and manufactured. This compressor has been coupled with the pulse tube. Tests performed with the new developed flexure-bearing compressors and a conventional compressor are presented and compared. The pulse tube cold finger associated with the new compressor leads to a reliable and low vibration cooler.

  14. [Research on diagnosis of gas-liquid detonation exhaust based on double optical path absortion spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    The effect detection of detonation exhaust can provide measurement data for exploring the formation mechanism of detonation, the promotion of detonation efficiency and the reduction of fuel waste. Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique combined with double optical path cross-correlation algorithm, the article raises the diagnosis method to realize the on-line testing of detonation exhaust velocity, temperature and H2O gas concentration. The double optical path testing system is designed and set up for the valveless pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. By scanning H2O absorption lines of 1343nm with a high frequency of 50 kHz, the on-line detection of gas-liquid pulse detonation exhaust is realized. The results show that the optical testing system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technique can capture the detailed characteristics of pulse detonation exhaust in the transient process of detonation. The duration of single detonation is 85 ms under laboratory conditions, among which supersonic injection time is 5.7 ms and subsonic injection time is 19.3 ms. The valveless pulse detonation engine used can work under frequency of 11 Hz. The velocity of detonation overflowing the detonation tube is 1,172 m x s(-1), the maximum temperature of detonation exhaust near the nozzle is 2 412 K. There is a transitory platform in the velocity curve as well as the temperature curve. H2O gas concentration changes between 0-7% during detonation under experimental conditions. The research can provide measurement data for the detonation process diagnosis and analysis, which is of significance to advance the detonation mechanism research and promote the research of pulse detonation engine control technology.

  15. Design and characterization of very high frequency pulse tube prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Diogo; Duval, Jean-Marc; Charles, Ivan; Butterworth, James; Trollier, Thierry; Tanchon, Julien; Ravex, Alain; Daniel, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Weight and size are important features of a cryocooler when it comes to space applications. Given their reliability and low level of exported vibrations (due to the absence of moving cold parts), pulse tubes are good candidates for spatial purposes and their miniaturization has been the focus of many studies. We report on the design and performance of a small-scale very high frequency pulse tube prototype, modeled after two previous prototypes which were optimized with a numerical code.

  16. Ideal cycle analysis of a regenerative pulse detonation engine for power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, Rafaela

    Over the last few decades, considerable research has been focused on pulse detonation engines (PDEs) as a promising replacement for existing propulsion systems with potential applications in aircraft ranging from the subsonic to the lower hypersonic regimes. On the other hand, very little attention has been given to applying detonation for electric power production. One method for assessing the performance of a PDE is through thermodynamic cycle analysis. Earlier works have adopted a thermodynamic cycle for the PDE that was based on the assumption that the detonation process could be approximated by a constant volume process, called the Humphrey cycle. The Fickett-Jacob cycle, which uses the one--dimensional Chapman--Jouguet (CJ) theory of detonation, has also been used to model the PDE cycle. However, an ideal PDE cycle must include a detonation based compression and heat release processes with a finite chemical reaction rate that is accounted for in the Zeldovich -- von Neumann -- Doring model of detonation where the shock is considered a discontinuous jump and is followed by a finite exothermic reaction zone. This work presents a thermodynamic cycle analysis for an ideal PDE cycle for power production. A code has been written that takes only one input value, namely the heat of reaction of a fuel-oxidizer mixture, based on which the program computes all the points on the ZND cycle (both p--v and T--s plots), including the von Neumann spike and the CJ point along with all the non-dimensionalized state properties at each point. In addition, the program computes the points on the Humphrey and Brayton cycles for the same input value. Thus, the thermal efficiencies of the various cycles can be calculated and compared. The heat release of combustion is presented in a generic form to make the program usable with a wide variety of fuels and oxidizers and also allows for its use in a system for the real time monitoring and control of a PDE in which the heat of reaction

  17. Investigation on the Inertance Tubes of Pulse Tube Cryocooler Without Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. J.; Yang, L. W.; Liang, J. T.; Hong, G. T.

    2010-04-01

    Phase angle is of vital importance for high-efficiency pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs). Inertance tube as the main phase shifter is useful for the PTCs to obtain appropriate phase angle. Experiments of inertance tube without reservoir under variable frequency, variable length and diameter of inertance tube and variable pressure amplitude are investigated respectively. In addition, the authors used DeltaEC, a computer program to predict the performance of low-amplitude thermoacoustic engines, to simulate the effects of inertance tube without reservoir. According to the comparison of experiments and theoretical simulations, DeltaEC method is feasible and effective to direct and improve the design of inertance tubes.

  18. A small, single stage orifice pulse tube cryocooler demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, John B.

    1990-01-01

    This final report summarizes and presents the analytical and experimental progress in the present effort. The principal objective of this effort was the demonstration of a 0.25 Watt, 80 Kelvin orifice pulse tube refrigerator. The experimental apparatus is described. The design of a partially optimized pulse tube refrigerator is included. The refrigerator demonstrates an ultimate temperature of 77 K, has a projected cooling power of 0.18 Watts at 80 K, and has a measured cooling power of 1 Watt at 97 K, with an electrical efficiency of 250 Watts/Watt, much better than previous pulse tube refrigerators. A model of the pulse tube refrigerator that provides estimates of pressure ratio and mass flow within the pulse tube refrigerator, based on component physical characteristics is included. A model of a pulse tube operation based on generalized analysis which is adequate to support local optimization of existing designs is included. A model of regenerator performance based on an analogy to counterflow heat exchangers is included.

  19. Large co-axial pulse tube preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, N.; Caughley, A.; Meier, J.; Nation, M.; Tanchon, J.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.

    2014-01-01

    We report that Callaghan Innovation, formally known as Industrial Research Ltd (IRL), has designed and built its largest of three high frequency single-stage co-axial pulse tubes, closely coupled to a metal diaphragm pressure wave generator (PWG). The previous pulse tube achieved 110 W of cooling power @ 77 K, with an electrical input power of 3.1 kW from a 90 cc swept volume PWG. The pulse tubes have all been tuned to operate at 50 Hz, with a mean helium working pressure of 2.5 MPa. Sage pulse tube simulation software was used to model the latest pulse tube and predicted 280 W of cooling power @ 77 K. The nominal 250 W cryocooler was designed to be an intermediate step to up-scale pulse tube technology for our 1000 cc swept-volume PWG, to provide liquefaction of gases and cooling for HTS applications. Details of the modeling, design, development and preliminary experimental results are discussed.

  20. Experimental Study of Propulsion Performance by Single-Pulse Rotating Detonation with Gaseous Fuels-Oxygen Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshimitsu, Kazuhiko; Hara, Kosei; Mikajiri, Shuuto; Takiguchi, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    A rotating detonation engine (RDE) is one of candidates of aerospace engines for supersonic cruse, which is better for propulsion system than a pulse detonation engine (PDE) from the view of continuous thrust and simple structure. The propulsion performance of a proto-type RDE and a PDE by single pulse explosion with methane-oxygen is investigated. Furthermore, the performance of the RDE with acetylene-oxygen gas mixtures is investigated. Its impulse is estimated through ballistic pendulum method with maximum displacement and damping ratio. The comparison of specific impulses of the mixture gases at atmospheric pressure is shown. The specific impulses of the RDE and the PDE are almost same with methane-oxygen gas. Furthermore, the fuel-base specific impulse of the RDE with acetylene-oxygen gas is about over twice as large as one of methane-oxygen, and its maximum specific impulse is 1100 seconds.

  1. Schlieren Imaging and Pulsed Detonation Engine Testing of Ignition by a Nanosecond Repetitively Pulsed Discharge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-16

    in ethylene–air and aviation gasoline (avgas)–air mixtures. Testing of NRP discharges in the glow and corona regimes in PDE engines has been...in further detail in Refs. [17,21–23]. NRP discharges in the pin-to-pin configuration have been shown to operate in three regimes: corona , glow, and...assisted combustion Plasma assisted ignition Aircraft propulsionA nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) discharge in the spark regime has been investigated

  2. Measurements of multiple gas parameters in a pulsed-detonation combustor using time-division-multiplexed Fourier-domain mode-locked lasers.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Andrew W; Roy, Sukesh; An, Xinliang; Sanders, Scott T; Schauer, Frederick R; Gord, James R

    2013-04-20

    Hyperspectral absorption spectroscopy is being used to monitor gas temperature, velocity, pressure, and H(2)O mole fraction in a research-grade pulsed-detonation combustor (PDC) at the Air Force Research Laboratory. The hyperspectral source employed is termed the TDM 3-FDML because it consists of three time-division-multiplexed (TDM) Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers. This optical-fiber-based source monitors sufficient spectral information in the H(2)O absorption spectrum near 1350 nm to permit measurements over the wide range of conditions encountered throughout the PDC cycle. Doppler velocimetry based on absorption features is accomplished using a counterpropagating beam approach that is designed to minimize common-mode flow noise. The PDC in this study is operated in two configurations: one in which the combustion tube exhausts directly to the ambient environment and another in which it feeds an automotive-style turbocharger to assess the performance of a detonation-driven turbine. Because the enthalpy flow [kilojoule/second] is important in assessing the performance of the PDC in various configurations, it is calculated from the measured gas properties.

  3. Design of a Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.; Charles, I.; Duband, L.; Mullié, J.; Bruins, P.; Benschop, T.; Linder, M.

    2004-06-01

    An Engineering Model (EM) of a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) has been designed and manufactured. The expected performance of the MPTC were 1240 mW heat lift at 80 K with 288 K ambient temperature and 40 Watts rms maximum input power to the compressor motors. The EM is a U shape configuration operated with an inertance tube. The design and optimisation of the compressor and the Pulse Tube cold finger are described. The thermal performance test results are presented and discussed as well. This work is performed within a Technological Research Project (TRP) funded by ESA (Contract 14896/00/NL/PA).

  4. Oxidation- and Creep-Enhanced Fatigue of Haynes 188 Alloy-Oxide Scale System Under Simulated Pulse Detonation Engine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of the pulse detonation engine (PDE) requires robust design of the engine components that are capable of enduring harsh detonation environments. In this study, a high cycle thermal fatigue test rig was developed for evaluating candidate PDE combustor materials using a CO2 laser. The high cycle thermal fatigue behavior of Haynes 188 alloy was investigated under an enhanced pulsed laser test condition of 30 Hz cycle frequency (33 ms pulse period, and 10 ms pulse width including 0.2 ms pulse spike). The temperature swings generated by the laser pulses near the specimen surface were characterized by using one-dimensional finite difference modeling combined with experimental measurements. The temperature swings resulted in significant thermal cyclic stresses in the oxide scale/alloy system, and induced extensive surface cracking. Striations of various sizes were observed at the cracked surfaces and oxide/alloy interfaces under the cyclic stresses. The test results indicated that oxidation and creep-enhanced fatigue at the oxide scale/alloy interface was an important mechanism for the surface crack initiation and propagation under the simulated PDE condition.

  5. Effect of Pulse Detonation-Plasma Technology Treatment on T8 Steel Microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiuming; Zhang, Linwei; Liu, Keming; Lu, Lei; Lu, Deping; Zhou, Haitao

    2017-12-01

    T8 steel surfaces were treated by pulse detonation-plasma technology (PDT) at capacitance values of 600, 800, and 1000 μF, and the effects of PDT were analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron back-scattered diffraction, and micro-hardness tester and friction wear tester. The surface of T8 steel is first smoothed out, and then, craters are formed due to the inhomogeneity of the PDT energy and targeting during PDT treatment. The initial martensite in the T8 steel surface layer changes to austenite, and Fe3N is formed due to nitriding. The thickness of the modified layer, which is composed of columnar and fine grain structures, increases with the increasing capacity. Preferential orientation occurred in the {110} 〈 001 〉 direction in the modified layer, and the number of low-angle grain boundaries increased significantly after PDT treatment. The micro-hardness and wear resistance of the T8 steel was improved by PDT treatment, even doubled after the treatment with the capacitance of 1000 μF.

  6. Detonation Propulsion - A Navy Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    for Detonation of Stoichiometric C2H4/ 02 Pui•DIIIIIdll Elllllbell Pllllllll•a IIIII • Project/Program Components - Single tube multi-cycle PDE ... Detonation (mid stages) • Acoustic Wave Interaction - Rotating Detonation (mid stages) - Spinning Detonation (early stages) 62 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6...Session 2 Detonation Propulsion -A Navy Perspective Gabriel Roy Office of Naval Research Global 46 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No

  7. Evaluation of Straight and Swept Ramp Obstacles on Enhancing Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition in Pulse Detonation Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    models attempted to bracket the extremes of the conditions of interest. These conditions were Mach 2 and Mach 3 shocks , with initial medium...later, but all traces have been expanded to the area of interest. Pressure readings were primarily used to measure shock speeds, and initially used...results for the clean tube configuration. The characteristics of the initial shock are similar, and are comparable for all configurations tested

  8. Air Liquide's pulse tube cryocooler systems for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Rey, J. C.; Ravex, A.; Buquet, J.

    2009-05-01

    Thanks to important development efforts completed internally and with the European Space Agency (ESA) funding, Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA) is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), SIFTI, etc... The Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) is lifting up to 2.47W@80K with 50W maximal compressor input power and 10°C rejection temperature. The weight is 2.8 kg. The Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is providing 2.3W@50K for 160W input power and 10°C rejection temperature. This product is weighing 5.1 kg. The two pulse tube coolers thermo-mechanical units are qualified against environmental constraints as per ESA ECSS-E-30. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor (partly supported by the French Agency CNES). This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects.

  9. Thermal Barrier and Protective Coatings to Improve the Durability of a Combustor Under a Pulse Detonation Engine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming

    2008-01-01

    Pulse detonation engine (PDE) concepts are receiving increasing attention for future aeronautic propulsion applications, due to their potential thermodynamic cycle efficiency and higher thrust to density ratio that lead to the decrease in fuel consumption. But the resulting high gas temperature and pressure fluctuation distributions at high frequency generated with every detonation are viewed to be detrimental to the combustor liner material. Experimental studies on a typical metal combustion material exposed to a laser simulated pulse heating showed extensive surface cracking. Coating of the combustor materials with low thermal conductivity ceramics is shown to protect the metal substrate, reduce the thermal stresses, and hence increase the durability of the PDE combustor liner material. Furthermore, the temperature fluctuation and depth of penetration is observed to decrease with increasing the detonation frequency. A crack propagation rate in the coating is deduced by monitoring the variation of the coating apparent thermal conductivity with time that can be utilized as a health monitoring technique for the coating system under a rapid fluctuating heat flux.

  10. Performance analysis and optimization of high capacity pulse tube refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahremani, Amir R.; Saidi, M. H.; Jahanbakhshi, R.; Roshanghalb, F.

    High capacity pulse tube refrigerator (HCPTR) is a new generation of cryocoolers tailored to provide more than 250 W of cooling power at cryogenic temperatures. The most important characteristics of HCPTR when compared to other types of pulse tube refrigerators are a powerful pressure wave generator, and an accurate design. In this paper the influence of geometrical and operating parameters on the performance of a double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) is studied. The model is validated with the existing experimental data. As a result of this optimization, a new configuration of HCPTR is proposed. This configuration provides 335 W at 80 K cold end temperature with a frequency of 50 Hz and COP of 0.05.

  11. Detonation Jet Engine. Part 2--Construction Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. Detonation engines of various concepts, pulse detonation, rotational and engine with stationary detonation wave, are reviewed. Main trends in detonation engine development are discussed. The most important works that carried out…

  12. A compact nanosecond pulse generator for DBD tube characterization.

    PubMed

    Rai, S K; Dhakar, A K; Pal, U N

    2018-03-01

    High voltage pulses of very short duration and fast rise time are required for generating uniform and diffuse plasma under various operating conditions. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) has been generated by high voltage pulses of short duration and fast rise time to produce diffuse plasma in the discharge gap. The high voltage pulse power generators have been chosen according to the requirement for the DBD applications. In this paper, a compact solid-state unipolar pulse generator has been constructed for characterization of DBD plasma. This pulsar is designed to provide repetitive pulses of 315 ns pulse width, pulse amplitude up to 5 kV, and frequency variation up to 10 kHz. The amplitude of the output pulse depends on the dc input voltage. The output frequency has been varied by changing the trigger pulse frequency. The pulsar is capable of generating pulses of positive or negative polarity by changing the polarity of pulse transformer's secondary. Uniform and stable homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been produced successfully in a xenon DBD tube at 400-mbar pressure using the developed high voltage pulse generator.

  13. A compact nanosecond pulse generator for DBD tube characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, S. K.; Dhakar, A. K.; Pal, U. N.

    2018-03-01

    High voltage pulses of very short duration and fast rise time are required for generating uniform and diffuse plasma under various operating conditions. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) has been generated by high voltage pulses of short duration and fast rise time to produce diffuse plasma in the discharge gap. The high voltage pulse power generators have been chosen according to the requirement for the DBD applications. In this paper, a compact solid-state unipolar pulse generator has been constructed for characterization of DBD plasma. This pulsar is designed to provide repetitive pulses of 315 ns pulse width, pulse amplitude up to 5 kV, and frequency variation up to 10 kHz. The amplitude of the output pulse depends on the dc input voltage. The output frequency has been varied by changing the trigger pulse frequency. The pulsar is capable of generating pulses of positive or negative polarity by changing the polarity of pulse transformer's secondary. Uniform and stable homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been produced successfully in a xenon DBD tube at 400-mbar pressure using the developed high voltage pulse generator.

  14. Low temperature high frequency coaxial pulse tube for space application

    SciTech Connect

    Charrier, Aurelia; Charles, Ivan; Rousset, Bernard

    2014-01-29

    The 4K stage is a critical step for space missions. The Hershel mission is using a helium bath, which is consumed day by day (after depletion, the space mission is over) while the Plank mission is equipped with one He4 Joule-Thomson cooler. Cryogenic chain without helium bath is a challenge for space missions and 4.2K Pulse-Tube working at high frequency (around 30Hz) is one option to take it up. A low temperature Pulse-Tube would be suitable for the ESA space mission EChO (Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, expected launch in 2022), which requires around 30mW cooling power at 6K; and for themore » ESA space mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics), to pre-cool the sub-kelvin cooler (few hundreds of mW at 15K). The test bench described in this paper combines a Gifford-McMahon with a coaxial Pulse-Tube. A thermal link is joining the intercept of the Pulse-Tube and the second stage of the Gifford-McMahon. This intercept is a separator between the hot and the cold regenerators of the Pulse-Tube. The work has been focused on the cold part of this cold finger. Coupled with an active phase shifter, this Pulse-Tube has been tested and optimized and temperatures as low as 6K have been obtained at 30Hz with an intercept temperature at 20K.« less

  15. Method for estimating off-axis pulse tube losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Mulcahey, T. I.; Taylor, R. P.; Spoor, P. S.; Conrad, T. J.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Some Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) exhibit sensitivity to gravitational orientation and often exhibit significant cooling performance losses unless situated with the cold end pointing downward. Prior investigations have indicated that some coolers exhibit sensitivity while others do not; however, a reliable method of predicting the level of sensitivity during the design process has not been developed. In this study, we present a relationship that estimates an upper limit to gravitationally induced losses as a function of the dimensionless pulse tube convection number (NPTC) that can be used to ensure that a PTC would remain functional at adverse static tilt conditions. The empirical relationship is based on experimental data as well as experimentally validated 3-D computational fluid dynamics simulations that examine the effects of frequency, mass flow rate, pressure ratio, mass-pressure phase difference, hot and cold end temperatures, and static tilt angle. The validation of the computational model is based on experimental data collected from six commercial pulse tube cryocoolers. The simulation results are obtained from component-level models of the pulse tube and heat exchangers. Parameter ranges covered in component level simulations are 0-180° for tilt angle, 4-8 for length to diameter ratios, 4-80 K cold tip temperatures, -30° to +30° for mass flow to pressure phase angles, and 25-60 Hz operating frequencies. Simulation results and experimental data are aggregated to yield the relationship between inclined PTC performance and pulse tube convection numbers. The results indicate that the pulse tube convection number can be used as an order of magnitude indicator of the orientation sensitivity, but CFD simulations should be used to calculate the change in energy flow more accurately.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Pulse Detonation Rocket-Induced MHD Ejector (PDRIME) Concepts for Advanced Propulsion Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-28

    Coupling in Detonation Waves: 1D Dynamics”, Paper 89, 23rd International Colloquium on the Dynamics of Explosions and Reactive ...and temperature, and can be modeled as a constant volume reaction , which is more efficient than a constant pressure reaction . After the detonation ... kinetics , and flow processes using high order numerical methods. A fifth-order WENO (weighted essentially non -oscillatory12,13) scheme was used

  17. Investigation of energy transport within a pulse tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldauf, A.; Schmauder, T.; Thürk, M.; Seidel, P.

    2002-05-01

    A compact Four-Valve Pulse Tube Refrigerator (FVPTR) in U-tube configuration without a reservoir has been built. At present, the cooler provides a minimum temperature of 32 K and 100 W of cooling power at 90 K with a nominal input power of 5.6 kW. Experiments were performed to study the special refrigeration mechanisms of the FVPTR. The highly instrumented system that includes gas temperature sensors, hot wire anemometers and pressure sensors is used to assess the p-V work and enthalpy flow at the key locations in the pulse tube. The experiments have enabled us to verify the various analytical models of the FVPTR. Based on the first law of thermodynamics for open systems we have estimated the gross refrigeration power for this special type of pulse tube refrigerator. Furthermore our model takes typical loss processes into consideration to analyze the real FVPTR process. These calculations need some assumptions about the real flow behavior and the time-dependent temperatures within the pulse tube. The accuracy of these assumptions will be checked by our experiments. By using these results a further technical improvement of our FVPTR should be possible.

  18. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  19. Numerical Study of a 10 K Two Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Precooling Inside the Pulse Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaomin, Pang; Xiaotao, Wang; Wei, Dai; Jianyin, Hu; Ercang, Luo

    2017-02-01

    High efficiency cryocoolers working below 10 K have many applications such as cryo-pump, superconductor cooling and cryogenic electronics. This paper presents a thermally coupled two-stage pulse tube cryocooler system and its numeric analysis. The simulation results indicate that temperature distribution in the pulse tube has a significant impact on the system performance. So a precooling heat exchanger is put inside the second stage pulse tube for a deep investigation on its influence on the system performance. The influences of operating parameters such as precooling temperature, location of the precooling heat exchanger are discussed. Comparison of energy losses apparently show the advantages of the configuration which leads to an improvement on the efficiency. Finally, the cryocooler is predicted to be able to reach a relative Carnot efficiency of 10.7% at 10 K temperature.

  20. Blind vortex tube as heat-rejecting heat exchanger for pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, M. P.; Fabris, D.; Sweeney, R. O.

    2002-05-01

    This project integrated several unusual design features in a coaxial pulse tube cooler driven by a G-M compressor. Design objectives were simplification of construction and validation of innovative components to replace screens. The MS*2 Stirling Cycle Code was used to develop the thermodynamic design of the cooler. The primary innovation being investigated is the vortex tube that serves as both the orifice and the heat-rejecting heat exchanger at the warm end of the pulse tube. The regenerator is etched stainless steel foil with a developmental etch pattern. The cold heat exchanger is a copper cup with axial slits in its wall. Flow straightening in the cold end of the pulse tube is accomplished in traditional fashion with screens, but flow in the warm end of the pulse tube passes through a diffuser nozzle that is an extension of the cold throat of the vortex tube. The G-M compressor is rated at 2 kW. The custom-built rotary valve permits operation at speeds up to about 12 Hz. A series of adjustments over a period of about 7 months improved cooling performance by an average of almost 20 K per month. A no-load temperature of 65 K has been achieved. Experimental apparatus and results of this patented device [1,2] are described.

  1. Investigation on Two-Stage 300 HZ Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H. K.; Yang, L. W.; Hong, G. T.; Luo, E. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In the past few years, ultra-high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers are becoming a research hotspot for their portability and compactness in aerospace and aviation applications. For preliminary research, a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler working at 300 Hz driven by a thermoacoustic engine is established to investigate the problems due to ultra high frequency, and several results have been derived in our early reports. In order to study the effect of thermal penetration depth, this paper presents the cooler adopting copper mesh as the regenerator, and comparison with stainless steel mesh is given. In addition, the influence of inertance tube on the lowest possible cooler temperature is also tested. Finally, we discuss the improvement for getting a lower temperature.

  2. On random pressure pulses in the turbine draft tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.; Skripkin, S. G.; Tsoy, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The flow in the conical part of the hydroturbine draft tube undergoes various instabilities due to deceleration and flow swirling at off-design operation points. In particular, the precessing vortex rope develops at part-load regimes in the draft tube. This rope induces periodical low-frequency pressure oscillations in the draft tube. Interaction of rotational (asynchronous) mode of disturbances with the elbow can bring to strong oscillations in the whole hydrodynamical system. Recent researches on flow structure in the discharge cone in a regime of free runner had revealed that helical-like vortex rope can be unstable itself. Some coils of helix close to each other and reconnection appears with generation of a vortex ring. The vortex ring moves toward the draft tube wall and downstream. The present research is focused on interaction of vortex ring with wall and generation of pressure pulses.

  3. Effects of regenerator geometry on pulse tube refrigerator performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M.; Kuriyama, T.; Xiao, J. H.; Radebaugh, R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives results of the cooling performance of a double-inlet pulse tube refrigerator using various regenerators. The same pulse tube was used for all the experiments and measured 4.76 mm in diameter and 46.2 mm in length. A commercial linear compressor with a swept volume of 4 cm3 was used in these experiments. The operating conditions were held constant at a mean pressure of 2.0 MPa and a frequency of 54 Hz. Using finite difference software called REGEN3.1, developed at NIST, and recent experiment results, we optimized a series of regenerators based on dimensions, materials and screen packing. The values used for calculating the thermal conduction through stacked screens by REGEN3.1 were based on recent experimental results from NIST. The regenerator tubes were designed using 316 stainless steel and titanium materials. The regenerator matrices investigated were 400-mesh and 500-mesh stainless steel screen. The valve settings for both orifices were adjusted to minimize the no-load temperature for all regenerators. A cooling capacity curve from 0 to 3 W was also determined. The performance of the pulse tube refrigerator using the different regenerators is discussed. The experimental results from the various regenerators are evaluated and compared with their corresponding numerically calculated coefficient of performance (COP) and regenerator design as determined by REGEN3.1.

  4. 10 K high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with precooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixue; Chen, Liubiao; Wu, Xianlin; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2016-07-01

    A high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with precooling (HPTCP) has been developed and tested to meet the requirement of weak magnetic signals measurement, and the performance characteristics are presented in this article. The HPTCP is a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler with the precooling-stage replaced by liquid nitrogen. Two regenerators completely filled with stainless steel (SS) meshes are used in the cooler. Together with cold inertance tubes and cold gas reservoir, a cold double-inlet configuration is used to control the phase relationship of the HPTCP. The experimental result shows that the cold double-inlet configuration has improved the performance of the cooler obviously. The effects of operation parameters on the performance of the cooler are also studied. With a precooling temperature of 78.5 K, the maximum refrigeration capacity is 0.26 W at 15 K and 0.92 W at 20 K when the input electric power are 174 W and 248 W respectively, and the minimum no-load temperature obtained is 10.3 K, which is a new record on refrigeration temperature for high frequency pulse tube cryocooler reported with SS completely used as regenerative matrix.

  5. Development and Characterization Testing of an Air Pulsation Valve for a Pulse Detonation Engine Supersonic Parametric Inlet Test Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornabene, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In pulse detonation engines, the potential exists for gas pulses from the combustor to travel upstream and adversely affect the inlet performance of the engine. In order to determine the effect of these high frequency pulses on the inlet performance, an air pulsation valve was developed to provide air pulses downstream of a supersonic parametric inlet test section. The purpose of this report is to document the design and characterization tests that were performed on a pulsation valve that was tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center 1x1 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) test facility. The high air flow pulsation valve design philosophy and analyses performed are discussed and characterization test results are presented. The pulsation valve model was devised based on the concept of using a free spinning ball valve driven from a variable speed electric motor to generate air flow pulses at preset frequencies. In order to deliver the proper flow rate, the flow port was contoured to maximize flow rate and minimize pressure drop. To obtain sharp pressure spikes the valve flow port was designed to be as narrow as possible to minimize port dwell time.

  6. A miniature pulse tube cryocooler used in a superspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenhua; Wu, Yinong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a hihg0 frequency pulse tube cryocooler used in a superspectral imager to be launched in 2020. The superspectral imager is a field-dividing optical imaging system and uses 14 sets of integrated IR detector cryocooler dewar assembly. For the requirements of less heat loss an smaller size, each set is highly integrated by directly mounting the IR dectector's sapphire substrate on the pulse tube's cold tip, and welding the dewar's housing to the flange of the cold finger. Driven by a pair of moving magnet linear motors, the dual-opposed piston compressor of the croycooler is running at 120Hz. Filled with customized stainless screens in the regenerator, the cryolooler reaches 8.1% carnot efficiency at the cooling power of 1W@80K with 34Wac input power.

  7. Transparent Tube Studies of Burning to Detonation Transition in Granular Explosives 1: Preliminary Framing Camera Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-27

    Reference 13. The 94/6 RDX/ wax (X893) and 97/3 RDX/ wax (X758) were mechanical mixtures prepared from Class A RDX (X597) and carnauba wax (N134). The...UKLAS9*TE SE,’CRITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered) ionization probes in previous steel tube studies. In charges of 94/6 RDX/ wax ...explosives (picric acid, tetryl, and RDX/ wax ) were among those materials in previous steel tube studies at NSWC which achieved deflagration to

  8. A Contaminant Ice Visualization Experiment in a Glass Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, J. L.; Ross, R. G., Jr.; Le, A. K.

    2000-01-01

    Results are presented from pulse tube experiments designed to investigate the effect of 400 parts per million water vapor contamination of the helium working gas. The experiments were conducted in a glass pulse tube to enable visualization of ice formation on internal surfaces. Photographs of this ice formation were taken along with simultaneous coldtip temperature and compressor power measurements. Four types of regenerator elements were tested in various combinations: 200- and 400-mesh stainless steel screens, 1.6 mm diameter glass beads, and 1.6 mm thick perforated plastic plates. Internal spacers were also used to provide clear fields of view into the regenerator stack. Substantial water-ice formation was observed at the cold end of the regenerator and on the inside wall of pulse tube; it appeared to be highly porous, like snow, and was seen to accumulate only in a very localized region at the coldest end, despite changing the cold tip temperature across a range of 150 to 235 K. Ice formation degraded pulse tube thermal performance only in cases where screen regenerators were used at the regenerator cold end. It was concluded that flow blockage was the mechanism by which contaminants affected performance; coarse regenerator elements were largely immune over the tested time scale of a few days. Substantially reduced ice formation and minimal performance loss were also observed in repeated tests where the contaminated gas was reused after warming up and melting of the accumulated internal ice. Significant adsorption of the liquid water onto the regenerator was inferred, a process that depleted the gas phase concentration of water.

  9. CFD study of a simple orifice pulse tube cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Qiu, L. M.; Gan, Z. H.; He, Y. L.

    2007-05-01

    Pulse tube cooler (PTC) has the advantages of long-life and low vibration over the conventional cryocoolers, such as G-M and Stirling coolers because of the absence of moving parts in low temperature. This paper performs a two-dimensional axis-symmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a GM-type simple orifice PTC (OPTC). The detailed modeling process and the general results such as the phase difference between velocity and pressure at cold end, the temperature profiles along the wall as well as the temperature oscillations at cold end with different heat loads are presented. Emphases are put on analyzing the complicated phenomena of multi-dimensional flow and heat transfer in the pulse tube under conditions of oscillating pressure. Swirling flow pattern in the pulse tube is observed and the mechanism of formation is analyzed in details, which is further validated by modeling a basic PTC. The swirl causes undesirable mixing in the thermally stratified fluid and is partially responsible for the poor overall performance of the cooler, such as unsteady cold-end temperature.

  10. Thermodynamic analyses and the experimental validation of the Pulse Tube Expander system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Qiming; Gong, Linghui; Feng, Guochao; Zou, Longhui

    2018-04-01

    A Pulse Tube Expander (PTE) for small and medium capacity cryogenic refrigeration systems is described in this paper. An analysis of the Pulse Tube Expander is developed based on the thermodynamic analyses of the system. It is shown that the gas expansion is isentropic in the cold end of the pulse tube. The temperature variation at the outlet of Pulse Tube Expander is measured and the isentropic efficiency is calculated to be 0.455 at 2 Hz. The pressure oscillations in the pulse tube are obtained at different frequencies. The limitations and advantages of this system are also discussed.

  11. Optically detonated explosive device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Menichelli, V. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for optically detonating insensitive high explosives, is disclosed. An explosive device is formed by containing high explosive material in a house having a transparent window. A thin metallic film is provided on the interior surface of the window and maintained in contact with the high explosive. A laser pulse provided by a Q-switched laser is focussed on the window to vaporize the metallic film and thereby create a shock wave which detonates the high explosive. Explosive devices may be concurrently or sequentially detonated by employing a fiber optic bundle to transmit the laser pulse to each of the several individual explosive devices.

  12. Operational Characteristics of a Rotating Detonation Engine Using Hydrogen and Air

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Naval Research Laboratory PDE Pulsed detonation engine RDE Rotating detonation engine TDW Transverse detonation wave Symbols [SI units...primarily been on pulsed detonation engines ( PDEs ). Recently, however, detonation research has begun to also focus on rotating , or continuous... rotating detonation engines have been studied, however, more progress was initially made regarding PDEs . Recently, though, there has been a renewed

  13. 40 K single-stage coaxial pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Haizheng

    2012-04-01

    Several 40 K single-stage coaxial high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) have been developed to provide reliable and low-noise cooling for GaAs/AlGaAs Quantum-Well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). The inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir become the only phase shifter to guarantee the required long-term stability. The mixed regenerator consisting of three segments has been developed to enhance the overall regenerator performance. At present, the cooler prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 29.7 K and can typically provide 860 mW cooling at 40 K with 200 W electric input power rejecting at 300 K. The performance characteristics such as the temperature stability and ambient temperature adaptability are also presented.

  14. Fast cool-down coaxial pulse tube microcooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nast, T.; Olson, J. R.; Champagne, P.; Roth, E.; Kaldas, G.; Saito, E.; Loung, V.; McCay, B. S.; Kenton, A. C.; Dobbins, C. L.

    2016-09-01

    We report the development and initial testing of the Lockheed Martin first-article, single-stage, compact, coaxial, Fast Cooldown Pulse Tube Microcryocooler (FC-PTM). The new cryocooler supports cooling requirements for emerging large, high operating temperature (105-150K) infrared focal plane array sensors with nominal cooling loads of 300 mW @105K @293K ambient. This is a sequel development that builds on our inline and coaxial pulse tube microcryocoolers reported at CEC 20137, ICC188,9, and CEC201510. The new FC-PTM and the prior units all share our long life space technology attributes, which typically have 10 year life requirements1. The new prototype microcryocooler builds on the previous development by incorporating cold head design improvements in two key areas: 1) reduced cool-down time and 2) novel repackaging that greatly reduces envelope. The new coldhead and Dewar were significantly redesigned from the earlier versions in order to achieve a cooldown time of 2-3 minutes- a projected requirement for tactical applications. A design approach was devised to reduce the cold head length from 115mm to 55mm, while at the same time reducing cooldown time. We present new FC-PTM performance test measurements with comparisons to our previous pulse-tube microcryocooler measurements and design predictions. The FC-PTM exhibits attractive small size, volume, weight, power and cost (SWaP-C) features with sufficient cooling capacity over required ambient conditions that apply to an increasing variety of space and tactical applications.

  15. Design, development and testing twin pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gour, Abhay Singh; Sagar, Pankaj; Karunanithi, R.

    2017-09-01

    The design and development of Twin Pulse Tube Cryocooler (TPTC) is presented. Both the coolers are driven by a single Linear Moving Magnet Synchronous Motor (LMMSM) with piston heads at both ends of the mover shaft. Magnetostatic analysis for flux line distribution was carried-out during design and development of LMMSM based pressure wave generator. Based on the performance of PWG, design of TPTC was carried out using Sage and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. Detailed design, fabrication and testing of LMMSM, TPTC and their integration tests are presented in this paper.

  16. Advantages of high-frequency Pulse-tube technology and its applications in infrared sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arts, R.; Willems, D.; Mullié, J.; Benschop, T.

    2016-05-01

    The low-frequency pulse-tube cryocooler has been a workhorse for large heat lift applications. However, the highfrequency pulse tube has to date not seen the widespread use in tactical infrared applications that Stirling cryocoolers have had, despite significant advantages in terms of exported vibrations and lifetime. Thales Cryogenics has produced large series of high-frequency pulse-tube cryocoolers for non-infrared applications since 2005. However, the use of Thales pulse-tube cryocoolers for infrared sensing has to date largely been limited to high-end space applications. In this paper, the performances of existing available off-the-shelf pulse-tube cryocoolers are examined versus typical tactical infrared requirements. A comparison is made on efficiency, power density, reliability, and cost. An outlook is given on future developments that could bring the pulse-tube into the mainstream for tactical infrared applications.

  17. Analysis of DC control in double-inlet GM type pulse tube refrigerators for detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, B. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Pulse tube refrigerators have demonstrated many advantages with respect to temperature stability, vibration, reliability and lifetime among cryo-coolers for detectors. Double-inlet type pulse tube refrigerators are popular in GM type pulse tube refrigerators. The single double-inlet valve may introduce DC flow in refrigerator, which deteriorates the performance of pulse tube refrigerator. One new type of DC control mode is introduced in this paper. Two parallel-placed needle valves with opposite direction named double-valve configuration, instead of single double-inlet valve, are used in our experiment to reduce the DC flow. With two double-inlet operating, the lowest cold end temperature of 18.1K and a coolant of 1.2W@20K have been obtained. It has proved that this method is useful for controlling DC flow of the pulse tube refrigerators, which is very important to understand the characters of pulse tube refrigerators for detectors.

  18. Vibration Isolation for a Pulse-Tube Research Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, S. T. P.

    2007-03-01

    Commercial pulse-tube refrigerators (PTRs) now provide base temperatures < 3K, low vibration, and long life. However, vibration levels are still often too large for LT and ULT measurements. One highly successful approach to vibration isolation in very small cryostats has been the use of 1-atm He exchange gas, in an envelope with a flexible element, interposed between the cold head and the cryostat. A design study to scale up this technique for a PTR research cryostat has previously been presented. However, some questions remained, given the violation of ``adiabaticity'' of the ``pulse tubes'' in the PTR and the potential for convective flow and Taconis oscillations of the exchange gas in the open geometry. We present experimental results obtained on the cryostat with a rigid exchange-gas volume, which permitted the variation of exchange-gas pressure. The news is all good so far: the heat exchangers perform well and in reasonable agreement with calculations, no evidence is seen of deleterious effects due to convection or Taconis oscillations or gas permeation, and the 2.8K PTR base temperature is only raised by 0.1K or less. Work to implement the fully-vibration-isolated cryostat is now underway.

  19. A pulse tube cryocooler with a cold reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, K. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Gan, Z. H.; Shen, X.; Xiang, S. J.

