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Sample records for pulsed-wave doppler tracing

  1. Arterial pulse wave propagation velocity in healthy dogs by pulse wave Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Rodrigo B; Pereira, Lucas A; Basso, Alice F; da Fonseca, Ingrid S; Alves, Lorena A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) values in healthy dogs using pulse wave Doppler ultrasound. A secondary aim was to determine the feasibility of this method and to report the intra- and interobserver reproducibilities of the PWV in conscious dogs. The data were studied in 30 healthy, adult, male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) dogs. The time interval marked between the R wave peak of the electrocardiogram and the intersection of the blood flow wave upstroke of the Doppler spectrum with the baseline of zero frequency was determined for the carotid (T1) and for the femoral (T2) arteries. The distance covered by the pulse wave (L) was determined. The PWV was then calculated using the following formula: L/T2 - T1. The mean values of PWV calculated from the total sample (n = 30) evaluated were 13.41 ± 2.20 m/s. No significant statistical difference was observed for the PWV measurements between males (14.82 ± 3.18 m/s) and females (12.64 ± 2.45 m/s). The analysis revealed no intra nor interobserver differences. A reasonable reproducibility of the PWV measurements was showed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), and the coefficients of variation (CV). These data demonstrate that noninvasive vascular Doppler analysis is a feasible and reproducible method to determine the carotid-femoral PWV in dogs.

  2. Reference values for pulse wave Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging in pediatric echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Frederic; Slorach, Cameron; Hui, Wei; Sarkola, Taisto; Friedberg, Mark K; Bradley, Timothy J; Jaeggi, Edgar; Dragulescu, Andreea; Har, Ronnie L H; Cherney, David Z I; Mertens, Luc

    2015-02-01

    In pediatric echocardiography, pulse wave Doppler, and tissue Doppler imaging velocities are widely used to assess cardiac function. Current reference values and Z scores, allowing adjustment for growth are limited by inconsistent methodologies and small sample size. Using a standardized approach for parametric modeling and Z score quality assessment, we propose new pediatric reference values and Z score equations for most left ventricular pulse wave Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging measurements. Two hundred thirty-three healthy pediatric subjects 1 to 18 years of age were prospectively recruited. Thirteen pulse wave Doppler and 14 tissue Doppler imaging measurements were recorded. Normalization for growth was done via a complete and standardized approach for parametric nonlinear regression modeling. Several analyses were performed to ensure adequate Z score distribution and to detect potential residual associations with growth or residual heteroscedasticity. Most measurements adopted a nonlinear relationship with growth and displayed significant heteroscedasticity. Compared with age, height, and weight, normalization for body surface area was most efficient in removing the effect of growth. Generally, polynomial and allometric models yielded adequate goodness-of-fit. Residual values for several measurements had significant departure from the normal distribution, which could be corrected using logarithmic or reciprocal transformation. Overall, weighted parametric nonlinear models allowed us to compute Z score equations with adequate normal distribution and without residual association with growth. We present Z scores for normalized pulse wave Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging in pediatric echocardiography. Further studies are needed to define the threshold beyond which health becomes a disease by integrating other important factors such as ventricular morphology, loading conditions, and heart rate. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography in birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Straub, J; Forbes, N A; Thielebein, J; Krautwald-Junghanns, M E

    2003-12-13

    Pulsed-wave spectral Doppler echocardiography was applied to 111 diurnal and nocturnal raptors of both sexes weighing between 190 and 4200 g. In the first stage, 40 birds were examined without special preparation; in the second stage, 15 birds were examined first when they were not anaesthetised and then when they were anaesthetised; in the third stage, 41 birds were examined after they had been fasted for different periods of time; and finally 15 birds, in which echocardiography had not been possible by using standard (dorsal) restraint and positioning, were examined after being placed in lateral and ventral recumbency. Doppler-derived diastolic inflow into the ventricles was detectable in approximately 80 per cent of the birds weighing between 190 and 2300 g independently of their weight, heart rate and whether they had been anaesthetised or fasted, and aortic blood flow was detected in about 50 per cent of them. It was possible to apply the technique under standard conditions of dorsal recumbency to only one of the birds weighing more than 3000 g and to about 80 per cent of those weighing between 190 and 2300 g. In 11 of 15 birds in which the technique could not be applied under standard conditions, blood flow could be detected in the ventricles and/or the aorta after the birds had been repositioned. No systolic blood flow through the pulmonary artery was detectable in any of the birds.

  4. Ventricular septal defect after myocardial infarction: assessment by cross sectional echocardiography with pulsed wave Doppler scanning.

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, D; Fananapazir, L; de Bono, D; Bloomfield, P

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients who developed a ventricular septal defect after myocardial infarction were assessed by cross sectional echocardiography and pulsed wave Doppler scanning. Cross sectional echocardiography visualised the defect in four patients and gave an accurate assessment of global and regional left ventricular function in all eight. In all patients pulsed wave Doppler scanning detected turbulent flow at the apex of the right ventricle or adjacent to a wall motion abnormality affecting the interventricular septum. Pulsed wave Doppler detected coexisting mitral regurgitation in one patient and tricuspid regurgitation in another two. In all patients a left to right shunt was confirmed by oximetry and the location of the defect was identified by angiography or at operation or necropsy. Cross sectional echocardiography in combination with pulsed wave Doppler scanning is useful in the rapid bedside evaluation of patients with ventricular septal defect after myocardial infarction. Images Fig PMID:3663420

  5. Left ventricular radial colour and longitudinal pulsed-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography in 39 healthy domestic pet rabbits.

    PubMed

    Casamian-Sorrosal, Domingo; Saunders, Richard; Browne, William; Elliot, Sarah; Fonfara, Sonja

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports radial colour and longitudinal mitral annulus pulsed-wave tissue Doppler findings in a large cohort of healthy, adult pet rabbits. Thirty-nine rabbits (22 Dwarf Lops, 14 French Lops and three Alaskans) underwent conscious echocardiography. The median age of the rabbits was 22 months and the median weight was 2.8 kg (Dwarf Lop 2.4 kg/French Lop 6.0 kg). Adequate radial colour and longitudinal pulsed-wave tissue Doppler traces were obtained in 100% and 85% of cases, respectively. Most systolic tissue Doppler parameters were significantly higher in French Lops than in Dwarf Lops. Separation of mitral inflow diastolic waves was present in 40% of cases using conventional spectral Doppler and in >60% of cases using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler which could be beneficial when evaluating diastolic function in rabbits. This study can be used as a reference for normal echocardiographic tissue Doppler values for adult rabbits undergoing conscious echocardiography in clinical practice.

  6. Direct Measurement of Basilar Membrane Motion Using Pulsed-Wave Doppler High-Frequency Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbatian, Z.; Garland, P.; Adamson, R. B. A.; Bance, M.; Brown, J. A.

    2011-11-01

    We present a preliminary report on the use of a new technique for measuring the motion of the basilar membrane, high-frequency ultrasound Doppler vibrometry. Using a custom-built, 1 mm diameter probe, we collected ultrasonic reflections from intracochlear structures and applied pulsed-wave Doppler vibrometry to measure the basilar membrane response to pressure applied in the ear canal.

  7. Noninvasive Method for Measuring Local Pulse Wave Velocity by Dual Pulse Wave Doppler: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Yang, Yong; Yuan, Li-jun; Liu, Jie; Duan, Yun-you; Cao, Tie-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a noninvasive dual pulse wave Doppler (DPWD) method, which involves simultaneous recording of flow velocity of two independent sample volumes with a measurable distance, for measuring the local arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) through in vitro and in vivo studies. Methods The DPWD mode of Hitachi HI Vision Preirus ultrasound system with a 5–13MHz transducer was used. An in vitro model was designed to compare the PWV of a homogeneous rubber tubing with the local PWV of its middle part measured by DPWD method. In the in vivo study, local PWV of 45 hypertensive patients (25 male, 49.8±3.1 years) and 45 matched healthy subjects (25 male, 49.3±3.0 years) were investigated at the left common carotid artery (LCCA) by DPWD method. Results In the in vitro study, the local PWV measured by DPWP method and the PWV of the homogeneous rubber tubing did not show statistical difference (5.16 ± 0.28 m/s vs 5.03 ± 0.15 m/s, p = 0.075). The coefficient of variation (CV) of the intra- and inter- measurements for local PWV were 3.46% and 4.96%, for the PWV of the homogeneous rubber tubing were 0.99% and 1.98%. In the in vivo study, a significantly higher local PWV of LCCA was found in the hypertensive patients as compared to that in healthy subjects (6.29±1.04m/s vs. 5.31±0.72m/s, P = 0.019). The CV of the intra- and inter- measurements in hypertensive patients were 2.22% and 3.94%, in healthy subjects were 2.07% and 4.14%. Conclusions This study demonstrated the feasibility of the noninvasive DPWD method to determine the local PWV, which was accurate and reproducible not only in vitro but also in vivo studies. This noninvasive echocardiographic method may be illuminating to clinical use. PMID:25786124

  8. Doppler ultrasound in the measurement of pulse wave velocity: agreement with the Complior method

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor factor for cardiovascular risk. Different methods for determining pulse wave velocity (PWV) are used, among which the most common are mechanical methods such as SphygmoCor or Complior, which require specific devices and are limited by technical difficulty in obtaining measurements. Doppler guided by 2D ultrasound is a good alternative to these methods. We studied 40 patients (29 male, aged 21 to 82 years) comparing the Complior method with Doppler. Agreement of both devices was high (R = 0.91, 0.84-0.95, 95% CI). The reproducibility analysis revealed no intra-nor interobserver differences. Based on these results, we conclude that Doppler ultrasound is a reliable and reproducible alternative to other established methods for the measurement of aortic PWV. PMID:21496271

  9. [Experimental use of intraoperative pulse wave Doppler in the study of vascular microanastomosis].

    PubMed

    La Rosa, A; Bonoldi, A P; Bagliani, A; Pagella, C; Rossi, D; Digiacomo, A; Zonta, A

    1990-02-01

    Personal experience with pulse wave Doppler (PWD) at 20 MHz with real time signal spectral analysis in FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), for the valuation of the vascular microanastomosis patency degree is reported. Fifty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats have been studied after abdominal aorta dissection: in 19 (group A) an organic stenosis has been simulated varying from 5% to 95% by a 8/0 silk suture; in 40 rats (group B and C) we the abdominal aorta was stitched with interrupted suture after transversal section. In the group C (20 rats) a longitudinal arteriotomy on abdominal aorta within 10-15 min from anastomosis was performed to value under microscopic control the suture line. The PWD technique is able to recognize stenoses more than 10% of intraluminal diameter, showing a higher sensibility than traditional techniques.

  10. Detecting Subclinical Biventricular Impairment in Scleroderma Patients by Use of Pulsed-Wave Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Can, Ilknur; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Aytemir, Kudret; Akdogan, Ali; Ureten, Kemal; Kiraz, Sedat; Ertenli, Ihsan; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Oto, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Systemic scleroderma is a disease that is characterized by excessive fibroblastic activity and collagen deposition in various organs, including the heart. We sought to evaluate the limits of biventricular function as derived noninvasively from pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) of tricuspid and mitral annular motion in patients who had scleroderma. We enrolled 24 patients with scleroderma (study group; mean age, 49 ± 11 yr; 20 women) and 24 healthy participants (control group; mean age, 51 ± 9 yr; 19 women). Persons with cardiovascular risk factors were excluded. We obtained images by conventional echocardiography and by pulsed-wave TDI, measuring the respective peak systolic velocities (S, Sm) and peak early (E, Em) and late (A, Am) diastolic velocities. Mean Sm, mean Em, and mean Am were averages of the 4 measured sites (anterior, inferior, lateral, and septal). We calculated noninvasive estimates of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure by dividing E velocities (from the mitral inflow) by Em velocities (E/Em ratios). Biventricular regional Sm, regional LV myocardial Em, and ratios of myocardial Em/atrial component velocity (Em/Am) for the LV, and mean Sm, mean Em, and mean Em/mean Am ratios for the LV were significantly lower in the study group. The E/Em ratio was higher in the study group (7.3 ± 2.6 vs 5.2 ± 1.0, P = 0.01). Global LV systolic and diastolic function did not differ between the groups. Tissue Doppler imaging complements conventional echocardiography in detecting subclinical biventricular impairment in patients with scleroderma who have normal global measurements. PMID:19436783

  11. Pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonographic evaluation of hepatic vein in dogs with tricuspid regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Soyoung

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the relationships between hepatic vein (HV) measurements, including flow velocity and waveform, using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography, and the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in dogs. The study included 22 dogs with TR and 7 healthy dogs. The TR group was subdivided into 3 groups according to TR jet profile obtained by echocardiography. The hepatic venous waveform was obtained and classified into 3 types. A variety of HV measurements, including the maximal velocities of the atrial systolic, systolic (S), end ventricular systolic, and diastolic (D) waves and the ratio of the S- and D- wave velocities (S/D ratio), were acquired. TR severity was significantly correlated with the S- (r = −0.380, p = 0.042) and D- (r = 0.468, p = 0.011) wave velocities and the S/D ratio (r = −0.747, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed the highest sensitivity and specificity for the S/D ratio (89% and 75%, respectively) at a threshold of 0.97 with excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.911, p < 0.001). In conclusion, PW Doppler ultrasonography of the HV can be used to identify the presence of significant TR and to classify TR severity in dogs. PMID:27515264

  12. Dual-beam laser Doppler vibrometer for measurement of pulse wave velocity in elastic vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris

    2011-08-01

    When a fluid flowing through an elastic vessel is subjected to a sudden change in pressure gradient, pressure pulses will propagate through the fluid. Velocity of these pulse waves (PWV) can be determined by simultaneous detection of wall distension on two separate points on the vessel wall, along its trajectory. PWV depends on wall stiffness, and under certain circumstances, wall stiffness can be calculated from the propagation velocity. Optical interferometry is a noncontacting technique that allows measurement of wall distension on discrete locations. In this work we propose a miniaturized dual-beam laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) to measure wall distension simultaneously at two locations. Our dual-beam LDV is based on a single laser source and one acousto-optic modulator with as much as possible of the interferometer optics shared among the different beams. The dual-beam LDV was used for simultaneous detection of wall distension of several elastic vessels of different stiffness. We found that PWV as measured in elastic vessels agrees well with theoretically expected values, and measurement precision is better than 5%. Moreover, the dual-beam LDV performs almost as good as commercial systems for detection of PWV. The dual-beam LDV can have applications in cardiovascular risk management. Stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. This parameter can be estimated from arterial PWV. Current methods to measure arterial PWV suffer from several shortcomings. A dual-beam LDV can offer substantial advantages over existing techniques.

  13. Comparison of pulsed wave and color Doppler myocardial velocity imaging in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Wess, G; Killich, M; Hartmann, K

    2010-01-01

    Tissue velocity imaging (TVI) is increasingly used in small animal cardiology. Tissue velocity of the myocardial wall can be measured by pulsed wave (PW) or color Doppler (CD) imaging methods. Currently, the same reference ranges are used for PW TVI and CD TVI methods. However, if and how both methods correlate, and whether they can be used interchangeably, have not been assessed in small animals. To compare the results of PW TVI and CD TVI measurements. Seventy-one healthy dogs. Longitudinal myocardial velocity profiles were recorded from the 4-chamber left apical view. Peak maximal systolic (S), early (E), and late diastolic (A) velocities were measured off-line in a blinded fashion in the septal and lateral left ventricular wall by PW TVI and CD TVI. Differences between peak PW TVI and CD TVI waves were analyzed by a paired t-test. Regression analysis and Bland-Altman difference plots also were used to assess agreement between methods. There was a significant correlation between PW TVI and CD TVI (P < .001). However, S, E, and A waves measured by PW TVI were significantly higher than the CD TVI values (P < .001). Peak systolic and diastolic PW velocities were approximately 2.20 cm/s higher than corresponding mean CD TVI velocities. PW TVI measurements are significantly higher compared with CD TVI measurements. Theses differences are clinically relevant. These methods should not be used interchangeably, and different reference ranges for PW TVI and CD TVI should be used.

  14. Determination of Testicular Blood Flow in Camelids Using Vascular Casting and Color Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kutzler, Michelle; Tyson, Reid; Grimes, Monica; Timm, Karen

    2011-01-01

    We describe the vasculature of the camelid testis using plastic casting. We also use color pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography to measure testicular blood flow and compare the differences between testicular blood flow in fertile and infertile camelids. The testicular artery originates from the ventral surface of the aorta, gives rise to an epididymal branch, and becomes very tortuous as it approaches the testis. Within the supratesticular arteries, peak systolic velocity (PSV) was higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0004). In addition, end diastolic velocity (EDV) within the supratesticular arteries was higher for fertile males when compared to infertile males (P = 0.0325). Within the marginal arteries, PSV was also higher in fertile males compared to infertile males (P = 0.0104). However, EDV within the marginal arteries was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males (P = 0.121). In addition, the resistance index was not significantly different between fertile and infertile males within the supratesticular (P = 0.486) and marginal arteries (P = 0.144). The significance of this research is that in addition to information obtained from a complete reproductive evaluation, a male camelid's fertility can be determined using testicular blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography. PMID:21941690

  15. Assessment of the severity of aortic regurgitation with pulsed wave Doppler velocity profile in the descending aorta.

    PubMed

    Kalaycı, Belma; Kalaycı, Süleyman; Türker Bayır, Pınar; Duyuler, Serkan; Güven, Saadet; Sen, Taner; Tüfekçioğlu, Omaç

    2014-08-01

    The quantitative parameters which are used to assess the severity of aortic regurgitation (AR) provide the most accurate information whereas these parameters are difficult and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to get a practical parameter to use in daily practice for assessing the severity of aortic regurgitation. The study was an observational cohort study on diagnostic accuracy of severity of aortic regurgitation. Thirty-seven patients with aortic regurgitation determined by quantitative parameters (18 patients with severe aortic regurgitation and 19 patients with moderate aortic regurgitation) were included in this study. Each patient's diastolic flow pattern in the descending aorta was examined by pulsed wave Doppler. Systolic and diastolic flow time-velocity integral (TVI), TVI time, systolic and diastolic TVI ratio in the descending aorta were evaluated. In addition to these parameters, dP/dt, peak acceleration time and end-diastolic flow velocity in the diastolic flow were determined. We investigated whether there a significant difference between two groups or not. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off values of echocardiographic parameters which were used to identify the severity of aortic regurgitation. The study population was composed of 16 female and 21 male patients. Their mean age was 46.5 years. The mean diastolic flow TVI of patients who had moderate and severe aortic regurgitation was found 10.1 cm and 18.6 cm, respectively (p<0.001). In the ROC curve analysis, the values of diastolic flow TVI above 13.5 cm was found to have 83% sensitivity and 90% specifity to predict the severity of aortic regurgitation (AUC: 0.91, 95% CI 0.80-1.0, p<0.001). Also we investigated the other parameters like systolic flow TVI, the ratio of systolic and diastolic flow TVI, mean diastolic flow time, mean systolic flow time, the ratio of systolic and diastolic flow time, end-diastolic velocity, peak

  16. Fetal Echocardiography and Pulsed-wave Doppler Ultrasound in a Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hodges, Ryan; Endo, Masayuki; La Gerche, Andre; Eixarch, Elisenda; DeKoninck, Philip; Ferferieva, Vessilina; D'hooge, Jan; Wallace, Euan M.; Deprest, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Fetal intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in abnormal cardiac function that is apparent antenatally due to advances in fetoplacental Doppler ultrasound and fetal echocardiography. Increasingly, these imaging modalities are being employed clinically to examine cardiac function and assess wellbeing in utero, thereby guiding timing of birth decisions. Here, we used a rabbit model of IUGR that allows analysis of cardiac function in a clinically relevant way. Using isoflurane induced anesthesia, IUGR is surgically created at gestational age day 25 by performing a laparotomy, exposing the bicornuate uterus and then ligating 40-50% of uteroplacental vessels supplying each gestational sac in a single uterine horn. The other horn in the rabbit bicornuate uterus serves as internal control fetuses. Then, after recovery at gestational age day 30 (full term), the same rabbit undergoes examination of fetal cardiac function. Anesthesia is induced with ketamine and xylazine intramuscularly, then maintained by a continuous intravenous infusion of ketamine and xylazine to minimize iatrogenic effects on fetal cardiac function. A repeat laparotomy is performed to expose each gestational sac and a microultrasound examination (VisualSonics VEVO 2100) of fetal cardiac function is performed. Placental insufficiency is evident by a raised pulsatility index or an absent or reversed end diastolic flow of the umbilical artery Doppler waveform. The ductus venosus and middle cerebral artery Doppler is then examined. Fetal echocardiography is performed by recording B mode, M mode and flow velocity waveforms in lateral and apical views. Offline calculations determine standard M-mode cardiac variables, tricuspid and mitral annular plane systolic excursion, speckle tracking and strain analysis, modified myocardial performance index and vascular flow velocity waveforms of interest. This small animal model of IUGR therefore affords examination of in utero cardiac function that is

  17. The comparison of a novel continuous cardiac output monitor based on pulse wave transit time and echo Doppler during exercise.

    PubMed

    Sugo, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Terao, Mami; Ukawa, Teiji; Ochiai, Ryoichi

    2012-01-01

    A new technology called estimated continuous cardiac output (esCCO) uses pulse wave transit time (PWTT) obtained from an electrocardiogram and pulse oximeter to measure cardiac output (CO) non-invasively and continuously. This study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of esCCO during exercise testing. We compared esCCO with CO measured by the echo Doppler aortic velocity-time integral (VTIao_CO). The correlation coefficient between esCCO and VTIao_CO was r= 0.87 (n= 72). Bias and precision were 0.33 ± 0.95 L/min and percentage error was 31%. The esCCO could detect change in VTIao_CO larger than 1 L/min with a concordance rate of 88%. In polar plot, 83% of data are within 0.5 L/min, and 100% of data are within 1 L/min. Those results show the acceptable accuracy and trend ability of esCCO. Change in pre-ejection period (PEP) measured by using M-mode of Diagnostic Ultrasound System accounted for approximately half of change in PWTT. This indicates that PEP included in PWTT has an impact on the accuracy of esCCO measurement. In this study, the validity of esCCO during exercise testing was assessed and shown to be acceptable. The result of this study suggests that we can expand its application.

  18. PMN-PT single crystal, high-frequency ultrasonic needle transducers for pulsed-wave Doppler application.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qifa; Xu, Xiaochen; Gottlieb, Emanuel J; Sun, Lei; Cannata, Jonathan M; Ameri, Hossein; Humayun, Mark S; Han, Pengdi; Shung, K Kirk

    2007-03-01

    High-frequency needle ultrasound transducers with an aperture size of 0.4 mm were fabricated using lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-33% PT) as the active piezoelectric material. The active element was bonded to a conductive silver particle matching layer and a conductive epoxy backing through direct contact curing. An outer matching layer of parylene was formed by vapor deposition. The active element was housed within a polyimide tube and a 20-gauge needle housing. The magnitude and phase of the electrical impedance of the transducer were 47 omega and -38 degrees, respectively. The measured center frequency and -6 dB fractional bandwidth of the PMN-PT needle transducer were 44 MHz and 45%, respectively. The two-way insertion loss was approximately 15 dB. In vivo high-frequency, pulsed-wave Doppler patterns of blood flow in the posterior portion and in vitro ultrasonic backscatter microscope (UBM) images of the rabbit eye were obtained with the 44-MHz needle transducer.

  19. Combination of pulsed-wave Doppler and real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for quantifying the stroke volume in the left ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Jones, Michael; Qin, Jian Xin; Sitges, Marta; Cardon, Lisa A; Morehead, Annitta L; Zetts, Arthur D; Bauer, Fabrice; Kim, Yong Jin; Hang, Xi Yi; Greenberg, Neil; Thomas, James D; Shiota, Takahiro

    2004-11-01

    Real-time three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler echocardiography (RT3D) is capable of quantifying flow. However, low temporal resolution limits its application to stroke volume (SV) measurements. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to develop a reliable method to quantify SV. In animal experiments, cross-sectional images of the LV outflow tract were selected from the RT3D data to calculate peak flow rates (Q(p3D)). Conventional pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler was performed to measure the velocity-time integral (VTI) and the peak velocity (V(p)). By assuming that the flow is proportional to the velocity temporal waveform, SV was calculated as alpha x Q(p3D) x VTI/V(p), where alpha is a temporal correction factor. There was an excellent correlation between the reference flow meter and RT3D SV (mean difference = -1. 3 mL, y = 1. 05 x -2. 5, r = 0. 94, p < 0. 01). The new method allowed accurate SV estimations without any geometric assumptions of the spatial velocity distributions.

  20. Reference Values and Z Scores for Pulsed-Wave Doppler and M-Mode Measurements in Fetal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Catherine; Bigras, Jean-Luc; Fouron, Jean-Claude; Dallaire, Frederic

    2016-05-01

    Fetal echocardiography is now the standard approach for detailed investigations of fetal cardiac anatomy and function. Available studies proposing reference values for pulsed-wave Doppler (PWD) measurements are often focused on few parameters. Furthermore, the methodology used for validating these proposed reference values is sometimes insufficiently described, and parameters necessary to compute Z scores are not always available. Improved definition of reference values with adequate statistical validation is needed for proper interpretation of PWD measurements in a clinical setting. In this study, the authors propose a comprehensive set of reference values and Z score equations for fetal PWD and M-mode measurements with thorough assessment of Z score quality and validity. Women with normal singleton pregnancies between 18 and 39 weeks of gestational age were included. A set of 57 measurements was performed, including PWD, M-mode measurements, and calculation of systolic, diastolic, and global function indices. Several parametric regressions were tested to model each measurement against gestational age. The SD was also modeled to account for heteroscedasticity. Z score equations were computed, and the proposed reference values were tested for residual association, residual heteroscedasticity, and departure from the normal distribution. One hundred four uncomplicated singleton pregnancies with normal fetal hearts were included. Nonlinear relationships with gestational age were found for most measurements. Parametric normalization was successful for most measurements analyzed, and it was possible to compute Z score equations with minimal residual association with gestational age, no residual heteroscedasticity, and no significant departure from the normal distribution. The authors propose a comprehensive set of Z score equations for 57 fetal functional measurements, some of which do not have any published reference values. These Z score equations will allow

  1. The Detection and Exclusion of the Prostate Neuro-Vascular Bundle (NVB) in Automated HIFU Treatment Planning Using a Pulsed-Wave Doppler Ultrasound System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wohsing; Carlson, Roy F.; Fedewa, Russell; Seip, Ralf; Sanghvi, Narendra T.; Dines, Kris A.; Pfile, Richard; Penna, Michael A.; Gardner, Thomas A.

    2005-03-01

    Men with prostate cancer are likely to develop impotence after prostate cancer therapy if the treatment damages the neuro-vascular bundles (NVB). The NVB are generally located at the periphery of the prostate gland. To preserve the NVB, a Doppler system is used to detect and localize the associated blood vessels. This information is used during the therapy planning procedure to avoid treatment surrounding the blood vessel areas. The Sonablate®500 (Focus Surgery, Inc.) image-guided HIFU device is enhanced with a pulse-wave multi-gate Doppler system that uses the current imaging transducer and mechanical scanner to acquire Doppler data. Doppler detection is executed after the regular B-mode images are acquired from the base to the apex of the prostate using parallel sector scans. The results are stored and rendered in 3-D display, registered with additional models generated for the capsule, urethra, and rectal wall, and the B-mode data and treatment plan itself. The display of the blood flow can be in 2-D color overlaid on the B-mode image or in 3-D color structure. Based on this 3-D model, the HIFU treatment planning can be executed in automated or manual mode by the physician to remove originally defined treatment zones that overlap with the NVB (for preservation of NVB). The results of the NVB detection in animal experiments, and the 3-D modeling and data registration of the prostate will be presented.

  2. Effects of first myocardial infarction on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function with the use of mitral annular velocity determined by pulsed wave doppler tissue imaging.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Wardell, J; Andersson, E; Samad, B A; Nordlander, R

    2000-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of a first myocardial infarction (MI) on the systolic and diastolic velocity profiles of the mitral annulus determined by pulsed wave Doppler tissue imaging and thereby evaluate left ventricular (LV) function after MI. Seventy-eight patients with a first MI were examined before discharge. Peak systolic, peak early diastolic, and peak late diastolic velocities were recorded at 4 different sites on the mitral annulus corresponding to the septum, anterior, lateral, and inferior sites of the left ventricle. In addition, the amplitude of mitral annular motion at the 4 above LV sites, the ejection fraction, and conventional Doppler diastolic parameters were recorded. Nineteen age-matched healthy subjects served as controls. Compared with healthy subjects, the MI patients had a significantly reduced peak systolic velocity at the mitral annulus, especially at the infarction sites. A relatively good linear correlation was found between the ejection fraction and the mean systolic velocity from the 4 LV sites (r = 0.74, P <.001). The correlation was also good when the mean peak systolic mitral annular velocity was tested against the magnitude of the mean mitral annular motion (r = 0.77, P <.001). When the patients were divided into 2 different groups with respect to an ejection fraction > or =0.50 or <0.50, a cutoff point of mean systolic mitral annular velocity of > or =7.5 cm/s had a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 88% in predicting a preserved global LV systolic function. Similar to systolic velocities, the early diastolic velocity was also reduced, especially at the infarction sites. The peak mitral annular early diastolic velocity correlated well with both LV ejection fraction (r =.66, P <.001) and mean systolic mitral annular motion (r = 0.68, P <.001). However, no correlation existed between the early diastolic velocity and conventional diastolic Doppler parameters. The reduced peak systolic mitral annular velocity

  3. Power M-Mode Doppler and single-gate spectral analysis using a 2-MHz pulsed-wave Doppler transducer to directly detect cervical internal carotid artery stenosis: use of the continuity principle: report of a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Popa, Vasile N; Spencer, Merrill P; Lion, Charlene L; Felberg, Robert A

    2007-06-01

    We hypothesized that direct cervical investigation with Power M-Mode Doppler (PMD) combined with single-gate Doppler spectral analysis (SGDSA) using a 2-MHz pulsed-wave Doppler transducer would show reasonable accuracy parameters when compared with standard color-coded carotid duplex ultrasound (CDU). We prospectively screened for cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis by direct observation using a 2 MHz PMD/SGDSA device. PMD identified the artery (location, depth, flow direction) and SGDSA assessed waveform; peak systolic, end diastolic, and mean flow velocities (MFV) of the common carotid artery; cervical ICA proximally and distally; and external carotid artery. Diagnostic accuracy was compared with concurrent carotid duplex ultrasound. The continuity principle was applied using the proximal/distal cervical ICA MFV ratio. We examined 456 vessels (228 patients). Using ICA proximally/ICA distally MFV ratio of 1.5 or greater or absence of ICA signature, for 40% to 59% or greater stenosis (including occlusions), sensitivity was 75.4%, specificity 99.8%, positive predictive value 97.7%, negative predictive value 96.6%, and accuracy 96.7%. For MFV ratio 1.6 or greater or absence of ICA signature and 60% to 79% or greater stenosis (including occlusions), sensitivity was 92.3%, specificity 98.1%, positive predictive value 81.8%, negative predictive value 99.3%, and accuracy 97.6%. Use of combined PMD and SGDSA to directly observe the extracranial ICA is reasonably accurate compared with carotid duplex ultrasound. Using the MFV ratio of proximal/distal extracranial ICA improves accuracy parameters and provides a quick and effective bedside screen for ICA stenosis. This novel technique should be considered part of the standard PMD/transcranial Doppler examination.

  4. Arterial pulse wave pressure transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, C.; Gorelick, D.; Chen, W. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An arterial pulse wave pressure transducer is introduced. The transducer is comprised of a fluid filled cavity having a flexible membrane disposed over the cavity and adapted to be placed on the skin over an artery. An arterial pulse wave creates pressure pulses in the fluid which are transduced, by a pressure sensitive transistor in direct contact with the fluid, into an electric signal. The electrical signal is representative of the pulse waves and can be recorded so as to monitor changes in the elasticity of the arterial walls.

  5. Improving the accuracy of effective orifice area assessment after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: validation of left ventricular outflow tract diameter and pulsed-wave Doppler location and impact of three-dimensional measurements.

    PubMed

    Khalique, Omar K; Hamid, Nadira B; Kodali, Susheel K; Nazif, Tamim M; Marcoff, Leo; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Williams, Mathew R; Vahl, Torsten P; George, Isaac; Leon, Martin B; Hahn, Rebecca T

    2015-11-01

    Echocardiographic calculation of effective orifice area (EOA) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement is integral to the assessment of transcatheter heart valve (THV) function. The aim of this study was to determine the most accurate method for calculating the EOA of the Edwards SAPIEN and SAPIEN XT THVs. One hundred intraprocedural transesophageal echocardiograms were analyzed. To calculate the post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) stroke volume (SV), four diameters were measured using two-dimensional echocardiography: (1) baseline LVOT diameter (LVOTd_PRE), (2) postimplantation LVOT diameter, (3) native aortic annular diameter, and (4) THV in-stent diameter. Four corresponding areas were planimetered by three-dimensional echocardiography. Two LVOT velocity-time integrals (VTI) were measured with the pulsed-wave Doppler sample volume at (1) the proximal (apical) edge of the valve stent or (2) within the valve stent at the level of the THV cusps. LVOT velocity-time integral with the sample volume at the proximal edge of the valve stent was used with the LVOT and aortic annular measurements above, whereas in-stent VTI was paired with the in-stent THV diameter to yield eight different SVs. Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) SV was calculated using RVOT diameter and RVOT VTI and was used as the primary comparator. Transaortic VTI was obtained by continuous-wave Doppler, and EOA calculations using each SV measurement were compared with (1) EOA calculated using RVOTSV and (2) planimetered aortic valve area using three-dimensional echocardiography (AVAplanimetry3D). Post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement EOA calculated using LVOTd_PRE was not significantly different from EOA calculated using RVOTSV (1.88 ± 0.33 vs 1.86 ± 0.39 cm(2), P = .36) or from AVAplanimetry3D (1.85 ± 0.28, P = .38, n = 34). All other two-dimensional EOA calculations were statistically larger than EOA calculated using RVOTSV

  6. Flow tracing fidelity of scattering aerosol in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Kirsch, K. J.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental method for determinating the flow tracing fidelity of a scattering aerosol used in laser Doppler velocimeters was developed with particular reference to the subsonic turbulence measurements. The method employs the measurement of the dynamic response of a flow seeding aerosol excited by acoustic waves. The amplitude and frequency of excitation were controlled to simulate the corresponding values of fluid turbulence components. Experimental results are presented on the dynamic response of aerosols over the size range from 0.1 to 2.0 microns in diameter and over the frequency range 100 Hz to 100 kHz. It was observed that unit density spherical scatterers with diameters of 0.2 microns followed subsonic air turbulence frequency components up to 100 kHz with 98 percent fidelity.

  7. Flow tracing fidelity of scattering aerosol in laser Doppler velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, M. K.; Kirsch, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental method for the determination of the flow-tracing fidelity of a scattering aerosol used in laser Doppler velocimeters was developed with particular reference to the subsonic turbulence measurements. The method employs the measurement of the dynamic response of a flow-seeding aerosol excited by acoustic waves. The amplitude and frequency of excitation were controlled in order to simulate the corresponding values of fluid turbulence components. Experimental results are presented on the dynamic response of aerosols over the size range from 0.1 to 2.0 microns in diam and over the frequency range 100 Hz to 100 kHz. It was observed that unit-density spherical scatterers with diameters of 0.2 micron followed subsonic air turbulence frequency components up to 100 kHz with 98% fidelity.

  8. Pulsed-wave Doppler tissue imaging velocities in normal geriatric cats and geriatric cats with primary or systemic diseases linked to specific cardiomyopathies in humans, and the influence of age and heart rate upon these velocities.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kerry E; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A; Shaw, Darren J; French, Anne T; Dukes-McEwan, Joanna; Moran, Carmel M; Corcoran, Brendan M

    2009-04-01

    Pulsed-wave Doppler tissue imaging (pw-DTI) techniques allow the non-invasive assessment of myocardial dynamics. pw-DTI has demonstrated regional and global diastolic impairment in various forms of human and feline cardiomyopathy. We hypothesise that in geriatric cats with systemic diseases that have been linked to specific cardiomyopathies in human beings, the myocardial velocity profile will be altered when compared to either normal or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cats; and that both age and heart rate have a significant affect upon pw-DTI velocities. The aims of this study were to determine whether the feline M-mode or myocardial velocity profile is altered in geriatric cats with disease states that have been linked to specific cardiomyopathies in humans when compared to normal geriatric cats or geriatric cats with HCM and to determine whether age or heart rate has a significant effect upon pw-DTI velocities within these groups of cats. Sixty-six cats aged 8 years or above were included in the study, and were divided as follows: Unaffected (n=8), basilar septal bulge (BSB) (17), HCM (14), hyperthyroid (HiT(4)) (12) and chronic renal failure (CRF) (15). Systolic blood pressure was normal in all the cats. pw-DTI systolic (S'), early (E') and late diastolic (A') velocities were assessed from standardised sites within the myocardium, and the relationships between these and disease group, age and heart rate were then assessed. In cats with HCM, the E' velocity was decreased at various sites. Conversely, the HiT(4) cats demonstrated increased S' velocities. The only site at which the age of the cat was significantly related to myocardial velocities was the S' velocity from the apical mid-septum. There were also significant positive relationships between heart rate and the magnitude of myocardial S', E' and A' velocities of radial motion and S' and A' velocities of longitudinal motion. pw-DTI detected diastolic dysfunction in untreated cats with HCM and increased

  9. Pulse Wave Well Development Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, S.

    2001-02-23

    Conventional methods of well development at the Savannah River Site generate significant volumes of investigative derived waste (IDW) which must be treated and disposed of at a regulated Treatment, Storage, or Disposal (TSD) facility. Pulse Wave technology is a commercial method of well development utilizing bursts of high pressure gas to create strong pressure waves through the well screen zone, extending out into the formation surrounding the well. The patented process is intended to reduce well development time and the amount of IDW generated as well as to micro-fracture the formation to improve well capacity.

  10. Nearly automated analysis of coronary Doppler flow velocity from transthoracic ultrasound images: validation with manual tracings.

    PubMed

    Magagnin, V; Delfino, L; Cerutti, S; Turiel, M; Caiani, E G

    2007-05-01

    Coronary flow velocity reserve is obtained by manual tracings of transthoracic coronary Doppler flow velocity profiles as the ratio of stress versus baseline diastolic peak velocities. This approach introduces subjectivity in the measurements and limits the information which could be exploited from the Doppler velocity profile. Accordingly, our goals were to develop a technique for nearly automated detection of Doppler coronary flow velocity profile, and automatically compute both conventional and additional amplitude, derivative and temporal parameters, and validate it with manual tracings. A total of 100 patients (17 normals, 15 patients with severe coronary stenosis, 41 with connective tissue disease and 27 with diabetes mellitus) were studied. Linear correlation and Bland-Altman analyses showed that the proposed method was highly accurate and repeatable compared to the manual measurements. Comparison between groups evidenced significant differences in some of the automated parameters, thus representing potentially additional indices useful for the noninvasive diagnosis of microcirculatory or coronary artery disease.

  11. Photoacoustic microscopy of blood pulse wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-07-01

    Blood pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important physiological parameter that characterizes vascular stiffness. In this letter, we present electrocardiogram-synchronized, photoacoustic microscopy for noninvasive quantification of the PWV in the peripheral vessels of living mice. Interestingly, blood pulse wave-induced fluctuations in blood flow speed were clearly observed in arteries and arterioles, but not in veins or venules. Simultaneously recorded electrocardiograms served as references to measure the travel time of the pulse wave between two cross sections of a chosen vessel and vessel segmentation analysis enabled accurate quantification of the travel distance. PWVs were quantified in ten vessel segments from two mice. Statistical analysis shows a linear correlation between the PWV and the vessel diameter which agrees with known physiology.

  12. Ray Tracing for Doppler Backscattering System in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chu; Liu, Adi; Hu, Jianqiang; Wang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Xiaohui; Li, Hong; Yu, Changxuan; Liu, Wandong; Lan, Tao; Xie, Jinlin

    2015-09-01

    The Doppler backscattering system has been widely used for turbulence measurements, and the microwave beam will be backscattered near the cut-off layer when the Brag condition is fulfilled. In tokamak, the ray-tracing code is used to obtain the radial position and perpendicular wave number of the scattering layer for turbulence velocity measurement and the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation should be satisfied for optical propagation. To calculate the backscattering location and wave number at the cut-off layer only, a single ray tracing in the cross section is enough, while for spatial and wave number resolution calculation, multiple rays reflecting the microwave beam size should be used. Considering the angle between the wave vector and the magnetic field, a three-dimension quasi-optical Gaussian ray tracing is sometimes needed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 10990211 and 11105146) and the ITER-CN Project, 973 Program of China (No. 2013GB106002)

  13. Noninvasive determination of pulse-wave velocity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hartley, C J; Taffet, G E; Michael, L H; Pham, T T; Entman, M L

    1997-07-01

    Some transgenic mice have abnormal vascular function, but arterial geometry and dynamics are difficult to evaluate. To examine whether ultrasonic velocimetry could be used to determine arterial pulse-wave velocity (PWV) in mice, a custom-made 20-MHz pulsed Doppler instrument was used to obtain blood flow velocity signals from the aortic arch and the abdominal aorta 4 cm downstream. The upstroke (foot) of the velocity wave was timed at each site with respect to the R wave of the electrocardiogram, and PWV was calculated by dividing the separation distance by the difference in R-foot times. Doppler determinations were compared with invasive tonometry, and PWV was altered pharmacologically. It was found that the upstrokes of pressure (by tonometry) and velocity were coincident (+/-1 ms) and that PWV could be calculated by either method on exposed vessels. With the use of Doppler methods, pulse transit time was determined noninvasively with +/-1-ms resolution in 140 of 142 attempts in 82 mice. The calculated PWV in mice ranged from 220 to 850 cm/s with vasodilating anesthetics producing the low values and vasoconstricting agents producing the higher values. Thus PWV can be determined noninvasively in mice, is similar to that in other mammals, and responds as expected to vasoactive agents.

  14. Validity and reproducibility of arterial pulse wave velocity measurement using new device with oscillometric technique: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Madireddy Umamaheshwar Rao; Reddy, Budda Muralidhar; Yashmaina, Sridhar; Patnaik, Amar Narayana; Rani, Pingali Usha

    2005-08-23

    Availability of a range of techniques and devices allow measurement of many variables related to the stiffness of large or medium sized arteries. There is good evidence that, pulse wave velocity is a relatively simple measurement and is a good indicator of changes in arterial properties. The pulse wave velocity calculated from pulse wave recording by other methods like doppler or tonometry is tedious, time-consuming and above all their reproducibility depends on the operator skills. It requires intensive resource involvement. For epidemiological studies these methods are not suitable. The aim of our study was to clinically evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a new automatic device for measurement of pulse wave velocity that can be used in such studies. In 44 subjects including normal healthy control and patients with coronary artery disease, heart brachial, heart ankle, brachial ankle and carotid femoral pulse wave velocities were recorded by using a new oscillometric device. Lead I and II electrocardiogram and pressure curves were simultaneously recorded. Two observers recorded the pulse wave velocity for validation and one observer recorded the velocity on two occasions for reproducibility. Pulse wave velocity and arterial stiffness index were recorded in 24 control and 20 coronary artery disease patients. All the velocities were significantly high in coronary artery disease patients. There was highly significant correlation between the values noted by the two observers with low standard deviation. The Pearson's correlation coefficient for various velocities ranged from (r = 0.88-0.90) with (p < 0.0001). The reproducibility was also very good as shown by Bland-Altman plot; most of the values were lying within 2 SD. The interperiod measurements of pulse wave velocity were also significantly correlated (r = 0.71-0.98) (P < 0.0001). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was found to correlate significantly with heart brachial, heart ankle, brachial ankle

  15. Characterization of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler NICE-OHMS for quantitative trace gas detection.

    PubMed

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Ma, Weiguang; Axner, Ove

    2008-09-15

    The potential of fiber-laser-based sub-Doppler noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry for trace gas detection is scrutinized. The non-linear dependence of the on-resonance sub-Doppler dispersion signal on the intracavity pressure and power is investigated and the optimum conditions with respect to these are determined. The linearity of the signal strength with concentration is demonstrated and the dynamic range of the technique is discussed. Measurements were performed on C(2)H(2) at 1531 nm up to degrees of saturation of 100. The minimum detectable sub-Doppler optical phase shift was 5 x 10(-11) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2), corresponding to a partial pressure of C(2)H(2) of 1 x 10(-12) atm for an intracavity pressure of 20 mTorr, and a concentration of 10 ppb at 400 mTorr.

  16. Trace analysis of rubidium hyperfine structure in a flame atomizer using sub-Doppler laser wave-mixing spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Weed, Kenneth M; Tong, William G

    2003-12-01

    Nonlinear laser wave mixing is a versatile spectroscopic method for trace elemental analysis at high spectral resolution. Sub-Doppler spectral resolution allows isotope and hyperfine structure measurements of some of the elements even when using a room-pressure analytical flame (i.e., sub-Doppler but Lorentzian broadened spectra). A non-planar wave-mixing optical setup offers some advantages as compared to the conventional planar wave-mixing setup including better signal collection efficiency and easier optical alignment. Using our absorption-based wave mixing, a detection limit of 0.05 ng/mL (i.e., 50 parts-per-trillion) is reported for Rb in an air/acetylene flame, while still maintaining sub-Doppler spectral resolution for the infrared 780.0-nm Rb transition line.

  17. An example of scaling MST Doppler spectra using median spectra, spectral smoothing, and velocity tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Although automatic, computer scaling methods appeared at the start of the MST (mesosphere stratosphere troposphere) radar technique, there is a continuing need for scaling algorithms that perform editing functions and increase the sensitivity of radar by post processing. The scaling method presented is an adaptation of the method of scaling MST Doppler spectra presented by Rastogi (1984). A brief overview of this method is as follows: a median spectrum is calculated from several sequential spectra; the median noise value is subtracted from this derived spectrum; the median spectrum is smoothed; the detection/nondetection decision is made by comparing the smoothed spectrum to the variance of the smoothed noise; and if a signal is detected, then the half-power points of the smoothed echo spectrum are used to place limits on the evaluation of the first two moments of the unsmoothed median spectrum. In all of the above steps, the algorithm is guided by tracing the expected velocity range upward from the lowest range as far as possible. The method is discussed in more detail.

  18. Photo-vibrational sensing of trace chemicals and explosives by long-distance differential laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yu; Liu, Huan; Hu, Qi; Xie, Jiecheng

    2017-05-01

    Photoacoustic/photothermal spectroscopy is an established technique for trace detection of chemicals and explosives. Normally high-sensitive microphone or PZT sensor is used to detect the signal in photoacoustic cell. In recent years, laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) is proposed to remote-sense photoacoustic signal on various substrates. It is a highsensitivity sensor with a displacement resolution of <10pm. In this research, the photoacoustic effect of various chemicals and explosives is excited by a quantum cascade laser (QCL) at their absorbance peak. A home-developed differential LDV at 1550nm wavelength is applied to detect the vibration signal at 100m. A differential configuration is applied to minimize the environment factors, such as environment noise and vibration, air turbulence, etc. and increase the detection sensitivity. The photo-vibrational signal of chemicals and explosives on different substrates are detected. The results show the potential of the proposed technique on detection of trace chemicals and explosives at long standoff distance.

  19. Heart-Carotid Pulse Wave Velocity a Useful Index of Atherosclerosis in Chinese Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyue; Xiong, Huahua; Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Wu, Dan; Li, Zhenzhou; Huang, Wenhua; Zhang, Heye; Wu, Wanqing

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the relationship between heart-carotid pulse wave velocity (hcPWV) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in hypertensive patients, and also to examine the effect of pre-ejection period (PEP) on it. Doppler ultrasound device was used to measure CIMT in left common carotid artery. Hypertensive patients were divided into normal (n = 36, CIMT ≤0.8 mm) and thickened (n = 31, CIMT > 0.8 mm) group. Electrocardiogram R-wave-based carotid pulse wave velocity (rcPWV) and aortic valve-carotid pulse wave velocity (acPWV) were calculated as the ratio of the travel length to the pulse transit time with or without PEP, respectively. CIMT has significant relations with rcPWV (r = 0.611, P < 0.0001) and acPWV (r = 0.384, P = 0.033) in thickened group. Moreover, CIMT showed stronger correlation with rcPWV than with acPWV in thickened group. Furthermore, both acPWV and rcPWV were determinant factors of CIMT in thickened group, independent of clinical confounders including age, gender, smoking behavior, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, antihypertensive medication, and plaque occurrence. However, similar results were not found in normal group. Since CIMT has been considered as an index of atherosclerosis, our results suggested that both rcPWV and acPWV could be useful indexes of atherosclerosis in thickened CIMT hypertensive patients. Additionally, if hcPWV is computed with heart-carotid pulse transit time, including PEP could improve the accuracy of atherosclerosis assessment in hypertensive patients.

  20. [Pulse wave velocity as an early marker of diastolic heart failure in patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Moczulska, Beata; Kubiak, Monika; Bryczkowska, Anna; Malinowska, Ewa

    2017-04-21

    According to the WHO, hypertension is one of the major causes of death worldwide. It leads to a number of severe complications. Diastolic heart failure, that is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is especially common. New, but simple, indices for the early detection of patients who have not yet developed complications or are in their early developmental stages are still searched for. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and markers of diastolic heart failure (DHF) assessed in echocardiography in patients with hypertension and no symptoms of heart failure. The study was comprised of 65 patients with treated hypertension. Patients with symptoms of heart failure, those with diabetes and smokers were excluded. Arterial stiffness was measured with the Mobil-O-Graph NG PWA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was estimated. The following markers of diastolic heart failure were assessed in the echocardiographic examination: E/A ratio - the ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, DT - decceleration time, E/E' - the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity E' in tissue Doppler echocardiography. PWV was statistically significantly higher in the DHF group. In the group of patients with heart failure, the average E/A ratio was significantly lower as compared to the group with no heart failure. Oscillometric measurement of pulse wave velocity is non-invasive, lasts a few minutes and does not require the presence of a specialist. It allows for an early detection of patients at risk of diastolic heart failure even within the conditions of primary health care.

  1. Pulse wave analysis with diffusing-wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Belau, Markus; Scheffer, Wolfgang; Maret, Georg

    2017-07-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thus at the origin of many deaths by e.g. heart attack or stroke. Hypertension is caused by many factors including an increase in arterial stiffness which leads to changes in pulse wave velocity and wave reflections. Those often result in an increased left ventricular load which may result in heart failure as well as an increased pulsatile pressure in the microcirculation l to damage to blood vessels. In order to specifically treat the different causes of hypertension it is desirable to perform a pulse wave analysis as a complement to measurements of systolic and diastolic pressure by brachial cuff sphygmomanometry. Here we show that Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive portable tool, is able to monitor blood flow changes with a high temporal resolution. The measured pulse travel times give detailed information of the pulse wave blood flow profile.

  2. A new method for measurement of pulse wave velocity in arterial wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Kinnick, Randall R.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Greenleaf, James F.

    2003-10-01

    Arterial wall stiffness can be associated with various diseases. The stiffness of an artery can be assessed by measurement of the pulse wave velocity (PWV). PWV is directly related to the Youngs modulus by the well-known Moens-Korteweg equation. Usually, PWV is estimated using the foot-to-foot method. However, the foot of the pressure wave is not very clear due to reflected waves. Also, the pressure wave is normally at a low frequency, hence, the time resolution is low. PWV is an average indicator of artery stiffness between the two measuring points, therefore it is not easy to identify local stiffness. We propose producing a very short pulse wave in the arterial wall using ultrasound radiation force and measuring its propagation speed along the artery by laser. The temporal resolution of this method is in the range of microseconds, which allows PWV to be measured accurately over a few millimeters. Experiments were carried out on a silicone tube in gelatin. PWV was measured by two scanning methods: (1) fixed source and scanning detector, (2) scanning source and fixed detector. Results: PWV was measured at 2 mm/40 μs by both methods. The Doppler technique was also tested which is potentially suitable for clinical applications.

  3. A fast algorithm for the simulation of arterial pulse waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Tao; Hu, Dan; Cai, David

    2016-06-01

    One-dimensional models have been widely used in studies of the propagation of blood pulse waves in large arterial trees. Under a periodic driving of the heartbeat, traditional numerical methods, such as the Lax-Wendroff method, are employed to obtain asymptotic periodic solutions at large times. However, these methods are severely constrained by the CFL condition due to large pulse wave speed. In this work, we develop a new numerical algorithm to overcome this constraint. First, we reformulate the model system of pulse wave propagation using a set of Riemann variables and derive a new form of boundary conditions at the inlet, the outlets, and the bifurcation points of the arterial tree. The new form of the boundary conditions enables us to design a convergent iterative method to enforce the boundary conditions. Then, after exchanging the spatial and temporal coordinates of the model system, we apply the Lax-Wendroff method in the exchanged coordinate system, which turns the large pulse wave speed from a liability to a benefit, to solve the wave equation in each artery of the model arterial system. Our numerical studies show that our new algorithm is stable and can perform ∼15 times faster than the traditional implementation of the Lax-Wendroff method under the requirement that the relative numerical error of blood pressure be smaller than one percent, which is much smaller than the modeling error.

  4. Three-dimensional ray tracing through curvilinear interfaces with application to laser Doppler anemometry in a blood analogue fluid.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Allen H; Bertram, Christopher D

    2010-02-01

    Prediction of the effects of refractive index (RI) mismatch on laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) measurements within a curvilinear cavity (an artificial ventricle) was achieved by developing a general technique for modelling the paths of the convergent beams of the LDA system using 3D vector geometry. Validated by ray tracing through CAD drawings, the predicted maximum tolerance in RI between the solid model and the working fluid was +/- 0.0005, equivalent to focusing errors commensurate with the geometric and alignment uncertainties associated with the flow model and the LDA arrangement. This technique supports predictions of the effects of refraction within a complex geometry. Where the RI mismatch is unavoidable but known, it is possible not only to calculate the true position of the measuring volume (using the probe location and model geometry), but also to estimate degradation in signal quality arising from differential displacement and refraction of the laser beams.

  5. Identification of Vascular Parameters Based on the Same Pressure Pulses Waves Used to Measure Pulse Wave Velocity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    fig. 3) was designed and included to the pre-developed PWV/PWA system. The implemented optimization algorithm was based on a steepest descend gradient ...of transmission of the pulse wave and elasticity of arteries,” Lancet, vol. I, pp. 891-892, 1922. [6] S. Graf et al., “ Desarrollo de um sistema para

  6. Ray tracing model for the estimation of power spectral properties in laser Doppler velocimetry of retinal vessels and its potential application to retinal vessel oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrig, Benno L.; Follonier, Lysianne

    2005-12-01

    A new model based on ray tracing was developed to estimate power spectral properties in laser Doppler velocimetry of retinal vessels and to predict the effects of laser beam size and eccentricity as well as absorption of laser light by oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin. We describe the model and show that it correctly converges to the traditional rectangular shape of the Doppler shift power spectrum, given the same assumptions, and that reduced beam size and eccentric alignment cause marked alterations in this shape. The changes in the detected total power of the Doppler-shifted light due to light scattering and absorption by blood can also be quantified with this model and may be used to determine the oxygen saturation in retinal arteries and veins. The potential of this approach is that it uses direct measurements of Doppler signals originating from moving red blood cells. This may open new avenues for retinal vessel oximetry.

  7. Study of atmospheric trace gases by sub-Doppler diode laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccarreta, Luca; Santoro, Anna M.; Snels, Marcel

    2000-02-01

    Recent results of sub-Doppler IR diode laser spectroscopy of freons in a supersonic jet are reported. The v1 parallel band of CCl3F has been recorded at a rotational temperature of about 20 K, in a supersonic slit jet expansion. A detailed rotational analysis has been performed yielding band origins and rotational constants for the three most abundant isotopomers C35Cl3F, C35Cl2ClF and C35Cl37Cl2F. The CHF2Cl molecule has two strong fundamental bands in the atmospheric window, v3 at 1108.7278 cm-1 and v8 at 1127.2844 cm-1. A preliminary analysis of the v3 band of the CHF237Cl isotopic species will be presented.

  8. Quasi-optical Gaussian beam tracing to evaluate Doppler backscattering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honoré, C.; Hennequin, P.; Truc, A.; Quéméneur, A.

    2006-09-01

    Microwave beam backscattering near the cut-off layer appears to be the most interesting diagnostic to observe density fluctuation time evolution for a given localization in the plasma and at a defined wave vector. It also provides perpendicular plasma velocity. Scattering only occurs when the Bragg selection rule is fulfilled, i.e. when the scattering wave vector is almost perpendicular to the magnetic field. In order to evaluate these scattering conditions, ray tracing is required. 3D geometry is necessary to evaluate the angle between the magnetic field and the wave vector at the reflection. The ripple effect on the iso-index layer curve cannot be neglected. Scattering localization and wave vector resolution can be approached if single ray tracing is replaced with quasi-optical beam tracing. Optical propagation is still considered in the WKB approximation but the beam is described as multiple connected rays. The beam radial expansion due to diffraction is well described. This approach allows one to compute beam parameters for all data acquisitions (50 triggers per shot) and all shots (40 shots per day) during the following night on a recent personal computer with MatLab©.

  9. Accurate measurement of the pulse wave delay with imaging photoplethysmography

    PubMed Central

    Kamshilin, Alexei A.; Sidorov, Igor S.; Babayan, Laura; Volynsky, Maxim A.; Giniatullin, Rashid; Mamontov, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the cardiovascular parameters using noncontact video-based or imaging photoplethysmography (IPPG) is usually considered as inaccurate because of strong influence of motion artefacts. To optimize this technique we performed a simultaneous recording of electrocardiogram and video frames of the face for 36 healthy volunteers. We found that signal disturbances originate mainly from the stochastically enhanced dichroic notch caused by endogenous cardiovascular mechanisms, with smaller contribution of the motion artefacts. Our properly designed algorithm allowed us to increase accuracy of the pulse-transit-time measurement and visualize propagation of the pulse wave in the facial region. Thus, the accurate measurement of the pulse wave parameters with this technique suggests a sensitive approach to assess local regulation of microcirculation in various physiological and pathological states. PMID:28018731

  10. Flexible pulse-wave sensors from oriented aluminum nitride nanocolumns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Morito; Ueno, Naohiro; Nonaka, Kazuhiro; Tateyama, Hiroshi

    2003-03-01

    Flexible pulse-wave sensors were fabricated from density-packed oriented aluminum nitride nanocolumns prepared on aluminum foils. The nanocolumns were prepared by the rf magnetron sputtering method and were perpendicularly oriented to the aluminum foil surfaces. The sensor structure is laminated, and the structure contributes to avoiding unexpected leakage of an electric charge. The resulting sensor thickness is 50 μm. The sensor is flexible like aluminum foil and can respond to frequencies from 0.1 to over 100 Hz. The sensitivity of the sensor to pressure is proportional to the surface area. The sensor sensitively causes reversible charge signals that correlate with the pulse wave form, which contains significant information on arteriosclerosis and cardiopathy of a man sitting on it.

  11. [A mathematical model of hemodynamic processes for distal pulse wave formation].

    PubMed

    Fedotov, A A

    2015-01-01

    A mathematical model of the formation of distal arterial pulse wave signal in the blood vessels of the upper limbs was considered. The formation of distal arterial pulse wave is represented as a composition of forward and reverse pulse waves propagating along the human arterial system. The system of formal analogy between pulse waves propagation along the human arterial system and the propagation of electrical oscillations in electrical transmission lines with distributed parameters was proposed. Dependencies of pulse wave propagation along the human arterial system were obtained by solving the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for a few special cases.

  12. A Skin-attachable Flexible Piezoelectric Pulse Wave Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sunghyun; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-11-01

    We present a flexible piezoelectric generator, capable to harvest energy from human arterial pulse wave on the human wrist. Special features and advantages of the flexible piezoelectric generator include the multi-layer device design with contact windows and the simple fabrication process for the higher flexibility with the better energy harvesting efficiency. We have demonstrated the design effectiveness and the process simplicity of our skin- attachable flexible piezoelectric pulse wave energy harvester, composed of the sensitive P(VDF-TrFE) piezoelectric layer on the flexible polyimide support layer with windows. We experimentally characterize and demonstrate the energy harvesting capability of 0.2~1.0μW in the Human heart rate range on the skin contact area of 3.71cm2. Additional physiological and/or vital signal monitoring devices can be fabricated and integrated on the skin attachable flexible generator, covered by an insulation layer; thus demonstrating the potentials and advantages of the present device for such applications to the flexible multi-functional selfpowered artificial skins, capable to detect physiological and/or vital signals on Human skin using the energy harvested from arterial pulse waves.

  13. Reliability assessment for pulse wave measurement using artificial pulse generator.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Wei; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess intrinsic reliabilities of devices for pulse wave measurement (PWM). An artificial pulse generator system was constructed to create a periodic pulse wave. The stability of the periodic output was tested by the DP103 pressure transducer. The pulse generator system was then used to evaluate the TD01C system. Test-re-test and inter-device reliability assessments were conducted on the TD01C system. First, 11 harmonic components of the pulse wave were calculated using Fourier series analysis. For each harmonic component, coefficient of variation (CV), intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot were used to determine the degree of reliability of the TD01C system. In addition, device exclusion criteria were pre-specified to improve consistency of devices. The artificial pulse generator system was stable to evaluate intrinsic reliabilities of devices for PWM (ICCs > 0.95, p < 0.001). TD01C was reliable for repeated measurements (ICCs of test-re-test reliability > 0.95, p < 0.001; CVs all < 3%). Device exclusion criteria successfully excluded the device with defect; therefore, the criteria reduced inter-device CVs of harmonics and improved consistency of the selected devices for all harmonic components. This study confirmed the feasibility of intrinsic reliability assessment of devices for PWM using an artificial pulse generator system. Moreover, potential novel findings on the assessment combined with device exclusion criteria could be a useful method to select the measuring devices and to evaluate the qualities of them in PWM.

  14. Blood pulse wave velocity measured by photoacoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chenghung; Hu, Song; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2013-03-01

    Blood pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important indicator for vascular stiffness. In this letter, we present electrocardiogram-synchronized photoacoustic microscopy for in vivo noninvasive quantification of the PWV in the peripheral vessels of mice. Interestingly, strong correlation between blood flow speed and ECG were clearly observed in arteries but not in veins. PWV is measured by the pulse travel time and the distance between two spot of a chose vessel, where simultaneously recorded electrocardiograms served as references. Statistical analysis shows a linear correlation between the PWV and the vessel diameter, which agrees with known physiology. Keywords: photoacoustic microscopy, photoacoustic spectroscopy, bilirubin, scattering medium.

  15. Pulmonary pulse wave transit time is associated with right ventricular–pulmonary artery coupling in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Weir, E. Kenneth; Archer, Stephen L.; Markowitz, Jeremy; Rose, Lauren; Pritzker, Marc; Madlon-Kay, Richard; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary pulse wave transit time (pPTT), defined as the time for the systolic pressure pulse wave to travel from the pulmonary valve to the pulmonary veins, has been reported to be reduced in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); however, the underlying mechanism of reduced pPTT is unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that abbreviated pPTT in PAH results from impaired right ventricular–pulmonary artery (RV-PA) coupling. We quantified pPTT using pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound from 10 healthy age- and sex-matched controls and 36 patients with PAH. pPTT was reduced in patients with PAH compared with controls. Univariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of reduced pPTT: age, right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC), tricuspid annular plane excursion (TAPSE), pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP), diastolic pulmonary gradient, transpulmonary gradient, pulmonary vascular resistance, and RV-PA coupling (defined as RV FAC/mean PAP or TAPSE/mean PAP). Although the correlations between pPTT and invasive markers of pulmonary vascular disease were modest, RV FAC (r = 0.64, P < 0.0001), TAPSE (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001), and RV-PA coupling (RV FAC/mean PAP: r = 0.72, P < 0.0001; TAPSE/mean PAP: r = 0.74, P < 0.0001) had the strongest relationships with pPTT. On multivariable analysis, only RV FAC, TAPSE, and RV-PA coupling were independent predictors of pPTT. We conclude that shortening of pPTT in patients with PAH results from altered RV-PA coupling, probably occurring as a result of reduced pulmonary arterial compliance. Thus, pPTT allows noninvasive determination of the status of both the pulmonary vasculature and the response of the RV in patients with PAH, thereby allowing monitoring of disease progression and regression. PMID:28090301

  16. Cerebral vascular aging: extending the concept of pulse wave encephalopathy through capillaries to the cerebral veins.