    2013-02-01

    Phase difference between pressure wave and mass flow is decisive to the cooling capacity of regenerative cryocoolers. Unlike the direct phase shifting using a piston or displacer in conventional Stirling or GM cryocoolers, the pulse tube cyocooler (PTC) indirectly adjusts the cold phase due to the absence of moving parts at the cold end. The present paper proposed and validated theoretically and experimentally a novel configuration of PTC, termed cold reservoir PTC, in which a reservoir together with an adjustable orifice is connected to the cold end of the pulse tube. The impedance from the additional orifice to the cold end helps to increase the mass flow in phase with the pressure wave at the cold end. Theoretical analyses with the linear model for the orifice and double-inlet PTCs indicate that the cooling performance can be improved by introducing the cold reservoir. The preliminary experiments with a home-made single-stage GM PTC further validated the results on the premise of minor opening of the cold-end orifice.

  20. Studies on Phase Shifting Mechanism in Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan; Gurudath, C. S.; Srikanth, Thota; Ambirajan, A.; Basavaraj, SA; Dinesh, Kumar; Venkatarathnam, G.

    2017-02-01

    Pulse Tube cryocoolers (PTC) are being used extensively in spacecraft for applications such as sensor cooling due to their simple construction and long life owing to a fully passive cold head. Efforts at ISRO to develop a PTC for space use have resulted in a unit with a cooling capacity of 1W at 80K with an input of 45watts. This paper presents the results of a study with this PTC on the phase shifting characteristics of an Inertance tube in conjunction with a reservoir. The aim was to obtain an optimum phase angle between the mass flow (ṁ) and dynamic pressure (\\tilde p) at the PT cold end that results in the largest possible heat lift from this unit. Theoretical model was developed using Phasor Analysis and Transmission Line Model (TLM) for different mass flow and values of optimum frequency and phase angles were predicted. They were compared with experimental data from the PTC for different configurations of the Inertance tube/reservoir at various frequencies and charge pressures. These studies were carried out to characterise an existing cryocooler and design an optimised phase shifter with the aim of improving the performance with respect to specific power input.

  1. Effect of gravity opientation on the thermal performance of Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronald, Ross G., Jr.; Johnson, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the investigation of angular orientation effects to the refrigeration performance of high frequency (-40 Hz) Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers typical of those used in long-life space applications. Strong orientation effects on the performance of such cryocoolers have recently been observed during system-level testing of both linear and U-tube type pulse tubes. To quantify the angular dependency effects, data have been gathered on both U-tube and linear type pulse tubes of two different manufacturers as a function of orientation angle, cold-tip temperature, and compressor stroke.

  2. Pulse Tube Interference in Cryogenic Sensor Resonant Circuits - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Tyler

    2015-08-27

    Transition edge sensors (TES) are extremely sensitive superconducting sensors, operating at 100 mK, which can be used to detect X-rays and Cosmic Microwave Background. The goal of our project is to design the electronics to read out an array of 10000 of these sensors by using microwave signals. However, we noticed the pulse tube used to maintain cryogenic temperatures caused interference in our readout. To determine the cause of the signal distortions, we used a detector with a 370 MHz sampling rate to collect and analyze sensor data. Although this data provided little information towards the nature of the noise,more » it was determined through a maintenance procedure than the 0.3 mm stainless steel wires were being vibrated due to acoustic waves, which distorted the signal. Replacing this wire appeared to cease the interference from the sensor data.« less

  3. Pulse Tube Interference in Cryogenic Sensors - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Tyler

    2015-08-24

    Transition edge sensors (TES) are extremely sensitive superconducting sensors, operating at 100 mK, which can be used to detect X-rays and Cosmic Microwave Background. The goal of our project is to design the electronics to read out an array of 10000 of these sensors by using microwave signals. However, we noticed the pulse tube used to maintain cryogenic temperatures caused interference in our readout. To determine the cause of the signal distortions, we used a detector with a 370 MHz sampling rate to collect and analyze sensor data. Although this data provided little information towards the nature of the noise,more » it was determined through a maintenance procedure than the 0.3 mm stainless steel wires were being vibrated due to acoustic waves, which distorted the signal. Replacing this wire appeared to cease the interference from the sensor data.« less

  4. Development of high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Haizheng

    2012-06-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers developed in SITP/CAS to provide high reliability, low-noise and long life cooling for potential space applications. The advances in understanding the cooler mechanism and minimizing irreversible losses in various components are described, which have made a great contribution to the improved efficiencies. At present, the operating temperatures cover from 30 K to 200 K and the cooling capacities vary from hundreds of milliwatts to over 20 W to meet a variety of requirements. Some typical cryocooler development programs are introduced and a brief overview of the updated data package is presented. The proposed applications, design approaches, research advances, the major problems and the efforts to overcome them are described.

  5. Development of high capacity Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imura, J.; Shinoki, S.; Sato, T.; Iwata, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Yasohama, K.; Ohashi, Y.; Nomachi, H.; Okumura, N.; Nagaya, S.; Tamada, T.; Hirano, N.

    2007-10-01

    We have been developing a Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler, aiming for a cooling capacity of 200 W at 80 K for a superconducting magnetic energy storage system. In this work, we adopted stainless steel meshes for the regenerator of the cryocooler, and studied the influences of the mesh number on the cooling capacity. The prepared mesh numbers were #150, 200, 250, 350 and 400. Using #250 mesh, and at a frequency of 45 Hz and power consumption of 3.1 kW, the achievable lowest temperature and cooling capacity at 80 K was 46.2 K and 123 W, respectively. Furthermore, in order to optimize the performance, some regenerators were made by stacking several kinds of meshes with different stacking orders. Using these regenerators, we have obtained a high cooling capacity of 169 W at 80 K with power consumption of 4 kW.

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance magnet actively cooled by pulse tube refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichek, Oleg; Carr, Philip; Johnson, Chris; Atrey, Milind

    2005-05-01

    High field NMR spectrometers have been an essential tool for biomolecular scientists for many years. They have been instrumental in the pursuit of understanding of the structure, function and dynamics of proteins and other biological molecules. In addition, NMR is increasingly used for small molecule applications such as metabonomics, providing capabilities that aid drug discovery, as well as general organic and inorganic chemistry [M. Pellecchia et al., Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 1, 211 (2002)]. However, access to these systems is restricted due to the requirement to periodically refill them with liquid cryogens. This is both logistically demanding and expensive. A new system combining NMR spectrometry and Pulse Tube Refrigeration (PTR) has been developed and successfully tested. This approach eliminates the dependence on liquid cryogens, reduces spectrometer downtime, and also significantly reduces the size of the system. In the near future this new type of analytical tool may become ubiquitous in biomedical and chemical laboratories.

  7. A pulse-tube refrigerator using variable-resistance orifice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, B. J.; Sun, B. W.

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we propose a new design of orifice pulse-tube refrigerator (VROPT) using a variable-resistance valve to replace the conventional orifice. The variable-resistance orifice (VRO) is basically a high-speed solenoidal valve similar to the fuel jet device widely used in automobile engines. By changing the frequency and periods of ON and OFF of the valve through an electronic device, we can change the flow resistance of the VRO. This thus provides a possibility for an OPT to be controlled on-line during operation. From the results obtained in the present study, we have shown that VROPT is able to achieve on-line control by regulating the duty cycle d or frequency fv of the VRO. We also show that VROPT will not loss its thermal performance as compared to conventional OPT.

  8. Development of Pulse Tube Cryocoolers at SITP for Space Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Wu, Yinong; Liu, Shaoshuai; Yu, Huiqin; Yang, Baoyu

    2018-05-01

    Over the last 10 years, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, has developed very high-efficiency pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) for aerospace applications. These PTCs can provide cooling power from milliwatt scale to tens of watts over a range of temperatures from 30 to 170 K and can be used to cool a variety of detectors in space applications (such as quantum interference devices, radiometers and ocean color sensors) that must operate at a specific cryogenic temperature to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, sensitivity and optical resolution. This paper reviews the development of single-stage PTCs over a range of weights from 1.6 to 12 kg that offer cooling powers at the cold temperature range from 40 to 170 K. In addition, a two-stage 30 K-PTC is under development.

  9. Development of miniature, high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, Ray; Garaway, Isaac; Veprik, Alexander M.

    2010-04-01

    Because acoustic power density is proportional to frequency, the size of pulse tube cryocoolers for a given refrigeration power can be reduced by operating them at higher frequencies. A frequency of about 60 Hz had been considered the maximum frequency that could be used while maintaining high efficiency. Recently, we have shown through modeling that by decreasing the volume and hydraulic diameter of the regenerator and increasing the average pressure, it is possible to maintain high efficiency even for frequencies of several hundred hertz. Subsequent experimental results have demonstrated high efficiencies for frequencies of 100 to 140 Hz. The very high power density achieved at higher pressures and higher frequencies leads to very short cooldown times and very compact devices. The use of even higher frequencies requires the development of special compressors designed for such conditions and the development of regenerator matrices with hydraulic diameters less than about 30 Μm. To demonstrate the advantages of higher frequency operation, we discuss here the development of a miniature pulse tube cryocooler designed to operate at 80 K with a frequency of 150 Hz and an average pressure of 5.0 MPa. The regenerator diameter and length are 4.4 mm and 27 mm, respectively. The lowest temperature achieved to date has been 97 K, but a net refrigeration power of 530 mW was achieved at 120 K. Acoustic mismatches with existing compressors significantly limit the efficiency, but necessary modifications to improve the acoustic impedance match between the compressor and the cold head are discussed briefly.

  10. Advances in a high efficiency commercial pulse tube cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yibing; Li, Haibing; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Yang, Zhaohui; Luo, Ercang

    2017-12-01

    The pulse tube cryocooler has the advantage of no moving part at the cold end and offers a high reliability. To further extend its use in commercial applications, efforts are still needed to improve efficiency, reliability and cost effectiveness. This paper generalizes several key innovations in our newest cooler. The cooler consists of a moving magnet compressor with dual-opposed pistons, and a co-axial cold finger. Ambient displacers are employed to recover the expansion work to increase cooling efficiency. Inside the cold finger, the conventional flow straightener screens are replaced by a tapered throat between the cold heat exchanger and the pulse tube to strengthen its immunity to the working gas contamination as well as to simplify the manufacturing processes. The cold heat exchanger is made by copper forging process which further reduces the cost. Inside the compressor, a new gas bearing design has brought in assembling simplicity and running reliability. Besides the cooler itself, electronic controller is also important for actual application. A dual channel and dual driving mode control mechanism has been selected, which reduces the vibration to a minimum, meanwhile the cool-down speed becomes faster and run-time efficiency is higher. With these innovations, the cooler TC4189 reached a no-load temperature of 44 K and provided 15 W cooling power at 80K, with an input electric power of 244 W and a cooling water temperature of 23 ℃. The efficiency reached 16.9% of Carnot at 80 K. The whole system has a total mass of 4.3 kg.

  11. Effect of gravity orientation on the thermal performance of Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Ronald G.; Johnson, Dean L.

    2004-06-01

    The effect of angular orientation on the off-state conduction of pulse tube cryocoolers has been previously explored, as has the effect of orientation on the thermal performance of low-frequency (˜2 Hz) GM-style pulse tube refrigerators. The significant effects that have been found are well explained by the presence of free convection that builds up in the hollow pulse tube when the hot end of the pulse tube is not higher than the cold end. This paper extends the investigation of angular orientation effects to the refrigeration performance of high frequency (˜40 Hz) Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers typical of those used in long-life space applications. Strong orientation effects on the performance of such cryocoolers have recently been observed during system-level testing of both linear and U-tube type pulse tubes. To quantify the angular dependency effects, data have been gathered on both U-tube and linear type pulse tubes of two different manufacturers as a function of orientation angle, cold-tip temperature, and compressor stroke.

  12. Rotating Detonation Engine Operation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    MdotH2 = mass flow of hydrogen MdotAir = mass flow of air PCB = Piezoelectric Pressure Sensor PDE = Pulsed Detonation Engine RDE = Rotating ...and unsteady thrust output of PDEs . One of the new designs was the Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE). An RDE operates by exhausting an initial...AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0003 ROTATING DETONATION ENGINE OPERATION (PREPRINT) James A. Suchocki and Sheng-Tao John Yu The Ohio State

  13. Measurement of Work Generation and Improvement in Performance of a Pulse Tube Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Futagi, Hiroaki; Yazaki, Taichi; Hiratsuka, Yoshikatsu

    Apart from double acting type engines, Stirling engines have either 2 pistons in 2 cylinders or 2 pistons in a single cylinder. Typically, the heater, regenerator and cooler are installed between the 2 pistons. The pulse tube engine, on the other hand, consists of a single piston in a single cylinder, a pulse tube, a heater, a regenerator, a cooler and a second cooler. For this paper, a simple prototype engine that uses air at normal atmospheric pressure as the working gas was fabricated. The oscillating velocity of the working gas in the pulse tube was measured using LDV, and the work flow emitting out of the pulse tube was observed. In addition, the effect of inserting heat storage material in the pulse tube on shaft power and indicated power was examined experimentally. A dramatic increase in the shaft power was achieved.

  14. Control of DC gas flow in a single-stage double-inlet pulse tube cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Thummes, G.; Heiden, C.

    The use of double-inlet mode in the pulse tube cooler opens up a possibility of DC gas flow circulating around the regenerator and pulse tube. Numerical analysis shows that effects of DC flow in a single-stage pulse tube cooler are different in some aspects from that in a 4 K pulse tube cooler. For highest cooler efficiency, DC flow should be compensated to a small value, i.e. DC flow over average AC flow at regenerator inlet should be in the range -0.0013 to +0.00016. Dual valves with reversed asymmetric geometries were used for the double-inlet bypass to control the DC flow in this paper. The experiment, performed in a single-stage double-inlet pulse tube cooler, verified that the cooler performance can be significantly improved by precisely controlling the DC flow.

  15. Influence of Regenerator Material on Performance of a 6K High Frequency Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Quan; YJ, Liu; XY, Li; JT, Liang

    2017-12-01

    As very low temperature high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been a hot topic in the field of pulse tube cryocooler, improving the cryocooler’s performance is a common goal of researchers. By integrating the former results, we found that regenerator material is a key factor for the improvement of pulse tube cryocooler’s efficiency. In this paper, methods of simulation and experiment were used to investigate the influence of stacking style on performance of 6K high frequency pulse tube cryocooler. Finally, the lowest temperature has dropped from 8.8K to 6.7K and more than 10mW of cooling power is achieved at 8K with a two-stage thermally coupled high frequency pulse tube cryocooler. The results make the space application of NbN terahertz detectors possible.

  16. [The Diagnostics of Detonation Flow External Field Based on Multispectral Absorption Spectroscopy Technology].

    PubMed

    Lü, Xiao-jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2016-03-01

    Compared with traditional sampling-based sensing method, absorption spectroscopy technology is well suitable for detonation flow diagnostics, since it can provide with us fast response, nonintrusive, sensitive solution for situ measurements of multiple flow-field parameters. The temperature and concentration test results are the average values along the laser path with traditional absorption spectroscopy technology, while the boundary of detonation flow external field is unknown and it changes all the time during the detonation engine works, traditional absorption spectroscopy technology is no longer suitable for detonation diagnostics. The trend of line strength with temperature varies with different absorption lines. By increasing the number of absorption lines in the test path, more information of the non-uniform flow field can be obtained. In this paper, based on multispectral absorption technology, the reconstructed model of detonation flow external field distribution was established according to the simulation results of space-time conservation element and solution element method, and a diagnostic method of detonation flow external field was given. The model deviation and calculation error of the least squares method adopted were studied by simulation, and the maximum concentration and temperature calculation error was 20.1% and 3.2%, respectively. Four absorption lines of H2O were chosen and detonation flow was scanned at the same time. The detonation external flow testing system was set up for the valveless gas-liquid continuous pulse detonation engine with the diameter of 80 mm. Through scanning H2O absorption lines with a high frequency of 10 kHz, the on-line detection of detonation external flow was realized by direct absorption method combined with time-division multiplexing technology, and the reconstruction of dynamic temperature distribution was realized as well for the first time, both verifying the feasibility of the test method. The test results

  17. Pulse Detonation Engine Thrust Tube Heat Exchanger for Flash Vaporization and Supercritical Heating of JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    47 Figure 21. Construction of the long heat exchanger with helical rod welded in place.... 48 Figure 22. Heat exchanger...not at a temperature at or above the dew point temperature of the mixture, some of the fuel in the mixture will re- condense . The concept of...diao (25) Where kamb = Thermal conductivity of the air [W/(m-K)] Nufc = Nusselt number for free convection The Nussult number

  18. Planar Reflection of Detonations Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Jason; Shepherd, Joseph

    2012-11-01

    An experimental study examining normally reflected gaseous detonation waves is undertaken so that the physics of reflected detonations may be understood. Focused schlieren visualization is used to describe the boundary layer development behind the incident detonation wave and the nature of the reflected shock wave. Reflected shock wave bifurcation-which has received extensive study as it pertains to shock tube performance-is predicted by classical bifurcation theory, but is not observed in the present study for undiluted hydrogen-oxygen and ethylene-oxygen detonation waves. Pressure and thermocouple gauges are installed in the floor of the detonation tube so as to examine both the wall pressure and heat flux. From the pressure results, we observe an inconsistency between the measured reflected shock speed and the measured reflected shock strength with one dimensional flow predictions confirming earlier experiments performed in our laboratory. This research is sponsored by the DHS through the University of Rhode Island, Center of Excellence for Explosives Detection.

  19. A critical review of liquid helium temperature high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Gan, Z. H.

    2013-08-01

    The importance of liquid helium temperature cooling technology in the aerospace field is discussed, and the results indicate that improving the efficiency of liquid helium cooling technologies, especially the liquid helium high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers, is the principal difficulty to be solved. The state of the art and recent developments of liquid helium high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers are summarized. The main scientific challenges for high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers to efficiently reach liquid helium temperatures are outlined, and the research progress addressing those challenges are reviewed. Additionally some possible solutions to the challenges are pointed out and discussed.

  20. Method and apparatus for fine tuning an orifice pulse tube refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Wollan, John J.

    2003-12-23

    An orifice pulse tube refrigerator uses flow resistance, compliance, and inertance components connected to a pulse tube for establishing a phase relationship between oscillating pressure and oscillating velocity in the pulse tube. A temperature regulating system heats or cools a working gas in at least one of the flow resistance and inertance components. A temperature control system is connected to the temperature regulating system for controlling the temperature of the working gas in the at least one of the flow resistance and inertance components and maintains a control temperature that is indicative of a desired temporal phase relationship.

  1. Reverse slapper detonator

    DOEpatents

    Weingart, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A reverse slapper detonator (70), and methodology related thereto, are provided. The detonator (70) is adapted to be driven by a pulse of electric power from an external source (80). A conductor (20) is disposed along the top (14), side (18), and bottom (16) surfaces of a sheetlike insulator (12). Part of the conductor (20) comprises a bridge (28), and an aperture (30) is positioned within the conductor (20), with the bridge (28) and the aperture (30) located on opposite sides of the insulator (12). A barrel (40) and related explosive charge (50) are positioned adjacent to and in alignment with the aperture (30), and the bridge (28) is buttressed with a backing layer (60). When the electric power pulse vaporizes the bridge (28), a portion of the insulator (12) is propelled through the aperture (30) and barrel (40), and against the explosive charge (50), thereby detonating it.

  2. Study on a cascade pulse tube cooler with energy recovery: new method for approaching Carnot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. Y.; Wu, M.; Zhu, J. K.; Jin, Z. Y.; Sun, X.; Gan, Z. H.

    2015-12-01

    A pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) can not achieve Carnot efficiency because the expansion work must be dissipated at the warm end of the pulse tube. How to recover this amount of dissipated work is a key for improving the PTC efficiency. A cascade PTC consists of PTCs those are staged by transmission tubes in between, these can be a two-stage or even more stages, each stage is driven by the recovered work from the last stage by a well-designed long transmission tube. It is shown that the more stages it has, the closer the efficiency will approach the Carnot efficiency. A two-stage cascade pulse tube cooler consisted of a primary and a secondary stage working at 233 K is designed, fabricated and tested in our lab. Experimental results show that the efficiency is improved by 33% compared with the single stage PTC.

  3. Design and test of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; Ko, Junseok; Kim, Hyo-Bong; Yeom, Han-Kil; In, Sehwan; Park, Seong-Je

    2017-12-01

    Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are very attractive for cooling of diverse application because it has it has several inherent advantages such as no moving part in the cold end, low manufacturing cost and long operation life. To develop the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler, we need to design a linear compressor to drive the pulse tube cryocooler. A moving magnet type linear motor of dual piston configuration is designed and fabricated, and this compressor could be operated with the electric power of 100 W and the frequency up to 60 Hz. A single stage coaxial type pulse tube cold finger aiming at over 1.5 W at 80K is built and tested with the linear compressor. Experimental investigations have been conducted to evaluate their performance characteristics with respect to several parameters such as the phase shifter, the charging pressure and the operating frequency of the linear compressor.

  4. Progress on a novel VM-type pulse tube cryocooler for 4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Changzhao; Wang, Jue; Luo, Kaiqi; Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    VM type pulse tube cryocooler is a new type pulse tube cryocooler driven by the thermal-compressor. This paper presented the recent experimental results on a novel single-stage VM type pulse tube cryocooler with multi-bypass. The low temperature double-inlet, orifice and gas reservoir, and multi-bypass were used as phase shifters. With the optimal operating frequency of 1.6 Hz and optimal average pressure of 1.4 MPa, a no-load temperature of 4.9 K has been obtained and 30 mW@5.6 K cooling power has been achieved. It was the first time for the single-stage VM-PTC obtaining liquid helium temperature reported so far. Moreover, it was also the first time for the multi-bypass being used in the low-frequency Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler.

  5. Planar Reflection of Gaseous Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Jason Scott

    Pipes containing flammable gaseous mixtures may be subjected to internal detonation. When the detonation normally impinges on a closed end, a reflected shock wave is created to bring the flow back to rest. This study built on the work of Karnesky (2010) and examined deformation of thin-walled stainless steel tubes subjected to internal reflected gaseous detonations. A ripple pattern was observed in the tube wall for certain fill pressures, and a criterion was developed that predicted when the ripple pattern would form. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook material properties; the pressure loading created by reflected gaseous detonations was accounted for with a previously developed pressure model. The residual plastic strain between experiments and computations was in good agreement. During the examination of detonation-driven deformation, discrepancies were discovered in our understanding of reflected gaseous detonation behavior. Previous models did not accurately describe the nature of the reflected shock wave, which motivated further experiments in a detonation tube with optical access. Pressure sensors and schlieren images were used to examine reflected shock behavior, and it was determined that the discrepancies were related to the reaction zone thickness extant behind the detonation front. During these experiments reflected shock bifurcation did not appear to occur, but the unfocused visualization system made certainty impossible. This prompted construction of a focused schlieren system that investigated possible shock wave-boundary layer interaction, and heat-flux gauges analyzed the boundary layer behind the detonation front. Using these data with an analytical boundary layer solution, it was determined that the strong thermal boundary layer present behind the detonation front inhibits the development of reflected shock wave bifurcation.

  6. a Thermoacoustically-Driven Pulse Tube Cryocryocooler Operating around 300HZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G. Y.; Zhu, S. L.; Dai, W.; Luo, E. C.

    2008-03-01

    High frequency operation of the thermoacoustic cryocooler system, i.e. pulse tube cryocooler driven by thermoacoustic engine, leads to reduced size, which is quite attractive to small-scale cryogenic applications. In this work, a no-load coldhead temperature of 77.8 K is achieved on a 292 Hz pulse tube cryocooler driven by a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine with 3.92 MPa helium gas and 1750 W heat input. To improve thermal efficiency, a high frequency thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine is also built to drive the same pulse tube cryocooler, and a no-load temperature of 109 K was obtained with 4.38 MPa helium gas, 292 Hz working frequency and 400W heating power. Ideas such as tapered resonators, acoustic amplifier tubes and simple thin tubes without reservoir are used to effectively suppress harmonic modes, amplify the acoustic pressure wave available to the pulse tube cryocooler and provide desired acoustic impedance for the pulse tube cryocooler, respectively. Comparison of systems with different thermoacoustic engines is made. Numerical simulations based on the linear thermoacoustic theory have also been done for comparison with experimental results, which shows reasonable agreement.

  7. Numerical analysis of inertance pulse tube cryocooler with a modified reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Derick; Damu, C.; Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Pulse tube cryocoolers are used for cooling applications, where very high reliability is required as in space applications. These cryocoolers require a buffer volume depending on the temperature to be maintained and cooling load. A miniature single stage coaxial Inertance Pulse Tube Cryocooler is proposed which operates at 80 K to provide a cooling effect of at least 2 W. In this paper a pulse tube cryocooler, with modified reservoir is suggested, where the reverse fluctuation in compressor case is used instead of a steady pressure in the reservoir to bring about the desired phase shift between the pressure and the mass flow rate in the cold heat exchanger. Therefore, the large reservoir of the cryocooler is replaced by the crank volume of the hermetically sealed linear compressor, and hence the cryocooler is simplified and compact in size. The components of the cryocooler consist of a connecting tube, aftercooler, regenerator, cold heat exchanger, flow straightener, pulse tube, warm heat exchanger, inertance tube and the modified reservoir along with the losses were designed and analyzed. Each part of the cryocooler was analysed using SAGE v11 and verified with ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results clearly show that there is 50% reduction in the reservoir volume for the modified Inertance pulse tube cryocooler.

  8. Progress in Development of a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, A. S.; Hunt, R.; Charles, I.; Duband, L.; Crook, M. R.; Orlowska, A. H.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Linder, M.

    2004-06-01

    A pulse tube cryocooler is under development for high-reliability spacecraft applications. Recent developments in the assembly and verification of a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) are presented, including the latest data from the test program. Details of advances related to the compressor, pulse tube and electronics are discussed. The pulse tube cooler achieves high efficiency, optimised through an extensive process of breadboard testing and analysis and is now approaching a more mature Engineering Model (EM) status. A representative pulse tube cold finger has been verified with respect to design changes incorporated following the breadboard test phase. Mass, heat lift and parasitic losses have been improved. A mechanical system mass of 3.1 kg has been achieved. Cold finger tests have demonstrated the ability of the pulse tube to lift 1.5 W at 80 K and to reach <50 K for a PV-work of 25 W. The useful range of operation for the cooler extends below 60 K, where test results indicate 600 mW of heat lift capability.

  9. Development of a numerical tool to study the mixing phenomenon occurring during mode one operation of a multi-mode ejector-augmented pulsed detonation rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Joshua

    A novel multi-mode implementation of a pulsed detonation engine, put forth by Wilson et al., consists of four modes; each specifically designed to capitalize on flow features unique to the various flow regimes. This design enables the propulsion system to generate thrust through the entire flow regime. The Multi-Mode Ejector-Augmented Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engine operates in mode one during take-off conditions through the acceleration to supersonic speeds. Once the mixing chamber internal flow exceeds supersonic speed, the propulsion system transitions to mode two. While operating in mode two, supersonic air is compressed in the mixing chamber by an upstream propagating detonation wave and then exhausted through the convergent-divergent nozzle. Once the velocity of the air flow within the mixing chamber exceeds the Chapman-Jouguet Mach number, the upstream propagating detonation wave no longer has sufficient energy to propagate upstream and consequently the propulsive system shifts to mode three. As a result of the inability of the detonation wave to propagate upstream, a steady oblique shock system is established just upstream of the convergent-divergent nozzle to initiate combustion. And finally, the propulsion system progresses on to mode four operation, consisting purely of a pulsed detonation rocket for high Mach number flight and use in the upper atmosphere as is needed for orbital insertion. Modes three and four appear to be a fairly significant challenge to implement, while the challenge of implementing modes one and two may prove to be a more practical goal in the near future. A vast number of potential applications exist for a propulsion system that would utilize modes one and two, namely a high Mach number hypersonic cruise vehicle. There is particular interest in the dynamics of mode one operation, which is the subject of this research paper. Several advantages can be obtained by use of this technology. Geometrically the propulsion system is fairly

  10. Experiments with linear compressors for phase shifting in pulse tube crycoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Michael; Bradley, Peter; Radebaugh, Ray

    2012-06-01

    For the past year NIST has been investigating the use of mechanical phase shifters as warm expanders for pulse tube cryocoolers. Unlike inertance tubes, which have a limited phase shifting ability at low acoustic powers, mechanical phase shifters have the ability to provide nearly any phase angle between the mass flow and the pressure. We discuss our results with experiments and modeling on a commercially available miniature linear compressor operating as an expander on the warm-end of a 4 K pulse tube, whose temperature is nominally about 35 K. We also present results on experiments with a linear compressor operating at room temperature but coupled to the 4 K stage through secondary regenerators and secondary pulse tubes. Experiments on a small pulse tube test apparatus with both 4He and 3He showed improved efficiency when using the mechanical expander over that of inertance tubes. Phase locking techniques using function generators and power amplifiers for control of phase angle are detailed. The use of expanders demonstrates flexible control in optimizing phase angles for improved cryocooler performance.

  11. Cascading pulse tubes on a large diaphragm pressure wave generator to increase liquefaction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughley, A.; Meier, J.; Nation, M.; Reynolds, H.; Boyle, C.; Tanchon, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fabrum Solutions, in collaboration with Absolut System and Callaghan Innovation, produce a range of large pulse tube cryocoolers based on metal diaphragm pressure wave generator technology (DPWG). The largest cryocooler consists of three in-line pulse tubes working in parallel on a 1000 cm3 swept volume DPWG. It has demonstrated 1280 W of refrigeration at 77 K, from 24 kW of input power and was subsequently incorporated into a liquefaction plant to produce liquid nitrogen for an industrial customer. The pulse tubes on the large cryocooler each produced 426 W of refrigeration at 77 K. However, pulse tubes can produce more refrigeration with higher efficiency at higher temperatures. This paper presents the results from experiments to increase overall liquefaction throughput by operating one or more pulse tubes at a higher temperature to pre-cool the incoming gas. The experiments showed that the effective cooling increased to 1500 W resulting in an increase in liquefaction rate from 13 to 16 l/hour.

  12. Study on a Single-Stage 120 HZ Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. Z.; Gan, Z. H.; Qiu, L. M.; Chen, J.; Li, Z. P.

    2010-04-01

    Miniaturization of pulse tube cryocoolers is required for some particular applications where size and mass for devices are limited. In order to pack more cooling power in a small volume, higher operating frequencies are commonly used for Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers. To maintain high efficiency of the regenerator with a higher frequency, a higher charging pressure, smaller hydraulic diameters of regenerator material and a shorter regenerator length should be applied. A rapid growth of research and development on pulse tube cryocoolers operating at a high frequency over 100 Hz in the last 3 years has occurred. In this study, a single stage pulse tube cryocooler with 120 Hz to provide 10 W of lift at 80 K has been developed by using the numerical model, known as REGEN 3.2. Experiments performed on this cryocooler driven by a CFIC linear compressor show that a no-load temperature of 49.6 K was achieved and the net refrigeration power at 78.5 K was 8.0 W. The effect of pulse tube orientation was tested, and the copper velvet as a regenerator matrix was proposed for high frequency operation.

  13. Wavelength-agile diode-laser sensing strategies for monitoring gas properties in optically harsh flows: application in cesium-seeded pulse detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Scott Thomas; Mattison, Daniel W.; Ma, Lin; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.

    2002-06-01

    The rapid, broad wavelength scanning capabilities of advanced diode lasers allow extension of traditional diode-laser absorption techniques to high pressure, transient, and generally hostile environments. Here, we demonstrate this extension by applying a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) to monitor gas temperature and pressure in a pulse detonation engine (PDE). Using aggressive injection current modulation, the VCSEL is scanned through a 10 cm-1 spectral window at megahertz rates roughly 10 times the scanning range and 1000 times the scanning rate of a conventional diode laser. The VCSEL probes absorption lineshapes of the ~ 852 nm D2 transition of atomic Cs, seeded at ~ 5 ppm into the feedstock gases of a PDE. Using these lineshapes, detonated-gas temperature and pressure histories, spanning 2000 4000 K and 0.5 30 atm, respectively, are recorded with microsecond time response. The increasing availability of wavelength-agile diode lasers should support the development of similar sensors for other harsh flows, using other absorbers such as native H2O.

  14. Heat Exchanger Design and Testing for a 6-Inch Rotating Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Engine Research Facility HHV Higher heating value LHV Lower heating value PDE Pulsed detonation engine RDE Rotating detonation engine RTD...the combustion community are pulse detonation engines ( PDEs ) and rotating detonation engines (RDEs). 1.1 Differences between Pulsed and Rotating ...steadier than that of a PDE (2, 3). (2) (3) Figure 1. Unrolled rotating detonation wave from high-speed video (4) Another difference that

  15. Development of a Coaxial Pulse Tube Cryocooler for 77 K Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, J. R.; Moore, M.; Evtimov, B.; Jensen, J.; Nast, T. C.

    2006-04-01

    Lockheed Martin's Advanced Technology Center has developed a compact coaxial pulse tube cryocooler for avionics applications. The cooler was designed to deliver in excess of 1W cooling at 77K with a heat rejection temperature of 70°C, and to cool down from ambient temperature in a very short period of time. The cryocooler utilizes our MINI compressor, developed for NASA-GSFC, coupled with a newly-designed coaxial pulse tube designed to approximate the Standard Advanced Dewar Assembly (SADA II) packaging envelope. The cryocooler mass is 1.25 kg. Test data show excellent performance, with cooldown times of less than 6 minutes (coldhead only, with no additional thermal mass attached to the coldhead). Performance data will be shown for a variety of operating conditions. A discussion of low cost pulse tube cryocoolers will also be presented. This cryocooler was developed and tested with Lockheed Martin IRAD funding.

  16. A high efficiency coaxial pulse tube cryocooler operating at 60 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nailiang; Zhao, Miguang; Ou, Yangyang; Zhu, Qianglong; Wei, Lingjiao; Chen, Houlei; Cai, Jinghui; Liang, Jingtao

    2018-07-01

    In recent years, improved efficiency of pulse tube cryocoolers has been required by some space infrared detectors and special military applications. Based on this, a high efficiency single-stage coaxial pulse tube cryocooler which operates at 60 K is introduced in this paper. The cryocooler is numerically designed using SAGE, and details of the analysis are presented. The performance of the cryocooler at different input powers ranging from 100 W to 200 W is experimentally tested. Experimental results show that this cryocooler typically provides a cooling power of 7.7 W at 60 K with an input power of 200 W, and achieves a relative Carnot efficiency of around 15%. When the cooling power is around 6 W, the cryocooler achieves the best relative Carnot efficiency of around 15.9% at 60 K, which is the highest efficiency ever reported for a coaxial pulse tube cryocooler.

  17. Comparison of Gas Displacement based on Thermometry in the Pulse Tube with Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Yasumasa; Nara, Kenichi; Ito, Seitoku; Saito, Takamoto

    A pulse tube refrigerator has high reliability because of its simple structure. Recently the level of development activity of the pulse tube refrigerator has increased, but the quantitative understanding of the refrigeration mechanism has not fully been obtained. Therefore various explanations were proposed. The concept of virtual gas piston in particular helps us to understand the function of a phase shifter such as a buffer tank and an orifice because the virtual gas piston corresponds to a piston of a Stirling refrigerator. However it is difficult to directly measure the averaged gas displacement which corresponds to the virtual gas piston because uniform gas flow such as a gas piston does not always exist. For example, there are a jet flow from orifice and circulated flows in a pulse tube, which are predicted theoretically. In spite of these phenomena, the averaged gas displacement is very important in practical use because it can simply predict the performance from the displacement. In this report, we calculate the averaged gas displacement and mass flow through an orifice. The mass flow is calculated from the pressure change in a buffer tank. The averaged gas displacement is calculated from temperature profiles in the pulse tube and the mass flow. It is necessary to measure temperature in the pulse tube as widely as possible in order to calculate the averaged gas displacement. We apply a method using the Rayleigh Scattering the thermometry in the pulse tube. With this method, it is possible to perform 2-dimensional measurement without disturbing the gas flow. By this method, the averaged gas displacements and the temperature profiles of basic and orifice types of refrigeration were compared.

  18. High Frequency Single-Stage Multi-Bypass Pulse Tube Cryocooler for 23.8K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Junling; Hou, Xiaofeng; Yang, Luwei; Zhou, Yuan; Zhang, Liang

    2008-03-01

    A below 30K single-stage high-frequency multi-bypass pulse tube cryocooler(PTC) is introduced in this paper. At present, the lowest temperature of 27.46K has been achieved with input power of 100W and 23.8K with input power of 200W. Experiments show that if the area of multi-bypass and the length of inertance tube matching well, a better performance of PTC will be obtained.

  19. Computational Investigation on the performance of thermo-acoustically driven pulse tube refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaria, Mathew; Rasheed, K. K. Abdul; Shafi, K. A.; Kasthurirengan, S.; Behera, Upendra

    2017-02-01

    A Thermoacoustic Pulse Tube Refrigeration (TAPTR) system employs a thermo acoustic engine as the pressure wave generator instead of mechanical compressor. Such refrigeration systems are highly reliable due to the absence of moving components, structural simplicity and the use of environmental friendly working fluids. In the present work, a traveling wave thermoacoustic primmover (TWTAPM) has been developed and it is coupled to a pulse tube cryocooler. The performance of TAPTR depends on the operating and working fluid parameters. Simulation studies of the system has been performed using ANSYS Fluent and compared with experimental results.

  20. The Attenuation of a Detonation Wave by an Aircraft Engine Axial Turbine Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane; Turner, Mark G.

    2007-01-01

    A Constant Volume Combustion Cycle Engine concept consisting of a Pulse Detonation Combustor (PDC) followed by a conventional axial turbine was simulated numerically to determine the attenuation and reflection of a notional PDC pulse by the turbine. The multi-stage, time-accurate, turbomachinery solver TURBO was used to perform the calculation. The solution domain consisted of one notional detonation tube coupled to 5 vane passages and 8 rotor passages representing 1/8th of the annulus. The detonation tube was implemented as an initial value problem with the thermodynamic state of the tube contents, when the detonation wave is about to exit, provided by a 1D code. Pressure time history data from the numerical simulation was compared to experimental data from a similar configuration to verify that the simulation is giving reasonable results. Analysis of the pressure data showed a spectrally averaged attenuation of about 15 dB across the turbine stage. An evaluation of turbine performance is also presented.

  1. Optically triggered fire set/detonator system

    DOEpatents

    Chase, Jay B.; Pincosy, Philip A.; Chato, Donna M.; Kirbie, Hugh; James, Glen F.

    2007-03-20

    The present invention is directed to a system having a plurality of capacitor discharge units (CDUs) that includes electrical bridge type detonators operatively coupled to respective explosives. A pulse charging circuit is adapted to provide a voltage for each respective capacitor in each CDU. Such capacitors are discharged through the electrical bridge type detonators upon receiving an optical signal to detonate respective operatively coupled explosives at substantially the same time.

  2. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A

    2005-12-21

    Many energetic systems can be activated via mechanical means. Percussion primers in small caliber ammunition and stab detonators used in medium caliber ammunition are just two examples. Current medium caliber (20-60mm) munitions are detonated through the use of impact sensitive stab detonators. Stab detonators are very sensitive and must be small, as to meet weight and size limitations. A mix of energetic powders, sensitive to mechanical stimulus, is typically used to ignite such devices. Stab detonators are mechanically activated by forcing a firing pin through the closure disc of the device and into the stab initiating mix. Rapid heating causedmore » by mechanically driven compression and friction of the mixture results in its ignition. The rapid decomposition of these materials generates a pressure/temperature pulse that is sufficient to initiate a transfer charge, which has enough output energy to detonate the main charge. This general type of ignition mix is used in a large variety of primers, igniters, and detonators.[1] Common primer mixes, such as NOL-130, are made up of lead styphnate (basic) 40%, lead azide (dextrinated) 20%, barium nitrate 20%, antimony sulfide 15%, and tetrazene 5%.[1] These materials pose acute and chronic toxicity hazards during mixing of the composition and later in the item life cycle after the item has been field functioned. There is an established need to replace these mixes on toxicity, health, and environmental hazard grounds. This effort attempts to demonstrate that environmentally acceptable energetic solgel coated flash metal multilayer nanocomposites can be used to replace current impact initiated devices (IIDs), which have hazardous and toxic components. Successful completion of this project will result in IIDs that include innocuous compounds, have sufficient output energy for initiation, meet current military specifications, are small, cost competitive, and perform as well as or better than current devices. We expect

  3. Detonability of H/sub 2/-air-diluent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.

    1987-06-01

    This report describes the Heated Detonation Tube (HDT). Detonation cell width and velocity results are presented for H/sub 2/-air mixtures, undiluted and diluted with CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O for a range of H/sub 2/ concentration, initial temperature and pressure. The results show that the addition of either CO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O significantly increases the detonation cell width and hence reduces the detonability of the mixture. The results also show that the detonation cell width is reduced (detonability is increased) for increased initial temperature and/or pressure.

  4. Detonability of hydrocarbon fuels in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, H. D.; Mcclenagan, R. D.; Bishop, C. V.; Benz, F. J.; Pitz, W. J.; Westbrook, C. K.; Lee, J. H. S.

    1991-01-01

    Studies were conducted of the detonation of gas-phase mixtures of n-hexane and JP-4, with oxidizers as varied as air and pure oxygen, measuring detonation velocities and cell sizes as a function of stoichiometry and diluent concentration. The induction length of a one-dimensional Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doering detonation was calculated on the basis of a theoretical model that employed the reaction kinetics of the hydrocarbon fuels used. Critical energy and critical tube diameter are compared for a relative measure of the heavy hydrocarbon fuels studied; detonation sensitivity appears to increase slightly with increasing carbon number.

  5. Optimization of a Two Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator for the Integrated Current Lead System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maekawa, R.; Matsubara, Y.; Okada, A.; Takami, S.; Konno, M.; Tomioka, A.; Imayoshi, T.; Hayashi, H.; Mito, T.

    2008-03-01

    Implementation of a conventional current lead with a pulse tube refrigerator has been validated to be working as an Integrated Current Lead (ICL) system for the Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). Realization of the system is primarily accounted for the flexibility of a pulse tube refrigerator, which does not posses any mechanical piston and/or displacer. As for an ultimate version of the ICL system, a High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) lead links a superconducting coil with a conventional copper lead. To ensure the minimization of heat loads to the superconducting coil, a pulse tube refrigerator has been upgraded to have a second cooling stage. This arrangement reduces not only the heat loads to the superconducting coil but also the operating cost for a SMES system. A prototype two-stage pulse tube refrigerator, series connected arrangement, was designed and fabricated to satisfy the requirements for the ICL system. Operation of the first stage refrigerator is a four-valve mode, while the second stage utilizes a double inlet configuration to ensure its confined geometry. The paper discusses the optimization of second stage cooling to validate the conceptual design

  6. 150K - 200K miniature pulse tube cooler for micro satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chassaing, Clément; Butterworth, James; Aigouy, Gérald; Daniel, Christophe; Crespin, Maurice; Duvivier, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Air Liquide is working with the CNES and Steel électronique in 2013 to design, manufacture and test a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) to cool infrared detectors for micro-satellite missions. The cooler will be particularly adapted to the needs of the CNES MICROCARB mission to study atmospheric Carbon Dioxide which presents absorption lines in the thermal near infrared, at 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm. The required cooler temperature is from 150 to 200K with cooling power between 1 and 3 watts. The overall electrical power budget including electronics is less than 20W with a 288-300K rejection temperature. Particular attention is therefore paid to optimizing overall system efficiency. The active micro vibration reduction system and thermal control systems already developed for the Air Liquide Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) are currently being implemented into a new high efficiency electronic architecture. The presented work concerns the new cold finger and electronic design. The cooler uses the compressor already developed for the 80K Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler. This Pulse Tube Cooler addresses the requirements of space missions where extended continuous operating life time (>5 years), low mass and low micro vibration levels are critical.

  7. Modeling and Experiments on Fast Cooldown of a 120 Hz Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Lewis, Michael; Grossman, Gershon; Gan, Zhihua; Radebaugh, Ray; Brake, H. J. M. ter

    2008-03-01

    High frequency operation of a pulse tube cryocooler leads to reduced regenerator volume, which results in a reduced heat capacity and a faster cooldown time. A pulse tube cryocooler operating at a frequency of 120 Hz and an average pressure of 3.5 MPa achieved a no-load temperature of 50 K. The cooling power at 80 K was about 3.35 W with a cooldown time from 285 K to 80 K of about 5.5 minutes, even though the additional thermal mass at the cold end due to flanges, screws, heater, and thermometer was 4.2 times that of the regenerator. This fast cooldown is about two to four times faster than that of typical pulse tube cryocoolers and is very attractive to many applications. In this study we measure the cooldown time to 80 K for different cold-end masses and extrapolate to zero cold-end mass. We also present an analytical model for the cooldown time for different cold-end masses and compare the results with the experiments. The model and the extrapolated experimental results indicate that with zero cold-end mass the cooldown time to 80 K with this 120 Hz pulse tube cryocooler would be about 32 s.

  8. High frequency two-stage pulse tube cryocooler with base temperature below 20 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. W.; Thummes, G.

    2005-02-01

    High frequency (30-50 Hz) multi-stage pulse tube coolers that are capable of reaching temperatures close to 20 K or even lower are a subject of recent research and development activities. This paper reports on the design and test of a two-stage pulse tube cooler which is driven by a linear compressor with nominal input power of 200 W at an operating frequency of 30-45 Hz. A parallel configuration of the two pulse tubes is used with the warm ends of the pulse tubes located at ambient temperature. For both stages, the regenerator matrix consists of a stack of stainless steel screen. At an operating frequency of 35 Hz and with the first stage at 73 K a lowest stationary temperature of 19.6 K has been achieved at the second stage. The effects of input power, frequency, average pressure, and cold head orientation on the cooling performance are also reported. An even lower no-load temperature can be expected from the use of lead or other regenerator materials of high heat capacity in the second stage.

  9. Study on the flow nonuniformity in a high capacity Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, X.; Zhi, X.; Duan, C.; Jiang, X.; Qiu, L.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    High capacity Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) have promising applications in high temperature superconductive motor and gas liquefaction. However, with the increase of cooling capacity, its performance deviates from well-accepted one-dimensional model simulation, such as Sage and Regen, mainly due to the strong field nonuniformity. In this study, several flow straighteners placed at both ends of the pulse tube are investigated to improve the flow distribution. A two-dimensional model of the pulse tube based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been built to study the flow distribution of the pulse tube with different flow straighteners including copper screens, copper slots, taper transition and taper stainless slot. A SPTC set-up which has more than one hundred Watts cooling power at 80 K has been built and tested. The flow straighteners mentioned above have been applied and tested. The results show that with the best flow straightener the cooling performance of the SPTC can be significantly improved. Both CFD simulation and experiment show that the straighteners have impacts on the flow distribution and the performance of the high capacity SPTC.

  10. Numerical study of a VM type multi-bypass pulse tube cryocooler operating at 4K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Changzhao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Jue; Chen, Liubiao; Cui, Chen; Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    VM cryocooler is one kind of Stirling type cryocooler working at low frequency. At present, we have obtained the liquid helium temperature by using a two-stage VM/pulse tube hybrid cryocooler. As a new kind of 4K cryocooler, there are many aspects need to be studied and optimized in detail. In order to reducing the vibration and improving the stability of this cryocooler, a pulse tube cryocooler was designed to get rid of the displacer in the first stage. This paper presents a detail numerical investigation on this pulse tube cryocooler by using the SAGE software. The low temperature phase shifters were adopted in this cryocooler, which were low temperature gas reservoir, low temperature double-inlet and multi-bypass. After optimizing, the structure parameters and the best diameters of orifice, multi-bypass and double-inlet were obtained. With the pressure ratio of about 1.6 and operating frequency 2Hz, this cryocooler could supply above 40mW cooling power at 4.2K, and the total input power needs no more than 60W at 77K. Based on the highest efficiency of 77K high capacity cryocooler, the overall efficiency of this VM type pulse tube cryocooler is above 0.5% relative Carnot efficient.

  11. 150K - 200K miniature pulse tube cooler for micro satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Chassaing, Clément; Butterworth, James; Aigouy, Gérald

    Air Liquide is working with the CNES and Steel électronique in 2013 to design, manufacture and test a Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) to cool infrared detectors for micro-satellite missions. The cooler will be particularly adapted to the needs of the CNES MICROCARB mission to study atmospheric Carbon Dioxide which presents absorption lines in the thermal near infrared, at 1.6 μm and 2.0 μm. The required cooler temperature is from 150 to 200K with cooling power between 1 and 3 watts. The overall electrical power budget including electronics is less than 20W with a 288-300K rejection temperature. Particular attention ismore » therefore paid to optimizing overall system efficiency. The active micro vibration reduction system and thermal control systems already developed for the Air Liquide Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) are currently being implemented into a new high efficiency electronic architecture. The presented work concerns the new cold finger and electronic design. The cooler uses the compressor already developed for the 80K Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler. This Pulse Tube Cooler addresses the requirements of space missions where extended continuous operating life time (>5 years), low mass and low micro vibration levels are critical.« less

  12. Detonating apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    1. Apparatus for detonation of high explosive in uniform timing comprising in combination, an outer case, spark gap electrodes insulatedly supported in spaced relationship within said case to form a spark gap, high explosive of the class consisting of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and trimethylene trinitramine substantially free from material sensitive to detonation by impact compressed in surrounding relation to said electrodes including said spark gap under a pressure from about 100 psi to about 500 psi, said spark gap with said compressed explosive therein requiring at least 1000 volts for sparking, and means for impressing at least 1000 volts on said spark gap.

  13. Study on a 10 W/90 K in-line pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Chen, Xi; Wu, Yi Nong; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Kaixiang

    2012-12-01

    A Stirling-type in-line pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) has been designed, built and tested at Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics (SITP), Chinese Academy of Sciences. This PTC prototype can obtain a low-noise cooling capacity of more than 10 W at around 90 K cold head temperature and is used for cooling a space-borne infrared photo detector. In order to achieve a highly efficient PTC, a simplified numerical simulation model has been established for design and optimization. The simulation results of the regenerator, pulse tube and inertance tube are analyzed in detail. Besides, some key parameters of the PTC are listed in the paper. The PTC's performances are tested at different operating frequencies from 42 Hz to 55 Hz and its reject temperature dependence is observed in the range of 290 K to 320 K. Furthermore, the map of the PTC's performance characteristics is presented.

  14. High field pulsed microwiggler comprising a conductive tube with periodically space slots

    DOEpatents

    Warren, R.W.

    1992-09-01

    A microwiggler assembly produces large magnetic fields for oscillating charged particle beams, particularly electron beams for free electron laser (FEL) application. A tube of electrically conductive material is formed with radial slots axially spaced at the period of the electron beam. The slots have alternate 180[degree] relationships and are formed to a maximum depth of 0.6 to 0.7 times the tube circumference. An optimum slot depth is selected to eliminate magnetic quadrupole fields within the microwiggler as determined from a conventional pulsed wire technique. Suitable slot configurations include single slits, double slits, triple slits, and elliptical slots. An axial electron beam direction is maintained by experimentally placing end slits adjacent entrance and exit portions of the assembly, where the end slit depth is determined by use of the pulsed wire technique outside the tube. 10 figs.

  15. High field pulsed microwiggler comprising a conductive tube with periodically space slots

    DOEpatents

    Warren, Roger W.

    1992-01-01

    A microwiggler assembly produces large magnetic fields for oscillating ched particle beams, particularly electron beams for free electron laser (FEL) application. A tube of electrically conductive material is formed with radial slots axially spaced at the period of the electron beam. The slots have alternate 180.degree. relationships and are formed to a maximum depth of 0.6 to 0.7 times the tube circumference. An optimum slot depth is selected to eliminate magnetic quadrupole fields within the microwiggler as determined from a conventional pulsed wire technique. Suitable slot configurations include single slits, double slits, triple slits, and elliptical slots. An axial electron beam direction is maintained by experimentally placing end slits adjacent entrance and exit portions of the assembly, where the end slit depth is determined by use of the pulsed wire technique outside the tube.

  16. Microcrack healing in non-ferrous metal tubes through eddy current pulse treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenchen; Yang, Chuan; Yu, Haiping; Jin, Xueze; Guo, Bin; Shan, Debin

    2018-04-16

    This study proposed a novel method to heal microcrack within Mg alloy tubes using high density eddy current pulse treatment (ECPT). Through electromagnetic induction inside a copper coil connected with a high density pulse power source supply, the high density (greater than 5 × 10 9  A/m 2 ) and short duration eddy current was generated in tube specimens of Mg alloy. The results show that the microcracks in tube specimens was healed evidently and the mechanical properties of the tubes subjected to ECPT were improved simultaneously. The crack healing during ECPT was ascribed to not only the thermal stress around the microcrack tips and the softening or melting of metals in the vicinity of microcrack tips, but also the squeezing action acted by the Lorentz force. In the inward-discharging scheme, both the compressive radial stress and tangential stress induced by the Lorentz force contributed to more sufficient crack healing and thus better mechanical properties of tube specimens after the ECPT experiment, compared to the outward-discharging scheme. The ECPT can heal microcracks automatically without directly contacting tubular specimens and is not limited by the length of tubular workpieces, exhibiting great potential for crack healing in non-ferrous alloy tubes.

  17. Effect of Mixture Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Detonation Cell Size for Hydrogen-Air Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    National Labs ( BNL ) built and tested several detonation tubes with hydrogen and air detonations. BNL’s main detonation tubes were called the High...K and the ability to change to mixture pressure from one atmosphere to just less than three atmospheres. Before BNL designed their detonation tubes...gas driver initiation system was that the diaphragm had to be replaced after each test. In order to save time from replacing the diaphragms, BNL

  18. Numerical Analysis of a Rotating Detonation Engine in the Relative Reference Frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    A two-dimensional, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a semi-idealized rotating detonation engine (RDE) is described. The simulation operates in the detonation frame of reference and utilizes a relatively coarse grid such that only the essential primary flow field structure is captured. This construction yields rapidly converging, steady solutions. Results from the simulation are compared to those from a more complex and refined code, and found to be in reasonable agreement. The performance impacts of several RDE design parameters are then examined. Finally, for a particular RDE configuration, it is found that direct performance comparison can be made with a straight-tube pulse detonation engine (PDE). Results show that they are essentially equivalent.

  19. a High Frequency Thermoacoustically-Driven Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Coaxial Resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G. Y.; Wang, X. T.; Dai, W.; Luo, E. C.

    2010-04-01

    High frequency thermoacoustically-driven pulse tube cryocoolers are quite promising due to their compact size and high reliability, which can find applications in space use. With continuous effort, a lowest cold head temperature of 68.3 K has been obtained on a 300 Hz pulse tube cryocooler driven by a standing-wave thermoacoustic heat engine with 4.0 MPa helium gas and 750 W heat input. To further reduce the size of the system, a coaxial resonator was designed and the two sub-systems, i.e., the pulse tube cryocooler and the standing-wave thermoacoustic heat engine were properly coupled through an acoustic amplifier tube, which leads to a system axial length of only about 0.7 m. The performance of the system with the coaxial resonator was tested, and shows moderate degradation compared to that with the in-line resonator, which might be attributed to the large flow loss of the 180 degree corner.

  20. Performance of a 260 Hz pulse tube cooler with metal fiber as the regenerator material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Zhang, Shuang; Yu, Guoyao; Dai, Wei; Luo, Ercang

    2014-01-01

    Pulse tube coolers operating at higher frequency lead to a high energy density and result in a more compact system. This paper describes the performance of a 300 Hz pulse tube cooler driven by a linear compressor. Such high frequency operation leads to decreased thermal penetration, which requires a smaller hydraulic diameter and smaller wire diameter in the regenerator. In our previous experiments, the stainless steel mesh with a mesh number of 635 was used as the regenerator material, and a no-load temperature of 63 K was obtained. Both the numerical and experimental results indicate this material causes a large loss in the regenerator. A stainless steel fiber regenerator is introduced and studied in this article. Because this fiber has a wide range of wire diameter and porosity, such material might be more suitable for higher frequency pulse tube coolers. With the fiber as the regenerator material and after a series of optimizations, a no-load temperature of 45 K is acquired in the experiment. Influences of various parameters such as frequency and inertance tube length have been investigated experimentally.

  1. New detonation concepts for propulsion and power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Eric M.

    A series of related analytical and experimental studies are focused on utilizing detonations for emerging propulsion and power generation devices. An understanding of the physical and thermodynamic processes for this unsteady thermodynamic cycle has taken over 100 years to develop. An overview of the thermodynamic processes and development history is provided. Thermodynamic cycle analysis of detonation-based systems has often been studied using surrogate models. A real gas model is used for a thermal efficiency prediction of a detonation wave based on the work and heat specified by process path diagrams and a control volume analysis. A combined first and second law analysis aids in understanding performance trends for different initial conditions. A cycle analysis model for an airbreathing, rotating detonation wave engine (RDE) is presented. The engine consists of a steady inlet system with an isolator which delivers air into an annular combustor. A detonation wave continuously rotates around the combustor with side relief as the flow expands towards the nozzle. Air and fuel enter the combustor when the rarefaction wave pressure behind the detonation front drops to the inlet supply pressure. To create a stable RDE, the inlet pressure is matched in a convergence process with the average combustor pressure by increasing the annulus channel width with respect to the isolator channel. Performance of this engine is considered using several parametric studies. RDEs require a fuel injection system that can cycle beyond the limits of mechanical valves. Fuel injectors composed of an orifice connected to a small plenum cavity were mounted on a detonation tube. These fuel injectors, termed fluidic valves, utilize their geometry and a supply pressure to deliver fuel and contain no moving parts. Their behavior is characterized in order to determine their feasibility for integration with high-frequency RDEs. Parametric studies have been conducted with the type of fuel injected

  2. Build Up and Operation of an Axial Turbine Driven by a Rotary Detonation Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    RDEs) offer advantages over pulsed detonation engines ( PDEs ) due to a steadier exhaust and fewer total system losses. All previous research on...turbine integration with detonation combustors has focused on utilizing PDEs to drive axial and centrifugal turbines. The objective of this thesis was... detonation engine ............................................. 5 Figure 4. Schematic of the rotating detonation wave structure for an unwrapped view of an

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamic Investigation of Loss Mechanisms in a Pulse-Tube Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, K.; Esguerra, J.; Dodson, C.; Razani, A.

    2015-12-01

    In predicting Pulse-Tube Cryocooler (PTC) performance, One-Dimensional (1-D) PTR design and analysis tools such as Gedeon Associates SAGE® typically include models for performance degradation due to thermodynamically irreversible processes. SAGE®, in particular, accounts for convective loss, turbulent conductive loss and numerical diffusion “loss” via correlation functions based on analysis and empirical testing. In this study, we compare CFD and SAGE® estimates of PTR refrigeration performance for four distinct pulse-tube lengths. Performance predictions from PTR CFD models are compared to SAGE® predictions for all four cases. Then, to further demonstrate the benefits of higher-fidelity and multidimensional CFD simulation, the PTR loss mechanisms are characterized in terms of their spatial and temporal locations.

  4. An efficient miniature 120 Hz pulse tube cryocooler using high porosity regenerator material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huiqin; Wu, Yinong; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Liu, Shaoshuai

    2017-12-01

    A 1.22 kg coaxial miniature pulse tube cryocooler (MPTC) has been fabricated and tested in our laboratory to provide cooling for cryogenic applications demanding compactness, low mass and rapid cooling rate. The geometrical parameters of regenerator, pulse tube and phase shifter are optimized. The investigation demonstrates that using higher mesh number and thinner wire diameter of stainless steel screen (SSS) can promote the coefficient of performance (COP) when the MPTC operates at 120 Hz. In this study, the 604 mesh SSS with 17 μm diameter of mesh wire is constructed as filler of regenerator. The experimental results show the MPTC operating at 120 Hz achieves a no-load temperature of 53.5 K with 3.8 MPa charging pressure, and gets a cooling power of 2 W at 80 K with 55 W input electric power which has a relative Carnot efficiency of 9.68%.

  5. Influence of minor geometric features on Stirling pulse tube cryocooler performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Spoor, P. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Perrella, M.

    2017-12-01

    Minor geometric features and imperfections are commonly introduced into the basic design of multi-component systems to simplify or reduce the manufacturing expense. In this work, the cooling performance of a Stirling type cryocooler was tested in different driving powers, cold-end temperatures and inclination angles. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations based on a prototypical cold tip was carried out. Detailed CFD model predictions were compared with the experiment and were used to investigate the impact of such apparently minor geometric imperfections on the performance of Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers. Predictions of cooling performance and gravity orientation sensitivity were compared with experimental results obtained with the cryocooler prototypes. The results indicate that minor geometry features in the cold tip assembly can have considerable negative effects on the gravity orientation sensitivity of a pulse tube cryocooler.

  6. Thermal performance testing of two Thales 9310 pulse-tube cryocoolers for PHyTIR

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, Christopher G.

    2014-01-29

    PHyTIR is a NASA-funded technology demonstration for a near-term earth-observing instrument in the thermal infrared spectrum, intended for use in the HyspIRI mission. PHyTIR will use two Thales 9310 single-stage pulse tube cryocoolers, one to directly cool the FPA, the other to simulate a passive radiator. We report performance measurements for the two Thales 9310 cryocoolers intended for inclusion in the PHyTIR demonstrator.

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization Based on Exergy Flow for a Two-Staged Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    X.C. Xuan, Cryogenics, 43, pp. 117-124 (2003). 11. J. Chen, X. Chen, and C. Wu, Exergy , an International Journal , 1, pp. 100-106 (2001). 12. C.S...THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS AND OPTIMIZATION BASED ON EXERGY FLOW FOR A TWOSTAGED PULSE TUBE REFRIGERATOR A. Razani, T. Fraser, C. Dodson, and T. Roberts...2012) Additional information on AIP Conf. Proc. Journal Homepage: http://proceedings.aip.org/ Journal Information: http://proceedings.aip.org

  8. Recent Development Status of Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler for HTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Nakano, K.; Kato, T.

    2014-05-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been developing a high power stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motor, SMES and current fault limiter, requested specifications from the devices to a cryocooler are compact size, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. Especially, the cryocooler must be demanded COP > 0.1 in the efficiency. The experimental results of prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in June 2012 [1]. For an In-line type expander, the cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW and the operating frequency was 49 Hz. Accordingly, COP was about 0.055. Moreover, for miniaturization a U type expander was tested and the performance is about 10 % less than that of an In-line type expander. After that, we have estimated that the cooling performance is influenced by the environment such as the effect of the pulse-tube inclination, the temperature and the flowing quantity of cooling water. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  9. James Webb Space Telescope Mid Infra-Red Instrument Pulse-Tube Cryocooler Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, D.; Flowers, T.; Liu, N.; Moore, K.; Tran, D.; Valenzuela, P.; Franklin, B.; Michaels, D.

    2013-01-01

    The latest generation of long life, space pulse-tube cryocoolers require electronics capable of controlling self-induced vibration down to a fraction of a newton and coldhead temperature with high accuracy down to a few kelvin. Other functions include engineering diagnostics, heater and valve control, telemetry and safety protection of the cryocooler subsystem against extreme environments and operational anomalies. The electronics are designed to survive the thermal, vibration, shock and radiation environment of launch and orbit, while providing a design life in excess of 10 years on-orbit. A number of our current generation high reliability radiation-hardened electronics units are in various stages of integration on several space flight payloads. This paper describes the features and performance of our latest flight electronics designed for the pulse-tube cryocooler that is the pre-cooler for a closed cycle Joule-Thomson cooler providing 6K cooling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid Infra-Red Instrument (MIRI). The electronics is capable of highly accurate temperature control over the temperature range from 4K to 15K. Self-induced vibration is controlled to low levels on all harmonics up to the 16th. A unique active power filter controls peak-to-peak reflected ripple current on the primary power bus to a very low level. The 9 kg unit is capable of delivering 360W continuous power to NGAS's 3-stage pulse-tube High-Capacity Cryocooler (HCC).

  10. A Superfluid Pulse Tube Refrigerator Without Moving Parts for Sub-Kelvin Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Franklin K.

    2012-01-01

    A report describes a pulse tube refrigerator that uses a mixture of He-3 and superfluid He-4 to cool to temperatures below 300 mK, while rejecting heat at temperatures up to 1.7 K. The refrigerator is driven by a novel thermodynamically reversible pump that is capable of pumping the He-3 He-4 mixture without the need for moving parts. The refrigerator consists of a reversible thermal magnetic pump module, two warm heat exchangers, a recuperative heat exchanger, two cold heat exchangers, two pulse tubes, and an orifice. It is two superfluid pulse tubes that run 180 out of phase. All components of this machine except the reversible thermal pump have been demonstrated at least as proof-of-concept physical models in previous superfluid Stirling cycle machines. The pump consists of two canisters packed with pieces of gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG). The canisters are connected by a superleak (a porous piece of VYCOR glass). A superconducting magnetic coil surrounds each of the canisters.

  11. A 50W@170K pulse tube cryocooler used in wide-field survey telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenhua; Wu, Yinong

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a pulse tube cryocooler used in a wide-field survey telescope is described, this telescope is going to be launched in 2020 in China. And in the telescope, large focal plane array (FPA) detectors working at 188K generate 100W heat which need to be cooled. In order to cool the detectors, three 50W@170K pulse tube cryocoolers are used, with designed life-time of l0 years. To decrease the vibration and electromagnetic interference to the detectors to the minimal limit, two cryogenic loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used to transfer heat from the detectors to the cold tips of the pulse tube cryocoolers. And each cold tip is specified to match the condensers of the LHPs. The cryolooer is driven by a dual-opposed piston compressor with a pair of moving magnet linear motors, one of the motors is also used as the adaptive active vibration suppressor. The cryocooler reaches 16.6% Carnot efficiency at cooling power of 50W@170K with 230Wac input power.

  12. Vibration reduction of pulse tube cryocooler driven by single piston compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houlei; Xu, Nana; Liang, Jingtao; Yang, Luwei

    2012-12-01

    The development of pulse tube coolers has progressed significantly during the past two decades. A single piston linear compressor is used to in order to reduce the size and mass of a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler. The pulse tube achieved a no-load temperature of 61 K and a cooling power of 1 W@80 K with an operating frequency of 80 Hz and an electrical input power of 50 W. By itself, the single piston compressor generates a large vibration, so a set of leaf springs with an additional mass is used to reduce the vibration. The equation relating the mass, the elasticity coefficient of leaf spring and the working frequency is obtained through an empirical fit of the experimental data. The vibration amplitude is reduced from 55 mm/s to lower than 5 mm/s by using a proper leaf spring. This paper demonstrates that a single piston compressor with vibration reduction provides a good choice for a PTC.

  13. Investigation on a thermal-coupled two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Luwei

    2008-11-01

    Multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers with high frequency (30-60 Hz) are one important direction in recent years. A two-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with thermally coupled stages has been designed and established two years ago and some results have been published. In order to study the effect of first stage precooling temperature, related characteristics on performance are experimentally investigated. It shows that at high input power, when the precooling temperature is lower than 110 K, its effect on second stage temperature is quite small. There is also the evident effect of precooling temperature on pulse tube temperature distribution; this is for the first time that author notice the phenomenon. The mean working pressure is investigated and the 12.8 K lowest temperature with 500 W input power and 1.22 MPa average pressure have been gained, this is the lowest reported temperature for high frequency two-stage PTCS. Simulation has reflected upper mentioned typical features in experiments.

  14. Design of a Very Large Pulse Tube Cryocooler for HTS Cable Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanchon, J.; Ercolani, E.; Trollier, T.; Ravex, A.; Poncet, J. M.

    2006-04-01

    The needs for large cooling powers are more and more increasing together with the increase of superconductor capabilities. Within the framework of an High Voltage HTS cable project (LIPA project funded by the DOE with American Superconductor AMSC, Nexans, LIPA and Air Liquide as consortium partners), the Technologies & Innovation Department of Air Liquide with the partnership of the CEA/SBT are currently developing a prototype of a Very Large Pulse Tube Cooler (VLPTC). This prototype is traditionally based on an In-Line pulse tube configuration, making use of an inertance and a buffer volume as phase shifter. The expected performances are 280W heat lift at 65K with a 300K rejection temperature. The cold head prototype has been manufactured and preliminary tests have been carried out with a 8 kW flexure bearing Stirling Technology Corporation STC linear compressor. One of the objectives of this prototype is to compete the Gifford-MacMahon coolers in term of cooling capacity while offering the advantage of the high frequency Pulse Tube in term of high lifetime, reliability and reduced exported vibrations.

  15. On the development of co-axial miniature pulse tube coolers for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Liang, J. T.; Zhu, W. Q.; Cai, J. H.; Ju, Y. L.

    2002-05-01

    Cryocoolers for cooling infrared sensors in space applications require high reliability, long lifetime, low power and minimum weight. In this paper we report work on a miniature pulse tube cooler specifically designed for such applications. A series of engineering model co-axial miniature pulse tube coolers with a flexure bearing linear compressor of 1 cc swept volume have been designed and fabricated in our laboratory. A theoretical model is established based on the analyses of thermodynamic and hydrodynamic behaviors of oscillatory flows in regenerator, for performance prediction, optimization and as a rough guide in the early stages of system design. An experimental apparatus, including a hot wire anemometer, has been set up to study the flow resistance of regenerators under oscillatory flow conditions. The co-axial, multi-bypass, and symmetric nozzle structure has been used in the coolers. We will present here the performance of two sizes of coolers with 9 mm and 8 mm diameter of cold fingers. The 9 mm cooler currently provides 500 mW net cooling power at 80 K with input power of 47 W, and the 8 mm cooler, provides 450 mW at 80 K with 51 W input power with a 65% efficient compressor. The cold fingers of our co-axial pulse tube coolers have the similar size of miniature Stirling coolers and are the only one that could meet the geometry specifications of the Standard Advance Dewar Assembly (SADA) for thermal imaging systems in most military applications.

  16. Advances on a cryogen-free Vuilleumier type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanan; Zhao, Yuejing; Zhang, Yibing; Wang, Xiaotao; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Dai, Wei; Li, Haibing; Luo, Ercang

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents experimental results and numerical evaluation of a Vuilleumier (VM) type pulse tube cryocooler. The cryocooler consists of three main subsystems: a thermal compressor, a low temperature pulse tube cryocooler, and a Stirling type precooler. The thermal compressor, similar to that in a Vuilleumier cryocooler, is used to drive the low temperature stage pulse tube cryocooler. The Stirling type precooler is used to establish a temperature difference for the thermal compressor to generate pressure wave. A lowest no-load temperature of 15.1 K is obtained with a pressure ratio of 1.18, a working frequency of 3 Hz and an average pressure of 2.45 MPa. Numerical simulations have been performed to help the understanding of the system performance. With given experimental conditions, the simulation predicts a lowest temperature in reasonable agreement with the experimental result. Analyses show that there is a large discrepancy in the pre-cooling power between experiments and calculation, which requires further investigation.

  17. Low Temperature Regenerators for Zero Boil-Off Liquid Hydrogen Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, Louis J.; Kashani, Ali; Helvensteijn, Ben; Kittel, Peter; Arnoldm James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of attention has been focused on zero boil-off (ZBO) propellant storage as a means of minimizing the launch mass required for long-term exploration missions. A key component of ZBO systems is the cooler. Pulse tube coolers offer the advantage of zero moving mass at the cold head, and recent advances in lightweight, high efficiency cooler technology have paved the way for reliable liquid oxygen (LOx) temperature coolers to be developed which are suitable for flight ZBO systems. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) systems, however, are another matter. For ZBO liquid hydrogen systems, cooling powers of 1-5 watts are required at 20 K. The final development from tier for these coolers is to achieve high efficiency and reliability at lower operating temperatures. Most of the life-limiting issues of flight Stirling and pulse tube coolers are associated with contamination, drive mechanisms, and drive electronics. These problems are well in hand in the present generation coolers. The remaining efficiency and reliability issues reside with the low temperature regenerators. This paper will discuss advances to be made in regenerators for pulse tube LH2 ZBO coolers, present some historical background, and discuss recent progress in regenerator technology development using alloys of erbium.

  18. Developments on GM-Type Pulse Tube Cryorefrigerators with Large Cooling Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köttig, T.; Waldauf, A.; Thürk, M.; Seidel, P.

    2004-06-01

    Over the past several years the authors have participated in basic and prototype developments of four valve pulse tube refrigerators (FVPTR). Systematic studies have been carried out to characterize the basics of energy transport mechanisms, the flow distribution and loss mechanisms of this type of pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) with its active type of phase shifting. Based on the comprehension of these phenomena, several prototypes have been built and optimized for various applications. Recently a single-stage PTR in coaxial arrangement has been designed for maximum refrigeration power in the temperature range between 20 and 80 K limited by an available electrical input power of 7 kW. To reach this goal we used lead screens in the coldest part of the regenerator instead of spheres in order to decrease the pressure drop. The improvement of the regenerator prevents the reported fact that at higher temperatures the performance of a pulse tube with a regenerator partially filled with lead spheres can even be worse than a regenerator totally made of stainless steel. At the moment the cooler provides a cooling power of 120 W@74 K and 40 W@34 K. The minimum no-load temperature achieved is 18.6 K.

  19. Evaluation of machine learning tools for inspection of steam generator tube structures using pulsed eddy current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, J. A.; Underhill, P. R.; Morelli, J.; Krause, T. W.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation of nuclear steam generator (SG) tubes and support structures can result in a loss of reactor efficiency. Regular in-service inspection, by conventional eddy current testing (ECT), permits detection of cracks, measurement of wall loss, and identification of other SG tube degradation modes. However, ECT is challenged by overlapping degradation modes such as might occur for SG tube fretting accompanied by tube off-set within a corroding ferromagnetic support structure. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an emerging technology examined here for inspection of Alloy-800 SG tubes and associated carbon steel drilled support structures. Support structure hole size was varied to simulate uniform corrosion, while SG tube was off-set relative to hole axis. PEC measurements were performed using a single driver with an 8 pick-up coil configuration in the presence of flat-bottom rectangular frets as an overlapping degradation mode. A modified principal component analysis (MPCA) was performed on the time-voltage data in order to reduce data dimensionality. The MPCA scores were then used to train a support vector machine (SVM) that simultaneously targeted four independent parameters associated with; support structure hole size, tube off-centering in two dimensions and fret depth. The support vector machine was trained, tested, and validated on experimental data. Results were compared with a previously developed artificial neural network (ANN) trained on the same data. Estimates of tube position showed comparable results between the two machine learning tools. However, the ANN produced better estimates of hole inner diameter and fret depth. The better results from ANN analysis was attributed to challenges associated with the SVM when non-constant variance is present in the data.

  20. a Study of a High Frequency Miniature Reservoir-Less Pulse Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaway, I.; Grossman, G.

    2008-03-01

    A miniature high frequency reservoir-less pulse tube cryocooler has been designed and tested in our laboratory. The cryocooler having a regenerator length of 12.0 mm and an overall volume of 2.3cc (excluding the compressor) reached a low temperature of 146K and provided 100mW of cooling at 160K. This experimental study shows that it is possible to miniaturize a pulse tube cryocooler to very short regenerator lengths by implementing a few basic principles: Most importantly, high operating frequencies at small tidal displacements, a regenerator matrix with small hydraulic diameters, and increased helium fill pressures. This study also shows that as the operating frequency of a miniature cryocooler increases, the reservoir becomes less necessary as a phase shifting device. At higher frequencies and appropriate inertance tube geometries, the impedance and capacitance of the inertance tube itself takes over the phase shifting task. An outline of the design and modeling principles is presented along with some details of the experimental apparatus and testing procedures.

  1. A Cryogen Recycler with Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Recondensing Helium and Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Lichtenwalter, B.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a cryogen recycler using a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler for recondensing helium and nitrogen in a NMR magnet. The liquid helium cooled NMR magnet has a liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield. The magnet boils off 0.84 L/day of liquid helium and 6 L/day of liquid nitrogen. The recycler is designed with both a liquid helium return tube and a liquid nitrogen return tube, which are inserted into the fill ports of liquid helium and nitrogen. Therefore the recycler forms closed loops for helium and nitrogen. A two-stage 4 K pulse tube cryocooler, Cryomech model PT407 (0.7W at 4.2 K), is selected for the recycler. The recycler was first tested with a Cryomech's test cryostat and resulted in the capacities of recondensing 8.2 L/day of nitrogen and liquefying 4 L/day of helium from room temperature gas. The recycler has been installed in the NMR magnet at University of Sydney since August, 2014 and continuously maintains a zero boil off for helium and nitrogen.

  2. Precursor detonation wave development in ANFO due to aluminum confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Klyanda, Charles B; Short, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Detonations in explosive mixtures of ammonium-nitrate-fuel-oil (ANFO) confined by aluminum allow for transport of detonation energy ahead of the detonation front due to the aluminum sound speed exceeding the detonation velocity. The net effect of this energy transport on the detonation is unclear. It could enhance the detonation by precompressing the explosive near the wall. Alternatively, it could decrease the explosive performance by crushing porosity required for initiation by shock compression or destroying confinement ahead of the detonation. At present, these phenomena are not well understood. But with slowly detonating, non-ideal high explosive (NIHE) systems becoming increasing prevalent, proper understandingmore » and prediction of the performance of these metal-confined NIHE systems is desirable. Experiments are discussed that measured the effect of this ANFO detonation energy transported upstream of the front by a 76-mm-inner-diameter aluminum confining tube. Detonation velocity, detonation-front shape, and aluminum response are recorded as a function of confiner wall thickness and length. Detonation shape profiles display little curvature near the confining surface, which is attributed to energy transported upstream modifying the flow. Average detonation velocities were seen to increase with increasing confiner thickness, while wavefront curvature decreased due to the stiffer, subsonic confinement. Significant radial sidewall tube motion was observed immediately ahead of the detonation. Axial motion was also detected, which interfered with the front shape measurements in some cases. It was concluded that the confiner was able to transport energy ahead of the detonation and that this transport has a definite effect on the detonation by modifying its characteristic shape.« less

  3. Pulsed electron beam propagation in gases under pressure of 6.6 kPa in drift tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Poloskov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of pulsed electron beam transport propagated in a drift tube filled with different gases (He, H2, N2, Ar, SF6, and CO2). The total pressure in the drift tube was 6.6 kPa. The experiments were carried out using a TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The electron beam was propagated in the drift tube composed of two sections equipped with reverse current shunts. Under a pressure of 6.6 kPa, the maximum value of the electron beam charge closed on the walls of the drift tube was recorded when the beam was propagated in hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The minimum value of the electron beam charge closed on the walls of the drift tube was recorded for sulfur hexafluoride. The visualization of the pulsed electron beam energy losses onto the walls of the drift chamber was carried out using radiation-sensitive film.

  4. CFD simulation and experimental validation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banjare, Y. P.; Sahoo, R. K.; Sarangi, S. K.