    PubMed

    Henry-Feugeas, Marie Cecile; Koskas, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    The recent concept of pulse wave encephalopathy helps understanding the cerebral venous remodeling in aging. This so-called periventricular venous collagenosis is an expected mechanical consequence of the age-related changes in arterial pulsations and the mechanical fatigue of vascular smooth muscles. Unlike arteriolar mechanical stress, venular mechanical stress depends on both the blood pulse wave amplitude and the mechanical properties of the environment tissue. Thereby, there is a preferential periventricular location of venous collagenosis and a mechanistic link between venous collagenosis and foci of white matter rarefaction or leukoaraiosis. The recent concept of pulse wave encephalopathy also helps understanding the widening of retinal venules, the "mirror" of cerebral venules, in various manifestations of pulse wave encephalopathy, including progressive leukoara�osis, lacunar and hemorrhagic "pulse wave" strokes, and dementia. Indeed, the age-related chronic increase in arterial pulsations explains subsequent arteriolar myogenic "fatigue", marked attenuation in the arteriolar myogenic tone and abnormal penetration of the insufficiently dampened arterial pulse wave into the venules. Thus, retinal venular widening, a biomarker of advanced pulse wave encephalopathy, is also increasingly recognized as a biomarker for high cardiovascular risk. All these data support a shift in the concept of chronic cerebrovascular disease, from the classical model which is restricted to steno-occlusive cerebrovascular diseases to an enlarged model which would include the pulse wave encephalopathy concept. Thereby, preventing damage to the cerebral microvasculature by an undampened arterial pulse wave will become a logical target for the prevention and treatment of late-onset cognitive decline.

  17. Measurement of the Doppler power of flowing blood using ultrasound Doppler devices.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Chung; Chou, Hung-Lung; Chen, Pay-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Measurement of the Doppler power of signals backscattered from flowing blood (henceforth referred to as the Doppler power of flowing blood) and the echogenicity of flowing blood have been used widely to assess the degree of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation for more than 20 y. Many studies have used Doppler flowmeters based on an analogue circuit design to obtain the Doppler shifts in the signals backscattered from flowing blood; however, some recent studies have mentioned that the analogue Doppler flowmeter exhibits a frequency-response problem whereby the backscattered energy is lost at higher Doppler shift frequencies. Therefore, the measured Doppler power of flowing blood and evaluations of RBC aggregation obtained using an analogue Doppler device may be inaccurate. To overcome this problem, the present study implemented a field-programmable gate array-based digital pulsed-wave Doppler flowmeter to measure the Doppler power of flowing blood, in the aim of providing more accurate assessments of RBC aggregation. A clinical duplex ultrasound imaging system that can acquire pulsed-wave Doppler spectrograms is now available, but its usefulness for estimating the ultrasound scattering properties of blood is still in doubt. Therefore, the echogenicity and Doppler power of flowing blood under the same flow conditions were measured using a laboratory pulser-receiver system and a clinical ultrasound system, respectively, for comparisons. The experiments were carried out using porcine blood under steady laminar flow with both RBC suspensions and whole blood. The experimental results indicated that a clinical ultrasound system used to measure the Doppler spectrograms is not suitable for quantifying Doppler power. However, the Doppler power measured using a digital Doppler flowmeter can reveal the relationship between backscattering signals and the properties of blood cells because the effects of frequency response are eliminated. The measurements of the Doppler power and

  18. Temporal pattern of pulse wave velocity during brachial hyperemia reactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Valero, M. J.; Craiem, D.; Torrado, J.; Farro, I.; Zócalo, Y.; Valls, G.; Bía, D.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-09-01

    Endothelial function can be assessed non-invasively with ultrasound, analyzing the change of brachial diameter in response to transient forearm ischemia. We propose a new technique based in the same principle, but analyzing a continuous recording of carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) instead of diameter. PWV was measured on 10 healthy subjects of 22±2 years before and after 5 minutes forearm occlusion. After 59 ± 31 seconds of cuff release PWV decreased 21 ± 9% compared to baseline, reestablishing the same after 533 ± 65 seconds. There were no significant changes observed in blood pressure. When repeating the study one hour later in 5 subjects, we obtained a coefficient of repeatability of 4.8%. In conclusion, through analysis of beat to beat carotid-radial PWV it was possible to characterize the temporal profiles and analyze the acute changes in response to a reactive hyperemia. The results show that the technique has a high sensitivity and repeatability.

  19. Pulse wave transit time for monitoring respiration rate.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Ahlstrom, C; Lanne, T; Ask, P

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we investigate the beat-to-beat respiratory fluctuations in pulse wave transit time (PTT) and its subcomponents, the cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and the vessel transit time (VTT) in ten healthy subjects. The three transit times were found to fluctuate in pace with respiration. When applying a simple breath detecting algorithm, 88% of the breaths seen in a respiration air-flow reference could be detected correctly in PTT. Corresponding numbers for PEP and VTT were 76 and 81%, respectively. The performance during hypo- and hypertension was investigated by invoking blood pressure changes. In these situations, the error rates in breath detection were significantly higher. PTT can be derived from signals already present in most standard monitoring set-ups. The transit time technology thus has prospects to become an interesting alternative for respiration rate monitoring.

  20. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity in obese children.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ataç; Ozçetin, Mustafa; Yerli, Yasemin; Damar, Ibrahim Halil; Kadı, Hasan; Koç, Fatih; Ceyhan, Köksal

    2011-10-01

    Obesity may start in childhood and obese children are more likely to grow up to be obese adults. Atherosclerosis is one of the most important complications of obesity. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a noninvasive measure of arterial stiffness, is accepted to be an indicator of subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to determine PWV in obese children. The study included 30 obese (12 boys, 18 girls; mean age 13 ± 2 years) and 30 lean children (13 boys, 17 girls; mean age 12.5 ± 1.7 years). Weight and height were measured and obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) of greater than the 95th percentile for age. All the subjects underwent echocardiographic evaluation and blood samples were obtained. Pulse-wave velocity was calculated using the following equation: PWV (m/sec) = height-based aortic length (cm)/(100xtransit time [sec]). The latter was measured as the difference in the time of onset of two flows at the diaphragm and the aortic valve. Obese subjects had significantly higher blood pressure levels compared to the control group (p<0.001). The two groups were similar with respect to fasting glucose, hemoglobin, serum creatinine, and lipid levels. Among echocardiographic parameters, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, interventricular septum thickness, posterior wall thickness, left ventricular mass index, left atrium dimension, and aortic root dimension were significantly increased in obese subjects compared to controls (p<0.01). Obese children had significantly higher PWV values than the controls (4.0 ± 0.8 vs. 3.3 ± 0.7 m/sec, p<0.001). A positive significant correlation was found between PWV and BMI (r=0.391, p=0.002). Our findings show that aortic PWV is increased in obese children, suggesting that obesity may cause subclinical atherosclerosis even at early ages.

  1. Left ventricular ejection time, not heart rate, is an independent correlate of aortic pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Paolo; Palombo, Carlo; Salvi, Giovanni Matteo; Labat, Carlos; Parati, Gianfranco; Benetos, Athanase

    2013-12-01

    Several studies showed a positive association between heart rate and pulse wave velocity, a sensitive marker of arterial stiffness. However, no study involving a large population has specifically addressed the dependence of pulse wave velocity on different components of the cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to explore in subjects of different age the link between pulse wave velocity with heart period (the reciprocal of heart rate) and the temporal components of the cardiac cycle such as left ventricular ejection time and diastolic time. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was assessed in 3,020 untreated subjects (1,107 men). Heart period, left ventricular ejection time, diastolic time, and early-systolic dP/dt were determined by carotid pulse wave analysis with high-fidelity applanation tonometry. An inverse association was found between pulse wave velocity and left ventricular ejection time at all ages (<25 years, r(2) = 0.043; 25-44 years, r(2) = 0.103; 45-64 years, r(2) = 0.079; 65-84 years, r(2) = 0.044; ≥ 85 years, r(2) = 0.022; P < 0.0001 for all). A significant (P < 0.0001) negative but always weaker correlation between pulse wave velocity and heart period was also found, with the exception of the youngest subjects (P = 0.20). A significant positive correlation was also found between pulse wave velocity and dP/dt (P < 0.0001). With multiple stepwise regression analysis, left ventricular ejection time and dP/dt remained the only determinant of pulse wave velocity at all ages, whereas the contribution of heart period no longer became significant. Our data demonstrate that pulse wave velocity is more closely related to left ventricular systolic function than to heart period. This may have methodological and pathophysiological implications.

  2. Pulse Wave Variation during the Menstrual Cycle in Women with Menstrual Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kyu Kon; Lee, In Seon; Lee, Yong Tae; Kim, Gyeong Cheol; Chi, Gyoo Yong; Cho, Hye Sook; Kang, Hee Jung

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study is performed to obtain objective diagnostic indicators associated with menstrual pain using pulse wave analysis. Methods. Using a pulse diagnostic device, we measured the pulse waves of 541 women aged between 19 and 30 years, placed in either an experimental group with menstrual pain (n = 329) or a control group with little or no menstrual pain (n = 212). Measurements were taken during both the menstrual and nonmenstrual periods, and comparative analysis was performed. Results. During the nonmenstrual period, the experimental group showed a significantly higher value in the left radial artery for the radial augmentation index (RAI) (p = 0.050) but significantly lower values for pulse wave energy (p = 0.021) and time to first peak from baseline (T1) (p = 0.035) in the right radial artery. During the menstrual period, the experimental group showed significantly lower values in the left radial artery for cardiac diastole and pulse wave area during diastole and significantly higher values for pulse wave area during systole, ratio of systolic phase to the full heartbeat, and systolic-diastolic ratio. Conclusion. We obtained indicators of menstrual pain in women during the menstrual period, including prolonged systolic and shortened diastolic phases, increases in pulse wave energy and area of representative pulse wave, and increased blood vessel resistance. PMID:27579304

  3. Association of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity with Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis in Hypertension Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Qain, Yuesheng; Tang, Xiaofeng; Ling, Huawei; Chen, Kemin; Li, Yan; Gao, Pingjin; Zhu, Dingliang

    2016-08-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis is a common cause of ischemic stroke in Asians. We therefore sought to explore the relationship of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and intracranial arterial stenosis in 834 stroke-free hypertensive patients. Intracranial arterial stenosis was evaluated through computerized tomographic angiography. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was measured by an automated cuff device. The top decile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity was significantly associated with intracranial arterial stenosis (P = .027, odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-3.10). The patients with the top decile of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity showed 56% higher risk for the presence of intracranial arterial stenosis to the whole population, which was more significant in patients younger than 65 years old. We also found that brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity related to both intracranial arterial stenosis and homocysteine. Our study showed the association of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity with asymptomatic intracranial arterial stenosis in hypertension patients, especially in relative younger subjects. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity might be a relatively simple and repeatable measurement to detect hypertension patients in high risk of intracranial arterial stenosis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Pulse Wave Variation during the Menstrual Cycle in Women with Menstrual Pain.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Soo Hyung; Kim, Kyu Kon; Lee, In Seon; Lee, Yong Tae; Kim, Gyeong Cheol; Chi, Gyoo Yong; Cho, Hye Sook; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study is performed to obtain objective diagnostic indicators associated with menstrual pain using pulse wave analysis. Methods. Using a pulse diagnostic device, we measured the pulse waves of 541 women aged between 19 and 30 years, placed in either an experimental group with menstrual pain (n = 329) or a control group with little or no menstrual pain (n = 212). Measurements were taken during both the menstrual and nonmenstrual periods, and comparative analysis was performed. Results. During the nonmenstrual period, the experimental group showed a significantly higher value in the left radial artery for the radial augmentation index (RAI) (p = 0.050) but significantly lower values for pulse wave energy (p = 0.021) and time to first peak from baseline (T1) (p = 0.035) in the right radial artery. During the menstrual period, the experimental group showed significantly lower values in the left radial artery for cardiac diastole and pulse wave area during diastole and significantly higher values for pulse wave area during systole, ratio of systolic phase to the full heartbeat, and systolic-diastolic ratio. Conclusion. We obtained indicators of menstrual pain in women during the menstrual period, including prolonged systolic and shortened diastolic phases, increases in pulse wave energy and area of representative pulse wave, and increased blood vessel resistance.

  5. The (Pulsed-Wave) Doppler Fetal Myocardial Performance Index: Technical Challenges, Clinical Applications and Future Research.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Aditi; Henry, Amanda; Meriki, Neama; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Crispi, Fatima; Wu, Linda; Welsh, Alec W

    2015-01-01

    Functional cardiovascular assessment is becoming an increasingly important tool in the study of fetal pathology. The myocardial performance index (MPI) is a parameter measuring global myocardial function. Since its introduction, several studies have proposed methods to improve its reproducibility and have constructed normative reference ranges. Fetal heart evaluation using the MPI is technically challenging, requiring specific training and expertise, and a consensus has yet to be reached on the method of delineating the time periods used to calculate the index. Despite these limitations, it has been shown to be a useful and highly sensitive parameter of dysfunction in a number of fetal pathologies. Further research is warranted into the effect of pathology on MPI, parameters of unilateral cardiac strain that utilise MPI, and automation of the MPI to encourage incorporation of the MPI as a useful tool in clinical practice.

  6. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations.

  7. Magnetic plethysmograph transducers for local blood pulse wave velocity measurement.

    PubMed

    Nabeel, P M; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2014-01-01

    We present the design of magnetic plethysmograph (MPG) transducers for detection of blood pulse waveform and evaluation of local pulse wave velocity (PWV), for potential use in cuffless blood pressure (BP) monitoring. The sensors utilize a Hall effect magnetic field sensor to capture the blood pulse waveform. A strap based design is performed to enable reliable capture of large number of cardiac cycles with relative ease. The ability of the transducer to consistently detect the blood pulse is verified by in-vivo trials on few volunteers. A duality of such transducers is utilized to capture the local PWV at the carotid artery. The pulse transit time (PTT) between the two detected pulse waveforms, measured along a small section of the carotid artery, was evaluated using automated algorithms to ensure consistency of measurements. The correlation between the measured values of local PWV and BP was also investigated. The developed transducers provide a reliable, easy modality for detecting pulse waveform on superficial arteries. Such transducers, used for measurement of local PWV, could potentially be utilized for cuffless, continuous evaluation of BP at various superficial arterial sites.

  8. Comparison between Regional and Local Pulse-Wave Velocity Data.

    PubMed

    Simova, Iana; Katova, Tzvetana; Santoro, Ciro; Galderisi, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Gold standard for pulse-wave velocity (PWV) measurement is determination of the carotid-femoral cfPWV, reflecting regional aortic PWV. Nevertheless, in several echocardiographic laboratories, PWV is measured locally, most commonly at the common carotid artery (CCA). The aim of this study was to compare regional and local PWV values in healthy volunteers. The study population consisted of 22 prospectively enrolled healthy subjects, mean age 38.7 ± 11.1 years, 50% male. For regional PWV measurement, we evaluated cfPWV with a standard echo scanner. Regional PWV was measured at the CCA, with semiautomated dedicated software (MyLab, EsaOte, Italy). cfPWV and local PWV values correlated significantly with high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.62, P = 0.002). Mean regional cfPWV (9.29 ± 3.73 m/s), however, was significantly higher than mean local PWV value (5.96 ± 1.08 m/s) (P < 0.001). The difference persisted in the subgroup analysis using different cfPWV cutoff values (10, 9, 8, and 7 m/s), except for subjects with cfPWV ≤7 m/s, where regional and local PWV values were similar. In a group of healthy volunteers, regional and local PWV values showed a good correlation. However, regional PWV was significantly higher than local PWV. These findings should be carefully taken into account when using this technique in the clinical setting. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Pulse wave analysis for the prediction of preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Carty, D M; Neisius, U; Rooney, L K; Dominiczak, A F; Delles, C

    2014-02-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with a number of changes to maternal vascular function. Assessment of arterial stiffness using pulse wave analysis (PWA) has been proposed as a means of predicting preeclampsia before the onset of clinically detectable disease. One hundred and eighty women with 2 risk factors for preeclampsia were examined at gestational weeks 16 and 28, of whom 17 (9.4%) developed preeclampsia. To study the effects of pregnancy itself women were also examined at 6-9 months post-natally; an additional 30 healthy non-pregnant women were also examined. PWA was performed using SphygmoCor; augmentation index (AIx), a marker of arterial wave reflection, was also measured using EndoPAT-2000. Women who developed preeclampsia were more likely to be overweight and had a higher brachial and central diastolic BP at gestational week 16 than those who remained normotensive. There was no difference in any parameter of arterial wave reflection between non-pregnant and pregnant women, nor between those who developed preeclampsia and those who remained normotensive, when examined at weeks 16 and 28 or post-natally. In this cohort of women with risk factors for preeclampsia, PWA did not provide additional information beyond brachial blood pressure and maternal risk factor profile about the risk of future development of preeclampsia.

  10. Relationship between radial and central arterial pulse wave and evaluation of central aortic pressure using the radial arterial pulse wave.

    PubMed

    Takazawa, Kenji; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shindo, Naohisa; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Yamashina, Akira

    2007-03-01

    Since a decrease of central aortic pressure contributes to the prevention of cardiovascular events, simple measurement of not only brachial blood pressure but also central aortic pressure may be useful in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we simultaneously measured radial artery pulse waves non-invasively and ascending aortic pressure invasively, before and after the administration of nicorandil. We then compared changes in central aortic pressure and radial arterial blood pressure calibrated with brachial blood pressure in addition to calculating the augmentation index (AI) at the aorta and radial artery. After nicorandil administration, the reduction in maximal systolic blood pressure in the aorta (Deltaa-SBP) was -14+/-15 mmHg, significantly larger than that in early systolic pressure in the radial artery (Deltar-SBP) (-9+/-12 mmHg). The reduction in late systolic blood pressure in the radial artery (Deltar-SBP2) was -15+/-14 mmHg, significantly larger than Deltar-SBP, but not significantly different from Deltaa-SBP. There were significant relationships between Deltaa-SBP and Deltar-SBP (r=0.81, p<0.001), and between Deltaa-SBP and Deltar-SBP2 (r=0.91, p<0.001). The slope of the correlation regression line with Deltar-SBP2 (0.83) was larger and closer to 1 than that with Deltar-SBP (0.63), showing that the relationship was close to 1:1. Significant correlations were obtained between aortic AI (a-AI) and radial AI (r-AI) (before nicorandil administration: r=0.91, p<0.001; after administration: r=0.70, p<0.001). These data suggest that the measurement of radial artery pulse wave and observation of changes in the late systolic blood pressure in the radial artery (r-SBP2) in addition to the ordinary measurement of brachial blood pressure may enable a more accurate evaluation of changes in maximal systolic blood pressure in the aorta (a-SBP).

  11. Pilot Study: Estimation of Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output from Pulse Wave Velocity.

    PubMed

    Obata, Yurie; Mizogami, Maki; Nyhan, Daniel; Berkowitz, Dan E; Steppan, Jochen; Barodka, Viachaslau

    2017-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is increasingly replacing thermodilution pulmonary artery catheters to assess hemodynamics in patients at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity. However, one of the drawbacks of TEE compared to pulmonary artery catheters is the inability to measure real time stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) continuously. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to validate a novel method of SV estimation, based on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This is a retrospective observational study. We measured pulse transit time by superimposing the radial arterial waveform onto the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the left ventricular outflow tract, and calculated SV (SVPWV) using the transformed Bramwell-Hill equation. The SV measured by TEE (SVTEE) was used as a reference. A total of 190 paired SV were measured from 28 patients. A strong correlation was observed between SVPWV and SVTEE with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.71. A mean difference between the two (bias) was 3.70 ml with the limits of agreement ranging from -20.33 to 27.73 ml and a percentage error of 27.4% based on a Bland-Altman analysis. The concordance rate of two methods was 85.0% based on a four-quadrant plot. The angular concordance rate was 85.9% with radial limits of agreement (the radial sector that contained 95% of the data points) of ± 41.5 degrees based on a polar plot. PWV based SV estimation yields reasonable agreement with SV measured by TEE. Further studies are required to assess its utility in different clinical situations.

  12. Pilot Study: Estimation of Stroke Volume and Cardiac Output from Pulse Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Nyhan, Daniel; Berkowitz, Dan E.; Steppan, Jochen; Barodka, Viachaslau

    2017-01-01

    Background Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is increasingly replacing thermodilution pulmonary artery catheters to assess hemodynamics in patients at high risk for cardiovascular morbidity. However, one of the drawbacks of TEE compared to pulmonary artery catheters is the inability to measure real time stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) continuously. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to validate a novel method of SV estimation, based on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods This is a retrospective observational study. We measured pulse transit time by superimposing the radial arterial waveform onto the continuous wave Doppler waveform of the left ventricular outflow tract, and calculated SV (SVPWV) using the transformed Bramwell-Hill equation. The SV measured by TEE (SVTEE) was used as a reference. Results A total of 190 paired SV were measured from 28 patients. A strong correlation was observed between SVPWV and SVTEE with the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.71. A mean difference between the two (bias) was 3.70 ml with the limits of agreement ranging from -20.33 to 27.73 ml and a percentage error of 27.4% based on a Bland-Altman analysis. The concordance rate of two methods was 85.0% based on a four-quadrant plot. The angular concordance rate was 85.9% with radial limits of agreement (the radial sector that contained 95% of the data points) of ± 41.5 degrees based on a polar plot. Conclusions PWV based SV estimation yields reasonable agreement with SV measured by TEE. Further studies are required to assess its utility in different clinical situations. PMID:28060961

  13. Assessment of aortic pulse wave velocity by ultrasound: a feasibility study in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faita, Francesco; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Sicari, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness and could be useful for characterizing cardiovascular disease progression even in mouse models. Aim of this study was to develop an image process algorithm for assessing arterial PWV in mice using ultrasound (US) images only and test it on the evaluation of age-associated differences in abdominal aorta PWV (aaPWV). US scans were obtained from six adult (7 months) and six old (19 months) wild type male mice (strain C57BL6) under gaseous anaesthesia. For each mouse, diameter and flow velocity instantaneous values were achieved from abdominal aorta B-mode and PW-Doppler images; all measurements were obtained using edge detection and contour tracking techniques. Single-beat mean diameter and velocity were calculated and time-aligned, providing the lnD-V loop. aaPWV values were obtained from the slope of the linear part of the loop (the early systolic phase), while relative distension (relD) measurements were calculated from the mean diameter signal. aaPWV values for young mice (3.5±0.52 m/s) were lower than those obtained for older ones (5.12±0.98 m/s) while relD measurements were higher in young (25%±7%) compared with older animals evaluations (15%±3%). All measurements were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.01 both). In conclusion, the proposed image processing technique well discriminate between age groups. Since it provides PWV assessment just from US images, it could represent a simply and useful system for vascular stiffness evaluation at any arterial site in the mouse, even in preclinical small animal models.

  14. Estimation of Arterial Stiffness by Time-Frequency Analysis of Pulse Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Masashi; Yamamoto, Yuya; Shibayama, Yuka; Matsukawa, Mami; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Furuya, Mio; Asada, Takaaki

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of a pulse wave is effective for the early diagnosis of arteriosclerosis because the pulse wave contains the reflected wave that is the age- and stiffness-dependent component. In this study, we attempted to extract the parameter reflecting the component by pulse wave analysis using continuous wavelet transform. The Morlet wavelet was used as the mother wavelet. We then investigated the relationship between the parameter and the reflected wave that was extracted from the pulse wave by our previously reported separation technique. Consequently, the result of wavelet transform of the differentiated pulse waveform changed markedly owing to age and had medium correlation with the peak of the reflected wave (R=0.68).

  15. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and pulse wave reflection in adults.

    PubMed

    Recio-Rodriguez, J I; Gomez-Marcos, M A; Patino-Alonso, M-C; Rodrigo-De Pablo, E; Cabrejas-Sánchez, A; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, M S; Repiso-Gento, I; Gonzalez-Viejo, N; Maderuelo-Fernandez, J A; Agudo-Conde, C; Garcia-Ortiz, L

    2015-01-01

    Diets with a high glycemic index (GI), high glycemic load (GL), or both, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study examined the association of GI and GL in a regular diet with the peripheral augmentation index (i.e., a marker of vascular aging) in a sample of adults. Cross-sectional study. The findings presented in this manuscript are a subanalysis of the EVIDENT study whose purpose was to analyze the relationship between lifestyle and arterial aging. For the sample population, 1553 individuals aged 20-80 years were selected through random sampling from the patients of general practitioners at six health centers in Spain. GI and GL for each patient's diet were calculated from a previously validated, semi-quantitative, 137-item food frequency questionnaire. The peripheral augmentation index corrected for a heart rate of 75 bpm (PAIx75) was measured with pulse-wave application software (A-Pulse CASP). Based on a risk factor adjusted regression model, for every 5 unit increase in GI, the PAIx75 increased by 0.11 units (95% CI: 0.04-0.19). Similarly, for every increase in 10 units in GL, the PAIx75 increased by 1.13 (95% CI: 0.21-2.05). High PAIx75 values were observed in individuals with diets in the third GI tertile (i.e., the highest), and lower PAIx75 values in those with diets in the first tertile (i.e., the lowest), (93.1 vs. 87.5, respectively, p = 0.001). GI and GL were directly associated with PAIx75 values in adults without cardiovascular diseases regardless of age, gender, physical activity, and other confounders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Magnetic Plethysmograph Probe for Local Pulse Wave Velocity Measurement.

    PubMed

    P M, Nabeel; Joseph, Jayaraj; Sivaprakasam, Mohanasankar

    2017-08-29

    We present the design and experimental validation of an arterial compliance probe with dual magnetic plethysmograph (MPG) transducers for local pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement. The MPG transducers (positioned at 23 mm distance apart) utilizes Hall-effect sensors and permanent magnets for arterial blood pulse detection. The MPG probe was initially validated on an arterial flow phantom using a reference method. Further, 20 normotensive subjects (14 males, age = 24 ± 3.5 years) were studied under two different physical conditions: 1) Physically relaxed condition, 2) Postexercise condition. Local PWV was measured from the left carotid artery using the MPG probe. Brachial blood pressure (BP) was measured to investigate the correlation of BP with local PWV. The proposed MPG arterial compliance probe was capable of detecting high-fidelity blood pulse waveforms. Reliable local pulse transit time estimates were assessed by the developed measurement system. Beat-by-beat local PWV was measured from multiple subjects under different physical conditions. A profound increment was observed in the carotid local PWV for all subjects after exercise (average increment = 0.42 ± 0.22 m/s). Local PWV values and brachial BP parameters were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.72), except for pulse pressure (r = 0.42). MPG arterial compliance probe for local PWV measurement was validated. Carotid local PWV measurement, its variations due to physical exercise and correlation with BP levels were examined during the in vivo study. A novel dual MPG probe for local PWV measurement and potential use in cuffless BP measurement.

  17. Measurement of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity With a Connected Bathroom Scale.

    PubMed

    Campo, David; Khettab, Hakim; Yu, Roger; Genain, Nicolas; Edouard, Paul; Buard, Nadine; Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of arterial stiffness should be more available. Our aim was to show that aortic pulse wave velocity can be reliably measured with a bathroom scale combining the principles of ballistocardiography (BCG) and impedance plethysmography on a single foot. The calibration of the bathroom scale was conducted on a group of 106 individuals. The aortic pulse wave velocity was measured with the SphygmoCor in the supine position. Three consecutive measurements were then performed on the Withings scale in the standing position. This aorta-leg pulse transit time (alPTT) was then converted into a velocity with the additional input of the height of the person. Agreement between the SphygmoCor and the bathroom scale so calibrated is assessed on a separate group of 86 individuals, following the same protocol. The bias is 0.25 m·s-1 and the SE 1.39 m·s-1. This agreement with Sphygmocor is "acceptable" according to the ARTERY classification. The alPTT correlated well with cfPTT with (Spearman) R = 0.73 in pooled population (cal 0.79, val 0.66). The aorta-leg pulse wave velocity correlated with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity with R = 0.76 (cal 0.80, val 0.70). Estimation of the aortic pulse wave velocity is feasible with a bathroom scale. Further investigations are needed to improve the repeatability of measurements and to test their accuracy in different populations and conditions.

  18. FPGA-based design and implementation of arterial pulse wave generator using piecewise Gaussian-cosine fitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Xu, Lisheng; Zhao, Dazhe; Yao, Yang; Song, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Because arterial pulse waves contain vital information related to the condition of the cardiovascular system, considerable attention has been devoted to the study of pulse waves in recent years. Accurate acquisition is essential to investigate arterial pulse waves. However, at the stage of developing equipment for acquiring and analyzing arterial pulse waves, specific pulse signals may be unavailable for debugging and evaluating the system under development. To produce test signals that reflect specific physiological conditions, in this paper, an arterial pulse wave generator has been designed and implemented using a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which can produce the desired pulse waves according to the feature points set by users. To reconstruct a periodic pulse wave from the given feature points, a method known as piecewise Gaussian-cosine fitting is also proposed in this paper. Using a test database that contains four types of typical pulse waves with each type containing 25 pulse wave signals, the maximum residual error of each sampling point of the fitted pulse wave in comparison with the real pulse wave is within 8%. In addition, the function for adding baseline drift and three types of noises is integrated into the developed system because the baseline occasionally wanders, and noise needs to be added for testing the performance of the designed circuits and the analysis algorithms. The proposed arterial pulse wave generator can be considered as a special signal generator with a simple structure, low cost and compact size, which can also provide flexible solutions for many other related research purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-invasive human extremely weak pulse wave measurement based on a high-precision laser self-mixing interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Ying-bin; Wei, Zheng; Huang, Wen-cai; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Li-juan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a technique based on laser self-mixing effect for acquiring pulse wave profile is proposed and demonstrated. For the characteristics of extremely weak vibration in human pulse waves, a method of multiple reflections with external cavity is designed to improve the measurement accuracy to λ/4. Based on the fringe counting algorithm, one period of pulse wave is successfully reconstructed. The measurement results show that the root mean square error ( RMSE) of the reconstructed pulse wave is 0.912 μm at sampling rate of 8 kHz. Besides, the correlation coefficients and heart beats of this method and the traditional photoplethysmography (PPG) measurement are analyzed.

  20. Pulse wave imaging in normal, hypertensive and aneurysmal human aortas in vivo: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ronny X.; Luo, Jianwen; Balaram, Sandhya K.; Chaudhry, Farooq A.; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2013-07-01

    Arterial stiffness is a well-established biomarker for cardiovascular risk, especially in the case of hypertension. The progressive stages of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) have also been associated with varying arterial stiffness. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive, ultrasound imaging-based technique that uses the pulse wave-induced arterial wall motion to map the propagation of the pulse wave and measure the regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) as an index of arterial stiffness. In this study, the clinical feasibility of PWI was evaluated in normal, hypertensive, and aneurysmal human aortas. Radiofrequency-based speckle tracking was used to estimate the pulse wave-induced displacements in the abdominal aortic walls of normal (N = 15, mean age 32.5 ± 10.2 years), hypertensive (N = 13, mean age 60.8 ± 15.8 years), and aneurysmal (N = 5, mean age 71.6 ± 11.8 years) human subjects. Linear regression of the spatio-temporal variation of the displacement waveform in the anterior aortic wall over a single cardiac cycle yielded the slope as the PWV and the coefficient of determination r2 as an approximate measure of the pulse wave propagation uniformity. The aortic PWV measurements in all normal, hypertensive, and AAA subjects were 6.03 ± 1.68, 6.69 ± 2.80, and 10.54 ± 6.52 m s-1, respectively. There was no significant difference (p = 0.15) between the PWVs of the normal and hypertensive subjects while the PWVs of the AAA subjects were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to those of the other two groups. Also, the average r2 in the AAA subjects was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than that in the normal and hypertensive subjects. These preliminary results suggest that the regional PWV and the pulse wave propagation uniformity (r2) obtained using PWI, in addition to the PWI images and spatio-temporal maps that provide qualitative visualization of the pulse wave, may potentially provide valuable information for the clinical characterization of aneurysms

  1. Pulse wave velocity in patients with severe head injury a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shahsavari, S; McKelvey, T; Rydenhag, B; Ritzén, C Eriksson

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the potential of pulse wave velocity measurements to reflect changes in compliant cerebral arteries/arterioles in head injured patients. The approach utilizes the electrocardiogram and intracranial pressure signals to measure the wave transit time between heart and cranial cavity. Thirty five clinical records of nineteen head injured patients, with different levels of cerebrovascular pressure-reactivity response, were investigated through the study. Results were compared with magnitude of normalized transfer function at the fundamental cardiac frequency. In patients with intact cerebrovascular pressure-reactivity, magnitude of normalized transfer function at the fundamental cardiac component was found to be highly correlated with pulse wave transit time.

  2. Estimated Pulse Wave Velocity Calculated from Age and Mean Arterial Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Greve, Sara V.; Laurent, Stephan; Olsen, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    In a recently published paper, Greve et al [J Hypertens 2016;34:1279-1289] investigate whether the estimated carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (ePWV), calculated using an equation derived from the relationship between carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), age, and blood pressure, predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD) as good as the measured cfPWV. Because ePWV predicts CVD as good as cfPWV, some might wonder whether ePWV could be replaced by cfPWV, which is a time-consuming measurement requiring an expensive apparatus. This question is addressed in this mini-review. PMID:28229052

  3. ON THE ELIMINATION OF PULSE WAVE VELOCITY IN STROKE VOLUME DETERMINATION FROM THE ULTRALOW-FREQUENCY DISPLACEMENT BALLISTOCARDIOGRAM,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    stroke volume and ballistocardiographic amplitude was investigated for different pulse wave velocities. It was found that the amplitude of the...displacement ballistocardiogram, as used by Klensch (’J’ M minus ’I’ J), is strongly correlated to stroke volume; however, the relationship is highly...correlation between amplitude and stroke volume but is now independent of pulse wave velocity. (Author)

  4. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production

    PubMed Central

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production. PMID:28186124

  5. RELATIONS BETWEEN DAIRY FOOD INTAKE AND ARTERIAL STIFFNESS: PULSE WAVE VELOCITY AND PULSE PRESSURE

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Abhayaratna, Walter P.; Robbins, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors, such as diet, are becomingly increasingly important in the management of cardiovascular disease, one of the greatest major causes of death and disease burden. Few studies have examined the role of diet as a possible means of reducing arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity, an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dairy food intake is associated with measures of arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. A cross-sectional analysis of a subset of the Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study sample was performed. A linear decrease in pulse wave velocity was observed across increasing intakes of dairy food consumption (ranging from never/rarely to daily dairy food intake). The negative linear relationship between pulse wave velocity and intake of dairy food was independent of demographic variables, other cardiovascular disease risk factors and nutrition variables. The pattern of results was very similar for pulse pressure, while no association between dairy food intake and lipid levels was found. Further intervention studies are needed to ascertain whether dairy food intake may be an appropriate dietary intervention for the attenuation of age-related arterial stiffening and reduction of cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22431583

  6. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production.

  7. Laboratory Model of the Cardiovascular System for Experimental Demonstration of Pulse Wave Propagation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojadinovic, Bojana; Nestorovic, Zorica; Djuric, Biljana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Žikic, Dejan

    2017-01-01

    The velocity by which a disturbance moves through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is among the key parameters in hemodynamics. Investigation of wave propagation through the fluid-filled elastic tube has a great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through the cardiovascular system.…

  8. [A calibrated method for blood pressure measurement based on volume pulse wave].

    PubMed

    Youde, Ding; Qinkai, Deng; Feixue, Liang; Jinseng, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Physiology parameters measurement based on volume pulse wave is suitable for the monitoring blood pressure continuously. This paper described that the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) can be calibrated by measuring the pulse propagation time, just on one point of finger tip. The volume pulse wave was acquired by lighting the red and infrared LED alternately, and after signal processing, an accelerated pulse wave was obtained. Then by measuring the pulse wave propagation time between the progressive wave and reflected wave, we can find the relationship of the time and the blood pressure, and establish the related systolic blood pressure measurement equation. At the same time, based on the relationship between alternating current and direct current components in the volume pulse waveforms and through regression analysising, the relevant diastolic blood pressure measurement equation can be established. 33 clinical experimentation cases have been worked by dividing them into two groups: training group (18 cases) and control group (15 cases), by comparing with the measuring results of the OMRON electronic sphygmomanometer. The results indicated that the two methods had good coherence. The measurement described is simple and reliable, and may be served as a new method for noninvasively and continuously measurement of blood pressure.

  9. [Velocity estimation of aortic propagation based on radial pulse wave analysis].

    PubMed

    Clara, Fernando; Blanco, Gustavo; Casarini, Alfredo; Corral, Pablo; Meschino, Gustavo; Scandurra, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed the possibility of using the radial pulse wave morphology, obtained by a movement transducer, to evaluate the aortic pulse wave velocity. The radial pulse wave signals were obtained by using a transducer, located on the pulse palpation area, in 167 healthy normotensive male volunteers, ages 20 to 70. The reflected wave was identified in every case. Also, a speed coefficient was defined as the ratio between the individual's height and the time between the maximum systolic wave and the arrival time of the reflected wave. We found that the specified coefficient in normotensive individuals increased linearly with age, in a similar way to the increase in aortic propagation velocity measured by other methods. The procedure was repeated on another set of 125 individuals with hypertension, without other risk factors, aged between the 3rd and 7th decade. This time we found similar values to normotensive individuals only on the 3th decade, and a pronounced increase on the velocity coefficient at advanced ages was observed. These findings support the feasibility of using this type of signals to indirectly evaluate the propagation velocity together with the increase index, a parameter commonly used in pulse wave analysis.

  10. Algal Cell Response to Pulsed Waved Stimulation and Its Application to Increase Algal Lipid Production.

    PubMed

    Savchenko, Oleksandra; Xing, Jida; Yang, Xiaoyan; Gu, Quanrong; Shaheen, Mohamed; Huang, Min; Yu, Xiaojian; Burrell, Robert; Patra, Prabir; Chen, Jie

    2017-02-10

    Generating renewable energy while sequestering CO2 using algae has recently attracted significant research attention, mostly directing towards biological methods such as systems biology, genetic engineering and bio-refining for optimizing algae strains. Other approaches focus on chemical screening to adjust culture conditions or culture media. We report for the first time the physiological changes of algal cells in response to a novel form of mechanical stimulation, or a pulsed wave at the frequency of 1.5 MHz and the duty cycle of 20%. We studied how the pulsed wave can further increase algal lipid production on top of existing biological and chemical methods. Two commonly used algal strains, fresh-water Chlorella vulgaris and seawater Tetraselmis chuii, were selected. We have performed the tests in shake flasks and 1 L spinner-flask bioreactors. Conventional Gravimetric measurements show that up to 20% increase for algal lipid could be achieved after 8 days of stimulation. The total electricity cost needed for the stimulations in a one-liter bioreactor is only one-tenth of a US penny. Gas liquid chromatography shows that the fatty acid composition remains unchanged after pulsed-wave stimulation. Scanning electron microscope results also suggest that pulsed wave stimulation induces shear stress and thus increases algal lipid production.

  11. Imaging pulse wave velocity in mouse retina using swept-source OCT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Shaozhen; Wei, Wei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Blood vessel dynamics has been a significant subject in cardiology and internal medicine, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) on artery vessels is a classic evaluation of arterial distensibility, and has never been ascertained as a cardiovascular risk marker. The aim of this study is to develop a high speed imaging technique to capture the pulsatile motion on mouse retina arteries with the ability to quantify PWV on any arterial vessels. We demonstrate a new non-invasive method to assess the vessel dynamics on mouse retina. A Swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system is used for imaging micro-scale blood vessel motion. The phase-stabilized SS-OCT provides a typical displacement sensitivity of 20 nm. The frame rate of imaging is ~16 kHz, at A-line rate of ~1.62 MHz, which allows the detection of transient pulse waves with adequate temporal resolution. Imaging volumes with repeated B-scans are obtained on mouse retina capillary bed, and the mouse oxymeter signal is recorded simultaneously. The pulse wave on artery and vein are resolved, and with the synchronized heart beat signal, the temporal delay on different vessel locations is determined. The vessel specific measurement of PWV is achieved for the first time with SS-OCT, for pulse waves propagating more than 100 cm/s. Using the novel methodology of retinal PWV assessment, it is hoped that the clinical OCT scans can provide extended diagnostic information of cardiology functionalities.

  12. [Design and implementation of the pulse wave generator with field programmable gate array based on windkessel model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Fu, Quanhai; Xu, Lisheng; Liu, Jia; He, Dianning; Li, Qingchun

    2014-10-01

    Pulse waves contain rich physiological and pathological information of the human vascular system. The pulse wave diagnosis systems are very helpful for the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Accurate pulse waveform is necessary to evaluate the performances of the pulse wave equipment. However, it is difficult to obtain accurate pulse waveform due to several kinds of physiological and pathological conditions for testing and maintaining the pulse wave acquisition devices. A pulse wave generator was designed and implemented in the present study for this application. The blood flow in the vessel was simulated by modeling the cardiovascular system with windkessel model. Pulse waves can be generated based on the vascular systems with four kinds of resistance. Some functional models such as setting up noise types and signal noise ratio (SNR) values were also added in the designed generator. With the need of portability, high speed dynamic response, scalability and low power consumption for the system, field programmable gate array (FPGA) was chosen as hardware platform, and almost all the works, such as developing an algorithm for pulse waveform and interfacing with memory and liquid crystal display (LCD), were implemented under the flow of system on a programmable chip (SOPC) development. When users input in the key parameters through LCD and touch screen, the corresponding pulse wave will be displayed on the LCD and the desired pulse waveform can be accessed from the analog output channel as well. The structure of the designed pulse wave generator is simple and it can provide accurate solutions for studying and teaching pulse waves and the detection of the equipments for acquisition and diagnosis of pulse wave.

  13. Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries: anatomy and scanning guidelines.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Young

    2017-04-01

    Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography.

  14. Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries: anatomy and scanning guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries is a valuable technique, although it is less frequently indicated for peripheral arterial disease than for deep vein thrombosis or varicose veins. Ultrasonography can diagnose stenosis through the direct visualization of plaques and through the analysis of the Doppler waveforms in stenotic and poststenotic arteries. To perform Doppler ultrasonography of the lower extremity arteries, the operator should be familiar with the arterial anatomy of the lower extremities, basic scanning techniques, and the parameters used in color and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography. PMID:28219004

  15. Pulse-wave propagation in straight-geometry vessels for stiffness estimation: theory, simulations, phantoms and in vitro findings.

    PubMed

    Shahmirzadi, Danial; Li, Ronny X; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2012-11-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method for noninvasive characterization of arterial stiffness based on pulse wave propagation. Reliable numerical models of pulse wave propagation in normal and pathological aortas could serve as powerful tools for local pulse wave analysis and a guideline for PWI measurements in vivo. The objectives of this paper are to (1) apply a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation of a straight-geometry aorta to confirm the Moens-Korteweg relationship between the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the wall modulus, and (2) validate the simulation findings against phantom and in vitro results. PWI depicted and tracked the pulse wave propagation along the abdominal wall of canine aorta in vitro in sequential Radio-Frequency (RF) ultrasound frames and estimates the PWV in the imaged wall. The same system was also used to image multiple polyacrylamide phantoms, mimicking the canine measurements as well as modeling softer and stiffer walls. Finally, the model parameters from the canine and phantom studies were used to perform 3D two-way coupled FSI simulations of pulse wave propagation and estimate the PWV. The simulation results were found to correlate well with the corresponding Moens-Korteweg equation. A high linear correlation was also established between PWV² and E measurements using the combined simulation and experimental findings (R² =  0.98) confirming the relationship established by the aforementioned equation.

  16. Pulse wave velocity and digital volume pulse as indirect estimators of blood pressure: pilot study on healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Juan M; Berjano, Enrique J; Sáiz, Javier; Rodriguez, Rafael; Fácila, Lorenzo

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to asses the potential use of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and digital volume pulse (DVP) as estimators of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DPB) blood pressure. Single and multiple correlation studies were conducted, including biometric parameters and risk factors. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) and DVP signals were obtained from a Pulse Trace PWV and Pulse Trace PCA (pulse contour analysis), respectively. The DVP (obtained by photoplethysmography), allowed stiffness (SI) and reflection indexes (RI) to be derived. The first study on 47 healthy volunteers showed that both SBP and DPB correlated significantly both with baPWV and SI. Multiple regression models of the baPWV and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) allowed SBP and DBP to be modeled with r = 0.838 and r = 0.673, respectively. SI results also employed WHR and modeled SBP and DBP with r = 0.852 and r = 0.663, respectively. RI did not correlate either with SBP or DBP. In order to avoid the use of ultrasound techniques to measure PWV, we then developed a custom-built system to measure PWV by photoplethysmography and validated it against the Pulse Trace. With the same equipment we conducted a second pilot study with ten healthy volunteers. The best SBP multiple regression model for SBP achieved r = 0.997 by considering the heart-finger PWV (hfPWV measured between R-wave and index finger), WHR and heart rate. Only WHR was significant in the DBP model. Our findings suggest that the hfPWV photoplethysmography signal could be a reliable estimator of approximate SBP and could be used, for example, to monitor cardiac patients during physical exercise sessions in cardiac rehabilitation.

  17. Feasibility of two-dimensional speckle tracking in evaluation of arterial stiffness: Comparison with pulse wave velocity and conventional sonographic markers of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Podgórski, Michał; Grzelak, Piotr; Kaczmarska, Magdalena; Polguj, Michał; Łukaszewski, Maciej; Stefańczyk, Ludomir

    2017-01-01

    Objective Arterial stiffening is an early marker of atherosclerosis that has a prognostic value for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although many markers of arterial hardening have been proposed, the search is on for newer, more user-friendly and reliable surrogates. One such potential candidate has emerged from cardiology, the speckle-tracking technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of the two-dimensional speckle tracking for the evaluation of arterial wall stiffness in comparison with standard stiffness parameters. Methods Carotid ultrasound and applanation tonometry were performed in 188 patients with no cardiovascular risk factors. The following parameters were then evaluated: the intima-media complex thickness, distensibility coefficient, β-stiffness index, circumferential strain/strain rate, and pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. These variables were compared with each other and with patient age, and their reliability was assessed with Bland-Altman plots. Results Strain parameters derived from two-dimensional speckle tracking and intima-media complex thickness correlated better with age and pulse wave velocity than standard makers of arterial stiffness. Moreover, the reliability of these measurements was significantly higher than conventional surrogates. Conclusions Two-dimensional speckle tracing is a reliable method for the evaluation of arterial stiffness. Therefore, together with intima-media complex thickness measurement, it offers great potential in clinical practice as an early marker of atherosclerosis.

  18. Influence of biologic factor on the velocity of propagation of pulse waves in vessels of living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumets, Pavel

    2012-11-01

    In this work there has been examined a mathematical model illustrating propagation of a pulse wave, with biological activity of a blood vessel's walls taken into consideration. The influence of the biological factor was allowed for in the equations connecting stresses and deformations of the vessel's walls among themselves. There has been deduced a formula defining the pulse wave propagation velocity in an orthotropic resilient blood-filled vessel, influenced by the biological factor. The obtained results allow us to make a conclusion that stimulation of muscle fibers of the vessel's wall brings on an increase in the pulse wave propagation velocity.

  19. Non-contact measurement of pulse wave velocity using RGB cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Kazuya; Aoki, Yuta; Satoh, Ryota; Hoshi, Akira; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-03-01

    Non-contact measurement of pulse wave velocity (PWV) using red, green, and blue (RGB) digital color images is proposed. Generally, PWV is used as the index of arteriosclerosis. In our method, changes in blood volume are calculated based on changes in the color information, and is estimated by combining multiple regression analysis (MRA) with a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) model of the transit of light in human skin. After two pulse waves of human skins were measured using RGB cameras, and the PWV was calculated from the difference of the pulse transit time and the distance between two measurement points. The measured forehead-finger PWV (ffPWV) was on the order of m/s and became faster as the values of vital signs raised. These results demonstrated the feasibility of this method.

  20. Pulse wave transit time measured by imaging photoplethysmography in upper extremities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volynsky, M. A.; Mamontov, O. V.; Sidorov, I. S.; Kamshilin, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    We describe highly reliable measurement method of the pulse wave transit time (PWTT) to human limbs by using simultaneous recordings of imaging photoplethysmography and electrocardiography. High accuracy of measurements was achieved by access to a larger number of statistically independent data obtained simultaneously in different points. The method is characterized by higher diagnostic reliability because of automatic selection of the regions less affected by environmental noise. The technique was tested in the group of 12 young healthy subjects aged from 21 to 33 years. Even though PWTT in right and left hands was comparable after averaging over the whole group of subjects, significant difference in the time delay of pulse wave between the hands was found in several individuals. The technique can be used for early-stage diagnostics of various vascular diseases.

  1. Impedance of the arterial system in terms of Fourier harmonic analysis of the pulse wave.

    PubMed

    Oliva, I; Geshwind, H; Guttenbergerová, K; Roztocil, K; Laurent, D

    1978-01-01

    The results obtained by analysis of pulse waves by means of Fourier harmonics in healthy subjects and patients with aortic insufficiency show good agreement between input impedance of the aorta and the initial segment of the femoral bed in both groups. This means that in this region there is no marked increase in impedance, which provides a favourable background for energy transfer (blood content) in the distal direction. Impedance in healthy subjects increases in vessels of the lower extremity. In patients with aortic insufficiency there is a marked decrease in amplitude of all higher harmonic frequencies. This practically means that the second harmonic is no longer the main accumulator of energy of the pulse wave as in healthy subjects, and the same is also true, to a proportionate degree, for the third, fourth and fifth harmonics.

  2. A new method for the acquisition of arterial pulse wave using self-mixing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arasanz, A.; Azcona, F. J.; Royo, S.; Jha, A.; Pladellorens, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present a technique based on self-mixing interferometry as a method for the acquisition and reconstruction of the arterial pulse wave. A modification of the classic fringe counting reconstruction algorithm is proposed to deal with some of the problems caused by biological tissue surface roughness, therefore allowing a reconstruction of the arterial displacement with a resolution of 400 nm. The traits of the arterial pulse wave have been retrieved with high detail, allowing their interpretation by a skilled practitioner. The heart beat measurements show a good agreement when compared to the readings of a commercial pulse-meter, therefore proving the versatility and the viability of the technique for the measurement of other cardiovascular signals.

  3. Feasibility and Validation of 4-D Pulse Wave Imaging in Phantoms and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Iason-Zacharias; Nauleau, Pierre; Papadacci, Clement; McGarry, Matthew D; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2017-09-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a noninvasive technique for tracking the propagation of the pulse wave along the arterial wall. The 3-D ultrasound imaging would aid in objectively estimating the pulse wave velocity (PWV) vector. This paper aims to introduce a novel PWV estimation method along the propagation direction, validate it in phantoms, and test its feasibility in vivo. A silicone vessel phantom consisting of a stiff and a soft segment along the longitudinal axis and a silicone vessel with a plaque were constructed. A 2-D array with a center frequency of 2.5 MHz was used. Propagation was successfully visualized in 3-D in each phantom and in vivo in six healthy subjects. In three of the healthy subjects, results were compared against conventional PWI using a linear array. PWVs were estimated in the stiff (3.42 ± 0.23 m [Formula: see text]) and soft (2.41 ± 0.07 m [Formula: see text]) phantom segments. Good agreement was found with the corresponding static testing values (stiff: 3.41 m [Formula: see text] and soft: 2.48 m [Formula: see text]). PWI-derived vessel compliance values were validated with dynamic testing. Comprehensive views of pulse propagation in the plaque phantom were generated and compared against conventional PWI acquisitions. Good agreement was found in vivo between the results of 4-D PWI (4.80 ± 1.32 m [Formula: see text]) and conventional PWI (4.28±1.20 m [Formula: see text]) ( n=3 ). PWVs derived for all of the healthy subjects ( n = 6 ) were within the physiological range. Thus, the 4-D PWI was successfully validated in phantoms and used to image the pulse wave propagation in normal human subjects in vivo.

  4. Laboratory model of the cardiovascular system for experimental demonstration of pulse wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojadinović, Bojana; Nestorović, Zorica; Djurić, Biljana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Žikić, Dejan

    2017-03-01

    The velocity by which a disturbance moves through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is among the key parameters in hemodynamics. Investigation of wave propagation through the fluid-filled elastic tube has a great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through the cardiovascular system. Here, we present a laboratory model of the cardiovascular system. We have designed an experimental setup which can help medical and nursing students to properly learn and understand basic fluid hemodynamic principles, pulse wave and the phenomenon of wave propagation in blood vessels. Demonstration of wave propagation allowed a real time observation of the formation of compression and expansion waves by students, thus enabling them to better understand the difference between the two waves, and also to measure the pulse wave velocity for different fluid viscosities. The laboratory model of the cardiovascular system could be useful as an active learning methodology and a complementary tool for understanding basic principles of hemodynamics.

  5. [A quick algorithm of dynamic spectrum photoelectric pulse wave detection based on LabVIEW].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Li, Na; Li, Gang

    2010-02-01

    Dynamic spectrum (DS) detection is attractive among the numerous noninvasive blood component detection methods because of the elimination of the main interference of the individual discrepancy and measure conditions. DS is a kind of spectrum extracted from the photoelectric pulse wave and closely relative to the artery blood. It can be used in a noninvasive blood component concentration examination. The key issues in DS detection are high detection precision and high operation speed. The precision of measure can be advanced by making use of over-sampling and lock-in amplifying on the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave in DS detection. In the present paper, the theory expression formula of the over-sampling and lock-in amplifying method was deduced firstly. Then in order to overcome the problems of great data and excessive operation brought on by this technology, a quick algorithm based on LabVIEW and a method of using external C code applied in the pick-up of photoelectric pulse wave were presented. Experimental verification was conducted in the environment of LabVIEW. The results show that by the method pres ented, the speed of operation was promoted rapidly and the data memory was reduced largely.

  6. Estimation of local pulse wave velocity using arterial diameter waveforms: Experimental validation in sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, S.; Craiem, D.; Barra, J. G.; Armentano, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Estimation of arterial stiffness using local pulse wave velocity (PWV) promises to be very useful for noninvasive diagnosis of arteriosclerosis. In this work we estimated in an instrumented sheep, the local aortic pulse wave velocity using two sonomicrometry diameter sensors (separated 7.5 cm) according to the transit time method (PWVTT) with a sampling rate of 4 KHz. We simultaneously measured aortic pressure in order to determine from pressure-diameter loops (PWVPDLoop), the "true" local aortic pulse wave velocity. A pneumatic cuff occluder was implanted in the aorta in order to compare both methods under a wide range of pressure levels. Mean pressure values ranged from 47 to 101 mmHg and mean proximal diameter values from 12.5. to 15.2 mm. There were no significant differences between PWVTT and PWVPDLoop values (451±43 vs. 447±48 cm/s, p = ns, paired t-test). Both methods correlated significantly (R = 0.81, p<0.05). The mean difference between both methods was only -4±29 cm/s, whereas the range of the limits of agreement (mean ± 2 standard deviation) was -61 to +53 cm/s, showing no trend. In conclusion, the diameter waveforms transit time method was found to allow an accurate and precise estimation of the local aortic PWV.

  7. Blood pulse wave velocity and pressure sensing via fiber based and free space based optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirkis, Talia; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Agdarov, Sergey; Beiderman, Yafim; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2017-02-01

    Continuous noninvasive measurement of vital bio-signs, such as cardiopulmonary parameters, is an important tool in evaluation of the patient's physiological condition and health monitoring. On the demand of new enabling technologies, some works have been done in continuous monitoring of blood pressure and pulse wave velocity. In this paper, we introduce two techniques for non-contact sensing of vital bio signs. In the first approach the optical sensor is based on single mode in-fibers Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) to detect heartbeat, respiration and pulse wave velocity (PWV). The introduced interferometer is based on a new implanted scheme. It replaces the conventional MZI realized by inserting of discontinuities in the fiber to break the total internal reflection and scatter/collect light. The proposed fiber sensor was successfully incorporated into shirt to produce smart clothing. The measurements obtained from the smart clothing could be obtained in comfortable manner and there is no need to have an initial calibration or a direct contact between the sensor and the skin of the tested individual. In the second concept we show a remote noncontact blood pulse wave velocity and pressure measurement based on tracking the temporal changes of reflected secondary speckle patterns produced in human skin when illuminated by a laser beams. In both concept experimental validation of the proposed schemes is shown and analyzed.

  8. High resolution wavenumber analysis for investigation of arterial pulse wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hideyuki; Sato, Masakazu; Irie, Takasuke

    2016-07-01

    The propagation of the pulse wave along the artery is relatively fast (several m/s), and a high-temporal resolution is required to measure pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a regional segment of the artery. High-frame-rate ultrasound enables the measurement of the regional PWV. In analyses of wave propagation phenomena, the direction and propagation speed are generally identified in the frequency-wavenumber space using the two-dimensional Fourier transform. However, the wavelength of the pulse wave is very long (1 m at a propagation velocity of 10 m/s and a temporal frequency of 10 Hz) compared with a typical lateral field of view of 40 mm in ultrasound imaging. Therefore, PWV cannot be identified in the frequency-wavenumber space owing to the low resolution of the two-dimensional Fourier transform. In the present study, PWV was visualized in the wavenumber domain using phases of arterial wall acceleration waveforms measured by high-frame-rate ultrasound.

  9. Pulse wave velocity for assessment of arterial stiffness among people with spinal cord injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miyatani, Masae; Masani, Kei; Oh, Paul I; Miyachi, Motohiko; Popovic, Milos R; Craven, B Cathy

    2009-01-01

    The most significant complication and leading cause of death for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) is coronary artery disease (CAD). It has been confirmed that aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an emerging CAD predictor among able-bodied individuals. No prior study has described PWV values among people with SCI. The objective of this study was to compare aortic (the common carotid to femoral artery) PWV, arm (the brachial to radial artery) PWV, and leg (the femoral to posterior tibial artery) PWV in people with SCI (SCI group) to able-bodied controls (non-SCI group). Participants included 12 men with SCI and 9 non-SCI controls matched for age, sex, height, and weight. Participants with a history of CAD or current metabolic syndrome were excluded. Aortic, arm, and leg PWV was measured using the echo Doppler method. Aortic PWV (mean +/- SD) in the SCI group (1,274 +/- 369 cm/s) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in the non-SCI group (948 +/- 110 cm/s). There were no significant between-group differences in mean arm PWV (SCI: 1,152 +/- 193 cm/s, non-SCI: 1,237 +/- 193 cm/s) or mean leg PWV (SCI: 1,096 +/- 173 cm/s, non-SCI: 994 +/- 178 cm/s) values. Aortic PWV was higher among the SCI group compared with the non-SCI group. The higher mean aortic PWV values among the SCI group compared with the non-SCI group indicated a higher risk of CAD among people with SCI in the absence of metabolic syndrome.

  10. Pulse Wave Velocity Predicts Response to Renal Denervation in Isolated Systolic Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fengler, Karl; Rommel, Karl-Philipp; Hoellriegel, Robert; Blazek, Stephan; Besler, Christian; Desch, Steffen; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Lurz, Philipp

    2017-05-17

    Renal sympathetic denervation seems to be less effective as a treatment for hypertension in patients with isolated systolic hypertension, a condition associated with elevated central arterial stiffness. Because isolated systolic hypertension can also be caused by wave reflection or increased cardiac output, a more differentiated approach might improve patient preselection for renal sympathetic denervation. We sought to evaluate the additional predictive value of invasive pulse wave velocity for response to renal sympathetic denervation in patients with combined versus isolated systolic hypertension. Patients scheduled for renal sympathetic denervation underwent additional invasive measurement of pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure before denervation. Blood pressure was assessed via ambulatory measurement at baseline and after 3 months. In total 109 patients (40 patients with isolated systolic hypertension) were included in our analysis. After 3 months, blood pressure reduction was more pronounced among patients with combined hypertension compared with patients with isolated systolic hypertension (systolic 24-hour average 9.3±10.5 versus 5.0±11.5 mm Hg, P=0.046). However, when stratifying patients with isolated systolic hypertension by invasive pulse wave velocity, patients in the lowest tertile of pulse wave velocity had comparable blood pressure reduction (12.1±12.6 mm Hg, P=0.006) despite lower baseline blood pressure than patients with combined hypertension (systolic 24-hour average 154.8±12.5 mm Hg in combined hypertension versus 141.2±8.1, 148.4±10.9, and 150.5±12.7 mm Hg, respectively, by tertiles of pulse wave velocity, P=0.002). Extended assessment of arterial stiffness can help improve patient preselection for renal sympathetic denervation and identify a subgroup of isolated systolic hypertension patients who benefit from sympathetic modulation. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. Noninvasive measurement of cardiac stroke volume using pulse wave velocity and aortic dimensions: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Babbs, Charles F

    2014-09-19

    Concerns about the cost-effectiveness of invasive hemodynamic monitoring in critically ill patients using pulmonary artery catheters motivate a renewed search for effective noninvasive methods to measure stroke volume. This paper explores a new approach based on noninvasively measured pulse wave velocity, pulse contour, and ultrasonically determined aortic cross sectional area. The Bramwell-Hill equation relating pulse wave velocity to aortic compliance is applied. At the time point on the noninvasively measured pulse contour, denoted th, when pulse amplitude has fallen midway between systolic and diastolic values, the portion of stroke volume remaining in the aorta, and in turn the entire stroke volume, can be estimated from the compliance and the pulse waveform. This approach is tested and refined using a numerical model of the systemic circulation including the effects of blood inertia, nonlinear compliance, aortic tapering, varying heart rate, and varying myocardial contractility, in which noninvasively estimated stroke volumes were compared with known stroke volumes in the model. The Bramwell-Hill approach correctly allows accurate calculation of known, constant aortic compliance in the numerical model. When nonlinear compliance is present the proposed noninvasive technique overestimates true aortic compliance when pulse pressure is large. However, a reasonable correction for nonlinearity can be derived and applied to restore accuracy for normal and for fast heart rates (correlation coefficient > 0.98). Accurate estimates of cardiac stroke volume based on pulse wave velocity are theoretically possible and feasible. The precision of the method may be less than desired, owing to the dependence of the final result on the square of measured pulse wave velocity and the first power of ultrasonically measured aortic cross sectional area. However, classical formulas for propagation of random errors suggest that the method may still have sufficient precision for

  12. Comparison between multi-channel LDV and PWI for measurement of pulse wave velocity in distensible tubes: Towards a new diagnostic technique for detection of arteriosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Apostolakis, Jason; Waz, Adam; Nauleau, Pierre; Abramski, Krzysztof; Dirckx, Joris; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work, was to compare pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements using Laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) and the more established ultrasound-based pulse wave imaging (PWI) in smooth vessels. Additionally, it was tested whether changes in phantom structure can be detected using LDV in vessels containing a local hardening of the vessel wall. Results from both methods showed good agreement illustrated by the non-parametric Spearman correlation analysis (Spearman-ρ = 1 and p< 0.05) and the Bland-Altman analysis (mean bias of -0.63 m/s and limits of agreement between -0.35 and -0.90 m/s). The PWV in soft phantoms as measured with LDV was 1.30±0.40 m/s and the PWV in stiff phantoms was 3.6±1.4 m/s. The PWV values in phantoms with inclusions were in between those of soft and stiff phantoms. However, using LDV, given the low number of measurement beams, the exact locations of inclusions could not be determined, and the PWV in the inclusions could not be measured. In conclusion, this study indicates that the PWV as measured with PWI is in good agreement with the PWV measured with LDV although the latter technique has lower spatial resolution, fewer markers and larger distances between beams. In further studies, more LDV beams will be used to allow detection of local changes in arterial wall dynamics due to e.g. small inclusions or local hardenings of the vessel wall.