    2010-04-01

    Pulse tube refrigerator has the advantages of long life and low vibration over the conventional cryocoolers, such as GM and stirling coolers because of the absence of moving parts in low temperature. This paper performs a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation of a GM type double inlet pulse tube refrigerator (DIPTR) vertically aligned, operating under a variety of thermal boundary conditions. A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, Fluent 6.1 is used to model the oscillating flow inside a pulse tube refrigerator. The simulation represents fully coupled systems operating in steady-periodic mode. The externally imposed boundary conditions are sinusoidal pressure inlet by user defined function at one end of the tube and constant temperature or heat flux boundaries at the external walls of the cold-end heat exchangers. The experimental method to evaluate the optimum parameters of DIPTR is difficult. On the other hand, developing a computer code for CFD analysis is equally complex. The objectives of the present investigations are to ascertain the suitability of CFD based commercial package, Fluent for study of energy and fluid flow in DIPTR and to validate the CFD simulation results with available experimental data. The general results, such as the cool down behaviours of the system, phase relation between mass flow rate and pressure at cold end, the temperature profile along the wall of the cooler and refrigeration load are presented for different boundary conditions of the system. The results confirm that CFD based Fluent simulations are capable of elucidating complex periodic processes in DIPTR. The results also show that there is an excellent agreement between CFD simulation results and experimental results.

  5. Diagnostics and Optimization of a Miniature High Frequency Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaway, I.; Veprik, A.; Radebaugh, R.

    2010-04-01

    A miniature, high energy density, pulse tube cryocooler with an inertance tube and reservoir has been developed, tested, diagnosed and optimized to provide appropriate cooling for size-limited cryogenic applications demanding fast cool down. This cryocooler, originally designed using REGEN 3.2 for 80 K, an operating frequency of 150 Hz and an average pressure of 5.0 MPa, has regenerator dimensions of 4.4 mm inside diameter and 27 mm length and is filled with ♯635 mesh stainless steel screen. Various design features, such as the use of compact heat exchangers and a miniature linear compressor, resulted in a remarkably compact pulse tube cryocooler. In this report, we present the preliminary test results and the subsequent diagnostic and optimization sequence performed to improve the overall design and operation of the complete cryocooler. These experimentally determined optimal parameters, though slightly different from those proposed in the initial numerical model, yielded 530 mW of gross cooling power at 120 K with an input electrical power of only 25 W. This study highlights the need to further establish our understanding of miniature, high frequency, regenerative cryocoolers, not only as a collection of independent subcomponents, but as one single working unit. It has also led to a list of additional improvements that may yet be made to even further improve the operating characteristics of such a complete miniature cryocooler.

  6. Design and Operation of a 4kW Linear Motor Driven Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, J. H.

    2004-06-01

    A 4 kW electrical input Linear Motor driven pulse tube cryocooler has successfully been designed, built and tested. The optimum operation frequency is 60 Hz with a design refrigeration of >200 W at 80 K. The design exercise involved modeling and optimization in DeltaE software. Load matching between the cold head and linear motor was achieved by careful sizing of the transfer tube. The cryocooler makes use of a dual orifice inertance network and a single compliance tank for phase optimization and streaming suppression in the pulse tube. The in-line cold head design is modular in structure for convenient change-out and re-assembly of various components. The Regenerator consists of layers of two different grades of wire-mesh. The Linear motor is a clearance seal, dual opposed piston design from CFIC Inc. Initial results have demonstrated the refrigeration target of 200 W by liquefying Nitrogen from an ambient temperature and pressure. Overall Carnot efficiencies of 13% have been achieved and efforts to further improve efficiencies are underway. Linear motor efficiencies up to 84% have been observed. Experimental results have shown satisfactory compliance with model predictions, although the effects of streaming were not part of the model. Refrigeration loss due to streaming was minimal at the design operating conditions of 80 K.

  7. A nanoscale vacuum-tube diode triggered by few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Takuya; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Liehl, Andreas; Dombi, Péter; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2015-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate a nanoscale vacuum-tube diode triggered by few-cycle near-infrared laser pulses. It represents an ultrafast electronic device based on light fields, exploiting near-field optical enhancement at surfaces of two metal nanotips. The sharper of the two tips displays a stronger field-enhancement, resulting in larger photoemission yields at its surface. One laser pulse with a peak intensity of 4.7 × 1011 W/cm2 triggers photoemission of ˜16 electrons from the sharper cathode tip, while emission from the blunter anode tip is suppressed by 19 dB to ˜0.2 electrons per pulse. Thus, the laser-triggered current between two tips exhibit a rectifying behavior, in analogy to classical vacuum-tube diodes. According to the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons and the distance between the tips, the total operation time of this laser-triggered nanoscale diode is estimated to be below 1 ps.

  8. Detonation wave compression in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of the concept of augmenting the performance of low pressure ratio gas turbines by detonation wave compression of part of the flow. The concept exploits the constant volume heat release of detonation waves to increase the efficiency of the Brayton cycle. In the models studied, a fraction of the compressor output was channeled into detonation ducts where it was processed by transient transverse detonation waves. Gas dynamic studies determined the maximum cycling frequency of detonation ducts, proved that upstream propagation of pressure pulses represented no problems and determined the variations of detonation duct output with time. Mixing and wave compression were used to recombine the combustor and detonation duct flows and a concept for a spiral collector to further smooth the pressure and temperature pulses was presented as an optional component. The best performance was obtained with a single firing of the ducts so that the flow could be re-established before the next detonation was initiated. At the optimum conditions of maximum frequency of the detonation ducts, the gas turbine efficiency was found to be 45 percent while that of a corresponding pressure ratio 5 conventional gas turbine was only 26%. Comparable improvements in specific fuel consumption data were found for gas turbines operating as jet engines, turbofans, and shaft output machines. Direct use of the detonation duct output for jet propulsion proved unsatisfactory. Careful analysis of the models of the fluid flow phenomena led to the conclusion that even more elaborate calculations would not diminish the uncertainties in the analysis of the system. Feasibility of the concept to work as an engine now requires validation in an engineering laboratory experiment.

  9. Single-stage high frequency coaxial pulse tube cryocooler with base temperature below 30 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L. W.; Xun, Y. Q.; Thummes, G.; Liang, J. T.

    2010-05-01

    This paper introduces two single-stage high frequency coaxial pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) with base temperature below 30 K. One has reached the lowest temperature of 26.1 K with an electric power of 250 W, which is the reported lowest temperature for single-stage high frequency PTC without multi-bypass. Using nozzle for double-inlet instead of need valves, the second PTC has achieved the temperature of 28.6 K with an electric power of 235 W. The analysis result is coinciding with experiments in general. The paper shows the advantage of the cooperated phase adjustment method of inertance tube and double-inlet, they might be the best choice when low temperature PTC is required.

  10. High efficiency 40 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Pan, C. Z.; Cui, C.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A high efficiency single-stage Stirling-type coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at around 40 K has been designed, built and tested. The double-inlet and the inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir were adopted as the phase shifters. Under the conditions of 2.5 MPa charging pressure and 30 Hz operating frequency, the prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 23.8 K with 330 W of electric input power at a rejection temperature of 279 K. When the input power increases to 400 W, it can achieve a cooling capacity of 4.7 W/40 K while rejecting heat at 279 K yielding an efficiency of 7.02% relative to Carnot. It achieves a cooling capacity of 5 W/40 K with an input power of 450 W. It takes 10 minutes for the SPTC to cool to its no-load temperature of 40 K from 295 K.

  11. Two-stage high frequency pulse tube refrigerator with base temperature below 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liubiao; Wu, Xianlin; Liu, Sixue; Zhu, Xiaoshuang; Pan, Changzhao; Guo, Jia; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces our recent experimental results of pulse tube refrigerator driven by linear compressor. The working frequency is 23-30 Hz, which is much higher than the G-M type cooler (the developed cryocooler will be called high frequency pulse tube refrigerator in this paper). To achieve a temperature below 10 K, two types of two-stage configuration, gas coupled and thermal coupled, have been designed, built and tested. At present, both types can achieve a no-load temperature below 10 K by using only one compressor. As to gas-coupled HPTR, the second stage can achieve a cooling power of 16 mW/10K when the first stage applied a 400 mW heat load at 60 K with a total input power of 400 W. As to thermal-coupled HPTR, the designed cooling power of the first stage is 10W/80K, and then the temperature of the second stage can get a temperature below 10 K with a total input power of 300 W. In the current preliminary experiment, liquid nitrogen is used to replace the first coaxial configuration as the precooling stage, and a no-load temperature 9.6 K can be achieved with a stainless steel mesh regenerator. Using Er3Ni sphere with a diameter about 50-60 micron, the simulation results show it is possible to achieve a temperature below 8 K. The configuration, the phase shifters and the regenerative materials of the developed two types of two-stage high frequency pulse tube refrigerator will be discussed, and some typical experimental results and considerations for achieving a better performance will also be presented in this paper.

  12. High efficiency, low frequency linear compressor proposed for Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers

    SciTech Connect

    Höhne, Jens

    2014-01-29

    In order to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, which are most likely the cause of substantial global warming, a reduction of overall energy consumption is crucial. Low frequency Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers are usually powered by a scroll compressor together with a rotary valve. It has been theoretically shown that the efficiency losses within the rotary valve can be close to 50%{sup 1}. In order to eliminate these losses we propose to use a low frequency linear compressor, which directly generates the pressure wave without using a rotary valve. First results of this development will be presented.

  13. High efficiency, low frequency linear compressor proposed for Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhne, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions, which are most likely the cause of substantial global warming, a reduction of overall energy consumption is crucial. Low frequency Gifford-McMahon and pulse tube cryocoolers are usually powered by a scroll compressor together with a rotary valve. It has been theoretically shown that the efficiency losses within the rotary valve can be close to 50%1. In order to eliminate these losses we propose to use a low frequency linear compressor, which directly generates the pressure wave without using a rotary valve. First results of this development will be presented.

  14. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S., E-mail: ginzburg@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Ave., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of themore » incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam.« less

  15. Deflagration-to-Detonation Transition Control by Nanosecond Gas Discharges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-07

    Report 3. DATES COVERED (From – To) 1 April 2007 - 18 August 09 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deflagration-To- Detonation Transition Control By Nanosecond...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT During the current project, an extensive experimental study of detonation initiation by high{voltage...nanosecond gas discharges has been performed in a smooth detonation tube with different discharge chambers and various discharge cell numbers. The chambers

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A 4 K STIRLING-TYPE PULSE TUBE CRYOCOOLER FOR A MOBILE TERAHERTZ DETECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P. E.; Gerecht, E.; Radebaugh, R.

    2010-04-09

    We discuss in this paper the design and development of a 4 K Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for a mobile terahertz detection system. This system integrates new heterodyne detector technology at terahertz frequencies with advancements of Stirling-type pulse tube technology that brings the advent of cooled detector sensitivities in a mobile, compact, and long duration operation system without degradation of sensitivity. To achieve this goal we reduced overall system size, input power, and temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations in order to maintain the detector sensitivity. The Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler developed for this system is a hybrid design employing amore » He-4 pulse-tube cryocooler operating at 60 Hz and 2.5 MPa average pressure that precools a He-3 pulse tube cryocooler operating at 30 Hz and 1.0 MPa average pressure to achieve 4 K cooling for the terahertz receiver. The He-4 cryocooler employs stainless steel mesh regenerators for the first stage and ErPr spheres for the second stage, while the He-3 cryocooler employs stainless mesh for the first stage and ErPr spheres for the second stage with a layered rare-earth third stage regenerator. Design details and cooler performance goals are discussed.« less

  17. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L. B.; Liu, S. X.; Gu, K. X.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper.

  18. Cascade pulse-tube cryocooler using a displacer for efficient work recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingyuan; Hu, Jianying; Hu, Jiangfeng; Luo, Ercang; Zhang, Limin; Gao, Bo

    2017-09-01

    Expansion work is generally wasted as heat in a pulse-tube cryocooler and thus represents an obstacle to obtaining higher Carnot efficiency. Recovery of this dissipated power is crucial to improvement of these cooling systems, particularly when the cooling temperature is not very low. In this paper, an efficient cascade cryocooler that is capable of recovering acoustic power is introduced. The cryocooler is composed of two coolers and a displacer unit. The displacer, which fulfills both phase modulation and power transmission roles, is sandwiched in the structure by the two coolers. This means that the expansion work from the first stage cooler can then be used by the second stage cooler. The expansion work of the second stage cooler is much lower than the total input work and it is thus not necessary to recover it. Analyses and experiments were conducted to verify the proposed configuration. At an input power of 1249 W, the cascade cryocooler achieved its highest overall relative Carnot efficiency of 37.2% and a cooling power of 371 W at 130 K. When compared with the performance of a traditional pulse-tube cryocooler, the cooling efficiency was improved by 32%.

  19. An approach for estimating acoustic power in a pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao; Qiu, Limin; Duan, Chaoxiang; You, Xiaokuan; Zhi, Xiaoqin

    2017-10-01

    Acoustic power at the cold end of regenerator is the measure of gross cooling capacity for a pulse tube cryocooler (PTC), which cannot be measured directly. Conventionally, the acoustic power can only be derived from the measurement of velocity, pressure and their phase angle, which is still a challenge for an oscillating flow at cryogenic temperatures. A new method is proposed for estimating the acoustic power, which takes use of the easily measurable parameters, such as the pressure and temperature, instead of the velocity and phase angle between the pressure and velocity at cryogenic temperatures. The ratio of acoustic powers at the both ends of isothermal components, like regenerator, heat exchangers, can be conveniently evaluated by using the ratio of pressure amplitudes and the local temperatures. The ratio of acoustic powers at the both ends of adiabatic components, like transfer line and pulse tube, is obtained by using the ratio of pressure amplitudes. Accuracy of the approach for evaluating the acoustic power for the regenerator is analyzed by comparing the results with those from REGEN 3.3 and references. For the cold end temperature range of 40-80 K, the deviation is less than 5% if the phase angle at the cold end of regenerator is around -30°. The simple method benefits estimating the acoustic power and optimizing the PTC performance without interfering the cryogenic flow field.

  20. Design of High Frequency Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Onboard Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, Thota; Padmanabhan; Gurudath, C. S.; Amrit, A.; Basavaraj, S.; Dinesh, K.

    2017-02-01

    To meet the growing demands of on-board applications such as cooling meteorological payloads and the satellite operational constraints like power, lower mass, reduced size and redundancy; a Pulse Tube Cryocooler (PTC) is designed by arriving at an operating frequency of 100 Hz and Helium gas pressure of 35 bar based on insights obtained from combination of phasor diagram, pulse tube and regenerator geometries with overall system mass of ≤ 2.0 kg. High frequency operation would allow reducing the size and mass of pressure wave modulator for a given input power. High Frequency also helps in reducing the volume of regenerator for a given cooling power, which increases the power density and leads to faster cool down. A component level modelling of the regenerator for optimising length and diameter for maximum Coefficient of Performance (COP) is carried out using REGEN3.3. The overall system level modelling of PTC is carried out using 1-D software SAGE. The cold end mass flow rate of the optimised regenerator is taken as reference for the system modelling. The performance achieved in REGEN3.3 is 2.15 W of net heat lift against the performance of 1.02 W of net heat lift at 80 K in SAGE.

  1. Characterization of a low frequency magnetic noise from a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshraghi, M. J.; Sasada, I.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.

    2009-07-01

    Magnetic noise of a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler (PT) was measured by a fundamental mode orthogonal fluxgate magnetometer and by a LTS Double Relaxation Oscillation SQUID (DROS) first-order planar gradiometer. The magnetometer was installed in a dewar made of aluminum at 12 cm distance from a section containing magnetic regenerative materials of the second pulse tube. The magnetic noise spectrum showed a clear peak at 1.8 Hz, which is the fundamental frequency of the He gas pumping rate. The 1.8 Hz magnetic noise registered a peak, during the cooling down process, when the second cold-stage temperature was around 12 K, which is well correlated with the 1.8 Hz variation of the temperature of the second cold stage. Hence, we attributed the main source of this magnetic noise to the temperature variation of the magnetic moments resulting from magnetic regenerative materials, Er 3Ni and HoCu 2, in the presence of background static magnetic fields. We have also pointed out that the superconducting magnetic shield of lead sheets reduced the low frequency magnetic noise generated from the magnetic regenerative materials. With this arrangement, the magnetic noise amplitude measured with the LTS DROS gradiometer, mounted at 7 cm horizontal distance from the magnetic regenerative materials, in the optimum condition, was lower than 500 pT peak-to-peak, whereas the noise level without lead shielding was higher than the dynamic range of DROS instrumentations which was around ±10nT.

  2. Development of a 30-50 K dual-stage pulse tube space cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leenders, H.; de Jonge, G.; Mullié, J.; Prouvé, T.; Charles, I.; Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.

    2017-12-01

    There has been a trend towards increasing heat loads for cryogenically cooled Earth Observation instruments in recent years. This is the case at both the current operational temperature levels (∼50K), as well as at lower operational temperature levels (30-50 K). One solution to meet this trend is to use existing pulse tube technology in a double stage configuration. With such technology increased cooling power at a lower temperature can be achieved at the payload detector. Another advantage of such a system is the possibility to increase overall system efficiency by cooling an intermediate shield to avoid parasitic heat losses towards the detector. Therefore a consortium consisting of Thales Cryogenics B.V. (TCBV), Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Absolut System (AS) is working on the development of a space cryostat actively cooled by a 2-stage high reliability pulse tube cryocooler. This work is being performed in the frame of an European Space Agency (ESA) Technical Research Program (TRP) (refer 4000109933/14/NL/RA) with a target TRL of 6. This paper presents the design of the overall equipped cryostat and cryostat itself but is mainly focused on the 2-stage cryocooler. Design, manufacturing and test aspects of cryocooler and its the lower level components such as the compressor and cold finger are discussed in detail in this paper. The cryocooler test campaign is meanwhile in final stages of completion and the obtained test results are in line with program objectives.

  3. Measurement of the performance of a spiral wound polyimide regenerator in a pulse tube refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, Wayne; Timmerhaus, Klaus D.; Radebaugh, Ray; Daney, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    A regenerator for use in a pulse tube refrigerator has been constructed from a polyimide (polypyromellitimide or PPMI) whose small ratio of thermal conductivity to heat capacity make it a good candidate for a regenerator material in cryocoolers. The regenerator was fabricated using 25 micron thick photoresist strips bonded to a 50 micron thick sheet of PPMI. This composite sheet was wound in jelly-roll fashion around a mandrel and inserted into the regenerator housing. The photoresist strips, formed using a photolithographic technique, provided a 25 micron spacing for the axial flow of gas between each layer of PPMI. Ineffectiveness results are presented for this material under actual operating conditions in a pulse tube refrigerator and compared with a numerical model. The numerical model indicated that a polyimide regenerator would perform much better than one constructed of stainless steel screen, but the experimental results showed the opposite behavior. Measured values for the ineffectiveness were 0.003 for the stainless steel screen and 0.017 for the polyimide.

  4. Corrosion/erosion detection of boiler tubes utilizing pulsed infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, Maurice J.; Bishop, Chip C.

    1995-05-01

    This paper discusses a new technique for locating and detecting wall thickness reduction in boiler tubes caused by erosion/corrosion. Traditional means for this type of defect detection utilizes ultrasonics (UT) to perform a point by point measurement at given intervals of the tube length, which requires extensive and costly shutdown or `outage' time to complete the inspection, and has led to thin areas going undetected simply because they were located in between the sampling points. Pulsed infrared imaging (PII) can provide nearly 100% inspection of the tubes in a fraction of the time needed for UT. The IR system and heat source used in this study do not require any special access or fixed scaffolding, and can be remotely operated from a distance of up to 100 feet. This technique has been tried experimentally in a laboratory environment and verified in an actual field application. Since PII is a non-contact technique, considerable time and cost savings should be realized as well as the ability to predict failures rather than repairing them once they have occurred.

  5. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-12-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four different phase shifters, including conventional inertance tube, gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters, as well as a power recovery displacer. Distributed models based on the electro-acoustic analogy are developed to estimate the phase shifting capacity and the acoustic power dissipation of the three phase shifters without power recovery. The results show that both gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters have the distinctive capacity of phase shifting with a significant reduction in the inertial component length. Furthermore, full distributed models of SPTCs connected with different phase shifters are developed. The cooling performance of SPTCs using all four phase shifters are presented and typical phase relations are analyzed. The comparison reveals that the power recovery displacer with a more complicated configuration provides the highest efficiency. The gas-liquid and spring-oscillator phase shifters show equivalent efficiency compared with the inertance tube phase shifter. Approximately 10-20% of the acoustic power is dissipated by the phase shifters without power recovery, while 15-20% of the acoustic power can be recovered by the power recovery displacer, leading to a maximum coefficient of performance (COP) above 0.14 at 80 K. A merit analysis is also done by presenting the pros and cons of different phase shifters.

  6. LN2-free Operation of the MEG Liquid Xenon Calorimeter by using a High-power Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    SciTech Connect

    Haruyama, T.; Kasami, K.; Nishiguchi, H.

    2006-04-27

    A high-power coaxial pulse tube cryocooler, originally developed in KEK and technology-transferred to Iwatani Industrial Gases Corp (IIGC), has been installed in a large liquid xenon calorimeter to evaluate liquid nitrogen-free (LN2-free) operation of the rare {mu}-particle decay experiment (MEG). Features of this pulse tube cryocooler include the cold-end heat exchanger, designed with sufficient surface area to ensure high-power cooling, and a cylindrical regenerator placed inside the pulse tube giving compact design and ease of fabrication. This production-level cryocooler provides a cooling power of {approx}200 W at 165 K, using a 6 kW Gifford-McMahon (GM)-type compressor. The paper describes themore » detailed configuration of the cryocooler, and the results of the continuous LN2-free operation of the large prototype liquid xenon calorimeter, which ran for more than 40 days without problems.« less

  7. Detonation wave augmentation of gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, A.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a feasibility study that examined the effects of using detonation waves to augment the performance of gas turbines are reported. The central ideas were to reduce compressor requirements and to maintain high performance in jet engines. Gasdynamic equations were used to model the flows associated with shock waves generated by the detonation of fuel in detonator tubes. Shock wave attenuation to the level of Mach waves was found possible, thus eliminating interference with the compressor and the necessity of valves and seals. A preliminary parametric study of the performance of a compressor working at a 4:1 ratio in a conceptual design of a detonation wave augmented jet engine in subsonic flight indicated a clear superiority over conventional designs in terms of fuel efficiency and thrust.

  8. Experimental study on the pressure and pulse wave propagation in viscoelastic vessel tubes-effects of liquid viscosity and tube stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Yuki; Nishi, Shohei; Komagata, Yuka; Saito, Masashi; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Asada, Takaaki; Matsukawa, Mami

    2013-11-01

    A pulse wave is the displacement wave which arises because of ejection of blood from the heart and reflection at vascular bed and distal point. The investigation of pressure waves leads to understanding the propagation characteristics of a pulse wave. To investigate the pulse wave behavior, an experimental study was performed using an artificial polymer tube and viscous liquid. A polyurethane tube and glycerin solution were used to simulate a blood vessel and blood, respectively. In the case of the 40 wt% glycerin solution, which corresponds to the viscosity of ordinary blood, the attenuation coefficient of a pressure wave in the tube decreased from 4.3 to 1.6 dB/m because of the tube stiffness (Young's modulus: 60 to 200 kPa). When the viscosity of liquid increased from approximately 4 to 10 mPa·s (the range of human blood viscosity) in the stiff tube, the attenuation coefficient of the pressure wave changed from 1.6 to 3.2 dB/m. The hardening of the blood vessel caused by aging and the increase of blood viscosity caused by illness possibly have opposite effects on the intravascular pressure wave. The effect of the viscosity of a liquid on the amplitude of a pressure wave was then considered using a phantom simulating human blood vessels. As a result, in the typical range of blood viscosity, the amplitude ratio of the waves obtained by the experiments with water and glycerin solution became 1:0.83. In comparison with clinical data, this value is much smaller than that seen from blood vessel hardening. Thus, it can be concluded that the blood viscosity seldom affects the attenuation of a pulse wave.

  9. Predicting propagation limits of laser-supported detonation by Hugoniot analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimamura, Kohei; Ofosu, Joseph A.; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Koizumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Termination conditions of a laser-supported detonation (LSD) wave were investigated using control volume analysis with a Shimada-Hugoniot curve and a Rayleigh line. Because the geometric configurations strongly affect the termination condition, a rectangular tube was used to create the quasi-one-dimensional configuration. The LSD wave propagation velocity and the pressure behind LSD were measured. Results reveal that the detonation states during detonation and at the propagation limit are overdriven detonation and Chapman-Jouguet detonation, respectively. The termination condition is the minimum velocity criterion for the possible detonation solution. Results were verified using pressure measurements of the stagnation pressure behind the LSD wave.

  10. Comparison of two models of a double inlet miniature pulse tube refrigerator: Part B electrical analogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, Yannick; Nika, Philippe

    2002-10-01

    The design of a double inlet pulse tube refrigerator is investigated by means of an analogy with an electric circuit. The results obtained are compared with both those of the thermodynamic model (Part A) and experiments. The basic formulation of equivalent electronic components is discussed and a few improvements are proposed for adjusting the theoretical expressions of the electric impedance concerning the capillaries and the regenerator. Then additional effects such as pressure drops due to geometrical singularities are taken into account considering the different internal flow regimes that may occur. Besides a simplified formulation for the regenerator efficiency is deduced from considerations on its harmonic functioning. In this analysis, the emphasis concerns principally the design of miniature cryocoolers dedicated to electronic applications. Those models are applied to a commercial miniature refrigerator. A discussion of their relevance is achieved and a few suggestions on the refrigerator design are proposed in order to improve the cooling production.

  11. Loss Analysis of High Power Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, K.; Hiratsuka, Y.

    2015-12-01

    For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and current fault limiters, cryocoolers should be compact in size, light-weight, and have high efficiency and reliability. In order to meet the demand of HTS devices world-wide, the cryocooler needs to have COP efficiency >0.1. We have developed a high power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) with an in-line expander. The experimental results were reported in June 2012[1]. The cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW. Accordingly, the COP was about 0.055. To further improve the efficiency, the energy losses in the cryocooler were analyzed. The experimental results and the numerical calculation results are reported in this paper.

  12. A 63 K phase change unit integrating with pulse tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunhui, Kong; Liubiao, Chen; Sixue, Liu; Yuan, Zhou; Junjie, Wang

    2017-02-01

    This article presents the design and computer model results of an integrated cooler system which consists of a single stage pulse tube cryocooler integrated with a small amount of a phase change material. A cryogenic thermal switch was used to thermally connect the phase change unit to the cold end of the cryocooler. During heat load operation, the cryogenic thermal switch is turned off to avoid vibrations. The phase change unit absorbs heat loads by melting a substance in a constant pressure-temperature-volume process. Once the substance has been melted, the cryogenic thermal turned on, the cryocooler can then refreeze the material. Advantages of this type of cooler are no vibrations during sensor operations; the ability to absorb increased heat loads; potentially longer system lifetime; and a lower mass, volume and cost. A numerical model was constructed from derived thermodynamic relationships for the cooling/heating and freezing/melting processes.

  13. Two-stage high frequency pulse tube cooler for refrigeration at 25 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, M.; Thummes, G.

    2010-04-01

    A two-stage Stirling-type U-shape pulse tube cryocooler driven by a 10 kW-class linear compressor was designed, built and tested. A special feature of the cold head is the absence of a heat exchanger at the cold end of the first-stage, since the intended application requires no cooling power at this intermediate temperature. Simulations where done using SAGE-software to find optimum operating conditions and cold head geometry. Flow-impedance matching was required to connect the compressor designed for 60 Hz operation to the 40 Hz cold head. A cooling power of 12.9 W at 25 K with an electrical input power of 4.6 kW has been achieved up to now. The lowest temperature reached is 13.7 K.

  14. 18.6 K single-stage high frequency multi-bypass coaxial pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liubiao; Jin, Hai; Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Yuan; Zhu, Wenxiu; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-02-01

    A single-stage high frequency multi-bypass coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) has been developed for physical experiments. The performance characteristics are presented. At present, the cooler has reached the lowest temperature of 18.6 K with an electric input power of 268 W, which is the reported lowest temperature for single-stage high frequency PTC. The cooler typically provides 0.2 W at 20.6 K and 0.5 W at 24.1 K with the input power of 260 W at 300 K ambient temperature. The cooperation phase adjustment method of multi-bypass and double-inlet shows its advantages in experiments, they might be the best way to get temperature below 20 K for single-stage high frequency PTC. The temperature stability of the developed PTC is also observed.

  15. 120 Hz pulse tube cryocooler for fast cooldown to 50 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanapalli, Srinivas; Lewis, Michael; Gan, Zhihua; Radebaugh, Ray

    2007-02-01

    A pulse tube cryocooler operating at 120Hz with 3.5MPa average pressure achieved a no-load temperature of about 49.9K and a cooldown time to 80K of 5.5min. The net refrigeration power at 80K was 3.35W with an efficiency of 19.7% of Carnot when referred to input pressure-volume (PV or acoustic) power. Such low temperatures have not been previously achieved for operating frequencies above 100Hz. The high frequency operation leads to reduced cryocooler volume for a given refrigeration power, which is important to many applications and can enable development of microcryocoolers for microelectromechanical system applications.

  16. Experimental study of the oscillating flow characteristics for a regenerator in a pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Yonglin; Jiang, Yan; Zhou, Yuan

    A dynamic experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to investigate oscillating flow characteristics in a regenerator subjected to a periodically reversing flow established by means of a self-made linear compressor. Detailed experimental data of oscillating pressure drops and phase shift characteristics for regenerators in a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with an operating frequency of 50 Hz were given. The correlation equations for the maximum and cycle-averaged friction factors in terms of Reynolds numbers and dimensionless distance X were obtained. It was found that the value of the cycle-averaged pressure drop in the oscillating flow across the regenerator is two to three times higher than that of a steady flow at the same Reynolds numbers based on the cross-sectional mean velocity. In addition, the relationship of the phase shifts between the velocity and pressure wave is also discussed.

  17. A cryogen-free Vuilleumier type pulse tube cryocooler operating below 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Luo, Ercang

    2018-03-01

    Vuilleumier (VM) type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) utilizes the thermal compressor to drive the low temperature stage PTC. This paper presents the latest experimental results of a cryogen-free VM type PTC that operates in the temperature range below 10 K. Stirling type pre-coolers instead of liquid nitrogen provide the cooling power for the thermal compressor. Compared with previous configuration, the thermal compressor was improved with a higher output pressure ratio, and lead and HoCu2 spheres were packed within the regenerator for the low temperature stage PTC for a better match with targeted cold end temperature. A lowest no-load temperature of 7.58 K was obtained with a pressure ratio of 1.23, a working frequency of 3 Hz and an average pressure of 1.63 MPa. The experimental results show good consistency in terms of lowest temperature with the simulation under the same working condition.

  18. High-efficiency 3 W/40 K single-stage pulse tube cryocooler for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Wu, Yinong; Liu, Shaoshuai; Liu, Biqiang; Yang, Baoyu

    2018-03-01

    Temperature is an extremely important parameter for space-borne infrared detectors. To develop a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), a high-efficiency Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) has been designed, manufactured and experimentally investigated for providing a large cooling power at 40 K cold temperature. Simulated and experimental studies were carried out to analyse the effects of low temperature on different energy flows and losses, and the performance of the PTC was improved by optimizing components and parameters such as regenerator and operating frequency. A no-load lowest temperature of 26.2 K could be reached at a frequency of 51 Hz, and the PTC could efficiently offer cooling power of 3 W at 40 K cold temperature when the input power was 225 W. The efficiency relative to the Carnot efficiency was approximately 8.4%.

  19. Experimental Study of an Aerospace Low Temperature Refrigerator Cooled by a Pulse-tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jiajia; Wu, Yinong; Zhang, Ankuo; Yang, Baoyu; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Xi; Chen, Haitao

    Asingle-stage coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) has been designed, manufactured and tested at ShanghaiInstitute of Technical Physics (SITP), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) for cooling an aerospace low temperature refrigerator (LTR), whose volume is 20 liters. The LTR system and the PTC system are introduced. Lots of simulations are carried out by CAD/FLUENT for verifying the LTR structure rationality and predicting the inside walls temperature uniformity. Some performance experiments of the LTR have been carried out and analyzedafter coupling with the PTC. The experimental results show that the PTC is capable of cooling the LTR to about average -100oC, so the PTC has a great potential for cooling aerospace LTRs. Some cooling curves are presented and discussed in detail for a thorough understanding of the LTR system.

  20. Development status of a high cooling capacity single stage pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, T.; Li, R.; Y Xu, M.; Zhu, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) applications require high-capacity and high-reliability cooling solutions to keep HTS materials at temperatures of approximately 80 K. In order to meet such requirements, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd.(SHI) has been developing high cooling capacity GM-type active-buffer pulse tube cryocooler. An experimental unit was designed, built and tested. A cooling capacity of 390.5 W at 80 K, COP 0.042 was achieved with an input power of approximately 9 kW. The cold stage usually reaches a stable temperature of about 25 K within one hour starting at room temperature. Also, a simplified analysis was carried out to better understand the experimental unit. In the analysis, the regenerator, thermal conduction, heat exchanger and radiation losses were calculated. The net cooling capacity was about 80% of the PV work. The experimental results, the analysis method and results are reported in this paper.

  1. Reduction of Secondary Flow in Inclined Orifice Pulse Tubes by Addition of DC Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, M.; Fujisawa, Y.; Murakami, M.; Nanako, A.

    2004-06-01

    The effect of using a second orifice valve to reduce convective losses caused by gravity-driven convective secondary flow in inclined orifice pulse tube refrigerators was investigated. The second orifice valve was installed between a reservoir and a low-pressure line of a compressor. When the valve was open, an additional DC flow directed to the hot end of the refrigerator was generated to counterbalance the convective secondary flow in the core region by opening the valve. Experimental results indicated that with increasing additional DC flow to an optimum level, the convective secondary flow decreased and the cooling performance improved, although further increase of the DC flow over the level caused the cooling performance to degrade. In summary, the second orifice valve was effective in reducing both the convective losses without affecting the cooling performance at an inclination angle < 70° where convective losses were negligibly small.

  2. Ultra-low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler system - cooling capacity and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikushima, Yuki; Li, Rui; Tomaru, Takayuki; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Shintomi, Takakazu; Yamamoto, Akira

    2008-09-01

    This report describes the development of low-vibration cooling systems with pulse-tube (PT) cryocoolers. Generally, PT cryocoolers have the advantage of lower vibrations in comparison to those of GM cryocoolers. However, cooling systems for the cryogenic laser interferometer observatory (CLIO), which is a gravitational wave detector, require an operational vibration that is sufficiently lower than that of a commercial PT cryocooler. The required specification for the vibration amplitude in cold stages is less than ±1 μm. Therefore, during the development of low-vibration cooling systems for the CLIO, we introduced advanced countermeasures for commercial PT cryocoolers. The cooling performance and the vibration amplitude were evaluated. The results revealed that 4 K and 80 K PT cooling systems with a vibration amplitude of less than ±1 μm and cooling performance of 4.5 K and 70 K at heat loads of 0.5 W and 50 W, respectively, were developed successfully.

  3. Development of a miniature coaxial pulse tube cryocooler for a space-borne infrared detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H. Z.; Wang, L. B.; Wu, Y. N.; Yang, K. X.; Shen, W. B.

    2010-04-01

    A single-stage miniature coaxial pulse tube cryocooler prototype is developed to provide reliable low-noise cooling for an infrared detector system to be equipped in the future space mission. The challenging work is the exacting requirement on its dimensions due to the given miniature Dewar. The limited dimensions result in the insufficiency of the phaseshifting ability of the system when inertance tubes alone are employed. A larger filling pressure of 3.5 Mpa and higher operating frequency up to 70 Hz are adopted to increase the energy density, which compensates for the decrease in working gas volume due to the miniature structure, and realize a fast cool down process. A 1.5 kg dual opposed linear compressor based on flexure bearing and moving magnet technology is used to realize light weight, high efficiency and low contamination. The design and optimization are based on the theoretical CFD model developed by the analyses of thermodynamic behaviors of gas parcels in the oscillating flow. This paper describes the design approach and trade-offs. The cooler performance and characteristics are presented.

  4. 1 K cryostat with sub-millikelvin stability based on a pulse-tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMann, A.; Mueller, Sara; Field, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic system has been designed and tested that reaches a temperature below 1.1 K, with an rms temperature stability of 25 μ K. In this system a commercial pulse-tube cryocooler is used to liquify helium gas supplied from an external source. This liquid helium enters a 1 K pot through a large-impedance capillary tube, similar to a conventional 1 K system operated from a liquid helium bath. Unlike a conventional system, however, the molar flow rate of the system can be varied by changing the pressure of the incoming helium. This allows for a trade-off between helium usage and cooling power, which has a maximum value of 27 mW. The measured cooling power and fraction of helium exiting the capillary as liquid agree well with predictions based on an isenthalpic model of helium flow through the capillary. The system is simple to use and inexpensive to operate: The system can be cooled to base temperature in about 3 h and, with a flow rate giving a cooling power of 13 mW, the helium cost is around 6 per day.

  5. High temperature detonator

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, James O.; Dinegar, Robert H.

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  6. Mid-infrared Laser Absorption Diagnostics for Detonation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearrin, R. M.; Goldenstein, C. S.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    Detonation-based engines represent a challenging application for diagnostics due to the wide range of thermodynamic conditions involved (T~500-3000 K, P~2-60 atm) and the short time scales of change (~10- 6 to 10- 4 sec) associated with such systems. Non-intrusive laser absorption diagnostics can provide high time-resolution and have been employed extensively in shock tube kinetics experiments (P~1-20 atm), offering high potential for application in detonation environments with modest utilization to date [1-4]. Limiting factors in designing effective tunable laser absorption sensors for detonation engines can be divided into two sets of challenges: high-pressure, high-temperature absorption spectroscopy and harsh thermo-mechanical environments. The present work, conducted in a high-pressure shock tube and operating detonation combustor, addresses both sets of difficulties, with the objective of developing time-resolved, in-situ temperature and concentration sensors for detonation studies.

  7. Structure and characteristics of heterogeneous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, J. A.; Sichel, M.; Kauffman, C. W.

    1983-09-01

    The emphasis of this research program centered around the structure of heterogeneous detonation waves, inasmuch as this had been found to be very important to the detonation characteristics of heterogeneous mixtures. On the experimental side, a vertical detonation tube was used wherein liquid fuel drops, all of one size, were generated at the top of the tube and allowed to fall vertically into the desired gaseous mixture. A strong blast wave was transmitted into the mixture through use of an auxiliary shock tube. The propagation of the resultant wave was monitored by pressure switches, pressure transducers, and photography. The low vapor pressure liquid fuel, decane (400 micrometer drop size) was used for most of the experiments. Attention was given to wave structure, wave velocity, and initiation energy. Three atmospheres (100% O2; 40% O2/60% N2; and air) and a number of equivalence ratios were investigated. Holographic pictures and streak photography were employed to study the drop shattering process and the structure of the front. Other experiments investigated the addition of the sensitizer, normal propyl nitrate (NPN), to the decane. The important aspect of vapor pressure was studied by heating the entire tube to various elevated temperatures and then noting the effect on detonability.

  8. Detonation propagation in a high loss configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I; Shepherd, Joseph E

    2009-01-01

    This work presents an experimental study of detonation wave propagation in tubes with inner diameters (ID) comparable to the mixture cell size. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in two test section tubes with inner diameters of 1.27 mm and 6.35 mm. For both test sections, the initial pressure of stoichiometric mixtures was varied to determine the effect on detonation propagation. For the 6.35 mm tube, the equivalence ratio {phi} (where the mixture was {phi} C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + 50{sub 2}) was also varied. Detonations were found to propagate in mixtures with cell sizes as large as five times the diameter ofmore » the tube. However, under these conditions, significant losses were observed, resulting in wave propagation velocities as slow as 40% of the CJ velocity U{sub CJ}. A review of relevant literature is presented, followed by experimental details and data. Observed velocity deficits are predicted using models that account for boundary layer growth inside detonation waves.« less

  9. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of the linear compressor for the pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Dang, H. Z.; Tan, J.; Bao, D.; Zhao, Y. B.; Qian, G. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of a linear compressor incorporating the thermodynamic characteristics of the inertance tube pulse tube cold finger have been made. Both the compressor and cold finger are assumed as a one-dimensional thermodynamic model. The governing equations of the thermodynamic characteristics of the working gas are summarized, and the effects of the cooling performance on the working gas in the compression space are discussed. Based on the analysis of the working gas, the governing equations of the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of the compressor are deduced, and then the principles of achieving the optimal performance of the compressor are discussed in detail. Systematic experimental investigations are conducted on a developed moving-coil linear compressor which drives a pulse tube cold finger, which indicate the general agreement with the simulated results, and thus verify the rationality of the theoretical model and analyses.

  10. Nanosecond pulsed laser micromachining for experimental fatigue life study of Ti-3Al-2.5V tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yaomin; Gupta, Mool C.; Taylor, Robert E.; Lei, Charles; Stone, William; Spidel, Tom; Yu, Michael; Williams, Reanne

    2009-01-01

    Defects on external surface of in-service hydraulic tubes can reduce total life cycles for operation. Evaluation of fatigue life of the tubes with damage is thus critical for safety reasons. A methodology of generating defects in the Ti-3Al-2.5V tube—a widely used pipeline in hydraulic systems of aircrafts—using nanosecond pulsed laser for experimental fatigue life study is described in this paper. Straight tubes of five different sizes were laser micromachined to generate notches of given length and depths on the outside surface. Approaches were developed to precisely control the notch dimensions. The laser-notched tubes were tested with cyclic internal impulse pressure and fatigue life was measured. The laser notches and fatigue cracks were characterized after the test. It is concluded that laser micromachining generated consistent notches, and the influence of notch depth on fatigue life of the tube is significant. Based on the experimental test results, the relationship between the fatigue life of the Ti-3Al-2.5V tube and the notch depth was revealed. The research demonstrated that laser micromachining is applicable for experimental fatigue life study of titanium tubes. The presented test data are useful for estimating the damage limits of the titanium tubes in service environment and for further theoretical studies.

  11. A pulsed eddy current probe for inspection of support plates from within Alloy-800 steam generator tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T. W.; Babbar, V. K.; Underhill, P. R.

    2014-02-01

    Support plate degradation and fouling in nuclear steam generators (SGs) can lead to SG tube corrosion and loss of efficiency. Inspection and monitoring of these conditions can be integrated with preventive maintenance programs, thereby advancing station-life management processes. A prototype pulsed eddy current (PEC) probe, targeting inspection issues associated with SG tubes in SS410 tube support plate structures, has been developed using commercial finite element (FE) software. FE modeling was used to identify appropriate driver and pickup coil configurations for optimum sensitivity to changes in gap and offset for Alloy-800 SG tubes passing through 25 mm thick SS410 support plates. Experimental measurements using a probe that was manufactured based on the modeled configuration, were used to confirm the sensitivity of differential PEC signals to changes in relative position of the tube within the tube support plate holes. Models investigated the effect of shift and tilt of tube with respect to hole centers. Near hole centers and for small shifts, modeled signal amplitudes from the differentially connected coil pairs were observed to change linearly with tube shift. This was in agreement with experimentally measured TEC coil response. The work paves the way for development of a system targeting the inspection and evaluation of support plate structures in steam generators.

  12. Printable sensors for explosive detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Matthew J.; Cooling, Nathan A.; Elkington, Daniel C.; Muller, Elmar; Belcher, Warwick J.; Dastoor, Paul C.

    2014-10-01

    Here, we report the development of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT) based on printable solution processed polymers and employing a quantum tunnelling composite material as a sensor to convert the pressure wave output from detonation transmission tubing (shock tube) into an inherently amplified electronic signal for explosives initiation. The organic electronic detector allows detection of the signal in a low voltage operating range, an essential feature for sites employing live ordinances that is not provided by conventional electronic devices. We show that a 30-fold change in detector response is possible using the presented detector assembly. Degradation of the OTFT response with both time and repeated voltage scans was characterised, and device lifetime is shown to be consistent with the requirements for on-site printing and usage. The integration of a low cost organic electronic detector with inexpensive shock tube transmission fuse presents attractive avenues for the development of cheap and simple assemblies for precisely timed initiation of explosive chains.

  13. Improved Pulse Wave Velocity Estimation Using an Arterial Tube-Load Model

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mingwu; Zhang, Guanqun; Olivier, N. Bari; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the most important index of arterial stiffness. It is conventionally estimated by non-invasively measuring central and peripheral blood pressure (BP) and/or velocity (BV) waveforms and then detecting the foot-to-foot time delay between the waveforms wherein wave reflection is presumed absent. We developed techniques for improved estimation of PWV from the same waveforms. The techniques effectively estimate PWV from the entire waveforms, rather than just their feet, by mathematically eliminating the reflected wave via an arterial tube-load model. In this way, the techniques may be more robust to artifact while revealing the true PWV in absence of wave reflection. We applied the techniques to estimate aortic PWV from simultaneously and sequentially measured central and peripheral BP waveforms and simultaneously measured central BV and peripheral BP waveforms from 17 anesthetized animals during diverse interventions that perturbed BP widely. Since BP is the major acute determinant of aortic PWV, especially under anesthesia wherein vasomotor tone changes are minimal, we evaluated the techniques in terms of the ability of their PWV estimates to track the acute BP changes in each subject. Overall, the PWV estimates of the techniques tracked the BP changes better than those of the conventional technique (e.g., diastolic BP root-mean-squared-errors of 3.4 vs. 5.2 mmHg for the simultaneous BP waveforms and 7.0 vs. 12.2 mmHg for the BV and BP waveforms (p < 0.02)). With further testing, the arterial tube-load model-based PWV estimation techniques may afford more accurate arterial stiffness monitoring in hypertensive and other patients. PMID:24263016

  14. Detonation command and control

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Jonathan Lee; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  15. Miniature Precision Detonator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-06-01

    Detonator Output Characterize the detonator output by the following 2-3.1 Dent Output Test. Test detonators Into steel witness plate to compare dent...Kovar with gold plating . The Insulating seal Is glass. The jead pin Is 0.012 ± 0.001 Inch In diameter by 0.25 Inch long. 3.2.2 Bridge. Detonators... plated for solderablllty. The bottom thickness Is 0.004 ± 0.001 Inch. It would be desirable to have 0.002 to 0.003-lnch-thlck bottom so that the mass

  16. Detonation command and control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2015-11-10

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link therebetween. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  17. Detonation command and control

    DOEpatents

    Mace, Jonathan L.; Seitz, Gerald J.; Echave, John A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-31

    The detonation of one or more explosive charges and propellant charges by a detonator in response to a fire control signal from a command and control system comprised of a command center and instrumentation center with a communications link there between. The fire control signal is selectively provided to the detonator from the instrumentation center if plural detonation control switches at the command center are in a fire authorization status, and instruments, and one or more interlocks, if included, are in a ready for firing status. The instrumentation and command centers are desirably mobile, such as being respective vehicles.

  18. Hydrazine vapor detonations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedley, M. D.; Bishop, C. V.; Benz, F. J.; Bennett, C. A.; Mcclenagan, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    The detonation velocity and cell widths for hydrazine decomposition were measured over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The detonation velocity in pure hydrazine was within 5 percent of the calculated C-J velocity. The detonation cell width measurements were interpreted using the Zeldovich-Doering-von Neumann model with a detailed reaction mechanism for hydrazine decomposition. Excellent agreement with experimental data for pure hydrazine was obtained using the empirical relation that detonation cell width was equal to 29 times the kinetically calculated reaction zone length.

  19. CFD simulation of a miniature coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 128 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yibo; Dang, Haizheng

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional axis-symmetric CFD model of a miniature coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler with an overall weight of 920 g operating at 128 Hz is established, and systematic simulations of the performance characteristics at different temperatures are conducted. Both thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium mechanisms for the porous matrix are considered, and the regenerator losses including the gas and solid conduction, the pressure drop and the imperfect interfacial heat transfer are calculated, respectively. The results indicate that the pressure drop loss is dominant during the first 85% and 78% of regenerator length for the thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium models, respectively, and it decreases monotonously from warm to cold end due to the steadily decreasing Darcy and Forchheimer terms, whereas other entropy generations share similar changing tendencies, going up gradually near the warm end, increasing dramatically from about 60% of length and then decreasing sharply near the cold end. The reasons for these entropy variations are discussed.

  20. Piezo-Hydraulic Actuation for Driving High Frequency Miniature Split-Stirling Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garaway, I.; Grossman, G.

    2008-03-01

    In recent years piezoelectric actuation has been identified as a promising means of driving miniature Stirling devices. It supports miniaturization, has a high power to volume ratio, can operate at almost any frequency, good electrical to mechanical efficiencies, and potentially has a very long operating life. The major drawback of piezoelectric actuation, however, is the very small displacements that this physical phenomenon produces. This study shows that by employing valve-less hydraulic amplification an oscillating pressure wave can be created that is sufficiently large to drive a high frequency miniature pulse tube cryocooler (as high as 500 Hz in our experiments and perhaps higher). Beyond the direct benefits derived from using piezoelectric actuation, there are further benefits derived from using the piezo-hydraulic arrangement with membranes. Due to the incompressibility of the hydraulic fluid, the actuator may be separated from the main body of the cryocooler by relatively large distances with almost no detrimental effects, and the complete lack of rubbing parts in the power conversion processes makes this type of cryocooler extremely robust. The design and experimental device, coined the "Piezo-Hydraulic Membrane Oscillator", are presented along with some test results.

  1. Operating characteristics of a three-stage Stirling pulse tube cryocooler operating around 5 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. M.; Cao, Q.; Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Gan, Z. H.; Yu, Y. B.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X. J.; Pfotenhauer, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    A Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at the liquid-helium temperatures represents an excellent prospect for satisfying the requirements of space applications because of its compactness, high efficiency and reliability. However, the working mechanism of a 4 K SPTC is more complicated than that of the Gifford McMahon (GM) PTC that operates at the relatively low frequency of 1-2 Hz, and has not yet been well understood. In this study, the primary operating parameters, including frequency, charge pressure, input power and precooling temperature, are systematically investigated in a home-developed separate three-stage SPTC. The investigation demonstrates that the frequency and precooling temperature are closely coupled via phase shift. In order to improve the cooling capacity it is important to lower the frequency and the precooling temperature simultaneously. In contrast to the behavior predicted by previous studies, the pressure dependence of the gas properties results in an optimized pressure that decreases significantly as the temperature is lowered. The third stage reaches a lowest temperature of 4.97 K at 29.9 Hz and 0.91 MPa. A cooling power of 25 mW is measured at 6.0 K. The precooling temperature is 23.7 K and the input power is 100 W.

  2. Atomic fountain clock with very high frequency stability employing a pulse-tube-cryocooled sapphire oscillator.

    PubMed

    Takamizawa, Akifumi; Yanagimachi, Shinya; Tanabe, Takehiko; Hagimoto, Ken; Hirano, Iku; Watabe, Ken-ichi; Ikegami, Takeshi; Hartnett, John G

    2014-09-01

    The frequency stability of an atomic fountain clock was significantly improved by employing an ultra-stable local oscillator and increasing the number of atoms detected after the Ramsey interrogation, resulting in a measured Allan deviation of 8.3 × 10(-14)τ(-1/2)). A cryogenic sapphire oscillator using an ultra-low-vibration pulse-tube cryocooler and cryostat, without the need for refilling with liquid helium, was applied as a local oscillator and a frequency reference. High atom number was achieved by the high power of the cooling laser beams and optical pumping to the Zeeman sublevel m(F) = 0 employed for a frequency measurement, although vapor-loaded optical molasses with the simple (001) configuration was used for the atomic fountain clock. The resulting stability is not limited by the Dick effect as it is when a BVA quartz oscillator is used as the local oscillator. The stability reached the quantum projection noise limit to within 11%. Using a combination of a cryocooled sapphire oscillator and techniques to enhance the atom number, the frequency stability of any atomic fountain clock, already established as primary frequency standard, may be improved without opening its vacuum chamber.

  3. In-situ formation of solidified hydrogen thin-membrane targets using a pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astbury, S.; Bedacht, S.; Brummitt, P.; Carroll, D.; Clarke, R.; Crisp, S.; Hernandez-Gomez, C.; Holligan, P.; Hook, S.; Merchan, J. S.; Neely, D.; Ortner, A.; Rathbone, D.; Rice, P.; Schaumann, G.; Scott, G.; Spindloe, C.; Spurdle, S.; Tebartz, A.; Tomlinson, S.; Wagner, F.; Borghesi, M.; Roth, M.; Tolley, M. K.

    2016-04-01

    An account is given of the Central Laser Facility's work to produce a cryogenic hydrogen targetry system using a pulse tube cryocooler. Due to the increasing demand for low Z thin laser targets, CLF (in collaboration with TUD) have been developing a system which allows the production of solid hydrogen membranes by engineering a design which can achieve this remotely; enabling the gas injection, condensation and solidification of hydrogen without compromising the vacuum of the target chamber. A dynamic sealing mechanism was integrated which allows targets to be grown and then remotely exposed to open vacuum for laser interaction. Further research was conducted on the survivability of the cryogenic targets which concluded that a warm gas effect causes temperature spiking when exposing the solidified hydrogen to the outer vacuum. This effect was shown to be mitigated by improving the pumping capacity of the environment and reducing the minimum temperature obtainable on the target mount. This was achieved by developing a two-stage radiation shield encased with superinsulating blanketing; reducing the base temperature from 14 ± 0.5 K to 7.2 ± 0.2 K about the coldhead as well as improving temperature control stability following the installation of a high-performance temperature controller and sensor apparatus. The system was delivered experimentally and in July 2014 the first laser shots were taken upon hydrogen targets in the Vulcan TAP facility.

  4. Design, analyses, fabrication and characterization of Nb3Sn coil in 1 W pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Kumar, Nitish; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-02-01

    A laboratory scale Nb3Sn coil is designed, analysed, fabricated and characterized in 1 W pulse tube cryocooler in solid nitrogen cooling mode and in conduction cooling mode. The magnetic field profile in axial and radial direction, Lorentz force component across the winding volume in operational condition are estimated in COMSOL. The coil is designed for 1.5 T at 100 A. It is fabricated in wind and react method. Before winding, the insulated Nb3Sn strand is wound on a copper mandrel which is thermally anchored with the 2nd stage of the cold head unit via a 10 mm thick copper ‘Z’ shaped plate The temperature distribution in 2nd cold stage, copper z plate and coil is monitored in both solid nitrogen cooling and conduction cooling mode. In solid nitrogen cooling mode, the quench of the coil occurs at 150 A for 0.01 A/s current ramp rate. The magnetic field at the centre of the coil bore is measured using transverse Hall sensor. The measured magnetic field value is compared with the analytical field value and they are found to be deviating ∼5% in magnitude. Again the coil is tested in conduction cooling mode maintaining the same current ramp rate and it is observed that the coil gets quenched at 70 A at temperature ∼ 10K.

  5. Study on cold head structure of a 300 Hz thermoacoustically driven pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G. Y.; Wang, X. T.; Dai, W.; Luo, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    High reliability, compact size and potentially high thermal efficiency make the high frequency thermoacoustically-driven pulse tube cryocooler quite promising for space use. With continuous efforts, the lowest temperature and the thermal efficiency of the coupled system have been greatly improved. So far, a cold head temperature below 60 K has been achieved on such kind of cryocooler with the operation frequency of around 300 Hz. To further improve the thermal efficiency and expedite its practical application, this work focuses on studying the influence of cold head structure on the system performance. Substantial numerical simulations were firstly carried out, which revealed that the cold head structure would greatly influence the cooling power and the thermal efficiency. To validate the predictions, a lot of experiments have been done. The experiments and calculations are in reasonable agreement. With 500 W heating power input into the engine, a no-load temperature of 63 K and a cooling power of 1.16 W at 80 K have been obtained with parallel-plate cold head, indicating encouraging improvement of the thermal efficiency.

  6. Development of a 4 K Separate Two-Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerator with High Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, L. M.; He, Y. L.; Gan, Z. H.; Chen, G. B.

    2006-04-01

    Compared to the traditional 4 K cryocoolers, the separate 4 K pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) consists of two independent PTRs, which are thermally connected between the cold end of the first stage and some middle position of the second stage regenerator. It is possible to use different frequency, valve timing, phase shifter and even compressor for each stage for better cooling performance. A 4 K separate two-stage PTR was designed and manufactured. The first stage was separately optimized. A minimum temperature of 12.6 K and cooling capacity of 59.0 W at 40 K was achieved for the first stage by adding some Er3Ni at the cold part of the regenerator. An experimental investigation of valve timing effects on the cooling performance of the 4 K separate two-stage PTR is reported. The experiments show that the optimization of valve timing can considerably improve the cooling performance of the PTR. Cooling capacity of 0.59 W at 4.2 K and 15.4 W at 37.0 K were achieved with an actual input power of 6.6 kW. Effect of frequency on the performance of the separate two-stage PTR is also presented.

  7. Numerical study of a cryogen-free vuilleumier type pulse tube cryocooler operating below 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. N.; Wang, X. T.; Dai, W.; Luo, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation on a Vuilleumier (VM) type pulse tube cooler. Different from previous systems that use liquid nitrogen, Stirling type pre-coolers are used to provide the cooling power for the thermal compressor, which leads to a convenient cryogen-free system and offers the flexibility of changing working temperature range of the thermal compressor to obtain an optimum efficiency. Firstly, main component dimensions were optimized with lowest no-load temperature as the target. Then the dependence of system performance on average pressure, frequency, displacer displacement amplitude and thermal compressor pre-cooling temperature were studied. Finally, the effect of pre-cooling temperature on overall cooling efficiency at 5 K was studied. A highest relative Carnot efficiency of 0.82 % was predicted with an average pressure of 2.5 MPa, a frequency of 3 Hz, a displacer displacement amplitude of 6.5 mm, ambient end temperature 300 K and pre-cooling temperature 65 K, respectively.

  8. The study on a gas-coupled two-stage stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Zhu, X. S.; Pan, C. Z.; Guo, J.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A two-stage gas-coupled Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) driven by a linear dual-opposed compressor has been designed, manufactured and tested. Both of the stages adopted coaxial structure for compactness. The effect of a cold double-inlet at the second stage on the cooling performance was investigated. The test results show that the cold double-inlet will help to achieve a lower cooling temperature, but it is not conducive to achieving a higher cooling capacity. At present, without the cold double-inlet, the second stage has achieved a no-load temperature of 11.28 K and a cooling capacity of 620 mW/20 K with an input electric power of 450 W. With the cold double-inlet, the no-load temperature is lowered to 9.4 K, but the cooling capacity is reduced to 400 mW/20 K. The structure of the developed cryocooler and the influences of charge pressure, operating frequency and hot end temperature will also be introduced in this paper.

  9. Waiting time effect of a GM type orifice pulse tube refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaowei; Kakimi, Yasuhiro; Matsubara, Yoichi

    In a general GM type orifice pulse tube refrigerator, there are two short periods during which both the high pressure valve and the low pressure valve are closed in one cycle. We call the short period `waiting time'. The pressure differences across the high pressure valve and the low pressure valve are decreased by using long waiting time. The pressure difference loss is decreased. Thus, the cooling capacity and the efficiency are increased, and the no-load temperature is decreased. The mechanism of the waiting time is discussed with numerical analysis and verified by experiments. Experiments show that there is an optimum waiting time for the no-load temperature, the cooling capacity and the efficiency, respectively. The no-load temperature of 40.3 K was achieved with a 90° waiting time. The cooling capacity of 58 W at 80 K was achieved with a 60° waiting time. The no-load temperature of 45.1 K and the cooling capacity of 45 W at 80 K were achieved with a 1° waiting time.

  10. Characterization testing of Lockheed Martin high-power micro pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, I. M.; Hummel, C. D.; Johnson, D. L.; Rodriguez, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the thermal vacuum, microphonics, magnetics, and radiation testing and results of a Lockheed Martin high-power micro pulse tube cryocooler. The thermal performance of the microcooler was measured in vacuum for heat reject temperatures between 185 and 300 K. The cooler was driven with a Chroma 61602 AC power source for input powers ranging from 10 to 60 W and drive frequency between 115 and 140 Hz during thermal performance testing. The optimal drive frequency was dependent on both input power and heat reject temperature. In addition, the microphonics of the cooler were measured with the cooler driven by Iris Technologies LCCE-2 and HP-LCCE drive electronics for input powers ranging from 10 to 60 W and drive frequency between 135 and 145 Hz. The exported forces were strongly dependent on input power while only weakly dependent on the drive frequency. Moreover, the exported force in the compressor axis was minimized by closed loop control with the HP-LCCE. The cooler also survived a 500 krad radiation dose while being continuously operated with 30 W of input power at 220 K heat rejection temperature in vacuum. Finally, the DC and AC magnetic fields around the cooler were measured at various locations.

  11. Characterization of a Two-Stage Pulse Tube Cooler for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsini, R.; Nguyen, T.; Colbert, R.; Raab, J.

    2010-04-01

    A two-stage long-life, low mass and efficient pulse tube cooler for space applications has been developed and acceptance tested for flight applications. This paper presents the data collected on four flight coolers during acceptance testing. Flight acceptance test of these cryocoolers includes thermal performance mapping over a range of reject temperatures, launch vibration testing and thermal cycling testing. Designed conservatively for a 10-year life, the coolers are required to provide simultaneous cooling powers at 95 K and 180 K while rejecting to 300 K with less than 187 W input power to the electronics. The total mass of each cooler and electronics system is 8.7 kg. The radiation-hardened and software driven control electronics provides cooler control functions which are fully re-configurable in orbit. These functions include precision temperature control to better than 100 mK p-p. This 2 stage cooler has heritage to the 12 Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) coolers currently on orbit with 2 operating for more than 11.5 years.

  12. Experimental study on a co-axial pulse tube cryocooler driven by a small thermoacoustic stirling engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Ju, L. Y.; Hao, H. X.

    2014-01-01

    Small scale thermoacoustic heat engines have advantages in fields like space exploration and domestic applications considering small space occupation and ease of transport. In the present paper, the influence of resonator diameter on the general performance of a small thermoacoustic Stirling engine was experimentally investigated using helium as the working gas. Reducing the diameter of the resonator appropriately is beneficial for lower onset heating temperature, lower frequency and higher pressure amplitude. Based on the pressure distribution in the small thermoacoustic engine, an outlet for the acoustic work transmission was made to combine the engine and a miniature co-axial pulse tube cooler. The cooling performance of the whole refrigeration system without any moving part was tested. Experimental results showed that further efforts are required to optimize the engine performance and its match with the co-axial pulse tube cooler in order to obtain better cooling performance, compared with its original operating condition, driven by a traditional electrical linear compressor.

  13. Non-Ideal Detonation Properties of Ammonium Nitrate and Activated Carbon Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Atsumi; Echigoya, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hidefumi; Ogawa, Terushige; Katoh, Katsumi; Kubota, Shiro; Wada, Yuji; Ogata, Yuji

    To obtain a better understanding of detonation properties of ammonium nitrate (AN) and activated carbon (AC) mixtures, steel tube tests with several diameters were carried out for various compositions of powdered AN and AC mixtures and the influence of the charge diameter on the detonation velocity was investigated. The results showed that the detonation velocity increased with the increase of the charge diameter. The experimentally observed values were far below the theoretically predicted values made by the thermodynamic CHEETAH code and they showed so-called non-ideal detonation. The extrapolated detonation velocity of stoichiometric composition to the infinite diameter showed a good agreement with the theoretical value.

  14. Bidirectional slapper detonator

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, Robert N.; Boyd, Melissa D.

    1984-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a bidirectional slapper detonator. One embodiment utilizes a single bridge circuit to detonate a pair of opposing initiating pellets. A line generator embodiment uses a plurality of bridges in electrical series to generate opposing cylindrical wavefronts.

  15. Detonation engine fed by acetylene-oxygen mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Betelin, V. B.; Nikitin, V. F.; Phylippov, Yu. G.; Koo, Jaye

    2014-11-01

    The advantages of a constant volume combustion cycle as compared to constant pressure combustion in terms of thermodynamic efficiency has focused the search for advanced propulsion on detonation engines. Detonation of acetylene mixed with oxygen in various proportions is studied using mathematical modeling. Simplified kinetics of acetylene burning includes 11 reactions with 9 components. Deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) is obtained in a cylindrical tube with a section of obstacles modeling a Shchelkin spiral; the DDT takes place in this section for a wide range of initial mixture compositions. A modified ka-omega turbulence model is used to simulate flame acceleration in the Shchelkin spiral section of the system. The results of numerical simulations were compared with experiments, which had been performed in the same size detonation chamber and turbulent spiral ring section, and with theoretical data on the Chapman-Jouguet detonation parameters.

  16. Development of a Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler of 2.5W at 65K for Telecommunication Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Noboru; Yasukawa, Yukio; Ohshima, Keishi; Takeuchi, Takayuki; Matsushita, Tomoyuki; Mizoguchi, Yoshinori

    The Fuji Electric Group has established main technologies with high reliability for use in Stirling cryocoolers for space satellite systems. For commercial applications, we also have developed and started selling a miniature pulse tube cryocooler from 2W to 3W at 70K with 100W electric power input. In the development of a new compressor, we introduce a moving magnet to a driving system to achieve greater compactness and higher efficiency in place of the moving coil that had about 70% efficiency. In addition, we adopted a coaxial pulse tube as an expander for compactness. This development is aimed at cooling a high-temperature superconductive (HTS) device in a wireless telecommunication system. The compressor requires total compression work of 75W with 90% efficiency for longer than 50,000 hours. Preliminary tests of each part of a moving magnet linear motor and a coaxial pulse tube have been completed. In the next phase, we have made a first-stage prototype compressor used by the new linear motor, and we have tested the new machine. Here we describe each test and combination test results of the cryocooler.

  17. Experimental Studies on a Single Stage Stirling Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler Driven by Oil-Lubricated Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ren; Jianying, Hu; Ercang, Luo; Xiaotao, Wang

    2010-04-01

    Because lubricating oil for moving parts is not allowed to go into the pulse tube cryocooler, Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are generally driven by oil-free compressors although oil-lubricated compressors are much cheaper and facile. Recently, it was proposed that an acoustic transparent and oil blocking diaphragm could be employed to separate the compressor and the cryocooler. Thus, the cryocooler can be driven by oil-lubricated compressors. In this paper, a pulse tube cryocooler is designed to match a crankcase compressor. Although the efficiency of the crankcase compressor is lower compared with the oil-free linear compressor, the crankcase compressor can easily work at lower frequency which results in higher efficiency for the cryocooler. So the relative high performance of the whole system can be maintained. In this system, the cryocooler delivers 28.5 W of cooling at 80 K with 680 W of electrical input power and operates at 15 Hz. The corresponding Carnot efficiency is 11.52%.

  18. Deposition of hard and adherent diamond-like carbon films inside steel tubes using a pulsed-DC discharge.

    PubMed

    Trava-Airoldi, Vladimir Jesus; Capote, Gil; Bonetti, Luís Francisco; Fernandes, Jesum; Blando, Eduardo; Hübler, Roberto; Radi, Polyana Alves; Santos, Lúcia Vieira; Corat, Evaldo José

    2009-06-01

    A new, low cost, pulsed-DC plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition system that uses a bipolar, pulsed power supply was designed and tested to evaluate its capacity to produce quality diamond-like carbon films on the inner surface of steel tubes. The main focus of the study was to attain films with low friction coefficients, low total stress, a high degree of hardness, and very good adherence to the inner surface of long metallic tubes at a reasonable growth rate. In order to enhance the diamond-like carbon coating adhesion to metallic surfaces, four steps were used: (1) argon ion sputtering; (2) plasma nitriding; (3) a thin amorphous silicon interlayer deposition, using silane as the precursor gas; and (4) diamond-like carbon film deposition using methane atmosphere. This paper presents various test results as functions of the methane gas pressure and of the coaxial metal anode diameter, where the pulsed-DC voltage constant is kept constant. The influence of the coaxial metal anode diameter and of the methane gas pressure is also demonstrated. The results obtained showed the possibilities of using these DLC coatings for reduced friction and to harden inner surface of the steel tubes.

  19. Reaction-time-resolved measurements of laser-induced fluorescence in a shock tube with a single laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabeti, S.; Fikri, M.; Schulz, C.

    2017-11-01

    Shock tubes allow for the study of ultra-fast gas-phase reactions on the microsecond time scale. Because the repetition rate of the experiments is low, it is crucial to gain as much information as possible from each individual measurement. While reaction-time-resolved species concentration and temperature measurements with fast absorption methods are established, conventional laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements with pulsed lasers provide data only at a single reaction time. Therefore, fluorescence methods have rarely been used in shock-tube diagnostics. In this paper, a novel experimental concept is presented that allows reaction-time-resolved LIF measurements with one single laser pulse using a test section that is equipped with several optical ports. After the passage of the shock wave, the reactive mixture is excited along the center of the tube with a 266-nm laser beam directed through a window in the end wall of the shock tube. The emitted LIF signal is collected through elongated sidewall windows and focused onto the entrance slit of an imaging spectrometer coupled to an intensified CCD camera. The one-dimensional spatial resolution of the measurement translates into a reaction-time-resolved measurement while the species information can be gained from the spectral axis of the detected two-dimensional image. Anisole pyrolysis was selected as the benchmark reaction to demonstrate the new apparatus.

  20. Observations on the normal reflection of gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, J.; Shepherd, J. E.

    2017-09-01

    Experimental results are presented examining the behavior of the shock wave created when a gaseous detonation wave normally impinges upon a planar wall. Gaseous detonations are created in a 7.67-m-long, 280-mm-internal-diameter detonation tube instrumented with a test section of rectangular cross section enabling visualization of the region at the tube-end farthest from the point of detonation initiation. Dynamic pressure measurements and high-speed schlieren photography in the region of detonation reflection are used to examine the characteristics of the inbound detonation wave and outbound reflected shock wave. Data from a range of detonable fuel/oxidizer/diluent/initial pressure combinations are presented to examine the effect of cell-size and detonation regularity on detonation reflection. The reflected shock does not bifurcate in any case examined and instead remains nominally planar when interacting with the boundary layer that is created behind the incident wave. The trajectory of the reflected shock wave is examined in detail, and the wave speed is found to rapidly change close to the end-wall, an effect we attribute to the interaction of the reflected shock with the reaction zone behind the incident detonation wave. Far from the end-wall, the reflected shock wave speed is in reasonable agreement with the ideal model of reflection which neglects the presence of a finite-length reaction zone. The net far-field effect of the reaction zone is to displace the reflected shock trajectory from the predictions of the ideal model, explaining the apparent disagreement of the ideal reflection model with experimental reflected shock observations of previous studies.

  1. Integrated testing of the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cooler and the iris LCCE electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Dean L.; Rodriguez, Jose I.; Carroll, Brian A.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has identified the Thales LPT9510 pulse tube cryocooler as a candidate low cost cryocooler to provide active cooling on future cost-capped scientific missions. The commercially available cooler can provide refrigeration in excess of 2 W at 100K for 60W of power. JPL purchased the LPT9510 cooler for thermal and dynamic performance characterization, and has initiated the flight qualification of the existing cooler design to satisfy near-term JPL needs for this cooler. The LPT9510 has been thermally tested over the heat reject temperature range of 0C to +40C during characterization testing. The cooler was placed onmore » a force dynamometer to measure the selfgenerated vibration of the cooler. Iris Technology has provided JPL with a brass board version of the Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE) to drive the Thales cooler during characterization testing. The LCCE provides precision closed-loop temperature control and embodies extensive protection circuitry for handling and operational robustness; other features such as exported vibration mitigation and low frequency input current filtering are envisioned as options that future flight versions may or may not include based upon the mission requirements. JPL has also chosen to partner with Iris Technology for the development of electronics suitable for future flight applications. Iris Technology is building a set of radiation-hard, flight-design electronics to deliver to the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). Test results of the thermal, dynamic and EMC testing of the integrated Thales LPT9510 cooler and Iris LCCE electronics is presented here.« less

  2. Attenuation of a hydrogen-air detonation by acoustic absorbing covering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivol, G. Yu; Golovastov, S. V.; Golub, V. V.; Ivanov, K. V.; Korobov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    Using of sound-absorbing surfaces to weaken and decay of a detonation wave in hydrogen-air mixtures was investigated experimentally. Experiments were carried out in a cylindrical detonation tube open at one end. Initiation of the explosive mixture was carried out by a spark discharge, which is located at the closed end of the detonation tube. Acoustical sound absorbing foam element of a specific weight of 0.035 g/cm3 with open pores of 0.5 mm was used. The degree of attenuation of the intensity of the detonation wave front was determined.

  3. The Use of Steady and Unsteady Detonation Waves for Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Menees, Gene P.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Cavolowsky, John A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Detonation wave enhanced supersonic combustors such as the Oblique Detonation Wave Engine (ODWE) are attractive propulsion concepts for hypersonic flight. These engines utilize detonation waves to enhance fuel-air mixing and combustion. The benefits of wave combustion systems include shorter and lighter engines which require less cooling and generate lower internal drag. These features allow air-breathing operation at higher Mach numbers than the diffusive burning scramjet delaying the need for rocket engine augmentation. A comprehensive vehicle synthesis code has predicted the aerodynamic characteristics and structural size and weight of a typical single-stage-to-orbit vehicle using an ODWE. Other studies have focused on the use of unsteady or pulsed detonation waves. For low speed applications, pulsed detonation engines (PDE) have advantages in low weight and higher efficiency than turbojets. At hypersonic speeds, the pulsed detonations can be used in conjunction with a scramjet type engine to enhance mixing and provide thrust augmentation.

  4. Experimental research on a 12.1 K gas-coupled two-stage high frequency pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoshuang, Zhu; Yuan, Zhou; Wenxiu, Zhu; Wei, Dai; Junjie, Wang

    2017-02-01

    High frequency pulse tube cryocoolers (HFPTC) have been widely used in many fields like physics experimental research and aerospace, for no moving part in cold region, low vibration and long life. A gas-coupled two-stage high frequency pulse tube cryocooler with single compressor is introduced in this paper. In the first stage of the cryocooler, double-inlet and multi-bypass has been adopted as phase shifters. To get a better performance in phase shifting the reservoir and the inertance tube of the second stage has been located on the cold head of the first stage. With SS mesh screen as the regenerator of both stage, no-load temperature of 13.5K has been achieved. To improve the heat capacity of the regenerator of the second stage magnetic material Er3Ni has been employed in the second stage as regenerator matrix. With the charge pressure of 1.8MPa, input power of 260W and operating frequency of 23.5 Hz, the no-load temperature of 12.1K has been achieved.

  5. Steady Secondary Flows Generated by Periodic Compression and Expansion of an Ideal Gas in a Pulse Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    This study establishes a consistent set of differential equations for use in describing the steady secondary flows generated by periodic compression and expansion of an ideal gas in pulse tubes. Also considered is heat transfer between the gas and the tube wall of finite thickness. A small-amplitude series expansion solution in the inverse Strouhal number is proposed for the two-dimensional axisymmetric mass, momentum and energy equations. The anelastic approach applies when shock and acoustic energies are small compared with the energy needed to compress and expand the gas. An analytic solution to the ordered series is obtained in the strong temperature limit where the zeroth-order temperature is constant. The solution shows steady velocities increase linearly for small Valensi number and can be of order I for large Valensi number. A conversion of steady work flow to heat flow occurs whenever temperature, velocity or phase angle gradients are present. Steady enthalpy flow is reduced by heat transfer and is scaled by the Prandtl times Valensi numbers. Particle velocities from a smoke-wire experiment were compared with predictions for the basic and orifice pulse tube configurations. The theory accurately predicted the observed steady streaming.

  6. Design and Testing of an H2/O2 Predetonator for a Simulated Rotating Detonation Engine Channel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Diameter PDE Pulse Detonation Engines RDE Rotating Detonation Engine WPAFB Wright Patterson Air Force Base ZND Zeldovich, von Neumann and Doring xv...DESIGN AND TESTING OF AN H2/O2 PREDETONATOR FOR A SIMULATED ROTATING DETONATION ENGINE CHANNEL THESIS Stephen J. Miller, 2Lt, USAF AFIT-ENY-13-M-23...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENY-13-M-23 DESIGN AND TESTING OF AN H2/O2 PREDETONATOR FOR A SIMULATED ROTATING DETONATION ENGINE CHANNEL Stephen

  7. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in spiral channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovastov, S. V.; Mikushkin, A. Yu.; Golub, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The deflagration-to-detonation transition in hydrogen-air mixtures that fill spiral channels has been studied. A spiral channel has been produced in a cylindrical detonation tube with a twisted ribbon inside. The gas mixture has been ignited by means of a spark gap switch. The predetonation distance versus the twisted ribbon configuration and molar ratio between the gas mixture components has been determined. A pulling force exerted by the detonation tube after a single event of hydrogen-air mixture burnout has been found for four configurations of the twisted ribbon. Conditions under which the use of a spiral tube can be more effective (increase the pulling force) have been formulated.

  8. On-Orbit Performance of the TES Pulse Tube Cryocooler System and the Instrument - Six Years in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, J. I.; Na-Nakornpanom, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument pulse tube cryocoolers began operation 36 days after launch of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura spacecraft on July 15, 2004. TES is designed with four infrared Mercury Cadmium Telluride focal plane arrays in two separate housings cooled by a pair of Northrup Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) single-stage pulse tube cryocoolers. The instrument also makes use of a two-stage passive cooler to cool the optical bench. The instrument is a high-resolution infrared imaging Fourier transform spectrometer with 3.3-15.4 micron spectral coverage. After four weeks of outgassing, the instrument optical bench and focal planes were cooled to their operating temperatures to begin science operations. During the early months of the mission, ice contamination of the cryogenic surfaces including the focal planes led to increased cryocooler loads and the need for periodic decontamination cycles. After a highly successful 5 years of continuous in-space operations, TES was granted a 2 year extension. This paper reports on the TES cryogenic system performance including the two-stage passive cooler. After a brief overview of the cryogenic design, the paper presents detailed data on the highly successful space operation of the pulse tube cryocoolers and instrument thermal design over the past six years since the original turn-on in 2004. The data shows the cryogenic contamination decreased substantially to where decontamination cycles are now performed every six months. The cooler stroke required for constant-temperature operation has not increased indicating near-constant cooler efficiency and the instrument's thermal design has also provided a nearly constant heat rejection sink. At this time TES continues to operate in space providing important Earth science data.

  9. Multi-stage pulse tube cryocooler with acoustic impedance constructed to reduce transient cool down time and thermal loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, David R. (Inventor); Wilson, Kyle B. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The cool down time for a multi-stage, pulse tube cryocooler is reduced by configuring at least a portion of the acoustic impedance of a selected stage, higher than the first stage, so that it surrounds the cold head of the selected stage. The surrounding acoustic impedance of the selected stage is mounted in thermally conductive connection to the warm region of the selected stage for cooling the acoustic impedance and is fabricated of a high thermal diffusivity, low thermal radiation emissivity material, preferably aluminum.