  13. Detection of cerebral ischemia using the power spectrum of the pulse wave measured by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Akira; Tanaka, Yuichi; Konno, Takehiko; Kawasaki, Shingo; Fujiwara, Michiyuki; Watanabe, Eiju

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis and medical treatment of cerebral ischemia are becoming more important due to the increase in the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease. However, conventional methods of evaluating cerebral perfusion have several drawbacks: they are invasive, require physical restraint, and the equipment is not portable, which makes repeated measurements at the bedside difficult. An alternative method is developed using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIRS signals are measured at 44 positions (22 on each side) on the fronto-temporal areas in 20 patients with cerebral ischemia. In order to extract the pulse-wave component, the raw total hemoglobin data recorded from each position are band-pass filtered (0.8 to 2.0 Hz) and subjected to a fast Fourier transform to obtain the power spectrum of the pulse wave. The ischemic region is determined by single-photon emission computed tomography. The pulse-wave power in the ischemic region is compared with that in the symmetrical region on the contralateral side. In 17 cases (85%), the pulse-wave power on the ischemic side is significantly lower than that on the contralateral side, which indicates that the transmission of the pulse wave is attenuated in the region with reduced blood flow. Pulse-wave power might be useful as a noninvasive marker of cerebral ischemia.

  14. Doppler and the Doppler Effect.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Doppler Applications Doppler Effect Roemer Doppler Principle Bradley Relative motion Velocity History Light Velocity 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse...of Colorado, Boulder, CO 11-14 Jan 1984 5 1. Historical Background The astronomer Olaf Roemer determined the velocity of light in 1676 from time...approached Jupiter and longer when it receded from Jupiter. In effect, Roemer used a Doppler method in determining the velocity of light . [2 ] In 1727

  15. Robust segmentation methods with an application to aortic pulse wave velocity calculation.

    PubMed

    Babin, Danilo; Devos, Daniel; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Westenberg, Jos; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried

    2014-04-01

    Aortic stiffness has proven to be an important diagnostic and prognostic factor of many cardiovascular diseases, as well as an estimate of overall cardiovascular health. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) represents a good measure of the aortic stiffness, while the aortic distensibility is used as an aortic elasticity index. Obtaining the PWV and the aortic distensibility from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data requires diverse segmentation tasks, namely the extraction of the aortic center line and the segmentation of aortic regions, combined with signal processing methods for the analysis of the pulse wave. In our study non-contrasted MRI images of abdomen were used in healthy volunteers (22 data sets) for the sake of non-invasive analysis and contrasted magnetic resonance (MR) images were used for the aortic examination of Marfan syndrome patients (8 data sets). In this research we present a novel robust segmentation technique for the PWV and aortic distensibility calculation as a complete image processing toolbox. We introduce a novel graph-based method for the centerline extraction of a thoraco-abdominal aorta for the length calculation from 3-D MRI data, robust to artifacts and noise. Moreover, we design a new projection-based segmentation method for transverse aortic region delineation in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images which is robust to high presence of artifacts. Finally, we propose a novel method for analysis of velocity curves in order to obtain pulse wave propagation times. In order to validate the proposed method we compare the obtained results with manually determined aortic centerlines and a region segmentation by an expert, while the results of the PWV measurement were compared to a validated software (LUMC, Leiden, the Netherlands). The obtained results show high correctness and effectiveness of our method for the aortic PWV and distensibility calculation.

  16. A FBG pulse wave demodulation method based on PCF modal interference filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Shan; Shen, Ziqi; Zhao, Junfa; Miao, Changyun; Bai, Hua

    2016-10-01

    Fiber optic sensor embedded in textiles has been a new direction of researching smart wearable technology. Pulse signal which is generated by heart beat contains vast amounts of physio-pathological information about the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the research for textile-based fiber optic sensor which can detect pulse wave has far-reaching effects on early discovery and timely treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A novel wavelength demodulation method based on photonic crystal fiber (PCF) modal interference filter is proposed for the purpose of developing FBG pulse wave sensing system embedded in smart clothing. The mechanism of the PCF modal interference and the principle of wavelength demodulation based on In-line Mach-Zehnder interferometer (In-line MZI) are analyzed in theory. The fabricated PCF modal interferometer has the advantages of good repeatability and low temperature sensitivity of 3.5pm/°C from 25°C to 60°C. The designed demodulation system can achieve linear demodulation in the range of 2nm, with the wavelength resolution of 2.2pm and the wavelength sensitivity of 0.055nm-1. The actual experiments' result indicates that the pulse wave can be well detected by this demodulation method, which is in accordance with the commercial demodulation instrument (SM130) and more sensitive than the traditional piezoelectric pulse sensor. This demodulation method provides important references for the research of smart clothing based on fiber grating sensor embedded in textiles and accelerates the developments of wearable fiber optic sensors technology.

  17. Favorable Pulse Wave Augmentation Indices and Left Ventricular Diastolic Profile in β-Thalassemia Minor.

    PubMed

    Chamaidi, Aikaterini; Karagiannis, Georgios; Christidi, Aikaterini; Parisis, Charalambos; Koutrakis, Konstantinos; Xanthopoulos, Andrew; Skoularigis, John; Giamouzis, Gregory; Triposkiadis, Filippos K

    2017-11-01

    β-Thalassemia minor (β-Τm) is associated with rheological and biochemical alterations that can affect cardiovascular function. We aimed to evaluate the elastic arterial properties and the pulse wave augmentation indices in a population of patients with β-Τm. Seventy-five individuals with β-Τm (age 55.5 [42.75-65.25], women 48%) and 127 controls (age 57 years [48-63], women 55.1%) underwent comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation and applanation tonometry of the radial and femoral artery. Pulse wave analysis revealed that augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AIx), and heart rate-corrected AIx were significantly lower (median [interquartile range]: 8.75 [4.625-13] vs 11 [6.5-14.5], P = .017; 26.5 [17.5-33.375] vs 30.5 [20.75-37.5], P = .014; and 22.25 [15.125-29.5] vs 27 [20.5-33], P = .008, respectively) in the β-Τm group compared to controls. The left atrial active emptying volume was significantly lower and the isovolumic relaxation time was shorter in the β-Τm group compared to the control group (10.2 [7.4-14.4] vs 12.0 [8.6-15.8], P = .040 and 78 [70-90] vs 90 [70-104], P = .034, respectively). β-Thalassemia minor is associated with favorable pulse wave augmentation indices and left ventricular diastolic function profile in asymptomatic individuals with cardiovascular risk factors.

  18. Effects of transmural pressure and muscular activity on pulse waves in arteries.

    PubMed

    Rachev, A I

    1980-05-01

    Propagation of small amplitude harmonic waves through a viscous incompressible fluid contained in an initially stressed elastic cylindrical tube is considered as a model of the pulse wave propagation in arteries. The nonlinearity and orthotropy of the vascular material is taken into account. Muscular activity is introduced by means of an "active" tension in circumferential direction of the vessel. The frequency equation is obtained and it is solved numerically for the parameters of a human abdominal aorta. Conclusions concerning pressure-dependence, age-dependence, and muscular activation-dependence of the wave characteristics are drawn which are in accord with available experimental data.

  19. Assessments of arterial stiffness and endothelial function using pulse wave analysis.

    PubMed

    Stoner, Lee; Young, Joanna M; Fryer, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Conventionally, the assessments of endothelial function and arterial stiffness require different sets of equipment, making the inclusion of both tests impractical for clinical and epidemiological studies. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) provides useful information regarding the mechanical properties of the arterial tree and can also be used to assess endothelial function. PWA is a simple, valid, reliable, and inexpensive technique, offering great clinical and epidemiological potential. The current paper will outline how to measure arterial stiffness and endothelial function using this technique and include discussion of validity and reliability.

  20. Pulse wave imaging using coherent compounding in a phantom and in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias Apostolakis, Iason; McGarry, Matthew D. J.; Bunting, Ethan A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2017-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a technique developed by our group for imaging the pulse wave propagation in vivo. PWI requires high temporal and spatial resolution, which conventional ultrasonic imaging is unable to simultaneously provide. Coherent compounding is known to address this tradeoff and provides full aperture images at high frame rates. This study aims to implement PWI using coherent compounding within a GPU-accelerated framework. The results of the implemented method were validated using a silicone phantom against static mechanical testing. Reproducibility of the measured PWVs was assessed in the right common carotid of six healthy subjects (n  =  6) approximately 10–15 mm before the bifurcation during two cardiac cycles over the course of 1–3 d. Good agreement of the measured PWVs (3.97  ±  1.21 m s‑1, 4.08  ±  1.15 m s‑1, p  =  0.74) was obtained. The effects of frame rate, transmission angle and number of compounded plane waves on PWI performance were investigated in the six healthy volunteers. Performance metrics such as the reproducibility of the PWVs, the coefficient of determination (r 2), the SNR of the PWI axial wall velocities (\\text{SN}{{\\text{R}}{{\\text{v}_{\\text{PWI}}}}} ) and the percentage of lateral positions where the pulse wave appears to arrive at the same time-point, indicating inadequacy of the temporal resolution (i.e. temporal resolution misses) were used to evaluate the effect of each parameter. Compounding plane waves transmitted at 1° increments with a linear array yielded optimal performance, generating significantly higher r 2 and \\text{SN}{{\\text{R}}{{\\text{v}_{\\text{PWI}}}}} values (p  ⩽  0.05). Higher frame rates (⩾1667 Hz) produced improvements with significant gains in the r 2 coefficient (p  ⩽  0.05) and significant increase in both r 2 and

  1. Pulse wave imaging using coherent compounding in a phantom and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, Iason Zacharias; McGarry, Matthew D J; Bunting, Ethan A; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2017-03-07

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a technique developed by our group for imaging the pulse wave propagation in vivo. PWI requires high temporal and spatial resolution, which conventional ultrasonic imaging is unable to simultaneously provide. Coherent compounding is known to address this tradeoff and provides full aperture images at high frame rates. This study aims to implement PWI using coherent compounding within a GPU-accelerated framework. The results of the implemented method were validated using a silicone phantom against static mechanical testing. Reproducibility of the measured PWVs was assessed in the right common carotid of six healthy subjects (n  =  6) approximately 10-15 mm before the bifurcation during two cardiac cycles over the course of 1-3 d. Good agreement of the measured PWVs (3.97  ±  1.21 m s(-1), 4.08  ±  1.15 m s(-1), p  =  0.74) was obtained. The effects of frame rate, transmission angle and number of compounded plane waves on PWI performance were investigated in the six healthy volunteers. Performance metrics such as the reproducibility of the PWVs, the coefficient of determination (r (2)), the SNR of the PWI axial wall velocities ([Formula: see text]) and the percentage of lateral positions where the pulse wave appears to arrive at the same time-point, indicating inadequacy of the temporal resolution (i.e. temporal resolution misses) were used to evaluate the effect of each parameter. Compounding plane waves transmitted at 1° increments with a linear array yielded optimal performance, generating significantly higher r (2) and [Formula: see text] values (p  ⩽  0.05). Higher frame rates (⩾1667 Hz) produced improvements with significant gains in the r (2) coefficient (p  ⩽  0.05) and significant increase in both r (2) and [Formula: see text] from single plane wave imaging to 3-plane

  2. The pioneer in hemodynamics and pulse-wave analysis, Otto Frank.

    PubMed

    Middeke, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Arterial pulse-wave velocity is a noninvasive index of arterial distensibility now generally advocated to assess cardiovascular health above-and-beyond merely measuring blood pressure. A host of recent findings supports its use. This evidence draws attention to the fact that vascular stiffness precedes the increase in blood pressure with age and that even nonpharmacological lifestyle interventions can improve distensibility independent of blood pressure. Where do these ingeniously modern ideas come from, and who defined the principles we embrace today? A worthwhile lesson in physiology and exercise in humility is the effort to revisit the origins of these concepts and the man to whom gratitude should be directed.

  3. A method for localized computation of Pulse Wave Velocity in carotid structure.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ravindra B; Krishnamoorthy, P; Sethuraman, Shriram

    2015-01-01

    Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) promises to be a useful clinical marker for noninvasive diagnosis of atherosclerosis. This work demonstrates the ability to perform localized carotid PWV measurements from the distention waveform derived from the Radio Frequency (RF) ultrasound signal using a carotid phantom setup. The proposed system consists of low cost custom-built ultrasound probe and algorithms for envelope detection, arterial wall identification, echo tracking, distension waveform computation and PWV estimation. The method is proposed on a phantom data acquired using custom-built prototype non-imaging probe. The proposed approach is non-image based and can be seamlessly integrated into existing clinical ultrasound scanners.

  4. Noninvasive assessment of coronary flow reserve with transthoracic signal-enhanced Doppler echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Lambertz, H; Tries, H P; Stein, T; Lethen, H

    1999-03-01

    The feasibility of noninvasive assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the distal left anterior descending artery (LAD) with echocardiography-enhanced transthoracic pulsed wave Doppler guided by high-resolution transthoracic color Doppler (TTCD) was investigated. The results were compared with the degree of coronary diameter stenosis obtained during cardiac catheterization. Assessment of CFR has proven to be useful in the selection of patients undergoing invasive treatment of coronary artery disease and in estimating their prognosis. However, CFR could only be determined invasively in everyday practice during catheterization procedures. Recent development of high-resolution TTCD allows transthoracic visualization of distal LAD and supra-apical intramyocardial perforator branches and noninvasive measurement of CFR with pulsed wave Doppler technique. CFR was determined by measuring the ratio of pulsed wave Doppler time velocity integral during adenosine-induced hyperemia (140 microgram/kg/min intravenously) to baseline value. If the baseline Doppler signal of LAD flow was insufficient, an echocardiography (echo) enhancer (Levovist) was used. Forty-five patients were examined by TTCD (7-MHz B-mode, 5-MHz color Doppler, and 3.5-MHz pulsed wave Doppler) after coronary angiography had been performed. Group 1 consisted of 15 patients without heart disease, group 2 of 15 patients with 50% to 85% isolated LAD diameter stenosis, and group 3 of 15 patients with >85% LAD diameter stenosis. Peripheral LAD coronary flow at baseline condition was assessed in 40 (88%) patients with TTCD. CFR could be quantified in 36 (80%) of the 45 patients: in 18 patients without echo enhancer, and in 18 patients with echo-enhancing agent. CFR could not be assessed in 9 (20%) patients. CFR in the various groups was as follows: group 1, 3. 13 +/- 0.57; group 2, 2.23 +/- 0.20 (vs group 1: P <.01); and group 3, 1.64 +/- 0.30 (vs group 2: P <.02). CFR in the LAD can be determined in 80% of

  5. Novel wave intensity analysis of arterial pulse wave propagation accounting for peripheral reflections.

    PubMed

    Alastruey, Jordi; Hunt, Anthony A E; Weinberg, Peter D

    2014-02-01

    We present a novel analysis of arterial pulse wave propagation that combines traditional wave intensity analysis with identification of Windkessel pressures to account for the effect on the pressure waveform of peripheral wave reflections. Using haemodynamic data measured in vivo in the rabbit or generated numerically in models of human compliant vessels, we show that traditional wave intensity analysis identifies the timing, direction and magnitude of the predominant waves that shape aortic pressure and flow waveforms in systole, but fails to identify the effect of peripheral reflections. These reflections persist for several cardiac cycles and make up most of the pressure waveform, especially in diastole and early systole. Ignoring peripheral reflections leads to an erroneous indication of a reflection-free period in early systole and additional error in the estimates of (i) pulse wave velocity at the ascending aorta given by the PU-loop method (9.5% error) and (ii) transit time to a dominant reflection site calculated from the wave intensity profile (27% error). These errors decreased to 1.3% and 10%, respectively, when accounting for peripheral reflections. Using our new analysis, we investigate the effect of vessel compliance and peripheral resistance on wave intensity, peripheral reflections and reflections originating in previous cardiac cycles. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Comparison of atenolol versus bisoprolol with noninvasive hemodynamic and pulse wave assessment.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Lucas S; Alfie, José; Barochiner, Jessica; Cuffaro, Paula E; Giunta, Diego H; Elizondo, Cristina M; Tortella, Juan J; Morales, Margarita S; Rada, Marcelo A; Waisman, Gabriel D

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to compare atenolol versus bisoprolol regarding general hemodynamics, central-peripheral blood pressure (BP), pulse wave parameters, and arterial stiffness. In this open-label, crossover study, we recruited 19 hypertensives, untreated or with stable monotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive atenolol (25-50 mg) or bisoprolol (2.5-5 mg), and then switched medications after 4 weeks. Studies were performed at baseline and after each drug period. In pulse wave analyses, both drugs significantly increased augmentation index (P < .01) and ejection duration (P < .02), and reduced heart rate (P < .001), brachial systolic BP (P ≤ .01), brachial diastolic BP (P ≤ .001), and central diastolic BP (P ≤ .001), but not central systolic BP (P ≥ .06). Impedance cardiographic assessment showed a significantly increased stroke volume (P ≤ .02). There were no significant differences in the effects between drugs. In conclusion, atenolol and bisoprolol show similar hemodynamic characteristics. Failure to decrease central systolic BP results from bradycardia with increased stroke volume and an earlier reflected aortic wave.

  7. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m2, had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab® device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens® algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for “24-hour”, “awake”, and “asleep” periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects. PMID:24812515

  8. Detection and analysis of multi-dimensional pulse wave based on optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yihui; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Chen, Haiyu

    2014-11-01

    Pulse diagnosis is an important method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Doctors diagnose the patients' physiological and pathological statuses through the palpation of radial artery for radial artery pulse information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an useful tool for medical optical research. Current conventional diagnostic devices only function as a pressure sensor to detect the pulse wave - which can just partially reflect the doctors feelings and lost large amounts of useful information. In this paper, the microscopic changes of the surface skin above radial artery had been studied in the form of images based on OCT. The deformation of surface skin in a cardiac cycle which is caused by arterial pulse is detected by OCT. The patient's pulse wave is calculated through image processing. It is found that it is good consistent with the result conducted by pulse analyzer. The real-time patient's physiological and pathological statuses can be monitored. This research provides a kind of new method for pulse diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. The 24-hour pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index, and central blood pressure in normotensive volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana Y; Korneva, Viktoria A; Bryantseva, Evgeniya N; Barkan, Vitaliy S; Orlov, Artemy V; Posokhov, Igor N; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the pulse wave velocity, aortic augmentation index corrected for heart rate 75 (AIx@75), and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure during 24-hour monitoring in normotensive volunteers. Overall, 467 subjects (206 men and 261 women) were recruited in this study. Participants were excluded from the study if they were less than 19 years of age, had blood test abnormalities, had a body mass index greater than 2 7.5 kg/m(2), had impaired glucose tolerance, or had hypotension or hypertension. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with the BPLab(®) device was performed in each subject. ABPM waveforms were analyzed using the special automatic Vasotens(®) algorithm, which allows the calculation of pulse wave velocity, AIx@75, central systolic and diastolic blood pressure for "24-hour", "awake", and "asleep" periods. Circadian rhythms and sex differences in these indexes were identified. Pending further validation in prospective outcome-based studies, our data may be used as preliminary diagnostic values for the BPLab ABPM additional index in adult subjects.

  10. Novel wave intensity analysis of arterial pulse wave propagation accounting for peripheral reflections

    PubMed Central

    Alastruey, Jordi; Hunt, Anthony A E; Weinberg, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel analysis of arterial pulse wave propagation that combines traditional wave intensity analysis with identification of Windkessel pressures to account for the effect on the pressure waveform of peripheral wave reflections. Using haemodynamic data measured in vivo in the rabbit or generated numerically in models of human compliant vessels, we show that traditional wave intensity analysis identifies the timing, direction and magnitude of the predominant waves that shape aortic pressure and flow waveforms in systole, but fails to identify the effect of peripheral reflections. These reflections persist for several cardiac cycles and make up most of the pressure waveform, especially in diastole and early systole. Ignoring peripheral reflections leads to an erroneous indication of a reflection-free period in early systole and additional error in the estimates of (i) pulse wave velocity at the ascending aorta given by the PU–loop method (9.5% error) and (ii) transit time to a dominant reflection site calculated from the wave intensity profile (27% error). These errors decreased to 1.3% and 10%, respectively, when accounting for peripheral reflections. Using our new analysis, we investigate the effect of vessel compliance and peripheral resistance on wave intensity, peripheral reflections and reflections originating in previous cardiac cycles. PMID:24132888

  11. Increasing pulse wave velocity in a realistic cardiovascular model does not increase pulse pressure with age

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Mohammad W.; Rihani, Ryan J.; Laine, Glen A.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of the well-documented increase in aortic pulse pressure (PP) with age is disputed. Investigators assuming a classical windkessel model believe that increases in PP arise from decreases in total arterial compliance (Ctot) and increases in total peripheral resistance (Rtot) with age. Investigators assuming a more sophisticated pulse transmission model believe PP rises because increases in pulse wave velocity (cph) make the reflected pressure wave arrive earlier, augmenting systolic pressure. It has recently been shown, however, that increases in cph do not have a commensurate effect on the timing of the reflected wave. We therefore used a validated, large-scale, human arterial system model that includes realistic pulse wave transmission to determine whether increases in cph cause increased PP with age. First, we made the realistic arterial system model age dependent by altering cardiac output (CO), Rtot, Ctot, and cph to mimic the reported changes in these parameters from age 30 to 70. Then, cph was theoretically maintained constant, while Ctot, Rtot, and CO were altered. The predicted increase in PP with age was similar to the observed increase in PP. In a complementary approach, Ctot, Rtot, and CO were theoretically maintained constant, and cph was increased. The predicted increase in PP was negligible. We found that increases in cph have a limited effect on the timing of the reflected wave but cause the system to degenerate into a windkessel. Changes in PP can therefore be attributed to a decrease in Ctot. PMID:22561301

  12. A Distinguishing Arterial Pulse Waves Approach by Using Image Processing and Feature Extraction Technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsing-Chung; Kuo, Shyi-Shiun; Sun, Shen-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on five main types of diagnoses methods consisting of inspection, auscultation, olfaction, inquiry, and palpation. The most important one is palpation also called pulse diagnosis which is to measure wrist artery pulse by doctor's fingers for detecting patient's health state. In this paper, it is carried out by using a specialized pulse measuring instrument to classify one's pulse type. The measured pulse waves (MPWs) were segmented into the arterial pulse wave curve (APWC) by image proposing method. The slopes and periods among four specific points on the APWC were taken to be the pulse features. Three algorithms are proposed in this paper, which could extract these features from the APWCs and compared their differences between each of them to the average feature matrix, individually. These results show that the method proposed in this study is superior and more accurate than the previous studies. The proposed method could significantly save doctors a large amount of time, increase accuracy and decrease data volume.

  13. Doubly-excited pulse-waves on flowing liquid films: experiments and numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebayo, Idris; Xie, Zhihua; Che, Zhizhao; Wray, Alex; Matar, Omar

    2016-11-01

    The interaction patterns between doubly-excited pulse waves on a flowing liquid film are studied both experimentally and numerically. The flowing film is constituted on an inclined glass substrate while pulse-waves are excited on the film surface by means of a solenoid valve connected to a relay which receives signals from customised Matlab routines. The effect of varying the system parameters i.e. film flow rate, inter-pulse interval and substrate inclination angle on the pulse interaction patterns are then studied. Results show that different interaction patterns exist for these binary pulses; which include a singular behaviour, complete merger, partial merger and total non-coalescence. A regime map of these patterns is then plotted for each inclination angles examined, based on the film Re and the inter-pulse interval. Finally, the individual effect of the system parameters on the merging distance of these binary pulses in the merger mode is then studied and the results validated using both numerical simulations and mathematical modelling. Funding from the Nigerian Government (for Idris Adebayo), and the EPSRC through a programme Grant MEMPHIS (EP/K003976/1) gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Altered dependence of aortic pulse wave velocity on transmural pressure in hypertension revealing structural change in the aortic wall.

    PubMed

    Gaddum, Nicholas R; Keehn, Louise; Guilcher, Antoine; Gomez, Alberto; Brett, Sally; Beerbaum, Philipp; Schaeffter, Tobias; Chowienczyk, Philip

    2015-02-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), a major prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, may be augmented in hypertension as a result of the aorta being stretched by a higher distending blood pressure or by a structural change. We used a novel technique to modulate intrathoracic pressure and thus aortic transmural pressure (TMP) to examine the variation of intrathoracic aPWV with TMP in hypertensive (n=20; mean±SD age, 52.1±15.3 years; blood pressure, 159.6±21.2/92.0±15.9 mm Hg) and normotensive (n=20; age, 55.5±11.1 years; blood pressure, 124.5±11.9/72.6±9.1 mm Hg) subjects. aPWV was measured using dual Doppler probes to insonate the right brachiocephalic artery and aorta at the level of the diaphragm. Resting aPWV was greater in hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects (897±50 cm/s versus 784±43 cm/s; P<0.05). aPWV was equal in hypertensive and normotensive subjects when measured at a TMP of 96 mm Hg. However, dependence of aPWV on TMP in normotensive subjects was greater than that in hypertensive subjects (9.6±1.6 versus 3.8±0.7 cm/s per mm Hg increase in TMP, respectively, means±SEM; P<0.01). This experimental behavior was best explained by a theoretical model incorporating strain-induced recruitment of stiffer fibers in normotensive subjects and fully recruited stiffer fibers in hypertensive subjects. These results explain previous contradictory findings with respect to isobaric aPWV in hypertensive compared with normotensive subjects. They suggest that hypertension is associated with a profound change in aortic wall mechanical properties possibly because of destruction of elastin leading to less strain-induced stiffening and predisposition to aortic dissection. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The age‐dependent association between aortic pulse wave velocity and telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Yasmin; Butcher, Lee; Cockcroft, John R.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Erusalimsky, Jorge D.; McEniery, Carmel M.

    2017-01-01

    Key points Age significantly modifies the relationship between aortic pulse wave velocity and telomere length.The differential relationships observed between aortic pulse wave velocity and telomere length in younger and older individuals suggest that the links between cellular and vascular ageing reflect a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors acting over the life‐course. Abstract Ageing is associated with marked large artery stiffening. Telomere shortening, a marker of cellular ageing, is linked with arterial stiffening. However, the results of existing studies are inconsistent, possibly because of the confounding influence of variable exposure to cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between telomere length (TL) and aortic stiffness in well‐characterized, younger and older healthy adults, who were pre‐selected on the basis of having either low or high aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), a robust measure of aortic stiffness. Demographic, haemodynamic and biochemical data were drawn from participants in the Anglo‐Cardiff Collaborative Trial. Two age groups with an equal sex ratio were examined: those aged <30 years (younger) or >50 years (older). Separately for each age group and sex, DNA samples representing the highest (n = 125) and lowest (n = 125) extremes of aPWV (adjusted for blood pressure) were selected for analysis of leukocyte TL. Ultimately, this yielded complete phenotypic data on 904 individuals. In younger subjects, TL was significantly shorter in those with high aPWV vs. those with low aPWV (P = 0.017). By contrast, in older subjects, TL was significantly longer in those with high aPWV (P = 0.001). Age significantly modified the relationship between aPWV and TL (P < 0.001). Differential relationships are observed between aPWV and TL, with an inverse association in younger individuals and a positive association in older individuals. The links between cellular and vascular

  16. Arterial viscoelasticity: role in the dependency of pulse wave velocity on heart rate in conduit arteries.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hanguang; Tan, Isabella; Butlin, Mark; Li, Decai; Avolio, Alberto P

    2017-06-01

    Experimental investigations have established that the stiffness of large arteries has a dependency on acute heart rate (HR) changes. However, the possible underlying mechanisms inherent in this HR dependency have not been well established. This study aimed to explore a plausible viscoelastic mechanism by which HR exerts an influence on arterial stiffness. A multisegment transmission line model of the human arterial tree incorporating fractional viscoelastic components in each segment was used to investigate the effect of varying fractional order parameter (α) of viscoelasticity on the dependence of aortic arch to femoral artery pulse wave velocity (afPWV) on HR. HR was varied from 60 to 100 beats/min at a fixed mean flow of 100 ml/s. PWV was calculated by intersecting tangent method (afPWVTan) and by phase velocity from the transfer function (afPWVTF) in the time and frequency domain, respectively. PWV was significantly and positively associated with HR for α ≥ 0.6; for α = 0.6, 0.8, and 1, HR-dependent changes in afPWVTan were 0.01 ± 0.02, 0.07 ± 0.04, and 0.22 ± 0.09 m/s per 5 beats/min; HR-dependent changes in afPWVTF were 0.02 ± 0.01, 0.12 ± 0.00, and 0.34 ± 0.01 m/s per 5 beats/min, respectively. This crosses the range of previous physiological studies where the dependence of PWV on HR was found to be between 0.08 and 0.10 m/s per 5 beats/min. Therefore, viscoelasticity of the arterial wall could contribute to mechanisms through which large artery stiffness changes with changing HR. Physiological studies are required to confirm this mechanism.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study used a transmission line model to elucidate the role of arterial viscoelasticity in the dependency of pulse wave velocity on heart rate. The model uses fractional viscoelasticity concepts, which provided novel insights into arterial hemodynamics. This study also provides a means of assessing the clinical manifestation of the association of pulse wave velocity and heart rate

  17. Doppler echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Labovitz, A.J.; Williams, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are successful in presenting a basic book on clinical quantitative Doppler echocardiography. It is not intended to be a comprehensive text, but it does cover clinical applications in a succinct fashion. Only the more common diseases in the adult are considered. The subjects are presented logically and are easy to comprehend. The illustrations are good, and the book is paperbound. The basic principles of Doppler echocardiography are presented briefly. The book ends with chapters on left ventricular function (stroke volume and cardiac output), congenital heart disease, and color Doppler echo-cardiography. There are numerous references and a good glossary and index.

  18. Evaluation of agreement between temporal series obtained from electrocardiogram and pulse wave.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leikan, GM; Rossi, E.; Sanz, MCuadra; Delisle Rodríguez, D.; Mántaras, MC; Nicolet, J.; Zapata, D.; Lapyckyj, I.; Siri, L. Nicola; Perrone, MS

    2016-04-01

    Heart rate variability allows to study the cardiovascular autonomic nervous system modulation. Usually, this signal is obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG). A simpler method for recording the pulse wave (PW) is by means of finger photoplethysmography (PPG), which also provides information about the duration of the cardiac cycle. In this study, the correlation and agreement between the time series of the intervals between heartbeats obtained from the ECG with those obtained from the PPG, were studied. Signals analyzed were obtained from young, healthy and resting subjects. For statistical analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient and the Bland and Altman limits of agreement were used. Results show that the time series constructed from the PW would not replace the ones obtained from ECG.

  19. Blood pressure and pulse wave velocity as metrics for evaluating pathologic ageing of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Peter M; Khalili, Payam; Franklin, Stanley S

    2014-02-01

    The influence of chronological ageing on the components of the cardiovascular system is of fundamental importance for understanding how hemodynamics change and the cardiovascular risk increases with age, the most important risk marker. An increase in peripheral vascular resistance associated with increased stiffness of central elastic arteries represents hallmarks of this ageing effect on the vasculature, referred to as early vascular ageing (EVA). In clinical practice, it translates into increased brachial and central systolic blood pressure and corresponding pulse pressure in subjects above 50 years of age, as well as increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV)--a marker of arterial stiffness. A c-f PWV value ≥ 10 m/s is threshold for increased risk according. Improved lifestyle and control of risk factors via appropriate drug therapy are of importance in providing vascular protection related to EVA. One target group might be members of risk families including subjects with early onset cardiovascular disease.

  20. Brachial vs. central systolic pressure and pulse wave transmission indicators: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Joseph L

    2014-12-01

    This critique is intended to provide background for the reader to evaluate the relative clinical utilities of brachial cuff systolic blood pressure (SBP) and its derivatives, including pulse pressure, central systolic pressure, central augmentation index (AI), and pulse pressure amplification (PPA). The critical question is whether the newer indicators add sufficient information to justify replacing or augmenting brachial cuff blood pressure (BP) data in research and patient care. Historical context, pathophysiology of variations in pulse wave transmission and reflection, issues related to measurement and model errors, statistical limitations, and clinical correlations are presented, along with new comparative data. Based on this overview, there is no compelling scientific or practical reason to replace cuff SBP with any of the newer indicators in the vast majority of clinical situations. Supplemental value for central SBP may exist in defining patients with exaggerated PPA ("spurious systolic hypertension"), managing cardiac and aortic diseases, and in studies of cardiovascular drugs, but there are no current standards for these possibilities.

  1. [Tissue Doppler: the physical principles, representational and analytical modalities and clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Trambaiolo, P; Salustri, A; Tonti, G; Fedele, F; Palamara, A

    2000-01-01

    Tissue Doppler imaging or myocardial velocity imaging is a variation of conventional Doppler. This modality allows the quantification of the Doppler shift within the range of myocardial tissue motion. The velocity of motion at a variety of myocardial sites can be determined and distinguished very rapidly using Doppler techniques. The velocity of moving tissue can be studied with pulsed wave tissue Doppler sampling, which displays the velocity of a selected myocardial region against time, with high temporal resolution. In addition, the velocities can be calculated with time velocity maps and displayed as color coded velocity maps in either M-mode or two-dimensional format. This review will focus on the technical aspects and the different methods of tissue Doppler for regional systolic and diastolic left ventricular function analysis. While pulsed wave tissue Doppler allows us to measure the velocities of a selected myocardial region, color tissue Doppler gives the best overall view of cardiac dynamics because the whole scanned color data are displayed simultaneously. However, there is an increasing need for objective evaluation of tissue Doppler information. Digital images and data post-processing allow for quantitative off-line analysis, and the different approaches and parameters proposed from different centers are discussed. In recent years, tissue Doppler imaging has been applied for accurate evaluation of diastolic function, quantifying regional function particularly during stress, pre-excitation syndrome, and left ventricular hypertrophy. The results of these experiences indicate that tissue Doppler imaging is a promising technique for quantifying the response of the myocardium and endocardium during both normal and abnormal function. Again, there is a significant learning curve concerning its application, but with experience it will be a useful and reproducible technique.

  2. Role of birth weight and postnatal growth on pulse wave velocity in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Paolo; Revera, Miriam; Joly, Laure; Reusz, George; Iaia, Maurizio; Benkhedda, Salim; Chibane, Ahcene; Parati, Gianfranco; Benetos, Athanase; Temmar, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Low birth weight and accelerated postnatal growth appear to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to characterize the factors determining pulse wave velocity (PWV) in teenagers and, in particular, to verify the relationship with birth weight, postnatal growth, timing of adiposity rebound, lifestyle, and hemodynamic parameters. Carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocities of 558 healthy teenagers (age range: 16.2-19.9 years) were determined by means of a PulsePen tonometer. Birth weight and gestational age were obtained from obstetrical records, and data regarding postnatal growth were obtained from pediatric clinical records. No change in aortic PWV was found in association with birth weight, postnatal growth, and timing of adiposity rebound. However, the study showed a strong association between accelerated growth from 0 to 12 months and carotid-radial PWV (trend: p = .02). Subjects with birth weight values <2,500 g showed higher values of upper limb PWV (p < .05) and higher values of diastolic and mean arterial pressure (p < .05). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that mean arterial pressure, age, and height were the main independent factors determining aortic PWV in this young population. These results suggest that there is no linear correlation between birth weight and hemodynamic parameters in teenagers; however, subjects characterized by very low birth weight and accelerated postnatal weight gain appear to demonstrate increased upper limb PWV and diastolic and mean arterial pressure values. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pulse Wave Amplitude Drops during Sleep are Reliable Surrogate Markers of Changes in Cortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Delessert, Alexandre; Espa, Fabrice; Rossetti, Andrea; Lavigne, Gilles; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Background: During sleep, sudden drops in pulse wave amplitude (PWA) measured by pulse oximetry are commonly associated with simultaneous arousals and are thought to result from autonomic vasoconstriction. In the present study, we determine whether PWA drops were associated with changes in cortical activity as determined by EEG spectral analysis. Methods: A 20% decrease in PWA was chosen as a minimum for a drop. A total of 1085 PWA drops from 10 consecutive sleep recordings were analyzed. EEG spectral analysis was performed over 5 consecutive epochs of 5 seconds: 2 before, 1 during, and 2 after the PWA drop. EEG spectral analysis was performed over delta, theta, alpha, sigma, and beta frequency bands. Within each frequency band, power density was compared across the five 5-sec epochs. Presence or absence of visually scored EEG arousals were adjudicated by an investigator blinded to the PWA signal and considered associated with PWA drop if concomitant. Results: A significant increase in EEG power density in all EEG frequency bands was found during PWA drops (P < 0.001) compared to before and after drop. Even in the absence of visually scored arousals, PWA drops were associated with a significant increase in EEG power density (P < 0.001) in most frequency bands. Conclusions: Drops in PWA are associated with a significant increase in EEG power density, suggesting that these events can be used as a surrogate for changes in cortical activity during sleep. This approach may prove of value in scoring respiratory events on limited-channel (type III) portable monitors. Citation: Delessert A; Espa F; Rossetti A; Lavigne G; Tafti M; Heinzer R. Pulse wave amplitude drops during sleep are reliable surrogate markers of changes in cortical activity. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1687-1692. PMID:21120131

  4. A physics based approach to the pulse wave velocity prediction in compliant arterial segments.

    PubMed

    Liberson, Alexander S; Lillie, Jeffrey S; Day, Steven W; Borkholder, David A

    2016-10-03

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) quantification commonly serves as a highly robust prognostic parameter being used in a preventative cardiovascular therapy. Being dependent on arterial elastance, it can serve as a marker of cardiovascular risk. Since it is influenced by a blood pressure (BP), the pertaining theory can lay the foundation in developing a technique for noninvasive blood pressure measurement. Previous studies have reported application of PWV, measured noninvasively, for both the estimation of arterial compliance and blood pressure, based on simplified physical or statistical models. A new theoretical model for pulse wave propagation in a compliant arterial segment is presented within the framework of pseudo-elastic deformation of biological tissue undergoing finite deformation. An essential ingredient is the dependence of results on nonlinear aspects of the model: convective fluid phenomena, hyperelastic constitutive relation, large deformation and a longitudinal pre-stress load. An exact analytical solution for PWV is presented as a function of pressure, flow and pseudo-elastic orthotropic parameters. Results from our model are compared with published in-vivo PWV measurements under diverse physiological conditions. Contributions of each of the nonlinearities are analyzed. It was found that the totally nonlinear model achieves the best match with the experimental data. To retrieve individual vascular information of a patient, the inverse problem of hemodynamics is presented, calculating local orthotropic hyperelastic properties of the arterial wall. The proposed technique can be used for non-invasive assessment of arterial elastance, and blood pressure using direct measurement of PWV, with account of hyperelastic orthotropic properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aortic pulse wave velocity, elasticity, and composition in a nonhuman primate model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Farrar, D J; Green, H D; Bond, M G; Wagner, W D; Gobbeé, R A

    1978-07-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity was determined in Macaca fascicularis monkeys fed either atherogenic or control diets for 36 months. The foot-to-foot velocity and apparent phase velocities of the second through seventh Fourier harmonics at a given diastolic pressure in the atherosclerotic monkeys were 1.5 to 2.0 times the values for the control animals. More than 80% of the aortic intimal surface of the atherosclerotic monkeys was covered with fibrous or fatty plaque, which approximately doubled wall thickness and wall thickness to radius ratio. Angiochemical evaluations showed no difference in collagen or elastin concentration (as a fraction of lipid and mineral-free dried aorta), but the atherosclerotic aortas were 1.5 to 2.0 times that of control in collagen and elastin content (defined as the absolute quantity beneath a square centimeter of intimal surface). Total cholesterol and calcium concentrations in the atherosclerotic aortas were more than 10 times the values for the control aortas. The static circumferential distensibility of the excised atherosclerotic aortas was significantly less than control, but there was no difference in incremental (Young's) modulus of elasticity. The in vitro pressure-strain elastic modulus of the atherosclerotic aortas was more than twice that of control, which was predicted from the enhanced wave velocity. The significantly increased stiffness of the atherosclerotic arteries appeared to be due mainly to the increased wall thickness caused by the atherosclerotic plaques rather than to material changes described by Young's modulus. Extensive medial damage, however, also was present and could have had a major influence on stiffness. Atherosclerosis therefore can result in increased aortic stiffening, detectable by pulse wave velocity, even if there is no change in the overall Young's modulus of elasticity.

  6. Favorable effect of aerobic exercise on arterial pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity during stress testing.

    PubMed

    Milatz, Florian; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Sascha; Ketelhut, Reinhard G

    2015-07-01

    Increased central pulse wave velocity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The favorable influence of exercise on arterial stiffness (AS) and blood pressure (BP) has been reported exclusively at rest. The present study investigated the influence of a single bout of acute cycling on AS and BP during recovery and, moreover, during cold pressor stress testing. 32 healthy men (33.7 ± 8 years, BMI 24 ± 2.5 kg/m²) performed a 60 minute endurance exercise on a bicycle ergometer (45 % VO2max). Before and after exercise aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as central and peripheral BP were measured non-invasively at rest and at the end of a 2 minute cold pressor test (CPT). Even after 60 minutes of recovery aPWV (- 0.22 ± 0.3 m / sec) was significantly reduced (p < 0.01). Exercise decreased peripheral (- 8 ± 7 mmHg) and central (- 7 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 5 mmHg) and central (- 4 ± 7 mmHg) diastolic BP (p < 0.01). In comparison to measurements during CPT pre-exercise, there was a significant reduction in aPWV (- 0.19 ± 0.3 m / sec), peripheral (- 6 ± 10 mmHg) and central (- 5 ± 8 mmHg) systolic BP as well as peripheral (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) and central (- 3 ± 6 mmHg) diastolic BP during CPT after exercise (p < 0.01). The present study suggests that acute endurance exercise leads not only to decreased BP but even more reduces aPWV as a measure of AS even after 60 minutes of recovery. In particular, the investigation provides evidence that acute moderate-intensity exercise has a favorable effect on BP and aPWV during stress testing.

  7. Ethnic Differences in and Childhood Influences on Early Adult Pulse Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Maria J.; Molaodi, Oarabile R.; Enayat, Zinat E.; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Read, Ursula M.; Faconti, Luca; Dall, Philippa; Stansfield, Ben; Harding, Seeromanie

    2016-01-01

    Early determinants of aortic stiffness as pulse wave velocity are poorly understood. We tested how factors measured twice previously in childhood in a multiethnic cohort study, particularly body mass, blood pressure, and objectively assessed physical activity affected aortic stiffness in young adults. Of 6643 London children, aged 11 to 13 years, from 51 schools in samples stratified by 6 ethnic groups with different cardiovascular risk, 4785 (72%) were seen again at aged 14 to 16 years. In 2013, 666 (97% of invited) took part in a young adult (21–23 years) pilot follow-up. With psychosocial and anthropometric measures, aortic stiffness and blood pressure were recorded via an upper arm calibrated Arteriograph device. In a subsample (n=334), physical activity was measured >5 days via the ActivPal. Unadjusted pulse wave velocities in black Caribbean and white UK young men were similar (mean±SD 7.9±0.3 versus 7.6±0.4 m/s) and lower in other groups at similar systolic pressures (120 mm Hg) and body mass (24.6 kg/m2). In fully adjusted regression models, independent of pressure effects, black Caribbean (higher body mass/waists), black African, and Indian young women had lower stiffness (by 0.5–0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.1–1.1 m/s) than did white British women (6.9±0.2 m/s). Values were separately increased by age, pressure, powerful impacts from waist/height, time spent sedentary, and a reported racism effect (+0.3 m/s). Time walking at >100 steps/min was associated with reduced stiffness (P<0.01). Effects of childhood waist/hip were detected. By young adulthood, increased waist/height ratios, lower physical activity, blood pressure, and psychosocial variables (eg, perceived racism) independently increase arterial stiffness, effects likely to increase with age. PMID:27141061

  8. Wearable sensor glove based on conducting fabric using electrodermal activity and pulse-wave sensors for e-health application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youngbum; Lee, Byungwoo; Lee, Myoungho

    2010-03-01

    Improvement of the quality and efficiency of health in medicine, both at home and the hospital, calls for improved sensors that might be included in a common carrier such as a wearable sensor device to measure various biosignals and provide healthcare services that use e-health technology. Designed to be user-friendly, smart clothes and gloves respond well to the end users for health monitoring. This study describes a wearable sensor glove that is equipped with an electrodermal activity (EDA) sensor, pulse-wave sensor, conducting fabric, and an embedded system. The EDA sensor utilizes the relationship between drowsiness and the EDA signal. The EDA sensors were made using a conducting fabric instead of silver chloride electrodes, as a more practical and practically wearable device. The pulse-wave sensor measurement system, which is widely applied in oriental medicinal practices, is also a strong element in e-health monitoring systems. The EDA and pulse-wave signal acquisition module was constructed by connecting the sensor to the glove via a conductive fabric. The signal acquisition module is then connected to a personal computer that displays the results of the EDA and pulse-wave signal processing analysis and gives accurate feedback to the user. This system is designed for a number of applications for the e-health services, including drowsiness detection and oriental medicine.

  9. Doppler-broadened mid-infrared noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry based on an optical parametric oscillator for trace gas detection.

    PubMed

    Silander, Isak; Hausmaninger, Thomas; Ma, Weiguang; Harren, Frans J M; Axner, Ove

    2015-02-15

    An optical parametric oscillator based Doppler-broadened (Db) noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectrometry (NICE-OHMS) system suitable for addressing fundamental vibrational transitions in the 3.2-3.9 μm mid-infrared (MIR) region has been realized. An Allan-Werle analysis provides a detection sensitivity of methane of 1.5×10(-9)  cm(-1) with a 20 s integration time, which corresponds to 90 ppt of CH4 if detected at the strongest transition addressed at 40 Torr. This supersedes that of previous Db MIR NICE-OHMS demonstrations and suggests that the technique can be suitable for detection of both the environmentally important (13)CH(4) and CH3D isotopologues. It also opens up for detection of many other molecular species at ppt and sub-ppt concentration levels.

  10. Real-time aortic pulse wave velocity measurement during exercise stress testing.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul A; Cowan, Brett R; Liu, Yingmin; Lin, Aaron C W; Nielsen, Poul M F; Taberner, Andrew J; Stewart, Ralph A H; Lam, Hoi Ieng; Young, Alistair A

    2015-10-05

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, has been demonstrated to be an independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. This can be derived non-invasively using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Changes in PWV during exercise may reveal further information on vascular pathology. However, most known CMR methods for quantifying PWV are currently unsuitable for exercise stress testing. A velocity-sensitive real-time acquisition and evaluation (RACE) pulse sequence was adapted to provide interleaved acquisition of two locations in the descending aorta (at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation and above the renal arteries) at 7.8 ms temporal resolution. An automated method was used to calculate the foot-to-foot transit time of the velocity pulse wave. The RACE method was validated against a standard gated phase contrast (STD) method in flexible tube phantoms using a pulsatile flow pump. The method was applied in 50 healthy volunteers (28 males) aged 22-75 years using a MR-compatible cycle ergometer to achieve moderate work rate (38 ± 22 W, with a 31 ± 12 bpm increase in heart rate) in the supine position. Central pulse pressures were estimated using a MR-compatible brachial device. Scan-rescan reproducibility was evaluated in nine volunteers. Phantom PWV was 22 m/s (STD) vs. 26 ± 5 m/s (RACE) for a butyl rubber tube, and 5.5 vs. 6.1 ± 0.3 m/s for a latex rubber tube. In healthy volunteers PWV increased with age at both rest (R(2) = 0.31 p < 0.001) and exercise (R(2) = 0.40, p < 0.001). PWV was significantly increased at exercise relative to rest (0.71 ± 2.2 m/s, p = 0.04). Scan-rescan reproducibility at rest was -0.21 ± 0.68 m/s (n = 9). This study demonstrates the validity of CMR in the evaluation of PWV during exercise in healthy subjects. The results support the feasibility of using this method in evaluating of patients with systemic aortic disease.

  11. 24-h ambulatory recording of aortic pulse wave velocity and central systolic augmentation: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Luzardo, Leonella; Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; da Rosa, Alicia; Thijs, Lutgarde; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A; Boggia, José

    2012-10-01

    We assessed the feasibility of ambulatory pulse wave analysis by comparing this approach with an established tonometric technique. We investigated 35 volunteers (45.6 years; 51.0% women) exclusively at rest (R study) and 83 volunteers (49.9 years; 61.4% women) at rest and during daytime (1000-2000 h) ambulatory monitoring (R+A study). We recorded central systolic (cSP), diastolic (cDP) and pulse (cPP) pressures, augmentation index (cAI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph 24h PWA Monitor) and radial tonometry (SphygmoCor). We applied the Bland and Altman's statistics. In the R study, tonometric and oscillometric estimates of cSP (105.6 vs. 106.9 mm Hg), cDP (74.6 vs. 74.7 mm Hg), cPP (31.0 vs. 32.1 mm Hg), cAI (21.1 vs. 20.6%) and PWV (7.3 vs. 7.0 m s(-1)) were similar (P0.11). In the R+A study, tonometric vs. oscillometric assessment yielded similar values for cSP (115.4 vs. 113.9 mm Hg; P=0.19) and cAI (26.5 vs. 25.3%; P=0.54), but lower cDP (77.8 vs. 81.9 mm Hg; P<0.0001), so that cPP was higher (37.6 vs. 32.1 mm Hg; P<0.0001). PWV (7.9 vs. 7.4 m s(-1)) was higher (P=0.0002) on tonometric assessment. The differences between tonometric and oscillometric estimates increased (P0.004) with cSP (r=0.37), cAI (r=0.39) and PWV (r=0.39), but not (P0.17) with cDP (r=0.15) or cPP (r=0.13). Irrespective of measurement conditions, brachial oscillometry compared with an established tonometric method provided similar estimates for cSP and systolic augmentation, but slightly underestimated PWV. Pending further validation, ambulatory assessment of central hemodynamic variables is feasible.

  12. High-intensity interval cycling exercise on wave reflection and pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, J Derek; Tai, Yu Lun; Vaughan, Jeremiah; Mayo, Xián

    2016-08-18

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of high-intensity exercise on wave reflection and aortic stiffness. Nine young, healthy men (mean±SD: Age: 22±2 yrs) participated in the study. The high-intensity interval cycling exercise consisted of 3 sets of Wingate Anaerobic Tests (WAT) with 7.5% of bodyweight as resistance and 2 minutes of rest between each set. Measurements were taken at rest and 1 min after completion of the WATs. Brachial and aortic blood pressures, as well as wave reflection characteristics, were measured via pulse wave analysis. Aortic stiffness was assessed via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to investigate the effects of the WATs on blood pressure and vascular function across time. There was no change in brachial or aortic systolic pressure from rest to recovery. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in brachial diastolic pressure (rest: 73±6 mmHg; recovery: 67±9 mmHg) and aortic diastolic pressure (rest: 75±6 mmHg; recovery: 70±9 mmHg) from rest to recovery. In addition, there was no significant change in the augmentation index (rest: 111.4±6.5%; recovery: 109.8±5.8%, p=0.65) from rest to recovery. However, there was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the augmentation index normalized at 75 bpm (rest: 3.29±9.82; recovery 21.21±10.87) during recovery compared to rest. There was no change in cfPWV (rest: 5.3±0.8 m/sec; recovery: 5.7±0.5m/sec; p=0.09) in response to the WAT. These data demonstrate that high-intensity interval cycling exercise with short rest periods has a non-significant effect on vascular function.

  13. Optimizing Estimates of Instantaneous Heart Rate from Pulse Wave Signals with the Synchrosqueezing Transform.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hau-Tieng; Lewis, Gregory F; Davila, Maria I; Daubechies, Ingrid; Porges, Stephen W

    2016-10-17

    With recent advances in sensor and computer technologies, the ability to monitor peripheral pulse activity is no longer limited to the laboratory and clinic. Now inexpensive sensors, which interface with smartphones or other computer-based devices, are expanding into the consumer market. When appropriate algorithms are applied, these new technologies enable ambulatory monitoring of dynamic physiological responses outside the clinic in a variety of applications including monitoring fatigue, health, workload, fitness, and rehabilitation. Several of these applications rely upon measures derived from peripheral pulse waves measured via contact or non-contact photoplethysmography (PPG). As technologies move from contact to non-contact PPG, there are new challenges. The technology necessary to estimate average heart rate over a few seconds from a noncontact PPG is available. However, a technology to precisely measure instantaneous heat rate (IHR) from non-contact sensors, on a beat-to-beat basis, is more challenging. The objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm with the ability to accurately monitor IHR from peripheral pulse waves, which provides an opportunity to measure the neural regulation of the heart from the beat-to-beat heart rate pattern (i.e., heart rate variability). The adaptive harmonic model is applied to model the contact or non-contact PPG signals, and a new methodology, the Synchrosqueezing Transform (SST), is applied to extract IHR. The body sway rhythm inherited in the non-contact PPG signal is modeled and handled by the notion of wave-shape function. The SST optimizes the extraction of IHR from the PPG signals and the technique functions well even during periods of poor signal to noise. We contrast the contact and non-contact indices of PPG derived heart rate with a criterion electrocardiogram (ECG). ECG and PPG signals were monitored in 21 healthy subjects performing tasks with different physical demands. The root mean square error of IHR

  14. Acute effects of ultrafiltration on aortic mechanical properties determined by measurement of pulse wave velocity and pulse propagation time in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Şahin Yildiz, Banu; Şahin, Alparslan; Başkurt Aladağ, Nazire; Arslan, Gülgün; Kaptanoğullari, Hakan; Akın, İbrahim; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    The effects of acute hemodialysis session on pulse wave velocity are conflicting. The aim of the current study was to assess the acute effects of ultrafiltration on the aortic mechanical properties using carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity and pulse propagation time. A total of 26 (12 women, 14 men) consecutive patients on maintenance hemodialysis (mean dialysis duration: 40.7±25.6 (4-70) months) and 29 healthy subjects (13 women, 16 men) were included in this study. Baseline blood pressure, carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity, and pulse propagation time were measured using a Complior Colson device (Createch Industrie, France) before and immediately after the end of the dialysis session. While systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in patients on hemodialysis than in healthy subjects, pulse propagation time was significantly higher in healthy subjects. Although body weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly decreased, heart rate and pulse propagation time were significantly increased after ultrafiltration. There was a significant positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and age, body height, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and heart rate. Although hemodialysis treatment may chronically worsen aortic mechanical properties, ultrafiltration during hemodialysis may significantly improve aortic pulse wave velocity, which is inversely related to aortic distensibility and pulse propagation time.

  15. Acute effects of ultrafiltration on aortic mechanical properties determined by measurement of pulse wave velocity and pulse propagation time in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Yıldız, Banu Şahin; Şahin, Alparslan; Aladağ, Nazire Başkurt; Arslan, Gülgün; Kaptanoğulları, Hakan; Akın, İbrahim; Yıldız, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The effects of acute hemodialysis session on pulse wave velocity are conflicting. The aim of the current study was to assess the acute effects of ultrafiltration on the aortic mechanical properties using carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity and pulse propagation time. Methods: A total of 26 (12 women, 14 men) consecutive patients on maintenance hemodialysis (mean dialysis duration: 40.7±25.6 (4-70) months) and 29 healthy subjects (13 women, 16 men) were included in this study. Baseline blood pressure, carotid-femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity, and pulse propagation time were measured using a Complior Colson device (Createch Industrie, France) before and immediately after the end of the dialysis session. Results: While systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly higher in patients on hemodialysis than in healthy subjects, pulse propagation time was significantly higher in healthy subjects. Although body weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and pulse wave velocity were significantly decreased, heart rate and pulse propagation time were significantly increased after ultrafiltration. There was a significant positive correlation between pulse wave velocity and age, body height, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, pulse pressure, and heart rate. Conclusion: Although hemodialysis treatment may chronically worsen aortic mechanical properties, ultrafiltration during hemodialysis may significantly improve aortic pulse wave velocity, which is inversely related to aortic distensibility and pulse propagation time. PMID:25413228

  16. Doppler velocity measurements from large and small arteries of mice

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Madala, Sridhar; Entman, Mark L.; Michael, Lloyd H.; Taffet, George E.

    2011-01-01

    With the growth of genetic engineering, mice have become increasingly common as models of human diseases, and this has stimulated the development of techniques to assess the murine cardiovascular system. Our group has developed nonimaging and dedicated Doppler techniques for measuring blood velocity in the large and small peripheral arteries of anesthetized mice. We translated technology originally designed for human vessels for use in smaller mouse vessels at higher heart rates by using higher ultrasonic frequencies, smaller transducers, and higher-speed signal processing. With these methods one can measure cardiac filling and ejection velocities, velocity pulse arrival times for determining pulse wave velocity, peripheral blood velocity and vessel wall motion waveforms, jet velocities for the calculation of the pressure drop across stenoses, and left main coronary velocity for the estimation of coronary flow reserve. These noninvasive methods are convenient and easy to apply, but care must be taken in interpreting measurements due to Doppler sample volume size and angle of incidence. Doppler methods have been used to characterize and evaluate numerous cardiovascular phenotypes in mice and have been particularly useful in evaluating the cardiac and vascular remodeling that occur following transverse aortic constriction. Although duplex ultrasonic echo-Doppler instruments are being applied to mice, dedicated Doppler systems are more suitable for some applications. The magnitudes and waveforms of blood velocities from both cardiac and peripheral sites are similar in mice and humans, such that much of what is learned using Doppler technology in mice may be translated back to humans. PMID:21572013

  17. Reference Values of Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy People from an Urban and Rural Argentinean Population

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alejandro; Galli, Cintia; Tringler, Matías; Ramírez, Agustín; Cabrera Fischer, Edmundo Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    In medical practice the reference values of arterial stiffness came from multicenter registries obtained in Asia, USA, Australia and Europe. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the gold standard method for arterial stiffness quantification; however, in South America, there are few population-based studies. In this research PWV was measured in healthy asymptomatic and normotensive subjects without history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. Normal PWV and the 95% confidence intervals values were obtained in 780 subjects (39.8 ± 18.5 years) divided into 7 age groups (10–98 years). The mean PWV found was 6.84 m/s ± 1.65. PWV increases linearly with aging with a high degree of correlation (r2 = 0.61; P < 0.05) with low dispersion in younger subjects. PWV progressively increases 6–8% with each decade of life; this tendency is more pronounced after 50 years. A significant increase of PWV over 50 years was demonstrated. This is the first population-based study from urban and rural people of Argentina that provides normal values of the PWV in healthy, normotensive subjects without family history of hypertension. Moreover, the age dependence of PWV values was confirmed. PMID:25215227

  18. A novel continuous cardiac output monitor based on pulse wave transit time.

    PubMed

    Sugo, Yoshihiro; Ukawa, Teiji; Takeda, Sunao; Ishihara, Hironori; Kazama, Tomiei; Takeda, Junzo

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring cardiac output (CO) is important for the management of patient circulation in an operation room (OR) or intensive care unit (ICU). We assumed that the change in pulse wave transit time (PWTT) obtained from an electrocardiogram (ECG) and a pulse oximeter wave is correlated with the change in stroke volume (SV), from which CO is derived. The present study reports the verification of this hypothesis using a hemodynamic analysis theory and animal study. PWTT consists of a pre-ejection period (PEP), the pulse transit time through an elasticity artery (T(1)), and the pulse transit time through peripheral resistance arteries (T(2)). We assumed a consistent negative correlation between PWTT and SV under all conditions of varying circulatory dynamics. The equation for calculating SV from PWTT was derived based on the following procedures. 1. Approximating SV using a linear equation of PWTT. 2. The slope and y-intercept of the above equation were determined under consideration of vessel compliance (SV was divided by Pulse Pressure (PP)), animal type, and the inherent relationship between PP and PWTT. Animal study was performed to verify the above-mentioned assumption. The correlation coefficient of PWTT and SV became r = -0.710 (p 〈 0.001), and a good correlation was admitted. It has been confirmed that accurate continuous CO and SV measurement is only possible by monitoring regular clinical parameters (ECG, SpO2, and NIBP).

  19. An Experimental-Computational Study of Catheter Induced Alterations in Pulse Wave Velocity in Anesthetized Mice.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Federica; Ferruzzi, Jacopo; Humphrey, Jay D; Figueroa, C Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Computational methods for solving problems of fluid dynamics and fluid-solid-interactions have advanced to the point that they enable reliable estimates of many hemodynamic quantities, including those important for studying vascular mechanobiology or designing medical devices. In this paper, we use a customized version of the open source code SimVascular to develop a computational model of central artery hemodynamics in anesthetized mice that is informed with experimental data on regional geometries, blood flows and pressures, and biaxial wall properties. After validating a baseline model against available data, we then use the model to investigate the effects of commercially available catheters on the very parameters that they are designed to measure, namely, murine blood pressure and (pressure) pulse wave velocity (PWV). We found that a combination of two small profile catheters designed to measure pressure simultaneously in the ascending aorta and femoral artery increased the PWV due to an overall increase in pressure within the arterial system. Conversely, a larger profile dual-sensor pressure catheter inserted through a carotid artery into the descending thoracic aorta decreased the PWV due to an overall decrease in pressure. In both cases, similar reductions in cardiac output were observed due to increased peripheral vascular resistance. As might be expected, therefore, invasive transducers can alter the very quantities that are designed to measure, yet advanced computational models offer a unique method to evaluate or augment such measurements.

  20. An innovative numerical approach to resolve the pulse wave velocity in a healthy thoracic aorta model.

    PubMed

    Yang, An-Shik; Wen, Chih-Yung; Tseng, Li-Yu; Chiang, Chih-Chieh; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Yu, Hsi-Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aortic dissection and atherosclerosis are highly fatal diseases. The development of both diseases is closely associated with highly complex haemodynamics. Thus, in predicting the onset of cardiac disease, it is desirable to obtain a detailed understanding of the flowfield characteristics in the human cardiovascular circulatory system. Accordingly, in this study, a numerical model of a normal human thoracic aorta is constructed using the geometry information obtained from a phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) technique. The interaction between the blood flow and the vessel wall dynamics is then investigated using a coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. The simulations focus specifically on the flowfield characteristics and pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the blood flow. Instead of using a conventional PC-MRI method to measure PWV, we present an innovative application of using the FSI approach to numerically resolve PWV for the assessment of wall compliance in a thoracic aorta model. The estimated PWV for a normal thoracic aorta agrees well with the results obtained via PC-MRI measurement. In addition, simulations which consider the FSI effect yield a lower predicted value of the wall shear stress at certain locations in the cardiac cycle than models which assume a rigid vessel wall. Consequently, the model provides a suitable basis for the future development of more sophisticated methods capable of performing the computer-aided analysis of aortic blood flows.

  1. Effect of Heart Rate on Arterial Stiffness as Assessed by Pulse Wave Velocity.

    PubMed

    Tan, Isabella; Butlin, Mark; Spronck, Bart; Xiao, Huanguang; Avolio, Alberto

    2017-07-24

    Vascular assessment is becoming increasingly important in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, clinical assessment of arterial stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV), is gaining increased interest due to the recognition of PWV as an influential factor on the prognosis of hypertension as well as being an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Whilst age and blood pressure are established as the two major determinants of PWV, the influence of heart rate on PWV measurements remains controversial with conflicting results being observed in both acute and epidemiological studies. In a majority of studies investigating the acute effects of heart rate on PWV, results were confounded by concomitant changes in blood pressure. Observations from epidemiological studies have also failed to converge, with approximately just half of such studies reporting a significant blood-pressure-independent association between heart rate and PWV. Further to the lack of consensus on the effects of heart rate on PWV, the possible mechanisms contributing to observed PWV changes with heart rate have yet to be fully elucidated, although many investigators have attributed heart-rate related changes in arterial stiffness to the viscoelasticity of the arterial wall. With elevated heart rate being an independent prognostic factor of cardiovascular disease and its association with hypertension, the interaction between heart rate and PWV continues to be relevant in assessing cardiovascular risk. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Measurements of Wall Shear Stress and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity in Swine with Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Wentland, Andrew L.; Wieben, Oliver; Shanmuganayagam, Dhanansayan; Krueger, Christian G.; Meudt, Jennifer J.; Consigny, Daniel; Rivera, Leonardo; McBride, Patrick E.; Reed, Jess D.; Grist, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) and wall shear stress (WSS) in a swine model of atherosclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nine familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine with angioplasty balloon catheter-induced atherosclerotic lesions to the abdominal aorta (injured group) and ten uninjured FH swine were evaluated with a 4D phase contrast (PC) MRI acquisition, as well as with radial and Cartesian 2D PC acquisitions, on a 3T MR scanner. PWV values were computed from the 2D and 4D PC techniques, compared between the injured and uninjured swine, and were validated against reference standard pressure probe-based PWV measurements. WSS values were also computed from the 4D PC MRI technique and compared between injured and uninjured groups. RESULTS PWV values were significantly greater in the injured than in the uninjured groups with the 4D PC MRI technique (p=0.03) and pressure probes (p=0.02). No significant differences were found in PWV between groups using the 2D PC techniques (p=0.75–0.83). No significant differences were found for WSS values between the injured and uninjured groups. CONCLUSION The 4D PC MRI technique provides a promising means of evaluating PWV and WSS in a swine model of atherosclerosis, providing a potential platform for developing the technique for the early detection of atherosclerosis. PMID:24964097

  3. Circulating resistin concentrations are independently associated with aortic pulse wave velocity in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Norman, Glenda; Norton, Gavin R; Gomes, Monica; Michel, Frederic; Majane, Olebogeng H I; Sareli, Pinhas; Millen, Aletta M E; Woodiwiss, Angela J

    2016-02-01

    The role of the adipokine, resistin in mediating increases in aortic stiffness is uncertain. We aimed to determine independent relations between circulating resistin concentrations and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) and wave reflection in a community-based sample with a high prevalence of untreated hypertension and obesity. Plasma resistin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein concentrations (ELISA); carotid-femoral (aortic) PWV and the aortic reflected wave index (applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software) were determined in 683 randomly selected participants of African ancestry from SOWETO, South Africa who had never received antihypertensive therapy. Resistin concentrations were not independently associated with office or 24-h (n = 492) blood pressure (BP). In a stepwise regression model with BMI included in the model, age (P < 0.0001), mean arterial pressure (P < 0.0001), plasma resistin concentrations (P < 0.005), female sex (P = 0.01), and creatinine concentrations (P < 0.01) contributed independently to variations in PWV. Independent relations between resistin concentrations and PWV persisted with further adjustments for C-reactive protein concentrations (P < 0.005), and the homeostasis model of insulin resistance (P < 0.02). Similar relations were noted with waist circumference rather than BMI in the model. Resistin concentrations were not independently associated with aortic reflected wave index or aortic BP. Resistin is independently and directly associated with aortic stiffness and these effects occur beyond BP, insulin resistance, and general inflammation.

  4. A Wearable and Highly Sensitive Graphene Strain Sensor for Precise Home-Based Pulse Wave Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tingting; Jiang, Xin; Zhong, Yujia; Zhao, Xuanliang; Lin, Shuyuan; Li, Jing; Li, Xinming; Xu, Jianlong; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2017-07-28

    Profuse medical information about cardiovascular properties can be gathered from pulse waveforms. Therefore, it is desirable to design a smart pulse monitoring device to achieve noninvasive and real-time acquisition of cardiovascular parameters. The majority of current pulse sensors are usually bulky or insufficient in sensitivity. In this work, a graphene-based skin-like sensor is explored for pulse wave sensing with features of easy use and wearing comfort. Moreover, the adjustment of the substrate stiffness and interfacial bonding accomplish the optimal balance between sensor linearity and signal sensitivity, as well as measurement of the beat-to-beat radial arterial pulse. Compared with the existing bulky and nonportable clinical instruments, this highly sensitive and soft sensing patch not only provides primary sensor interface to human skin, but also can objectively and accurately detect the subtle pulse signal variations in a real-time fashion, such as pulse waveforms with different ages, pre- and post-exercise, thus presenting a promising solution to home-based pulse monitoring.

  5. Pulse wave detection method based on the bio-impedance of the wrist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jianman; Wang, Mengjun; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2016-05-01

    The real-time monitoring of pulse rate can evaluate the heart health to some extent, and the measurement of bio-impedance has the potential in wearable health monitoring system. In this paper, an effective method, which contains self-balancing bridge, flexible electrode, and high-speed digital lock-in algorithm (DLIA) with over-sampling, was designed to detect the impedance pulse wave at the wrist. By applying the self-balancing bridge, the basic impedance can be compensated as much as possible, and the low amplitude of impedance variation related to heart pulse can be obtained more easily. And the flexible conductive rubber electrode used in our experiment is human-friendly. Besides, the over-sampling method and high-speed DLIA are used to enhance the effective resolution of the existing data sampled by analog to digital converter. With the high-speed data process and simple circuit above, this proposed method has the potential in wrist-band wearable systems and it can satisfy quests of small volume and low power consumption.

  6. Development of a novel pulse wave velocity measurement system: using dual piezoelectric elements.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Takeuchi, Ryuya; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Xin, Zhu; Chen, Wenxi; Nemoto, Tetsu

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a painless system of measuring the brachial-ankle arterial pulse wave velocity (baPWV) without compression cuffs. The PWV reflects the compliance of the artery and is measured for the early diagnosis of arteriosclerotic vascular diseases. However, the conventional baPWV system, which measures four cuff pressures simultaneously, easily causes circulation block and tightening pain at the extremities. In addition, approximately 15 min are required to stabilise the blood pressure for re-examination. Therefore, we developed a novel baPWV measurement system using dual piezoelectric sensor elements. The principle of this high-sensitivity pressure pulse detection system is based on adding the two in-phase outputs from the coaxially arranged dual piezoelectric sensor. As our system facilitates the measurement of the baPWV by detecting the pulsation of an artery using sensors fixed on the skin where the pulse is palpable, it does not cause pain and reduces examination time. The coefficients of correlation between the baPWV values obtained from the conventional and present methods were 0.93 (right side) and 0.90 (left side). The results suggest that our system can be used to measure the baPWV without pressure cuffs as accurately as the conventional method. Copyright © 2014 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Photoplethysmography beyond perfusion and oxygenation monitoring: Pulse wave analysis for hepatic graft monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Akl, Tony; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, Milton Nance; Cote, Gerard L.

    2014-01-01

    Photoplethysmography is a widely used technique in monitoring perfusion and blood oxygen saturation by using the amplitude of the pulsatile signal on one or multiple wavelengths. However, the pulsatile signal carries in its waveform a substantial amount of information about the mechanical properties of the tissue and vasculature under investigation that is still yet to be utilized to its full potential. In this work, we present the feasibility of pulse wave analysis for the application of monitoring hepatic implants and diagnosing graft complications. In particular, we show the possibility of computing the slope of the pulse during the diastole phase to assess the location of vascular complications when they take place. This hypothesis was tested in a series of in vitro experiments using a PDMS based phantom mimicking the optical and mechanical properties of the portal vein. The emptying time of the vessel increased from 305 ms to 515 ms when an occlusion was induced downstream from the phantom. However, in the case of upstream occlusions, the emptying time remained constant. In both cases, a decrease in the amplitude of the pulse was recorded indicating the drop in flow levels. In addition, we show that quantifying the emptying time of the vasculature under investigation can be used to assess its compliance. The emptying time decreased from 305 ms for phantoms with compliance of 15 KPa to 195 ms for phantoms with compliance of 100 KPa. These compliance levels mimic those seen for normal and fibrotic hepatic tissue respectively.

  8. Photoplethysmography beyond perfusion and oxygenation monitoring: pulse wave analysis for hepatic graft monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2014-02-01

    Photoplethysmography is a technique widely used in monitoring perfusion and blood oxygen saturation based on the amplitude of the pulsatile signal at one or multiple wavelengths. However, the pulsatile signal carries in its waveform a substantial amount of information about the mechanical properties of the tissue and vasculature under investigation that is still yet to be utilized to its full potential. In this work, we present the feasibility of pulse wave analysis for the application of monitoring hepatic implants and diagnosing graft complications. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of computing the slope of the pulse during the diastole phase to assess compliance changes in tissue. This hypothesis was tested in a series of in vitro experiments using a polydimethylsiloxane based phantom mimicking the optical and mechanical properties of the portal vein. The emptying time decreased from 148.1 ms for phantoms with compliance of 12 KPa to 97.5 ms for phantoms with compliance of 61 KPa. These compliance levels mimic those seen for normal and fibrotic hepatic tissue respectively.

  9. Metabolomic study of carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity in women

    PubMed Central

    Menni, Cristina; Mangino, Massimo; Cecelja, Marina; Psatha, Maria; Brosnan, Mary J.; Trimmer, Jeff; Mohney, Robert P.; Chowienczyk, Phil; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Spector, Tim D.; Valdes, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV) is a measure of aortic stiffness that is strongly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of the current study was to identify the molecular markers and the pathways involved in differences in PWV in women, in order to further understand the regulation of arterial stiffening. Methods: A total of 280 known metabolites were measured in 1797 female twins (age range: 18–84 years) not on any antihypertensive medication. Metabolites associated with PWV (after adjustment for age, BMI, metabolite batch, and family relatedness) were entered into a backward linear regression. Transcriptomic analyses were further performed on the top compounds identified. Results: Twelve metabolites were associated with PWV (P < 1.8 × 10−4). One of the most strongly associated metabolites was uridine, which was not associated with blood pressure (BP) and traditional risk factors but correlated significantly with the gene-expression levels of the purinergic receptor P2RY2 (Beta = −0.010, SE = 0.003, P = 0.007), suggesting that it may play a role in regulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation. On the other hand, phenylacetylglutamine was strongly associated with both PWV and BP. Conclusion: Circulating levels of uridine, phenylacetylglutamine, and serine appear strongly correlated with PWV in women. PMID:25490711

  10. Applicability of the polynomial chaos expansion method for personalization of a cardiovascular pulse wave propagation model.

    PubMed

    Huberts, W; Donders, W P; Delhaas, T; van de Vosse, F N

    2014-12-01

    Patient-specific modeling requires model personalization, which can be achieved in an efficient manner by parameter fixing and parameter prioritization. An efficient variance-based method is using generalized polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE), but it has not been applied in the context of model personalization, nor has it ever been compared with standard variance-based methods for models with many parameters. In this work, we apply the gPCE method to a previously reported pulse wave propagation model and compare the conclusions for model personalization with that of a reference analysis performed with Saltelli's efficient Monte Carlo method. We furthermore differentiate two approaches for obtaining the expansion coefficients: one based on spectral projection (gPCE-P) and one based on least squares regression (gPCE-R). It was found that in general the gPCE yields similar conclusions as the reference analysis but at much lower cost, as long as the polynomial metamodel does not contain unnecessary high order terms. Furthermore, the gPCE-R approach generally yielded better results than gPCE-P. The weak performance of the gPCE-P can be attributed to the assessment of the expansion coefficients using the Smolyak algorithm, which might be hampered by the high number of model parameters and/or by possible non-smoothness in the output space.

  11. Double-path acquisition of pulse wave transit time and heartbeat using self-mixing interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yingbin; Huang, Wencai; Wei, Zheng; Zhang, Jie; An, Tong; Wang, Xiulin; Xu, Huizhen

    2017-06-01

    We present a technique based on self-mixing interferometry for acquiring the pulse wave transit time (PWTT) and heartbeat. A signal processing method based on Continuous Wavelet Transform and Hilbert Transform is applied to extract potentially useful information in the self-mixing interference (SMI) signal, including PWTT and heartbeat. Then, some cardiovascular characteristics of the human body are easily acquired without retrieving the SMI signal by complicated algorithms. Experimentally, the PWTT is measured on the finger and the toe of the human body using double-path self-mixing interferometry. Experimental statistical data show the relation between the PWTT and blood pressure, which can be used to estimate the systolic pressure value by fitting. Moreover, the measured heartbeat shows good agreement with that obtained by a photoplethysmography sensor. The method that we demonstrate, which is based on self-mixing interferometry with significant advantages of simplicity, compactness and non-invasion, effectively illustrates the viability of the SMI technique for measuring other cardiovascular signals.

  12. Intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity in hypertensive adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gil, Tae Young; Sung, Choi Youn; Shim, Sung Shine; Hong, Young Mi

    2008-02-01

    Increased intima-media thickness (IMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) are noninvasive markers of early arterial wall alteration and are more widely used in adult clinical research. We investigated whether IMT and PWV are useful predictors of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive adolescents. Fifteen hypertensive adolescents (13-18 yr old, systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg, diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg) and seventeen normotensive subjects were included. Height, weight, obesity index, body mass index (BMI), and fat distribution were obtained from each group. Serum lipid, insulin, vitamine B12, folate, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and homocysteine levels were compared. The carotid IMT and PWV were measured. Arterial wall compliance and distensibility were calculated with the equation. High systolic blood pressure significantly correlated with height, weight, BMI, obesity index, arm circumference, fat mass, and fat distribution. Hypertensive adolescents had significantly greater cIMT (carotid intima-media thickness) and lower elastic properties such as cross-sectional compliance and distensibility of the carotid artery. The carotid IMT significantly correlated with brachial-ankle PWV. In conclusion, the measurement of carotid IMT and brachial-ankle PWV might be useful to predict the development of atherosclerosis in hypertensive adolescents.

  13. Intima-Media Thickness and Pulse Wave Velocity in Hypertensive Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Tae Young; Sung, Choi Youn; Shim, Sung Shine

    2008-01-01

    Increased intima-media thickness (IMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) are noninvasive markers of early arterial wall alteration and are more widely used in adult clinical research. We investigated whether IMT and PWV are useful predictors of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive adolescents. Fifteen hypertensive adolescents (13-18 yr old, systolic BP ≥140 mmHg, diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) and seventeen normotensive subjects were included. Height, weight, obesity index, body mass index (BMI), and fat distribution were obtained from each group. Serum lipid, insulin, vitamine B12, folate, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and homocysteine levels were compared. The carotid IMT and PWV were measured. Arterial wall compliance and distensibility were calculated with the equation. High systolic blood pressure significantly correlated with height, weight, BMI, obesity index, arm circumference, fat mass, and fat distribution. Hypertensive adolescents had significantly greater cIMT (carotid intima-media thickness) and lower elastic properties such as cross-sectional compliance and distensibility of the carotid artery. The carotid IMT significantly correlated with brachial-ankle PWV. In conclusion, the measurement of carotid IMT and brachial-ankle PWV might be useful to predict the development of atherosclerosis in hypertensive adolescents. PMID:18303196

  14. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-01-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery–vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25766693

  15. Pulse Wave Velocity at Early Adulthood: Breastfeeding and Nutrition during Pregnancy and Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Denise Petrucci; de Barros, Fernando Celso Lopes Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an early marker of arterial stiffness. Low birthweight, infant feeding and childhood nutrition have been associated with cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In this study, we evaluated the association of PWV at 30 years of age with birth condition and childhood nutrition, among participants of the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort. Methods In 1982, the hospital births in Pelotas, southern Brazil, were identified just after delivery. Those liveborn infants whose family lived in the urban area of the city were examined and have been prospectively followed. At 30 years of age, we tried to follow the whole cohort and PWV was assessed in 1576 participants. Results Relative weight gain from 2 to 4 years was positively associated with PWV. Regarding nutritional status in childhood, PWV was higher among those whose weight-for-age z-score at 4 years was >1 standard deviation above the mean. On the other hand, height gain, birthweight and duration of breastfeeding were not associated with PWV. Conclusion Relative weight gain after 2 years of age is associated with increased PWV, while birthweight and growth in the first two years of life were not associated. These results suggest that the relative increase of weight later in childhood is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. PMID:27073916

  16. Effects of beam steering in pulsed-wave ultrasound velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Aaron H; Yu, Alfred C H; Johnston, K Wayne; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2005-08-01

    Experimental and computer simulation methods have been used to investigate the significance of beam steering as a potential source of error in pulsed-wave flow velocity estimation. By simulating a typical linear-array transducer system as used for spectral flow estimation, it is shown that beam steering can cause an angle offset resulting in a change in the effective beam-flow angle. This offset primarily depends on the F-number and the nominal steering angle. For example, at an F-number of 3 and a beam-flow angle of 70 degrees , the velocity error changed from -5% to + 5% when the steering angle changed from -20 degrees to + 20 degrees . Much higher errors can occur at higher beam-flow angles, with smaller F-numbers and greater steering. Our experimental study used a clinical ultrasound system, a tissue-mimicking phantom and a pulsatile waveform to determine peak flow velocity errors for various steering and beam-flow angles. These errors were found to be consistent with our simulation results.

  17. Parametric estimation of pulse arrival time: a robust approach to pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Solà, Josep; Vetter, Rolf; Renevey, Philippe; Chételat, Olivier; Sartori, Claudio; Rimoldi, Stefano F

    2009-07-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a surrogate of arterial stiffness and represents a non-invasive marker of cardiovascular risk. The non-invasive measurement of PWV requires tracking the arrival time of pressure pulses recorded in vivo, commonly referred to as pulse arrival time (PAT). In the state of the art, PAT is estimated by identifying a characteristic point of the pressure pulse waveform. This paper demonstrates that for ambulatory scenarios, where signal-to-noise ratios are below 10 dB, the performance in terms of repeatability of PAT measurements through characteristic points identification degrades drastically. Hence, we introduce a novel family of PAT estimators based on the parametric modeling of the anacrotic phase of a pressure pulse. In particular, we propose a parametric PAT estimator (TANH) that depicts high correlation with the Complior(R) characteristic point D1 (CC = 0.99), increases noise robustness and reduces by a five-fold factor the number of heartbeats required to obtain reliable PAT measurements.

  18. Arterial Stiffness and Pulse Wave Reflection Are Increased in Patients Suffering from Severe Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Jockel-Schneider, Yvonne; Harks, Inga; Haubitz, Imme; Fickl, Stefan; Eigenthaler, Martin; Schlagenhauf, Ulrich; Baulmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Aim This single blind cross-sectional study compared the vascular health of subjects suffering from severe chronic periodontitis, severe aggressive periodontitis and periodontal healthy controls by evaluating pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AIx) and pulse pressure amplification (PPA). Material and Methods In a total of 158 subjects, 92 suffering from severe periodontitis and 66 matched periodontal healthy controls, PWV, AIx, central and peripheral blood pressure were recorded using an oscillometric device (Arteriograph). Results Subjects suffering from severe chronic or aggressive periodontitis exhibited significantly higher PWV (p = 0.00004), higher AIx (p = 0.0049) and lower PPA (p = 0.028) than matched periodontal healthy controls. Conclusions The results of this study confirm the association between periodontal inflammation and increased cardiovascular risk shown by impaired vascular health in case of severe periodontitis. As impaired vascular health is a common finding in patients suffering from severe periodontal disease a concomitant routine cardiovascular evaluation may be advised. PMID:25084111

  19. Independent associations of circulating galectin-3 concentrations with aortic pulse wave velocity and wave reflection in a community sample.

    PubMed

    Libhaber, Elena; Woodiwiss, Angela J; Raymond, Andrew; Gomes, Monica; Maseko, Muzi J; Sareli, Pinhas; Norton, Gavin R

    2015-06-01

    Although the profibrotic inflammatory substance galectin-3 predicts outcomes in the general population, the mechanisms responsible for this effect are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether circulating galectin-3 concentrations are associated with carotid femoral (aortic) pulse wave velocity and aortic reflective wave index (applanation tonometry and SphygmoCor software) in 966 randomly selected participants from a community sample. Galectin-3 concentrations were not independently associated with office (n=966) or 24-hour (n=661) systolic (P=0.88-0.92) or diastolic (P=0.65-0.94) blood pressure. In contrast, with adjustments for age, sex (in all participants), office or 24-hour mean arterial pressure (or systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure), pulse rate, body mass index, regular smoking, regular alcohol intake, total cholesterol concentrations, diabetes mellitus or an glycohemoglobin >6.1%, treatment for hypertension, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, galectin-3 was independently associated with aortic pulse wave velocity in all participants (partial r=0.15, P<0.0001) and reflective wave index in men (partial r=0.13, P<0.02). In 745 participants who had never received antihypertensive therapy, galectin-3 concentrations were similarly independently associated with pulse wave velocity in all participants (partial=0.16, P<0.0001) and reflective wave index in men (partial r=0.15, P<0.02). The blood pressure-independent relations between galectin-3 concentrations and aortic hemodynamics persisted with further adjustments for C-reactive protein concentrations (pulse wave velocity in all participants: partial r=0.14, P<0.0001; reflective wave index in men: partial r=0.12, P<0.05). In conclusion, despite a lack of independent association with brachial blood pressure, the profibrotic inflammatory substance galectin-3 may contribute toward adverse outcomes through an effect on aortic stiffness, an effect that cannot be attributed to general inflammatory

  20. FSI Simulations of Pulse Wave Propagation in Human Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: The Effects of Sac Geometry and Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Lin, Kexin; Shahmirzadi, Danial

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the effects of geometry and stiffness of aneurysms on the pulse wave velocity (PWV) and propagation in fluid–solid interaction (FSI) simulations of arterial pulsatile flow. Spatiotemporal maps of both the wall displacement and fluid velocity were generated in order to obtain the pulse wave propagation through fluid and solid media, and to examine the interactions between the two waves. The results indicate that the presence of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) sac and variations in the sac modulus affect the propagation of the pulse waves both qualitatively (eg, patterns of change of forward and reflective waves) and quantitatively (eg, decreasing of PWV within the sac and its increase beyond the sac as the sac stiffness increases). The sac region is particularly identified on the spatiotemporal maps with a region of disruption in the wave propagation with multiple short-traveling forward/reflected waves, which is caused by the change in boundary conditions within the saccular region. The change in sac stiffness, however, is more pronounced on the wall displacement spatiotemporal maps compared to those of fluid velocity. We conclude that the existence of the sac can be identified based on the solid and fluid pulse waves, while the sac properties can also be estimated. This study demonstrates the initial findings in numerical simulations of FSI dynamics during arterial pulsations that can be used as reference for experimental and in vivo studies. Future studies are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the method in identifying very mild sacs, which cannot be detected from medical imaging, where the material property degradation exists under early disease initiation. PMID:27478394

  1. Pulse wave analysis in a 180-degree curved artery model: Implications under physiological and non-physiological inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressures, and left ventricular hypertrophy contribute to cardiovascular risks. Increase of arterial stiffness due to aging and hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular, chronic kidney and end-stage-renal-diseases. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) based on arterial pressure wave characteristics, is well established in clinical practice for evaluation of arterial distensibility and hypertension. The objective of our exploratory study in a rigid 180-degree curved artery model was to evaluate arterial pressure waveforms. Bend upstream conditions were measured using a two-component, two-dimensional, particle image velocimeter (2C-2D PIV). An ultrasonic transit-time flow meter and a catheter with a MEMS-based solid state pressure sensor, capable of measuring up to 20 harmonics of the observed pressure waveform, monitored flow conditions downstream of the bend. Our novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2), in addition to detecting coherent secondary flow structures is used to evaluate arterial pulse wave characteristics subjected to physiological and non-physiological inflows. Results of this study will elucidate the utility of wavelet transforms in arterial function evaluation and pulse wave speed. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  2. Alterations in pulse wave propagation reflect the degree of outflow tract banding in HH18 chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Goenezen, Sevan; Haller, Stephen; Hinds, Monica T.; Thornburg, Kent L.

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic conditions play a critical role in embryonic cardiovascular development, and altered blood flow leads to congenital heart defects. Chicken embryos are frequently used as models of cardiac development, with abnormal blood flow achieved through surgical interventions such as outflow tract (OFT) banding, in which a suture is tightened around the heart OFT to restrict blood flow. Banding in embryos increases blood pressure and alters blood flow dynamics, leading to cardiac malformations similar to those seen in human congenital heart disease. In studying these hemodynamic changes, synchronization of data to the cardiac cycle is challenging, and alterations in the timing of cardiovascular events after interventions are frequently lost. To overcome this difficulty, we used ECG signals from chicken embryos (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 18, ∼3 days of incubation) to synchronize blood pressure measurements and optical coherence tomography images. Our results revealed that, after 2 h of banding, blood pressure and pulse wave propagation strongly depend on band tightness. In particular, while pulse transit time in the heart OFT of control embryos is ∼10% of the cardiac cycle, after banding (35% to 50% band tightness) it becomes negligible, indicating a faster OFT pulse wave velocity. Pulse wave propagation in the circulation is likewise affected; however, pulse transit time between the ventricle and dorsal aorta (at the level of the heart) is unchanged, suggesting an overall preservation of cardiovascular function. Changes in cardiac pressure wave propagation are likely contributing to the extent of cardiac malformations observed in banded hearts. PMID:23709601

  3. Development of a Standard Protocol for the Harmonic Analysis of Radial Pulse Wave and Assessing Its Reliability in Healthy Humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Wei; Chen, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Wei-Kung

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to establish a standard protocol and to quantitatively assess the reliability of harmonic analysis of the radial pulse wave measured by a harmonic wave analyzer (TD01C system). Both intraobserver and interobserver assessments were conducted to investigate whether the values of harmonics are stable in successive measurements. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and a Bland-Altman plot were used for this purpose. For the reliability assessments of the intraobserver and the interobserver, 22 subjects (mean age 45 ± 14 years; 14 males and 8 females) were enrolled. The first eleven harmonics of the radial pulse wave presented excellent repeatability ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) for the intraobserver assessment and high reproducibility (ICCs range from 0.83 to 0.96 and [Formula: see text]) for the interobserver assessment. The Bland-Altman plot indicated that more than 90% of harmonic values fell within two standard deviations of the mean difference. Thus, we concluded that the harmonic analysis of the radial pulse wave using the TD01C system is a feasible and reliable method to assess a hemodynamic characteristic in clinical trial.

  4. Alterations in pulse wave propagation reflect the degree of outflow tract banding in HH18 chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Goenezen, Sevan; Haller, Stephen; Hinds, Monica T; Thornburg, Kent L; Rugonyi, Sandra

    2013-08-01

    Hemodynamic conditions play a critical role in embryonic cardiovascular development, and altered blood flow leads to congenital heart defects. Chicken embryos are frequently used as models of cardiac development, with abnormal blood flow achieved through surgical interventions such as outflow tract (OFT) banding, in which a suture is tightened around the heart OFT to restrict blood flow. Banding in embryos increases blood pressure and alters blood flow dynamics, leading to cardiac malformations similar to those seen in human congenital heart disease. In studying these hemodynamic changes, synchronization of data to the cardiac cycle is challenging, and alterations in the timing of cardiovascular events after interventions are frequently lost. To overcome this difficulty, we used ECG signals from chicken embryos (Hamburger-Hamilton stage 18, ∼3 days of incubation) to synchronize blood pressure measurements and optical coherence tomography images. Our results revealed that, after 2 h of banding, blood pressure and pulse wave propagation strongly depend on band tightness. In particular, while pulse transit time in the heart OFT of control embryos is ∼10% of the cardiac cycle, after banding (35% to 50% band tightness) it becomes negligible, indicating a faster OFT pulse wave velocity. Pulse wave propagation in the circulation is likewise affected; however, pulse transit time between the ventricle and dorsal aorta (at the level of the heart) is unchanged, suggesting an overall preservation of cardiovascular function. Changes in cardiac pressure wave propagation are likely contributing to the extent of cardiac malformations observed in banded hearts.

  5. Pulsed Doppler echocardiographic analysis of mitral regurgitation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Loperfido, F; Biasucci, L M; Pennestri, F; Laurenzi, F; Gimigliano, F; Vigna, C; Rossi, E; Favuzzi, A; Santarelli, P; Manzoli, U

    1986-10-01

    In 72 patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI), mitral regurgitation (MR) was assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiography and compared with physical and 2-dimensional echocardiographic findings. MR was found by Doppler in 29 of 42 patients (62%) with anterior MI, 11 of 30 (37%) with inferior MI (p less than 0.01) and in none of 20 normal control subjects. MR was more frequent in patients who underwent Doppler study 3 months after MI than in those who underwent Doppler at discharge (anterior MI = 83% vs 50%, p less than 0.01; inferior MI = 47% vs 27%, p = not significant). Of 15 patients who underwent Doppler studies both times, 3 (all with anterior MI) had MR only on the second study. Of the patients with Doppler MR, 12 of 27 (44%) with a left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) greater than 30% and 1 of 13 (8%) with an EF of 30% or less (p less than 0.01) had an MR systolic murmur. Mitral prolapse or eversion and papillary muscle fibrosis were infrequent in MI patients, whether or not Doppler MR was present. The degree of Doppler MR correlated with EF (r = -0.61), LV systolic volume (r = 0.47), and systolic and diastolic mitral anulus circumference (r = 0.52 and 0.51, respectively). Doppler MR was present in 24 of 28 patients (86%) with an EF of 40% or less and in 16 of 44 (36%) with EF more than 40% (p less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Echocardiographically Derived Pulse Wave Velocity and Diastolic Dysfunction Are Associated with an Increased Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Bonapace, Stefano; Rossi, Andrea; Cicoira, Mariantonietta; Targher, Giovanni; Marino, Paolo; Benfari, Giovanni; Mugnai, Giacomo; Arcaro, Guido; Vassanelli, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is an established risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the prognostic value of cardiac and hemodynamic parameters in assessing the risk of developing AF among patients with CHF is less defined. We followed an outpatients cohort of CHF patients secondary to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, who were free of AF at baseline. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, comprehensive echocardiography, and blood drawing in the same morning. Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), a measure of aortic stiffness, was determined by Doppler echocardiography. A total of 77 patients (age 63 ± 9 years; 79% male) with mean LVEF (34 ± 8%) formed the study population. Fifteen patients developed incidental AF. At baseline, CHF patients who developed AF during follow-up had higher E-wave velocity (75 ± 2 cm/sec vs. 60 ± 2 cm/sec; P = 0.02), higher difference duration between mitral and pulmonary vein A velocity (A'-A), (10 ± 35 msec vs. 43 ± 44 msec P = 0.02), aPWV (7.1 ± 2.6 vs. 5.3 ± 1.9 m/sec P = 0.004), and furosemide dosage (110 ± 145 mg vs. 49 ± 48 mg P = 0.01) than those remaining free from AF. The two groups of patients did not significantly differ in terms of NYHA, LV volumes, ejection fraction, left atrial volume, creatinine, hemoglobin, renin, epinephrine, amino-terminal propeptide of type III and I procollagens, ACE inhibitor, and β-blocker dose (P > 0.1 for all). Notably, higher aPWV (P = 0.01) and longer A-A' duration (P = 0.04) were associated with an increased incidence of AF, independently of potential confounders. Increased aortic stiffness and LV diastolic dysfunction are strong predictors of new onset of AF among patients with systolic CHF. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Doppler aortic flow velocity measurement in healthy children.

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, S.; Kim, H. S.

    2001-01-01

    To determine normal values for Doppler parameters of left ventricular function, ascending aortic blood flow velocity was measured by pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography in 63 healthy children with body surface area (BSA) < 1 m(2) (age < 10 yr). Peak velocity was independent of sex, but increased with body size. Mean acceleration was related to peak velocity (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). Both stroke distance and ejection time had strong negative correlations with heart rate and positive correlations with BSA, suggesting that these parameters should be evaluated in relation to heart rate and body size. Mean intra- and interobserver variability for peak velocity, ejection time, stroke and minute distance ranged from 3 to 7%, whereas variability for acceleration time was 9 to 13%. These data may be used as reference values for the assessment of hemodynamic states in young children with cardiac disease. PMID:11306737

  8. Pulse Wave Velocity and Cardiac Output vs. Heart Rate in Patients with an Implanted Pacemaker Based on Electric Impedance Method Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukup, Ladislav; Vondra, Vlastimil; Viščor, Ivo; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef

    2013-04-01

    The methods and device for estimation of cardiac output and measurement of pulse wave velocity simultaneously is presented here. The beat-to-beat cardiac output as well as pulse wave velocity measurement is based on application of electrical impedance method on the thorax and calf. The results are demonstrated in a study of 24 subjects. The dependence of pulse wave velocity and cardiac output on heart rate during rest in patients with an implanted pacemaker was evaluated. The heart rate was changed by pacemaker programming while neither exercise nor drugs were applied. The most important result is that the pulse wave velocity, cardiac output and blood pressure do not depend significantly on heart rate, while the stroke volume is reciprocal proportionally to the heart rate.

  9. Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity: Impact of Different Arterial Path Length Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Jun; Hayashi, Koichiro; Yokoi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2009-01-01

    Background Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the most established index of arterial stiffness. Yet there is no consensus on the methodology in regard to the arterial path length measurements conducted on the body surface. Currently, it is not known to what extent the differences in the arterial path length measurements affect absolute PWV values. Methods Two hundred fifty apparently healthy adults (127 men and 123 women, 19-79 years) were studied. Carotid-femoral PWV was calculated using (1) the straight distance between carotid and femoral sites (PWVcar–fem), (2) the straight distance between suprasternal notch and femoral site minus carotid arterial length (PWV(ssn–fem)-(ssn–car)), (3) the straight distance between carotid and femoral sites minus carotid arterial length (PWV(car–fem)-(ssn–car)), and (4) the combined distance from carotid site to the umbilicus and from the umbilicus to femoral site minus carotid arterial length (PWV(ssn–umb–fem)-(ssn–car)). Results All the calculated PWV were significantly correlated with each other (r=0.966-0.995). PWV accounting for carotid arterial length were 16-31% lower than PWVcar–fem. PWVcar–fem value of 12 m/sec corresponded to 8.3 m/sec for PWV(ssn–fem)-(ssn–car), 10.0 m/sec for PWV(car–fem)-(ssn–car), and 8.9 m/sec for PWV(ssn–umb–fem)-(ssn–car). Conclusion Different body surface measurements used to estimate arterial path length would produce substantial variations in absolute PWV values. PMID:20396400

  10. Pulse wave analysis and prevalent cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Catherine T.; Secrest, Aaron M.; Mackey, Rachel H.; Arena, Vincent C.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with a high risk for and mortality from premature coronary artery disease (CAD), including coronary artery calcification (CAC), a subclinical marker, and lower extremity arterial disease (LEAD). Pulse Wave Analysis (PWA) arterial stiffness indices have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and outcomes in various populations, but little is known regarding these relationships in T1D. METHODS PWA was performed using the Sphygmocor Px device on 144 participants in the Pittsburgh EDC Study of childhood onset T1D. The cross-sectional associations between arterial stiffness indices, augmentation index (AIx) and augmentation pressure (AP), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), an estimate of myocardial perfusion, with prevalent CAD, electron beam computed tomography-measured CAC and low (<0.90) ankle-brachial index (ABI) were examined. RESULTS Higher AP (but not AIx) and lower SEVR were univariately associated with prevalent CAD, high CAC score, and low ABI. AP and SEVR’s association with CAD and CAC did not, however, remain significant after adjustment for age. In individuals not using nitrates, which profoundly affect PWA measures, AP was significantly higher in those with CAD events and explained more of the variance than either age or brachial blood pressure measures. SEVR was associated with low ABI in multivariable models. CONCLUSIONS Greater augmentation pressure is independently associated with prevalent CAD and estimated myocardial perfusion with low ABI in type 1 diabetes. These measures may thus help to better characterize CVD risk in type 1 diabetes and need to be examined prospectively. PMID:20880527

  11. Feasibility of pulse wave velocity estimation from low frame rate US sequences in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zontak, Maria; Bruce, Matthew; Hippke, Michelle; Schwartz, Alan; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered one of the most important clinical parameters to evaluate CV risk, vascular adaptation, etc. There has been substantial work attempting to measure the PWV in peripheral vessels using ultrasound (US). This paper presents a fully automatic algorithm for PWV estimation from the human carotid using US sequences acquired with a Logic E9 scanner (modified for RF data capture) and a 9L probe. Our algorithm samples the pressure wave in time by tracking wall displacements over the sequence, and estimates the PWV by calculating the temporal shift between two sampled waves at two distinct locations. Several recent studies have utilized similar ideas along with speckle tracking tools and high frame rate (above 1 KHz) sequences to estimate the PWV. To explore PWV estimation in a more typical clinical setting, we used focused-beam scanning, which yields relatively low frame rates and small fields of view (e.g., 200 Hz for 16.7 mm filed of view). For our application, a 200 Hz frame rate is low. In particular, the sub-frame temporal accuracy required for PWV estimation between locations 16.7 mm apart, ranges from 0.82 of a frame for 4m/s, to 0.33 for 10m/s. When the distance is further reduced (to 0.28 mm between two beams), the sub-frame precision is in parts per thousand (ppt) of the frame (5 ppt for 10m/s). As such, the contributions of our algorithm and this paper are: 1. Ability to work with low frame-rate ( 200Hz) and decreased lateral field of view. 2. Fully automatic segmentation of the wall intima (using raw RF images). 3. Collaborative Speckle Tracking of 2D axial and lateral carotid wall motion. 4. Outlier robust PWV calculation from multiple votes using RANSAC. 5. Algorithm evaluation on volunteers of different ages and health conditions.

  12. Aortic pulse wave velocity predicts focal white matter hyperintensities in a biracial cohort of older adults.

    PubMed

    Rosano, Caterina; Watson, Nora; Chang, Yuefang; Newman, Anne B; Aizenstein, Howard J; Du, Yan; Venkatraman, Vijay; Harris, Tamara B; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Although the cross-sectional relationship of arterial stiffness with cerebral small vessel disease is consistently shown in middle-aged and young-old adults, it is less clear whether these associations remain significant over time in very old adults. We hypothesize that arterial stiffness is longitudinally associated with white matter characteristics, and associations are stronger within watershed areas. Neuroimaging was obtained in 2006-2008 from 303 elderly (mean age 82.9 years, 59% women, 41% black) with pulse wave velocity (PWV) measures in 1997-1998. Multivariable regression models estimated the coefficients for PWV (cm/sec) in relationship to presence, severity, and spatial distribution of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), gray matter volume, and fractional anisotropy from diffusion tensor, adjusting for demographic, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases from 1997-1998 to 2006-2008. Higher PWV in 1997-1998 was associated with greater WMH volume in 2006-2008 within the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (age and total brain WMH adjusted, P=0.023), but not with WMH in other tracts or with fractional anisotropy or gray matter volume from total brain (P>0.2). Associations were stronger in blacks than in whites, remaining significant in fully adjusted models. Elderly with WMH in tracts related to processing speed and memory are more likely to have had higher PWV values 10 years prior, before neuroimaging data being available. Future studies should address whether arterial stiffness can serve as an early biomarker of covert brain structural abnormalities and whether early arterial stiffness control can promote successful brain aging, especially in black elderly.

  13. An ultrasound-based method for determining pulse wave velocity in superficial arteries.

    PubMed

    Rabben, Stein Inge; Stergiopulos, Nikos; Hellevik, Leif Rune; Smiseth, Otto A; Slørdahl, Stig; Urheim, Stig; Angelsen, Bjørn

    2004-10-01

    In this paper, we present a method for estimating local pulse wave velocity (PWV) solely from ultrasound measurements: the area-flow (QA) method. With the QA method, PWV is estimated as the ratio between change in flow and change in cross-sectional area (PWV = dQ/dA) during the reflection-free period of the cardiac cycle. In four anaesthetized dogs and 21 human subjects (age 23-74) we measured the carotid flow and cross-sectional area non-invasively by ultrasound. As a reference method we used the Bramwell-Hill (BH) equation which estimates PWV from pulse pressure and cross-sectional area. Additionally, we therefore measured brachial pulse pressure by oscillometry in the human subjects, and central aortic pulse pressure by micro-manometry in the dogs. As predicted by the pressure dependency of arterial stiffness, the estimated PWV decreased when the aortic pressure was lowered in two of the dogs. For the human subjects, the QA and BH estimates were correlated (R=0.43, p<0.05) and agreed on average (mean difference of -0.14 m/s). The PWV by the BH method increased with age (p<0.01) whereas the PWV by the QA method tended to increase with age (p<0.1). This corresponded to a larger residual variance (residual = deviation of the estimated PWV from the regression line) for the QA method than for the BH method, indicating different precisions for the two methods. This study illustrates that the simple equation PWV = dQ/dA gives estimates correlated to the PWV of the reference method. However, improvements in the basic measurements seem necessary to increase the precision of the method.

  14. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity is negatively correlated with aortic diameter.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Marc A; Davies, Jennifer M; Griffin, Kathryn J; Bridge, Katherine I; Johnson, Anne B; Sohrabi, Soroush; Baxter, Paul D; Scott, D Julian A

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular events pose significant morbidity and mortality burden to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. Arterial stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the relationship between aortic diameter and PWV. Consecutive patients with AAA were invited to participate. Patients completed a health questionnaire, received aortic ultrasound and carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) recordings with a Vicorder. Thirty patients were used for reproducibility assessment. A linear regression model was used to identify significant predictors of cfPWV. Observer variation was assessed using Bland and Altman analysis and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Three hundred and nine patients were included-148 with AAA and 161 controls. The mean difference for repeated cfPWV between observers was 0.11 ms(-1). cfPWV was positively correlated with age (r=0.24, P<0.001) and systolic blood pressure (r=0.29, P<0.001) and negatively correlated with aortic diameter (r=-0.15, P=0.008). There was no difference in cfPWV between AAA and control groups (9.75±2.3 ms(-1) vs. 9.55±2.3 ms(-1), P=0.43). Aortic diameter (P=0.003) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.001) were significant predictors of cfPWV independent of age, aspirin usage and a history of myocardial infarction. Patients with large AAA (>5 cm) had decreased cfPWV compared with patients with small AAA (P=0.02) or normal diameter aorta (P=0.02). Vicorder measurements of cfPWV are repeatable. cfPWV is negatively associated with infra-renal aortic diameter and reduced in large AAA. cfPWV is likely invalid for accurate arterial stiffness assessment in patients with AAA owing to the apparent confounding effect of aortic size.

  15. Assessment of pulmonary artery pulse wave velocity in children: an MRI pilot study.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chuen Y; Edwards, Julie M; Evans, C John; Harris, Ashley D; Tsai-Goodman, Beverly; Bolton, Charlotte E; Cockcroft, John R; Wise, Richard G; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2013-12-01

    To assess the feasibility of measuring pulmonary artery (PA) pulse wave velocity (PWV) in children breathing ambient air and 12% oxygen. Velocity-encoded phase-contrast MR images of the PA were acquired in 15 children, aged 9-12years, without evidence of cardiac or pulmonary diseases. PWV was derived as the ratio of flow to area changes during early systole. Each child was scanned twice, in air and after at least 20minutes into inspiratory hypoxic challenge. Intra-observer and inter-observer variability and repeatability were also compared. PA PWV, which was successfully measured in all subjects, increased from 1.31±0.32m/s in air to 1.61±0.58m/s under hypoxic challenge (p=0.03). Intra- and inter-observer coefficients of variations were 9.0% and 15.6% respectively. Good correlation within and between observers of r=0.92 and r=0.72 respectively was noted for PA PWV measurements. Mean (95% limit of agreement) intra- and inter-observer agreement on Bland-Altman analysis were -0.02m/s (-0.41-0.38m/s) and -0.28m/s (-1.06-0.49m/s). PA PWV measurement in children using velocity-encoded MRI is feasible, reproducible and sufficiently sensitive to detect differences in PA compliance between normoxia and hypoxia. This technique can be used to detect early changes of PA compliance and monitor PAH in children. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulse wave velocity is increased in patients with transient myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Baulmann, Johannes; Homsi, Rami; Uen, Sakir; Düsing, Rainer; Fimmers, Rolf; Vetter, Hans; Mengden, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    We have recently shown that mean pulse pressure is higher in patients with transient myocardial ischemia. Pulse pressure elevation might be an important consequence of increased arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to prove if arterial stiffness is changed in patients with transient myocardial ischemia who bear a high cardiovascular risk. Additionally we investigated whether arterial stiffness or wave reflection is the best indicator for transient myocardial ischemia. Aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a measure of arterial stiffness, and augmentation index (AIx) an indication of arterial wave reflection. Both are indicators for cardiovascular risk. PWV (carotid-femoral) and AIx (SphygmoCor) were assessed in 74 hypertensive patients. Transient myocardial ischemia was detected using an ST-triggered 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring device. ST-segment depressions were recorded in 30 of 74 patients. There were no significant differences with regard to age, mean arterial pressure, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure or heart rate. PWV was seen to be higher in patients with transient myocardial ischemia (10.6 versus 9.5 m/s, P = 0.036). There was no significant difference in AIx between the two groups. PWV (r = 0.36, P = 0.002) but not AIx correlated with pulse pressure. PWV is higher in hypertensive individuals (age > 60 years) with transient myocardial ischemia, suggesting that PWV is an indicator of increased cardiovascular risk. Although AIx is known to be associated with several cardiovascular diseases, it was not seen to be associated with silent myocardial ischemia. Our results suggest that the clinical significance of parameters of arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflection change with age, with a higher clinical importance of PWV indicated in patients over the age of 60.

  17. Aortic-Brachial Pulse Wave Velocity Ratio: A Blood Pressure-Independent Index of Vascular Aging.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Catherine; Sidibé, Aboubacar; Desjardins, Marie-Pier; Marquis, Karine; De Serres, Sacha A; Mac-Way, Fabrice; Agharazii, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Aortic stiffness, a cardiovascular risk factor, depends on the operating mean arterial pressure (MAP). The impact of aortic stiffness on cardiovascular outcomes is proposed to be mediated by the attenuation or the reversal of the arterial stiffness gradient. We hypothesized that arterial stiffness gradient is less influenced by changes in MAP. We aimed to study the relationship between MAP and aortic stiffness, brachial stiffness, and arterial stiffness gradient. In a cross-sectional study of a dialysis cohort (group A, n=304) and a cohort of hypertensive or kidney transplant recipient with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of >45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (group B, n=114), we assessed aortic and brachial stiffness by measuring carotid-femoral and carotid-radial pulse wave velocities (PWV). We used aortic-brachial PWV ratio as a measure of arterial stiffness gradient. Although there was a positive relationship between MAP and carotid-femoral PWV (R(2)=0.10 and 0.08; P<0.001 and P=0.003) and MAP and carotid-radial PWV (R(2)=0.22 and 0.12; P<0.001 and P<0.001), there was no statistically or clinically significant relationship between MAP and aortic-brachial PWV ratio (R(2)=0.0002 and 0.0001; P=0.8 and P=0.9) in group A and B, respectively. Dialysis status and increasing age increased the slope of the relationship between MAP and cf-PWV. However, we found no modifying factor (age, sex, dialysis status, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and class of antihypertensive drugs) that could affect the lack of relationship between MAP and aortic-brachial PWV ratio. In conclusion, these results suggest that aortic-brachial PWV ratio could be considered as a blood pressure-independent measure of vascular aging. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Association between Pulse Wave Velocity and Coronary Artery Calcification in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Torii, Sayuki; Arima, Hisatomi; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Kadota, Aya; Takashima, Naoyuki; Kadowaki, Sayaka; Hisamatsu, Takashi; Saito, Yoshino; Miyagawa, Naoko; Zaid, Maryam; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Abbott, Robert D; Horie, Minoru; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a simple and valid clinical method for assessing arterial stiffness. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is an intermediate stage in the process leading to overt cardiovascular disease (CVD) and an established determinant of coronary artery disease. This study aimed to examine the association between PWV and CAC in a population-based sample of Japanese men. This is a cross-sectional study of 986 randomly selected men aged 40-79 years from Shiga, Japan. CVD-free participants were examined from 2006 to 2008. Brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) was measured using an automatic waveform analyzer. CAC was assessed using computed tomography. Agatston scores ≥ 10 were defined as the presence of CAC. Prevalence of CAC progressively increased with rising levels of baPWV: 20.6%, 41.7%, 56.3%, and 66.7% across baPWV quartiles < 1378, 1378-1563, 1564-1849, and > 1849 cm/s (P < 0.001 for trend). Associations remained significant after adjusting for age and other factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, pulse rate, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hemoglobin A1c, drinking, smoking and exercise status, and the use of medication to treat hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (P=0.042 for trend). The optimal cutoff level of baPWV to detect CAC was 1612 cm/s using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Arterial stiffness as defined by an elevated baPWV is associated with an increased prevalence of CAC in a general population-based setting among Japanese men.

  19. Atorvastatin Treatment Does Not Alter Pulse Wave Velocity in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Kevin D.; Taylor, Beth A.; Capizzi, Jeffrey A.; Grimaldi, Adam S.; White, C. Michael; Thompson, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Both statins and regular physical activity (PA) reduce arterial stiffness. The present post hoc analysis examined if arterial stiffness was improved with high-dose atorvastatin treatment in healthy adults and whether PA levels magnified this response. We utilized data from a double-blind, random-assignment clinical trial investigating the effects of atorvastatin 80 mg/d for 6 mo on skeletal muscle symptoms. Methods. Central and peripheral arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured and PA levels assessed at baseline and 6 mo in subjects randomized to atorvastatin (n = 21, 9 men) or placebo (n = 29, 16 men). Results. Baseline participant characteristics, PWV, and PA levels were not different between treatments. Central (means ± SD; 8.7 ± 2.6 to 9.0 ± 2.5 m/sec) and peripheral PWV (9.9 ± 1.3 to 9.8 ± 1.6 m/sec) were unchanged from baseline following atorvastatin treatment (time × drug interaction: P ≥ 0.13). Similarly, PA levels were unaffected by time or treatment. In sex and age adjusted models, baseline levels of PA were not related to changes in PWV with atorvastatin treatment. Conclusion. These data indicate that high-dose atorvastatin treatment for 6 mo does not influence arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Participation in habitual PA did not magnify the vascular effects of statin therapy. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00609063. PMID:27351006

  20. Parametric uncertainty analysis of pulse wave propagation in a model of a human arterial network

    SciTech Connect

    Xiu Dongbin Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2007-10-01

    Reduced models of human arterial networks are an efficient approach to analyze quantitative macroscopic features of human arterial flows. The justification for such models typically arise due to the significantly long wavelength associated with the system in comparison to the lengths of arteries in the networks. Although these types of models have been employed extensively and many issues associated with their implementations have been widely researched, the issue of data uncertainty has received comparatively little attention. Similar to many biological systems, a large amount of uncertainty exists in the value of the parameters associated with the models. Clearly reliable assessment of the system behaviour cannot be made unless the effect of such data uncertainty is quantified. In this paper we present a study of parametric data uncertainty in reduced modelling of human arterial networks which is governed by a hyperbolic system. The uncertain parameters are modelled as random variables and the governing equations for the arterial network therefore become stochastic. This type stochastic hyperbolic systems have not been previously systematically studied due to the difficulties introduced by the uncertainty such as a potential change in the mathematical character of the system and imposing boundary conditions. We demonstrate how the application of a high-order stochastic collocation method based on the generalized polynomial chaos expansion, combined with a discontinuous Galerkin spectral/hp element discretization in physical space, can successfully simulate this type of hyperbolic system subject to uncertain inputs with bounds. Building upon a numerical study of propagation of uncertainty and sensitivity in a simplified model with a single bifurcation, a systematical parameter sensitivity analysis is conducted on the wave dynamics in a multiple bifurcating human arterial network. Using the physical understanding of the dynamics of pulse waves in these types of

  1. An ultrasound automated method for non-invasive assessment of carotid artery pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Zardi, Enrico Maria; Di Geso, Luca; Afeltra, Antonella; Zardi, Domenico Maria; Giorgi, Chiara; Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Filippucci, Emilio; Grassi, Walter

    2017-09-02

    To validate the clinical applicability and feasibility of an automated ultrasound (US) method in measuring the arterial stiffness of patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, comparing automated measurements performed by a rheumatologist without experience in vascular sonography with those obtained by a sonographer experienced in vascular US, using a standardized manual method.Twenty subjects affected by different chronic inflammatory rheumatic disorders were consecutively recruited. For each patient, the arterial stiffness of both common carotids was manually calculated. Subsequently, the measure of the pulse wave velocity (PWV) was obtained using an US device called Radio Frequency - Quality Arterial Stiffness (RF-QAS), provided by the same US system (ie, My Lab 70 XVG, Esaote SpA, Genoa, Italy) equipped with a 4-13 MHz linear probe. The reliability comparison between the two US methods was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). ICC between the values obtained with the two methods for calculating the arterial stiffness resulted 0.789. A significant positive correlation between the two methods was also established with Pearson's (r=0.62, p<0.0001) and Spearman's analysis (r=0.66, p=0.001). A significant performance comparison was seen using Bland-Altman plot. The acquisition of the arterial stiffness parameter with the automated method required about 2 min for each patient. Clinical applicability of this US automated method to assess PWV at common carotid level by a rheumatologist is reliable and feasible in comparison with a conventional manual method. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Increased Pulse Wave Velocity Reflecting Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Kwack, Won Gun; Lee, Youg-Sup; Hahm, Ki Baik; Kim, Young-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    The obese patients with diabetes or cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer as well as adenomas under the shared pathogenesis related to atherosclerosis. Here we determined the association between increased arterial stiffness and colorectal adenomas incorporating parameters including age, gender, waist circumference, body mass index, lipid profiles, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. Subjects who simultaneously underwent colonoscopies and pulse wave velocity (PWV) determinations between July 2005 and September 2006 were analyzed, based on which the subjects were classified into two groups as patients group with colorectal adenomas (n = 49) and control group (n = 200) with normal, non-polypoid benign lesions or hyperplastic polyps. Uni- and multi-variate analyses were performed to calculate the odd ratio for colon adenomas. Based on uni-variate analysis, age, waist circumference, body mass index, heart-femoral PWV (hfPWV), and brachial-ankle PWV were significantly associated with adenomas (p<0.05) and multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the heart-femoral PWV, waist circumference, and the levels of LDL-C were significant risk factor for colorectal adenoma. However, arterial stiffness did not affect the progression of colon adenoma. The finding that hfPWV, reflecting aortic stiffness, was increased in patients with colorectal adenomas lead to conclusion that patients who have prominently increased arterial stiffness can be recommended to undergo colonoscopic examinations and at the same time we also recommend counseling about the risk for atherosclerosis in those who have colorectal adenomas. PMID:21103036

  3. Prediction of Coronary Artery Disease Extent and Severity Using Pulse Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Chiha, Joseph; Mitchell, Paul; Gopinath, Bamini; Burlutsky, George; Plant, Adam; Kovoor, Pramesh; Thiagalingam, Aravinda

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) measures aortic stiffness. It is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality, yet there is paucity in the literature on its association with the severity and extent of coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods To examine the utility of PWV in predicting CAD burden in men and women the PWV was determined in 344 patients (Men = 266, Women = 78) presenting for invasive coronary angiography for the assessment of suspected CAD. Pearson correlations and multivariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between these coronary scores, PWV and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Results Compared to men, women with chest pain had lower mean Extent scores (19.2 vs. 35.6; p = 0.0001) and Gensini scores (23.6 vs. 41.9; p = 0.0001). PWV was similar between men and women (12.35 ± 3.74 vs. 12.43 ± 4.58; p = 0.88) and correlated with Extent score (r = 0.21, p = 0.0001) but not Gensini or vessel score (r = 0.03, p = 0.64 and r = 0.06, p = 0.26, respectively). PWV was associated with Extent score in men (B = 2.25 ± 0.78, p = 0.004 for men and B = 1.50 ± 0.88, p = 0.09 for women). It was not a predictor of Gensini score (B = -0.10, P = 0.90). Conclusion PWV correlates with the extent of CAD, as measured by the ‘Extent’ score in men more than women. However, it does not correlate with the severity of obstructive CAD in either gender. PMID:28005967

  4. Stimulated acoustic emission: pseudo-Doppler shifts seen during the destruction of nonmoving microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Tiemann, K; Pohl, C; Schlosser, T; Goenechea, J; Bruce, M; Veltmann, C; Kuntz, S; Bangard, M; Becher, H

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appearance and the characteristics of stimulated acoustic emission (SAE) as an echo contrast-specific color Doppler phenomenon with impact on myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE). Stationary microbubbles of the new contrast agent SH-U 563A (Schering AG) were embedded within a tissue-mimicking gel material. Harmonic power Doppler imaging (H-PDI), color Doppler and pulse-wave Doppler data were acquired using an HDI-5000 equipped with a phased-array transducer (1.67/3.3 MHz). In color Doppler mode, bubble destruction resulted in random noise like Doppler signals. PW-Doppler revealed short "pseudo-Doppler" shifts with a broadband frequency spectrum. Quantification of SAE events by H-PDI demonstrated an exponential decay of signal intensities over successive frames. A strong linear relationship was found between bubble concentration and the square root of the linearized H-PDI signal for a range of concentrations of more than two orders of magnitude (R = 0.993, p < 0.0001). Intensity of the H-PDI signals correlated well with emission power (R = 0.96, p = 0.0014). SAE results from disintegration of microbubbles and can be demonstrated by all Doppler imaging modalities, including H-PDI. Intensity of SAE signals is influenced by the applied acoustic power and correlates highly with the concentration of microbubbles. Because intensity of SAE signals correlates highly with echo contrast concentrations, analysis of SAE signals might be used for quantitative MCE.

  5. Pulse wave velocity is associated with muscle mass decline: Health ABC study.

    PubMed

    Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Chiodini, Paolo; Gallo, Ciro; Lakatta, Edward; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Tylavsky, Frances A; Goodpaster, Bret; de Rekeneire, Natalie; Schwartz, Ann V; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Harris, Tamara

    2012-04-01

    Age-related mechanisms that lead to sarcopenia are not entirely understood. Basal leg blood flow declines with aging by augmented sympathetic vasoconstriction and arterial stiffening, thus a dysfunction in blood vessel dynamics may have an independent role on sarcopenia. We determined whether pulse wave velocity (PWV), marker of arterial stiffness, was associated with skeletal muscle decline. Observational cohort study of older adults(70-79 years) living in Pittsburgh, PA, USA or Memphis, TN, USA. Analyses included 2,405 participants. Correlations among muscle parameters including skeletal muscle density and intermuscular adipose tissue using mid-thigh CT scans were assessed. Linear mixed models tested the association between the change in the sarcopenic index (SI) (assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) over time and baseline PWV independently of multiple confounders. SI was defined: appendicular lean mass/squared height and calculated at every follow-up (n = 6). Baseline PWV was significantly higher in black women compared to white women (930 ± 431 vs. 843 ± 366; p = 0.0001), while there were no significant differences between black and white men (943 ± 402 vs. 911 ± 375; p = 0.1786). Baseline analyses showed an independent negative association between PWV and muscle parameters after adjusting for confounders in both genders. The PWV-by-race interaction was significant in women and analyses are reported separately by race. Prospective mixed models showed that PWV was an independent determinant of the SI in all men (β = -0.1043; p = 0.0065) and in white women (β = -0.1091; p = 0.0192). In analyses examining the effect of arterial stiffness on limb lean mass over time, PWV correlated with lower leg (β = -0.2196; p = 0.0002)and arm mass (β = -0.0985; p = 0.0011) in all men and lower leg mass(β = -0.1608; p = 0.0027)in white women. In older persons, arterial stiffening is associated with skeletal muscle mass decline differently for race and

  6. [Relationship between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Liu, Miao; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Wu, Lei; Wang, Jian-hua; Yang, Shan-shan; Wang, Yi-yan; Li, Xiao-ying

    2014-06-18

    To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) among the Chinese elderly and the gender difference. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in a representative urban area of Beijing, China. A sample of 2 102 community elderly (848 males, and 1 254 females) aged 60 to 95 years were included in the study. MetS was defined according to the 2009 harmonizing definition. The prevalence of MetS was 59.1% (50.1% in males and 65.2% in females, P<0.001). The baPWV value was between 8.2 to 45.6 (20.0 ± 4.4) m/s, and showed an increasing trend with age (P<0.001). The partial correlation showed baPWV was positively associated with BMI (r=0.076, P=0.037), systolic blood pressure (r=0.380, P<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (r=0.276, P<0.001), triglyceride (r=0.040, P=0.046), fasting blood glucose (r=0.140, P<0.001), 2-hour post-meal blood glucose (r=0.121, P<0.001), and negatively associated with HDL-C (r=-0.128, P=0.048). There was a strong association between baPWV and prevalence of MetS and its component number in females but not in males. Compared with the lowest quartile of baPWV, the adjusted ORs were 1.22 (95%CI 0.83-1.79), 1.32 (95%CI 0.90-1.93), 1.46(95%CI 1.00-2.14) in males and 1.28 (95%CI 0.93-1.77), 1.55 (95%CI 1.12-2.16), 1.86(95%CI 1.32-2.61) in females for the second, third and top quartiles. The prevalence of MetS increases substantially with increasing levels of baPWV among the Chinese elderly, especially in females.

  7. Factors related to pulse wave velocity and augmentation index in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gülperi; Demirci, Meltem Sezis; Tumuklu, Murat; Ascı, Gulay; Sipahi, Savas; Toz, Huseyin; Bascı, Ali; Ok, Ercan

    2011-01-01

    Augmentation index (AIx) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) are early markers of atherosclerotic vascular changes and also have been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular disease and total mortality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between PWV and AIx-HR75, which is the corrected form of AIx according to a heart rate of 75 beats/min, echocardiographic parameters and biochemical parameters in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. AIx-HR75 and PWV were measured in 556 HD patients by applanation tonometry using the SphygmoCor device. The mean PWV and AIx-HR75 values of the study group were 10.2 ± 2.4 and 28.4 ± 10.2 m/s. A positive correlation was found between PWV and AIx-HR75 (r = 0.214, p = 0.000). AIx-HR75 correlated with age (r = 0.093, p = 0.028), body surface area (BSA) (r = -0.194, p = 0.000), mean arterial pressure (MAP) (r = 0.335, p = 0.000), pulse pressure (PP) (r = 0.212, p = 0.000), cardiothoracic index (r = 0.155, p = 0.016), and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (r = 0.152, p = 0.001). PWV correlated with MAP (r = 0.208, p = 0.000), PP (r = 0.098, r = 0.021), left ventricular mass (r = 0.105, p = 0.023), and predialysis sodium level (r = -0.105, p = 0.023). In the multivariate analyses, PWV was associated with MAP (t = 3.78, p = 0.000), presence of diabetes (t = 3.20, p = 0.001), and predialysis sodium level (t = -2.06, p = 0.040), and AIx-HR75 was associated with age (t = 2.48, p = 0.014), female sex (t = 3.98, p = 0.000), BSA (t = -2.15, p = 0.033), and MAP (t = 7.02, p = 0.000). There is a strong association between MAP and arterial stiffness parameters in HD patients. We feel that efficient control of blood pressure could lead to reduced arterial stiffness in HD patients.

  8. A review of Doppler ultrasound quality assurance protocols and test devices.

    PubMed

    Browne, Jacinta E

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, an overview of Doppler ultrasound quality assurance (QA) testing will be presented in three sections. The first section will review the different Doppler ultrasound parameters recommended by professional bodies for use in QA protocols. The second section will include an evaluation and critique of the main test devices used to assess Doppler performance, while the final section of this paper will discuss which of the wide range of test devices have been found to be most suitable for inclusion in Doppler QA programmes. Pulsed Wave Spectral Doppler, Colour Doppler Imaging QA test protocols have been recommended over the years by various professional bodies, including the UK's Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM), the American Institute for Ultrasound in Medicine (AIUM), and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). However, despite the existence of such recommended test protocols, very few commercial or research test devices exist which can measure the full range of both PW Doppler ultrasound and colour Doppler imaging performance parameters, particularly quality control measurements such as: (i) Doppler sensitivity (ii) colour Doppler spatial resolution (iii) colour Doppler temporal resolution (iv) colour Doppler velocity resolution (v) clutter filter performance and (vi) tissue movement artefact suppression. In this review, the merits of the various commercial and research test devices will be considered and a summary of results obtained from published studies which have made use of some of these Doppler test devices, such as the flow, string, rotating and belt phantom, will be presented. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, Henry H. B.; Raptis, Apostolos C.

    1983-01-01

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  10. Doppler flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Karplus, H.H.B.; Raptis, A.C.

    1981-11-13

    A Doppler flowmeter impulses an ultrasonic fixed-frequency signal obliquely into a slurry flowing in a pipe and a reflected signal is detected after having been scattered off of the slurry particles, whereby the shift in frequencies between the signals is proportional to the slurry velocity and hence slurry flow rate. This flowmeter filters the Doppler frequency-shift signal, compares the filtered and unfiltered shift signals in a divider to obtain a ratio, and then further compares this ratio against a preset fractional ratio. The flowmeter utilizes a voltage-to-frequency convertor to generate a pulsed signal having a determinable rate of repetition precisely proportional to the divergence of the ratios. The pulsed signal serves as the input control for a frequency-controlled low-pass filter, which provides thereby that the cutoff frequency of the filtered signal is known. The flowmeter provides a feedback control by minimizing the divergence. With the cutoff frequency and preset fractional ratio known, the slurry velocity and hence flow will also be determinable.