  10. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  11. Rapid detonation initiation by sparks in a short duct: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Z. M.; Dou, H. S.; Khoo, B. C.

    2010-06-01

    Rapid onset of detonation can efficiently increase the working frequency of a pulse detonation engine (PDE). In the present study, computations of detonation initiation in a duct are conducted to investigate the mechanisms of detonation initiation. The governing equations are the Euler equations and the chemical kinetic model consists of 19 elementary reactions and nine species. Different techniques of initiation have been studied for the purpose of accelerating detonation onset with a relatively weak ignition energy. It is found that detonation ignition induced by means of multiple sparks is applicable to auto-ignition for a PDE. The interaction among shock waves, flame fronts and the strip of pre-compressed fresh (unburned) mixture plays an important role in rapid onset of detonation.

  12. Cable Discharge System for fundamental detonator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peevy, Gregg R.; Barnhart, Steven G.; Brigham, William P.

    1994-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has recently completed the modification and installation of a cable discharge system (CDS) which will be used to study the physics of exploding bridgewire (EBW) detonators and exploding foil initiators (EFI or slapper). Of primary interest are the burst characteristics of these devices when subjected to the constant current pulse delivered by this system. The burst process involves the heating of the bridge material to a conductive plasma and is essential in describing the electrical properties of the bridgewire foil for use in diagnostics or computer models. The CDS described herein is capable of delivering up to an 8000 A pulse of 3 micron duration. Experiments conducted with the CDS to characterize the EBW and EFI burst behavior are also described. In addition, the CDS simultaneous VISAR capability permits updating the EFI electrical Gurney analysis parameters used in our computer simulation codes. Examples of CDS generated data for a typical EFI and EBW detonator are provided.

  13. DUD Investigation of M69 Electric Detonator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. BACKGROUND ýII. ANALYSIS OF PROBLEM IV. CORRECTrIE DESIGN REVISION V. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS VI. RECOMMENDATIONS ) VII...analyze and resolve the problem. ii 9 III. ANALYSIS OF PROBLEM A review of the data available at the start of this investigation revealed the...a dud problem. d. Dud analysis of those detonators which failed to fire, showed that the Carbon Bridge had been pulsed electrically and for all

  14. Pressure profiles in detonation cells with rectangular and diagonal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanana, M.; Lefebvre, M. H.

    Experimental results presented in this work enable us to classify the three-dimensional structure of the detonation into two fundamental types: a rectangular structure and a diagonal structure. The rectangular structure is well documented in the literature and consists of orthogonal waves travelling independently from each another. The soot record in this case shows the classical diamond detonation cell exhibiting `slapping waves'. The experiments indicate that the diagonal structure is a structure with the triple point intersections moving along the diagonal line of the tube cross section. The axes of the transverse waves are canted at 45 degrees to the wall, accounting for the lack of slapping waves. It is possible to reproduce these diagonal structures by appropriately controlling the experimental ignition procedure. The characteristics of the diagonal structure show some similarities with detonation structure in round tube. Pressure measurements recorded along the central axis of the cellular structure show a series of pressure peaks, depending on the type of structure and the position inside the detonation cell. Pressure profiles measured for the whole length of the two types of detonation cells show that the intensity of the shock front is higher and the length of the detonation cell is shorter for the diagonal structures.

  15. The History of the Study of Detonation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we reviewed the main concepts of detonative combustion. Concepts of slow and fast combustion, of detonation adiabat are introduced. Landmark works on experimental and semi-empirical detonation study are presented. We reviewed Chapman-Jouguet stationary detonation and spin detonation. Various mathematical model of detonation wave…

  16. Performances of single and two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers under different vacuum levels with and without thermal radiation shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasthurirengan, Srinivasan; Behera, Upendra; Nadig, D. S.; Krishnamoorthy, V.

    2012-06-01

    Single and two-stage Pulse Tube Cryocoolers (PTC) have been designed, fabricated and experimentally studied. The single stage PTC reaches a no-load temperature of ~ 29 K at its cold end, the two-stage PTC reaches ~ 2.9 K in its second stage cold end and ~ 60 K in its first stage cold end. The two-stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler provides a cooling power of ~ 250 mW at 4.2 K. The single stage system uses stainless steel meshes along with Pb granules as its regenerator materials, while the two-stage PTC uses combinations of Pb along with Er3Ni / HoCu2 as the second stage regenerator materials. Normally, the above systems are insulated by thermal radiation shields and mounted inside a vacuum chamber which is maintained at high vacuum. To evaluate the performance of these systems in the possible conditions of loss of vacuum with and without radiation shields, experimental studies have been performed. The heat-in-leak under such severe conditions has been estimated from the heat load characteristics of the respective stages. The experimental results are analyzed to obtain surface emissivities and effective thermal conductivities as a function of interspace pressure.

  17. Low vibration cooling using a pulse tube cooler and cryostat for the GRAVITY beam combiner instrument at the VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, M.; Haussmann, F.; Kellner, S.; Kern, L.; Eisenhauer, F.; Lizon, J.-L.; Dietrich, M.; Thummes, G.

    2014-07-01

    GRAVITY is a second generation VLTI instrument for high-precision narrow-angle astrometry and phase-referenced interferometric imaging in the astronomical K-band. The cryostat of the beam combiner instrument provides the required temperatures for the various subunits ranging from 40K to 290K with a milli-Kelvin temperature stability for some selected units. The bath cryostat is cooled with liquid nitrogen and makes use of the exhaust gas to cool the main optical bench to an intermediate temperature of 240K. The fringe tracking detector will be cooled separately by a single-stage pulse tube cooler to a temperature of 40K. The pulse tube cooler is optimized for minimum vibrations. In particular its warm side is connected to the 80K reservoir of the LN2 cryostat to minimize the required input power. All temperature levels are actively stabilized by electric heaters. The cold bench is supported separately from the vacuum vessel and the liquid nitrogen reservoir to minimize the transfer of acoustic noise onto the instrument.

  18. Thermal Load Considerations for Detonative Combustion-Based Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Perkins, H. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to assess methods for, and performance implications of, cooling the passages (tubes) of a pulse detonation-based combustor conceptually installed in the core of a gas turbine engine typical of regional aircraft. Temperature-limited material stress criteria were developed from common-sense engineering practice, and available material properties. Validated, one-dimensional, numerical simulations were then used to explore a variety of cooling methods and establish whether or not they met the established criteria. Simulation output data from successful schemes were averaged and used in a cycle-deck engine simulation in order to assess the impact of the cooling method on overall performance. Results were compared to both a baseline engine equipped with a constant-pressure combustor and to one equipped with an idealized detonative combustor. Major findings indicate that thermal loads in these devices are large, but potentially manageable. However, the impact on performance can be substantial. Nearly one half of the ideally possible specific fuel consumption (SFC) reduction is lost due to cooling of the tubes. Details of the analysis are described, limitations are presented, and implications are discussed.

  19. Research on filling process of fuel and oxidant during detonation based on absorption spectrum technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xiao-Jing; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    Research on detonation process is of great significance for the control optimization of pulse detonation engine. Based on absorption spectrum technology, the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant during detonation is researched. As one of the most important products, H2O is selected as the target of detonation diagnosis. Fiber distributed detonation test system is designed to enable the detonation diagnosis under adverse conditions in detonation process. The test system is verified to be reliable. Laser signals at different working frequency (5Hz, 10Hz and 20Hz) are detected. Change of relative laser intensity in one detonation circle is analyzed. The duration of filling process is inferred from the change of laser intensity, which is about 100~110ms. The peak of absorption spectrum is used to present the concentration of H2O during the filling process of fresh fuel and oxidant. Absorption spectrum is calculated, and the change of absorption peak is analyzed. Duration of filling process calculated with absorption peak consisted with the result inferred from the change of relative laser intensity. The pulse detonation engine worked normally and obtained the maximum thrust at 10Hz under experiment conditions. The results are verified through H2O gas concentration monitoring during detonation.

  20. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube.

    PubMed

    Painter, Page R

    2008-07-29

    The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV). The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC) for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for more than fifty years is analyzed and shown to yield

  1. Deflagration to Detonation Transition Processes in Pulsed Detonation Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-03

    which subsequently leads to DDT. The modelling approach taken here is as outlined by Arntzen et al. [9] and features a fractal based eddy-breakup... Arntzen , B.J., Hjertager, B., Lindstedt, R.P., Mercx, W.P.M. and Popat, N. “Investigations to Improve and Assess the Accuracy of Computational Fluid

  2. Alternative Pulse Detonation Engine Ignition System Investigation through Detonation Splitting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    on the soccer field and later discovered is a brilliant and dedicated scientist and engineer. He’s been an inspiration and role model, who sees...designing configurations before cutting metal for an experiment reduces research time and cost. Dr. Vish Katta had built an in-house program ( UNICORN

  3. Pulsed Ejector Thrust Amplification Tested and Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack

    2004-01-01

    There is currently much interest in pulsed detonation engines for aeronautical propulsion. This, in turn, has sparked renewed interest in pulsed ejectors to increase the thrust of such engines, since previous, though limited, research had indicated that pulsed ejectors could double the thrust in a short device. An experiment has been run at the NASA Glenn Research Center, using a shrouded Hartmann-Sprenger tube as a source of pulsed flow, to measure the thrust augmentation of a statistically designed set of ejectors. A Hartmann- Sprenger tube directs the flow from a supersonic nozzle (Mach 2 in the present experiment) into a closed tube. Under appropriate conditions, an oscillation is set up in which the jet flow alternately fills the tube and then spills around flow emerging from the tube. The tube length determines the frequency of oscillation. By shrouding the tube, the flow was directed out of the shroud as an axial stream. The set of ejectors comprised three different ejector lengths, three ejector diameters, and three nose radii. The thrust of the jet alone, and then of the jet plus ejector, was measured using a thrust plate. The arrangement is shown in this photograph. Thrust augmentation is defined as the thrust of the jet with an ejector divided by the thrust of the jet alone. The experiments exhibited an optimum ejector diameter and length for maximizing the thrust augmentation, but little dependence on nose radius. Different frequencies were produced by changing the length of the Hartmann-Sprenger tube, and the experiment was run at a total of four frequencies. Additional measurements showed that the major feature of the pulsed jet was a starting vortex ring. The size of the vortex ring depended on the frequency, as did the optimum ejector diameter.

  4. Investigation of the effect of a bend in a transfer line that separates a pulse tube cold head and a pressure wave generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, A. A.; Atrey, M. D.; Vanapalli, S.

    2017-02-01

    A transfer line between a pulse tube cold head and a pressure wave generator is usually required to isolate the cold head from the vibrations of the compressor. Although it is a common practice to use a thin and narrow straight tube, a bent tube would allow design flexibility and easy mounting of the cold head, such as in a split Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. In this paper, we report a preliminary investigation on the effect of the bending of the tube on the flow transfer characteristics. A numerical study using commercial computational fluid dynamics model is performed to gain insight into the flow characteristics in the bent tube. Oscillating flow experiments are performed with a straight and a bent tube at a filling pressure of 15 bar and an operating frequency of 40, 50 and 60 Hz. The data and the corresponding numerical simulations point to the hypothesis that the secondary flow in the bent tube causes a decrease in flow at a fixed pressure amplitude.

  5. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  6. Influence of regenerator void volume on performance of a precooled 4 K Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuopei; Jiang, Yanlong; Gan, Zhihua; Qiu, Limin; Chen, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC), typically operating at 30-60 Hz, have the advantage of compact structure, light weight, and long life compared with Gifford-McMahon type (1-2 Hz) PTC (GMPTC). The behavior of flow and heat transfer in the regenerator of a 4 K SPTC deviates from that at warmer temperatures and low frequencies. In this paper the behavior of 4 K regenerator at high frequencies is investigated based on a single-stage 4 K SPTC precooled by a two-stage GMPTC. The 4 K SPTC and the GMPTC is thermally coupled with two thermal bridges. The 4 K SPTC uses a 10 K cold inertance tube as phase shifter to improve phase relationship between mass flow and pressure. The regenerator void volume is an important factor that significantly influences the heat transfer between regenerator matrix and working fluid helium, pressure drop along the regenerator, and phase shift between mass flow and pressure. In this paper, influence of regenerator void volume on the performance of the 4 K SPTC with different operating parameters including operating frequencies and average pressure is studied theoretically and experimentally. The first and second precooling powers provided by the GMPTC are obtained which are important parameters to evaluate the efficiency of the whole 4 K system with precooling. The results of the regenerator void volume are given and discussed in normalized form for general use.

  7. Hybrid Solution-Adaptive Unstructured Cartesian Method for Large-Eddy Simulation of Detonation in Multi-Phase Turbulent Reactive Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-27

    pulse- detonation engines ( PDE ), stage separation, supersonic cav- ity oscillations, hypersonic aerodynamics, detonation induced structural...ADAPTIVE UNSTRUCTURED CARTESIAN METHOD FOR LARGE-EDDY SIMULATION OF DETONATION IN MULTI-PHASE TURBULENT REACTIVE MIXTURES 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550...CCL Report TR-2012-03-03 Hybrid Solution-Adaptive Unstructured Cartesian Method for Large-Eddy Simulation of Detonation in Multi-Phase Turbulent

  8. Multi-objective parametric optimization of Inertance type pulse tube refrigerator using response surface methodology and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rout, Sachindra K.; Choudhury, Balaji K.; Sahoo, Ranjit K.; Sarangi, Sunil K.

    2014-07-01

    The modeling and optimization of a Pulse Tube Refrigerator is a complicated task, due to its complexity of geometry and nature. The aim of the present work is to optimize the dimensions of pulse tube and regenerator for an Inertance-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator (ITPTR) by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Non-Sorted Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA II). The Box-Behnken design of the response surface methodology is used in an experimental matrix, with four factors and two levels. The diameter and length of the pulse tube and regenerator are chosen as the design variables where the rest of the dimensions and operating conditions of the ITPTR are constant. The required output responses are the cold head temperature (Tcold) and compressor input power (Wcomp). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to model and solve the ITPTR. The CFD results agreed well with those of the previously published paper. Also using the results from the 1-D simulation, RSM is conducted to analyse the effect of the independent variables on the responses. To check the accuracy of the model, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method has been used. Based on the proposed mathematical RSM models a multi-objective optimization study, using the Non-sorted genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) has been performed to optimize the responses.

  9. Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Kopczewski, M.R.; Schwarz, A.C.

    1985-01-04

    The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives. 3 figs.

  10. Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Kopczewski, Michael R.; Schwarz, Alfred C.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives.

  11. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  12. Environmentally Benign Stab Detonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-11

    composition. In addition we will work with our DoD partner TACOM-ARDEC in identifying and testing more environmentally suitable replacement transfer...components identified is shown in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Photo of M55 stab detonator Al cup with initiation train and components. Common...primer mixes, such as NOL-130, are made up of lead styphnate (basic) 40%, lead azide ( dextrinated ) 20%, barium nitrate 20%, antimony sulfide 15%, and

  13. Detonation Processes USSR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1960-06-06

    scientists of various countries. The Investigators addressed themselves at once to the question as to what physical process causes combustion to...same values for the r poducts of com- bustion, D is the velocity of the detonation front AB, and w is the velocity of the products of com- ,bustton... mixed with oxi- dizer and mixture is preheated; 3 -- reaction zone; 4 -- products of combustion. Let us return to the single-headed spin and consider

  14. The hydrodynamic theory of detonation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langweiler, Heinz

    1939-01-01

    This report derives equations containing only directly measurable constants for the quantities involved in the hydrodynamic theory of detonation. The stable detonation speed, D, is revealed as having the lowest possible value in the case of positive material velocity, by finding the minimum of the Du curve (u denotes the speed of the gases of combustion). A study of the conditions of energy and impulse in freely suspended detonating systems leads to the disclosure of a rarefaction front traveling at a lower speed behind the detonation front; its velocity is computed. The latent energy of the explosive passes into the steadily growing detonation zone - the region between the detonation front and the rarefaction front. The conclusions lead to a new definition of the concept of shattering power. The calculations are based on the behavior of trinitrotoluene.

  15. Near-limit propagation of gaseous detonations in narrow annular channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Ng, H. D.; Lee, J. H. S.

    2017-03-01

    New results on the near-limit behaviors of gaseous detonations in narrow annular channels are reported in this paper. Annular channels of widths 3.2 and 5.9 mm were made using circular inserts in a 50.8 mm-diameter external tube. The length of each annular channel was 1.8 m. Detonations were initiated in a steel driver tube where a small volume of a sensitive C2H2+ 2.5O2 mixture was injected to facilitate detonation initiation. A 2 m length of circular tube with a 50.8 mm diameter preceded the annular channel so that a steady Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) detonation was established prior to entering the annular channel. Four detonable mixtures of C2H2 {+} 2.5O2 {+} 85 % Ar, C2H2 {+} 2.5O2 {+} 70 % Ar, C3H8 {+} 5O2, and CH4 {+} 2O2 were used in the present study. Photodiodes spaced 10 cm throughout the length of both the annular channel and circular tube were used to measure the detonation velocity. In addition, smoked foils were inserted into the annular channel to monitor the cellular structure of the detonation wave. The results show that, well within the detonability limits, the detonation wave propagates along the channel with a small local velocity fluctuation and an average global velocity can be deduced. The average detonation velocity has a small deficit of 5-15 % far from the limits and the velocity rapidly decreases to 0.7V_{CJ}-0.8V_{CJ} when the detonation propagates near the limit. Subsequently, the fluctuation of local velocity also increases as the decreasing initial pressure approaches the limit. In the two annular channels used in this work, no galloping detonations were observed for both the stable and unstable mixtures tested. The present study also confirms that single-headed spinning detonation occurs at the limit, as in a circular tube, rather than the up and down "zig zag" mode in a two-dimensional, rectangular channel.

  16. Recent work on gaseous detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettleton, M. A.

    The paper reviews recent progress in the field of gaseous detonations, with sections on shock diffraction and reflection, the transition to detonation, hybrid, spherically-imploding, and galloping and stuttering fronts, their structure, their transmission and quenching by additives, the critical energy for initiation and detonation of more unusual fuels. The final section points out areas where our understanding is still far from being complete and contains some suggestions of ways in which progress might be made.

  17. Towards manipulating relativistic laser pulses with micro-tube plasma lenses

    PubMed Central

    Ji, L. L.; Snyder, J.; Pukhov, A.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. U.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient coupling of intense laser pulses to solid-density matter is critical to many applications including ion acceleration for cancer therapy. At relativistic intensities, the focus has been mainly on investigating various laser beams irradiating initially overdense flat interfaces with little or no control over the interaction. Here, we propose a novel approach that leverages recent advancements in 3D direct laser writing (DLW) of materials and high contrast lasers to manipulate the laser-matter interactions on the micro-scales. We demonstrate, via simulations, that usable intensities ≥1023 Wcm−2 could be achieved with current tabletop lasers coupled to micro-engineered plasma lenses. We show that these plasma optical elements act as a lens to focus laser light. These results open new paths to engineering light-matter interactions at ultra-relativistic intensities. PMID:26979657

  18. Deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular HMX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, A. W.

    1980-01-01

    Granular HMX of three degrees of fineness was packed into heavy-walled steel tubes closed at both ends. Ignition was obtained at one end using an intimate mixture of finely divided titanium and boron as an igniter that produced heat with little gas. The distance to detonation was determined by examination of the resulting tube fragments. By inserting tightly-fitted neoprene diaphragms periodically into the HMX column, it was shown that the role of convective combustion was limited to the initial stage of the deflagration to detonation (DDT) process. Experiments in which various combinations of two of the three types of HMX were loaded into the same tube showed that heating by adiabatic shear of explosive grains was an essential factor in the final buildup to detonation. A description of the DDT process is developed in which conductive burning is followed in turn by convective burning, bed collapse with plug formation, onset of accelerated burning at the front of the plug through heating by intercrystalline friction and adiabatic shear, and intense shock formation resulting in high-order detonation.

  19. Low voltage nonprimary explosive detonator

    DOEpatents

    Dinegar, Robert H.; Kirkham, John

    1982-01-01

    A low voltage, electrically actuated, nonprimary explosive detonator is disclosed wherein said detonation is achieved by means of an explosive train in which a deflagration-to-detonation transition is made to occur. The explosive train is confined within a cylindrical body and positioned adjacent to low voltage ignition means have electrical leads extending outwardly from the cylindrical confining body. Application of a low voltage current to the electrical leads ignites a self-sustained deflagration in a donor portion of the explosive train which then is made to undergo a transition to detonation further down the train.

  20. Mechanisms of detonation formation due to a temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapila, A. K.; Schwendeman, D. W.; Quirk, J. J.; Hawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    Emergence of a detonation in a homogeneous, exothermically reacting medium can be deemed to occur in two phases. The first phase processes the medium so as to create conditions ripe for the onset of detonation. The actual events leading up to preconditioning may vary from one experiment to the next, but typically, at the end of this stage the medium is hot and in a state of nonuniformity. The second phase consists of the actual formation of the detonation wave via chemico-gasdynamic interactions. This paper considers an idealized medium with simple, rate-sensitive kinetics for which the preconditioned state is modelled as one with an initially prescribed linear gradient of temperature. Accurate and well-resolved numerical computations are carrried out to determine the mode of detonation formation as a function of the size of the initial gradient. For shallow gradients, the result is a decelerating supersonic reaction wave, a weak detonation, whose trajectory is dictated by the initial temperature profile, with only weak intervention from hydrodynamics. If the domain is long enough, or the gradient less shallow, the wave slows down to the Chapman-Jouguet speed and undergoes a swift transition to the ZND structure. For sharp gradients, gasdynamic nonlinearity plays a much stronger role. Now the path to detonation is through an accelerating pulse that runs ahead of the reaction wave and rearranges the induction-time distribution there to one that bears little resemblance to that corresponding to the initial temperature gradient. The pulse amplifies and steepens, transforming itself into a complex consisting of a lead shock, an induction zone, and a following fast deflagration. As the pulse advances, its three constituent entities attain progressively higher levels of mutual coherence, to emerge as a ZND detonation. For initial gradients that are intermediate in size, aspects of both the extreme scenarios appear in the path to detonation. The novel aspect of this study

  1. CFD modeling and experimental verification of oscillating flow and heat transfer processes in the micro coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler operating at 90-170 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yibo; Yu, Guorui; Tan, Jun; Mao, Xiaochen; Li, Jiaqi; Zha, Rui; Li, Ning; Dang, Haizheng

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the CFD modeling and experimental verifications of oscillating flow and heat transfer processes in the micro coaxial Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (MCSPTC) operating at 90-170 Hz. It uses neither double-inlet nor multi-bypass while the inertance tube with a gas reservoir becomes the only phase-shifter. The effects of the frequency on flow and heat transfer processes in the pulse tube are investigated, which indicates that a low enough frequency would lead to a strong mixing between warm and cold fluids, thereby significantly deteriorating the cooling performance, whereas a high enough frequency would produce the downward sloping streams flowing from the warm end to the axis and almost puncturing the gas displacer from the warm end, thereby creating larger temperature gradients in radial directions and thus undermining the cooling performance. The influence of the pulse tube length on the temperature and velocity when the frequencies are much higher than the optimal one are also discussed. A MCSPTC with an overall mass of 1.1 kg is worked out and tested. With an input electric power of 59 W and operating at 144 Hz, it achieves a no-load temperature of 61.4 K and a cooling capacity of 1.0 W at 77 K. The changing tendencies of tested results are in good agreement with the simulations. The above studies will help to thoroughly understand the underlying mechanism of the inertance MCSPTC operating at very high frequencies.

  2. Detonation failure characterization of non-ideal explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesheski, Robert S.; Groven, Lori J.; Son, Steven

    2012-03-01

    Non-ideal explosives are currently poorly characterized, hence limiting the modeling of them. Current characterization requires large-scale testing to obtain steady detonation wave characterization for analysis due to the relatively thick reaction zones. Use of a microwave interferometer applied to small-scale confined transient experiments is being implemented to allow for time resolved characterization of a failing detonation. The microwave interferometer measures the position of a failing detonation wave in a tube that is initiated with a booster charge. Experiments have been performed with ammonium nitrate and various fuel compositions (diesel fuel and mineral oil). It was observed that the failure dynamics are influenced by factors such as chemical composition and confiner thickness. Future work is planned to calibrate models to these small-scale experiments and eventually validate the models with available large scale experiments. This experiment is shown to be repeatable, shows dependence on reactive properties, and can be performed with little required material.

  3. Detonator-activated ball shutter

    DOEpatents

    McWilliams, R.A.; Holle, W.G. von.

    1983-08-16

    A detonator-activated ball shutter for closing an aperture in about 300[mu] seconds. The ball shutter containing an aperture through which light, etc., passes, is closed by firing a detonator which propels a projectile for rotating the ball shutter, thereby blocking passage through the aperture. 3 figs.

  4. Detonator-activated ball shutter

    DOEpatents

    McWilliams, Roy A.; von Holle, William G.

    1983-01-01

    A detonator-activated ball shutter for closing an aperture in about 300.mu. seconds. The ball shutter containing an aperture through which light, etc., passes, is closed by firing a detonator which propels a projectile for rotating the ball shutter, thereby blocking passage through the aperture.

  5. Detonation waves in pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.; Breithaupt, R. Don; Kury, John W.

    1997-06-01

    Fabry-Perot laser interferometry was used to obtain nanosecond time resolved particle velocity histories of the free surfaces of tantalum discs accelerated by detonating pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) charges and of the interfaces between PETN detonation products and lithium fluoride crystals. The experimental records were compared to particle velocity histories calculated using very finely zoned meshes of the exact dimensions with the DYNA2D hydrodynamic code. The duration of the PETN detonation reaction zone was demonstrated to be less than the 5 ns initial resolution of the Fabry-Perot technique, because the experimental records were accurately calculated using an instantaneous chemical reaction, the Chapman-Jouguet (C-J) model of detonation, and the reaction product Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state for PETN detonation products previously determined by supracompression (overdriven detonation) studies. Some of the PETN charges were pressed to densities approaching the crystal density and exhibited the phenomenon of superdetonation. An ignition and growth Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) reactive flow model was developed to explain these experimental records and the results of previous PETN shock initiation experiments on single crystals of PETN. Good agreement was obtained for the induction time delays preceding chemical reaction, the run distances at which the initial shock waves were overtaken by the detonation waves in the compressed PETN, and the measured particle velocity histories produced by the overdriven detonation waves before they could relax to steady state C-J velocity and pressure.

  6. Lifetime prediction and reliability estimation methodology for Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators by gaseous contamination accelerated degradation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fubin; Tan, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Zhenhua; Chen, Xun; Wu, Yinong; Zhao, Peng

    2017-12-01

    Lifetime and reliability are the two performance parameters of premium importance for modern space Stirling-type pulse tube refrigerators (SPTRs), which are required to operate in excess of 10 years. Demonstration of these parameters provides a significant challenge. This paper proposes a lifetime prediction and reliability estimation method that utilizes accelerated degradation testing (ADT) for SPTRs related to gaseous contamination failure. The method was experimentally validated via three groups of gaseous contamination ADT. First, the performance degradation model based on mechanism of contamination failure and material outgassing characteristics of SPTRs was established. Next, a preliminary test was performed to determine whether the mechanism of contamination failure of the SPTRs during ADT is consistent with normal life testing. Subsequently, the experimental program of ADT was designed for SPTRs. Then, three groups of gaseous contamination ADT were performed at elevated ambient temperatures of 40 °C, 50 °C, and 60 °C, respectively and the estimated lifetimes of the SPTRs under normal condition were obtained through acceleration model (Arrhenius model). The results show good fitting of the degradation model with the experimental data. Finally, we obtained the reliability estimation of SPTRs through using the Weibull distribution. The proposed novel methodology enables us to take less than one year time to estimate the reliability of the SPTRs designed for more than 10 years.

  7. Impedance magnitude optimization of the regenerator in Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers working at liquid-helium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Q.; Qiu, L. M.; Zhi, X. Q.; Han, L.; Gan, Z. H.; Zhang, X. B.; Zhang, X. J.; Sun, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    The impedance magnitude is important for the design and operation of a Stirling pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC). However, the influence of the impedance magnitude on the SPTC working at liquid-helium temperatures is still not clear due to the complexity of refrigeration mechanism at this temperature range. In this study, the influence of the impedance magnitude on the viscous and thermal losses has been investigated, which contributes to the overall refrigeration efficiency. Different from the previous study at liquid nitrogen temperatures, it has been found and verified experimentally that a higher impedance magnitude may result in a larger mass flow rate accompanied with larger losses in the warmer region, hence the refrigeration efficiency is lowered. Numerical simulation is carried out in SPTCs of different geometry dimensions and working parameters, and the experimental study is carried out in a three-stage SPTC. A minimum no-load refrigeration temperature is achieved with an appropriate impedance magnitude that is determined by the combination of frequency and precooling temperature. A lowest temperature of 4.76 K is achieved at 28 Hz and a precooling temperature of 22.6 K, which is the lowest temperature ever achieved with He-4 for SPTCs. Impedance magnitude optimization is clearly an important consideration for the design of a 4 K SPTC.

  8. Development of a 25 K Pulse Tube Refrigerator for Future HTS-Series Products in Power Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromoll, B.; Huber, N.; Dietrich, M.; Yang, L. W.; Thummes, G.

    2006-04-01

    Demands are made on refrigerators for future HTS-series products like generators, motors, transformers, which are only partly fulfilled by commercially available refrigerators. Based on the experiences with HTS-prototypes, pulse tube refrigerators (PTRs) are considered to have the highest potential to fulfill the identified requirements. Siemens have therefore started the development of a high-performance PTR together with TransMIT Giessen. Design target is a PTR with a cooling power of 80 W near 25 K based on an oil-free CFIC — linear compressor with a power input of 2 × 5 kW. The initial tests on the first single-stage laboratory version of this PTR with stainless steel mesh regenerator revealed high regenerator losses from circulating mass flow that manifests itself in form of an azimuthal temperature asymmetry in the regenerator. The circulating flow can be greatly reduced by increasing the transverse heat conductance of the matrix by use of stacks of different materials. So far, the minimum no-load temperature of the PTR is 35 K and a cooling power of 75 W is available at 50 K with a compressor efficiency of about 80 %. Further optimization of the regenerator matrix appears to be possible.

  9. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    DOE PAGES

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-02-08

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactivemore » conditions.« less

  10. Imaging Detonations of Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    made using a full-color single-camera pyrometer where wavelength resolution is achieved using the Bayer-type mask covering the sensor chip17 and a...many CHNO- based explosives (e.g., TNT [C7H5N3O6], the formulation C-4 [92% RDX, C3H6N6O6]), hot detonation products are mainly soot and permanent...unreferenced). Essentially, 2 light sensors (cameras), each filtered over a narrow wavelength region, observe an event over the same line of sight. The

  11. Nanocarbon condensation in detonation

    PubMed Central

    Bastea, Sorin

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the definition of the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle in a reactive fluid environment, and propose an approach for predicting the size of carbon nanoparticles produced by the detonation of carbon-rich explosives that regards their condensation as a nucleation process and takes into account absolute entropy effects of the cluster population. The results are consistent with experimental observations and indicate that such entropy considerations are important for determining chemical equilibrium states in energetic materials that contain an excess of carbon. The analysis may be useful for other applications that deal with the nucleation of nanoparticles under reactive conditions. PMID:28176827

  12. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Grubelich, Mark C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length.

  13. Semiconductor bridge (SCB) detonator

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-01-19

    The present invention is a low-energy detonator for high-density secondary-explosive materials initiated by a semiconductor bridge (SCB) igniter that comprises a pair of electrically conductive lands connected by a semiconductor bridge. The semiconductor bridge is in operational or direct contact with the explosive material, whereby current flowing through the semiconductor bridge causes initiation of the explosive material. Header wires connected to the electrically-conductive lands and electrical feed-throughs of the header posts of explosive devices, are substantially coaxial to the direction of current flow through the SCB, i.e., substantially coaxial to the SCB length. 3 figs.

  14. Detonation-to-shock wave transmission at a contact discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, J. T.; Lu, F. K.

    2018-02-01

    The one-dimensional interaction of a detonation wave with a contact discontinuity was investigated analytically and experimentally for oxyhydrogen detonations. The analytical and experimental results showed that the transmitted shock through the contact surface and into a non-combustible gas can either be amplified or attenuated depending on the reflection type at the contact surface and on the ratio of acoustic impedance across it. Experiments were performed with a detonation-driven shock tube facility to determine the transmitted shock velocity into a non-combustible He/air mixture. The oxyhydrogen equivalence ratio in the detonation section was varied from 0.5 to 1.5, and the driven section He mole fraction was varied from 0.0 to 1.0 to test a broad range of acoustic impedance ratios ranging from approximately 0.36 to 1.69. The analytical results were shown to have acceptable agreement with the measured transmitted shock wave velocity in the case of a reflected rarefaction from the contact surface. Additionally, the results indicated that the detonation wave reaction zone properties could have an important role that influences the transmitted shock properties in the case of a reflected shock from the contact surface.

  15. Pulse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take your wrist pulse References Bernstein D. History and physical examination. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  16. Diamonds in detonation soot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, N. Roy; Phillips, Dave; Johnson, J. D.; Volk, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Diamonds 4 to 7 nm in diameter have been identified and partially isolated from soot formed in detonations of carbon-forming composite explosives. The morphology of the soot has been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the identity of the diamond has been established by the electron diffraction pattern of the TEM samples and by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the isolated solid. Graphite is also present in the form of ribbons of turbostatic structure with a thickness of 2 to 4 nm. A fraction, about 25 percent of the soot by weight, was recovered from the crude soot after oxidation of the graphite with fuming perchloric acid. This fraction showed a distinct XRD pattern of diamond and the diffuse band of amorphous carbon. The IR spectrum of these diamonds closely matches that of diamonds recovered from meteorites (Lewis et al., 1987), perhaps indicating similar surface properties after the oxidation. If these diamonds are produced in the detonation itself or during the initial expansion, they exhibit a phenomenal crystal growth rate (5 nm/0.00001 s equal 1.8 m/hr) in a medium with a very low hydrogen/carbon ratio. Because the diamonds will be carried along with the expanding gases, they will be accelerated to velocities approaching 8 km/s.

  17. Ferrite core coupled slapper detonator apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Boberg, R.E.; Lee, R.S.; Weingart, R.C.

    1989-08-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for coupling a temporally short electric power pulse from a thick flat-conductor power cable into a thin flat-conductor slapper detonator circuit. A first planar and generally circular loop is formed from an end portion of the power cable. A second planar and generally circular loop, of similar diameter, is formed from all or part of the slapper detonator circuit. The two loops are placed together, within a ferrite housing that provides a ferrite path that magnetically couples the two loops. Slapper detonator parts may be incorporated within the ferrite housing. The ferrite housing may be made vacuum and water-tight, with the addition of a hermetic ceramic seal, and provided with an enclosure for protecting the power cable and parts related thereto. 10 figs.

  18. Ferrite core coupled slapper detonator apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Boberg, Ralph E.; Lee, Ronald S.; Weingart, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for coupling a temporally short electric power pulse from a thick flat-conductor power cable into a thin flat-conductor slapper detonator circuit. A first planar and generally circular loop is formed from an end portion of the power cable. A second planar and generally circular loop, of similar diameter, is formed from all or part of the slapper detonator circuit. The two loops are placed together, within a ferrite housing that provides a ferrite path that magnetically couples the two loops. Slapper detonator parts may be incorporated within the ferrite housing. The ferrite housing may be made vacuum and water-tight, with the addition of a hermetic ceramic seal, and provided with an enclosure for protecting the power cable and parts related thereto.

  19. Numerical modeling of divergent detonation wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiwei; Liu, Bangdi

    1987-11-01

    The indefinite nature of divergent detonations under the assumption of instantaneous stable detonation is described. In the numerical modeling method for divergent detonation, the artificial cohesiveness was improved and the Cochran reaction rate and the JWL equations of state were used to describe the ignition process of the explosion. Several typical divergent detonation problems were computed obtaining rather satisfying results.

  20. Unsteady self-sustained detonation in flake aluminum dust/air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q.; Li, S.; Huang, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Self-sustained detonation waves in flake aluminum dust/air mixtures have been studied in a tube of diameter 199 mm and length 32.4 m. A pressure sensor array of 32 sensors mounted around certain circumferences of the tube was used to measure the shape of the detonation front in the circumferential direction and pressure histories of the detonation wave. A two-head spin detonation wave front was observed for the aluminum dust/air mixtures, and the cellular structure resulting from the spinning movement of the triple point was analyzed. The variations in velocity and overpressure of the detonation wave with propagation distance in a cell were studied. The interactions of waves in triple-point configurations were analyzed and the flow-field parameters were calculated. Three types of triple-point configuration have been found in the wave front of the detonation wave of an aluminum dust/air mixture. Both strong and weak transverse waves exist in the unstable self-sustained detonation wave.

  1. Design and optimization of a deflagration to detonation transition (ddt) section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romo, Francisco X.

    Throughout the previous century, hydrocarbon-fueled engines have used and optimized the `traditional' combustion process called deflagration (subsonic combustion). An alternative form of combustion, detonation (supersonic combustion), can increase the thermal efficiency of the process by anywhere from 20 - 50%. Even though several authors have studied detonation waves since the 1890's and a plethora of papers and books have been published, it was not until 2008 that the first detonation-powered flight took place. It lasted for 10 seconds at 100 ft. altitude. Achieving detonation presents its own challenges: some fuels are not prone to detonate, severe vibrations caused by the cyclic nature of the engine and its intense noise are some of the key areas that need further research. Also, to directly achieve detonation either a high-energy, bulky, ignition system is required, or the combustion chamber must be fairly long (5 ft. or more in some cases). In the latter method, a subsonic flame front accelerates within the combustion chamber until it reaches supersonic speeds, thus detonation is attained. This is called deflagration-todetonation transition (DDT). Previous papers and experiments have shown that obstacles, such as discs with an orifice, located inside the combustion chamber can shorten the distance required to achieve detonation. This paper describes a hands-on implementation of a DDT device. Different disc geometries inside the chamber alter the wave characteristics at the exit of the tube. Although detonation was reached only when using pure oxygen, testing identified an obstacle configuration for LPG and air mixtures that increased pressure and wave speed significantly when compared to baseline or other obstacle configurations. Mixtures of LPG and air were accelerated to Mach 0.96 in the downstream frame of reference, which would indicate a transition to detonation was close. Reasons for not achieving detonation may include poor fuel and oxidizer mixing

  2. Development of a Compressor for a Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocooler of 2.5 W at 65 K for Telecommunication Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, N.; Yasukawa, Y.; Ohshima, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Matsushita, T.; Mizoguchi, Y.

    2008-03-01

    Fuji Electric Group has developed high-reliability technologies for various types of Stirling cryocoolers for space satellite systems. For commercial applications, we also have developed and marketed a miniature pulse-tube cryocooler providing 2W to 3W of refrigeration at 70K with 100W of electric power input. To improve efficiency and power density, we have developed a new moving-magnet linear motor to replace the moving-coil motor (which has only 70% efficiency) and have adopted a coaxial pulse-tube expander. This development is for cooling a high-temperature superconductive (HTS) device in a wireless telecommunication system. The compressor requires total compression work of 75W with 90% efficiency and a lifetime longer than 50,000 hours. At this point, the preliminary testing of each part of the moving magnet linear motor and the coaxial pulse tube has been completed. For the next phase, we constructed a first stage prototype compressor using the new linear motor, and tested the new machine. This paper describes the test results for the compressor.