  11. Association of pulse wave velocity with total lung capacity: A cross-sectional analysis of the BOLD London study

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André F.S.; Patel, Jaymini; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Jones, Meinir; Burney, Peter G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low lung function, measured using spirometry, has been associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease, but whether this is explained by airflow obstruction or restriction is a question that remains unanswered. Objectives To assess the association of total lung capacity (TLC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) with several cardio-metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods In the follow up of the Burden of Lung Disease (BOLD) study in London, acceptable post-bronchodilator spirometric, pulse rate, pulse wave velocity and blood pressure data were obtained from 108 participants. Blood samples for measurement of cardio-metabolic and inflammatory markers were also collected from these participants. Association of lung function and volume with the different biomarkers was examined in multivariable linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Results Following adjustment for age, sex, height, and ethnicity, TLC (adjusted coefficient = −1.53; 95% CI: −2.57, −0.49) and FVC (adjusted coefficient = −2.66; 95% CI: −4.98, −0.34) were inversely associated with pulse wave velocity, and further adjustment for smoking status, pack-years and body mass index (BMI) did not materially change these results. FEV1 was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, and adjustment for smoking status, pack-years and BMI made this association stronger (adjusted coefficient = −9.47; 95% CI: −15.62, −3.32). Conclusion The inverse association of pulse wave velocity, which is a marker of cardiovascular disease, with TLC suggests that the association of the former with low FVC is independent of airflow obstruction. The association between FEV1 with systolic blood pressure after adjustment for FVC suggests an association with airflow obstruction rather than with restricted spirometry. PMID:26553156

  12. Effects of cardiac timing and peripheral resistance on measurement of pulse wave velocity for assessment of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hanguang; Butlin, Mark; Tan, Isabella; Avolio, Alberto

    2017-07-20

    To investigate the effects of heart rate (HR), left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and wave reflection on arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), a pulse wave propagation simulation system (PWPSim) based on the transmission line model of the arterial tree was developed and was applied to investigate pulse wave propagation. HR, LVET, arterial elastic modulus and peripheral resistance were increased from 60 to 100 beats per minute (bpm), 0.1 to 0.45 seconds, 0.5 to 1.5 times and 0.5 to 1.5 times of the normal value, respectively. Carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) were calculated by intersecting tangent method (cfPWVtan and baPWVtan), maximum slope (cfPWVmax and baPWVmax), and using the Moens-Korteweg equation ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]). Results showed cfPWV and baPWV increased significantly with arterial elastic modulus but did not increase with HR when using a constant elastic modulus. However there were significant LVET dependencies of cfPWVtan and baPWVtan (0.17 ± 0.13 and 0.17 ± 0.08 m/s per 50 ms), and low peripheral resistance dependencies of cfPWVtan, cfPWVmax, baPWVtan and baPWVmax (0.04 ± 0.01, 0.06 ± 0.04, 0.06 ± 0.03 and 0.09 ± 0.07 m/s per 10% peripheral resistance), respectively. This study demonstrated that LVET dominates the effect on calculated PWV compared to HR and peripheral resistance when arterial elastic modulus is constant.

  13. Measurement of DNA damage after acute exposure to pulsed-wave 2450 MHz microwaves in rat brain cells by two alkaline comet assay methods.

    PubMed

    Lagroye, I; Anane, R; Wettring, B A; Moros, E G; Straube, W L; Laregina, M; Niehoff, M; Pickard, W F; Baty, J; Roti Roti, J L

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effect of 2450 MHz pulsed-wave microwaves on the induction of DNA damage in brain cells of exposed rats and to discover whether proteinase K is needed to detect DNA damage in the brain cells of rats exposed to 2450 MHz microwaves. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 2450 MHz pulsed-wave microwaves and sacrificed 4 h after a 2-h exposure. Rats irradiated whole-body with 1 Gy (137)Cs were included as positive controls. DNA damage was assayed by two variants of the alkaline comet assay on separate aliquots of the same cell preparation. Significant DNA damage was observed in the rat brain cells of rats exposed to gamma-rays using both versions of the alkaline comet assay independent of the presence or absence of proteinase K. However, neither version of the assay could detect any difference in comet length and/or normalized comet moment between sham- and 2450 MHz pulsed-wave microwave-exposed rats, regardless of the inclusion or omission of proteinase K in the comet assay. No DNA damage in brain cells was detected following exposure of rats to 2450 MHz microwaves pulsed-wave at a specific absorption rate of 1.2 W kg(-1) regardless of whether or not proteinase K was included in the assay. Thus, the results support the conclusion that low-level 2450 MHz pulsed-wave microwave exposures do not induce DNA damage detectable by the alkaline comet assay.

  14. Measurement of spatial pulse wave velocity by using a clip-type pulsimeter equipped with a Hall sensor and photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Nam, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Woo-Beom; Hong, You-Sik; Lee, Sang-Suk

    2013-04-09

    A prototype of a clip-type pulsimeter equipped with a magnetic field-sensing semiconductor Hall sensor was developed. It has a permanent magnet attached in the "Chwan" position to the center of a radial artery. The clip-type pulsimeter is composed of a hardware system measuring voltage signals. To measure spatial pulse wave velocity (SPWV), the signal from the radial artery pulsimeter and that from the photoplethysmography (PPG) were simultaneously compared. The pulse wave data from a clinical test of 39 clinical participants (male:female = 25:14) with a mean age of 24.36 (±2.35) years was analyzed. The mean SPWV, which was simultaneously measured from the radial artery pulsimeter and PPG, was 0.8 m/s. We suggest the SPWV results were higher for men than women, because of the better vascularity of terminal tissue in men. The findings of this research may be useful for developing a biomedical signal storage device for a U-health-care system.

  15. Waveform Analysis of the Brachial-ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients and Healthy Volunteers: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Huh, Yong; Kim, Junghwan

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (BaPWV), which has been reported as an index of arterial stiffness, is very closely related to cardiovascular risk factors. A high BaPWV indicates high cardiovascular risk. However, BaPWV and pressure waveforms after stroke are not fully understood. [Methods] BaPWV was measured in thirty-two subjects (twenty-two healthy volunteers and ten stroke patients) while they were in the supine position. It was measured in their bilateral upper and lower extremities. [Results] BaPWV was significantly increased in the stroke group compared with the healthy volunteers. It was also significantly increased on both the affected and non-affected sides of stroke patients in the stroke group. Furthermore, analysis of the pressure waveforms showed that the peak pressure was significantly increased in the stroke group compared with the control group. The peak pressure on both the affected and non-affected sides was also significantly greater than in the control group. However, the rise and decay times were significantly decreased in the stroke group compared with the control group. The rise and decay time on both the affected and non-affected sides were also significantly more decreased than in the control group. [Conclusion] The results demonstrated that increased BaPWV and changed pulse waves are closely associated with the pathologic states of hemiplegic stroke patients.

  16. Change in amplitude distributions of Doppler spectrograms recorded below the aortic valve in patients with a valvular aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, G; Lemire, F; Durand, L G; Latour, Y; Jarry, M; Solignac, A; Langlois, Y E

    1991-01-01

    Amplitude distributions of Doppler spectrograms were characterized in a group of 22 patients having no aortic pressure gradient and another group of 26 patients having a stenotic aortic valve. Specifically, for each patient, the ratios of the mean amplitude in three normalized frequency bands (low, middle and high) to the mean amplitude of the Doppler spectrogram computed in selected portions of the systolic period were considered. Pulsed-wave Doppler spectrograms were recorded by positioning the sample volume in the left ventricular outflow tract, approximately 1 cm below the aortic valve. Statistically significant differences were found between the middle (p = 0.041) and high (p = 0.028) frequency bands of Doppler signals recorded from the two groups of patients. The differences observed are believed to be attributed to blood flow eddies generated below the stenotic aortic heart valve and to changes in blood flow orientation.

  17. Effect of viscosity on the wave propagation: Experimental determination of compression and expansion pulse wave velocity in fluid-fill elastic tube.

    PubMed

    Stojadinović, Bojana; Tenne, Tamar; Zikich, Dragoslav; Rajković, Nemanja; Milošević, Nebojša; Lazović, Biljana; Žikić, Dejan

    2015-11-26

    The velocity by which the disturbance travels through the medium is the wave velocity. Pulse wave velocity is one of the main parameters in hemodynamics. The study of wave propagation through the fluid-fill elastic tube is of great importance for the proper biophysical understanding of the nature of blood flow through of cardiovascular system. The effect of viscosity on the pulse wave velocity is generally ignored. In this paper we present the results of experimental measurements of pulse wave velocity (PWV) of compression and expansion waves in elastic tube. The solutions with different density and viscosity were used in the experiment. Biophysical model of the circulatory flow is designed to perform measurements. Experimental results show that the PWV of the expansion waves is higher than the compression waves during the same experimental conditions. It was found that the change in viscosity causes a change of PWV for both waves. We found a relationship between PWV, fluid density and viscosity.

  18. Investigations of spectral resolution and angle dependency in a 2-D tracking Doppler method.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, Tonje D; Avdal, Jorgen; Ekroll, Ingvild K; Dahl, Torbjorn; Lovstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans

    2014-07-01

    An important source of error in velocity measurements from conventional pulsed wave (PW) Doppler is the angle used for velocity calibration. Because there are great uncertainties and interobserver variability in the methods used for Doppler angle correction in the clinic today, it is desirable to develop new and more robust methods. In this work, we have investigated how a previously presented method, 2-D tracking Doppler, depends on the tracking angle. A signal model was further developed to include tracking along any angle, providing velocity spectra which showed good agreement with both experimental data and simulations. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) bandwidth and the peak value of predicted power spectra were calculated for varying tracking angles. It was shown that the spectra have lowest bandwidth and maximum power when the tracking angle is equal to the beam-to-flow angle. This may facilitate new techniques for velocity calibration, e.g., by manually adjusting the tracking angle, while observing the effect on the spectral display. An in vitro study was performed in which the Doppler angles were predicted by the minimum FWHM and the maximum power of the 2-D tracking Doppler spectra for 3 different flow angles. The estimated Doppler angles had an overall error of 0.24° ± 0.75° when using the minimum FWHM. With an in vivo example, it was demonstrated that the 2-D tracking Doppler method is suited for measurements in a patient with carotid stenosis.

  19. Baseline aortic pulse wave velocity is associated with central and peripheral pressor responses during the cold pressor test in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Borner, Anastasiya; Murray, Kyle; Trotter, Claire; Pearson, James

    2017-07-01

    Cold environmental temperatures increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, and increase the risk of acute cardiovascular events in aged individuals. The acute risk of cardiovascular events increases with aortic pulse wave velocity as well as elevated central and peripheral pulse pressures. The aim of this study was to examine the independent influence of aortic pulse wave velocity upon central and peripheral pressor responses to sympathetic activation via the cold pressor test (CPT). Twenty-two healthy subjects (age: 18-73 years) completed a CPT with the left hand immersed in 2-4°C water for 3 min. During the CPT, central (from: 36 ± 7 to: 51 ± 12 mmHg) and peripheral pulse pressure increased (from: 54 ± 7 to: 66 ± 11; both P < 0.05). In all subjects the increase in central pulse pressure during the CPT was independently associated with baseline aortic pulse wave velocity (r(2) = 0.221, P = 0.027) but not age (P > 0.05). In a subset of subjects with higher arterial stiffness, the increase in peripheral pulse pressure during the CPT was independently associated with baseline aortic pulse wave velocity (r(2) = 0.415, P = 0.032) but not age (P > 0.05). These data indicate that central and peripheral pulse pressure responses during sympathetic activation are positively and independently associated with aortic pulse wave velocity through a wide age range. Decreasing aortic pulse wave velocity in aged individuals with elevated arterial stiffness may help reduce the incidence of acute cardiovascular events upon exposure to cold environmental temperatures. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. The velocity of the arterial pulse wave: a viscous-fluid shock wave in an elastic tube

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Page R

    2008-01-01

    Background The arterial pulse is a viscous-fluid shock wave that is initiated by blood ejected from the heart. This wave travels away from the heart at a speed termed the pulse wave velocity (PWV). The PWV increases during the course of a number of diseases, and this increase is often attributed to arterial stiffness. As the pulse wave approaches a point in an artery, the pressure rises as does the pressure gradient. This pressure gradient increases the rate of blood flow ahead of the wave. The rate of blood flow ahead of the wave decreases with distance because the pressure gradient also decreases with distance ahead of the wave. Consequently, the amount of blood per unit length in a segment of an artery increases ahead of the wave, and this increase stretches the wall of the artery. As a result, the tension in the wall increases, and this results in an increase in the pressure of blood in the artery. Methods An expression for the PWV is derived from an equation describing the flow-pressure coupling (FPC) for a pulse wave in an incompressible, viscous fluid in an elastic tube. The initial increase in force of the fluid in the tube is described by an increasing exponential function of time. The relationship between force gradient and fluid flow is approximated by an expression known to hold for a rigid tube. Results For large arteries, the PWV derived by this method agrees with the Korteweg-Moens equation for the PWV in a non-viscous fluid. For small arteries, the PWV is approximately proportional to the Korteweg-Moens velocity divided by the radius of the artery. The PWV in small arteries is also predicted to increase when the specific rate of increase in pressure as a function of time decreases. This rate decreases with increasing myocardial ischemia, suggesting an explanation for the observation that an increase in the PWV is a predictor of future myocardial infarction. The derivation of the equation for the PWV that has been used for more than fifty years is

  1. Pulse wave velocity and the non-invasive methods used to assess it: Complior, SphygmoCor, Arteriograph and Vicorder.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jennifer M; Bailey, Marc A; Griffin, Kathryn J; Scott, D Julian A

    2012-12-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a known indicator of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular risk. We critically evaluated the evidence supporting the four main non-invasive devices available to assess it: Complior, SphygmoCor, Arteriograph and Vicorder. PubMed and Medline databases (1960-2011) were searched to identify studies reporting carotid-femoral PWV in humans using one or more of the four devices. Of the 183 articles retrieved, 43 met inclusion criteria. The Arteriograph device demonstrated least variance but had poor agreement with the other devices. Undisputable reference values for PWV need to be established and internationally agreed, and a standardized method for superficial distance measurement generated to reduce variability. Further studies comparing all four devices with invasive assessment are necessary.

  2. Doubly excited pulse waves on thin liquid films flowing down an inclined plane: An experimental and numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebayo, Idris; Xie, Zhihua; Che, Zhizhao; Matar, Omar K.

    2017-07-01

    The interaction patterns between doubly excited pulse waves on thin liquid films flowing down an inclined plane are studied both experimentally and numerically. The effect of varying the film flow rate, interpulse interval, and substrate inclination angle on the pulse interaction patterns is examined. Our results show that different interaction patterns exist for these binary pulses, which include solitary wave behavior, partial or complete pulse coalescence, and pulse noncoalescence. A regime map of these patterns is plotted for each inclination angle examined, parametrized by the film Reynolds number and interpulse interval. Finally, the individual effect of the system parameters mentioned above on the coalescence distance of binary pulses in the "complete pulse coalescence" mode is studied; the results are compared to numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations yielding good agreement.

  3. Brachial-ankle vs carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity as a determinant of cardiovascular structure and function.

    PubMed

    Yu, W-C; Chuang, S-Y; Lin, Y-P; Chen, C-H

    2008-01-01

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) is a validated marker of arterial stiffening over the central arteries. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) integrates the mechanical properties from both the central and peripheral arteries and may be more representative than cf-PWV as arterial load for left ventricle (LV). We compared ba-PWV with cf-PWV for the association of cardiovascular structure and function in 320 subjects with various degrees of abnormality in cardiac structure and function. ba-PWV (by oscillometric technique) and cf-PWV (by tonometric technique) were measured simultaneously, and were highly correlated (r=0.79, P<0.001). Both ba-PWV and cf-PWV were significantly correlated with LV mass, but the correlation was better with ba-PWV (r=0.29 vs r=0.22, P=0.0219). While ba-PWV and cf-PWV were similarly significantly correlated with LV end-systolic elastance and mitral E/A ratio, ba-PWV had better correlation with isovolumic relaxation constant (r=0.34 vs r=0.27, P=0.0202) than cf-PWV. In addition, the correlation was also significantly stronger with ba-PWV than with cf-PWV for other indices of arterial stiffness, including carotid incremental modulus (r=0.59 vs 0.50, P=0.0013), effective arterial elastance (r=0.41 vs r=0.33, P=0.0081) and carotid augmentation index (r=0.38 vs r=0.32, P=0.0368). In conclusion, ba-PWV correlates better with LV mass and diastolic function and other indices of arterial function than cf-PWV, probably because ba-PWV encompasses a greater territory of arterial tree than cf-PWV.

  4. Pulse wave velocity measurement as a marker of arterial stiffness in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lurz, Eberhard; Aeschbacher, Eliane; Carman, Nicholas; Schibli, Susanne; Sokollik, Christiane; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2017-07-01

    In adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the incidence of cardiovascular events is increased, leading to long-term morbidity. Arterial stiffness (AS) measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a validated early precursor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and measurement of PWV was shown to be a feasible test in children. The aim of this study was to assess AS in children with IBD. In this prospective study, we determined PWV between the carotid and femoral artery (PWVcf) in 25 children and adolescents with IBD (11 females, median age 14.1 years, median disease duration 2.8 years). The majority (68%) of the subjects were in clinical remission, and 48% received anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) treatment. AS was not increased in this cohort of children and adolescents with IBD, who did not have signs of cardiovascular disease, such as arterial hypertension. PWV seems to be normal in children with IBD in remission or with mild disease activity. Larger studies should assess its potential role as a valid and non-invasive follow-up marker in children with IBD, to avoid cardiovascular complications. What is Known : • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). • Pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurement is the current gold standard to assess arterial stiffness (AS), which is an early predictor of CVD. What is New: • This is the first study using PWV measurements to determine AS in children with IBD. • In children with IBD in remission or only mild disease activity AS is not increased.

  5. Comparison of an Oscillometric Method with Cardiac Magnetic Resonance for the Analysis of Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Feistritzer, Hans-Josef; Reinstadler, Sebastian J.; Klug, Gert; Kremser, Christian; Seidner, Benjamin; Esterhammer, Regina; Schocke, Michael F.; Franz, Wolfgang-Michael; Metzler, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is the proposed gold-standard for the assessment of aortic elastic properties. The aim of this study was to compare aortic PWV determined by a recently developed oscillometric device with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods PWV was assessed in 40 volunteers with two different methods. The oscillometric method (PWVOSC) is based on a transfer function from the brachial pressure waves determined by oscillometric blood pressure measurements with a common cuff (Mobil-O-Graph, I.E.M. Stolberg, Germany). CMR was used to determine aortic PWVCMR with the use of the transit time method based on phase-contrast imaging at the level of the ascending and abdominal aorta on a clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Results The median age of the study population was 34 years (IQR: 24–55 years, 11 females). A very strong correlation was found between PWVOSC and PWVCMR (r = 0.859, p < 0.001). Mean PWVOSC was 6.7 ± 1.8 m/s and mean PWVCMR was 6.1 ± 1.8 m/s (p < 0.001). Analysis of agreement between the two measurements using Bland-Altman method showed a bias of 0.57 m/s (upper and lower limit of agreement: 2.49 m/s and -1.34 m/s). The corresponding coefficient of variation between both measurements was 15%. Conclusion Aortic pulse wave velocity assessed by transformation of the brachial pressure waveform showed an acceptable agreement with the CMR-derived transit time method. PMID:25612307

  6. Automatic extraction of disease-specific features from Doppler images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negahdar, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Mehdi; Parajuli, Nripesh; Syeda-Mahmood, Tanveer

    2017-03-01

    Flow Doppler imaging is widely used by clinicians to detect diseases of the valves. In particular, continuous wave (CW) Doppler mode scan is routinely done during echocardiography and shows Doppler signal traces over multiple heart cycles. Traditionally, echocardiographers have manually traced such velocity envelopes to extract measurements such as decay time and pressure gradient which are then matched to normal and abnormal values based on clinical guidelines. In this paper, we present a fully automatic approach to deriving these measurements for aortic stenosis retrospectively from echocardiography videos. Comparison of our method with measurements made by echocardiographers shows large agreement as well as identification of new cases missed by echocardiographers.

  7. Ultrafast Doppler reveals the mapping of cerebral vascular resistivity in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Demené, Charlie; Pernot, Mathieu; Biran, Valérie; Alison, Marianne; Fink, Mathias; Baud, Olivier; Tanter, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    In vivo mapping of the full vasculature dynamics based on Ultrafast Doppler is showed noninvasively in the challenging case of the neonatal brain. Contrary to conventional pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler Ultrasound limited for >40 years to the estimation of vascular indices at a single location, the ultrafast frame rate (5,000 Hz) obtained using plane-wave transmissions leads to simultaneous estimation of full Doppler spectra in all pixels of wide field-of-view images within a single cardiac cycle and high sensitivity Doppler imaging. Consequently, 2D quantitative maps of the cerebro-vascular resistivity index (RI) are processed and found in agreement with local measurements obtained on large arteries of healthy neonates using conventional PW Doppler. Changes in 2D resistivity maps are monitored during recovery after therapeutic whole-body cooling of full-term neonates treated for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Arterial and venous vessels are unambiguously differentiated on the basis of their distinct hemodynamics. The high spatial (250 × 250 μm2) and temporal resolution (<1 ms) of Ultrafast Doppler imaging combined with deep tissue penetration enable precise quantitative mapping of deep brain vascular dynamics and RI, which is far beyond the capabilities of any other imaging modality. PMID:24667916

  8. Vector Doppler: spatial sampling analysis and presentation techniques for real-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capineri, Lorenzo; Scabia, Marco; Masotti, Leonardo F.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the vector Doppler (VD) technique is the quantitative reconstruction of a velocity field independently of the ultrasonic probe axis to flow angle. In particular vector Doppler is interesting for studying vascular pathologies related to complex blood flow conditions. Clinical applications require a real-time operating mode and the capability to perform Doppler measurements over a defined volume. The combination of these two characteristics produces a real-time vector velocity map. In previous works the authors investigated the theory of pulsed wave (PW) vector Doppler and developed an experimental system capable of producing off-line 3D vector velocity maps. Afterwards, for producing dynamic velocity vector maps, we realized a new 2D vector Doppler system based on a modified commercial echograph. The measurement and presentation of a vector velocity field requires a correct spatial sampling that must satisfy the Shannon criterion. In this work we tackled this problem, establishing a relationship between sampling steps and scanning system characteristics. Another problem posed by the vector Doppler technique is the data representation in real-time that should be easy to interpret for the physician. With this in mine we attempted a multimedia solution that uses both interpolated images and sound to represent the information of the measured vector velocity map. These presentation techniques were experimented for real-time scanning on flow phantoms and preliminary measurements in vivo on a human carotid artery.

  9. DOPPLER WEATHER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Gary J.

    2002-08-05

    The SRS Doppler Weather System consists of a Doppler Server, A Master Server (also known as the Weather Server), several Doppler Slave Servers, and client-side software program called the Doppler Radar Client. This system is used to display near rel-time images taken from the SRS Weather Center's Doppler Radar computer. The Doppler Server is software that resides on the SRS Doppler Computer. It gathers raw data, 24-bit color weather images via screen scraping ever five minutes as requested by the Master Server. The Doppler Server then reduces the 24-bit color images to 8-bit color using a fixed color table for analysis and compression. This preserves the fidelity of the image color and arranges the colors in specific order for display. At the time of color reduction, the white color used for the city names on the background images are remapped to a different index (color) of white that the white on the weather scale. The Weather Server places a time stamp on the image, then compresses the image and passes it to all Doppler Slave servers. Each of the Doppler Slave servers mainitain a circular buffer of the eight most current images representing the last 40 minutes of weather data. As a new image is added, the oldest drops off. The Doppler Radar Client is an optional install program for any site-wide workstation. When a Client session is started, the Client requests Doppler Slave server assignment from the Master Server. Upon its initial request to the Slave Server, the Client obtains all eight current images and maintains its own circular buffer, updating its images every five minutes as the Doppler Slave is updated. Three background reference images are stored as part of the Client. The Client brings up the appropriate background image, decompresses the doppler data, and displays the doppler data on the background image.

  10. Reproducibility of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in end-stage renal disease patients: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Rosendo A; Cronin, Valerie; Ramsay, Timothy; Zimmerman, Deborah; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    In end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, increased arterial stiffness detected by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) is associated with fatal cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Since cf-PWV is an operator-dependent technique, poor reproducibility may be a source of bias in the estimation of arterial stiffness. We assessed the week-to-week reproducibility of cf-PWV and radial artery pulse wave analysis in healthy subjects and ESRD patients. We also determined the extent of patient eligibility, enrollment, acceptance, and comfort. In a cohort study design, independent tonometric examinations of carotid, femoral, and radial arteries were conducted in 20 healthy subjects and 15 ESRD patients attending chronic hemodialysis treatments according to a randomized sequence by two operators on 2 days scheduled 1-week apart. cf-PWV, augmentation index (AIx@HR75) and central pulse pressure (CPP) were the outcome measures. Patients were tested at mid-week and prior to dialysis treatment. The variability on the distance measured between the suprasternal notch and femoral site using two different methods (standard vs direct) was compared. A post-examination survey assessed acceptance and comfort associated with examinations. Reproducibility was evaluated by intra-class correlations (ICCs). The mean age for healthy subjects and ESRD patients was 45 ± 12 and 63 ± 16 years, respectively. ESRD patients had higher cf-PWV (p = 0.0002), elevated AIx@HR75 (p = 0.003), and increased CPP (p = 0.001) compared to healthy subjects. The mean inter-visit differences for all stiffness indices were non-significant (p > 0.05), but the mean inter-operator differences for the cf-PWV were significant only in the healthy subject group (-0.7 m/s; p = 0.02). The ICCs between operators and visits were higher for the ESRD group compared to the healthy subjects (between operators, 0.870 vs 0.461; between visits, 0.830 vs 0.570). Distances were longer

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of new handheld echocardiography with Doppler and harmonic imaging properties.

    PubMed

    Borges, Adrian Constantin; Knebel, Fabian; Walde, Torsten; Sanad, Wasiem; Baumann, Gert

    2004-03-01

    The first generation of handheld echocardiography devices was evaluated with divergent results because of inherent technical limitations. New handheld devices with continuous/pulsed wave Doppler and tissue harmonic imaging were introduced recently. In this study, comparisons were drawn among standard echocardiography, invasively measured systolic pulmonary artery pressure, and these new devices. We sought to evaluate new handheld echocardiography and its diagnostic accuracy compared with standard echocardiography. Two consecutive echocardiographic examinations were performed by experienced and independent examiners using handheld and standard echocardiography. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure was measured by Swan-Ganz catheter. In all, 177 (56.2%) patients had normal cardiac function; 138 (43.8%) had underlying cardiac pathology. Handheld echocardiography had an overall agreement of 94.8% and kappa of 0.89 to detect the main echocardiographic finding. Handheld echocardiography detected valve disease with an agreement of 96.7% and kappa of 0.93; global left ventricular function was assessed correctly in 85.6% of cases. Pericardial effusion was diagnosed with an agreement of 91.2%. Dyssynergy was found by handheld echocardiography with an agreement of 95.4% and kappa value of 0.88. Systolic pulmonary artery pressure measured by handheld echocardiography and Swan-Ganz catheter had a correlation of 0.97. This study demonstrates the high diagnostic accuracy of handheld devices with continuous/pulsed wave Doppler and harmonic imaging, and that these devices broaden the diagnostic spectrum while allowing for enhanced mobility in everyday clinical applications.

  12. Noninvasive and nonocclusive determination of blood pressure using laser Doppler flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elter, Peter; Stork, Wilhelm; Mueller-Glaser, Klaus-Dieter; Lutter, Norbert O.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes an approach determining blood pressure noninvasively without cuff. Regarding an elastic, fluid-filled tube as a model of an arterial segment, the solution of the Navier Stokes differential equations delivers a relation between the pressure and velocity pulse. There, simulations prove a minimal sensitivity of blood pressure concerning blood density, blood viscosity and damping. Hence, these parameters can be regarded interindividually as constants. Blood pressure is essentially sensitive on the pulse wave velocity, the velocity pulse, the arterial diameter and the reflection coefficient. To perform measurements, a system was built up comprising at least one laser Doppler blood flow sensor, a high performance DSP hardware and a PC. After individual initial Riva Rocci calibration, arterial diameter and reflection coefficient can be determined. Flow and pulse wave velocity and thus blood pressure can be calculated measuring continuously at least one velocity pulse with the laser Doppler flow sensor at a superficial artery like the a. radialis and simultaneously another cardiovascular signal like an ECG or another flow pulse at a different site of the artery. As a first result, high linear correlations between systolic blood pressure and pulse transit time were obtained.

  13. Vascular stiffness determined from a nocturnal digital pulse wave signal: association with sleep, sleep-disordered breathing, and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Svedmyr, Sven; Zou, Ding; Sommermeyer, Dirk; Ficker, Joachim H; Randerath, Winfried; Fietze, Ingo; Sanner, Bernd; Hedner, Jan; Grote, Ludger

    2016-12-01

    Reflection of the finger pulse wave form is a valid measure of arterial stiffness, which may be continuously assessed during sleep. We investigated the relationships between sleep, sleep-disordered breathing, hypertension, and pulse propagation time (PPT) in patients with suspected sleep apnea. The digital photoplethysmographic signal derived from finger pulse oximetry was recorded during overnight sleep studies in 440 patients (64% men, age 55 ± 12 years, BMI 30 ± 6 kg/m, apnea-hypopnea index 19 ± 19 n/h). PPT, defined as the time interval between the systolic and diastolic peak of the finger pulse wave, was calculated. The influence of sleep stages on PPT were assessed in patients undergoing polysomnography. Generalized linear models were used to study predictors of PPT and hypertension. Mean overnight PPT was independently associated with age (β = -1.34, P < 0.001), height (β = 0.47, P = 0.047), history of smoking (β = -9.44, P = 0.005), and apnea-hypopnea index (β = -0.18, P = 0.043). PPT was shorter in hypertensive patients compared with normotensive patients (160 ± 33 vs. 177 ± 47 ms, P < 0.001) and independently associated with a diagnosis of hypertension (P = 0.043). PPT was influenced by sleep stage (highest PPT during slow wave sleep compared with wake and all other sleep stages, all P < 0.001) and varied across sleep apnea severity groups in normotensive but not in hypertensive patients (P = 0.028 and 0.64, respectively). Overnight PPT by oximetry was strongly associated with factors known to determine daytime vascular stiffness. In addition, PTT provides information on functional and structural vascular properties during sleep. This novel technique offers new opportunities to noninvasively monitor vascular function during the sleeping period.

  14. Aortic augmentation index and pulse wave velocity in response to head-up tilting: effect of autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Huijben, Auke M T; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Deinum, Jaap; Lenders, Jacques; van den Meiracker, Anton H

    2012-02-01

    Aortic augmentation index (AIx) but not carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) has reported to decrease in response to vasodilators, which has been related to changes in the timing and/or intensity of wave reflection. Yet, recent evidence indicates that arterial reservoir pressure rather than wave reflection is the most important determinant of AIx. Using radial artery applanation tonometry and a general transfer function AIx, aortic pulse wave reflection time and cfPWV (foot-to-foot method) were determined in 10 patients with severe autonomic failure and in 14 healthy individuals during supine rest and graded head-up tilting. During supine rest, mean blood pressure (BP) (127.6 ± 21.5 and 97.5 ± 9.4 mmHg), AIx (32.4 ± 13.0 and 23.1 ± 8.7%) and cfPWV (12.1 ± 3.6 and 8.9 ± 1.6 m/s) were higher in patients than in controls. In patients, BP decreased by 18.7 ± 9.8 and 39.6 ± 11.7%, AIx by 39.2 ± 27.5 and 100.9 ± 78.1% and cfPWV by 12.0 ± 10.5 and 27.7 ± 13.5% in response to 30 and 60° head-up tilting. Decreases in AIx and cfPWV correlated with the BP fall (r = 0.67, P = 0.001 and r = 0.75, P < 0.001), but changes in AIx and cfPWV were unrelated. In controls, AIx during head-up tilting decreased despite increases in vascular tone and cfPWV. Aortic reflection time in patients and controls during tilting did not change. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that 68% of the variation in AIx could be explained by the BP fall and reflection time and 76% of the variation in cfPWV by the BP fall and sex. In a clinical model of autonomic failure, both AIx and cfPWV largely depend on instantaneous BP, but these two variables are unrelated, supporting the contention that aortic reservoir pressure rather than wave reflection is the main determinant of AIx.

  15. Predictive value of various Doppler-derived parameters of atrial conduction time for successful atrial fibrillation ablation

    PubMed Central

    Valtuille, Lucas; Choy, Jonathan B; Becher, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Various Doppler-derived parameters of left atrial electrical remodeling have been demonstrated to predict recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after AF ablation. The aim of this study was to compare three Doppler-derived measures of atrial conduction time in patients undergoing AF ablation, and to investigate their predictive value for successful procedure. In 32 prospectively enrolled patients undergoing the first AF ablation, atrial conduction time was estimated by measuring the time delay between the onset of P-wave on the surface ECG to the peak of the a′-wave on the pulsed-wave Doppler and color-coded tissue Doppler imaging of the left atrial lateral wall, and to the peak of the A-wave on the pulsed-wave Doppler of the mitral inflow. There was a significant difference in the baseline atrial conduction time measured by different echocardiographic techniques. Most (88%) patients had normal or only mildly dilated left atrium. At 6 months, 12 patients (38%) had recurrent AF/atrial tachycardia. The duration of history of AF was the only predictor of AF/atrial tachycardia recurrence following the first AF ablation (P=0.024; OR 1.023, CI 1.003–1.044). A combination of normal left atrial volume and history of paroxysmal AF of ≤48 months was associated with the best outcome. Predictive value of the Doppler derived parameters of atrial conduction time may be reduced in the early stages of left atrial remodeling. Future studies may determine which echocardiographic parameter correlates best with the extent of left atrial remodeling and is most predictive of successful AF ablation. PMID:26795694

  16. Predictive value of various Doppler-derived parameters of atrial conduction time for successful atrial fibrillation ablation.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Miriam; Valtuille, Lucas; Choy, Jonathan B; Becher, Harald

    2015-12-01

    Various Doppler-derived parameters of left atrial electrical remodeling have been demonstrated to predict recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) after AF ablation. The aim of this study was to compare three Doppler-derived measures of atrial conduction time in patients undergoing AF ablation, and to investigate their predictive value for successful procedure. In 32 prospectively enrolled patients undergoing the first AF ablation, atrial conduction time was estimated by measuring the time delay between the onset of P-wave on the surface ECG to the peak of the a'-wave on the pulsed-wave Doppler and color-coded tissue Doppler imaging of the left atrial lateral wall, and to the peak of the A-wave on the pulsed-wave Doppler of the mitral inflow. There was a significant difference in the baseline atrial conduction time measured by different echocardiographic techniques. Most (88%) patients had normal or only mildly dilated left atrium. At 6 months, 12 patients (38%) had recurrent AF/atrial tachycardia. The duration of history of AF was the only predictor of AF/atrial tachycardia recurrence following the first AF ablation (P=0.024; OR 1.023, CI 1.003-1.044). A combination of normal left atrial volume and history of paroxysmal AF of ≤48 months was associated with the best outcome. Predictive value of the Doppler derived parameters of atrial conduction time may be reduced in the early stages of left atrial remodeling. Future studies may determine which echocardiographic parameter correlates best with the extent of left atrial remodeling and is most predictive of successful AF ablation.

  17. Christian Doppler and the Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toman, Kurt

    1984-04-01

    A summary is given of Doppler's life and career. He was born 180 years ago on November 29, 1803, in Salzburg, Austria. He died on March 17, 1853 in Venice. The effect bearing his name was first announced in a presentation before the Royal Bohemian Society of the Sciences in Prague on May 25, 1842. Doppler considered his work a generalization of the aberration theorem as discovered by Bradley. With it came the inference that the perception of physical phenomena can change with the state of motion of the observer. Acceptance of the principle was not without controversy. In 1852, the mathematician Petzval claimed that no useful scientific deductions can be made from Doppler's elementary equations. In 1860, Ernst Mach resolved the misunderstanding that clouded this controversy. The Doppler effect is alive and well. Its role in radio science and related disciplines is enumerated.

  18. Clinical usefulness and limitations of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the evaluation of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Ito, Norihisa; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Takagi, Takashi; Terai, Minako; Shiota, Atsushi; Hayashi, Norihiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Ogihara, Toshio

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify the clinical usefulness and limitations of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) to evaluate hypertensive complications, in comparison with carotid-femoral PWV. Patients with essential hypertension (n=296, male/female=161/135; age=61.1+/-0.7 years) were enrolled. We measured brachial-ankle PWV, femoral-ankle PWV and carotid-femoral PWV simultaneously, and evaluated target organ damage and associated clinical conditions (cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease) using the World Health Organization classification modified in 1999. Carotid-femoral PWV (p<0.0001; r=0.521) and brachial-ankle PWV (p<0.0001; r=0.478) but not femoral-ankle PWV were significantly correlated with age. Carotid-femoral PWV was significantly higher in patients with associated clinical conditions compared with that in patients with target organ damage (p<0.05) and those with no complications (p<0.0001). Brachial-ankle PWV was significantly higher in patients with associated clinical conditions (p<0.05) and target organ damage (p<0.05) compared to those with no complications, but there was no significant difference in brachial-ankle PWV between these two groups. Moreover, femoral-ankle PWV was significantly lower in patients with associated clinical conditions compared with that in patients with target organ damage (p<0.05). These data suggest that brachial-ankle PWV could underestimate arterial stiffness in hypertensive patients with a history of cardiovascular events.

  19. Evaluation of arterial stiffness with plasma GGT levels and pulse wave velocity measurement in patients with FMF.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Filiz; Ulu, Sena; Akcı, Önder; Ahsen, Ahmet; Demir, Kasım; Yüksel, Şeref

    2014-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a non-invasive technique used to evaluate the arterial elasticity, which is an early indicator of atherosclerosis. Lately, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) is considered a determiner of arterial stiffness (AS). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between GGT levels and AS with PWV in patients with Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The study was conducted with 60 patients with FMF and 40 controls. Genetic analysis of the patients were performed. AS was assessed by PWV and, after the measurement of PWV, the presence of AS was determined. Mean PWV values and AS frequency were significantly higher in patients with FMF compared with the control group (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Mean GGT levels of FMF patients were higher than in the control group but the difference was not statistically different. In the correlation analysis, PWV and AS were positively correlated with FMF (r=0349, p<0.001; r=0.435, p<0.001, respectively). FMF duration and FMF were associated with GGT (r=0.300, p=0.02; r=0199, p=0.047, respectively). Increased PWV values in FMF patients may indicate arterial stiffness. These patients may be followed closely with PWV as an early indicator of atherosclerosis. Therefore, the cardiovascular risk can be determined in the early stages of disease and it may be possible to take necessary precautions.

  20. Genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Yao, W-M; Zhang, H-F; Zhu, Z-Y; Zhou, Y-L; Liang, N-X; Xu, D-J; Zhou, F; Sheng, Y-H; Yang, R; Gong, L; Yin, Z-J; Chen, F-K; Cao, K-J; Li, X-L

    2013-04-01

    Elevated levels of circulating triglycerides and increased arterial stiffness are associated with cardiovascular disease. Numerous studies have reported an association between levels of circulating triglycerides and arterial stiffness. We used Mendelian randomization to test whether this association is causal. We investigated the association between circulating triglyceride levels, the apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA5) -1131T>C single nucleotide polymorphism and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) by examining data from 4421 subjects aged 18-74 years who were recruited from the Chinese population. baPWV was significantly associated with the levels of circulating triglycerides after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist-to-hip ratio, antihypertensive treatment and diabetes mellitus status. The -1131C allele was associated with a 5% (95% confidence interval 3-8%) increase in circulating triglycerides (adjusted for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, diabetes mellitus and antihypertensive treatment). Instrumental variable analysis showed that genetically elevated levels of circulating triglycerides were not associated with increased baPWV. These results do not support the hypothesis that levels of circulating triglycerides have a causal role in the development of arterial stiffness.

  1. Assessment of arterial stiffness among schizophrenia-spectrum disorders using aortic pulse wave velocity and arterial compliance: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Aaron A; Warburton, Darren E R; Flynn, Sean W; Fredrikson, Diane; Lang, Donna J

    2014-01-30

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Arterial stiffness provides a non-invasive indication of cardiovascular disease risk. To date, arterial stiffness, which has been shown to have independent predictive value for CVD morbidity and mortality, has not been evaluated in this population. We aimed to examine aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) as well as large and small artery compliance (Comp1 and Comp2) in patients being treated for schizophrenia, compared to healthy volunteers. Ten patients and 10 age and gendermatched volunteers underwent a comprehensive evaluation of arterial stiffness including: aPWV, Comp1, Comp2, stroke volume, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance. Patient aPWV was significantly elevated compared to healthy volunteers (9.1 ± 4.11 vs. 5.7 ± 1.4, P=0.03). Increased age, blood pressure, heart rate, and cigarettes/day were associated with reduced arterial health in patients. This is the first time aPWV has been described in those treated for schizophrenia. Arterial stiffness is increased in this population. Measuring arterial stiffness is a non-invasive, sensitive and effective tool for evaluating CVD risk in this population. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. The effect of workplace smoking bans on heart rate variability and pulse wave velocity of non-smoking hospitality workers.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Wellenius, Gregory A; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Moeller, Alexander; Röösli, Martin

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of a change in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure on heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), this study utilized a quasi-experimental setting when a smoking ban was introduced. HRV, a quantitative marker of autonomic activity of the nervous system, and PWV, a marker of arterial stiffness, were measured in 55 non-smoking hospitality workers before and 3-12 months after a smoking ban and compared to a control group that did not experience an exposure change. SHS exposure was determined with a nicotine-specific badge and expressed as inhaled cigarette equivalents per day (CE/d). PWV and HRV parameters significantly changed in a dose-dependent manner in the intervention group as compared to the control group. A one CE/d decrease was associated with a 2.3% (95% CI 0.2-4.4; p = 0.031) higher root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), a 5.7% (95% CI 0.9-10.2; p = 0.02) higher high-frequency component and a 0.72% (95% CI 0.40-1.05; p < 0.001) lower PWV. PWV and HRV significantly improved after introducing smoke-free workplaces indicating a decreased cardiovascular risk.

  3. Noninvasive Assessment of Pulse-Wave Velocity and Flow-Mediated Vasodilation in Anesthetized Göttingen Minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Ludvigsen, Trine P; Wiinberg, Niels; Jensen, Christina J; Callesen, Annemette T; Andersen, Regitze W; Jørgensen, Anne Sofie H; Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Pedersen, Henrik D; Moesgaard, Sophia G; Olsen, Lisbeth H

    2014-01-01

    Few methods for noninvasive assessment of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in porcine models are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for assessment of arterial stiffness and endothelial dysfunction in anesthetized Göttingen minipigs. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was assessed in male Göttingen minipigs (n = 8; age approximately 60 wk) by using applanation tonometry of the carotid and femoral arteries. In addition, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was assessed by using vascular ultrasonography of the brachial artery to evaluate endothelial dysfunction. To evaluate the reproducibility of the methods, minipigs were anesthetized by intravenous infusion of ketamine and midazolam and examined every other day for a total of 3 trials. Neither examination day nor systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial blood pressure statistically influenced PWV or FMD. The median interexamination coefficient of variation was 17% for PWV and 59% for FMD. Measured values of PWV corresponded largely to those in clinically healthy humans, but FMD values were lower than expected for lean, young animals. Although the ketamine–midazolam anesthesia we used has been associated with minor hemodynamic effects in vivo, in vitro studies suggest that both drugs are vasodilatory. Therefore anesthesia might have influenced the endothelial response, contributing to the modest FMD response and the concurrent high coefficients of variation that we noted. We conclude that PWV—but not FMD—showed acceptable interexamination variation for its potential application in porcine models. PMID:25527028

  4. Effect of Aerobic versus Resistance Exercise on Pulse Wave Velocity, Intima Media Thickness and Left Ventricular Mass in Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy; Kuk, Jennifer L; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Drant, Stacey; DeGroff, Curt; Lee, SoJung

    2015-11-01

    A cardiovascular comorbidity in obese adolescents is increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and left ventricular mass (LVM). We investigated in obese adolescents 1) the risk factors associated with aPWV, cIMT and LVM, and 2) the effects of aerobic (AE) versus resistance (RE) exercise alone (without calorie restriction) on aPWV, cIMT, LVM index (LVMI) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Eighty-one obese adolescents (12-18 yrs, BMI ≥95th percentile) were randomized to 3 months of AE (n = 30), RE (n = 27) or a control group (n = 24). Outcome measures included aPWV, cIMT, LVMI, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure (BP) and lipids. At baseline, the strongest correlates of aPWV were body weight (r = .31) and diastolic BP (r = .28); of cIMT were body weight (r=0.26) and CRF (r=-0.25); and of LVMI was CRF (r=0.32) after adjusting for sex and race (p < .05 for all). Despite significant reductions in total fat and improvements in CRF in the AE and RE groups, aPWV, cIMT, LVMI, BP, lipids and body weight did not change as compared with controls (p > .05 for all). Interventions of longer duration or together with weight loss may be required to improve these early biomarkers of CVD in obese adolescents.

  5. The effect of workplace smoking bans on heart rate variability and pulse wave velocity of non-smoking hospitality workers

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bauer, Georg F.; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Moeller, Alexander; Röösli, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of a change in second hand smoke (SHS) exposure on heart rate variability (HRV) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), this study utilized a quasi-experimental setting when a smoking ban was introduced. Methods HRV, a quantitative marker of autonomic activity of the nervous system, and PWV, a marker of arterial stiffness, were measured in 55 non-smoking hospitality workers before and 3 to 12 months after a smoking ban and compared to a control group that did not experience an exposure change. SHS exposure was determined with a nicotine specific badge and expressed as inhaled cigarette equivalents per day (CE/d). Results PWV and HRV parameters significantly changed in a dose dependent manner in the intervention group compared to the control group. A one CE/d decrease was associated with a 2.3% (95% CI: 0.2, 4.4; p=0.031) higher root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), a 5.7 % (95% CI: 0.9, 10.2; p=0.02) higher high frequency component and a 0.72% (95 % CI: 0.40–1.05; p<0.001) lower PWV. Conclusions PWV and HRV significantly improved after introducing smoke-free workplaces indicating a decreased cardiovascular risk. PMID:24504155

  6. Validation of the inverse pulse wave transit time series as surrogate of systolic blood pressure in MVAR modeling.

    PubMed

    Giassi, Pedro; Okida, Sergio; Oliveira, Maurício G; Moraes, Raimes

    2013-11-01

    Short-term cardiovascular regulation mediated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system has been investigated by multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) modeling, providing insightful analysis. MVAR models employ, as inputs, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and respiratory waveforms. ECG (from which HR series is obtained) and respiratory flow waveform (RFW) can be easily sampled from the patients. Nevertheless, the available methods for acquisition of beat-to-beat SBP measurements during exams hamper the wider use of MVAR models in clinical research. Recent studies show an inverse correlation between pulse wave transit time (PWTT) series and SBP fluctuations. PWTT is the time interval between the ECG R-wave peak and photoplethysmography waveform (PPG) base point within the same cardiac cycle. This study investigates the feasibility of using inverse PWTT (IPWTT) series as an alternative input to SBP for MVAR modeling of the cardiovascular regulation. For that, HR, RFW, and IPWTT series acquired from volunteers during postural changes and autonomic blockade were used as input of MVAR models. Obtained results show that IPWTT series can be used as input of MVAR models, replacing SBP measurements in order to overcome practical difficulties related to the continuous sampling of the SBP during clinical exams.

  7. Measurement of the contrast agent intrinsic and native harmonic response with single transducer pulse waved ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, X A; Willigers, J M; Brands, P J; Ledoux, L A; Hoeks, A P

    1999-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents, i.e., small gas filled microbubbles, enhance the echogenicity of blood and have the potential to be used for tissue perfusion assessment. The contrast agents scatter ultrasound in a nonlinear manner and thereby introduce harmonics in the ultrasound signal. This property is exploited in new ultrasound techniques like harmonic imaging, which aims to display only the contrast agent presence. Much attention has already been given to the physical properties of the contrast agent. The present study focuses on practical aspects of the measurement of the intrinsic harmonic response of ultrasound contrast agents with single transducer pulse waved ultrasound systems. Furthermore, the consequences of two other sources of harmonics are discussed. These sources are the nonlinear distortion of ultrasound in a medium generating native harmonics, and the emitted signal itself which might contain contaminating harmonics. It is demonstrated conceptually and by experiments that optimization of the contrast agent harmonic response measured with a single transducer is governed by the transducer spectral sensitivity distribution rather than the resonance properties of the contrast agent. Both native and contaminating harmonics may be of considerable strength and can be misinterpreted as intrinsic harmonics of the contrast agent. Practical difficulties to filter out the harmonic component selectively, without deteriorating the image, may cause misinterpretation of the fundamental as a harmonic.

  8. [Color-coded M-mode Doppler echocardiography in the diagnosis of fetal arrhythmia].

    PubMed

    Gembruch, U; Bald, R; Hansmann, M

    1990-04-01

    Colour-coded M-mode Doppler echocardiography is a simultaneous registration of the conventional M-mode echocardiogram and of the pulsed wave colour-coded Doppler echocardiogram with simultaneous analysis of several sample volumes along the ultrasound cursor with a high timely resolution, guided by the two-dimensional imaging. Within 9 months, 36 foetuses with arrhythmias were prospectively examined (24 foetuses with atrial premature beats, 9 foetuses with supraventricular tachycardia, and 3 foetuses with complete heart block). The classification of arrhythmia by the colour-coded M-mode Doppler echocardiography was always possible at first examination. The most important advantage of this method is the simultaneous registration of the information of conventional M-mode and Doppler echocardiography. Therefore, the intervals between atrial and ventricular contractions can also be analysed even when the angle of insonation to the foetal heart is unfavourable, since contractions cannot only be identified by wall movements but also by the flow velocities. Furthermore, the duration of regurgitation of atrioventricular valves can be exactly measured by colour-coded M-mode Doppler echocardiography. In foetal supraventricular tachycardia, it appears that severity of congestive heart failure is correlated with the duration of atrioventricular valve regurgitation up to a holosystolic insufficiency. Thus, it seems possible, that the duration of insufficiency of atrioventricular valves is a good parameter for evaluation of cardiac function and for modifying antiarrhythmic treatment in cases of supraventricular tachycardia.

  9. Association between uterine artery Doppler blood flow changes and arterial wall elasticity in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    von Wowern, Emma; Andersson, Jakob; Skarping, Ida Dalene; Howie, Maria Teresa; Olofsson, Per

    2017-10-01

    Uterine artery (UtA) Doppler velocimetry changes and increased arterial stiffness are associated with preeclampsia. We aimed to investigate the relation between UtA velocimetry changes and arterial stiffness in pregnant women. Doppler velocimetry and photoplethysmographic digital pulse wave analysis (DPA) were performed in 173 pregnant women in the second or the third trimester, where UtA Doppler pulsatility index (PI), diastolic notching, and UtA score (UAS) combining notching and high PI were calculated. DPA stiffness parameters representing large arteries were ejection elasticity index (EEI) and b/a, small arteries dicrotic index (DI) and d/a, and global stiffness the aging index (AI). One hundred and thirty women had normal Doppler and 43 had diastolic notching, of whom nine had high PI. DI indicated increased stiffness in small arteries when notching was present (p = 0.044) and showed a significant but weak correlation to UAS (p = 0.025, tau 0.12). EEI and b/a indicated increased large artery stiffness (p ≤0.014), d/a small artery stiffness (p = 0.023), and AI a systemic stiffness (p = 0.040) when high PI. High UtA PI was associated with increased systemic arterial stiffness, whereas notching was related to increased stiffness in small arteries only. This indicates pathophysiological differences between the two Doppler parameters.

  10. Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Zahumensky, J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in preeclampsia. We summarize the new published data on the Doppler flowmetry in uteroplacental, fetoplacental and fetal circulation in preeclampsia. The present review summarized the results of clinical research on the Doppler flowmetry in the screening of risk of preclampsia, in the diagnosis of preclampsia and in the fetal risk in preclampsia (Ref. 19). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  11. Advances in Doppler OCT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    We review the principle and some recent applications of Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT). The advances of the phase-resolved Doppler OCT method are described. Functional OCT algorithms which are based on an extension of the phase-resolved scheme are also introduced. Recent applications of Doppler OCT for quantification of flow, imaging of microvasculature and vocal fold vibration, and optical coherence elastography are briefly discussed. PMID:24443649

  12. Advanced Doppler tracking experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The Doppler tracking method is currently the only technique available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the approx. 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -1) Hz low frequency band. A brief review is given of the Doppler method, a discussion of the main noise sources, and a review of experience with current spacecraft and the prospects for sensitivity improvements in an advanced Doppler tracking experiment.

  13. Regulation of vascular tone and pulse wave velocity in human muscular conduit arteries: selective effects of nitric oxide donors to dilate muscular arteries relative to resistance vessels.

    PubMed

    Fok, Henry; Jiang, Benyu; Clapp, Brian; Chowienczyk, Phil

    2012-11-01

    Arterial tone in muscular conduit arteries may influence pressure wave reflection through changes in diameter and pulse wave velocity. We examined the relative specificity of vasodilator drugs for radial artery and forearm resistance vessels during intrabrachial arterial infusion. The nitric oxide (NO) donors, nitroglycerine and nitroprusside, and brain natriuretic peptide were compared with the α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine, calcium-channel antagonist verapamil, and hydralazine. Radial artery diameter was measured by high resolution ultrasound, forearm blood flow by strain gauge plethysmography, and pulse wave velocity by pressure recording cuffs placed over the distal brachial and radial arteries. Norepinephrine was used to constrict the radial artery to generate a greater range of vasodilator tone when examining pulse wave velocity. Despite dilating resistance vasculature, phentolamine and verapamil had little effect on radial artery diameter (mean dilation <9%). By contrast, for comparable actions on resistance vessels, nitroglycerine and nitroprusside but not brain natriuretic peptide had powerful actions to dilate the radial artery (dilations of 31.3 ± 3.6%, 23.6 ± 3.1%, and 9.8 ± 2.0% for nitroglycerine, nitroprusside, and brain natriuretic peptide, respectively). Changes in pulse wave velocity followed those in arterial diameter irrespective of the signaling pathway used to modulate arterial tone (R=-0.89, P<0.05). Basal tone in human muscular arteries is relatively unaffected by α-adrenergic or calcium-channel blockade, but is functionally or directly antagonized by NO donors. The differential response to NO donors suggests that there is potential to manipulate the downstream pathway to confer greater specificity for large arteries with a resultant decrease in pressure wave reflection and systolic blood pressure.

  14. Experimental study on the pressure and pulse wave propagation in viscoelastic vessel tubes-effects of liquid viscosity and tube stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, Yuki; Nishi, Shohei; Komagata, Yuka; Saito, Masashi; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Asada, Takaaki; Matsukawa, Mami

    2013-11-01

    A pulse wave is the displacement wave which arises because of ejection of blood from the heart and reflection at vascular bed and distal point. The investigation of pressure waves leads to understanding the propagation characteristics of a pulse wave. To investigate the pulse wave behavior, an experimental study was performed using an artificial polymer tube and viscous liquid. A polyurethane tube and glycerin solution were used to simulate a blood vessel and blood, respectively. In the case of the 40 wt% glycerin solution, which corresponds to the viscosity of ordinary blood, the attenuation coefficient of a pressure wave in the tube decreased from 4.3 to 1.6 dB/m because of the tube stiffness (Young's modulus: 60 to 200 kPa). When the viscosity of liquid increased from approximately 4 to 10 mPa·s (the range of human blood viscosity) in the stiff tube, the attenuation coefficient of the pressure wave changed from 1.6 to 3.2 dB/m. The hardening of the blood vessel caused by aging and the increase of blood viscosity caused by illness possibly have opposite effects on the intravascular pressure wave. The effect of the viscosity of a liquid on the amplitude of a pressure wave was then considered using a phantom simulating human blood vessels. As a result, in the typical range of blood viscosity, the amplitude ratio of the waves obtained by the experiments with water and glycerin solution became 1:0.83. In comparison with clinical data, this value is much smaller than that seen from blood vessel hardening. Thus, it can be concluded that the blood viscosity seldom affects the attenuation of a pulse wave.

  15. The influence of the relative timing of arterial and subarachnoid space pulse waves on spinal perivascular cerebrospinal fluid flow as a possible factor in syrinx development.

    PubMed

    Bilston, Lynne E; Stoodley, Marcus A; Fletcher, David F

    2010-04-01

    The mechanisms of syringomyelia have long puzzled neurosurgeons and researchers alike due to difficulties in identifying the driving forces behind fluid flow into a syrinx, apparently against a pressure gradient between the spinal cord and the subarachnoid space (SAS). Recently, the synchronization between CSF flow and the cardiac cycle has been postulated to affect fluid flow in the spinal cord. This study aims to determine the effect of changes in the timing of SAS pressure on perivascular flow into the spinal cord. This study uses a computational fluid dynamics model to investigate whether the relative timing of a spinal artery cardiovascular pulse wave and fluid pressure in the spinal SAS can influence CSF flow in the perivascular spaces. The results show that the mass flow rate of CSF through a model periarterial space is strongly influenced by the relative timing of the arterial pulse wave and the SAS pressure. These findings suggest that factors that might alter the timing of the pulse wave or the fluid flow in the SAS could potentially affect fluid flow into a syrinx.

  16. Velocity magnitude estimation with linear arrays using Doppler bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Tortoli, P; Guidi, G; Mantovani, L; Newhouse, V L

    2001-04-01

    The dependence of pulsed wave Doppler bandwidth on parameters typical of linear transducer arrays used in commercial Duplex and color flow mapping systems is investigated experimentally. For a single flow line it is observed that this bandwidth generally depends not only on the scatterer velocity and the beam-to-flow angle, but also on the flow line range and orientation. This is due to the fact that in Duplex and color flow systems the transducer is differently focused in the scan and elevation planes and its aperture and focal lengths are often made to vary, depending on the distance of the flow line from the transducer. It is however experimentally demonstrated that, at points where the ultrasound beamwidths in the scan and elevation planes are both comparable to the sample volume length, the Doppler bandwidth is independent of the beam-to-flow angle. It is also shown that this invariance can be extended to other ranges by appropriately modifying the array aperture. Finally, as an application of this independence, the flow-line velocity magnitude in these beam regions is estimated with better than 5% uncertainty through a simple bandwidth measurement.

  17. Integrated multiomics approach identifies calcium and integrin-binding protein-2 as a novel gene for pulse wave velocity

    PubMed Central

    Mangino, Massimo; Cecelja, Marina; Menni, Cristina; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Yuan, Wei; Small, Kerrin; Bell, Jordana; Mitchell, Gary F.; Chowienczyk, Phillip; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) is an important measure of arterial stiffness, which is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used an integrated genetic, epigenetic and transcriptomics approach to uncover novel molecular mechanisms contributing to PWV. Methods and results: We measured PWV in 1505 healthy twins of European descendent. A genomewide association analysis was performed using standardized residual of the inverse of PWV. We identified one single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs7164338) in the calcium and integrin-binding protein-2 (CIB2) gene on chromosome 15q25.1 associated with PWV [β = −0.359, standard error (SE) = 0.07, P = 4.8 × 10–8]. The same variant was also associated with increased CIB2 expression in leucocytes (β = 0.034, SE = 0.008, P = 4.95 × 10–5) and skin (β = 0.072, SE = 0.01, P = 2.35 × 10–9) and with hypomethylation of the gene promoter (β = −0.899, SE = 0.098, P = 3.63 × 10–20). Conclusion: Our data indicate that reduced methylation of the CIB2 promoter in individuals carrying rs7164338 may lead to increased CIB2 expression. Given that CIB2 is thought to regulate intracellular calcium levels, an increase in protein levels may prevent the accumulation of serum calcium and phosphate, ultimately slowing down the process of vascular calcification. This study shows the power of integrating multiple omics to discover novel cardiovascular mechanisms. PMID:26378684

  18. Effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in Chinese subjects: an interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Mu, J.J.; Geng, L.K.; Wang, D.; Ren, K.Y.; Guo, T.S.; Chu, C.; Xie, B.Q.; Liu, F.Q.; Yuan, Z.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested that high salt and potassium might be associated with vascular function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salt intake and potassium supplementation on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Chinese subjects. Forty-nine subjects (28-65 years of age) were selected from a rural community of northern China. All subjects were sequentially maintained on a low-salt diet for 7 days (3.0 g/day NaCl), a high-salt diet for an additional 7 days (18.0 g/day NaCl), and a high-salt diet with potassium supplementation for a final 7 days (18.0 g/day NaCl+4.5 g/day KCl). Brachial-ankle PWV was measured at baseline and on the last day of each intervention. Blood pressure levels were significantly increased from the low-salt to high-salt diet, and decreased from the high-salt diet to high-salt plus potassium supplementation. Baseline brachial-ankle PWV in salt-sensitive subjects was significantly higher than in salt-resistant subjects. There was no significant change in brachial-ankle PWV among the 3 intervention periods in salt-sensitive, salt-resistant, or total subjects. No significant correlations were found between brachial-ankle PWV and 24-h sodium and potassium excretions. Our study indicates that dietary salt intake and potassium supplementation, at least in the short term, had no significant effect on brachial-ankle PWV in Chinese subjects. PMID:25493387

  19. The product of resting heart rate times blood pressure is associated with high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anxin; Tao, Jie; Guo, Xiuhua; Liu, Xuemei; Luo, Yanxia; Liu, Xiurong; Huang, Zhe; Chen, Shuohua; Zhao, Xingquan; Jonas, Jost B; Wu, Shouling

    2014-01-01

    To investigate potential associations between resting heart rate, blood pressure and the product of both, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) as a maker of arterial stiffness. The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC) Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a general Chinese population and included participants with an age of 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. Arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV≥1400 cm/s. We measured and calculated the product of resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (RHR-SBP) and the product of resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure (RHR-MAP). The study included 5153 participants with a mean age of 55.1 ± 11.8 years. Mean baPWV was 1586 ± 400 cm/s. Significant (P<0.0001) linear relationships were found between higher baPWV and higher resting heart rate or higher arterial blood pressure, with the highest baPWV observed in individuals from the highest quartiles of resting heart rate and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding parameters such as age, sex, educational level, body mass index, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, blood lipids and high-sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking status and alcohol consumption, prevalence of arterial stiffness increased significantly (P<0.0001) with increasing RHR-SBP quartile (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.72;95%Confidence interval (CI):1.46,5.08) and increasing RHR-MAP (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.18,3.72). Similar results were obtained in multivariate linear regression analyses with baPWV as continuous variable. Higher baPWV as a marker of arterial stiffness was associated with a higher product of RHR-SBP and RHR-MAP in multivariate analysis. In addition to other vascular risk factors, higher resting heart rate in combination with higher blood pressure are risk factors for arterial stiffness.

  20. The association of metabolic syndrome and its components with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in south China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liying; Zhu, Wenhua; Mai, Linhe; Fang, Lizheng; Ying, Kejing

    2015-06-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) can reflect both central and peripheral arterial stiffness. Metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components may increase arterial stiffness and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. However, the correlation of MS and its components with arterial stiffness has not been not well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between MS/its components and arterial stiffness by the measurement of baPWV in south China population. A total of 8599 subjects were selected from those who underwent health examination in our hospital. MS was defined by Joint Scientific Statement. BaPWV, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile and serum uric acid (UA) were measured. The relationship between baPWV and MS/its components was analyzed. BaPWV was significantly higher in the subjects with MS than in those without MS (P < 0.001 for both genders). By multivariate regression analysis, all the metabolic components were correlated to baPWV in the male and female subjects except low HDL-C and high UA in the male group. BP and FPG had the strongest correlation factors. The values of baPWV were positively correlated with the advanced age (P < 0.001) and the values of the MS components, and this correlation was stronger in the females than in the males (P < 0.001). Metabolic syndrome and its individual components were positively correlated with baPWV. Monitoring baPWV is helpful to identify early stage of arterial stiffness in those people with MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Cardiomegaly With Aortic Arch Calcification in Patients on Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ming-Chen Paul; Lee, Mei-Yueh; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Jui-Hsin; Chen, Szu-Chia; Chang, Jer-Ming; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aortic arch calcification (AoAC) is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in end-stage renal disease population. AoAC can be simply estimated with an AoAC score using plain chest radiography. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of AoAC with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cardiomegaly in patients who have undergoing hemodialysis (HD). We retrospectively determined AoAC and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) by chest x-ray in 220 HD patients who underwent the measurement of baPWV. The values of baPWV were measured by an ankle-brachial index-form device. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors associated with AoAC score >4. Compared patients with AoAC score ≦4, patients with AoAC score >4 had older age, higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular disease, lower diastolic blood pressure, higher baPWV, higher CTR, higher prevalence of CTR ≧50%, lower total cholesterol, and lower creatinine level. After the multivariate stepwise logistic analysis, old age, cerebrovascular disease, high baPWV (per 100 cm/s, odds ratio [OR] 1.065, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.003–1.129, P = 0.038), CTR (per 1%, OR 1.116, 95% CI 1.046–1.191, P = 0.001), and low total cholesterol level were independently associated with AoAC score >4. Our study demonstrated AoAC severity was associated with high baPWV and high CTR in patients with HD. Therefore, we suggest that evaluating AoAC on plain chest radiography may be a simple and inexpensive method for detecting arterial stiffness in HD patients. PMID:27175684

  2. Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and the Risk Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Kario, Kazuomi; Hoshide, Satoshi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Maeda, Yasutaka; Kohara, Katsuhiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Nakamura, Motoyuki; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Watada, Hirotaka; Munakata, Masanori; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Ito, Norihisa; Nakamura, Michinari; Shoji, Tetsuo; Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Yamashina, Akira

    2017-06-01

    An individual participant data meta-analysis was conducted in the data of 14 673 Japanese participants without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to examine the association of the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) with the risk of development of CVD. During the average 6.4-year follow-up period, 687 participants died and 735 developed cardiovascular events. A higher baPWV was significantly associated with a higher risk of CVD, even after adjustments for conventional risk factors (P for trend <0.001). When the baPWV values were classified into quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for CVD increased significantly as the baPWV quintile increased. The hazard ratio in the subjects with baPWV values in quintile 5 versus that in those with the values in quintile 1 was 3.50 (2.14-5.74; P<0.001). Every 1 SD increase of the baPWV was associated with a 1.19-fold (1.10-1.29; P<0.001) increase in the risk of CVD. Moreover, addition of baPWV to a model incorporating the Framingham risk score significantly increased the C statistics from 0.8026 to 0.8131 (P<0.001) and also improved the category-free net reclassification (0.247; P<0.001). The present meta-analysis clearly established baPWV as an independent predictor of the risk of development of CVD in Japanese subjects without preexisting CVD. Thus, measurement of the baPWV could enhance the efficacy of prediction of the risk of development of CVD over that of the Framingham risk score, which is based on the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Effects of Levocarnitine on Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity in Hemodialysis Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Terumi; Abe, Masanori; Yamazaki, Toshio; Mizuno, Mari; Okawa, Erina; Ando, Hideyuki; Oikawa, Osamu; Okada, Kazuyoshi; Kikuchi, Fumito; Soma, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in patients with end-stage kidney disease. Chronic kidney disease patients often exhibit a deficiency in l-carnitine due to loss during hemodialysis (HD). We studied the effects of l-carnitine supplementation on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of atherosclerosis, in HD patients. Methods: This was a prospective, open-label, randomized, parallel controlled, multi-center trial testing the anti-atherosclerotic efficacy of oral l-carnitine administration (20 mg/kg/day). HD patients (n = 176, mean age, 67.2 ± 10.3 years old; mean duration of HD, 54 ± 51 months) with plasma free l-carnitine deficiency (<40 μmol/L) were randomly assigned to the oral l-carnitine group (n = 88) or control group (n = 88) and monitored during 12 months of treatment. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline clinical variables between the l-carnitine and control groups. l-carnitine supplementation for 12 months significantly increased total, free, and acyl carnitine levels, and reduced the acyl/free carnitine ratio. The baPWV value decreased from 2085 ± 478 cm/s at baseline to 1972 ± 440 cm/s after six months (p < 0.05) to 1933 ± 363 cm/s after 12 months (p < 0.001) of l-carnitine administration, while no significant changes in baPWV were observed in the control group. Baseline baPWV was the only factor significantly correlated with the decrease in baPWV. Conclusions: l-carnitine supplementation significantly reduced baPWV in HD patients. l-carnitine may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing the progression of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:25533009

  4. A high normal ankle-brachial index combined with a high pulse wave velocity is associated with cerebral microbleeds.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Yoshino; Ishida, Akio; Kinjo, Kozen; Ohya, Yusuke

    2016-08-01

    Arterial stiffness is associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is used to predict arterial stiffness. We hypothesized that the increase in ABI with age occurs as a result of increasing arterial stiffness and wave reflection, and is thus associated with target organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ABI, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and CMBs. We recruited 990 cardiovascular disease-free and stroke-free participants [median age 53 (24-86) years, 531 were woman] who underwent brain MRI, ABI, and baPWV at a health checkup. The prevalence of CMBs was 4%. Both ABI (1.14 vs. 1.10) and baPWV (17.29 vs. 14.68 m/s) were higher in participants with CMBs than those without. Cutoff values of ABI and baPWV for the presence of CMBs were 1.12 and 16.07 m/s, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that ABI at least 1.12 [odds ratio (OR) 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30-5.37, P < 0.05] and baPWV at least 16.07 m/s (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.02-4.38, P < 0.05) were independently associated with CMBs. Moreover, the combination of ABI at least 1.12 and baPWV at least 16.07 m/s was strongly associated with CMBs (OR 5.26, 95% CI 1.93-16.92, P < 0.05). A high normal ABI, combined with a high baPWV, was strongly associated with CMBs in a screened Japanese cohort, suggesting a novel use for ABI as a predictor for target organ damage.

  5. Reference values of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity according to age and blood pressure in a central Asia population.

    PubMed

    Yiming, Gulinuer; Zhou, Xianhui; Lv, Wenkui; Peng, Yi; Zhang, Wenhui; Cheng, Xinchun; Li, Yaodong; Xing, Qiang; Zhang, Jianghua; Zhou, Qina; Zhang, Ling; Lu, Yanmei; Wang, Hongli; Tang, Baopeng

    2017-01-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has increasingly become an important assessment for cardiovascular risk. The present study established the reference and normal values of baPWV in a Central Asia population in Xinjiang, China. We recruited participants from a central Asia population in Xinjiang, China. We performed multiple regression analysis to investigate the determinants of baPWV. The median and 10th-90th percentiles were calculated to establish the reference and normal values based on these categories. In total, 5,757 Han participants aged 15-88 years were included in the present study. Spearman correlation analysis showed that age (r = 0.587, p < 0.001) and mean blood pressure (MBP, r = 0.599, p <0.001) were the major factors influencing the values of baPWV in the reference population. Furthermore, in the multiple linear regression analysis, the standardized regression coefficients of age (0.445) and MBP (0.460) were much higher than those of body mass index, triglyceride, and glycemia (-0.054, 0.035, and 0.033, respectively). In the covariance analysis, after adjustment for age and MBP, only diabetes was the significant independent determinant of baPWV (p = 0.009). Thus, participants with diabetes were excluded from the reference value population. The reference values ranged from 14.3 to 25.2 m/s, and the normal values ranged from 13.9 to 21.2 m/s. This is the first study that has established the reference and normal values for baPWV according to age and blood pressure in a Central Asia population.

  6. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  7. Doppler ultrasound monitoring technology.

    PubMed

    Docker, M F

    1993-03-01

    Developments in the signal processing of Doppler ultrasound used for the detection of fetal heart rate (FHR) have improved the operation of cardiotocographs. These developments are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages of the various Doppler and signal processing methods are compared.

  8. The Cognitive Doppler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozoil, Micah E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the learning needs of students in the concrete operational stage in mathematics. Identifies the phenomenon of reduced cognitive performance in an out-of-class environment as the "Cognitive Doppler." Suggests methods of reducing the pronounced effects of the Cognitive Doppler by capitalizing on the students' ability to memorize…

  9. Automatic human micro-Doppler signature separation by Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Jin, Tian; Qiu, Lei; Zhou, Zhimin

    2015-12-01

    The micro-Doppler signature is one of the most prominent information for target classification and identification. As Hough transform (HT) is an efficient tool for detecting weak straight target traces in the image, an HT based algorithm is proposed for micro-Doppler signature separation of multiple persons. Few seconds data is processed at one time to ensure human motion traces approximate to straight lines in the radar slow time-range image. Taking HT to the slow time-range image, each human's motion trace can be recovered through recursively searching the peaks in HT space. Applying time-frequency transform to the range cells around each recovered line, the human micro-Doppler signature can be achieved and separated. Experimental results are given to illustrate the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  10. Joint Agency Doppler Technology Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    DOPPLER RADAR, *METEOROLOGICAL RADAR, *EARLY WARNING SYSTEMS, DAMAGE, HAZARDS, NETWORKS, REAL TIME, RADAR, IDENTIFICATION, RELIABILITY, HAIL, AIR FORCE FACILITIES, DOPPLER SYSTEMS, AIRPORTS, WARNING SYSTEMS, TORNADOES .

  11. Comparison of new Doppler echocardiographic methods to differentiate constrictive pericardial heart disease and restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, N; Garcia, M J; Rodriguez, L; Murray, R D; Apperson-Hansen, C; Stugaard, M; Thomas, J D; Klein, A L

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses how the newer modalities of tissue Doppler echocardiography and color M-mode flow propagation compare with respiratory variation of Doppler flow in distinguishing between constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy. We studied 30 patients referred for further evaluation of diastolic function who had a diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis or restrictive cardiomyopathy established by diagnostic tests, including clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, cardiac catheterization, endomyocardial biopsy, and surgical findings. Nineteen patients had constrictive pericarditis and 11 had restrictive cardiomyopathy. We performed 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography combined with pulsed-wave Doppler of the pulmonary veins and mitral inflow with respiratory monitoring, tissue Doppler echocardiography of the lateral mitral annulus, and color M-mode flow propagation of left ventricular filling. Respiratory variation of the mitral inflow peak early (peak E) velocity of > or =10% predicted constrictive pericarditis with 84% sensitivity and 91% specificity and variation in the pulmonary venous peak diastolic (peak D) flow velocity of > or =18% distinguished constriction with 79% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Using tissue Doppler echocardiography, a peak early velocity of longitudinal expansion (peak Ea) of > or =8.0 cm/s differentiated patients with constriction from restriction with 89% sensitivity and 100% specificity. A slope of > or =100 cm/s for the first aliasing contour in color M-mode flow propagation predicted patients with constriction with 74% sensitivity and 91% specificity. Thus, the newer methods of tissue Doppler echocardiography and color M-mode flow propagation are equivalent and complimentary with Doppler respiratory variation in distinguishing between constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy. The additive role of the new methods needs to be established in difficult cases of constrictive

  12. Doppler radar flowmeter

    DOEpatents

    Petlevich, Walter J.; Sverdrup, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    A Doppler radar flowmeter comprises a transceiver which produces an audio frequency output related to the Doppler shift in frequency between radio waves backscattered from particulate matter carried in a fluid and the radiated radio waves. A variable gain amplifier and low pass filter are provided for amplifying and filtering the transceiver output. A frequency counter having a variable triggering level is also provided to determine the magnitude of the Doppler shift. A calibration method is disclosed wherein the amplifier gain and frequency counter trigger level are adjusted to achieve plateaus in the output of the frequency counter and thereby allow calibration without the necessity of being able to visually observe the flow.

  13. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity in type 2 diabetes and hypertension: capturing arterial health effects of step counts

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Rosenberg, Ellen; Joseph, Lawrence; Trudeau, Luc; Garfield, Natasha; Chan, Deborah; Sherman, Mark; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Daskalopoulou, Stella S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Optimal medication use obscures the impact of physical activity on traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. We evaluated the relationship between step counts and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), a summative risk indicator, in patients with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension. Research design and methods: Three hundred and sixty-nine participants were recruited (outpatient clinics; Montreal, Quebec; 2011–2015). Physical activity (pedometer/accelerometer), cfPWV (applanation tonometry), and risk factors (A1C, Homeostatic Model Assessment–Insulin Resistance, blood pressure, lipid profiles) were evaluated. Linear regression models were constructed to quantify the relationship of steps/day with cfPWV. Results: The study population comprised 191 patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension, 39 with type 2 diabetes, and 139 with hypertension (mean ± SD: age 59.6 ± 11.2 years; BMI 31.3 ± 4.8 kg/m2; 54.2% women). Blood pressure (125/77 ± 15/9 mmHg), A1C (diabetes: 7.7 ± 1.3%; 61 mmol/mol), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (diabetes: 2.19 ± 0.8 mmol/l; without diabetes: 3.13 ± 1.1mmol/l) were close to target. Participants averaged 5125 ± 2722 steps/day. Mean cfPWV was 9.8 ± 2.2 m/s. Steps correlated with cfPWV, but not with other risk factors. A 1000 steps/day increment was associated with a 0.1 m/s cfPWV decrement across adjusted models and in subgroup analysis by diabetes status. In a model adjusted for age, sex, BMI, ethnicity, immigrant status, employment, education, diabetes, hypertension, medication classes, the mean cfPWV decrement was 0.11 m/s (95% confidence interval −0.2, −0.02). Conclusions: cfPWV is responsive to step counts in patients who are well controlled on cardioprotective medications. This ability to capture the ‘added value’ of physical activity supports the emerging role of cfPWV in arterial health monitoring. PMID:28129250

  14. Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity Is Associated With Cerebral White Matter Lesions in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Laugesen, Esben; Høyem, Pernille; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Mikkelsen, Anders; Thrysøe, Samuel; Erlandsen, Mogens; Christiansen, Jens S.; Knudsen, Søren T.; Hansen, Klavs W.; Kim, Won Y.; Hansen, Troels K.; Poulsen, Per L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Patients with type 2 diabetes have a high incidence of cardiovascular events including stroke. Increased arterial stiffness (AS) predicts cardiovascular events in the general population. Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) are associated with an increased risk of stroke. It is unknown whether AS in patients with type 2 diabetes is associated with WMLs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined 89 patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (<5 years) and 89 sex- and age-matched controls. AS was assessed with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). WMLs were identified using magnetic resonance imaging and graded qualitatively with the Breteler scale (no/slight changes = 0, moderate changes = 1, severe changes = 2) and semiquantitatively. RESULTS The diabetic population had excellent glycemic control (HbA1c, 6.5% [6.2–6.8]; median [interquartile range {IQR}]) and had, compared with the controls, lower office blood pressure (BP) (127 ± 12/79 ± 8 vs. 132 ± 14/84 ± 10 mmHg) and total cholesterol (4.3[3.9–4.7] vs. 5.6 [5.1–6.4]; mmol/L; median [IQR]), (P < 0.01 for all). Despite this, PWV was higher in the patients with diabetes compared with controls (9.3 ± 2.0 vs. 8.0 ± 1.6 m/s; P < 0.0001). PWV was associated with Breteler score (OR 1.36 [95% CI 1.17–1.58]; P < 0.001) and WML volume (OR 1.32 [95% CI 1.16–1.51]; P < 0.001) per 1 m/s increase in PWV. These associations remained significant when adjusted for age, sex, diabetes, 24-h mean arterial BP, BMI, heart rate, and use of antihypertensives and statins (Breteler score: OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.03–1.60]; P < 0.05 and WML volume: OR 1.30 [95% CI 1.06–1.58]; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS PWV was higher among patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes compared with controls and was independently associated with WMLs. PWV may represent a clinically relevant parameter in the evaluation of cerebrovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes. PMID:23129135

  15. Quantification of the Interrelationship between Brachial-Ankle and Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity in a Workplace Population.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Bang; Li, Yan; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-04-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) is increasingly used for the measurement of arterial stiffness. In the present study, we quantified the interrelationship between brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV in a workplace population, and investigated the associations with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were measured using the Omron-Colin VP1000 and SphygmoCor devices, respectively. We investigated the interrelationship by the Pearson's correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plot, and performed sensitivity and specificity analyses. The 954 participants (mean ± standard deviation age 42.6 ± 14.2 years) included 630 (66.0%) men and 203 (21.3%) hypertensive patients. Brachial-ankle (13.4 ± 2.7 m/s) and carotid-femoral PWV (7.3 ± 1.6 m/s) were significantly correlated in all subjects (r = 0.75) as well as in men (r = 0.72) and women (r = 0.80) separately. For arterial stiffness defined as a carotid-femoral PWV of 10 m/s or higher, the sensitivity and specificity of brachial-ankle PWV of 16.7 m/s or higher were 72 and 94%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.953. In multiple stepwise regression, brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with age (partial r = 0.33 and 0.34, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (partial r = 0.71 and 0.66, respectively). In addition, brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with carotid IMT (r = 0.57 and 0.55, respectively) in unadjusted analysis, but not in analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (p ≥ 0.08). Brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were closely correlated, and had similar determinants. Brachial-ankle PWV can behave as an ease-of-use alternative measure of arterial stiffness for assessing cardiovascular risk.

  16. Quantification of the Interrelationship between Brachial-Ankle and Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity in a Workplace Population

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yi-Bang; Li, Yan; Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Huang, Qi-Fang; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) is increasingly used for the measurement of arterial stiffness. In the present study, we quantified the interrelationship between brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV in a workplace population, and investigated the associations with cardiovascular risk factors and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Methods Brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were measured using the Omron-Colin VP1000 and SphygmoCor devices, respectively. We investigated the interrelationship by the Pearson's correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plot, and performed sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results The 954 participants (mean ± standard deviation age 42.6 ± 14.2 years) included 630 (66.0%) men and 203 (21.3%) hypertensive patients. Brachial-ankle (13.4 ± 2.7 m/s) and carotid-femoral PWV (7.3 ± 1.6 m/s) were significantly correlated in all subjects (r = 0.75) as well as in men (r = 0.72) and women (r = 0.80) separately. For arterial stiffness defined as a carotid-femoral PWV of 10 m/s or higher, the sensitivity and specificity of brachial-ankle PWV of 16.7 m/s or higher were 72 and 94%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.953. In multiple stepwise regression, brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with age (partial r = 0.33 and 0.34, respectively) and systolic blood pressure (partial r = 0.71 and 0.66, respectively). In addition, brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were significantly (p < 0.001) associated with carotid IMT (r = 0.57 and 0.55, respectively) in unadjusted analysis, but not in analysis adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (p ≥ 0.08). Conclusions Brachial-ankle and carotid-femoral PWV were closely correlated, and had similar determinants. Brachial-ankle PWV can behave as an ease-of-use alternative measure of arterial stiffness for assessing cardiovascular risk. PMID:27195246

  17. Effects of inaccuracies in arterial path length measurement on differences in MRI and tonometry measured pulse wave velocity.

    PubMed

    Weir-McCall, Jonathan R; Khan, Faisel; Cassidy, Deirdre B; Thakur, Arsh; Summersgill, Jennifer; Matthew, Shona Z; Adams, Fiona; Dove, Fiona; Gandy, Stephen J; Colhoun, Helen M; Belch, Jill Jf; Houston, J Graeme

    2017-05-10

    Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and aortic PWV measured using MRI (MRI-PWV) show good correlation, but with a significant and consistent bias across studies. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether the differences between cf.-PWV and MRI-PWV can be accounted for by inaccuracies of currently used distance measurements. One hundred fourteen study participants were recruited into one of 4 groups: Type 2 diabetes melltus (T2DM) with cardiovascular disease (CVD) (n = 23), T2DM without CVD (n = 41), CVD without T2DM (n = 25) and a control group (n = 25). All participants underwent cf.-PWV, cardiac MRI and whole body MR angiography(WB-MRA). 90 study participants also underwent aortic PWV using MRI. cf.-PWVEXT was performed using a SphygmoCor device (Atcor Medical, West Ryde, Australia). The true intra-arterial pathlength was measured using the WB-MRA and then used to recalculate the cf.-PWVEXT to give a cf.-PWVMRA. Distance measurements were significantly lower on WB-MRA than on external tape measure (mean diff = -85.4 ± 54.0 mm,p < 0.001). MRI-PWV was significantly lower than cf.-PWVEXT (MRI-PWV = 8.1 ± 2.9 vs. cf.-PWVEXT = 10.9 ± 2.7 ms(-1),p < 0.001). When cf.-PWV was recalculated using the inter-arterial distance from WB-MRA, this difference was significantly reduced but not lost (MRI-PWV = 8.1 ± 2.9 ms(-1) vs. cf.-PWVMRA 9.1 ± 2.1 ms(-1), mean diff = -0.96 ± 2.52 ms(-1),p = 0.001). Recalculation of the PWV increased correlation with age and pulse pressure. Differences in cf.-PWV and MRI PWV can be predominantly but not entirely explained by inaccuracies introduced by the use of simple surface measurements to represent the convoluted arterial path between the carotid and femoral arteries.

  18. Effect of endoskeleton stent graft design on pulse wave velocity in patients undergoing endovascular repair of the aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Hori, Daijiro; Akiyoshi, Kei; Yuri, Koichi; Nishi, Satoshi; Nonaka, Takao; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Imamura, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Harunobu; Kimura, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Atsushi

    2017-06-08

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV), which measures vascular stiffness, is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular event. Treatment of aneurysms with endovascular prosthesis has been reported to increase PWV. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether an endoskeleton stent graft design has less effect on PWV than the exoskeleton stent graft design. Between July 2008 and September 2016, 74 patients underwent endovascular treatment of aortic arch aneurysm in our institution. PWV before and after surgery were compared between those who underwent treatment with Najuta, an endoskeleton stent graft (n = 51), and those treated with other commercially available exoskeleton stent grafts (n = 23). Preoperative PWV (endoskeleton: 2004 ± 379.2 cm/s vs. exoskeleton: 2083 ± 454.5 cm/s, p = 0.47) was similar between the two groups. Factors that were associated with preoperative PWV were age (r = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.56, p = 0.002) and mean arterial pressure (r = 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.68, p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in PWV in patients treated by exoskeleton stent grafts (before: 2083 ± 454.5 cm/s vs. after: 2305 ± 479.7 cm/s, p = 0.023) while endoskeleton stent graft showed no change in PWV (before: 2003 ± 379.2 vs. after: 2010 ± 521.1, p = 0.56). In a multivariate analysis, mean arterial pressure (coef 17.5, 95% CI 6.48-28.59, p = 0.002) and exoskeleton stent graft (coef 359.4, 95% CI 89.36-629.43, p = 0.010) were independently associated with PWV after surgery. Physiological changes after endovascular treatment should be considered including effect on vascular stiffness. Endoskeleton stent graft may provide aneurysm repair with minimum effect in PWV after surgery.

  19. Impact of seasonality and air pollutants on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and wave reflection in hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Stea, Francesco; Massetti, Luciano; Taddei, Stefano; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2017-01-01

    Objective The effects of seasonality on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular (CV) events are well established, while the influence of seasonality and other environmental factors on arterial stiffness and wave reflection has never been analyzed. This study evaluated whether seasonality (daily number of hours of light) and acute variations in outdoor temperature and air pollutants may affect carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pressure augmentation. Design and method 731 hypertensive patients (30–88 years, 417 treated) were enrolled in a cross-sectional study during a 5-year period. PWV, central BP, Augmentation Index (AIx) and Augmentation Pressure (AP) were measured in a temperature-controlled (22–24°C) room. Data of the local office of the National Climatic Data Observatory were used to estimate meteorological conditions and air pollutants (PM10, O3, CO, N2O) exposure on the same day. Results PWV (mean value 8.5±1.8 m/s) was related to age (r = 0.467, p<0.001), body mass index (r = 0.132, p<0.001), central systolic (r = 0.414, p<0.001) and diastolic BP (r = 0.093, p = 0.013), daylight hours (r = -0.176, p<0.001), mean outdoor temperature (r = -0.082, p = 0.027), O3 (r = -0.135, p<0.001), CO (r = 0.096, p = 0.012), N2O (r = 0.087, p = 0.022). In multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for confounders, PWV remained independently associated only with daylight hours (β = -0.170; 95% CI: -0.273 to -0.067, p = 0.001). No significant correlation was found between pressure augmentation and daylight hours, mean temperature or air pollutants. The relationship was stronger in untreated patients and women. Furthermore, a positive, independent association between O3 levels and PWV emerged in untreated patients (β: 0.018; p = 0.029; CI: 0.002 to 0.034) and in women (β: 0.027; p = 0.004; CI: 0.009 to 0.045). Conclusions PWV showed a marked seasonality in hypertensive patients. Environmental O3 levels may acutely reduce arterial stiffness in

  20. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  1. Pulse subtraction Doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahue, Veronique; Mari, Jean Martial; Eckersley, Robert J.; Caro, Colin G.; Tang, Meng-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances have demonstrated the feasibility of molecular imaging using targeted microbubbles and ultrasound. One technical challenge is to selectively detect attached bubbles from those freely flowing bubbles and surrounding tissue. Pulse Inversion Doppler is an imaging technique enabling the selective detection of both static and moving ultrasound contrast agents: linear scatterers generate a single band Doppler spectrum, while non-linear scatterers generate a double band spectrum, one being uniquely correlated with the presence of contrast agents and non-linear tissue signals. We demonstrate that similar spectrums, and thus the same discrimination, can be obtained through a Doppler implementation of Pulse Subtraction. This is achieved by reconstructing a virtual echo using the echo generated from a short pulse transmission. Moreover by subtracting from this virtual echo the one generated from a longer pulse transmission, it is possible to fully suppress the echo from linear scatterers, while for non-linear scatterers, a signal will remain, allowing classical agent detection. Simulations of a single moving microbubble and a moving linear scatterer subject to these pulses show that when the virtual echo and the long pulse echo are used to perform pulsed Doppler, the power Doppler spectrum allows separation of linear and non-linear moving scattering. Similar results are obtained on experimental data acquired on a flow containing either microbubble contrast agents or linear blood mimicking fluid. This new Doppler method constitutes an alternative to Pulse Inversion Doppler and preliminary results suggest that similar dual band spectrums could be obtained by the combination of any non-linear detection technique with Doppler demodulation.

  2. Method of optical self-mixing for pulse wave transit time in comparison with other methods and correlation with blood pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meigas, Kalju; Lass, Jaanus; Kattai, Rain; Karai, Deniss; Kaik, Juri

    2004-07-01

    This paper is a part of research to develop convenient method for continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure by non-invasive and non-oscillometric way. A simple optical method, using self-mixing in a diode laser, is used for detection of skin surface vibrations near the artery. These vibrations, which can reveal the pulsate propagation of blood pressure waves along the vasculature, are used for pulse wave registration. The registration of the Pulse Wave Transit Time (PWTT) is based on computing the time delay in different regions of the human body using an ECG as a reference signal. In this study, the comparison of method of optical self-mixing with other methods as photoplethysmographic (PPG) and bioimpedance (BI) for PWTT is done. Also correlation of PWTT, obtained with different methods, with arterial blood pressure is calculated. In our study, we used a group of volunteers (34 persons) who made the bicycle exercise test. The test consisted of cycling sessions of increasing workloads during which the HR changed from 60 to 180 beats per minute. In addition, a blood pressure (NIBP) was registered with standard sphygmomanometer once per minute during the test and all NIBP measurement values were synchronized to other signals to find exact time moments where the systolic blood pressure was detected (Korotkoff sounds starting point). Computer later interpolated the blood pressure signal in order to get individual value for every heart cycle. The other signals were measured continuously during all tests. At the end of every session, a recovery period was included until person's NIBP and heart rate (HR) normalized. As a result of our study it turned out that time intervals that were calculated from plethysmographic (PPG) waveforms were in the best correlation with systolic blood pressure. The diastolic pressure does not correlate with any of the parameters representing PWTT. The pulse wave signals measured by laser and piezoelectric transducer are very similar

  3. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors.

    PubMed

    Pflugradt, Maik; Geissdoerfer, Kai; Goernig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold

    2017-01-14

    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations' vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway.

  4. Effect of reactive hyperemia on carotid-radial pulse wave velocity in hypertensive participants and direct comparison with flow-mediated dilation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Haroon; Salciccioli, Louis; Ko, Eun Hee; Qureshi, Ghazanfar; Kazmi, Haris; Kassotis, John; Lazar, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the effects of hyperemia on carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (PWV) in 39 normotensive (NT) and 23 hypertensive (HT) participants using applanation tonometry. Pulse wave velocity was measured at 1- and at 2-minute intervals. Baseline PWV was similar between the groups (P = .59). At 1 minute, PWV decreased (8.5 +/- 1.2 to 7.1 +/- 1.4 m/s, P < .001) in NT but not in HT (P = .83). Hyperemic PWV (DeltaPWV) response differed between the groups (-16% vs + 1.0%, P < .001). On multivariate analysis, HT, not age or blood pressure was independently related to DeltaPWV (R(2) = .43, P < .01). Among patients with cardiovascular risk factors/disease, DeltaPWV was inversely related to flow-mediated dilation (FMD; R( 2) = .43, P < .003). hyperemia decreases PWV(1min) in NT but not in HT. DeltaPWV is inversely related to FMD. Blunted hyperemic PWV response may represent impaired vasodilatory reserve.

  5. Non-Invasive Pulse Wave Analysis in a Thrombus-Free Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm after Implantation of a Nitinol Aortic Endograft

    PubMed Central

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Argyriou, Christos; Georgiadis, George S.; Lazarides, Miltos K.

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair has been associated with changes in arterial stiffness, as estimated by pulse wave velocity (PWV). This marker is influenced by the medical status of the patient, the elastic characteristics of the aneurysm wall, and the presence of intraluminal thrombus. Therefore, in order to delineate the influence of the endograft implantation in the early post-operative period, we conducted non-invasively pulse wave analysis in a male patient with an abdominal aortic aneurysm containing no intraluminal thrombus, unremarkable past medical history, and absence of peripheral arterial disease. The estimated parameters were the systolic and diastolic pressure calculated at the aortic level (central pressures), PWV, augmentation pressure (AP) and augmentation index (AI), pressure wave reflection magnitude (RM), and peripheral resistance. Central systolic and diastolic pressure decreased post-operatively. PWV showed subtle changes from 11.6 to 10.6 and 10.9 m/s at 1-week and 1-month, respectively. Accordingly, the AI decreased from 28 to 14% and continued to drop to 25%. The AP decreased gradually from 15 to 6 and 4 mmHg. The wave RM dropped from 68 to 52% at 1-month. Finally, the peripheral resistance dropped from 1.41 to 0.99 and 0.85 dyn × s × cm−5. Our example shows that the implantation of an aortic endograft can modify the pressure wave reflection over the aortic bifurcation without causing significant alterations in PWV. PMID:26793712

  6. A Fast Multimodal Ectopic Beat Detection Method Applied for Blood Pressure Estimation Based on Pulse Wave Velocity Measurements in Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pflugradt, Maik; Geissdoerfer, Kai; Goernig, Matthias; Orglmeister, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Automatic detection of ectopic beats has become a thoroughly researched topic, with literature providing manifold proposals typically incorporating morphological analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although being well understood, its utilization is often neglected, especially in practical monitoring situations like online evaluation of signals acquired in wearable sensors. Continuous blood pressure estimation based on pulse wave velocity considerations is a prominent example, which depends on careful fiducial point extraction and is therefore seriously affected during periods of increased occurring extrasystoles. In the scope of this work, a novel ectopic beat discriminator with low computational complexity has been developed, which takes advantage of multimodal features derived from ECG and pulse wave relating measurements, thereby providing additional information on the underlying cardiac activity. Moreover, the blood pressure estimations’ vulnerability towards ectopic beats is closely examined on records drawn from the Physionet database as well as signals recorded in a small field study conducted in a geriatric facility for the elderly. It turns out that a reliable extrasystole identification is essential to unsupervised blood pressure estimation, having a significant impact on the overall accuracy. The proposed method further convinces by its applicability to battery driven hardware systems with limited processing power and is a favorable choice when access to multimodal signal features is given anyway. PMID:28098831

  7. Doppler sensors and harnesses for cardiac and peripheral arterial flow monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arbeille, P

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to design Doppler sensors and harnesses for monitoring in real time the cardiac stroke volume and output, the cerebral flow volume and resistance and the lower limb arterial flow and resistance changes. For the middle cerebral artery investigation we used a 2-MHz transcranial pulsed wave (PW) Doppler probe (commercial probe) mounted on a rotula, fixed on the horizontal branch of a headset designed like an audio headset. The arch of the headset passed over the top of the skull. For the common carotid investigation, a 4-MHz continuous-wave (CW) or PW flat Doppler probe was inserted in a circular silicone support of 5-cm diameter and 0.6-cm thickness. This soft support could adapt to the irregular surface of the neck, and the silicone material, which is fairly adhesive to the skin, made the system stable. The transducers were preoriented at 45 degrees from the support, which provided an acceptable orientation of the Doppler beam. The aortic Doppler harness consisted of a 2-MHz PW Doppler probe, mounted on a rotula fixed on a plastic rigid support 7 x 1.5 cm2 in area (parallel to the sternum) whose length could be changed (4-7 cm) to localize the rotula and its sensor on the suprasternal area. This flat segment was fixed on a rotating platform, part of a solid square plastic support (10 x 10 cm2) placed on the upper part of the sternum. This system was maintained by elastic bands passing around the shoulder and the chest. The femoral Doppler harness consisted of a 4-MHz CW or PW flat Doppler probe, inserted in a flat and rectangular rigid plastic support 10 x 3 cm2 in area. This rigid support was well adapted to the flat surface of the internal part of the thigh, which made the system stable. Two elastic bands passed around the thigh and the abdomen, which avoided any translation of the support and kept the sensor in contact with the skin. The transducers were preoriented at 45 degrees from the support, which provided an acceptable

  8. Penile Doppler ultrasonography revisited.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Sung Yoon; Lee, Joo Yong

    2017-06-10

    Penile Doppler ultrasonography is a high-performing, noninvasive or minimally-invasive imaging modality that allows the depiction of the normal anatomy and macroscopic pathologic changes in real time. Moreover, functional changes in penile blood flow, as seen in erectile dysfunction (ED), can be analyzed using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS). This review article describes the normal sonographic anatomy of the penis, the sonographic technique for evaluating ED, the normal phases of erection, and the various causes of ED. Additionally, we describe the interpretation of different parameters and findings on penile CDUS for the diagnosis and classification of ED, priapism, and Peyronie disease.

  9. Doppler ion program description

    SciTech Connect

    Henline, P.

    1980-12-01

    The Doppler spectrometer is a conventional Czerny-Turner grating spectrometer with a 1024 channel multiple detector. Light is dispersed across the detector, and its output yields a spectrum covering approximately 200 A. The width of the spectral peak is directly proportional to the temperature of the emitting ions, and determination of the impurity ion temperature allows one to infer the plasma ion temperature. The Doppler ion software system developed at General Atomic uses a TRACOR Northern 1710-31 and an LSI-11/2. The exact configuration of Doublet III is different from TRACOR Northern systems at other facilities.

  10. Medical diagnosis of the cardiovascular system on the carotid artery with IR laser Doppler vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignanelli, Laura; Rembe, Christian; Kroschel, Kristian; Luik, Armin; Castellini, Paolo; Scalise, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) is known to be a possible diagnosis tool for many cardiac applications as the detection and monitoring of some important vital parameters (Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, Pulse Wave Velocity) in a non-contact and non-intrusive way. The technique has become known as Optical Vibrocardiography (VCG) i.e. by measuring the vibrations on the carotid artery or on the thorax [1-5]. The aim of the present study is to interpret the vibrational signal acquired from the carotid artery in relation to the electrocardiographic and hemodynamic aspects and to enable the extraction of further medical information relevant for diagnosis purpose. For the investigation an infrared (IR) Laser Doppler Vibrometer has been used. The acquired VCG signals have been processed and compared with the simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram and the color-coded Doppler sonogram. This has enabled a deeper understanding of the signature of the vibrational signal. Furthermore, in this paper, we also discuss the medical value of the VCG signal obtained from the carotid artery.

  11. Catadioptric optics for laser Doppler velocimeter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the adaptation of low-cost Schmidt-Cassegrain astronomical telescopes to perform the laser-beam-focusing and scattered-light collection tasks associated with dual-beam laser Doppler velocimetry. A generic telescope design is analyzed using ray-tracing methods and Gaussian beam-propagation theory. A straightforward modification procedure to convert from infinite to near unity conjugate-ratio operation with very low residual aberration is identified and tested with a 200-mm-aperture telescope modified for f/10 operation. Performance data for this modified telescope configuration are near the diffraction limit and agree well with predictions.

  12. Catadioptric optics for laser Doppler velocimeter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunagan, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines the adaptation of low-cost Schmidt-Cassegrain astronomical telescopes to perform the laser-beam-focusing and scattered-light collection tasks associated with dual-beam laser Doppler velocimetry. A generic telescope design is analyzed using ray-tracing methods and Gaussian beam-propagation theory. A straightforward modification procedure to convert from infinite to near unity conjugate-ratio operation with very low residual aberration is identified and tested with a 200-mm-aperture telescope modified for f/10 operation. Performance data for this modified telescope configuration are near the diffraction limit and agree well with predictions.

  13. Spatio-temporal mapping of intracardiac pressure gradients. A solution to Euler's equation from digital postprocessing of color Doppler M-mode echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, J; Antoranz, J C; Yotti, R; Moreno, M; García-Fernández, M A

    2001-05-01

    Doppler assessment of intracardiac pressure gradients using the simplified Bernoulli equation is inaccurate in the absence of a restricted orifice. The purpose of this study is to develop a new general method to map instantaneous pressure gradients inside the heart using Doppler echocardiography. Color Doppler M-mode recordings are digitally postprocessed with a software algorithm that decodes flow velocity and fits a bivariate spatio-temporal tensor-product smoothing spline. Temporal and spatial accelerations are then calculated by analytical derivation of the fitted velocity data, allowing solution of both inertial and convective terms of Euler's equation. A database of 39 transmitral inflow and transaortic outflow color Doppler M-mode recordings from 20 patients with a number of cardiac conditions was analysed, along with matched pulsed-wave spectral recordings. A close agreement was observed between the spectral and postprocessed color Doppler velocity values (error = 0.8 +/- 11.7 cm/s), validating the data decoding and fitting process. Spatio-temporal pressure-gradient maps were obtained from all studies, allowing visualisation of instantaneous pressure gradients from the atrium to the apex during left ventricular filling, and from the apex to the outflow tract during ejection. Instantaneous pressure differences between localised intracardiac sample points closely matched previously published catheterization findings, both in magnitude and waveform shape. Our method shows that intracardiac instantaneous pressure gradients can be analysed noninvasively using color Doppler M-mode echocardiography combined with image postprocessing methods.

  14. Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation on the Radial artery's Pressure Pulse Wave in Healthy Young Participants: Protocol for a prospective, single-Arm, Exploratory, Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jae-Young; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Ku, Boncho; Bae, Jang Han; Un, Min-Ho; Kim, Jaeuk U; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of acupuncture stimulation on the radial artery's pressure pulse wave, along with various hemodynamic parameters, and to explore the possible underlying mechanism of pulse diagnosis in healthy participants in their twenties. This study is a prospective, single-arm, exploratory clinical study. A total of 25 healthy participants, without regard to gender, in their twenties will be recruited by physicians. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The participants will receive acupuncture once at ST36 on both sides. The radial arterial pulse waves will be measured on the left arm of the subjects by using an applicable pulse tonometric device (KIOM-PAS). On the right arm (appearing twice), electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), respiration and cardiac output (CO) signals, will be measured using a physiological data acquisition system (Biopac module), while the velocity of blood flow, and the diameter and the depth of the blood vessel will be measured using an ultrasonogram machine on the right arm (appearing twice). All measurements will be conducted before, during, and after acupuncture. The primary outcome will be the spectral energy at high frequencies above 10 Hz (SE10-30Hz) calculated from the KIOM-PAS device signal. Secondary outcomes will be various variables obtained from the KIOM-PAS device, ECG, PPG, impedance cardiography modules, and an ultrasonogram machine. The results of this trial will provide information regarding the physiological and the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying acupuncture stimulation and clinical evidence for the influence of acupuncture on the pressure pulse wave in the radial artery. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Kyung Hee University's Oriental Medical Center, Seoul, Korea (KOMCIRB-150818-HR-030). The study findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. This

  15. Consistency of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity estimates with respect to the Bramwell-Hill theoretical model: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is considered as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality, and is increasingly used in clinical practice. This study aimed at evaluating the consistency of the automated estimation of regional and local aortic stiffness indices from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data. Results Forty-six healthy subjects underwent carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements (CF_PWV) by applanation tonometry and CMR with steady-state free-precession and phase contrast acquisitions at the level of the aortic arch. These data were used for the automated evaluation of the aortic arch pulse wave velocity (Arch_PWV), and the ascending aorta distensibility (AA_Distc, AA_Distb), which were estimated from ascending aorta strain (AA_Strain) combined with either carotid or brachial pulse pressure. The local ascending aorta pulse wave velocity AA_PWVc and AA_PWVb were estimated respectively from these carotid and brachial derived distensibility indices according to the Bramwell-Hill theoretical model, and were compared with the Arch_PWV. In addition, a reproducibility analysis of AA_PWV measurement and its comparison with the standard CF_PWV was performed. Characterization according to the Bramwell-Hill equation resulted in good correlations between Arch_PWV and both local distensibility indices AA_Distc (r = 0.71, p < 0.001) and AA_Distb (r = 0.60, p < 0.001); and between Arch_PWV and both theoretical local indices AA_PWVc (r = 0.78, p < 0.001) and AA_PWVb (r = 0.78, p < 0.001). Furthermore, the Arch_PWV was well related to CF_PWV (r = 0.69, p < 0.001) and its estimation was highly reproducible (inter-operator variability: 7.1%). Conclusions The present work confirmed the consistency and robustness of the regional index Arch_PWV and the local indices AA_Distc and AA_Distb according to the theoretical model, as well as to the well established measurement of CF_PWV, demonstrating the relevance of the regional and local CMR indices. PMID

  16. High frame rate and high line density ultrasound imaging for local pulse wave velocity estimation using motion matching: A feasibility study on vessel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Li, Fubing; He, Qiong; Huang, Chengwu; Liu, Ke; Shao, Jinhua; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-04-01

    Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is an ultrasound-based method to visualize the propagation of pulse wave and to quantitatively estimate regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the arteries within the imaging field of view (FOV). To guarantee the reliability of PWV measurement, high frame rate imaging is required, which can be achieved by reducing the line density of ultrasound imaging or transmitting plane wave at the expense of spatial resolution and/or signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this study, a composite, full-view imaging method using motion matching was proposed with both high temporal and spatial resolution. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data of 4 sub-sectors, each with 34 beams, including a common beam, were acquired successively to achieve a frame rate of ∼507 Hz at an imaging depth of 35 mm. The acceleration profiles of the vessel wall estimated from the common beam were used to reconstruct the full-view (38-mm width, 128-beam) image sequence. The feasibility of mapping local PWV variation along the artery using PWI technique was preliminarily validated on both homogeneous and inhomogeneous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel vessel phantoms. Regional PWVs for the three homogeneous phantoms measured by the proposed method were in accordance with the sparse imaging method (38-mm width, 32-beam) and plane wave imaging method. Local PWV was estimated using the above-mentioned three methods on 3 inhomogeneous phantoms, and good agreement was obtained in both the softer (1.91±0.24 m/s, 1.97±0.27 m/s and 1.78±0.28 m/s) and the stiffer region (4.17±0.46 m/s, 3.99±0.53 m/s and 4.27±0.49 m/s) of the phantoms. In addition to the improved spatial resolution, higher precision of local PWV estimation in low SNR circumstances was also obtained by the proposed method as compared with the sparse imaging method. The proposed method might be helpful in disease detections through mapping the local PWV of the vascular wall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Acupuncture Stimulation on the Radial artery’s Pressure Pulse Wave in Healthy Young Participants: Protocol for a prospective, single-Arm, Exploratory, Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae-Young; Lee, Jun-Hwan; Ku, Boncho; Bae, Jang Han; un, Min-Ho; Kim, Jaeuk U.; Kim, Tae-Hun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to investigate the effects of acupuncture stimulation on the radial artery’s pressure pulse wave, along with various hemodynamic parameters, and to explore the possible underlying mechanism of pulse diagnosis in healthy participants in their twenties. Methods and analysis: This study is a prospective, single-arm, exploratory clinical study. A total of 25 healthy participants, without regard to gender, in their twenties will be recruited by physicians. Written informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The participants will receive acupuncture once at ST36 on both sides. The radial arterial pulse waves will be measured on the left arm of the subjects by using an applicable pulse tonometric device (KIOM-PAS). On the right arm (appearing twice), electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), respiration and cardiac output (CO) signals, will be measured using a physiological data acquisition system (Biopac module), while the velocity of blood flow, and the diameter and the depth of the blood vessel will be measured using an ultrasonogram machine on the right arm (appearing twice). All measurements will be conducted before, during, and after acupuncture. The primary outcome will be the spectral energy at high frequencies above 10 Hz (SE10-30Hz) calculated from the KIOM-PAS device signal. Secondary outcomes will be various variables obtained from the KIOM-PAS device, ECG, PPG, impedance cardiography modules, and an ultrasonogram machine. Discussion: The results of this trial will provide information regarding the physiological and the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying acupuncture stimulation and clinical evidence for the influence of acupuncture on the pressure pulse wave in the radial artery. Ethics and dissemination: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of Kyung Hee University’s Oriental Medical Center, Seoul, Korea (KOMCIRB-150818-HR-030). The study findings will be published in peer

  18. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  19. The Doppler Pendulum Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, C. K.; Wong, H. K.

    2011-01-01

    An experiment to verify the Doppler effect of sound waves is described. An ultrasonic source is mounted at the end of a simple pendulum. As the pendulum swings, the rapid change of frequency can be recorded by a stationary receiver using a simple frequency-to-voltage converter. The experimental results are in close agreement with the Doppler…

  20. Photonic doppler velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, M E; Molau, N E; Sargis, P D; Strand, O T; Sweider, D

    1999-01-01

    We are developing a novel fiber-optic approach to laser Doppler velocimetry as a diagnostic for high explosives tests. Using hardware that was originally developed for the telecommunications industry, we are able to measure surface velocities ranging from centimeters per second to kilometers per second. Laboratory measurements and field trials have shown excellent agreement with other diagnostics.

  1. Finnish Meteorological Institute Doppler Lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan OConnor

    2015-03-27

    This doppler lidar system provides co-polar and cross polar attenuated backscatter coefficients,signal strength, and doppler velocities in the cloud and in the boundary level, including uncertainties for all parameters. Using the doppler beam swinging DBS technique, and Vertical Azimuthal Display (VAD) this system also provides vertical profiles of horizontal winds.

  2. Ultrasonic colour Doppler imaging

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David H.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic colour Doppler is an imaging technique that combines anatomical information derived using ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques with velocity information derived using ultrasonic Doppler techniques to generate colour-coded maps of tissue velocity superimposed on grey-scale images of tissue anatomy. The most common use of the technique is to image the movement of blood through the heart, arteries and veins, but it may also be used to image the motion of solid tissues such as the heart walls. Colour Doppler imaging is now provided on almost all commercial ultrasound machines, and has been found to be of great value in assessing blood flow in many clinical conditions. Although the method for obtaining the velocity information is in many ways similar to the method for obtaining the anatomical information, it is technically more demanding for a number of reasons. It also has a number of weaknesses, perhaps the greatest being that in conventional systems, the velocities measured and thus displayed are the components of the flow velocity directly towards or away from the transducer, while ideally the method would give information about the magnitude and direction of the three-dimensional flow vectors. This review briefly introduces the principles behind colour Doppler imaging and describes some clinical applications. It then describes the basic components of conventional colour Doppler systems and the methods used to derive velocity information from the ultrasound signal. Next, a number of new techniques that seek to overcome the vector problem mentioned above are described. Finally, some examples of vector velocity images are presented. PMID:22866227

  3. Doppler effect in optical velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinkevichius, Bronius S.

    1996-02-01

    The current state of the optical metrology based on the Doppler effect has been reviewed. Some historical and scientific information is given, in addition the contemporary optical methods of the velocity measurement using the Doppler effect are analyzed. The Doppler effect applications in astrophysics, plasma physics, investigations of gas and liquid flows, acoustics, mechanics of the deforming solid body and of the rotational motion are considered. The description is presented for the following techniques of the velocity measurement: laser Doppler anemometry, laser Doppler vibrometry, laser gyroscopy.

  4. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Methods: Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. Results: CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. Conclusion: The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents. PMID:25754367

  5. Blood flow in intracranial aneurysms treated with Pipeline embolization devices: computational simulation and verification with Doppler ultrasonography on phantom models.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Anderson Chun On; Lai, Simon Sui Man; Chung, Wai Choi; Tang, Abraham Yik Sau; Leung, Gilberto Ka Kit; Poon, Alexander Kai Kei; Yu, Alfred Cheuk Hang; Chow, Kwok Wing

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of flow-diverter treatment through Doppler ultrasonography measurements in patient-specific models of intracranial bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. Computational and physical models of patient-specific bifurcation and sidewall aneurysms were constructed from computed tomography angiography with use of stereolithography, a three-dimensional printing technology. Flow dynamics parameters before and after flow-diverter treatment were measured with pulse-wave and color Doppler ultrasonography, and then compared with CFD simulations. CFD simulations showed drastic flow reduction after flow-diverter treatment in both aneurysms. The mean volume flow rate decreased by 90% and 85% for the bifurcation aneurysm and the side-wall aneurysm, respectively. Velocity contour plots from computer simulations before and after flow diversion closely resembled the patterns obtained by color Doppler ultrasonography. The CFD estimation of flow reduction in aneurysms treated with a flow-diverting stent was verified by Doppler ultrasonography in patient-specific phantom models of bifurcation and side-wall aneurysms. The combination of CFD and ultrasonography may constitute a feasible and reliable technique in studying the treatment of intracranial aneurysms with flow-diverting stents.

  6. Ethnic Differences in and Childhood Influences on Early Adult Pulse Wave Velocity: The Determinants of Adolescent, Now Young Adult, Social Wellbeing, and Health Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Silva, Maria J; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Enayat, Zinat E; Cassidy, Aidan; Karamanos, Alexis; Read, Ursula M; Faconti, Luca; Dall, Philippa; Stansfield, Ben; Harding, Seeromanie

    2016-06-01

    Early determinants of aortic stiffness as pulse wave velocity are poorly understood. We tested how factors measured twice previously in childhood in a multiethnic cohort study, particularly body mass, blood pressure, and objectively assessed physical activity affected aortic stiffness in young adults. Of 6643 London children, aged 11 to 13 years, from 51 schools in samples stratified by 6 ethnic groups with different cardiovascular risk, 4785 (72%) were seen again at aged 14 to 16 years. In 2013, 666 (97% of invited) took part in a young adult (21-23 years) pilot follow-up. With psychosocial and anthropometric measures, aortic stiffness and blood pressure were recorded via an upper arm calibrated Arteriograph device. In a subsample (n=334), physical activity was measured >5 days via the ActivPal. Unadjusted pulse wave velocities in black Caribbean and white UK young men were similar (mean±SD 7.9±0.3 versus 7.6±0.4 m/s) and lower in other groups at similar systolic pressures (120 mm Hg) and body mass (24.6 kg/m(2)). In fully adjusted regression models, independent of pressure effects, black Caribbean (higher body mass/waists), black African, and Indian young women had lower stiffness (by 0.5-0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-1.1 m/s) than did white British women (6.9±0.2 m/s). Values were separately increased by age, pressure, powerful impacts from waist/height, time spent sedentary, and a reported racism effect (+0.3 m/s). Time walking at >100 steps/min was associated with reduced stiffness (P<0.01). Effects of childhood waist/hip were detected. By young adulthood, increased waist/height ratios, lower physical activity, blood pressure, and psychosocial variables (eg, perceived racism) independently increase arterial stiffness, effects likely to increase with age.

  7. A database of virtual healthy subjects to assess the accuracy of foot-to-foot pulse wave velocities for estimation of aortic stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Chowienczyk, Phil; Alastruey, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    While central (carotid-femoral) foot-to-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV) is considered to be the gold standard for the estimation of aortic arterial stiffness, peripheral foot-to-foot PWV (brachial-ankle, femoral-ankle, and carotid-radial) are being studied as substitutes of this central measurement. We present a novel methodology to assess theoretically these computed indexes and the hemodynamics mechanisms relating them. We created a database of 3,325 virtual healthy adult subjects using a validated one-dimensional model of the arterial hemodynamics, with cardiac and arterial parameters varied within physiological healthy ranges. For each virtual subject, foot-to-foot PWV was computed from numerical pressure waveforms at the same locations where clinical measurements are commonly taken. Our numerical results confirm clinical observations: 1) carotid-femoral PWV is a good indicator of aortic stiffness and correlates well with aortic PWV; 2) brachial-ankle PWV overestimates aortic PWV and is related to the stiffness and geometry of both elastic and muscular arteries; and 3) muscular PWV (carotid-radial, femoral-ankle) does not capture the stiffening of the aorta and should therefore not be used as a surrogate for aortic stiffness. In addition, our analysis highlights that the foot-to-foot PWV algorithm is sensitive to the presence of reflected waves in late diastole, which introduce errors in the PWV estimates. In this study, we have created a database of virtual healthy subjects, which can be used to assess theoretically the efficiency of physiological indexes based on pulse wave analysis. PMID:26055792

  8. Arterial pulse wave dynamics after percutaneous aortic valve replacement: fall in coronary diastolic suction with increasing heart rate as a basis for angina symptoms in aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Davies, Justin E; Sen, Sayan; Broyd, Chris; Hadjiloizou, Nearchos; Baksi, John; Francis, Darrel P; Foale, Rodney A; Parker, Kim H; Hughes, Alun D; Chukwuemeka, Andrew; Casula, Roberto; Malik, Iqbal S; Mikhail, Ghada W; Mayet, Jamil

    2011-10-04

    Aortic stenosis causes angina despite unobstructed arteries. Measurement of conventional coronary hemodynamic parameters in patients undergoing valvular surgery has failed to explain these symptoms. With the advent of percutaneous aortic valve replacement (PAVR) and developments in coronary pulse wave analysis, it is now possible to instantaneously abolish the valvular stenosis and to measure the resulting changes in waves that direct coronary flow. Intracoronary pressure and flow velocity were measured immediately before and after PAVR in 11 patients with unobstructed coronary arteries. Using coronary pulse wave analysis, we calculated the intracoronary diastolic suction wave (the principal accelerator of coronary blood flow). To test physiological reserve to increased myocardial demand, we measured at resting heart rate and during pacing at 90 and 120 bpm. Before PAVR, the basal myocardial suction wave intensity was 1.9±0.3×10(-5) W · m(-2) · s(-2), and this increased in magnitude with increasing severity of aortic stenosis (r=0.59, P=0.05). This wave decreased markedly with increasing heart rate (β coefficient=-0.16×10(-4) W · m(-2) · s(-2); P<0.001). After PAVR, despite a fall in basal suction wave (1.9±0.3 versus 1.1±0.1×10(-5) W · m(-2) · s(-2); P=0.02), there was an immediate improvement in coronary physiological reserve with increasing heart rate (β coefficient=0.9×10(-3) W · m(-2) · s(-2); P=0.014). In aortic stenosis, the coronary physiological reserve is impaired. Instead of increasing when heart rate rises, the coronary diastolic suction wave decreases. Immediately after PAVR, physiological reserve returns to a normal positive pattern. This may explain how aortic stenosis can induce anginal symptoms and their prompt relief after PAVR. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01118442.

  9. Radiographic assessment of vascular calcification, aortic pulse wave velocity, ankle-brachial index and fibroblast growth factor-23 in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Breznik, Silva; Ekart, Robert; Hren, Martin; Rupreht, Mitja; Balon, Breda Pečovnik

    2013-08-01

    Vascular calcification is a frequent complication of chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. In both the general population and patients with end stage renal disease, vascular calcification is related to arterial stiffness and is a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Various diagnostic methods are currently used to assess vascular calcification. There is a preference for simple, reliable methods that can be used in daily practice. Therefore, several imaging and laboratory methods are investigated. Twenty-eight patients with mean age of 62 years on chronic hemodialysis were enrolled in the study. The mean duration of hemodialysis treatment was 70 months (range 3 to 350 months). Vascular calcification was assessed with coronary computed tomography and lateral lumbar, pelvic and hand radiographs. Vascular stiffness was evaluated using aortic pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial index measurements, and finally serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-23 were followed. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between all the following parameters: coronary artery calcification score, aortic pulse wave velocity, abdominal aortic calcification score, simple vascular calcification scores in pelvis and hand. A statistically significant correlation of ankle-brachial index >1.3 to coronary artery calcification score was found. There was no correlation between the previous parameters and fibroblast growth factor-23. The results of our study indicate that simple imaging methods could provide confident vascular damage assessment and therefore potentially guide therapy adjustments. An association between fibroblast growth factor-23 and the other diagnostic modalities in our study was not found. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  10. An airborne Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimarzio, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed CO2 Doppler Lidar, developed for airborne measurements of atmospheric wind fields, is described. In-flight tests show that the device can be successfully utilized in the detection and measurement of mountain-wave turbulence and wind shear, and in the generation of time histories of wind-field variations in smooth flight. This Lidar is in the process of being configured for measurement of the atmospheric flow fields surrounding severe convective storms.

  11. Laser Doppler anemometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dennis A.

    1988-01-01

    The material in this NASA TM is to appear as a chapter on Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) in the AGARDograph entitled, A Survey of Measurements and Measuring Techniques in Rapidly Distorted Compressible Turbulent Boundary Layers. The application of LDA (specifically, the dual-beam, burst-counter approach) to compressible flows is discussed. Subjects treated include signal processing, particle light scattering and tracking, data reduction and sampling bias, and three-dimensional measurements.

  12. Laser double Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poffo, L.; Goujon, J.-M.; Le Page, R.; Lemaitre, J.; Guendouz, M.; Lorrain, N.; Bosc, D.

    2014-05-01

    The Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a non-invasive method for estimating the tissular blood flow and speed at a microscopic scale (microcirculation). It is used for medical research as well as for the diagnosis of diseases related to circulatory system tissues and organs including the issues of microvascular flow (perfusion). It is based on the Doppler effect, created by the interaction between the laser light and tissues. LDF measures the mean blood flow in a volume formed by the single laser beam, that penetrate into the skin. The size of this measurement volume is crucial and depends on skin absorption, and is not directly reachable. Therefore, current developments of the LDF are focused on the use of always more complex and sophisticated signal processing methods. On the other hand, laser Double Doppler Flowmeter (FL2D) proposes to use two laser beams to generate the measurement volume. This volume would be perfectly stable and localized at the intersection of the two laser beams. With FL2D we will be able to determine the absolute blood flow of a specific artery. One aimed application would be to help clinical physicians in health care units.

  13. Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Werkmeister, René M.; Blatter, Cedric; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2014-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has revolutionized ophthalmology. Since its introduction in the early 1990s it has continuously improved in terms of speed, resolution and sensitivity. The technique has also seen a variety of extensions aiming to assess functional aspects of the tissue in addition to morphology. One of these approaches is Doppler OCT (DOCT), which aims to visualize and quantify blood flow. Such extensions were already implemented in time domain systems, but have gained importance with the introduction of Fourier domain OCT. Nowadays phase-sensitive detection techniques are most widely used to extract blood velocity and blood flow from tissues. A common problem with the technique is that the Doppler angle is not known and several approaches have been realized to obtain absolute velocity and flow data from the retina. Additional studies are required to elucidate which of these techniques is most promising. In the recent years, however, several groups have shown that data can be obtained with high validity and reproducibility. In addition, several groups have published values for total retinal blood flow. Another promising application relates to non-invasive angiography. As compared to standard techniques such as fluorescein and indocyanine-green angiography the technique offers two major advantages: no dye is required and depth resolution is required is provided. As such Doppler OCT has the potential to improve our abilities to diagnose and monitor ocular vascular diseases. PMID:24704352

  14. AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: topics in US: Doppler US techniques: concepts of blood flow detection and flow dynamics.

    PubMed

    Boote, Evan J

    2003-01-01

    Techniques of Doppler ultrasonography (US) have been available to clinicians for nearly 40 years. The Doppler effect as developed by sound propagation in human tissues and with the velocities observed for the human vasculature produces shifts in the frequencies of returning echo signals. These signals can be processed in a manner that allows the observer to determine the condition of the blood flow. The instrumentation for Doppler US has evolved to accommodate the expanding clinical use of US. Each development (eg, pulsed-wave Doppler US, color flow imaging) has been motivated by a desire to provide more clinical information about flow in the body. The algorithms used are complex, but increasingly powerful microelectronics have made these methods a reality at a reasonable cost. Users of Doppler US techniques must be aware of the complicated aspects of flow in the body, especially with regard to detection of disease in the human vasculature. The continuing development of US equipment aims to provide a greater understanding of hemodynamics and the relationship between blood flow and various disease processes.

  15. Clinical applications of doppler ultrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.J.W.; Burns, P.N.; Well, P.N.T.

    1987-01-01

    This book introduces a guide to the physical principles and instrumentation of duplex Doppler ultrasound and its applications in obstetrics, gynecology, neonatology, gastroentology, and evaluation of peripheral vascular disease. The book provides information needed to perform Doppler ultrasound examinations and interpret the results. An introduction to Doppler physics and instrumentation is followed by a thorough review of hemodynamics, which explains the principles underlying interpretation of Doppler signals. Of special note is the state-of-the-art coverage of new applications of Doppler in recognition of high-risk pregnancy, diagnosis of intrauterine growth retardation, investigation of neonatal blood flow, evaluation of first-trimester pregnancy, and diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. The book also offers guidelines on the use of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosing carotid disease, deep venous thrombosis, and aorta/femoral disease.

  16. Laser Doppler diagnostics for orthodontia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhkova, Anastasia V.; Lebedeva, Nina G.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Kharish, Natalia A.

    2004-06-01

    The results of statistical analysis of Doppler spectra of intensity fluctuations of light, scattered from mucous membrane of oral cavity of healthy volunteers and patients, abused by the orthodontic diseases, are presented. Analysis of Doppler spectra, obtained from tooth pulp of patients, is carried out. New approach to monitoring of blood microcirculation in orthodontics is suggested. Influence of own noise of Doppler measuring system on formation of the output signal is studied.

  17. Attenuated Vector Tomography -- An Approach to Image Flow Vector Fields with Doppler Ultrasonic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qiu; Peng, Qiyu; Huang, Bin; Cheryauka, Arvi; Gullberg, Grant T.

    2008-05-15

    The measurement of flow obtained using continuous wave Doppler ultrasound is formulated as a directional projection of a flow vector field. When a continuous ultrasound wave bounces against a flowing particle, a signal is backscattered. This signal obtains a Doppler frequency shift proportional to the speed of the particle along the ultrasound beam. This occurs for each particle along the beam, giving rise to a Doppler velocity spectrum. The first moment of the spectrum provides the directional projection of the flow along theultrasound beam. Signals reflected from points further away from the detector will have lower amplitude than signals reflected from points closer to the detector. The effect is very much akin to that modeled by the attenuated Radon transform in emission computed tomography.A least-squares method was adopted to reconstruct a 2D vector field from directional projection measurements. Attenuated projections of only the longitudinal projections of the vector field were simulated. The components of the vector field were reconstructed using the gradient algorithm to minimize a least-squares criterion. This result was compared with the reconstruction of longitudinal projections of the vector field without attenuation. Ifattenuation is known, the algorithm was able to accurately reconstruct both components of the full vector field from only one set of directional projection measurements. A better reconstruction was obtained with attenuation than without attenuation implying that attenuation provides important information for the reconstruction of flow vector fields.This confirms previous work where we showed that knowledge of the attenuation distribution helps in the reconstruction of MRI diffusion tensor fields from fewer than the required measurements. In the application of ultrasound the attenuation distribution is obtained with pulse wave transmission computed tomography and flow information is obtained with continuous wave Doppler.

  18. Neutrino Induced Doppler Broadening

    PubMed Central

    Jolie, J.; Stritt, N.