  3. Theoretical and experimental study of a gas-coupled two-stage pulse tube cooler with stepped warm displacer as the phase shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Li, Haibing; Wu, Yinong; Luo, Ercang

    2018-06-01

    A compact and high efficiency cooler working at liquid hydrogen temperature has many important applications such as cooling superconductors and mid-infrared sensors. This paper presents a two-stage gas-coupled pulse tube cooler system with a completely co-axial configuration. A stepped warm displacer, working as the phase shifter for both stages, has been studied theoretically and experimentally in this paper. Comparisons with the traditional phase shifter (double inlet) are also made. Compared with the double inlet type, the stepped warm displacer has the advantages of recovering the expansion work from the pulse tube hot end (especially from the first stage) and easily realizing an appropriate phase relationship between the pressure wave and volume flow rate at the pulse tube hot end. Experiments are then carried out to investigate the performance. The pressure ratio at the compression space is maintained at 1.37, for the double inlet type, the system obtains 1.1 W cooling power at 20 K with 390 W acoustic power input and the relative Carnot efficiency is only 3.85%; while for the stepped warm displacer type, the system obtains 1.06 W cooling power at 20 K with only 224 W acoustic power input and the relative Carnot efficiency can reach 6.5%.

  4. Modeling the Effects of Turbulence in Rotating Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Towery, Colin; Smith, Katherine; Hamlington, Peter; van Schoor, Marthinus; TESLa Team; Midé Team

    2014-03-01

    Propulsion systems based on detonation waves, such as rotating and pulsed detonation engines, have the potential to substantially improve the efficiency and power density of gas turbine engines. Numerous technical challenges remain to be solved in such systems, however, including obtaining more efficient injection and mixing of air and fuels, more reliable detonation initiation, and better understanding of the flow in the ejection nozzle. These challenges can be addressed using numerical simulations. Such simulations are enormously challenging, however, since accurate descriptions of highly unsteady turbulent flow fields are required in the presence of combustion, shock waves, fluid-structure interactions, and other complex physical processes. In this study, we performed high-fidelity three dimensional simulations of a rotating detonation engine and examined turbulent flow effects on the operation, performance, and efficiency of the engine. Along with experimental data, these simulations were used to test the accuracy of commonly-used Reynolds averaged and subgrid-scale turbulence models when applied to detonation engines. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

  5. Propagation of detonation wave in hydrogen-air mixture in channels with sound-absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bivol, G. Yu.; Golovastov, S. V.; Golub, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The possibility of using sound-absorbing surfaces for attenuating the intensity of detonation waves propagating in hydrogen-air mixtures has been experimentally studied in a cylindrical detonation tube open at one end, with an explosive initiated by spark discharge at the closed end. Sound-absorbing elements were made of an acoustic-grade foamed rubber with density of 0.035 g/cm3 containing open pores with an average diameter of 0.5 mm. The degree of attenuation of the detonation wave front velocity was determined as dependent on the volume fraction of hydrogen in the gas mixture.

  6. PULSE AMPLIFIER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-06-17

    The improvement of pulse amplifiers used with scintillation detectors is described. The pulse amplifier circuit has the advantage of reducing the harmful effects of overloading cause by large signal inputs. In general the pulse amplifier circuit comprises two amplifier tubes with the input pulses applied to one amplifier grid and coupled to the second amplifier tube through a common cathode load. The output of the second amplifier is coupled from the plate circuit to a cathode follower tube grid and a diode tube in connected from grid to cathode of the cathode follower tube. Degenerative feedback is provided in the second amplifier by coupling a signal from the cathode follower cathode to the second amplifier grid. The circuit proqides moderate gain stability, and overload protection for subsequent pulse circuits.

  7. Rotating Detonation Combustion: A Computational Study for Stationary Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, Sergio

    The increased availability of gaseous fossil fuels in The US has led to the substantial growth of stationary Gas Turbine (GT) usage for electrical power generation. In fact, from 2013 to 2104, out of the 11 Tera Watts-hour per day produced from fossil fuels, approximately 27% was generated through the combustion of natural gas in stationary GT. The thermodynamic efficiency for simple-cycle GT has increased from 20% to 40% during the last six decades, mainly due to research and development in the fields of combustion science, material science and machine design. However, additional improvements have become more costly and more difficult to obtain as technology is further refined. An alternative to improve GT thermal efficiency is the implementation of a combustion regime leading to pressure-gain; rather than pressure loss across the combustor. One concept being considered for such purpose is Rotating Detonation Combustion (RDC). RDC refers to a combustion regime in which a detonation wave propagates continuously in the azimuthal direction of a cylindrical annular chamber. In RDC, the fuel and oxidizer, injected from separated streams, are mixed near the injection plane and are then consumed by the detonation front traveling inside the annular gap of the combustion chamber. The detonation products then expand in the azimuthal and axial direction away from the detonation front and exit through the combustion chamber outlet. In the present study Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to predict the performance of Rotating Detonation Combustion (RDC) at operating conditions relevant to GT applications. As part of this study, a modeling strategy for RDC simulations was developed. The validation of the model was performed using benchmark cases with different levels of complexity. First, 2D simulations of non-reactive shock tube and detonation tubes were performed. The numerical predictions that were obtained using different modeling parameters were compared with

  8. Estimation of Pulse Transit Time as a Function of Blood Pressure Using a Nonlinear Arterial Tube-Load Model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingwu; Cheng, Hao-Min; Sung, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Chen-Huan; Olivier, Nicholas Bari; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2017-07-01

    pulse transit time (PTT) varies with blood pressure (BP) throughout the cardiac cycle, yet, because of wave reflection, only one PTT value at the diastolic BP level is conventionally estimated from proximal and distal BP waveforms. The objective was to establish a technique to estimate multiple PTT values at different BP levels in the cardiac cycle. a technique was developed for estimating PTT as a function of BP (to indicate the PTT value for every BP level) from proximal and distal BP waveforms. First, a mathematical transformation from one waveform to the other is defined in terms of the parameters of a nonlinear arterial tube-load model accounting for BP-dependent arterial compliance and wave reflection. Then, the parameters are estimated by optimally fitting the waveforms to each other via the model-based transformation. Finally, PTT as a function of BP is specified by the parameters. The technique was assessed in animals and patients in several ways including the ability of its estimated PTT-BP function to serve as a subject-specific curve for calibrating PTT to BP. the calibration curve derived by the technique during a baseline period yielded bias and precision errors in mean BP of 5.1 ± 0.9 and 6.6 ± 1.0 mmHg, respectively, during hemodynamic interventions that varied mean BP widely. the new technique may permit, for the first time, estimation of PTT values throughout the cardiac cycle from proximal and distal waveforms. the technique could potentially be applied to improve arterial stiffness monitoring and help realize cuff-less BP monitoring.

  9. Two phase detonation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, J. A.; Pierce, T. H.; Miyajima, H.; Oza, R.; Patil, P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental study of the passage of a shock wave over a burning fuel drop is described. This includes high speed framing photographs of the interaction taken at 500,000 frames per second. A theoretical prediction of the ignition of a fuel drop by a shock wave is presented and the results compared with earlier experimental work. Experimental attempts to generate a detonation in a liquid fuel drop (kerosene)-liquid oxidizer drop (hydrogen peroxide)-inert gas-environment are described. An appendix is included which gives the analytical prediction of power requirements for the drop generator to produce certain size drops at a certain mass rate. A bibliography is also included which lists all of the publications resulting from this research grant.

  10. Preliminary Assessment of a Rotary Detonation Engine Concept.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    As advances were made in compressors (both axial and centrifugal), it was possible to develop gas turbine engines based on the Brayton cycle rather...induced cycle pressure ratio. In the case of the axial flow compressor, as stages are added to increase the pressure, the blades become progressively...DESIGN OF THE TORQUE TUBE --------- 96 APPENDIX E. EQUIPMENT LISTING- - --------- -- 104 APPENDIX F. DESIGN DRAWINGS FOR ROTARY DETONATION TURBINE

  11. Detonation waves in pentaerythritol tetranitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Breithaupt, R.D.; Kury, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    Fabry{endash}Perot laser interferometry was used to obtain nanosecond time resolved particle velocity histories of the free surfaces of tantalum discs accelerated by detonating pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) charges and of the interfaces between PETN detonation products and lithium fluoride crystals. The experimental records were compared to particle velocity histories calculated using very finely zoned meshes of the exact dimensions with the DYNA2D hydrodynamic code. The duration of the PETN detonation reaction zone was demonstrated to be less than the 5 ns initial resolution of the Fabry{endash}Perot technique, because the experimental records were accurately calculated using an instantaneous chemical reaction, the Chapman{endash}Jouguetmore » (C-J) model of detonation, and the reaction product Jones{endash}Wilkins{endash}Lee (JWL) equation of state for PETN detonation products previously determined by supracompression (overdriven detonation) studies. Some of the PETN charges were pressed to densities approaching the crystal density and exhibited the phenomenon of superdetonation. An ignition and growth Zeldovich{endash}von Neumann{endash}Doring (ZND) reactive flow model was developed to explain these experimental records and the results of previous PETN shock initiation experiments on single crystals of PETN. Good agreement was obtained for the induction time delays preceding chemical reaction, the run distances at which the initial shock waves were overtaken by the detonation waves in the compressed PETN, and the measured particle velocity histories produced by the overdriven detonation waves before they could relax to steady state C-J velocity and pressure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less

  12. Novel uses of detonator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, John R.; Wilde, Zakary Robert; Tasker, Douglas George

    A novel combination of diagnostics is being used to research the physics of detonator initiation. The explosive PETN (Pentaerythritol tetranitrate) commonly used in detonators, is also a piezo-electric material that, when sufficiently shocked, emits an electromagnetic field in the radio frequency (RF) range, along crystal fracture planes. In an effort to capture this RF signal, a new diagnostic was created. A copper foil, used as an RF antenna, was wrapped around a foam fixture encompassing a PETN pellet. Rogowski coils were used to obtain the change in current with respect to time (di/dt) the detonator circuit, in and polyvinylidene difluoridemore » (PVDF) stress sensors were used to capture shockwave arrival time. The goal of these experiments is to use these diagnostics to study the reaction response of a PETN pellet of known particle size to shock loading with various diagnostics including an antenna to capture RF emissions. Our hypothesis is that RF feedback may signify the rate of deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) or lack thereof. The new diagnostics and methods will be used to determine the timing of start of current, bridge burst, detonator breakout timing and RF generated from detonation. These data will be compared to those of currently used diagnostics in order to validate the accuracy of these new methods. Future experiments will incorporate other methods of validation including dynamic radiography, optical initiation and use of magnetic field sensors.« less

  13. Measurements of observables during detonator function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilowitz, Laura; Henson, Bryan; Remelius, Dennis

    Thermal explosion and detonation are two phenomena which can both occur as the response of explosives to thermal or mechanical insults. Thermal explosion is typically considered in the safety envelope and detonation is considered in the performance regime of explosive behavior. However, the two regimes are tied together by a phenomenon called deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). In this talk, I will discuss experiments on commercial detonators aimed at understanding the mechanism for energy release during detonator function. Diagnostic development towards measuring temperature, pressure, and density during the extreme conditions and time scales of detonation will be discussed. Our current ability to perform table-top dynamic radiography on functioning detonators will be described. Dynamic measurements of temperature, pressure, and density will be shown and discussion of the function of a detonator will be given in terms of our current understanding of deflagration, detonation, and the transition between the two.

  14. Effect of viscosity on the wave propagation: Experimental determination of compression and expansion pulse wave velocity in fluid-fill elastic tube.

    PubMed

    Stojadinović, Bojana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Rajković, Nemanja; Milošević, Nebojša; Lazović, Biljana; Žikić, Dejan

    2015-11-26

    The velocity by which the disturbance travels through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is one of the main parameters in hemodynamics. The study of wave propagation through the fluid-fill elastic tube is of great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through of cardiovascular system. The effect of viscosity on the pulse wave velocity is generally ignored. In this paper we present the results of experimental measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) of compression and expansion waves in elastic tube. The solutions with different density and viscosity were used in the experiment. Biophysical model of the circulatory flow is designed to perform measurements. Experimental results show that the PWV of the expansion waves is higher than the compression waves during the same experimental conditions. It was found that the change in viscosity causes a change of PWV for both waves. We found a relationship between PWV, fluid density and viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diminishing detonator effectiveness through electromagnetic effects

    DOEpatents

    Schill, Jr, Robert A.

    2016-09-20

    An inductively coupled transmission line with distributed electromotive force source and an alternative coupling model based on empirical data and theory were developed to initiate bridge wire melt for a detonator with an open and a short circuit detonator load. In the latter technique, the model was developed to exploit incomplete knowledge of the open circuited detonator using tendencies common to all of the open circuit loads examined. Military, commercial, and improvised detonators were examined and modeled. Nichrome, copper, platinum, and tungsten are the detonator specific bridge wire materials studied. The improvised detonators were made typically made with tungsten wire and copper (.about.40 AWG wire strands) wire.

  16. Detonation in TATB Hemispheres

    SciTech Connect

    Druce, B; Souers, P C; Chow, C

    2004-03-17

    Streak camera breakout and Fabry-Perot interferometer data have been taken on the outer surface of 1.80 g/cm{sup 3} TATB hemispherical boosters initiated by slapper detonators at three temperatures. The slapper causes breakout to occur at 54{sup o} at ambient temperatures and 42{sup o} at -54 C, where the axis of rotation is 0{sup o}. The Fabry velocities may be associated with pressures, and these decrease for large timing delays in breakout seen at the colder temperatures. At room temperature, the Fabry pressures appear constant at all angles. Both fresh and decade-old explosive are tested and no difference is seen. Themore » problem has been modeled with reactive flow. Adjustment of the JWL for temperature makes little difference, but cooling to -54 C decreases the rate constant by 1/6th. The problem was run both at constant density and with density differences using two different codes. The ambient code results show that a density difference is probably there but it cannot be quantified.« less

  17. Effect of actuating voltage and discharge gap on plasma assisted detonation initiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siyin, ZHOU; Xueke, CHE; Wansheng, NIE; Di, WANG

    2018-06-01

    The influence of actuating voltage and discharge gap on plasma assisted detonation initiation by alternating current dielectric barrier discharge was studied in detail. A loose coupling method was used to simulate the detonation initiation process of a hydrogen–oxygen mixture in a detonation tube under different actuating voltage amplitudes and discharge gap sizes. Both the discharge products and the detonation forming process assisted by the plasma were analyzed. It was found that the patterns of the temporal and spatial distributions of discharge products in one cycle keep unchanged as changing the two discharge operating parameters. However, the adoption of a higher actuating voltage leads to a higher active species concentration within the discharge zone, and atom H is the most sensitive to the variations of the actuating voltage amplitude among the given species. Adopting a larger discharge gap results in a lower concentration of the active species, and all species have the same sensitivity to the variations of the gap. With respect to the reaction flow of the detonation tube, the corresponding deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) time and distance become slightly longer when a higher actuating voltage is chosen. The acceleration effect of plasma is more prominent with a smaller discharge gap, and the benefit builds gradually throughout the DDT process. Generally, these two control parameters have little effect on the amplitude of the flow field parameters, and they do not alter the combustion degree within the reaction zone.

  18. Stability of cosmological detonation fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín

    2014-05-01

    The steady-state propagation of a phase-transition front is classified, according to hydrodynamics, as a deflagration or a detonation, depending on its velocity with respect to the fluid. These propagation modes are further divided into three types, namely, weak, Jouguet, and strong solutions, according to their disturbance of the fluid. However, some of these hydrodynamic modes will not be realized in a phase transition. One particular cause is the presence of instabilities. In this work we study the linear stability of weak detonations, which are generally believed to be stable. After discussing in detail the weak detonation solution, we consider small perturbations of the interface and the fluid configuration. When the balance between the driving and friction forces is taken into account, it turns out that there are actually two different kinds of weak detonations, which behave very differently as functions of the parameters. We show that the branch of stronger weak detonations are unstable, except very close to the Jouguet point, where our approach breaks down.

  19. NOx Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2016-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. Results to date show that NOx emissions are not a problem for the RDE due to the short residence times and the nature of the flow field. Furthermore, simulations show that the amount of NOx can be further reduced by tailoring the fluid dynamics within the RDE.

  20. Exhaust Gas Emissions from a Rotating Detonation-wave Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2015-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. Progress towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model including NOx chemistry is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release. Work sponsored by the Office of Naval Research.

  1. Development and qualification testing of a laser-ignited, all-secondary (DDT) detonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blachowski, Thomas J.; Krivitsky, Darrin Z.; Tipton, Stephen

    1994-01-01

    The Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center (IHDIV, NSWC) is conducting a qualification program for a laser-ignited, all-secondary (DDT) explosive detonator. This detonator was developed jointly by IHDIV, NSWC and the Department of Energy's EG&G Mound Applied Technologies facility in Miamisburg, Ohio to accept a laser initiation signal and produce a fully developed shock wave output. The detonator performance requirements were established by the on-going IHDIV, NSWC Laser Initiated Transfer Energy Subsystem (LITES) advanced development program. Qualification of the detonator as a component utilizing existing military specifications is the selected approach for this program. The detonator is a deflagration-to-detonator transfer (DDT) device using a secondary explosive, HMX, to generate the required shock wave output. The prototype development and initial system integration tests for the LITES and for the detonator were reported at the 1992 International Pyrotechnics Society Symposium and at the 1992 Survival and Flight Equipment National Symposium. Recent results are presented for the all-fire sensitivity and qualification tests conducted at two different laser initiation pulses.

  2. Detonation Jet Engine. Part 1--Thermodynamic Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Volkov, Konstantin N.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most relevant works on jet engine design that utilize thermodynamic cycle of detonative combustion. The efficiency advantages of thermodynamic detonative combustion cycle over Humphrey combustion cycle at constant volume and Brayton combustion cycle at constant pressure were demonstrated. An ideal Ficket-Jacobs detonation cycle, and…

  3. Exploring the polymerization of bioactive nano-cones on the inner surface of an organic tube by an atmospheric pressure pulsed micro-plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H. M.; Yu, J. S.; Chen, G. L.; Qiu, X. P.; Hu, W.; Chen, W. X.; Bai, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the successful deposition of acrylic acid polymer (PAA) nano-cones on the inner surface of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube using an atmospheric pressure pulsed plasma jet (APPJ) with acrylic acid (AA) monomer is presented. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements indicated that various reactive radicals, such as rad OH and rad O, existed in the plasma jet. Moreover, the pulsed current proportionally increased with the increase in the applied voltage. The strengthened stretching vibration of the carbonyl group (Cdbnd O) at 1700 cm-1, shown in the ATR-FTIR spectra, clearly indicated that the PAA was deposited on the PVC surface. The maximum height of the PAA nano-cones deposited by this method ranged from 150 to 200 nm. FTIR and XPS results confirmed the enhanced exposure of the carboxyl groups on the modified PVC surface, which was considered highly beneficial for successfully immobilizing a high density of biomolecules. The XPS data showed that the carbon ratios of the Csbnd OH/R and COOH/R groups increased from 7.03% and 2.6% to 18.69% and 6.81%, respectively (more than doubled) when an Ar/O2 plasma with AA monomer was applied to treat the inner surface of the PVC tube. Moreover, the enhanced attachment density of MC3T3-E1 bone cells was observed on the PVC inner surface coated with PAA nano-cones.

  4. Detonation Failure Thickness Measurement in AN Annular Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, D. B.; Petel, O. E.; Higgins, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    The failure thickness of neat nitromethane in aluminum confinement was measured using a novel experimental technique. The thickness was approximated in an annular geometry by the gap between a concentric aluminum tube and rod. This technique was motivated by the desire to have a periodic boundary condition in the direction orthogonal to the annulus thickness, rather than a free surface occurring in typical rectangular geometry experiments. This results in a two-dimensional charge analogous to previous failure thickness setups but with infinite effective width (i.e. infinite aspect ratio). Detonation propagation or failure was determined by the observation of failure patterns engraved on the aluminum rod by the passing detonation. Analysis of these engraved patterns provides a statistical measurement of the spatial density of failure waves. Failure was observed as far as 180 thicknesses downstream. The failure thickness was measured to be 1.45 mm±0.15 mm.

  5. Sensitized Liquid Hydrazine Detonation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathgeber, K. A.; Keddy, C. P.; Bunker, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Vapor-phase hydrazine (N2H4) is known to be very sensitive to detonation while liquid hydrazine is very insensitive to detonation, theoretically requiring extremely high pressures to induce initiation. A review of literature on solid and liquid explosives shows that when pure explosive substances are infiltrated with gas cavities, voids, and/or different phase contaminants, the energy or shock pressure necessary to induce detonation can decrease by an order of magnitude. Tests were conducted with liquid hydrazine in a modified card-gap configuration. Sensitization was attempted by bubbling helium gas through and/or suspending ceramic microspheres in the liquid. The hydrazine was subjected to the shock pressure from a 2 lb (0.9 kg) Composition C-4 explosive charge. The hydrazine was contained in a 4 in. (10.2 cm) diameter stainless steel cylinder with a 122 in(sup 3) (2 L) volume and sealed with a polyethylene cap. Blast pressures from the events were recorded by 63 high speed pressure transducers located on three radial legs extending from 4 to 115 ft (1.2 to 35.1 in) from ground zero. Comparison of the neat hydrazine and water baseline tests with the "sensitized" hydrazine tests indicates the liquid hydrazine did not detonate under these conditions.

  6. Pulsed Ejector Wave Propogation Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Rene; Slater, John W.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2003-01-01

    The development of, and initial test data from, a nondetonating Pulse Detonation Engine (PDE) simulator tested in the NASA Glenn 1 x 1 foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) is presented in this paper. The concept is a pulsed ejector driven by the simulated exhaust of a PDE. This pro- gram is applicable to a PDE entombed in a ramjet flowpath, i.e., a PDE combined-cycle propulsion system. The ejector primary flow is a pulsed, uiiderexpanded, supersonic nozzle simulating the supersonic waves ema- nating from a PDE, while the ejector secondary flow is the 1 x 1 foot SWT test section operated at subsonic Mach numbers. The objective is not to study the detonation details, but the wave physics including t,he start- ing vortices, the extent of propagation of the wave front, the reflection of the wave from the secondary flowpath walls, and the timing of these events of a pulsed ejector, and correlate these with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code predictions. Pulsed ejectors have been shown to result in a 3 to 1 improvement in LID (length-to-diameter) and a near 2 to 1 improvement in thrust augmentation over a steady ejector. This program will also explore the extent of upstream interactions between an inlet and large, periodically applied, backpressures to the inlet as would be present due to combustion tube detonations in a PDE. These interactions could result in inlet unstart or buzz for a supersonic mixed compression inlet. The design of the present experiment entailed the use of an 2-t diagram characteristics code to study the nozzle filling and purging timescales as well as a series of CFD analyses conducted using the WIND code. The WIND code is a general purpose CFD code for solution of the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations and can be applied to both steady state and time-accurate calculations. The first, proof-of-concept, test entry (spring 2001) pressure distributions shown here indicate the simulation concept was successful and therefore the experimental

  7. Performance Impact of Deflagration to Detonation Transition Enhancing Obstacles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Schauer, Frederick; Hopper, David

    2012-01-01

    A sub-model is developed to account for the drag and heat transfer enhancement resulting from deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) inducing obstacles commonly used in pulse detonation engines (PDE). The sub-model is incorporated as a source term in a time-accurate, quasi-onedimensional, CFD-based PDE simulation. The simulation and sub-model are then validated through comparison with a particular experiment in which limited DDT obstacle parameters were varied. The simulation is then used to examine the relative contributions from drag and heat transfer to the reduced thrust which is observed. It is found that heat transfer is far more significant than aerodynamic drag in this particular experiment.

  8. Dynamics of explosively imploded pressurized tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szirti, Daniel; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-04-01

    The detonation of an explosive layer surrounding a pressurized thin-walled tube causes the formation of a virtual piston that drives a precursor shock wave ahead of the detonation, generating very high temperatures and pressures in the gas contained within the tube. Such a device can be used as the driver for a high energy density shock tube or hypervelocity gas gun. The dynamics of the precursor shock wave were investigated for different tube sizes and initial fill pressures. Shock velocity and standoff distance were found to decrease with increasing fill pressure, mainly due to radial expansion of the tube. Adding a tamper can reduce this effect, but may increase jetting. A simple analytical model based on acoustic wave interactions was developed to calculate pump tube expansion and the resulting effect on the shock velocity and standoff distance. Results from this model agree quite well with experimental data.

  9. Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.

  10. Burning to Detonation Transition in Porous Beds of a High Energy Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) behavior of porous charges of a high-energy propellant (VL-U) has been stualed at both high and low...transition (DDT) behavior of porous charges of a high-eneryy propellant (VLU) has been studied at both high confinement (steel tube) and low confinement...plastic tube). The physical nature of thet propellant ised to construct the porous beds was varied: shredded, powdered CI ,-: and cuboid materials were

  11. Numerical Simulation of Flow in Fluidic Valves in Rotating Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nandini

    Rotating detonation engines (RDE) have received considerable research attention in recent times for use in propulsion systems. The cycle frequency of operation of an RDE can be as high as 10,000 Hz. Conventional mechanical valves cannot operate at such high frequencies, leading to the need for propellant injectors or valves with no moving parts. A fluidic valve is such a valve and is the focus of this study. The valve consists of an orifice connected to a constant area plenum cavity which operates at constant pressure. The fluidic valve supplies propellants to the detonation tube through the orifice. Hydrogen - oxygen detonation is studied in a tube with fluidic valves. A detailed 19-step chemical reaction mechanism has been used to model detonation and the flow simulated in ANSYS Fluent. This research aims to determine the location of contact surface in the cavity and the time taken for the contact surface to leave the valve after a shock wave has passed through it. This will help us understand if the steady-state flow in the cavity is comprised of detonation products or fresh propellants.

  12. High Explosive Detonation-Confiner Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Mark; Quirk, James J.

    2018-01-01

    The primary purpose of a detonation in a high explosive (HE) is to provide the energy to drive a surrounding confiner, typically for mining or munitions applications. The details of the interaction between an HE detonation and its confinement are essential to achieving the objectives of the explosive device. For the high pressures induced by detonation loading, both the solid HE and confiner materials will flow. The structure and speed of a propagating detonation, and ultimately the pressures generated in the reaction zone to drive the confiner, depend on the induced flow both within the confiner and along the HE-confiner material interface. The detonation-confiner interactions are heavily influenced by the material properties and, in some cases, the thickness of the confiner. This review discusses the use of oblique shock polar analysis as a means of characterizing the possible range of detonation-confiner interactions. Computations that reveal the fluid mechanics of HE detonation-confiner interactions for finite reaction-zone length detonations are discussed and compared with the polar analysis. This includes cases of supersonic confiner flow; subsonic, shock-driven confiner flow; subsonic, but shockless confiner flow; and sonic flow at the intersection of the detonation shock and confiner material interface. We also summarize recent developments, including the effects of geometry and porous material confinement, on detonation-confiner interactions.

  13. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Detonation (6th) Held at Coronado, California on 24-27 August 1976

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    SHOCK-TO-DETONATION TRANSITION AND DETONATION STUDIES Chairmen: Joseph Hershkowitz Picatinny Arsenal Paul A. Urtiew Lawrence Livermore Laboratory I. -[-1...explosive-hotspots whose growth is sup- pressed. We are unaware of chemical kinetic evidence 2. B. D. Trott and R. G. Jung, "Effect of Pulse for the...proportional to the particle ve- years ago. However, Gittings (4), Trott and Jung (5), locity change at the shock front, thus the hot-spotand

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigations on the optimal match between compressor and cold finger of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zhang, Lei

    2016-06-01

    The match between the pulse tube cold finger (PTCF) and the linear compressor of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler plays a vital role in optimizing the compressor efficiency and in improving the PTCF cooling performance as well. In this paper, the interaction of them has been analyzed in a detailed way to reveal the match mechanism, and systematic investigations on the two-way matching have been conducted. The design method of the PTCF to achieve the optimal matching for the given compressor and the counterpart design method of the compressor to achieve the optimal matching for the given PTCF are put forward. Specific experiments are then carried out to verify the conducted theoretical analyses and modeling. For a given linear compressor, a new in-line PTCF which seeks to achieve the optimal match is simulated, designed and tested. And for a given coaxial PTCF, a new dual-opposed moving-coil linear compressor is also developed to match with it. The simulated and experimental results are compared, and fairly good agreements are found between them in both cases. The matched in-line cooler with the newly-designed PTCF has capacities of 4-11.84 W at 80 K with higher than 17% of Carnot efficiency and the mean motor efficiency of 81.5%, and the matched coaxial cooler with the new-designed compressor can provide 2-5.5 W at 60 K with higher than 9.6% of Carnot efficiency and the mean motor efficiency of 83%, which verify the validity of the theoretical investigations on the optimal match and the proposed design methods.

  15. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    the same pressure that results from a more gradual increase. This disagrees with experiments, where explosives were subjected to a gradual rise in pressure and did not exhibit reaction. More recent models do distinguish between slow pressure rises and shocks, and have had some success in the describing the response of explosives to single and multiple shocks, and the increase of shock sensitivity with porosity, at least over a limited range. The original formulation is appropriate for sustained shocks, but further work is ongoing to describe the response to short pulses. The HERMES model combines features from these prior models. It describes burning and explosion in damaged reactant, and also will develop a detonation if the gradual rise in pressure from burning steepens into a strong-enough shock. The shock strength needed for detonation in a fixed run distance decreases with increasing porosity.« less

  16. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of chemistry and detonation performance.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Jennifer L; Bukowski, Eric J

    2017-01-20

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser has been used to ablate, atomize, ionize, and excite milligram quantities of metal-doped energetic materials that undergo exothermic reactions in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion in the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The method enables the estimation of detonation velocities based on the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities and has previously been demonstrated for organic military explosives. Here, the LASEM technique has been extended to explosive formulations with metal additives. A comparison of the measured laser-induced air-shock velocities for TNT, RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by the thermochemical code CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time (<10  μs) participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that while Al is mostly inert at early times in the detonation event (confirmed from large-scale detonation testing), B is active-and reducing the amount of hydrogen present during the early chemical reactions increases the resulting estimated detonation velocities.

  17. Development of a Detonation Diffuser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    detonation frequency is adjustable from 8 Hz to 40 Hz, and the ignition can be set to operate in “burst mode” firing for a predetermined number of cycles... resistance were tried, but the strain on the windows caused the coating to fracture. Without a scratch- resistant coating, the windows regularly suffered... abrasion from the Shock wave Strain waves 35 test articles. The heat from local explosions did burn away a small amount of the window surface

  18. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1994-01-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules.

  19. Non-detonable explosive simulators

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, R.L.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1994-11-01

    A simulator which is chemically equivalent to an explosive, but is not detonable. The simulator has particular use in the training of explosives detecting dogs and calibrating sensitive analytical instruments. The explosive simulants may be fabricated by different techniques, a first involves the use of standard slurry coatings to produce a material with a very high binder to explosive ratio without masking the explosive vapor, and the second involves coating inert beads with thin layers of explosive molecules. 5 figs.

  20. Detonation velocity in poorly mixed gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, E. S.

    2017-10-01

    The technique for computation of the average velocity of plane detonation wave front in poorly mixed mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon fuel and oxygen is proposed. Here it is assumed that along the direction of detonation propagation the chemical composition of the mixture has periodic fluctuations caused, for example, by layered stratification of gas charge. The technique is based on the analysis of functional dependence of ideal (Chapman-Jouget) detonation velocity on mole fraction (with respect to molar concentration) of the fuel. It is shown that the average velocity of detonation can be significantly (by more than 10%) less than the velocity of ideal detonation. The dependence that permits to estimate the degree of mixing of gas mixture basing on the measurements of average detonation velocity is established.

  1. Theory and Modeling of Liquid Explosive Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarver, Craig M.; Urtiew, Paul A.

    2010-10-01

    The current understanding of the detonation reaction zones of liquid explosives is discussed in this article. The physical and chemical processes that precede and follow exothermic chemical reaction within the detonation reaction zone are discussed within the framework of the nonequilibrium Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (NEZND) theory of self-sustaining detonation. Nonequilibrium chemical and physical processes cause finite time duration induction zones before exothermic chemical energy release occurs. This separation between the leading shock wave front and the chemical energy release needed to sustain it results in shock wave amplification and the subsequent formation of complex three-dimensional cellular structures in all liquid detonation waves. To develop a practical Zeldovich-von Neumann-Doring (ZND) reactive flow model for liquid detonation, experimental data on reaction zone structure, confined failure diameter, unconfined failure diameter, and failure wave velocity in the Dremin-Trofimov test for detonating nitromethane are calculated using the ignition and growth reactive flow model.

  2. Improved detonation modeling with CHEETAH

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, A.

    1997-11-01

    A Livermore software program called CHEETAH, an important, even indispensable tool for energetic materials researchers worldwide, was made more powerful in the summer of 1997 with the release of CHEETAH 2.0, an advanced version that simulates a wider variety of detonations. Derived from more than 40 years of experiments on high explosives at Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos national laboratories, CHEETAH predicts the results from detonating a mixture of specified reactants. It operates by solving thermodynamic equations to predict detonation products and such properties as temperature, pressure, volume, and total energy released. The code is prized by synthesis chemists andmore » other researchers because it allows them to vary the starting molecules and conditions to optimize the desired performance properties. One of the Laboratory`s most popular computer codes, CHEETAH is used at more than 200 sites worldwide, including ones in England, Canada, Sweden, Switzerland, and France. Most sites are defense-related, although a few users, such as Japanese fireworks researchers, are in the civilian sector.« less

  3. Competency Development Detonator Development and Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    required. Exploding foil initiators ( EFI or Slapper) - The benefits of using an EFI is that the metal bridge is separated from the explosive, the explosive...to the materials ignition temperature to begin a burning reaction that propagates to the next material in the initiator . Exploding bridgewire (EBW...principles "* Initiation capabilities of the MEMS scale detonator DETONATOR BACKGROUND In a typical detonator, an explosive train is used. The explosive train

  4. Deflagration to detonation transition in mechanoactivated mixtures of ammonium perchlorate with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, A. A.; Dolgoborodov, A. Yu; Kirilenko, V. G.; Brazhnikov, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    Deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in aluminum-ammonium perchlorate (Al/AP) loose-packed charges (80% porosity) has been studied. The charges were manufactured from preliminary mechanoactivated mixtures. The mixtures placed in steel tubes 10 mm in diameter were ignited by Nichrome wire. It was found that it is possible to distinguish three parts corresponding to different stages of DDT process development. Steady-state detonation velocity reached the level of 2500 m/s at the distance of 90 mm from the ignition point.

  5. Nuclear pulse. I - Awakening to the chaos factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broad, W. J.

    1981-05-01

    The discovery of the significance of the high-voltage wave termed electromagnetic pulse (EMP), which occurs following the high-altitude detonation of a nuclear device, is discussed. The disruptions to the street lights, burglar alarms and circuit breakers of Hawaii caused by the detonation of a nuclear device 248 mi above Johnson Island in the Pacific in July, 1962 are described and attributed to the Compton electrons produced by the impact of gamma rays from the nuclear explosion on air in the upper atmosphere. It is pointed out, however, that at the time of the explosion, most communications systems were based on vacuum tube and electromechanical technology, which is about 10,000,000 times harder against EMP than integrated solid-state circuitry, and thus the threat posed by EMP to the power grid and communications capabilities was not apparent. Efforts undertaken to harden discrete (missile) and communications systems against EMP are outlined for the example of the Safeguard ABM system, and difficulties are pointed out. Soviet awareness of EMP is considered, and the discovery of vacuum tubes on board the state-of-the-art Foxbat MiG interceptor flown into Japan is noted as a possible indicator of this awareness. It is concluded that the problem of EMP will increase in significance as semiconductor electronics proliferates.

  6. Effect of Aluminium Confinement on ANFO Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Mark; Jackson, Scott; Kiyanda, Charles; Shinas, Mike; Hare, Steve; Briggs, Matt

    2013-06-01

    Detonations in confined non-ideal high explosives often have velocities below the confiner sound speed. The effect on detonation propagation of the resulting subsonic flow in the confiner (such as confiner stress waves traveling ahead of the main detonation front or upstream wall deflection into the HE) has yet to be fully understood. Previous work by Sharpe and Bdzil (J. Eng. Math, 2006) has shown that for subsonic confiner flow, there is no limiting thickness for which the detonation dynamics are uninfluenced by further increases in wall thickness. The critical parameters influencing detonation behavior are the wall thickness relative to the HE reaction zone size, and the difference in the detonation velocity and confiner sound speed. Additional possible outcomes of subsonic flow are that for increasing thickness, the confiner is increasingly deflected into the HE upstream of the detonation, and that for sufficiently thick confiners, the detonation speed could be driven up to the sound speed in the confiner. We report here on a further series of experiments in which a mixture of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is detonated in aluminum confiners with varying HE charge diameter and confiner thickness, and compare the results with the outcomes suggested by Sharpe and Bdzil.

  7. Laser diode initiated detonators for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewick, David W.; Graham, J. A.; Hawley, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Ensign Bickford Aerospace Company (EBAC) has over ten years of experience in the design and development of laser ordnance systems. Recent efforts have focused on the development of laser diode ordnance systems for space applications. Because the laser initiated detonators contain only insensitive secondary explosives, a high degree of system safety is achieved. Typical performance characteristics of a laser diode initiated detonator are described in this paper, including all-fire level, function time, and output. A finite difference model used at EBAC to predict detonator performance, is described and calculated results are compared to experimental data. Finally, the use of statistically designed experiments to evaluate performance of laser initiated detonators is discussed.

  8. Direct Observations of Reaction Zone Structure in Propagating Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-08

    with sufficient spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio were achieved by using a tunable KrF laser with a pulse energy of 450 mJ exciting the OH...self-sustaining waves within the test section. The detonation reaction zone has been visualized by exciting OH fluorescence at about 284 nm with a...in some tests. The UV light for excitation of the OH molecules is produced by frequency dou- bling the output of an excimer-pumped dye laser. The

  9. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Scott I.; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane–oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half ofmore » the Chapman–Jouguet detonation velocity (D CJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3–2.0 m or 317–488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 D CJ and 0.95 D CJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis of the velocity

  10. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    DOE PAGES

    Jackson, Scott I.; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2016-03-24

    In this paper, the propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane–oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half ofmore » the Chapman–Jouguet detonation velocity (D CJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3–2.0 m or 317–488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 D CJ and 0.95 D CJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis of the velocity

  11. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Gray, G.W.; Jensen, A.S.

    1957-10-22

    A pulse-height analyzer system of improved design for sorting and counting a series of pulses, such as provided by a scintillation detector in nuclear radiation measurements, is described. The analyzer comprises a main transmission line, a cathode-ray tube for each section of the line with its deflection plates acting as the line capacitance; means to bias the respective cathode ray tubes so that the beam strikes a target only when a prearranged pulse amplitude is applied, with each tube progressively biased to respond to smaller amplitudes; pulse generating and counting means associated with each tube to respond when the beam is deflected; a control transmission line having the same time constant as the first line per section with pulse generating means for each tube for initiating a pulse on the second transmission line when a pulse triggers the tube of corresponding amplitude response, the former pulse acting to prevent successive tubes from responding to the pulse under test. This arrangement permits greater deflection sensitivity in the cathode ray tube and overcomes many of the disadvantages of prior art pulse-height analyzer circuits.