    2000-01-01

    When a nucleus undergoes beta decay via the electron capture reaction, it emits an electron neutrino. The neutrino emission gives a small recoil to the atom, which can be experimentally observed as a Doppler broadening on subsequently emitted gamma rays. Using the two-axis flat-crystal spectrometer GAMS4 and the electron capture reaction in 152Eu, the motion of atoms having an excess kinetic energy of 3 eV in the solid state was studied. It is shown how the motion of the atom during the first hundreds of femtoseconds can be reconstructed. The relevance of this knowledge for a new neutrino helicity experiment is discussed. PMID:27551591

  19. Laser Doppler velocimetry primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachalo, William D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced research in experimental fluid dynamics required a familiarity with sophisticated measurement techniques. In some cases, the development and application of new techniques is required for difficult measurements. Optical methods and in particular, the laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) are now recognized as the most reliable means for performing measurements in complex turbulent flows. And such, the experimental fluid dynamicist should be familiar with the principles of operation of the method and the details associated with its application. Thus, the goals of this primer are to efficiently transmit the basic concepts of the LDV method to potential users and to provide references that describe the specific areas in greater detail.

  20. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure, urinary albumin, and pulse wave velocity in white, black, and Asian mild hypertensives.

    PubMed

    He, Feng J; Marciniak, Maciej; Visagie, Elisabeth; Markandu, Nirmala D; Anand, Vidya; Dalton, R Neil; MacGregor, Graham A

    2009-09-01

    A reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials were in whites with few in blacks and Asians. Salt reduction may also reduce other cardiovascular risk factors (eg, urinary albumin excretion, arterial stiffness). However, few well-controlled trials have studied these effects. We carried out a randomized double-blind crossover trial of salt restriction with slow sodium or placebo, each for 6 weeks, in 71 whites, 69 blacks, and 29 Asians with untreated mildly raised blood pressure. From slow sodium to placebo, urinary sodium was reduced from 165+/-58 (+/-SD) to 110+/-49 mmol/24 hours (9.7 to 6.5 g/d salt). With this reduction in salt intake, there was a significant decrease in blood pressure from 146+/-13/91+/-8 to 141+/-12/88+/-9 mm Hg (P<0.001), urinary albumin from 10.2 (IQR: 6.8 to 18.9) to 9.1 (6.6 to 14.0) mg/24 hours (P<0.001), albumin/creatinine ratio from 0.81 (0.47 to 1.43) to 0.66 (0.44 to 1.22) mg/mmol (P<0.001), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity from 11.5+/-2.3 to 11.1+/-1.9 m/s (P<0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that the reductions in blood pressure and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were significant in all groups, and the decrease in pulse wave velocity was significant in blacks only. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, approximately the amount of the current public health recommendations, causes significant falls in blood pressure in all 3 ethnic groups. Furthermore, it reduces urinary albumin and improves large artery compliance. Although both could be attributable to the falls in blood pressure, they may carry additional benefits on reducing cardiovascular disease above that obtained from the blood pressure falls alone.

  1. Therapeutic effects of 10-HzPulsed wave lasers in rat depression model: A comparison between near-infrared and red wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Salehpour, Farzad; Rasta, Seyed Hossein; Mohaddes, Gisou; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Salarirad, Sima

    2016-09-01

    The application of transcranial low-level light/laser therapy (tLLLT) in the range of red to near-infrared (NIR) spectrum for psychological disorders is a new area that is attracting growing interest in recent years. The photomodulation effects of NIR and red coherent lights on the activity of cytochrome c oxidase in neuronal cells of brain have been recently introduced. This study, therefore, sought to compare the therapeutic effects of 10-Hz pulsed wave NIR (810 nm) laser with red (630 nm) laser using the same delivered energy density and Citalopram in rat chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression and anxiety. CMS procedures (for 4 weeks) were used to induce stress. GaAlAs diode laser with red and NIR wavelengths on 10-Hz pulsed wave (50% duty cycle) were used to perform tLLLT treatment for three weeks. An energy density of about 1.2 J/cm-(2) per each session was delivered through a light spot with a diameter of 3-mm to the prefrontal cortex for both wavelengths. Citalopram (10 mg/kg, Intraperitoneal) was administered for twenty-one consecutive days to the drug group. The findings of the present study showed an increase in swimming and decrease in immobility time, for both NIR laser and Citalopram groups compared to the stress group in forced swimming test. Anxiety-like behaviors showed insignificant decrease in all treatment groups in elevated plus maze test. The induction of stress significantly increased serum cortisol levels and treatments with both red laser and Citalopram decreased it. Hyperglycemia induced by CMS returned to normal levels in all treatment groups. The assessment of body weight also showed a significant increase in NIR laser group compared to the stress group by the end of the experiment. This study showed that non-invasive tLLLT using 10-Hz pulsed NIR laser light was as effective as Citalopram and more effective than red laser in the treatment of depressive-like behaviors and may help improve tLLLT as an alternative non

  2. Aerobic or Resistance Training and Pulse Wave Velocity in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A 12-Week Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial (the Exercise in Renal Transplant [ExeRT] Trial).

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Sharlene A; Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H; Rush, Robert; O'Connor, Ellen; Tuffnell, Rachel; Lindup, Herolin; Haggis, Lynda; Dew, Tracy; Abdulnassir, Lyndsey; Nugent, Eilish; Goldsmith, David; Macdougall, Iain C

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in kidney transplant recipients. This pilot study examined the potential effect of aerobic training or resistance training on vascular health and indexes of cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients. Single-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel trial. 60 participants (mean age, 54 years; 34 men) were randomly assigned to aerobic training (n=20), resistance training (n=20), or usual care (n=20). Participants were included if they had a kidney transplant within 12 months prior to baseline assessment. Patients were excluded if they had unstable medical conditions or had recently started regular exercise. Aerobic training and resistance training were delivered 3 days per week for a 12-week period. The usual-care group received standard care. Pulse wave velocity, peak oxygen uptake (Vo2peak), sit-to-stand 60, isometric quadriceps force, and inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at 0 and 12 weeks. The anticipated 60 participants were recruited within 12 months. 46 participants completed the study (aerobic training, n=13; resistance training, n=13; and usual care, n=20), resulting in a 23% attrition rate. Analyses of covariance, adjusted for baseline values, age, and dialysis vintage pretransplantation, revealed significant mean differences between aerobic training and usual care in pulse wave velocity of -2.2±0.4 (95% CI, -3.1 to -1.3) m/s (P<0.001) and between resistance training and usual care of -2.6±0.4 (95% CI, -3.4 to -1.7) m/s (P<0.001) at 12 weeks. Secondary analyses indicated significant improvements in Vo2peak in the aerobic training group and in Vo2peak, sit-to-stand 60, and isometric muscle force in the resistance training group compared with usual care at 12 weeks. There were no reported adverse events, cardiovascular events, or hospitalizations as a result of the intervention. Pilot study, small sample size, no measure of endothelial function. Both aerobic training and resistance

  3. Nonlinear dynamics of shells conveying pulsatile flow with pulse-wave propagation. Theory and numerical results for a single harmonic pulsation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubaldi, Eleonora; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2017-05-01

    In deformable shells conveying pulsatile flow, oscillatory pressure changes cause local movements of the fluid and deformation of the shell wall, which propagate downstream in the form of a wave. In biomechanics, it is the propagation of the pulse that determines the pressure gradient during the flow at every location of the arterial tree. In this study, a woven Dacron aortic prosthesis is modelled as an orthotropic circular cylindrical shell described by means of the Novozhilov nonlinear shell theory. Flexible boundary conditions are considered to simulate connection with the remaining tissue. Nonlinear vibrations of the shell conveying pulsatile flow and subjected to pulsatile pressure are investigated taking into account the effects of the pulse-wave propagation. For the first time in literature, coupled fluid-structure Lagrange equations of motion for a non-material volume with wave propagation in case of pulsatile flow are developed. The fluid is modeled as a Newtonian inviscid pulsatile flow and it is formulated using a hybrid model based on the linear potential flow theory and considering the unsteady viscous effects obtained from the unsteady time-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Contributions of pressure and velocity propagation are also considered in the pressure drop along the shell and in the pulsatile frictional traction on the internal wall in the axial direction. A numerical bifurcation analysis employs a refined reduced order model to investigate the dynamic behavior of a pressurized Dacron aortic graft conveying blood flow. A pulsatile time-dependent blood flow model is considered by applying the first harmonic of the physiological waveforms of velocity and pressure during the heart beating period. Geometrically nonlinear vibration response to pulsatile flow and transmural pulsatile pressure, considering the propagation of pressure and velocity changes inside the shell, is here presented via frequency-response curves, time histories, bifurcation

  4. Effects of salt substitute on pulse wave analysis among individuals at high cardiovascular risk in rural China: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jihong; Jiang, Xiongjing; Li, Nicole; Yu, Xuequn; Perkovic, Vlado; Chen, Bailing; Zhao, Liancheng; Neal, Bruce; Wu, Yangfeng

    2009-04-01

    Reduced-sodium, increased-potassium salt substitutes lower blood pressure but may also have direct effects on vascular structure and arterial function. This study aimed to test the effects of long-term salt substitution on indices of these outcomes. The China Salt Substitute Study was a randomized, controlled trial designed to establish the effects of salt substitute (65% sodium chloride, 25% potassium chloride, 10% magnesium sulfate) compared with regular salt (100% sodium chloride) on blood pressure among 600 high-risk individuals living in six rural areas in northern China over a 12-month intervention period. Data on central aortic blood pressure, aortic pressure augmentation (AUG), augmentation index (AIx), the differences of the peak of first and baseline waves (P(1)-P(0)) and pulse wave reflection time (RT) were collected at randomization and at the completion of follow-up in 187 participants using the Sphygmocor pulse wave analysis system. Mean baseline blood pressure was 150.1/91.4 mm Hg, mean age was 58.4 years, 41% were male and three quarters had a history of vascular disease. After 12 months of intervention, there were significant net reductions in peripheral (7.4 mm Hg, P=0.009) and central (6.9 mm Hg, P=0.011) systolic blood pressure levels and central pulse pressure (4.5 mm Hg, P=0.012) and correspondingly there was a significant net reduction in P(1)-P(0) (3.0 mm Hg, P=0.007), borderline significant net reduction in AUG (1.5 mm Hg, P=0.074) and significant net increase in RT (2.59 ms, P=0.001). There were no detectable reductions in peripheral (2.8 mm Hg, P=0.14) or central (2.4 mm Hg, P=0.13) diastolic blood pressure levels or AIx (0.06%, P=0.96). In conclusion, over the 12-month study period the salt substitute significantly reduced not only peripheral and central systolic blood pressure but also reduced arterial stiffness.

  5. [Effects of low-frequency pulsed wave ultrasound on the shear properties of the interface of vancomycin-loaded acrylic bone cement-stem].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q H; Zhu, F B; Cai, X Z; Yan, S G; He, R X

    2017-02-21

    Objective: To investigate the effects of low-frequency pulsed wave ultrasound on the shear properties of interface of the vancomycin -loaded acrylic bone cement-stem. Methods: The interfaces of 1% vancomycin-loaded acrylic bone cement-stem specimences were successfully manufactured and randomly divided into three groups: the control group, 450 mW/cm(2) ultrasound group and 1 200 mW/cm(2) ultrasound group, each group consisted of eight samples.Two ultrasound groups were exposed to a local ultrasonic field for 7 d, then immersed in PBS for 23 d, and the control groups were immersed in PBS for 30 d. After curing in air for 24 h, the shear strength of the stem-cement interface was determined by push-out test.The specimens were then photographed using SEM and analysed using Image-Pro Plus 6.0 to determine the porosity at the stem-cement interface. Results: The mean shear strength of stem-cement interface additionally decreased by 9% (P>0.05) and 17% (P<0.05) in 450 mW/cm(2) ultrasound group and 1 200 mW/cm(2) group respectively comparing with the control group, but no significant difference was found between the two ultrasound groups.The porosity at the stem-cement interface additionally increased by 44% (P>0.05) and 110% (P<0.05) in 450 mW/cm(2) ultrasound group and 1 200 mW/cm(2) group respectively comparing with the control group, furthermore.The porosity in 1 200 mW/cm(2) ultrasound group increased by 46% (P<0.05) comparing with the 450 mW/cm(2) group. There are much more fluid penetration along the stem-cement interface in ultrasound group . Conclusion: Low-frequency pulsed wave ultrasound signifiantly enhanced porosity and fluid penetration interface, and reduced the interface shear strength and initial stability.

  6. Myocardial tissue Doppler velocity imaging in children: comparative study between two ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Laurens P; Slorach, Cameron; Manlhiot, Cedric; McCrindle, Brian W; Friedberg, Mark K; Mertens, Luc; Jaeggi, Edgar T

    2010-09-01

    The investigators compared pulsed-wave tissue Doppler (PWTD) and color tissue Doppler (CTD) ventricular tissue velocities obtained using Vivid 7 (GE) and iE33 (Philips) ultrasound systems within a 30-minute time frame and examined interobserver and intraobserver variability. Longitudinal PWTD and CTD images were prospectively acquired in 49 children from the base of the right and left ventricular free wall and septum and stored for offline analysis. Intraobserver and interobserver coefficients of variation for PWTD velocities ranged from 4% to 6% and 5% to 10% for GE and from 1% to 10% and 2% to 14% for Philips, respectively. Intraobserver and interobserver coefficients of variation for CTD velocities ranged from 4% to 15% and 6% to 24% for GE and from 6% to 19% and 7% to 25% for Philips, respectively. Mean biases between the two systems for PWTD velocities, expressed as percentage differences, were around 0%, with the narrowest limits of agreement for systolic velocities at the septal annulus and the widest limits of agreement for early diastolic velocities at the lateral tricuspid valve annulus, respectively. Peak CTD-derived velocities were significantly and consistently lower for Philips compared with GE. Agreement between GE-derived and Philips-derived PWTD velocities was reasonable, whereas CTD-derived velocities differed substantially. 2010 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ANL Doppler flowmeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus, H. B.; Raptis, A. C.; Lee, S.; Simpson, T.

    1985-10-01

    A flowmeter has been developed for measuring flow velocity in hot slurries. The flowmeter works on an ultrasonic Doppler principle in which ultrasound is injected into the flowing fluid through the solid pipe wall. Isolating waveguides separate the hot pipe from conventional ultrasonic transducers. Special clamp-on high-temperature transducers also can be adapted to work well in this application. Typical flows in pilot plants were found to be laminar, giving rise to broad-band Doppler spectra. A special circuit based on a servomechanism sensor was devised to determine the frequency average of such a broad spectrum. The device was tested at different pilot plants. Slurries with particulates greater than 70 microns (0.003 in.) yielded good signals, but slurries with extremely fine particulates were unpredictable. Small bubbles can replace the coarse particles to provide a good signal if there are not too many. Successful operation with very fine particulate slurries may have been enhanced by the presence of microbubbles.

  8. A Fisheye Lens as a Photonic Doppler Velocimetry Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Frogget, B. C.

    2012-08-16

    These presentation visuals report an instrument that, by use of a fish-eye lens, generates a beat signal using fiber mixing of unshifted light with Doppler-shifted light and measures the beat frequency. Ray trace diagrams are shown to illustrate advantages and disadvantages. The authors find their instrument has a long tracking distance, and large angle coverage. Index matching eases assembly, reduces return loss and flattens the field.

  9. Tissue Doppler of early mitral filling correlates with simulated volume loss in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher L; Tham, Edward T; Samuels, Kathleen J; McNamara, Robert L; Galante, Nicholas J; Stachenfeld, Nina; Shelley, Kirk; Dziura, James; Silverman, David G

    2010-11-01

    The accurate noninvasive assessment of preload in emergency department (ED) patients remains elusive. Point-of-care ultrasound (US) imaging, particularly evaluation of the inferior vena cava (IVC), has been shown to be qualitatively helpful. Doppler and tissue Doppler are now routinely available on ED US equipment, but few studies have looked at the correlation of dynamic changes in these parameters in a controlled model of hypovolemia. Our objective was to examine the correlation of Doppler parameters to simulated volume loss in healthy subjects using a lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) model and to compare these measurements to commonly used IVC measurements of preload. Twelve paid volunteers with no known cardiovascular disease between the ages of 23 and 31 years old (mean ± SD = 25.5 ± 2.5 years old) were recruited. Hypovolemia was simulated using graduated LBNP levels with measurements taken at 0, -30, and -60 mm Hg and lower pressures as tolerated. Vital signs were monitored in all patients. US measurements recorded at each negative pressure level included IVC maximum (IVC(max)) and minimum (IVC(min)) dimensions; early (E) and late (A) transmitral filling velocities using pulsed-wave spectral Doppler; and early (E') and late (A') tissue Doppler velocities at the septal ((sep)) and lateral ((lat)) mitral annulus, using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler. Lower-body negative pressure correlated significantly and positively within subjects for all US parameters except for the A filling wave. E'(lat) and E'(sep) showed the strongest correlation with R² values of 0.749 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.577 to 0.854) and 0.738 (95% CI = 0.579 to 0.875) respectively, followed by A'(sep) 0.674 (95% CI = 0.416 to 0.845), IVC(max) 0.638 (95% CI = 0.425 to 0.806), A'(lat) 0.547 (95% CI = 0.280 to 0.802), IVC(min) 0.512 (95% CI = 0.192 to 0.777), and E 0.478 (95% CI = 0.187 to 0.762). Ratios correlated only moderately with LBNP level, including E/ E'(lat) R² of 0.430 (95

  10. Doppler Beats or Interference Fringes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Paul S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the following: another version of Doppler beats; alternate proof of spin-1 sin-1/2 problems; some mechanisms related to Dirac's strings; Doppler redshift in oblique approach of source and observer; undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry; use of the time evolution operator; resolution of an entropy maximization controversy;…

  11. Doppler Beats or Interference Fringes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Paul S.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the following: another version of Doppler beats; alternate proof of spin-1 sin-1/2 problems; some mechanisms related to Dirac's strings; Doppler redshift in oblique approach of source and observer; undergraduate experiment on noise thermometry; use of the time evolution operator; resolution of an entropy maximization controversy;…

  12. Effects of heart rate on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients without significant organic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Su, Ho-Ming; Lee, Kun-Tai; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Lee, Ming-Yi; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of heart rate (HR) on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Thirty-two patients without significant organic heart disease underwent elective cardiac catheterization or electrophysiologic study, and were then enrolled in right atrial pacing (RAP; 11 men, 9 women; aged 48 -/+ 15 years) or right ventricular pacing (RVP; 6 men, 6 women, aged 45 -/+ 13 years) studies. Three different HR levels (90, 100, and 110 beats per minute) were paced in random order. By stepwise, multiple linear regression analysis, age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and pulse pressure (PP) correlated positively with baseline baPWV. In the RAP group, as HR increased, baPWV and left brachial diastolic blood pressure increased significantly (p < or = 0.015), while ABI, left ankle SBP, left brachial PP, and left ankle PP decreased significantly (p < or = 0.013). In the RVP group, as HR increased, baPWV also increased significantly (p = 0.001), while ABI, left ankle SBP, and PP decreased significantly (p < or = 0.034). Values of baPWV and ABI may be influenced by HR in young and middle-aged patients without significant organic heart disease. When these values are used to evaluate and follow up cardiovascular risk in patients, HR changes should be considered.

  13. Selective mucosal ablation using CO2 laser for the development of novel endoscopic submucosal dissection: comparison of continuous wave and nanosecond pulsed wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Watanabe, S.; Obata, D.; Hazama, H.; Morita, Y.; Matsuoka, Y.; Kutsumi, H.; Azuma, T.; Awazu, K.

    2010-02-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is accepted as a minimally invasive treatment technique for small early gastric cancers. Procedures are carried out using some specialized electrosurgical knifes with a submucosal injection solution. However it is not widely used because its procedure is difficult. The objective of this study is to develop a novel ESD method which is safe in principle and widely used by using laser techniques. In this study, we used CO2 lasers with a wavelength of 10.6 μm for mucosal ablation. Two types of pulse, continuous wave and pulsed wave with a pulse width of 110 ns, were studied to compare their values. Porcine stomach tissues were used as a sample. Aqueous solution of sodium hyaluronate (MucoUpR) with 50 mg/ml sodium dihydrogenphosphate is injected to a submucosal layer. As a result, ablation effect by CO2 laser irradiation was stopped because submucosal injection solution completely absorbed CO2 laser energy in the invasive energy condition which perforates a muscle layer without submucosal injection solution. Mucosal ablation by the combination of CO2 Laser and a submucosal injection solution is a feasible technique for treating early gastric cancers safely because it provides a selective mucosal resection and less-invasive interaction to muscle layer.

  14. Evaluation of aortic stiffness (aortic pulse-wave velocity) before and after elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair procedures: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Kosmas I; Bessias, Nikolaos; Psathas, Chrysovalantis; Akridas, Konstantinos; Dragios, Theodoros; Nikitas, Georgios; Andrikopoulos, Vassilios; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kyriakides, Zenon S

    2009-12-09

    The main clinical criterion for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair operations is an AAA diameter >/=5.5 cm. When AAAs increase in size, specific changes occur in the mechanical properties of the aortic wall. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV) has been used as an indicator of vascular stiffness. A low PWV may predict AAA rupture risk and is an early predictor of cardiovascular mortality. We investigated the prognostic value of PWV before and after elective AAA repair procedures. Twenty four patients scheduled for an open AAA repair underwent a preoperative carotid-femoral aortic PWV measurement. A second aortic PWV measurement was carried out 6 months postoperatively. The mean aortic PWV increased from 7.84 +/- 1.85 preoperatively to 10.08 +/- 1.57 m/sec 6 months postoperatively (mean change: 2.25; 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 3.1 m/sec; p<0.0001). The preprocedural PWV measurement did not correlate with AAA diameter (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rho=0.12; p=0.59). Whether the increase in aortic PWV postoperatively suggests a decreased cardiovascular risk following AAA repair remains to be established. Aortic PWV should also be investigated as an adjunct tool for assessing AAA rupture risk.

  15. Is There an Association Between Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity and Coronary Heart Disease in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Katsiki, Niki; Kollari, Erietta; Dardas, Sotirios; Dardas, Petros; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Athyros, Vasilios G; Karagiannis, Asterios

    2016-01-01

    Arterial stiffness has been shown to predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is regarded the gold standard marker of arterial stiffness. In previous studies, cfPWV was associated with the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, with regard to CHD severity as assessed by the Syntax Score, only brachial-ankle PWV was reported to correlate with Syntax Score; no data exist for cfPWV. In this pilot study, we evaluated the possible associations between cfPWV, CHD and Syntax Score in 62 consecutive pa-tients (49 males; mean age: 64±12years) with chest pain undergoing scheduled coronary angiography. cfPWV was signifi-cantly higher in CHD patients than in non-CHD individuals (10 vs. 8.4 m/s; p = 0.003). No significant association was found between cfPWV and CHD severity as assessed by Syntax Score. A cut-off point of 12.3 m/s was considered as diagnostic for abnormally increased cfPWV (specificity: 97%; sensitivity: 12%; positive likelihood ratio: 3.558). Further research is needed to establish the relationship between cfPWV and Syntax Score.

  16. A pilot study comparison of a new method for aortic pulse wave velocity measurements using transthoracic bioimpedance and thigh cuff oscillometry with the standard tonometric method.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Julia; Jordan, Jens; Tank, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) can be measured with different methodologies, including applanation tonometry. These pilot study findings suggest that impedance cardiography combined with thigh oscillometry provides comparable results. Intra- and inter-observer variability was tested by two observers in two subjects. We instrumented 41 patients and 12 healthy normotensive controls for impedance cardiography and consecutive applanation tonometry and compared methods using the Bland-Altman method. Observer variability for the impedance-thigh cuff method (range, 3.61%-7.77%) was comparable with the tonometric method (range, 2.93%-7.37%). Comparison of the two methods based on the Bland-Altman plot revealed a good agreement between methods. The bias between impedance and tonometric measurements was -0.28 ± 0.37 m/s. Both measurements were significantly correlated (r(2) = 0.94; P < .0001; slope = 1.038).Impedance cardiography combined with thigh oscillometry is an easy to use approach which, in addition to providing hemodynamic information, yields aPWV measurements comparable to applanation tonometry. Following full validation according to current guidelines, the methodology could prove useful in cardiovascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The impact of ankle brachial index and pulse wave velocity on cardiovascular risk according to SCORE and Framingham scales and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Woźnicka-Leśkiewicz, L; Posadzy-Małaczyńska, A; Juszkat, R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of ankle brachial index (ABI) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) in patients with or without coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension (HT) in cardiovascular risk prediction. We studied 200 patients randomized to one of four groups: CAD+HT+; CAD+HT-; CAD-HT+; CAD-HT- (Department of Hypertensiology, Angiology and Internal Diseases, Poznan, Poland: 2009-2012). We evaluated: patient age, lipids profile, ABI and PWV. The cardiovascular risks according to SCORE and Framingham scales were assessed. Statistical calculations were performed in StatSoft Statistica 10. The most interesting aspects of this study were: logistic regression model evaluated the simultaneously influence of ABI and PWV on cardiovascular risk by the SCORE scale and logistic regression model evaluated the influence of ABI and PWV on cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham scale. They showed the possibility (SCORE) of more accurate estimation of cardiovascular risk in an individual patient and graduation of this risk in the exemplary patients. Analysis of the assessment of both: ABI and PWV in predicting of cardiovascular risk according to SCORE and Framingham scales using a logistic regression model indicates that the Framingham scale is less precise than the SCORE scale because it underestimates the real high cardiovascular risk.

  18. Study on time-based variation of blood circulation index, pulse wave energy, and RAI of healthy adult men after different eating times.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gyeong-Cheol; Ji, Ki-Young; Kim, Yi-Soon; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different eating times on blood circulation index, pulse wave energy (E), and radial augmentation index (RAI) of healthy adult men. Blood circulation index, E, and RAI were measured using a three-dimensional (3-D) pulse imaging system (3-D MAC) at before, right after, 30 minutes after, 1 hour after, and 2 hours after eating. In the blood circulation index, heart rate (HR), estimated cardiac output (ECO), and estimated cardiac output index (ECI) increased significantly right after eating compared to before eating. By contrast, estimated circulation resistance (ECR) and estimated circulation resistance index (ECRI) decreased significantly right after eating compared to before eating. E had a tendency to increase right after eating compared to before eating and decrease gradually at every experimental point (left and right Chon, Kwan, and Cheok). RAI had a tendency to decrease right after eating compared to before eating and increase gradually at every experimental point. Different eating times can bring about changes on blood circulation index, E, and RAI. These changes show a certain tendency and coincide with the physiological factors that eating causes a rise of HR, an increase of systolic cardiac pump performance, and a reduction of peripheral vascular resistance.

  19. Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity is Associated with Composite Carotid and Coronary Atherosclerosis in a Middle-Aged Asymptomatic Population

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Cho, Sang-A; Cho, Jae-Young; Lee, Seunghun; Park, Jae Hyoung; Hwang, Sung Ho; Hong, Soon Jun; Yu, Cheol Woong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Although arterial stiffness has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis, the role of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) for diagnosing composite coronary and carotid atherosclerosis has not been completely elucidated. Method: We enrolled 773 asymptomatic individuals who were referred from 25 public health centers in Seoul and who underwent carotid ultrasonography and coronary computed tomography. Noninvasive hemodynamic parameters, including baPWV, were also measured. Composite coronary and carotid atherosclerosis was defined as follows: 1) coronary artery calcium (CAC) score ≥ 100, 2) coronary artery stenosis (CAS) ≥ 50% of diameter stenosis, 3) carotid intima medial thickness (CIMT) ≥ 0.9 mm, or 4) presence of carotid artery plaque (CAP). Results: The incidence of composite coronary and carotid atherosclerosis was 28.2%. Coronary atherosclerosis (CAC and CAS) was significantly associated with carotid atherosclerosis (CIMT and CAP). Subjects with higher baPWV (highest quartile) had a higher prevalence of composite coronary and carotid atherosclerosis (p < .001). Although multivariate analysis failed to show baPWV as an independent predictor for composite atherosclerosis, baPWV had moderate diagnostic power to detect a subject with more than two positive subclinical atherosclerosis exams [area under the curve (AUC), 0.692]. Conclusion: baPWV was associated with the composite coronary and carotid atherosclerotic burden in a community-based asymptomatic population. PMID:27251176

  20. Effects of Short-Term Exenatide Treatment on Regional Fat Distribution, Glycated Hemoglobin Levels, and Aortic Pulse Wave Velocity of Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ju Young; Park, Keun Young; Kim, Byung Joon; Hwang, Won Min; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Dong Mee

    2016-03-01

    Most type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are obese and have obesity related vascular complications. Exenatide treatment is well known for both decreasing glycated hemoglobin levels and reduction in body weight. So, this study aimed to determine the effects of exenatide on body composition, glycated hemoglobin levels, and vascular stiffness in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. For 1 month, 32 obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were administered 5 μg of exenatide twice daily. The dosage was then increased to 10 μg. Patients' height, body weight, glycated hemoglobin levels, lipid profile, pulse wave velocity (PWV), body mass index, fat mass, and muscle mass were measured by using Inbody at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. After 3 months of treatment, glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly (P=0.007). Triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein levels decreased, while aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were no change. Body weight, and fat mass decreased significantly (P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively), while interestingly, muscle mass did not decrease (P=0.289). In addition to, Waist-to-hip ratio and aortic PWV decreased significantly (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively). Effects of short term exenatide use in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus with cardiometabolic high risk patients not only reduced body weight without muscle mass loss, body fat mass, and glycated hemoglobin levels but also improved aortic PWV in accordance with waist to hip ratio.

  1. Laser speckle contrast imaging: age-related changes in microvascular blood flow and correlation with pulse-wave velocity in healthy subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Adil; Humeau-Heurtier, Anne; Mahé, Guillaume; Abraham, Pierre

    2015-05-01

    In the cardiovascular system, the macrocirculation and microcirculation-two subsystems-can be affected by aging. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is an emerging noninvasive optical technique that allows the monitoring of microvascular function and can help, using specific data processing, to understand the relationship between the subsystems. Using LSCI, the goals of this study are: (i) to assess the aging effect over microvascular parameters (perfusion and moving blood cells velocity, MBCV) and macrocirculation parameters (pulse-wave velocity, PWV) and (ii) to study the relationship between these parameters. In 16 healthy subjects (20 to 62 years old), perfusion and MBCV computed from LSCI are studied in three physiological states: rest, vascular occlusion, and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH). MBCV is computed from a model of velocity distribution. During PORH, the experimental results show a relationship between perfusion and age (R2=0.67) and between MBCV and age (R2=0.72), as well as between PWV and age at rest (R2=0.91). A relationship is also found between perfusion and MBCV for all physiological states (R2=0.98). Relationships between microcirculation and macrocirculation (perfusion-PWV or MBCV-PWV) are found only during PORH with R2=0.76 and R2=0.77, respectively. This approach may prove useful for investigating dysregulation in blood flow.

  2. Nd:YAG pulsed-wave laser as support therapy in the treatment of teno-desmopathies of athlete horses: a clinical and experimental trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortuna, Damiano; Rossi, Giacomo; Paolini, Cesare; Magi, Alberto; Losani, Fabrizio; Fallaci, Simone; Pacini, Franco; Porciani, Chiara; Sandler, Anna; Dalla Torre, Riccarda; Pinna, Stefania; Venturini, Antonio

    2002-10-01

    The ultrasonic evolution of tendinous repair envisages the recovery of ecogenicity: "reparative phase", followed by the realignment of the collagen fibres: "rehabilitative phase". The primary objective was to verify the safety and efficacy of Nd:YAG pulsed wave on teno- desmopathies of horses. Secondary to shorten "reparative phase" for to provide more time for "rehabilitative phase". The study has been divided into two investigations: experimental and clinical. In the experimental investigation, on 3 meat horses, the safety and tolerance of a power laser (35 W/cm2, 25 J/cm2) was investigated. The clinical investigation was performed on 79 sport horses through randomized double-blind. All subjects (Controls and Treated) received, on the subskin above the tendon lesion, the same local infiltration of immunostimulant. The results indicates that the High Intensity Laser Therapy (HILT) is safe and tolerated. It is able of reducing, in significative way, the "reparative phase", with a lower percentage of relapse (20% Treated and 40% Controls), but it is not able to reduce the time of the "rehabilitative phase".

  3. [Assessment of the microcirculation system by laser Doppler flowmetry].

    PubMed

    Barkhatov, I V

    2013-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is extensively used to study microcirculatory disorders, a main problem facing modern medicine. A wealth of data have been obtained on microcirculation in diabetes mellitus, HD, venous insufficiency and other diseases. This review focuses on basic principles of the method for the assessment of microcirculatory disorders by LDF using the domestically produced equipment. The main elements of the microcirculation system, capillary hemodynamics, and mechanisms of its regulation are described. The main elements and terms of LDF are considered, such as microcirculation index, flux, and variation coefficient along with elements of analysis of the amplitude-frequency fluctuation spectrum and different types of tissue blood flow. Active factors of microcirculation control modulate the blood flow from the vascular wall; their action is mediated through its muscular component. Passive factors cause variations of blood flow outside the microcirculation system; they are the pulsed wave originating from arteries and the sucking action of the venous respiratory pump. Under normal conditions, the vasomotor rhythm driven by the pacemaker in the precapillary segment of the microcirculation bed predominates. The compensatory role of other regulatory mechanisms increases with decreasing contribution of vasomotion to the active modulation of microcirculation hemodynamics. A change in the low to high frequency rhythm ratio reflects the microcirculation index (MI). In case of well-balanced active vasomotor and passive compensatory modulations of tissue blood flow observed in normoemic type of microcirculation, MI amounts to 2.2 ± 0.05. Enhancement of high-frequency and pulsed fluctuation spectra results in a decrease of MI to 1.73 ± 0.04 (hyperemic type) and 1.86 ± 0.053 (hypoemic type).

  4. Tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate measurements assessed by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in healthy newborns and infants.

    PubMed

    Elkiran, Ozlem; Karakurt, Cemsit; Kocak, Gulendam; Karadag, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate cardiac maturational and haemodynamic alteration in healthy newborns and infants and determine reference values in this period using tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate echocardiography. The study included 149 healthy subjects. Babies from 1 day to 3 months were selected from the well-baby nursery department, and infants were selected from paediatric clinics during routine visits for health maintenance. Subjects were allocated to four groups: preterm (36-37 weeks, n = 32), term (≥ 38 weeks, n = 32), 1 month of age (n = 47), and 3 months of age (n = 38). Standard echocardiographic evaluations, pulsed wave Doppler, tissue Doppler echocardiography, strain, and strain rate studies were applied by the same person using a MyLab50 echo machine. Longitudinal and circumferential systolic strain and strain rate measurements were assessed by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in all subjects. The longitudinal systolic velocity, strain, and strain rate values derived from left ventricle apical four-, three-, and two-chamber images, and circumferential systolic velocity, strain, and strain rate values derived from left ventricle short-axis images decreased from the base to the apex in all subjects (p < 0.001). Significant cardiac haemodynamic alterations occurred during the newborn and early infancy periods and were detected by tissue Doppler, strain, and strain rate echocardiography. Although two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography is useful and can produce improved, reliable results in clinical practice, it has some limitations. Therefore, more studies on this issue are required.

  5. Real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for characterizing the spatial velocity distribution and quantifying the peak flow rate in the left ventricular outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsujino, H.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Cardon, L. A.; Morehead, A. J.; Zetts, A. D.; Travaglini, A.; Bauer, F.; Panza, J. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Quantification of flow with pulsed-wave Doppler assumes a "flat" velocity profile in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which observation refutes. Recent development of real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler allows one to obtain an entire cross-sectional velocity distribution of the LVOT, which is not possible using conventional 2-D echo. In an animal experiment, the cross-sectional color Doppler images of the LVOT at peak systole were derived and digitally transferred to a computer to visualize and quantify spatial velocity distributions and peak flow rates. Markedly skewed profiles, with higher velocities toward the septum, were consistently observed. Reference peak flow rates by electromagnetic flow meter correlated well with 3-D peak flow rates (r = 0.94), but with an anticipated underestimation. Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography was capable of determining cross-sectional velocity distributions and peak flow rates, demonstrating the utility of this new method for better understanding and quantifying blood flow phenomena.

  6. Real-time three-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for characterizing the spatial velocity distribution and quantifying the peak flow rate in the left ventricular outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsujino, H.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Qin, J. X.; Greenberg, N. L.; Cardon, L. A.; Morehead, A. J.; Zetts, A. D.; Travaglini, A.; Bauer, F.; hide

    2001-01-01

    Quantification of flow with pulsed-wave Doppler assumes a "flat" velocity profile in the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), which observation refutes. Recent development of real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler allows one to obtain an entire cross-sectional velocity distribution of the LVOT, which is not possible using conventional 2-D echo. In an animal experiment, the cross-sectional color Doppler images of the LVOT at peak systole were derived and digitally transferred to a computer to visualize and quantify spatial velocity distributions and peak flow rates. Markedly skewed profiles, with higher velocities toward the septum, were consistently observed. Reference peak flow rates by electromagnetic flow meter correlated well with 3-D peak flow rates (r = 0.94), but with an anticipated underestimation. Real-time 3-D color Doppler echocardiography was capable of determining cross-sectional velocity distributions and peak flow rates, demonstrating the utility of this new method for better understanding and quantifying blood flow phenomena.

  7. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  8. GEOS-3 Doppler difference tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, B.

    1977-01-01

    The Doppler difference method as applied to track the GEOS 3 spacecraft is discussed. In this method a pair of 2 GHz ground tracking stations simultaneously track a spacecraft beacon to generate an observable signal in which bias and instability of the carrier frequency cancel. The baselines are formed by the tracking sites at Bermuda, Rosman, and Merritt Island. Measurements were made to evaluate the effectiveness of the Doppler differencing procedure in tracking a beacon target with the high dynamic rate of the GEOS 3 orbit. Results indicate the precision of the differenced data to be at a level comparable to the conventional precise two way Doppler tracking.

  9. Digital Doppler measurement with spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Labelle, Remi C.; Bevan, Roland P.; Del Castillo, Hector M.; Chong, Dwayne C.

    1991-01-01

    Digital and analog phase-locked loop (PLL) receivers were operated in parallel, each tracking the residual carrier from a spacecraft. The PLL tracked the downlink carrier and measured its instantaneous phase. This information, combined with a knowledge of the uplink carrier and the transponder ratio, permitted the computation of a Doppler observable. In this way, two separate Doppler measurements were obtained for one observation window. The two receivers agreed on the magnitude of the Doppler effect to within 1 mHz. There was less jitter on the data from the digital receiver. This was due to its smaller noise bandwidth. The demonstration and its results are described.

  10. Quantitation of stress echocardiography by tissue Doppler and strain rate imaging: a dream come true?

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Maurizio; Mele, Donato; Marino, Paolo Nicola

    2005-01-01

    Tissue Doppler (TD) is an ultrasound tool providing a quantitative agreement of left ventricular regional myocardial function in different modalities. Spectral pulsed wave (PW) TD, performed online during the examination, measures instantaneous myocardial velocities. By means of color TD, velocity images are digitally stored for subsequent off-line analysis and mean myocardial velocities are measured. An implementation of color TD includes strain rate imaging (SRI), based on post-processing conversion of regional velocities in local myocardial deformation rate (strain rate) and percent deformation (strain). These three modalities have been applied to stress echocardiography for quantitative evaluation of regional left ventricular function and detection of ischemia and viability. They present advantages and limitations. PWTD does not permit the simultaneous assessment of multiple walls and therefore is not compatible with clinical stress echocardiography while it could be used in a laboratory setting. Color TD provides a spatial map of velocity throughout the myocardium but its results are strongly affected by the frame rate. Both color TD and PWTD are also influenced by overall cardiac motion and tethering from adjacent segments and require reference velocity values for interpretation of regional left ventricular function. High frame rate (i.e. > 150 ms) post-processing-derived SRI can potentially overcome these limitations, since measurements of myocardial deformation have not any significant apex-to-base gradient. Preliminary studies have shown encouraging results about the ability of SRI to detect ischemia and viability, in terms of both strain rate changes and/or evidence of post-systolic thickening. SRI is, however, Doppler-dependent and time-consuming. Further technical refinements are needed to improve its application and introduce new ultrasound modalities to overcome the limitations of the Doppler-derived deformation analysis.

  11. Doppler ultrasonographic assessment of maternal and fetal arteries during normal feline gestation.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P G; Rodríguez, R; Olguín, S; Rube, A; Tórtora, M; Gobello, C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Doppler parameters of uterine, umbilical, fetal abdominal aorta, fetal renal and fetal internal carotid arteries, as well as fetal heart rate (FHR), during normal feline gestation. Fifteen, 1-4 years of age, weighing 2.5-3.9kg, domestic short-hair pregnant queens, which were born in our institutional cat colony were included in this study. Color and pulsed-wave Doppler evaluations of uterine arteries were performed every 10 days (Day 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60) from mating. Fetal Doppler and M-mode ultrasonography were performed to assess umbilical, fetal abdominal aorta, fetal renal, fetal internal carotid arteries and FHR. Both peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) of uterine artery increased up to parturition (P<0.01), while resistance index (RI) decreased from Day 10 onwards (P<0.01). From Day 40 onwards, RI of umbilical artery diminished, while PSV and EDV augmented (P<0.01). Fetal abdominal aorta (P<0.01), renal (P<0.01) and internal carotid (P<0.01) arteries diminished their RI from Days 40, 60 and 40 onwards, respectively. Both PSV and EDV of these three arteries increased progressively. Fetal heart rate was first registered on Day 20 when it began to increase up to Day 40 and then diminished to the end of gestation (P<0.01). It is concluded that blood flow of uterine, umbilical, fetal abdominal aorta, fetal renal and fetal internal carotid arteries progressively increased during normal feline pregnancy, while FHR rose to mid gestation and then decreased up to parturition.

  12. MULTI-CHANNEL PULSED DOPPLER SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR VASCULAR MEASUREMENTS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Madala, Sridhar; Jones, Alan D.; Caro, Walter A.; Eberth, John F.; Pham, Thuy T.; Taffet, George E.; Hartley, Craig J.

    2009-01-01

    The small size, high heart rate, and small tissue displacement of a mouse require small sensors that are capable of high spatial and temporal tissue displacement resolutions and multichannel data acquisition systems with high sampling rates for simultaneous measurement of high fidelity signals. We developed and evaluated an ultrasound-based mouse vascular research system (MVRS) that can be used to characterize vascular physiology in normal, transgenic, surgically altered, and disease models of mice. The system consists of multiple 10/20MHz ultrasound transducers, analog electronics for Doppler displacement and velocity measurement, signal acquisition and processing electronics, and personal computer based software for real-time and offline analysis. In-vitro testing of the system showed that it is capable of measuring tissue displacement as low as 0.1 µm and tissue velocity (µm/s) starting from 0. The system can measure blood velocities up to 9 m/s (with 10 MHz Doppler at a PRF of 125 kHz) and has a temporal resolution of 0.1 milliseconds. Ex-vivo tracking of an excised mouse carotid artery wall using our Doppler technique and a video pixel tracking technique showed high correlation (R2=0.99). The system can be used to measure diameter changes, augmentation index, impedance spectra, pulse wave velocity, characteristic impedance, forward and backward waves, reflection coefficients, coronary flow reserve, and cardiac motion in murine models. The system will facilitate the study of mouse vascular mechanics and arterial abnormalities resulting in significant impact on the evaluation and screening of vascular disease in mice. PMID:19854566

  13. Evaluation of meteorological airborne Doppler radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, P. H.; Mueller, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper will discuss the capabilities of airborne Doppler radar for atmospheric sciences research. The evaluation is based on airborne and ground based Doppler radar observations of convective storms. The capability of airborne Doppler radar to measure horizontal and vertical air motions is evaluated. Airborne Doppler radar is shown to be a viable tool for atmospheric sciences research.

  14. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity is associated with N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin Y; Tai, Bee C; Foo, David C; Wong, Raymond C; Adabag, A Selcuk; Benditt, David G; Ling, Lieng H

    2011-01-01

    To determine the extent to which conduit artery stiffness is associated with plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Cross-sectional study. National University Hospital, Singapore. Cases (n=117) were patients with AF onset <65 years of age without heart failure or structural heart disease. Controls (n=274) were patients without AF who were seen at the general cardiology clinic. Transthoracic echocardiography, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) measured using applanation tonometry and blood draw for plasma NT-proBNP at enrolment for all patients. Plasma NT-proBNP. In patients with AF, CFPWV was associated with NT-proBNP after adjusting for hypertension and factors that were univariately associated with NT-proBNP: age at enrolment, type of AF, body mass index, left ventricular mass index, left atrial volume index, mitral E/E', mitral deceleration time and use of β-blockers (β=0.234; 95% CI 0.100 to 0.367; p=0.001). In contrast, CFPWV was not associated with NT-proBNP in controls. In patients with AF, the adjusted mean NT-proBNP level in the highest quartile of CFPWV (350 pg/ml; 95% CI 237 to 517 pg/ml) was fivefold higher than the lowest quartile (69 pg/ml; 95% CI 47 to 103 pg/ml) (p=0.001). CFPWV is associated with NT-proBNP level in AF. Since elevated NT-proBNP is a marker of adverse cardiovascular outcomes, arterial stiffness may be associated with worse prognosis in patients with AF.

  15. Predictive value of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity for long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in a Korean cohort.

    PubMed

    Ki, Young-Jae; Choi, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min; Lim, Leejin; Song, Heesang; Koh, Young-Youp

    2014-08-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the associations of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) with the development of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The baPWV, hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP were analyzed in 372 patients who underwent PCI. The primary endpoint was cardiac death. There were 21 events of cardiac death during a mean of 25.8 months of follow-up. When the baPWV cut-off level was set to 1672 cm/s using the receiver operating characteristic curve, the sensitivity was 85.7% and the specificity was 60.1% for differentiating between the group with cardiac death and the group without cardiac death. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the higher baPWV group (≥1672 cm/s) had a significantly higher cardiac death rate than the lower baPWV group (<1672 cm/s) (11.4% vs. 1.4%, log-rank: P<0.0001). This value was more useful in patients with myocardial injury (hs-cTnT≥0.1 ng/mL) or heart failure (NT-proBNP≥450 pg/mL). The results of this study show that high baPWV is a predictive marker for cardiac death after PCI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulse Wave Analysis and Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy in Type 1 Diabetes: A Report from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study

    PubMed Central

    Secrest, Aaron M.; Marshall, Sara L.; Miller, Rachel G.; Prince, Catherine T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The cross-sectional associations of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) with pulse wave analysis (PWA) measures (both arterial stiffness and myocardial perfusion) have not been explored in type 1 diabetes, despite recognition of an association of CAN with coronary artery disease. Methods Both CAN and PWA measures were obtained from 144 participants of the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes at the 18-year follow-up examination. CAN was measured as variability in the R-R interval during deep breathing, and PWA was performed using SphgymoCor Px (AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia). Other clinical and demographic factors were also assessed. Univariate and multivariable analyses for associations with CAN were performed for arterial stiffness measures (augmentation index [AIx] and augmentation pressure [AP]) and a myocardial perfusion measure (subendocardial viability ratio [SEVR]). Results Presence of CAN was univariately associated with all three PWA measures: AIx (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, P=0.03), AP (OR=2.1, P=0.001), and SEVR (OR=0.4, P<0.001). These relationships persisted after adjustment for potential PWA confounders. Adjusting for age and diabetes-related factors (glycosylated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and overt nephropathy), CAN only remained significantly associated with SEVR (OR=0.3, P=0.005). Conclusions CAN is cross-sectionally associated with measures of both increased arterial stiffness and decreased myocardial perfusion in type 1 diabetes; however, only the association with decreased estimated myocardial perfusion persisted in fully adjusted models. These results provide potential insight into the CAN association with coronary artery disease. PMID:21819228

  17. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation in Nω-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester-induced hypertension: the effect on pulse wave velocity and aortic remodeling.

    PubMed

    Paulis, Ludovit; Becker, Sophie T R; Lucht, Kristin; Schwengel, Katja; Slavic, Svetlana; Kaschina, Elena; Thöne-Reineke, Christa; Dahlöf, Björn; Baulmann, Johannes; Unger, Thomas; Steckelings, U Muscha

    2012-02-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct marker of arterial stiffness, is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Although the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade belongs to major antihypertensive and cardioprotective therapies, less is known about the effects of long-term stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor. Previously, compound 21, a selective nonpeptide angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist improved the outcome of myocardial infarction in rats along with anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated whether compound 21 alone or in combination with angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade by olmesartan medoxomil could prevent PWV increase and aortic remodeling in N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. Male adult Wistar rats (n=65) were randomly assigned to control, L-NAME, L-NAME+compound-21, L-NAME+olmesartan, and L-NAME+olmesartan+compound-21 groups and treated for 6 weeks. We observed that L-NAME hypertension was accompanied by enhanced PWV, increased wall thickness, and stiffness of the aorta, along with elevated hydroxyproline concentration. Olmesartan completely prevented hypertension, PWV and wall thickness increase, and the increase of aortic stiffness and partly prevented hydroxyproline accumulation. Compound 21 partly prevented all of these alterations, yet without concomitant prevention of blood pressure rise. Although the combination therapy with olmesartan and compound 21 led to blood pressure levels, PWV, and wall thickness comparable to olmesartan-alone-treated rats, only in the combination group was complete prevention of increased hydroxyproline deposition achieved, resulting in even more pronounced stiffness reduction. We conclude that chronic angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation prevented aortic stiffening and collagen accumulation without preventing hypertension in rats with inhibited NO synthase. These effects were additive to angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade, yet without additional

  18. Effects of pressure-dependent segmental arterial compliance and postural changes on pulse wave transmission in an arterial model of the human upper limb.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto P

    2011-01-01

    With increasing interest in the effect of postural changes on arterial blood pressure and vascular properties, it is important to understand effects of pressure-dependent arterial compliance. This study investigates effects of pressure-dependent compliance on pulse wave velocity (PWVar), pressure wave shape, and transmission characteristics in an arterial model of the human arm from heart to radial artery from supine to standing. Estimated central pressure waveform was used as the input for the model, calculated using a validated transfer function (SphygmoCor, AtCor Medical) from recorded radial pulses in 10 healthy male subjects (53.8 ± 7.9 years) during 0, 30, 60 and 90 degree head-up tilt. A 5-segment linear model was optimized using estimated central and recorded radial arterial pulse; each segment represented by an equivalent inductance, resistance and capacitance (compliance (C)) Pressure-dependent compliance (C(P)=a · e(b · P) was added to develop a nonlinear model, and the radial pulse calculated. Comparison of the radial pulse calculated by the linear and nonlinear models showed no statistical difference in systolic, diastolic, mean, and pulse pressure in any position of tilt. However, waveform shape was increasingly divergent at higher angles of tilt (RMS error 2.3 ± 1.2 mmHg supine, 6.5 ± 3.0 mmHg standing) as was PWVar (0% increase from supine to standing in the linear model, 16.7% increase in nonlinear model). Fourier analysis demonstrated peak amplitude of transmission being at higher frequencies and phase delay being lower in the nonlinear model relative to the linear model. Pressure-dependent arterial compliance, whilst having no effect on peak values of pressure, has significant effects on waveform shape and transmission speed, especially with a more upright position.

  19. Pressure dependency of aortic pulse wave velocity in vivo is not affected by vasoactive substances that alter aortic wall tension ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Butlin, Mark; Lindesay, George; Viegas, Kayla D; Avolio, Alberto P

    2015-05-15

    Aortic stiffness, a predictive parameter in cardiovascular medicine, is blood pressure dependent and experimentally requires isobaric measurement for meaningful comparison. Vasoactive drug administration to change peripheral resistance and blood pressure allows such isobaric comparison but may alter large conduit artery wall tension, directly changing aortic stiffness. This study quantifies effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, vasodilator) and phenylephrine (PE, vasoconstrictor) on aortic stiffness measured by aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) assessed by invasive pressure catheterization in anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 7). This was compared with nondrug-dependent alteration of blood pressure through reduced venous return induced by partial vena cava occlusion. In vivo drug concentration was estimated by modeling clearance rates. Ex vivo responses of excised thoracic and abdominal aortic rings to drugs was measured using myography. SNP administration did not alter aPWV compared with venous occlusion (P = 0.21-0.87). There was a 5% difference in aPWV with PE administration compared with venous occlusion (P < 0.05). The estimated in vivo maximum concentration of PE (7.0 ± 1.8 ×10(-7) M) and SNP (4.2 ± 0.6 ×10(-7) M) caused ex vivo equivalent contraction of 52 mmHg (thoracic) and 112 mmHg (abdominal) and relaxation of 96% (both abdominal and thoracic), respectively, despite having a negligible effect on aPWV in vivo. This study demonstrates that vasoactive drugs administered to alter systemic blood pressure have a negligible effect on aPWV and provide a useful tool to study pressure-normalized and pressure-dependent aPWV in large conduit arteries in vivo. However, similar drug concentrations affect aortic ring wall tension ex vivo. Future studies investigating in vivo and ex vivo kinetics will need to elucidate mechanisms for this marked difference.

  20. The relationship of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity to future cardiovascular disease events in the general Japanese population: the Takashima Study.

    PubMed

    Takashima, N; Turin, T C; Matsui, K; Rumana, N; Nakamura, Y; Kadota, A; Saito, Y; Sugihara, H; Morita, Y; Ichikawa, M; Hirose, K; Kawakani, K; Hamajima, N; Miura, K; Ueshima, H; Kita, Y

    2014-05-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) is a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness obtained using an automated system. Although baPWVs have been widely used as a non-invasive marker for evaluation of arterial stiffness, evidence for the prognostic value of baPWV in the general population is scarce. In this study, we assessed the association between baPWV and future cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence in a Japanese population. From 2002 to 2009, baPWV was measured in a total of 4164 men and women without a history of CVD, and they were followed up until the end of 2009 with a median follow-up period of 6.5 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD incidence according to baPWV levels were calculated using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for potential confounding factors, including seated or supine blood pressure (BP). During the follow-up period, we observed 40 incident cases of CVD. In multivariable-adjusted model, baPWV as a continuous variable was not significantly associated with future CVD risk after adjustment for supine BP. However, compared with lower baPWV category (<18 m s(-1)), higher baPWV (< or = 18.0 m s(-1)) was significantly associated with an increased CVD risk (HR: 2.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.18-6.19). Higher baPWV (< or = 18.0 m s(-1)) would be an independent predictor of future CVD event in the general Japanese population.

  1. Numerical validation of a new method to assess aortic pulse wave velocity from a single recording of a brachial artery waveform with an occluding cuff.

    PubMed

    Trachet, B; Reymond, P; Kips, J; Swillens, A; De Buyzere, M; Suys, B; Stergiopulos, N; Segers, P

    2010-03-01

    Recently a new method has been proposed as a tool to measure arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of the stiffness of the large arteries and an emerging parameter used as indicator of clinical cardiovascular risk. The method is based on measurement of brachial blood pressure during supra-systolic pressure inflation of a simple brachial cuff [the device is known as the Arteriograph (Tensiomed, Budapest, Hungary)]. This occlusion yields pronounced first and secondary peaks in the pressure waveform, the latter ascribed to a reflection from the aortic bifurcation, and PWV is calculated as the ratio of twice the jugulum-symphysis distance and the time difference between the two peaks. To test the validity of this working principle, we used a numerical model of the arterial tree to simulate pressures and flows in the normal configuration, and in a configuration with an occluded brachial artery. A pronounced secondary peak was indeed found in the brachial pressure signal of the occluded model, but its timing was only related to brachial stiffness and not to aortic stiffness. We also compared PWV's calculated with three different methods: PWVATG (approximately Arteriograph principle), PWVcar-fem (approximately carotid-femoral PWV, the current clinical gold standard method), and PWVtheor (approximately Bramwell-Hill equation). Both PWVATG (R2=0.94) and PWVcar-fem (R2=0.95) correlated well with PWVtheor, but their numerical values were lower (by 2.17+/-0.42 and 1.08+/-0.70 m/s for PWVATG and PWVcar-fem, respectively). In conclusion, our simulations question the working principle of the Arteriograph. Our data indicate that the method picks up wave reflection phenomena confined to the brachial artery, and derived values of PWV rather reflect the stiffness of the brachial arteries.

  2. [Pulse wave velocity of the leg minus that of the arm measured with a custom device correlates to the coronary calcium quantification].

    PubMed

    Rico Martín, S; de Nicolás Jiménez, J M; Moyano Calvente, S L; Mogollón Jiménez, M V; Vega Fernández, J; Calderón García, J F; Bacaicoa Lopez de Sabando, M A; Tardio, M; Sánchez Muñoz-Torrero, J F

    2016-05-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the great arteries is an indicator of vascular risk. Our objective was to identify the PWV index between the arms and legs that best correlates with the coronary calcium quantification (CCQ) and to compare it with other methods. Eight-one patients without vascular disease underwent the following measurements: CCQ; carotid intima-media thickness (IMT); carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV), using COMPLIOR; and PWV in the arms and legs, with our own device (abiPWV, ankle brachial index PWV). The difference in PWVs between the leg and arm (l-a PWV) measured with abiPWV was the index that best correlated with CCQ (r=0.401, P<.001). The correlation between IMT and CCQ and between CF-PWV and CCQ were r=0.366, P=.001; and r=0.385, P=.001, respectively. For a CCQ score higher than 100 as a marker of significant coronary arteriosclerosis, the areas under the curve for l-a PWV, IMT and cfPWV were 0.721 (P=.002), 0.758 (P<.001) and 0.636 (P=.058), respectively. For patients without vascular disease, the l-a PWV measured with abiPWV appears to be the index that best correlates with the CCQ. This association is comparable to that between IMT and CCQ and between cfPWV and CCQ. The abiPWV is an easy-to-use device that can help improve vascular risk stratification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  3. The association of 25(OH)D with blood pressure, pulse pressure and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity in African women.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Iolanthé M; Kruger, Marlena C; Doak, Colleen M; Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Van Rooyen, Johannes M; Schutte, Rudolph; Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Fourie, Carla M T; Kruger, Annamarie

    2013-01-01

    High susceptibility of the African population to develop cardiovascular disease obliges us to investigate possible contributing risk factors. Our aim was to determine whether low 25(OH)D status is associated with increased blood pressure and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity in black South African women. We studied 291 urban women (mean age: 57.56±9.00 yrs.). 25(OH)D status was determined by serum 25(OH)D levels. Women were stratified into sufficient (>30 ng/ml), and insufficient/deficient (<30 ng/ml) groups. Cardiovascular variables were compared between groups. Women with low 25(OH)D levels had significantly higher SBP (150.8±27.1 vs. 137.6±21.0), DBP (94.7±14.5 vs. 89.3±12.3) and PP (53.15(50.7;55.7) vs. 46.3(29.4;84.6)) compared to women with sufficient levels. No significant difference was observed with regards to c-rPWV. ANCOVA analyses still revealed significant differences between the two groups with regards to SBP, DBP as well as PP. Partial correlations revealed significant inverse association between SBP and 25(OH)D (p = .04;r = -.12). Women with low 25(OH)D levels were ∼2 times more likely to have high SBP (95% CI: 3.23;1.05). To conclude, women with deficient/insufficient 25(OH)D had significantly higher SBP compared to women with a sufficient 25(OH) status.

  4. An evaluation of the effect of pulsed wave low-level laser therapy on the biomechanical properties of the vertebral body in two experimental osteoporosis rat models.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Mohammad; Fridoni, Mohammadjavad; Nejati, Hossein; Mostafavinia, Atarodalsadat; Salimi, Maryam; Ghatrehsamani, Mahdi; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Najar, Azam; Bayat, Saba; Rezaei, Fatemesadat

    2016-02-01

    Osteoporosis (OP) increases vertebral fragility as a result of the biomechanical effects of diminished bone structure and composition. This study has aimed to assess the effects of pulsed wave low-level laser therapy (PW LLLT) on cancellous bone strength of an ovariectomized (OVX-d) experimental rat model and a glucocorticoid-induced OP (GIOP) experimental rat model. There were four OVX-d groups and four dexamethasone-treated groups. A group of healthy rats was used for baseline evaluations. The OVX-d rats were further subdivided into the following groups: control rats with OP, OVX-d rats that received alendronate, OVX-d rats treated with PW LLLT, and OVX-d rats treated with alendronate and PW LLLT. The remaining rats received dexamethasone and were divided into four groups: control, alendronate-treated rats, laser-treated rats, and laser-treated rats with concomitant administration of alendronate. PW LLLT (890 nm, 80 Hz, 0.972 J/cm(2)) was performed on the spinal processes of the T12, L1, L2, and L3 vertebras. We extracted the L1 vertebrae and submitted them to a mechanical compression test. Biomechanical test findings showed positive effects of the PW LLLT and alendronate administration on increasing bending stiffness and maximum force of the osteoporotic bones compared to the healthy group. However, laser treatment of OVA-d rats significantly increased stress high load compared to OVA-d control rats. PW LLLT preserved the cancellous (trabecular) bone of vertebra against the detrimental effects of OV-induced OP on bone strength in rats compared to control OV rats.

  5. Lower muscle tissue is associated with higher pulse wave velocity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational study data.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alexander J; Karim, Md N; Srikanth, Velandai; Ebeling, Peter R; Scott, David

    2017-10-01

    Muscle loss and arterial stiffness share common risk factors and are commonly seen in the elderly. We aimed to synthesise the existing literature on studies that have examined this association. We searched electronic databases for studies reporting correlations or associations between a measure of muscle tissue and a measure of arterial stiffness. Meta-analysis was conducted using Fisher's Z-transformed r-correlation (rZ ) values. Pooled weighted rZ and 95% confidence intervals were calculated in an inverse-variance, random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed by the inconsistency index (I(2) ). Study quality was assessed on a checklist using items from validated quality appraisal guidelines. 1195 records identified, 21 satisfied our inclusion criteria totalling 8558 participants with mean age 52±4 years (range 23-74). Most studies reported an inverse relationship between muscle tissue and arterial stiffness. Eight studies had data eligible for meta-analysis. Muscle tissue was inversely associated with pulse wave velocity in healthy individuals [rZ =-.15 (95% CI -0.24, -0.07); P=.0006; I(2) =85%; n=3577] and in any population [rZ =-.18 (-0.26, -0.10); P<.0001; I(2) =81%; n=3930]. In a leave-one-out sensitivity analysis, the results remained unchanged. Lower muscle tissue was associated with arterial stiffness. Studies were limited by cross-sectional design. Cardiovascular risk monitoring may be strengthened by screening for low muscle mass and maintaining muscle mass may be a primary prevention strategy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Independent and Joint Effect of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity and Blood Pressure Control on Incident Stroke in Hypertensive Adults.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun; Xu, Benjamin; Xu, Richard; Tung, Renee; Frank, Eric; Tromble, Wayne; Fu, Tong; Zhang, Weiyi; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Chunyan; Fan, Fangfang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jianping; Bao, Huihui; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Qin, Xianhui; Tang, Genfu; Chen, Yundai; Yang, Tianlun; Sun, Ningling; Li, Xiaoying; Zhao, Lianyou; Hou, Fan Fan; Ge, Junbo; Dong, Qiang; Wang, Binyan; Xu, Xiping; Huo, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) has been shown to influence the effects of antihypertensive drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Data are limited on whether PWV is an independent predictor of stroke above and beyond hypertension control. This longitudinal analysis examined the independent and joint effect of brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) with hypertension control on the risk of first stroke. This report included 3310 hypertensive adults, a subset of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT) with baseline measurements for baPWV. During a median follow-up of 4.5 years, 111 participants developed first stroke. The risk of stroke was higher among participants with baPWV in the highest quartile than among those in the lower quartiles (6.3% versus 2.4%; hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.60). Similarly, the participants with inadequate hypertension control had a higher risk of stroke than those with adequate control (5.1% versus 1.8%; hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-3.61). When baPWV and hypertension control were examined jointly, participants in the highest baPWV quartile and with inadequate hypertension control had the highest risk of stroke compared with their counterparts (7.5% versus 1.3%; hazard ratio, 3.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.88-6.77). There was a significant and independent effect of high baPWV on stroke as shown among participants with adequate hypertension control (4.2% versus 1.3%; hazard ratio, 2.29, 95% confidence interval, 1.09-4.81). In summary, among hypertensive patients, baPWV and hypertension control were found to independently and jointly affect the risk of first stroke. Participants with high baPWV and inadequate hypertension control had the highest risk of stroke compared with other groups.