  12. Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT) Simulations of HMX Powder Using the HERMES Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Bradley; Reaugh, John; Tringe, Joseph

    2017-06-01

    We performed computer simulations of DDT experiments with Class I HMX powder using the HERMES model (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) in ALE3D. Parameters for the model were fitted to the limited available mechanical property data of the low-density powder, and to the Shock to Detonation Transition (SDT) test results. The DDT tests were carried out in steel-capped polycarbonate tubes. This arrangement permits direct observation of the event using both flash X-ray radiography and high speed camera imaging, and provides a stringent test of the model. We found the calculated detonation transition to be qualitatively similar to experiment. Through simulation we also explored the effects of confinement strength, the HMX particle size distribution and porosity on the computed detonation transition location. This work was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. A Simplified Model for Detonation Based Pressure-Gain Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2010-01-01

    A time-dependent model is presented which simulates the essential physics of a detonative or otherwise constant volume, pressure-gain combustor for gas turbine applications. The model utilizes simple, global thermodynamic relations to determine an assumed instantaneous and uniform post-combustion state in one of many envisioned tubes comprising the device. A simple, second order, non-upwinding computational fluid dynamic algorithm is then used to compute the (continuous) flowfield properties during the blowdown and refill stages of the periodic cycle which each tube undergoes. The exhausted flow is averaged to provide mixed total pressure and enthalpy which may be used as a cycle performance metric for benefits analysis. The simplicity of the model allows for nearly instantaneous results when implemented on a personal computer. The results compare favorably with higher resolution numerical codes which are more difficult to configure, and more time consuming to operate.

  14. Diameter Effect Curve and Detonation Front Curvature Measurements for ANFO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanach, R. A.; Hill, L. G.

    2001-06-01

    Diameter effect and front curvature measurements are reported for rate stick experiments on commercially available prilled ANFO (ammonium nitrate-fuel oil) at ambient temperature. The shots were fired in paper tubes so as to provide minimal confinement. Diameters ranged from 77 mm. (≈ failure diameter) to 200 mm., with the tube length being ten diameters in all cases. Each detonation wave shape was fit with an analytic form, from which the local normal velocity Dn and total curvature κ were generated as a function of radius R, then plotted parametrically to generate a D_n(κ) function. The resulting behavior deviates substantially from that of previous explosives,(Hill,L.G., Bdzil,J.B., and Aslam,T.D., 11^th) Detonation Symposium, 1998^,(Hill,L.G., Bdzil,J.B., Davis,W.C., and Engelke,R., Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, 1999) in which curves for different stick sizes overlay well for small κ but diverge for large κ, and for which κ increases monotonically with R to achieve a maximum value at the charge edge. For ANFO, we find that κ achieves a maximum at an intermediate R and that D_n(κ) curves for different stick sizes are widely separated with no overlap whatsoever.

  15. A computational approach for coupled 1D and 2D/3D CFD modelling of pulse Tube cryocoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Spoor, P. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The physics behind Stirling-type cryocoolers are complicated. One dimensional (1D) simulation tools offer limited details and accuracy, in particular for cryocoolers that have non-linear configurations. Multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods are useful but are computationally expensive in simulating cyrocooler systems in their entirety. In view of the fact that some components of a cryocooler, e.g., inertance tubes and compliance tanks, can be modelled as 1D components with little loss of critical information, a 1D-2D/3D coupled model was developed. Accordingly, one-dimensional - like components are represented by specifically developed routines. These routines can be coupled to CFD codes and provide boundary conditions for 2D/3D CFD simulations. The developed coupled model, while preserving sufficient flow field details, is two orders of magnitude faster than equivalent 2D/3D CFD models. The predictions show good agreement with experimental data and 2D/3D CFD model.

  16. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  17. Using Schlieren Visualization to Track Detonator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, S. A.; Bolme, C. A.; Murphy, M. J.; Landon, C. D.; Mason, T. A.; Adrian, R. J.; Akinci, A. A.; Martinez, M. E.; Thomas, K. A.

    2007-12-01

    Several experiments will be presented that are part of a phased plan to understand the evolution of detonation in a detonator from initiation shock through run to detonation, to full detonation, to transition, to booster and booster detonation. High-speed multiframe schlieren imagery has been used to study several explosive initiation events, such as exploding bridgewires (EBWs), exploding foil initiators (EFIs or "slappers"), direct optical initiation (DOI), and electrostatic discharge. Additionally, a series of tests has been performed on "cut-back" detonators with varying initial pressing heights. We have also used this diagnostic to visualize a range of EBW, EFI, and DOI full-up detonators. Future applications to other explosive events, such as boosters and insensitive high explosives booster evaluation, will be discussed. The EPIC finite element code has been used to analyze the shock fronts from the schlieren images to solve iteratively for consistent boundary or initial conditions to determine the temporal-spatial pressure profile across the output face of the detonator.

  18. Using Schlieren Visualization to Track Detonator Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Steven; Thomas, Keith; Martinez, Michael; Akinci, Adrian; Murphy, Michael; Adrian, Ronald

    2007-06-01

    Several experiments that are part of a phased plan to understand the evolution of detonation in a detonator from initiation shock through run to detonation to full detonation to transition to booster and booster detonation will be presented. High Speed Laser Schlieren Movies have been used to study several explosive initiation events, such as exploding bridgewires (EBW), Exploding Foil Initiators (EFI) (or slappers), Direct Optical Initiation (DOI), and ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD). Additionally, a series of tests have been performed on ``cut-back'' detonators with varying initial pressing (IP) heights. We have also used this diagnostic to visualize a range of EBW, EFI, and DOI full-up detonators. Future applications to other explosive events such as boosters and IHE booster evaluation will be discussed. EPIC Hydrodynamic code has been used to analyze the shock fronts from the Schlieren images to reverse calculate likely boundary or initial conditions to determine the temporal-spatial pressure profile across the output face of the detonator. LA-UR-07-1229

  19. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  20. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  1. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  2. Evaluation of the oblique detonation wave ramjet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    The potential performance of oblique detonation wave ramjets is analyzed in terms of multishock diffusion, oblique detonation waves, and heat release. Results are presented in terms of thrust coefficients and specific impulses for a range of flight Mach numbers of 6 to 16.

  3. Detonation properties of the nitromethane/ diethylenetriamine solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, Valentina; Utkin, Alexander; Lapin, Sergey

    2015-06-01

    The results of the experimental determination of detonation parameters for the mixture of nitromethane (NM) with diethylenetriamine (DETA) are presented in this work. By the using of a laser interferometer VISAR the stability of detonation waves, detonation velocity and the reaction time with the change of the DETA concentration from 0 to 60 weight percentages were investigated. It is shown that detonation waves are stable up to 25% DETA, and the character reaction time is reduced from 50 ns up to 30 ns with the addition of a few percentages of the sensitizer and then remains almost the constant. With further increase of the DETA concentration the detonation front becomes unstable, and it results in an arising of pulsations with amplitude of 10 microns. The limit concentration of DETA, above which the detonation of the mixture was impossible, was determined. This concentration was equal to 60%. It is shown that the dependence of the detonation velocity on the DETA concentration is non-monotonic. In particular, the increase of detonation velocity in the vicinity of small concentrations of the sensitizer, about 0.1%, was recorded. The work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Project 15-03-07830).

  4. The Feasibility of Applying AC Driven Low-Temperature Plasma for Multi-Cycle Detonation Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dianfeng

    2016-11-01

    Ignition is a key system in pulse detonation engines (PDE). As advanced ignition methods, nanosecond pulse discharge low-temperature plasma ignition is used in some combustion systems, and continuous alternating current (AC) driven low-temperature plasma using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is used for the combustion assistant. However, continuous AC driven plasmas cannot be used for ignition in pulse detonation engines. In this paper, experimental and numerical studies of pneumatic valve PDE using an AC driven low-temperature plasma igniter were described. The pneumatic valve was jointly designed with the low-temperature plasma igniter, and the numerical simulation of the cold-state flow field in the pneumatic valve showed that a complex flow in the discharge area, along with low speed, was beneficial for successful ignition. In the experiments ethylene was used as the fuel and air as oxidizing agent, ignition by an AC driven low-temperature plasma achieved multi-cycle intermittent detonation combustion on a PDE, the working frequency of the PDE reached 15 Hz and the peak pressure of the detonation wave was approximately 2.0 MPa. The experimental verifications of the feasibility in PDE ignition expanded the application field of AC driven low-temperature plasma. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51176001)

  5. Detonation properties of nitromethane/diethylenetriamine solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, V.; Utkin, A.; Lapin, S.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the experimental determination of the detonation parameters of nitromethane (NM) with diethylenetriamine (DETA) solution are presented in this work. With the using of a laser interferometer VISAR the stability of detonation waves, the detonation velocity and the reaction time at the concentration of DETA from 0 to 60 weight percentage were investigated. It is shown that the stability of detonation waves is retained up to 25% DETA, at that the characteristic reaction time is reduced by about half at the addition of several percentage of the sensitizer to NM and then remains almost constant. The increase of the detonation velocity in the vicinity of the small, about 0.1%, concentrations of sensitizer is recorded.

  6. Qualification of a multi-diagnostic detonator-output characterization procedure utilizing PMMA witness blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biss, Matthew; Murphy, Michael; Lieber, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in an effort to qualify a multi-diagnostic characterization procedure for the performance output of a detonator when fired into a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) witness block. A suite of optical diagnostics were utilized in combination to both bound the shock wave interaction state at the detonator/PMMA interface and characterize the nature of the shock wave decay in PMMA. The diagnostics included the Shock Wave Image Framing Technique (SWIFT), a photocathode tube streak camera, and photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). High-precision, optically clear witness blocks permitted dynamic flow visualization of the shock wave in PMMA via focused shadowgraphy. SWIFT- and streak-imaging diagnostics captured the spatiotemporally evolving shock wave, providing a two-dimensional temporally discrete image set and a one-dimensional temporally continuous image, respectively. PDV provided the temporal velocity history of the detonator output along the detonator axis. Through combination of the results obtained, a bound was able to be placed on the interface condition and a more-physical profile representing the shock wave decay in PMMA for an exploding-bridgewire detonator was achieved.

  7. Persistence of asymmetry in nonaxisymmetric entry flow in a circular cylindrical tube and its relevance to arterial pulse wave diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Xue, H; Fung, Y C

    1989-02-01

    In an experiment motivated by the study of arterial blood flow along the lines suggested by the traditional Chinese medicine, the flow in a pipe whose lumen was blocked by a semi-circular plug two tube-diameters long was visualized by suspended particles, recorded by cinematography, and analyzed digitally. The Reynolds number was in the range of 100 to 450 based on the pipe diameter, similar to that of blood flow in the radial artery in the arms of man. The blockage was found to have a profound effect on the velocity profile of the flow in the wake, but it had little influence on the symmetry of the velocity profile upstream of the block, except in its immediate neighborhood. When the end conditions far away from the block were steady, the flow in the wake was steady. The asymmetry of the flow in the wake can be judged by the deviation of the location of the maximum axial velocity from the center line of the pipe as seen in the plane of symmetry of the blockage. Our results show that the deviation can be described as the sum of two components. The first is a strong one which decays exponentially in an entry length which is about twice as long as the classical Boussinesq entry length of axisymmetric flow. The second is a weaker component which is wavy spatially and persists far downstream (many times the entry length). The separated flow and vortex system behind the blockage are sensitive to the flow rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Initiation of Gaseous Detonation by Conical Projectiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verreault, Jimmy

    Initiation and stabilization of detonation by hypersonic conical projectiles launched into combustible gas mixtures is investigated. This phenomenon must be understood for the design and optimization of specific hypersonic propulsion devices, such as the oblique detonation wave engine and the ram accelerator. The criteria for detonation initiation by a projectile is also related to fundamental aspects of detonation research, such as the requirement for direct initiation of a detonation by a blast wave. Experimental results of this problem also offer useful references for validation of numerical and theoretical modeling. Projectiles with cone half angles varying from 15° to 60° were launched into stoichiometric mixtures of hydrogen/oxygen with 70% argon dilution at initial pressures between 10 and 200 kPa. The projectiles were launched from a combustion-driven gas gun at velocities up to 2.2 km/s (corresponding to 133% of the Chapman Jouguet velocity). Pictures of the flowfields generated by the projectiles were taken via Schlieren photography. Five combustion regimes were observed about the projectile ranging from prompt and delayed oblique detonation wave formation, combustion instabilities, a wave splitting, and an inert shock wave. Two types of transition from the prompt oblique detonation wave regime to the inert shock regime were observed. The first (the delayed oblique detonation wave regime) showed an inert shock attached to the tip of the projectile followed by a sharp kink at the onset of an oblique detonation wave; this regime occurred by decreasing the cone angle at high mixture pressures. The second (the combustion instabilities regime) exhibited large density gradients due to combustion ignition and quenching phenomena; this regime occurred by decreasing the mixture pressure at large cone angles. A number of theoretical models were considered to predict critical conditions for the initiation of oblique detonations. The Lee-Vasiljev model agreed

  9. Effect of Low Temperature on a 4 W/60 K Pulse-Tube Cryocooler for Cooling HgCdTe Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Liu, Shaoshuai; Wu, Yinong

    2018-04-01

    Temperature is an extremely important parameter for the material of the space-borne infrared detector. To cool an HgCdTe-infrared detector, a Stirling-type pulse-tube cryocooler (PTC) has been developed based on a great deal of numerical simulations, which are performed to investigate the thermodynamic behaviors of the PTC. The effects of different low temperatures are presented to analyze different energy flows, losses, phase shifts, and impedance matching of the PTC at a temperature range of 40-120 K, where woven wire screens are used. Finally, a high-efficiency coaxial PTC has been designed, built, and tested, operating around 60 K after a number of theoretical and experimental studies. The PTC can offer a no-load refrigeration temperature of 40 K with an input electric power of 150 W, and a cooling power of 4 W at 60 K is obtained with Carnot efficiency of 12%. In addition, a comparative study of simulation and experiment has been carried out, and some studies on reject temperatures have been presented for a thorough understanding of the PTC system.

  10. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  11. Kinetics of the Thermal Decomposition of Tetramethylsilane behind the Reflected Shock Waves in a Single Pulse Shock Tube (SPST) and Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parandaman, A.; Sudhakar, G.; Rajakumar, B.

    Thermal reactions of Tetramethylsilane (TMS) diluted in argon were studied behind the reflected shock waves in a single-pulse shock tube (SPST) over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K and pressures varied between 10.6 and 22.8 atm. The stable products resulting from the decomposition of TMS were identified and quantified using gas chromatography and also verified with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The major reaction products are methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). The minor reaction products are ethane (C2H6) and propylene (C3H6). The initiation of mechanism in the decomposition of TMS takes plays via the Si-C bond scission by ejecting the methyl radicals (CH3) and trimethylsilyl radicals ((CH3)3Si). The measured temperature dependent rate coefficient for the total decomposition of TMS was to be ktotal = 1.66 ×1015 exp (-64.46/RT) s-1 and for the formation of CH4 reaction channel was to be k = 2.20 × 1014 exp (-60.15/RT) s-1, where the activation energies are given in kcal mol-1. A kinetic scheme containing 17 species and 28 elementary reactions was used for the simulation using chemical kinetic simulator over the temperature range of 1085-1221 K. The agreement between the experimental and simulated results was satisfactory.

  12. A small two-stage pulse tube cryocooler operating at liquid Helium temperatures with an input power of 1 kW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B.; Vorholzer, M.; Dietrich, M.; Falter, J.; Schirmeisen, A.; Thummes, G.

    2017-12-01

    The development of 4 K two-stage pulse tube cryocoolers (PTCs) is commonly aimed at high cooling powers in order to compete with GM-cryocoolers. However, more sensitive applications still suffer from intrinsic disturbances of the cryocooler. To address this issue, the development of PTCs with small cooling powers is essential for sensitive measurements. Here we report the development of a new two-stage GM-type PTC, designed to work with a commercial Helium compressor with only 1 kW electric input power. The pressure and mass flow oscillation is generated by means of a remote rotary valve. The PTC was modeled for the operation at temperatures near 5 K with the simulation environments SAGE and REGEN. A first prototype was fabricated, operated and optimized in a test cryostat. Up to now, the PTC reaches a minimum temperature of 2.36 K and provides a cooling power of 72 mW at 4.2 K and 120 mW at 5 K. This cooling power is sufficient for small cryoelectronic devices like single photon detectors, transition-edge bolometers or low-noise Nb-SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices).

  13. QUANTIZING TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, A.S.; Gray, G.W.

    1958-07-01

    Beam deflection tubes are described for use in switching or pulse amplitude analysis. The salient features of the invention reside in the target arrangement whereby outputs are obtained from a plurality of collector electrodes each correspondlng with a non-overlapping range of amplitudes of the input sigmal. The tube is provded with mcans for deflecting the electron beam a1ong a line in accordance with the amplitude of an input signal. The target structure consists of a first dymode positioned in the path of the beam wlth slots spaced a1ong thc deflection line, and a second dymode posltioned behind the first dainode. When the beam strikes the solid portions along the length of the first dymode the excited electrons are multiplied and collected in separate collector electrodes spaced along the beam line. Similarly, the electrons excited when the beam strikes the second dynode are multiplied and collected in separate electrodes spaced along the length of the second dyode.

  14. Eigenvalue Detonation of Combined Effects Aluminized Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellos, C.; Baker, E. L.; Nicolich, S.; Balas, W.; Pincay, J.; Stiel, L. I.

    2007-12-01

    Theory and performance for recently developed combined—effects aluminized explosives are presented. Our recently developed combined-effects aluminized explosives (PAX-29C, PAX-30, PAX-42) are capable of achieving excellent metal pushing, as well as high blast energies. Metal pushing capability refers to the early volume expansion work produced during the first few volume expansions associated with cylinder and wall velocities and Gurney energies. Eigenvalue detonation explains the observed detonation states achieved by these combined effects explosives. Cylinder expansion data and thermochemical calculations (JAGUAR and CHEETAH) verify the eigenvalue detonation behavior.

  15. A transient semimetallic layer in detonating nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Evan J.; Riad Manaa, M.; Fried, Laurence E.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the microscopic details and extreme states of matter found within a detonating high explosive have yet to be elucidated. Here we present the first quantum molecular-dynamics simulation of a shocked explosive near detonation conditions. We discover that the wide-bandgap insulator nitromethane (CH3NO2) undergoes chemical decomposition and a transformation into a semimetallic state for a limited distance behind the detonation front. We find that this transformation is associated with the production of charged decomposition species and provides a mechanism to explain recent experimental observations.

  16. A Computational Examination of Detonation Physics and Blast Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    State 5 3 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for TNT using the JWL Equation of State 6 4 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for HMX using the JWL ...Equation of State 6 5 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for Composition C-4 using the JWL Equation of State 7 6 Detonation and Shock...Hugoniots for PBX-9502 using the JWL Equation of State 7 7 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for PETN using the JWL Equation of State 8 8

  17. A Computational Examination of Detonation Physics and Blast Chemistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Equation of State 5 3 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for TNT using the JWL Equation of State 6 4 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for HMX using the... JWL Equation of State 6 5 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for Composition C-4 using the JWL Equation of State 7 6 Detonation and...Shock Hugoniots for PBX-9502 using the JWL Equation of State 7 7 Detonation and Shock Hugoniots for PETN using the JWL Equation of State 8

  18. Continuous spin detonation of poorly detonable fuel-air mixtures in annular combustors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskii, F. A.; Zhdan, S. A.

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on the results of experimental investigations of continuous spin detonation of three fuel-air mixtures (syngas-air, CH4/H2-air, and kerosene/H2-air in a flow-type annular cylindrical combustor 503 mm in diameter. The limits of existence of continuous detonation in terms of the specific flow rates of the mixtures (minimum values) are determined. It is found that all gas mixtures, including the least detonable methane-air mixture, with addition of hydrogen can be burned in the continuous spin detonation regime.

  19. The Influence of Initial and Boundary Conditions on Gaseous Detonation Waves.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    in large diameter tubes. A theory dealing with the origin of spin was later advanced by Bone, Fraser and Wheeler (1935) based on Schlieren records...acoustic theories for the prediction of the spinning frequency of the transverse vibrations in and behind the reaction zone. The frequency of the single-head...Frazer simply corresponded to ’ other higher acoustic modes. An excellent description of the fine wechani- cal details of low-mode spinning detonations is

  20. Pulse magnetic welder

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    A welder is described for automated closure of fuel pins by a pulsed magnetic process in which the open end of a length of cladding is positioned within a complementary tube surrounded by a pulsed magnetic welder. Seals are provided at each end of the tube, which can be evacuated or can receive tag gas for direct introduction to the cladding interior. Loading of magnetic rings and end caps is accomplished automatically in conjunction with the welding steps carried out within the tube.

  1. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYSERS

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, I.A.D.

    1956-05-15

    This patent pentains to an electrical pulse amplitude analyzer, capable of accepting input pulses having a separation between adjacent pulses in the order of one microsecond while providing a large number of channels of classification. In its broad aspect the described pulse amplitude analyzer utilizes a storage cathode ray tube und control circuitry whereby the amplitude of the analyzed pulses controls both the intensity and vertical defiection of the beam to charge particular spots in horizontal sectors of the tube face as the beam is moved horizontally across the tube face. As soon as the beam has swept the length of the tube the information stored therein is read out by scanning individually each horizontal sector corresponding to a certain range of pulse amplitudes and applying the output signal from each scan to separate indicating means.

  2. Underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Shiro; Saburi, Tei; Nagayama, Kunihito

    2017-06-01

    The underwater sympathetic detonation of pellet explosives was taken by high-speed photography. The diameter and the thickness of the pellet were 20 and 10 mm, respectively. The experimental system consists of the precise electric detonator, two grams of composition C4 booster and three pellets, and these were set in water tank. High-speed video camera, HPV-X made by Shimadzu was used with 10 Mfs. The underwater explosions of the precise electric detonator, the C4 booster and a pellet were also taken by high-speed photography to estimate the propagation processes of the underwater shock waves. Numerical simulation of the underwater sympathetic detonation of the pellet explosives was also carried out and compared with experiment.

  3. Propagation of detonations in hydrazine vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    In the range of greater hydrazine vapor pressure, detonation speed depends exclusively on the extent of the ammonia decomposition in the second reaction stage. As vapor pressure decreases, the ammonia disintegration speed becomes increasingly slower and the reaction reached in the reaction zone increasingly decreases until finally, in the vapor pressure range between 53 and 16 Torr, the contribution of the second stage to detonation propagation disappears, and only the first stage remains active. Since the disintegration speed of the hydrazine in this pressure range has decreased markedly as well, no level, but rather only spinning, detonations occur. Temporary separations of the impact front and the reaction zone in the process lead to fluctuations of the detonation speed.

  4. Ignition of detonation in accreted helium envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasner, S. Ami; Livne, E.; Steinberg, E.; Yalinewich, A.; Truran, James W.

    2018-05-01

    Sub-Chandrasekhar CO white dwarfs accreting helium have been considered as candidates for Type Ia supernova (SNIa) progenitors since the early 1980s (helium shell mass >0.1 M⊙). These models, once detonated, did not fit the observed spectra and light curve of typical SNIa observations. New theoretical work examined detonations on much less massive (<0.05 M⊙) envelopes. They find stable detonations that lead to light curves, spectra, and abundances that compare relatively well with the observational data. The exact mechanism leading to the ignition of helium detonation is a key issue, since it is a mandatory first step for the whole scenario. As the flow of the accreted envelope is unstable to convection long before any hydrodynamic phenomena develops, a multidimensional approach is needed in order to study the ignition process. The complex convective reactive flow is challenging to any hydrodynamical solver. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D studies ignited the detonation artificially. We present here, for the first time, fully consistent results from two hydrodynamical 2D solvers that adopt two independent accurate schemes. For both solvers, an effort was made to overcome the problematics raised by the finite resolution and numerical diffusion by the advective terms. Our best models lead to the ignition of a detonation in a convective cell. Our results are robust and the agreement between the two different numerical approaches is very good.

  5. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  6. One Year Term Review as a Participating Guest in the Detonator and Detonation Physics Group

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A; Roeske, F; Tran, T

    2006-02-06

    The one year stay was possible after a long administrative process, because of the fact that this was the first participating guest of B division as a foreign national in HEAF (High Explosives Application Facility) with the Detonator/Detonation Physics Group.

  7. Microshell-tipped optical fibers as sensors of high-pressure pulses in adverse environments

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.; Mayer, F.J.; Maynard, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    We have developed and used an optical-fiber sensor for detecting the arrival of strong pressure pulses. The sensor consists of an optical fiber, tipped with a gas-filled microballoon. They have been used successfully in adverse environments including explosives, ballistics and electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sensor produces a bright optical pulse caused by the rapid shock-heating of a gas, typically argon or xenon, which is confined in the spherical glass or plastic microballoon. The light pulse is transmitted via the optical fiber to a photo detector, usually a streak camera or photomultiplier tube. The microballoon optical sensor (called an optical pinmore » by analogy to standard electrical pins), was originally developed for diagnosing an explosive, pulsed-power generator. Optical pins are required due to the EMP. The optical pins are economical arrival-time indicators because many channels can be recorded by one streak camera. The generator tests and related experiments, involving projectile velocities and detonation velocities of several kilometers per/sec have demonstrated the usefulness of the sensors in explosives and ballistics applications. We have also measured the sensitivity of the optical pins to slowly-moving projectiles and found that a 200 m/sec projectile impacting the microballoon sensor produces a flash having a risetime less than 100 ns and a pulse duration (FWHM) of less than 300 ns. The technical and cost advantages of this optical pin make it potentially useful for many electromagnetic, explosive, and ballistics applications.« less

  8. Detonation nanodiamonds for doping Kevlar.

    PubMed

    Comet, Marc; Pichot, Vincent; Siegert, Benny; Britz, Fabienne; Spitzer, Denis

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports on the first attempt to enclose diamond nanoparticles--produced by detonation--into a Kevlar matrix. A nanocomposite material (40 wt% diamond) was prepared by precipitation from an acidic solution of Kevlar containing dispersed nanodiamonds. In this material, the diamond nanoparticles (Ø = 4 nm) are entirely wrapped in a Kevlar layer about 1 nm thick. In order to understand the interactions between the nanodiamond surface and the polymer, the oxygenated surface functional groups of nanodiamond were identified and titrated by Boehm's method which revealed the exclusive presence of carboxyl groups (0.85 sites per nm2). The hydrogen interactions between these groups and the amide groups of Kevlar destroy the "rod-like" structure and the classical three-dimensional organization of this polymer. The distortion of Kevlar macromolecules allows the wrapping of nanodiamonds and leads to submicrometric assemblies, giving a cauliflower structure reminding a fractal object. Due to this structure, the macroscopic hardness of Kevlar doped by nanodiamonds (1.03 GPa) is smaller than the one of pure Kevlar (2.31 GPa). To our knowledge, this result is the first illustration of the change of the mechanical properties induced by doping the Kevlar with nanoparticles.

  9. Shock-wave initiation of heated plastified TATB detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmitsky, Igor; Rudenko, Vladimir; Gatilov, Leonid; Koshelev, Alexandr

    1999-06-01

    Explosive, plastified TATB, attracts attention with its weak sensitivity to shock loads and high temperature stability ( Pthreshold ? 6.5 GPa and Tcrit ? 250 0Q). However, at its cooling to T 250 0Q plastified TATB becomes as sensitive to shock load as octogen base HE: the excitation threshold reduces down to Pthreshold 2.0 GPa. The main physical reason for the HE sensitivity change is reduction in density at heating and, hence, higher porosity of the product (approximately from 2Moreover, increasing temperature increases the growth rate of uhotf spots which additionally increases the shock sensitivity [1]. Heated TATB experiments are also conducted at VNIIEF. The detonation excitation was computed within 1D program system MAG using EOS JWL for HE and EP and LLNL kinetics [1,2,3]. Early successful results of using this kinetics to predict detonation excitation in heated plastified TATB in VNIIEF experiments with short and long loading pulses are presented. Parameters of the chemical zone of the stationary detonation wave in plastified TATB (LX-17) were computed with the data from [1]. Parameters Heated In shell Cooled Unheated ?0 , g/cm3 1.70 1.81 1.84 1.905 D , km/s 7.982 7.764 7.686 7.517 PN, GPa 45.4 45.8 35.7 32.9 PJ, GPa 27.0 27.3 27.2 26.4 ?x , mm 0.504 0.843 1.041 2.912 ?t , ns 63.1 108.6 135.5 387.4 [1] Effect of Confinement and Thermal Cycling on the Shock Initiation of LX-17 P.A. Urtiew, C.M. Tarver, J.L. Maienschein, and W.C. Tao. LLNL. Combustion and Flame 105: 43-53 (1996) [2] C.M. Tarver, P.A. Urtiew and W.C. Tao (LLNL) Effects of tandem and colliding shock waves on initiation of triaminotrinitrobenzene. J.Appl. Phys. 78(5), September 1995 [3] Craig M. Tarver, John W. Kury and R. Don Breithaupt Detonation waves in triaminotrinitrobenzene J. Appl. Phys. 82(8) , 15 October 1997.

  10. Detonation Initiation and Evolution in Spray- Fueled Pulsed Detonation Rocket Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-28

    shock by an nth fluid particle during the induction time is characterized by Z" = Uro ’, where o;,, is the induction time for that particle and o7, is a...12.5 15 z 15 s=20 25. 28 e 10 5 - 0 2.5 5 75 10 12.5 15 z 20 s=3.0, 31, 32 15- I- + E! lo 02.5 T 01251 2 T s 3.3.3.4, 3.5 20 10 F.... 0 25 5 75 10 12.5

  11. Equation of state for detonation product gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Kubota, Shiro

    2003-03-01

    A thermodynamic analysis procedure of the detonation product equation of state (EOS) together with the experimental data set of the detonation velocity as a function of initial density has been formulated. The Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) state [W. Ficket and W. C. Davis, Detonation: Theory and Experiment (University of California Press, Berkeley 1979)] on the p-ν plane is found to be well approximated by the envelope function formed by the collection of Rayleigh lines with many different initial density states. The Jones-Stanyukovich-Manson relation [W. Ficket and W. C. Davis, Detonation: Theory and Experiment (University of California Press, Berkeley, 1979)] is used to estimate the error included in this approximation. Based on this analysis, a simplified integration method to calculate the Grüneisen parameter along the CJ state curve with different initial densities utilizing the cylinder expansion data has been presented. The procedure gives a simple way of obtaining the EOS function, compatible with the detonation velocity data. Theoretical analysis has been performed for the precision of the estimated EOS function. EOS of the pentaerithrytoltetranitrate explosive is calculated and compared with some of the experimental data such as CJ pressure data and cylinder expansion data.

  12. Modeling Hemispheric Detonation Experiments in 2-Dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W M; Fried, L E; Vitello, P A

    2006-06-22

    Experiments have been performed with LX-17 (92.5% TATB and 7.5% Kel-F 800 binder) to study scaling of detonation waves using a dimensional scaling in a hemispherical divergent geometry. We model these experiments using an arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE3D) hydrodynamics code, with reactive flow models based on the thermo-chemical code, Cheetah. The thermo-chemical code Cheetah provides a pressure-dependent kinetic rate law, along with an equation of state based on exponential-6 fluid potentials for individual detonation product species, calibrated to high pressures ({approx} few Mbars) and high temperatures (20000K). The parameters for these potentials are fit to a wide variety of experimental data,more » including shock, compression and sound speed data. For the un-reacted high explosive equation of state we use a modified Murnaghan form. We model the detonator (including the flyer plate) and initiation system in detail. The detonator is composed of LX-16, for which we use a program burn model. Steinberg-Guinan models5 are used for the metal components of the detonator. The booster and high explosive are LX-10 and LX-17, respectively. For both the LX-10 and LX-17, we use a pressure dependent rate law, coupled with a chemical equilibrium equation of state based on Cheetah. For LX-17, the kinetic model includes carbon clustering on the nanometer size scale.« less

  13. 29 CFR 1926.908 - Use of detonating cord.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be handled and used with the same respect and care given other explosives. (c) The line of detonating... explosive core is dry. (f) All detonating cord trunklines and branchlines shall be free of loops, sharp...

  14. Laser-shocked energetic materials with metal additives: evaluation of detonation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottfried, Jennifer; Bukowski, Eric

    A focused, nanosecond-pulsed laser with sufficient energy to exceed the breakdown threshold of a material generates a laser-induced plasma with high peak temperatures, pressures, and shock velocities. Depending on the laser parameters and material properties, nanograms to micrograms of material is ablated, atomized, ionized and excited in the laser-induced plasma. The subsequent shock wave expansion into the air above the sample has been monitored using high-speed schlieren imaging in a recently developed technique, laser-induced air shock from energetic materials (LASEM). The estimated detonation velocities using LASEM agree well with published experimental values. A comparison of the measured shock velocities for various energetic materials including RDX, DNTF, and LLM-172 doped with Al or B to the detonation velocities predicted by CHEETAH for inert or active metal participation demonstrates that LASEM has potential for predicting the early time participation of metal additives in detonation events. The LASEM results show that reducing the amount of hydrogen present in B formulations increases the resulting detonation velocities

  15. Ultrafast Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation for Sensing in Detonation and Shock Wave Experiments.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, George; Gilbertson, Steve M

    2017-01-27

    Chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors coupled to high speed interrogation systems are described as robust diagnostic approaches to monitoring shock wave and detonation front propagation tracking events for use in high energy density shock physics applications. Taking advantage of the linear distributed spatial encoding of the spectral band in single-mode CFBGs, embedded fiber systems and associated photonic interrogation methodologies are shown as an effective approach to sensing shock and detonation-driven loading processes along the CFBG length. Two approaches, one that detects spectral changes in the integrated spectrum of the CFBG and another coherent pulse interrogation approach that fully resolves its spectral response, shows that 100-MHz-1-GHz interrogation rates are possible with spatial resolution along the CFBG in the 50 µm to sub-millimeter range depending on the combination of CFBG parameters (i.e., length, chirp rate, spectrum) and interrogator design specifics. Results from several dynamic tests are used to demonstrate the performance of these high speed systems for shock and detonation propagation tracking under strong and weak shock pressure loading: (1) linear detonation front tracking in the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) PBX-9501; (2) tracking of radial decaying shock with crossover to non-destructive CFBG response; (3) shock wave tracking along an aluminum cylinder wall under weak loading accompanied by dynamic strain effects in the CFBG sensor.

  16. Ultrafast Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation for Sensing in Detonation and Shock Wave Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, George; Gilbertson, Steve M.

    2017-01-01

    Chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors coupled to high speed interrogation systems are described as robust diagnostic approaches to monitoring shock wave and detonation front propagation tracking events for use in high energy density shock physics applications. Taking advantage of the linear distributed spatial encoding of the spectral band in single-mode CFBGs, embedded fiber systems and associated photonic interrogation methodologies are shown as an effective approach to sensing shock and detonation-driven loading processes along the CFBG length. Two approaches, one that detects spectral changes in the integrated spectrum of the CFBG and another coherent pulse interrogation approach that fully resolves its spectral response, shows that 100-MHz–1-GHz interrogation rates are possible with spatial resolution along the CFBG in the 50 μm to sub-millimeter range depending on the combination of CFBG parameters (i.e., length, chirp rate, spectrum) and interrogator design specifics. Results from several dynamic tests are used to demonstrate the performance of these high speed systems for shock and detonation propagation tracking under strong and weak shock pressure loading: (1) linear detonation front tracking in the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) PBX-9501; (2) tracking of radial decaying shock with crossover to non-destructive CFBG response; (3) shock wave tracking along an aluminum cylinder wall under weak loading accompanied by dynamic strain effects in the CFBG sensor. PMID:28134819

  17. Ultrafast Fiber Bragg Grating Interrogation for Sensing in Detonation and Shock Wave Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Rodriguez, George; Gilbertson, Steve Michael

    2017-01-27

    Chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) sensors coupled to high speed interrogation systems are described as robust diagnostic approaches to monitoring shock wave and detonation front propagation tracking events for use in high energy density shock physics applications. Taking advantage of the linear distributed spatial encoding of the spectral band in single-mode CFBGs, embedded fiber systems and associated photonic interrogation methodologies are shown as an effective approach to sensing shock and detonation-driven loading processes along the CFBG length. Two approaches, one that detects spectral changes in the integrated spectrum of the CFBG and another coherent pulse interrogation approach that fully resolvesmore » its spectral response, shows that 100-MHz–1-GHz interrogation rates are possible with spatial resolution along the CFBG in the 50 µm to sub-millimeter range depending on the combination of CFBG parameters (i.e., length, chirp rate, spectrum) and interrogator design specifics. In conclusion, results from several dynamic tests are used to demonstrate the performance of these high speed systems for shock and detonation propagation tracking under strong and weak shock pressure loading: (1) linear detonation front tracking in the plastic bonded explosive (PBX) PBX-9501; (2) tracking of radial decaying shock with crossover to non-destructive CFBG response; (3) shock wave tracking along an aluminum cylinder wall under weak loading accompanied by dynamic strain effects in the CFBG sensor.« less

  18. Chemical Kinetics in the expansion flow field of a rotating detonation-wave engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kailasanath, Kazhikathra; Schwer, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    Rotating detonation-wave engines (RDE) are a form of continuous detonation-wave engines. They potentially provide further gains in performance than an intermittent or pulsed detonation-wave engine (PDE). The overall flow field in an idealized RDE, primarily consisting of two concentric cylinders, has been discussed in previous meetings. Because of the high pressures involved and the lack of adequate reaction mechanisms for this regime, previous simulations have typically used simplified chemistry models. However, understanding the exhaust species concentrations in propulsion devices is important for both performance considerations as well as estimating pollutant emissions. A key step towards addressing this need will be discussed in this talk. In this approach, an induction parameter model is used for simulating the detonation but a more detailed finite-chemistry model is used in the expansion flow region, where the pressures are lower and the uncertainties in the chemistry model are greatly reduced. Results show that overall radical concentrations in the exhaust flow are substantially lower than from earlier predictions with simplified models. The performance of a baseline hydrogen/air RDE increased from 4940 s to 5000 s with the expansion flow chemistry, due to recombination of radicals and more production of H2O, resulting in additional heat release.

  19. Examination of Wave Speed in Rotating Detonation Engines Using Simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    2018-01-01

    A simplified, two-dimensional, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation, with a reactive Euler solver is used to examine possible causes for the low detonation wave propagation speeds that are consistently observed in air breathing rotating detonation engine (RDE) experiments. Intense, small-scale turbulence is proposed as the primary mechanism. While the solver cannot model this turbulence, it can be used to examine the most likely, and profound effect of turbulence. That is a substantial enlargement of the reaction zone, or equivalently, an effective reduction in the chemical reaction rate. It is demonstrated that in the unique flowfield of the RDE, a reduction in reaction rate leads to a reduction in the detonation speed. A subsequent test of reduced reaction rate in a purely one-dimensional pulsed detonation engine (PDE) flowfield yields no reduction in wave speed. The reasons for this are explained. The impact of reduced wave speed on RDE performance is then examined, and found to be minimal. Two other potential mechanisms are briefly examined. These are heat transfer, and reactive mixture non-uniformity. In the context of the simulation used for this study, both mechanisms are shown to have negligible effect on either wave speed or performance.

  20. Inertance Tube Modeling and the Effects of Temperature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    fluid dynamics. In one application in multistage cryocoolers , the performance of inertance tubes at the cryogenic temperatures is of interest. One... cryocoolers , the performance of inertance tubes at the cryogenic temperatures is of interest. One purpose of this paper is to understand how...acoustic power. KEYWORDS: Inertance tube, cryocoolers , pulse tube refrigerators, oscillating flow, computational fluid dynamics INTRODUCTION Pulse