  7. Pulse wave propagation in a model human arterial network: Assessment of 1-D visco-elastic simulations against in vitro measurements

    PubMed Central

    Alastruey, Jordi; Khir, Ashraf W.; Matthys, Koen S.; Segers, Patrick; Sherwin, Spencer J.; Verdonck, Pascal R.; Parker, Kim H.; Peiró, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    The accuracy of the nonlinear one-dimensional (1-D) equations of pressure and flow wave propagation in Voigt-type visco-elastic arteries was tested against measurements in a well-defined experimental 1:1 replica of the 37 largest conduit arteries in the human systemic circulation. The parameters required by the numerical algorithm were directly measured in the in vitro setup and no data fitting was involved. The inclusion of wall visco-elasticity in the numerical model reduced the underdamped high-frequency oscillations obtained using a purely elastic tube law, especially in peripheral vessels, which was previously reported in this paper [Matthys et al., 2007. Pulse wave propagation in a model human arterial network: Assessment of 1-D numerical simulations against in vitro measurements. J. Biomech. 40, 3476–3486]. In comparison to the purely elastic model, visco-elasticity significantly reduced the average relative root-mean-square errors between numerical and experimental waveforms over the 70 locations measured in the in vitro model: from 3.0% to 2.5% (p<0.012) for pressure and from 15.7% to 10.8% (p<0.002) for the flow rate. In the frequency domain, average relative errors between numerical and experimental amplitudes from the 5th to the 20th harmonic decreased from 0.7% to 0.5% (p<0.107) for pressure and from 7.0% to 3.3% (p<10−6) for the flow rate. These results provide additional support for the use of 1-D reduced modelling to accurately simulate clinically relevant problems at a reasonable computational cost. PMID:21724188

  8. [Validation during exercise of a new device for cardiac output measurement using pulse wave transit time (comparison EsCCO(®) vs. Physioflow(®))].

    PubMed

    Stalter, A; Lanot, N; Bridon, G; Julian, V; Péreira, B; Richard, R

    2016-02-01

    EsCCO is a novel non-invasive continuous cardiac output monitoring system based on pulse wave transit time already validated at rest. The aim of our study was to compare cardiac output measurements obtained simultaneously by EsCCO(®) (Q˙cOP) and impedance cardiography (Physioflow(®) ; Q˙cIMP), in healthy subjects. Eight healthy subjects (age: 31±9 years, weight: 76±10kg, height: 179±5cm) realized two exercise tests: an incremental ergocycle test performed until exertion (Pmax=269±48W) and a constant load exercise (P=163±27W). Comparison between measurements (Q˙cOP versus Q˙cIMP) obtained during the first test allowed to evaluate the accuracy of the device. Reliability was determined on three repeated measures during the second test, realized at ventilatory threshold. Correlation coefficient between both methods is 0.88 (P<0.01). Mean difference is 0.04±1.49L/min (95 % limits of agreement: +2.94 to -3.00L/min) and only 3/74 measures are not included between the limits of agreement. At high intensity and for cardiac output over than 15 L/min, Q˙cOP signal is lost in almost half the time. Concerning reliability, reproducibility coefficient is 0.87 (P<0.05), only 1.8 % of this variability is due to the method. EsCCO(®) measurements are accurate, reliable and allow a good estimation of cardiac output on healthy subjects. The signal lost observed for high cardiac output levels (>15L/min) can limit its utilization during very high intensity exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes: the Kyushu Prevention Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasutaka; Inoguchi, Toyoshi; Etoh, Erina; Kodama, Yoshimi; Sasaki, Shuji; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Nawata, Hajime; Shimabukuro, Michio; Takayanagi, Ryoichi

    2014-08-01

    Whether brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a noninvasive marker for arterial stiffness, is a useful predictive maker for cardiovascular events in subjects with diabetes is not established. In the present cohort study, we evaluated the benefit of baPWV for the prediction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in subjects with diabetes. A total of 4,272 outpatients with diabetes were enrolled in the Kyushu Prevention Study of Atherosclerosis. Of these, 3,628 subjects, excluding those with an ankle-brachial index of <0.9, were prospectively followed for 3.2 ± 2.2 years. The baPWV at baseline was classified by recursive partitioning (RP) for each end point. We plotted the Kaplan-Meier curves for high- and low-baPWV groups, which were designated based on the cutoff points, and calculated Cox proportional hazards models. The elevation of baPWV quartiles was significantly correlated to the incidence of coronary artery events, cerebrovascular events, and all-cause mortality. RP revealed baPWVs of 14 and 24 m/s as statistically adequate cutoff points for cardiovascular events and mortality, respectively. High-baPWV classes showed significantly low event-free ratios in Kaplan-Meier curves for all end points and remained independent risks for all-cause mortality and cerebrovascular events, but not for coronary artery events after adjustments for age, sex, BMI, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, and hemoglobin A1c by Cox proportional hazards models. This large-scale cohort study provided evidence that high baPWV is a useful independent predictor of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in subjects with diabetes. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. Additional Value of Brachial-Ankle Pulse Wave Velocity to Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyeongmin; Kim, Hack-Lyoung; Park, Miri; Oh, Sohee; Oh, So Won; Lim, Woo-Hyun; Seo, Jae-Bin; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Zo, Joo-Hee; Kim, Myung-A

    2017-08-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether information on arterial stiffness can improve the value of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 233 patients (age: 62.2±10.8 years, 60.3% males) with detected ischemia on SPECT undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measurement within a month was retrospectively reviewed. Of the 233 patients, 190 (81.5%) had obstructive CAD (≥50% luminal stenosis). The difference in baPWV according to the presence of obstructive CAD was significant in patients in the mild ischemia group [summed stress score (SSS): 4-8] (1,770±364 cm versus 1,490±328 cm, p<0.001) but not in the moderate (SSS: 9-13) or severe (SSS: ≥14) ischemia groups (p>0.05 for each). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that the diagnostic value of baPWV for obstructive CAD was significant only in patients in the mild ischemia group (area under curve: 0.714; p=0.001) but not in the moderate or severe ischemia groups (p>0.05 for each). Adding information on baPWV to SPECT results and clinical parameters significantly increased diagnostic accuracy in the detection of obstructive CAD in patients with mild ischemia (integrated discrimination improvement p=0.006) but not in those with moderate or severe ischemia on SPECT (p>0.05 for each). The results of this study suggest that baPWV may have additional value to SPECT for the detection of obstructive CAD, especially in patients with mild ischemia on SPECT.

  11. Effect of stone Spa bathing and hot-spring bathing on pulse wave velocity in healthy, late middle-aged females.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Izumi, Yurina; Inoue, Miyabi; Okada, Kanako; Sakaguchi, Kaho; Miyai, Natsuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of stone spa bathing (Ganban-yoku) and hot-spring bathing on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy, late middle-aged females. The subjects were 13 females (mean age, 47.3 years). The skin and tympanic temperatures, blood pressure, and baPWV were measured before and after stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing. For the stone spa bathing, the subjects lay down three times for approximately 10 min each time over warm stone beds. Although body weight showed no change after the hot-spring bathing, it significantly increased after the stone spa bathing. The increase was significantly related to the amount of water intake. The skin and tympanic temperatures increased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing than after the hot-spring bathing. The diastolic blood pressure decreased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing. BaPWV showed no significant change after bathing both in the stone spa and in the hot-spring. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the factors significantly related to the change in baPWV after the stone spa bathing were the changes in skin and tympanic temperatures and habit of smoking, and that after the hot-spring bathing was the change in skin temperature. The results suggest that, compared with the hot-spring bathing, stone spa bathing causes less strain on the body. The stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing showed no marked effect on baPWV. However, there is a possibility that the stone spa bathing may be used as a load for investigating arterial stiffness.

  12. As compared to allopurinol, urate-lowering therapy with febuxostat has superior effects on oxidative stress and pulse wave velocity in patients with severe chronic tophaceous gout.

    PubMed

    Tausche, A-K; Christoph, M; Forkmann, M; Richter, U; Kopprasch, S; Bielitz, C; Aringer, M; Wunderlich, C

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated whether an effective 12-month uric acid-lowering therapy (ULT) with the available xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat in patients with chronic tophaceous gout has an impact on oxidative stress and/or vascular function. Patients with chronic tophaceous gout who did not receive active ULT were included. After clinical evaluation, serum uric acid levels (SUA) and markers of oxidative stress were measured, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) was assessed. Patients were then treated with allopurinol (n = 9) or with febuxostat (n = 8) to target a SUA level ≤ 360 μmol/L. After 1 year treatment, the SUA levels, markers of oxidative stress and the cfPWV were measured again. Baseline characteristics of both groups showed no significant differences except a higher prevalence of moderate impairment of renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min) in the febuxostat group. Uric acid lowering with either inhibitors of XO resulted in almost equally effective reduction in SUA levels. The both treatment groups did not differ in their baseline cfPWV (allopurinol group: 14.1 ± 3.4 m/s, febuxostat group: 13.7 ± 2.7 m/s, p = 0.80). However, after 1 year of therapy, we observed a significant cfPWV increase in the allopurinol group (16.8 ± 4.3 m/s, p = 0.001 as compared to baseline), but not in the febuxostat patients (13.3 ± 2.3 m/s, p = 0.55). Both febuxostat and allopurinol effectively lower SUA levels in patients with severe gout. However, we observed that febuxostat also appeared to be beneficial in preventing further arterial stiffening. Since cardiovascular events are an important issue in treating patients with gout, this unexpected finding may have important implications and should be further investigated in randomized controlled trials.

  13. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. Method: The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Results: Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Conclusion: Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke. PMID:27741123

  14. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation: Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-10-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke.

  15. Accuracy and repeatability of fourier velocity encoded M-mode and two-dimensional cine phase contrast for pulse wave velocity measurement in the descending aorta.

    PubMed

    Taviani, Valentina; Patterson, Andrew J; Graves, Martin J; Hardy, Christopher J; Worters, Pauline; Sutcliffe, Michael P F; Gillard, Jonathan H

    2010-05-01

    To assess the accuracy and repeatability of Fourier velocity encoded (FVE) M-mode and two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast with through-plane velocity encoding (2D-PC) for pulse wave velocity (PWV) evaluation in the descending aorta using five different analysis techniques. Accuracy experiments were conducted on a tubular human-tissue-mimicking phantom integrated into a flow simulator. The theoretical PWV value was derived from the Moens-Korteweg equation after measurement of the tube elastic modulus by uniaxial tensile testing (PWV = 6.6 +/- 0.7 m/s). Repeatability was assessed on 20 healthy volunteers undergoing three consecutive MR examinations. FVE M-mode PWV was more repeatable than 2D-PC PWV independently of the analysis technique used. The early systolic fit (ESF) method, followed by the maximum of the first derivative (1st der.) method, was the most accurate (PWV = 6.8 +/- 0.4 m/s and PWV = 7.0 +/- 0.6 m/s, respectively) and repeatable (inter-scan within-subject variation delta = 0.096 and delta = 0.107, respectively) for FVE M-mode. For 2D-PC, the 1st der. method performed best in terms of accuracy (PWV = 6.8 +/- 1.1 m/s), whereas the ESF algorithm was the most repeatable (delta = 0.386). FVE M-mode allows rapid, accurate and repeatable central PWV evaluation when the ESF algorithm is used. 2D-PC requires long scan times and can provide accurate although much less repeatable PWV measurements when the 1st der. method is used. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Doppler characteristics of sea clutter.

    SciTech Connect

    Raynal, Ann Marie; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2010-06-01

    Doppler radars can distinguish targets from clutter if the target's velocity along the radar line of sight is beyond that of the clutter. Some targets of interest may have a Doppler shift similar to that of clutter. The nature of sea clutter is different in the clutter and exo-clutter regions. This behavior requires special consideration regarding where a radar can expect to find sea-clutter returns in Doppler space and what detection algorithms are most appropriate to help mitigate false alarms and increase probability of detection of a target. This paper studies the existing state-of-the-art in the understanding of Doppler characteristics of sea clutter and scattering from the ocean to better understand the design and performance choices of a radar in differentiating targets from clutter under prevailing sea conditions.

  17. Doppler tracking of planetary spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    This article concerns the measurement of Doppler shift on microwave links that connect planetary spacecraft with the Deep Space Network. Such measurements are made by tracking the Doppler effect with phase-locked loop receivers. A description of equipment and techniques as well as a summary of the appropriate mathematical models are given. The two-way Doppler shift is measured by transmitting a highly-stable microwave (uplink) carrier from a ground station, having the spacecraft coherently transpond this carrier, and using a phase-locked loop receiver at the ground station to track the returned (downlink) carrier. The largest sources of measurement error are usually plasma noise and thermal noise. The plasma noise, which may originate in the ionosphere or the solar corona, is discussed; and a technique to partially calibrate its effect, involving the use of two simultaneous downlink carriers that are coherently related, is described. Range measurements employing Doppler rate-aiding are also described.

  18. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  19. Mathematical Models for Doppler Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, William M.

    1987-01-01

    Error analysis increases precision of navigation. Report presents improved mathematical models of analysis of Doppler measurements and measurement errors of spacecraft navigation. To take advantage of potential navigational accuracy of Doppler measurements, precise equations relate measured cycle count to position and velocity. Drifts and random variations in transmitter and receiver oscillator frequencies taken into account. Mathematical models also adapted to aircraft navigation, radar, sonar, lidar, and interferometry.

  20. Novel instantaneous laser Doppler velocimeter.

    PubMed

    Avidor, J M

    1974-02-01

    A laser Doppler velocimeter capable of directly measuring instantaneous velocities is described. The new LDV uses a novel detection technique based on the utilization of a static slightly defocused spherical Fabry-Perot interferometer used in conjunction with a special mask for the detection of instantaneous Doppler frequency shifts. The essential characteristics of this LDV are discussed, and such a system recently developed is described. Results of turbulent flow measurements show good agreement with data obtained using hot wire anemometry.

  1. High Resolution Doppler Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Grant supported the development of an incoherent lidar system to measure winds and aerosols in the lower atmosphere. During this period the following activities occurred: (1) an active feedback system was developed to improve the laser frequency stability; (2) a detailed forward model of the instrument was developed to take into account many subtle effects, such as detector non-linearity; (3) a non-linear least squares inversion method was developed to recover the Doppler shift and aerosol backscatter without requiring assumptions about the molecular component of the signal; (4) a study was done of the effects of systematic errors due to multiple etalon misalignment. It was discovered that even for small offsets and high aerosol loadings, the wind determination can be biased by as much as 1 m/s. The forward model and inversion process were modified to account for this effect; and (5) the lidar measurements were validated using rawinsonde balloon measurements. The measurements were found to be in agreement within 1-2 m/s.

  2. Adaptive spectral doppler estimation.

    PubMed

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence. The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to provide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the observation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested and compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch's method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of matched filters (one for each velocity component of interest) and filtering the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the PSD. The methods are tested using various experiments and simulations. First, controlled flow-rig experiments with steady laminar flow are carried out. Simulations in Field II for pulsating flow resembling the femoral artery are also analyzed. The simulations are followed by in vivo measurement on the common carotid artery. In all simulations and experiments it was concluded that the adaptive methods display superior performance for short observation windows compared with the averaged periodogram. Computational costs and implementation details are also discussed.

  3. High Resolution Doppler Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Paul B.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) on UARS spacecraft during the period 4/l/96 - 3/31/99. During this period, HRDI operation, data processing, and data analysis continued, and there was a high level of vitality in the HRDI project. The HRDI has been collecting data from the stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere since instrument activation on October 1, 1991. The HRDI team has stressed three areas since operations commenced: 1) operation of the instrument in a manner which maximizes the quality and versatility of the collected data; 2) algorithm development and validation to produce a high-quality data product; and 3) scientific studies, primarily of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere. There has been no significant degradation in the HRDI instrument since operations began nearly 8 years ago. HRDI operations are fairly routine, although we have continued to look for ways to improve the quality of the scientific product, either by improving existing modes, or by designing new ones. The HRDI instrument has been programmed to collect data for new scientific studies, such as measurements of fluorescence from plants, measuring cloud top heights, and lower atmosphere H2O.

  4. Power and pulsed Doppler evaluation of ovarian hemodynamic changes during diestrus in pregnant and nonpregnant bitches.

    PubMed

    Polisca, A; Zelli, R; Troisi, A; Orlandi, R; Brecchia, G; Boiti, C

    2013-01-15

    The aim of the study was to further characterize the relationship between hemodynamic changes in the ovary and luteal function in pregnant and nonpregnant bitches. Fourteen German Shepherd bitches were monitored three times a week from the first day of cytological diestrus (D1) until parturition or the end of diestrus (progesterone <2 ng/mL) by color Doppler, pulsed wave spectral Doppler, and power Doppler (PD) ultrasonography. By means of PD the total number of color pixels were calculated. The Doppler parameters evaluated were: peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), and both resistive and pulsatility indices. Blood samples were collected three times a week throughout the experiment to determine progesterone (P4) concentrations. The length of diestrus in pregnant versus nonpregnant group was significantly shorter (P < 0.01; 57 ± 1 vs. 63 ± 1, respectively). By means of pulsed wave spectral Doppler the waveform showed a typical pattern of a low-resistive vessel characterized by a rapid systolic peak followed by a slow telediastolic decrease with a relatively high end-diastolic velocity. Blood flow parameters did not differ between left and right ovary. In both groups PSV and EDV showed a gradual decrease with the progress of diestrus; however, the values of PSV and EDV were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the pregnant group versus nonpregnant group from D31 to D61 and from D49 to D58 respectively. Moreover, a significantly decrease (P < 0.05) of PSV and EDV in the pregnant group was observed from D46 to D58 and from D49 to D55, respectively. The resistive and pulsatility indices showed an increase during diestrus and the values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the pregnant group from D49 to D61. By means of PD, the pixel number was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the pregnant versus nonpregnant group from D40 to D61. In particular, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the pixel number in the pregnant group was observed from D46 to

  5. Microwave Doppler reflectometer system in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Liu, A D; Zhang, X H; Hu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Li, H; Lan, T; Xie, J L; Sun, X; Ding, W X; Liu, W D; Yu, C X

    2013-10-01

    A Doppler reflectometer system has recently been installed in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting (EAST) Tokamak. It includes two separated systems, one for Q-band (33-50 GHz) and the other for V-band (50-75 GHz). The optical system consists of a flat mirror and a parabolic mirror which are optimized to improve the spectral resolution. A synthesizer is used as the source and a 20 MHz single band frequency modulator is used to get a differential frequency for heterodyne detection. Ray tracing simulations are used to calculate the scattering location and the perpendicular wave number. In EAST last experimental campaign, the Doppler shifted signals have been obtained and the radial profiles of the perpendicular propagation velocity during L-mode and H-mode are calculated.

  6. Laser Doppler flowmetry in blood and lymph monitoring, technical aspects and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, Victor V.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Makovik, Irina N.; Kozlov, Igor O.; Sidorov, Viktor V.; Krupatkin, Alexander I.; Dunaev, Andrey V.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Rafailov, Edik U.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the possibilities of the laser Doppler flowmetry method for the joint study of microhaemo- and lymph circulation of human skin. Conducting a series of experimental studies allowed to trace the relationship of recorded signals of microcirculation of blood flow and lymph flow, as well as to study their oscillation nature by using wavelet analysis.

  7. Modification over time of pulse wave velocity parallel to changes in aortic BP, as well as in 24-h ambulatory brachial BP.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, A; Segura, J; Suarez, C; García-Ortiz, L; Abad-Cardiel, M; Vigil, L; Gómez-Marcos, M A; Sans Atxer, L; Martell-Claros, N; Ruilope, L M; de la Sierra, A

    2016-03-01

    Arterial stiffness as assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is a marker of preclinical organ damage and a predictor of cardiovascular outcomes, independently of blood pressure (BP). However, limited evidence exists on the association between long-term variation (Δ) on aortic BP (aoBP) and ΔcfPWV. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of ΔBP with ΔcfPWV over time, as assessed by office and 24-h ambulatory peripheral BP, and aoBP. AoBP and cfPWV were evaluated in 209 hypertensive patients with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome by applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor) at baseline(b) and at 12 months of follow-up(fu). Peripheral BP was also determined by using validated oscillometric devices (office(o)-BP) and on an outpatient basis by using a validated (Spacelabs-90207) device (24-h ambulatory BP). ΔcfPWV over time was calculated as follows: ΔcfPWV=[(cfPWVfu-cfPWVb)/cfPWVb] × 100. ΔBP over time resulted from the same formula applied to BP values obtained with the three different measurement techniques. Correlations (Spearman 'Rho') between ΔBP and ΔcfPWV were calculated. Mean age was 62 years, 39% were female and 80% had type 2 diabetes. Baseline office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 143±20/82±12. Follow-up (12 months later) office brachial BP (mm Hg) was 136±20/79±12. ΔcfPWV correlated with ΔoSBP (Rho=0.212; P=0.002), Δ24-h SBP (Rho=0.254; P<0.001), Δdaytime SBP (Rho=0.232; P=0.001), Δnighttime SBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001) and ΔaoSBP (Rho=0.320; P<0.001). A multiple linear regression analysis included the following independent variables: ΔoSBP, Δ24-h SBP, Δdaytime SBP, Δnighttime SBP and ΔaoSBP. ΔcfPWV was independently associated with Δ24-h SBP (β-coefficient=0.195; P=0.012) and ΔaoSBP (β-coefficient= 0.185; P=0.018). We conclude that changes in both 24-h SBP and aoSBP more accurately reflect changes in arterial stiffness than do office BP measurements.

  8. Long-term pulse wave velocity outcomes with aerobic and resistance training in kidney transplant recipients - A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ellen M; Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H; Lindup, Herolin; Nugent, Eilish; Goldsmith, David; Macdougall, Iain C; Greenwood, Sharlene A

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study examined long-term pulse wave velocity (PWV) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) outcomes following a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic or resistance training programme in kidney transplant recipients. Single-blind, bi-centre randomised controlled parallel trial. 42 out of 60 participants completed a 9-month follow-up assessment (Aerobic training = 12, Resistance training = 10 and usual care = 20). Participants completed 12 weeks of twice-weekly supervised aerobic or resistance training. Following the 12-week exercise intervention, participants were transitioned to self-managed community exercise activity using motivational interviewing techniques. Usual care participants received usual encouragement for physical activity during routine clinical appointments in the transplant clinic. PWV, VO2peak, blood pressure and body weight were assessed at 12 weeks and 12 months, and compared to baseline. ANCOVA analysis, covarying for baseline values, age, and length of time on dialysis pre-transplantation, revealed a significant mean between-group difference in PWV of -1.30 m/sec (95%CI -2.44 to -0.17, p = 0.03) between resistance training and usual care groups. When comparing the aerobic training and usual care groups at 9-month follow-up, there was a mean difference of -1.05 m/sec (95%CI -2.11 to 0.017, p = 0.05). A significant mean between-group difference in relative VO2peak values of 2.2 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.37 to 4.03, p = 0.02) when comparing aerobic training with usual care was revealed. There was no significant between group differences in body weight or blood pressure. There were no significant adverse effects associated with the interventions. Significant between-group differences in 9-month follow-up PWV existed when comparing resistance exercise intervention with usual care. A long-term between-group difference in VO2peak was only evident when comparing aerobic intervention with usual care. This pilot study, with a small sample size, did not aim to

  9. Long-term pulse wave velocity outcomes with aerobic and resistance training in kidney transplant recipients – A pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Koufaki, Pelagia; Mercer, Thomas H.; Lindup, Herolin; Nugent, Eilish; Goldsmith, David; Macdougall, Iain C.; Greenwood, Sharlene A.

    2017-01-01

    Background This pilot study examined long-term pulse wave velocity (PWV) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) outcomes following a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic or resistance training programme in kidney transplant recipients. Method Single-blind, bi-centre randomised controlled parallel trial. 42 out of 60 participants completed a 9-month follow-up assessment (Aerobic training = 12, Resistance training = 10 and usual care = 20). Participants completed 12 weeks of twice-weekly supervised aerobic or resistance training. Following the 12-week exercise intervention, participants were transitioned to self-managed community exercise activity using motivational interviewing techniques. Usual care participants received usual encouragement for physical activity during routine clinical appointments in the transplant clinic. PWV, VO2peak, blood pressure and body weight were assessed at 12 weeks and 12 months, and compared to baseline. Results ANCOVA analysis, covarying for baseline values, age, and length of time on dialysis pre-transplantation, revealed a significant mean between-group difference in PWV of -1.30 m/sec (95%CI -2.44 to -0.17, p = 0.03) between resistance training and usual care groups. When comparing the aerobic training and usual care groups at 9-month follow-up, there was a mean difference of -1.05 m/sec (95%CI -2.11 to 0.017, p = 0.05). A significant mean between-group difference in relative VO2peak values of 2.2 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.37 to 4.03, p = 0.02) when comparing aerobic training with usual care was revealed. There was no significant between group differences in body weight or blood pressure. There were no significant adverse effects associated with the interventions. Conclusions Significant between-group differences in 9-month follow-up PWV existed when comparing resistance exercise intervention with usual care. A long-term between-group difference in VO2peak was only evident when comparing aerobic intervention with usual care. This pilot study

  10. Local versus global aortic pulse wave velocity in early atherosclerosis: An animal study in ApoE-/--mice using ultrahigh field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gotschy, Alexander; Bauer, Wolfgang R.; Winter, Patrick; Nordbeck, Peter; Rommel, Eberhard; Jakob, Peter M.; Herold, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Increased aortic stiffness is known to be associated with atherosclerosis and has a predictive value for cardiovascular events. This study aims to investigate the local distribution of early arterial stiffening due to initial atherosclerotic lesions. Therefore, global and local pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured in ApoE-/- and wild type (WT) mice using ultrahigh field MRI. For quantification of global aortic stiffness, a new multi-point transit-time (TT) method was implemented and validated to determine the global PWV in the murine aorta. Local aortic stiffness was measured by assessing the local PWV in the upper abdominal aorta, using the flow/area (QA) method. Significant differences between age matched ApoE-/- and WT mice were determined for global and local PWV measurements (global PWV: ApoE-/-: 2.7±0.2m/s vs WT: 2.1±0.2m/s, P<0.03; local PWV: ApoE-/-: 2.9±0.2m/s vs WT: 2.2±0.2m/s, P<0.03). Within the WT mouse group, the global PWV correlated well with the local PWV in the upper abdominal aorta (R2 = 0.75, P<0.01), implying a widely uniform arterial elasticity. In ApoE-/- animals, however, no significant correlation between individual local and global PWV was present (R2 = 0.07, P = 0.53), implying a heterogeneous distribution of vascular stiffening in early atherosclerosis. The assessment of global PWV using the new multi-point TT measurement technique was validated against a pressure wire measurement in a vessel phantom and showed excellent agreement. The experimental results demonstrate that vascular stiffening caused by early atherosclerosis is unequally distributed over the length of large vessels. This finding implies that assessing heterogeneity of arterial stiffness by multiple local measurements of PWV might be more sensitive than global PWV to identify early atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:28207773

  11. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity is associated with coronary calcium in young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Rampal, Sanjay; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Zhao, Di; Cho, Juhee; Choi, Yuni; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Lim, So Yeon; Bruguera, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Lima, Joao A C; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the association between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a convenient, non-radiating, readily available measurement of arterial stiffness, and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a reliable marker of coronary atherosclerosis, in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults; and to assess the incremental value of baPWV for detecting prevalent CAC beyond traditional risk factors. Cross-sectional study of 15,185 asymptomatic Korean adults who voluntarily underwent a comprehensive health screening program including measurement of baPWV and CAC. BaPWV was measured using an oscillometric method with cuffs placed on both arms and ankles. CAC burden was assessed using a multi-detector CT scan and scored following Agatston's method. The prevalence of CAC > 0 and CAC > 100 increased across baPWV quintiles. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for CAC > 0 comparing baPWV quintiles 2-5 versus quintile 1 were 1.06 (0.87-1.30), 1.24 (1.02-1.50), 1.39 (1.15-1.69) and 1.60 (1.31-1.96), respectively (P trend < 0.001). Similarly, the relative prevalence ratios for CAC > 100 were 1.30 (0.74-2.26), 1.59 (0.93-2.71), 1.74 (1.03-2.94) and 2.59 (1.54-4.36), respectively (P trend < 0.001). For CAC > 100, the area under the ROC curve for baPWV alone was 0.71 (0.68-0.74), and the addition of baPWV to traditional risk factors significantly improved the discrimination and calibration of models for detecting prevalent CAC > 0 and CAC > 100. BaPWV was independently associated with the presence and severity of CAC in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. BaPWV may be a valuable tool for identifying apparently low-risk individuals with increased burden of coronary atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Planetary Doppler Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, N.; Jefferies, S.; Hart, M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Showman, A. P.; Hernandez, G.; Rudd, L.

    2014-12-01

    Determining the internal structure of the solar system's gas and ice giant planets is key to understanding their formation and evolution (Hubbard et al., 1999, 2002, Guillot 2005), and in turn the formation and evolution of the solar system. While internal structure can be constrained theoretically, measurements of internal density distributions are needed to uncover the details of the deep interior where significant ambiguities exist. To date the interiors of giant planets have been probed by measuring gravitational moments using spacecraft passing close to, or in orbit around the planet. Gravity measurements are effective in determining structure in the outer envelope of a planet, and also probing dynamics (e.g. the Cassini and Juno missions), but are less effective in probing deep structure or the presence of discrete boundaries. A promising technique for overcoming this limitation is planetary seismology (analogous to helioseismology in the solar case), postulated by Vorontsov, 1976. Using trapped pressure waves to probe giant planet interiors allows insight into the density and temperature distribution (via the sound speed) down to the planetary core, and is also sensitive to sharp boundaries, for example at the molecular to metallic hydrogen transition or at the core-envelope interface. Detecting such boundaries is not only important in understanding the overall structure of the planet, but also has implications for our understanding of the basic properties of matter at extreme pressures. Recent Doppler measurements of Jupiter by Gaulme et al (2011) claimed a promising detection of trapped oscillations, while Hedman and Nicholson (2013) have shown that trapped waves in Saturn cause detectable perturbations in Saturn's C ring. Both these papers have fueled interest in using seismology as a tool for studying the solar system's giant planets. To fully exploit planetary seismology as a tool for understanding giant planet structure, measurements need to be made

  13. Differential Doppler as a diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Dzieciuch, M.; Munk, W. )

    1994-10-01

    Differential Doppler compression and travel time of individual peaks in the arrival sequence (relative to an overall average) are measured for the 5500-km acoustic transmissions from a moving source at Heard Island to Christmas (Crab) Island. The differentials cannot be explained by simple adiabatic propagation models. A hybrid theory, coupling polar and temperate models at the Antarctic Front can account for some of the qualitative features. Differential Doppler could be a useful tool for identifying ray arrivals. 10 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Continuous wave ultrasonic Doppler tomography

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Haidong-Dong; Tsui, Chun Sing Louis; Halliwell, Michael; Wells, Peter N. T.

    2011-01-01

    In continuous wave ultrasonic Doppler tomography (DT), the ultrasonic beam moves relative to the scanned object to acquire Doppler-shifted frequency spectra which correspond to cross-range projections of the scattering and reflecting structures within the object. The relative motion can be circular or linear. These data are then backprojected to reconstruct the two-dimensional image of the object cross section. By using coherent processing, the spatial resolution of ultrasonic DT is close to an order of magnitude better than that of traditional pulse-echo imaging at the same ultrasound frequency. PMID:22866236

  15. Central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity: relationship to target organ damage and cardiovascular morbidity-mortality in diabetic patients or metabolic syndrome. An observational prospective study. LOD-DIABETES study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Diabetic patients show an increased prevalence of non-dipping arterial pressure pattern, target organ damage and elevated arterial stiffness. These alterations are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The objectives of this study are the following: to evaluate the prognostic value of central arterial pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation to the incidence and outcome of target organ damage and the appearance of cardiovascular episodes (cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, chest pain and stroke) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. Methods/Design Design: This is an observational prospective study with 5 years duration, of which the first year corresponds to patient inclusion and initial evaluation, and the remaining four years to follow-up. Setting: The study will be carried out in the urban primary care setting. Study population: Consecutive sampling will be used to include patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 20-80 years of age. A total of 110 patients meeting all the inclusion criteria and none of the exclusion criteria will be included. Measurements: Patient age and sex, family and personal history of cardiovascular disease, and cardiovascular risk factors. Height, weight, heart rate and abdominal circumference. Laboratory tests: hemoglobin, lipid profile, creatinine, microalbuminuria, glomerular filtration rate, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, blood insulin, fibrinogen and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Clinical and 24-hour ambulatory (home) blood pressure monitoring and self-measured blood pressure. Common carotid artery ultrasound for the determination of mean carotid intima-media thickness. Electrocardiogram for assessing left ventricular hypertrophy. Ankle-brachial index. Retinal vascular study based on funduscopy with non-mydriatic retinography and evaluation of pulse wave morphology and pulse wave velocity using the SphygmoCor system. The medication used for

  16. Two-dimensional ultrasound Doppler velocimeter for flow mapping of unsteady liquid metal flows.

    PubMed

    Franke, S; Lieske, H; Fischer, A; Büttner, L; Czarske, J; Räbiger, D; Eckert, S

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel pulsed-wave ultrasound Doppler system for fluid flow investigations being able to determine two-dimensional vector fields of flow velocities. Electromagnetically-driven liquid metal flows appear as an attractive application field for such a measurement system. Two linear ultrasound transducer arrays each equipped with 25 transducer elements are used to measure the flow field in a square plane of 67×67 mm(2). The application of advanced processing methods as a multi-beam operation, an interlaced echo signal acquisition and a segmental array technique enable high data acquisition rates and concurrently a high spatial resolution, which have not been obtained so far for flow measurements in liquid metals. The extended pulsing strategy and essential operation principles such as the multiplexing electronic concept will be presented within this paper. The capabilities of the measuring system make it suitable for investigations of non-transparent, turbulent flows. Here, we present measurements of liquid metal flows driven by a rotating magnetic field for demonstration purposes. The measuring setup realized here reveals details of the swirling fluid motion in a horizontal section of a cube. Frame acquisition rates up to 30 fps were achieved for a complete two-dimensional flow mapping.

  17. Pulse transit times to the capillary bed evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2009-03-01

    The pulse transit time (PTT) of a wave over a specified distance along a blood vessel provides a simple non-invasive index that can be used for the evaluation of arterial distensibility. Current methods of measuring the PTT determine the propagation times of pulses only in the larger arteries. We have evaluated the pulse arrival time (PAT) to the capillary bed, through the microcirculation, and have investigated its relationship to the arterial PAT to a fingertip. To do so, we detected cardiac-induced pulse waves in skin microcirculation using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Using the ECG as a reference, PATs to the microcirculation were measured on the four extremities of 108 healthy subjects. Simultaneously, PATs to the radial artery of the left index finger were obtained from blood pressure recordings using a piezoelectric sensor. Both PATs correlate in similar ways with heart rate and age. That to the microcirculation is shown to be sensitive to local changes in skin perfusion induced by cooling. We introduce a measure for the PTT through the microcirculation. We conclude that a combination of LDF and pressure measurements enables simultaneous characterization of the states of the macro and microvasculature. Information about the microcirculation, including an assessment of endothelial function, may be obtained from the responses to perturbations in skin perfusion, such as temperature stress or vasoactive substances.

  18. The Evaluation of Diastolic Dysfunction with Tissue Doppler Echocardiography in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism and the Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment on Diastolic Dysfunction: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Gulbanu; Erkan, Aycan Fahri; Cemri, Mustafa; Karaahmetoglu, Selma; Cesur, Mustafa; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-01-01

    Background. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) predominantly affects women. The necessity of treatment in SH is controversial. Objective. We aimed to investigate the response of diastolic dysfunction to thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) in women. Methods and Results. Twenty-two female subjects with SH and 20 euthyroid female controls were enrolled. Baseline and follow-up biochemical, hormonal, and echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Repeat echocardiograms were performed three months after the achievement of a euthyroid status with THRT. Mean baseline myocardial performance index (MPI) was 0.27 ± 0.08 in the SH group, and 0.22 ± 0.06 in the control group (P = 0.03). MPI did not change significantly after THRT. Pulsed-wave Doppler findings were not different among the groups. However, tissue Doppler-derived mitral annular E' velocities were significantly lower in the SH group. A moderate but significant improvement was observed in E' velocities after THRT (13.2 ± 3.87 versus 14.53 ± 2.75, P = 0.04). We also observed left ventricular concentric remodeling in SH patients which was reversible with THRT. Conclusions. Tissue Doppler echocardiography may be a useful tool for monitoring the response of diastolic dysfunction to thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with SH. Our findings suggest that THRT may reverse diastolic dysfunction in women with SH. PMID:21860776

  19. The evaluation of diastolic dysfunction with tissue Doppler echocardiography in women with subclinical hypothyroidism and the effect of L-thyroxine treatment on diastolic dysfunction: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Gulbanu; Erkan, Aycan Fahri; Cemri, Mustafa; Karaahmetoglu, Selma; Cesur, Mustafa; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-01-01

    Background. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) predominantly affects women. The necessity of treatment in SH is controversial. Objective. We aimed to investigate the response of diastolic dysfunction to thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) in women. Methods and Results. Twenty-two female subjects with SH and 20 euthyroid female controls were enrolled. Baseline and follow-up biochemical, hormonal, and echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Repeat echocardiograms were performed three months after the achievement of a euthyroid status with THRT. Mean baseline myocardial performance index (MPI) was 0.27 ± 0.08 in the SH group, and 0.22 ± 0.06 in the control group (P = 0.03). MPI did not change significantly after THRT. Pulsed-wave Doppler findings were not different among the groups. However, tissue Doppler-derived mitral annular E' velocities were significantly lower in the SH group. A moderate but significant improvement was observed in E' velocities after THRT (13.2 ± 3.87 versus 14.53 ± 2.75, P = 0.04). We also observed left ventricular concentric remodeling in SH patients which was reversible with THRT. Conclusions. Tissue Doppler echocardiography may be a useful tool for monitoring the response of diastolic dysfunction to thyroid hormone replacement therapy in patients with SH. Our findings suggest that THRT may reverse diastolic dysfunction in women with SH.

  20. Right Ventricular Tissue Doppler in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Kathleen M.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Ebert, Douglas; Martin, David S.; Barratt, Michael R.; Martin, David S.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    The presentation slides review normal physiology of the right ventricle in space, general physiology of the right ventricle; difficulties in imaging the heart in space, imaging methods, tissue Doppler spectrum, right ventricle tissue Doppler, and Rt Tei Index.

  1. Doppler Ultrasound: What Is It Used for?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your neck (carotid artery stenosis) A Doppler ultrasound can estimate how fast blood flows by measuring the rate of change in its pitch (frequency). During a Doppler ultrasound, a technician trained in ultrasound imaging (sonographer) presses ...

  2. Development of Doppler Global Velocimetry as a Flow Diagnostics Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The development of Doppler global velocimetry is described from its inception to its use as a flow diagnostics tool. Its evolution is traced from an elementary one-component laboratory prototype, to a full three-component configuration operating in a wind tunnel at focal distances exceeding 15 m. As part of the developmental process, several wind tunnel flow field investigations were conducted. These included supersonic flow measurements about an oblique shock, subsonic and supersonic measurements of the vortex flow above a delta wing, and three-component measurements of a high-speed jet.

  3. Understanding Doppler Broadening of Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini; Sullivan, John P.

    2014-07-03

    Doppler-broadened gamma ray peaks are observed routinely in the collection and analysis of gamma-ray spectra. If not recognized and understood, the appearance of Doppler broadening can complicate the interpretation of a spectrum and the correct identification of the gamma ray-emitting material. We have conducted a study using a simulation code to demonstrate how Doppler broadening arises and provide a real-world example in which Doppler broadening is found. This report describes that study and its results.

  4. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

  5. Doppler Imaging of EI Eridani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washuettl, Albert; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew

    We present Doppler images of the rapidly rotating active close binary star EI Eridani. Several Doppler images have been produced since 1984 making use of different versions of the Doppler imaging technique. They all show high-latitude spots surrounding or covering the rotational pole as well as some smaller spots on lower latitudes. The high-latitude/polar spot seems to be long-lived (at least a decade) but changes its shape on comparatively short timescales (of the order of one month). From time to time spots along the stellar equator also occur, but their lifetimes tend to be relatively short (weeks). Furthermore, long-term photometric observations revealed the existence of a magnetic cycle which has been estimated to be around 11 years. We also present time-resolved Doppler images from EI Eri obtained at McMath/NSO in fall 1996 during 70 consecutive nights. The final aim of this program is to investigate the spot evolution over the whole activity cycle.

  6. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect mode at the Sanford Solar Observatory are presented. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about one percent. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large scale magnetic field structures.

  7. Doppler observations of solar rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, P. H.; Wilcox, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Daily observations of the photospheric equatorial rotation rate using the Doppler effect are made at the Stanford Solar Observatory. These observations show no variations in the rotation rate that exceed the observational error of about 1%. The average rotation rate is indistinguishable from that of sunspots and large-scale magnetic field structures.

  8. The Doppler Effect--A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect as it applies to different situations, such as a stationary source of sound with the observer moving, a stationary observer, and the sound source and observer both moving. Police radar, satellite surveillance radar, radar astronomy, and the Doppler navigator, are discussed as applications of Doppler shift. (JR)

  9. The Doppler Effect--A New Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the Doppler effect as it applies to different situations, such as a stationary source of sound with the observer moving, a stationary observer, and the sound source and observer both moving. Police radar, satellite surveillance radar, radar astronomy, and the Doppler navigator, are discussed as applications of Doppler shift. (JR)

  10. Evaluation of arterial digital blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Müller, H; Heinrich, M; Mielenz, N; Reese, S; Steiner, A; Starke, A

    2017-06-06

    Local circulatory disturbances have been implicated in the development of foot disorders in cattle. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography and to investigate quantitative arterial blood flow variables at that site in dairy cows. An Esaote MyLabOne ultrasound machine with a 10-MHz linear transducer was used to assess blood flow in the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs of 22 healthy German Holstein cows. The cows originated from three commercial farms and were restrained in a standing hoof trimming chute without sedation. A PW Doppler signal suitable for analysis was obtained in 17 of 22 cows. The blood flow profiles were categorised into four curve types, and the following quantitative variables were measured in three uniform cardiac cycles: vessel diameter, pulse rate, maximum systolic velocity, maximum diastolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, reverse velocity, maximum time-averaged mean velocity, blood flow rate, resistance index and persistence index. The measurements did not differ among cows from the three farms. Maximum systolic velocity, vessel diameter and pulse rate did not differ but other variables differed significantly among blood flow profiles. Differences in weight-bearing are thought to be responsible for the normal variability of blood flow profiles in healthy cows. The scanning technique used in this report for evaluation of blood flow in the interdigital artery appears suitable for further investigations in healthy and in lame cows.

  11. Doppler echocardiographic characteristics of normal and dysfunctioning prosthetic valves in the tricuspid and mitral position.

    PubMed Central

    Pye, M; Weerasana, N; Bain, W H; Hutton, I; Cobbe, S M

    1990-01-01

    The Doppler echocardiographic characteristics of 70 prosthetic valves in 35 patients are reported. Twenty nine patients had a Björk-Shiley prosthesis in both mitral and tricuspid positions and six had Carpentier-Edwards valves in both sites. Five of the patients had abnormal tricuspid prostheses on the basis of clinical and echocardiographic criteria. Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography was used in all examinations. The pressure half times for the normal tricuspid prosthetic valves, 105 (40) ms (Björk-Shiley) and 97 (53) ms (Carpentier-Edwards), were significantly longer than those of normal mitral prosthetic valves, 75 (18) ms (Björk-Shiley) and 83 (15) ms (Carpentier-Edwards). The range of pressure half times for the abnormal tricuspid valves (237-530 ms) was distinct from that of the apparently normal tricuspid prosthetic valves (38-197 ms). There was an increase in the peak velocity of the obstructed tricuspid prosthetic valves (1.69 (0.12) m/s) in comparison with normal prostheses (1.06 (0.26) m/s). The normal range of pressure half times for the Björk-Shiley and Carpentier-Edwards valves in the mitral position is not applicable to the same valves in the tricuspid position. The valve appears to function well with very long pressure half times but a pressure half time of greater than 200 ms coupled with a peak velocity of greater than 1.60 ms without significant valve regurgitation indicates tricuspid obstruction of the tricuspid prosthetic valve. PMID:2310643

  12. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-05-01

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation.

  13. Laser Doppler vibrometry for assessment of arteriosclerosis: A first step towards validation

    SciTech Connect

    Campo, Adriaan; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-05-27

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter can be estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery (FA) in the groin. However PWV can also be measured locally in the CCA, using non-invasive methods such as ultrasound (US) or laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV). Potential of the latter approach was already explored in previous research, and in this work a first step towards clinical validation is made. 50 hypertension II/III patients aged between 30 and 65 participate in the study. Patients were asked to remain sober for 4 hours prior to the measurements. The trajectory of the CCA in the neck was determined by a trained clinician guided by an US probe. 3 laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) systems were aimed along the CCA. PWV was then calculated from the distance between beams and the time-shift between waveforms. Immediately after LDV measurements, PWV was measured with US. Additionally, carotid-femoral PWV was measured. As a validation, PWV results of the different techniques were compared with each other, and with medical background of the test subjects. Since data acquisition is still ongoing, data from only 20 patients will be discussed. No trends between measurement methods for PWV are apparent. However, a positive trend was detected between PWV as measured with LDV and blood pressure. More data, including additional experiments will be needed to verify this observation.

  14. Human polarimetric micro-doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmoush, David; Silvious, Jerry

    2011-06-01

    Modern radars can pick up target motions other than just the principle target Doppler; they pick out the small micro-Doppler variations as well. These can be used to visually identify both the target type as well as the target activity. We model and measure some of the micro-Doppler motions that are amenable to polarimetric measurement. Understanding the capabilities and limitations of radar systems that utilize micro-Doppler to measure human characteristics is important for improving the effectiveness of these systems at securing areas. In security applications one would like to observe humans unobtrusively and without privacy issues, which make radar an effective approach. In this paper we focus on the characteristics of radar systems designed for the estimation of human motion for the determination of whether someone is loaded. Radar can be used to measure the direction, distance, and radial velocity of a walking person as a function of time. Detailed radar processing can reveal more characteristics of the walking human. The parts of the human body do not move with constant radial velocity; the small micro-Doppler signatures are timevarying and therefore analysis techniques can be used to obtain more characteristics. Looking for modulations of the radar return from arms, legs, and even body sway are being assessed by researchers. We analyze these techniques and focus on the improved performance that fully polarimetric radar techniques can add. We perform simulations and fully polarimetric measurements of the varying micro-Doppler signatures of humans as a function of elevation angle and azimuthal angle in order to try to optimize this type of system for the detection of arm motion, especially for the determination of whether someone is carrying something in their arms. The arm is often bent at the elbow, providing a surface similar to a dihedral. This is distinct from the more planar surfaces of the body and allows us to separate the signals from the arm (and

  15. Prognostic significance of Doppler-derived left ventricular diastolic filling variables in dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Shen, W F; Tribouilloy, C; Rey, J L; Baudhuin, J J; Boey, S; Dufossé, H; Lesbre, J P

    1992-12-01

    To determine the prognostic significance of pulsed wave Doppler-derived left ventricular diastolic filling velocity profiles and the relationship between Doppler variables and clinical functional status, the follow-up outcomes of 62 consecutive patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and symptoms of left ventricular dysfunction were analyzed. All patients had echocardiographic left ventricular end-diastolic dimension > or = 6.0 cm, fractional shortening < 25%, increased E pointseptal separation, and diffuse hypokinesia or akinesia. During a mean follow-up period of 30.5 +/- 13.9 months, 27 patients experienced cardiac events: 23 died of either progressive pump failure or an episode of sudden death and four required cardiac transplantation because of refractory heart failure. Peak early filling velocity (78 +/- 23 cm/sec vs 65 +/- 25 cm/sec; p < 0.03) was higher and late atrial filing velocity (34 +/- 13 cm/sec vs 55 +/- 19 cm/sec; p < 0.001) was lower in patients with cardiac events than in cardiac event-free survivors. The ratio of early to late transmitral filling velocities was higher (2.6 +/- 1.2 vs 1.5 +/- 1.3; p < 0.001), and the deceleration time of early diastole was shorter (133 +/- 48 msec vs 175 +/- 71 msec; p < 0.001) in patients with cardiac events. The cardiac event rate was significantly higher in patients with an early to late filling velocity ratio greater than 2 (77% vs 19%; p < 0.001) or a deceleration time less than 150 msec (58% vs 23%; p < 0.05) than in those without. Stepwise multivariate regression analysis revealed that the pattern of transmitral early to late filling velocity ratio was the only significant independent Doppler echocardiographic predictor of outcome for these patients. Repeat Doppler echocardiographic examinations, which were performed in 31 survivors after intensive treatment (mean, 38.6 +/- 6.5 months), showed that early filling velocity was decreased (55 +/- 20 cm/sec vs 75 +/- 25 cm/sec; p < 0.02), late atrial filling

  16. Amplitude-coded color doppler: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Turetschek, K; Kollmann, C; Dorffner, R; Wunderbaldinger, P; Mostbeck, G

    1999-01-01

    Amplitude-coded color Doppler sonography (ACD) has become an useful adjunct to gray-scale US and conventional color Doppler sonography (CD) for the assessment of vascular diseases and pathologic conditions that might affect or alter tissue vascularization or perfusion. Basically, all US units that generate conventional color Doppler information through autocorrelation technique are capable of displaying ACD. This technique is also referred to as power Doppler, amplitude-mode color Doppler US, color Doppler energy (CDE), or US angiography. Amplitude-coded color Doppler sonography has already emerged as a valuable adjunct to conventional CD, particularly for evaluating flow in parts of the body where CD signal is weak because of slow flow, small blood vessels, or both.

  17. Doppler waveform study as indicator of change of portal pressure after administration of octreotide.

    PubMed

    Haider, Shahbaz; Hussain, Qurban; Tabassum, Sumera; Hussain, Bilal; Durrani, Muhammad Rasheed; Ahmed, Fayyaz

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the effect of portal pressure lowering drug 'octreotide', by observing the Doppler waveform before and after the administration of intravenous bolus of octreotide and thus to assess indirectly its efficacy to lower the portal pressure. This quassi experimental study was carried out in Medical Department in collaboration with Radiology Department of Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi Pakistan from September 10, 2015 to February 5, 2016. Cases were selected from patients admitted in Medical Wards and those attending Medical OPD. Diagnosis of cirrhosis was confirmed by Clinical Examination and Lab & Imaging investigation in Medical Department. Doppler waveform study was done by experienced radiologist in Radiology Department before and after administration of octreotide. Doppler signals were obtained from the right hepatic vein. Waveform tracings were recorded for five seconds and categorized as 'monophasic', 'biphasic' and 'triphasic'. Waveform changes from one waveform to other were noted and analyzed. Significant change i.e. from 'monophasic' to 'biphasic' or 'biphasic' to 'triphasic' was seen in 56% cases while 'monophasic' to 'triphasic' was seen in 20% cases. No change was seen in 24% cases. Improvement in waveform reflects lowering of portal vein pressure. Non invasive Hepatic vein Doppler waveform study showed improvement in Doppler waveform after administration of octreotide in 76% cases. Doppler waveform study has the potential of becoming non invasive 'follow up tool' of choice for assessing portal pressure in patients having variceal bleed due to portal hypertension.

  18. Evaluation of factors influencing arterial Doppler waveforms in an in vitro flow phantom

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate factors that influence arterial Doppler waveforms in an in vitro phantom to provide a more accurate and comprehensive explanation of the Doppler signal. Methods A flow model was created using a pulsatile artificial heart, rubber or polyethylene tubes, a water tank, and a glass tube. Spectral Doppler tracings were obtained in multiple combinations of compliance, resistance, and pulse rate. Peak systolic velocity, minimum diastolic velocity, resistive index (RI), pulsatility index, early systolic acceleration time, and acceleration index were measured. On the basis of these measurements, the influences of the variables on the Doppler waveforms were analyzed. Results With increasing distal resistance, the RI increased in a relatively linear relationship. With increasing proximal resistance, the RI decreased. The pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon was observed with a small acceleration index in the model with a higher grade of stenosis. An increase in the distal resistance masked the pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon by increasing the acceleration index. Although this phenomenon occurred independently of compliance, changes in the compliance of proximal or distal tubes caused significant changes in the Doppler waveform. There was a reverse relationship between the RI and the pulse rate. Conclusion Resistance and compliance can alter the Doppler waveforms independently. The pulse rate is an extrinsic factor that also influences the RI. The compliance and distal resistance, as well as proximal resistance, influence the pulsus tardus and parvus phenomenon. PMID:27784154

  19. Direct comparison of high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI with Doppler ultrasound for assessment of diastolic dysfunction in mice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas A; Price, Anthony N; Jackson, Laurence H; Taylor, Valerie; David, Anna L; Lythgoe, Mark F; Stuckey, Daniel J

    2017-10-01

    Diastolic dysfunction is a sensitive early indicator of heart failure and can provide additional data to conventional measures of systolic function. Transmitral Doppler ultrasound, which measures the one-dimensional flow of blood through the mitral valve, is currently the preferred method for the measurement of diastolic function, but the measurement of the left ventricular volume changes using high-temporal-resolution cinematic magnetic resonance imaging (CINE MRI) is an alternative approach which is emerging as a potentially more robust and user-independent technique. Here, we investigated the performance of high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI and compared it with ultrasound for the detection of diastolic dysfunction in a mouse model of myocardial infarction. An in-house, high-temporal-resolution, retrospectively gated CINE sequence was developed with a temporal resolution of 1 ms. Diastolic function in mice was assessed using a custom-made, open-source reconstruction package. Early (E) and late (A) left ventricular filling phases were easily identifiable, and these measurements were compared directly with high-frequency, pulsed-wave, Doppler ultrasound measurements of mitral valve inflow. A repeatability study established that high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI and Doppler ultrasound showed comparable accuracy when measuring E/A in normal control mice. However, when applied in a mouse model of myocardial infarction, high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI indicated diastolic heart failure (E/A = 0.94 ± 0.11), whereas ultrasound falsely detected normal cardiac function (E/A = 1.21 ± 0.11). The addition of high-temporal-resolution CINE MRI to preclinical imaging studies enhances the library of sequences available to cardiac researchers and potentially identifies diastolic heart failure early in disease progression. © 2017 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of aortic insufficiency by transcutaneous Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Boughner, D R

    1975-11-01

    Using a 2.2 MHZ directional Doppler ultrasound unit, the instantaneous peak aortic velocity pattern was recorded transcutaneously in 15 normal persons and 15 patients with aortic insufficiency. The transducer was positioned in the suprasternal notch and aimed posteriorly to cross the descending aortic arch at an angle approximately parallel to blood flow. The electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, and carotid pulse tracings were recorded simultaneously. In patients with aortic insufficiency there was significant diastolic flow that was not present in normal persons. The planimetered area under the systolic and diastolic velocity tracings represents the distance forward and backward that the stroke volume moves. The ratio was used to approximate the percent regurgitation, which ranged from 9% to 68%. From left ventricular angiograms in the patients with aortic regurgitation single plane ventricular volume measurements were used to calculate ventricular output and when compared with the Fick cardiac output gave an estimate of true percent regurgitation. A strong correlation was obtained with the Doppler estimate (r=0.91), confirming that this simple ultrasound technique can accurately assess the degree of aortic insufficiency.

  1. The calibration of Doppler receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaks, W.

    A study to determine the relative positions of the antennas of two simultaneously operating Doppler receivers and the systematic corrections needed for a given type of receiver is presented. The types of receivers included in the study are listed and results showing the differences between the geocentric coordinates of the antenna phase centers of the receivers are given. It is found that, for DOG receivers, each antenna phase center must be determined separately.

  2. Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Worldwide preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal death and affects 5 to 8% of pregnant women. PE is characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria. Doppler Ultrasound (US) evaluation has been considered a useful method for prediction of PE; however, there is no complete data about the most frequently altered US parameters in the pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uterine, umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries using Doppler US parameters [resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), notch (N), systolic peak (SP) and their combinations] in pregnant women, in order to make a global evaluation of hemodynamic repercussion caused by the established PE. Results A total of 102 pregnant Mexican women (65 PE women and 37 normotensive women) were recruited in a cases and controls study. Blood velocity waveforms from uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, in pregnancies from 24 to 37 weeks of gestation were recorded by trans-abdominal examination with a Toshiba Ultrasound Power Vision 6000 SSA-370A, with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Abnormal general Doppler US profile showed a positive association with PE [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2 - 7.3, P = 0.021)], and a specificity and predictive positive value of 89.2% and 88.6%, respectively. Other parameters like N presence, RI and PI of umbilical artery, as well as the PI of middle cerebral artery, showed differences between groups (P values < 0.05). Conclusion General Doppler US result, as well as N from uterine vessel, RI from umbilical artery, and PI from umbilical and middle cerebral arteries in their individual form, may be considered as tools to determine hemodynamic repercussion caused by PE. PMID:24252303

  3. Doppler ultrasound evaluation in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Mendez, Maria A; Martinez-Gaytan, Victoria; Cortes-Flores, Raul; Ramos-Gonzalez, Rene M; Ochoa-Torres, Mauro A; Garza-Veloz, Idalia; Martinez-Acuña, Monica I; Badillo-Almaraz, Jose I; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L

    2013-11-19

    Worldwide preeclampsia (PE) is the leading cause of maternal death and affects 5 to 8% of pregnant women. PE is characterized by elevated blood pressure and proteinuria. Doppler Ultrasound (US) evaluation has been considered a useful method for prediction of PE; however, there is no complete data about the most frequently altered US parameters in the pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uterine, umbilical, and the middle cerebral arteries using Doppler US parameters [resistance index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), notch (N), systolic peak (SP) and their combinations] in pregnant women, in order to make a global evaluation of hemodynamic repercussion caused by the established PE. A total of 102 pregnant Mexican women (65 PE women and 37 normotensive women) were recruited in a cases and controls study. Blood velocity waveforms from uterine, umbilical, and middle cerebral arteries, in pregnancies from 24 to 37 weeks of gestation were recorded by trans-abdominal examination with a Toshiba Ultrasound Power Vision 6000 SSA-370A, with a 3.5 MHz convex transducer. Abnormal general Doppler US profile showed a positive association with PE [odds ratio (OR) = 2.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2 - 7.3, P = 0.021)], and a specificity and predictive positive value of 89.2% and 88.6%, respectively. Other parameters like N presence, RI and PI of umbilical artery, as well as the PI of middle cerebral artery, showed differences between groups (P values < 0.05). General Doppler US result, as well as N from uterine vessel, RI from umbilical artery, and PI from umbilical and middle cerebral arteries in their individual form, may be considered as tools to determine hemodynamic repercussion caused by PE.

  4. Doppler Imaging of PW And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Galeev, A. I.

    2017-06-01

    In this work we have investigated spottiness of the young active K2-dwarf PW And. The spottiness analysis was based on high resolution spectroscopic observations obtained by 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope on September-October, 2015. The least square deconvolution technique was used to increase S/N of analyzed line profiles. The reconstruction of the spots distribution was performed by developed Doppler imaging codes. It was found that spots concentrate at intermediate latitudes.

  5. Special relativistic visualization by local ray tracing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Grottel, Sebastian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Special relativistic visualization offers the possibility of experiencing the optical effects of traveling near the speed of light, including apparent geometric distortions as well as Doppler and searchlight effects. Early high-quality computer graphics images of relativistic scenes were created using offline, computationally expensive CPU-side 4D ray tracing. Alternate approaches such as image-based rendering and polygon-distortion methods are able to achieve interactivity, but exhibit inferior visual quality due to sampling artifacts. In this paper, we introduce a hybrid rendering technique based on polygon distortion and local ray tracing that facilitates interactive high-quality visualization of multiple objects moving at relativistic speeds in arbitrary directions. The method starts by calculating tight image-space footprints for the apparent triangles of the 3D scene objects. The final image is generated using a single image-space ray tracing step incorporating Doppler and searchlight effects. Our implementation uses GPU shader programming and hardware texture filtering to achieve high rendering speed.

  6. Ultrasound imaging for the rheumatologist. XVII. Role of colour Doppler and power Doppler.

    PubMed

    Iagnocco, A; Epis, O; Delle Sedie, A; Meenagh, G; Filippucci, E; Riente, L; Scirè, C A; Montecucco, C; Bombardieri, S; Grassi, W; Valesini, G

    2008-01-01

    The use of Doppler ultrasound in rheumatology has grown in recent years. This is partly due to the increasing number of rheumatologists who perform US in their daily clinical practise and also to the technological advances of US systems. Both colour Doppler and power Doppler are used to evaluate the degree of intra- and peri-articular soft tissue inflammation. Moreover, Doppler US has been found to be of help in the assessment of vascular pathologies such as the vasculitides. In this review we provide an update of the data regarding the use of colour Doppler and power Doppler in rheumatology.

  7. Impact of changes in systemic vascular resistance on a novel non-invasive continuous cardiac output measurement system based on pulse wave transit time: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hironori; Tsutsui, Masato

    2014-08-01

    The inaccuracy of arterial waveform analysis for measuring continuos cardiac output (CCO) associated with changes in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) has been well documented. A new non-invasive continuous cardiac output monitoring system (esCCO) mainly utilizing pulse wave transit time (PWTT) in place of arterial waveform analysis has been developed. However, the trending ability of esCCO to measure cardiac output during changes in SVR remains unclear. After a previous multicenter study on esCCO measurement, we retrospectively identified two cases in which apparent changes in SVR developed in a short period during data collection. In each case, the trending ability of esCCO to measure cardiac output and time component of PWTT were analyzed. Recorded data suggest that the time component of PWTT may have a significant impact on the accuracy of estimating stroke volume during changes in SVR. However, further prospective clinical studies are required to test this hypothesis.

  8. Left ventricular function in professional football players evaluated by tissue Doppler imaging and strain imaging.

    PubMed

    Tümüklü, Mustafa Murat; Etikan, Ilker; Cinar, Cahide Soydaş

    2008-01-01

    Long-term regular exercise is associated with physiologic and morphologic cardiac alterations. Tissue Doppler Imaging(TDI) and Strain Myocardial Imaging(SI) are new tools in the evaluation systolic and diastolic myocardial function. We sought to compare TDI and SI findings in professional football players and age adjusted sedentary controls to assess the effect of regular athletic training on myocardial function. Transthoracic echocardiography, M-mode, 2-D measurements, Doppler derived mitral-tricuspid annular velocities, reconstructed spectral pulsed wave tissue Doppler velocities, strain and strain rate imaging of seven different myocardial regions were obtained from 24 professional football players and age, sex and weight adjusted 20 controls. Age, body surface area, blood pressure and heart rate were comparable between 2 groups. Football players had significantly increased LV mass, mass index (due to both higher wall thickness and end-diastolic diameter), end-systolic and end-diastolic volume, left atrial diameter and decreased transmitral diastolic late velocity. In athletes TDI analysis showed significantly increased mitral annulus septal TDI peak early diastolic(e) velocity(0.22 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.19 +/- 0.04 m/s, P < 0.05), lateral TDI peak e velocity (0.19 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.02 m/s, P < 0.05) and lateral TDI e/a ratio (1.96 +/- 0.41 and 1.66 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05). In SI analysis mid septal walls (1.71 +/- 0.23 in athletes and 1.49 +/- 0.25 in controls, P < 0.05) and mid lateral walls (1.55 +/- 0.28 and 1.34 +/- 0.25 respectively, P < 0.05) peak systolic strain rate values differences were found to be increased in athletes. Professional football playing is associated with morphologic alteration in left ventricle and left atrium and improvement in left ventricle diastolic function which can be detected by TDI. Strain rate imaging may be a new tool to define subtle change in systolic left ventricular function in "athletes heart" which cannot be determined in

  9. Doppler Ultrasound Detection of Preclinical Changes in Foot Arteries in Early Stage of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Leoniuk, Jolanta; Łukasiewicz, Adam; Szorc, Małgorzata; Sackiewicz, Izabela; Janica, Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background There are few reports regarding the changes within the vessels in the initial stage of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemodynamic and morphological parameters in foot arteries in type 2 diabetes subjects and to compare these parameters to those obtained in a control group of healthy volunteers. Material/Methods Ultrasound B-mode, color Doppler and pulse wave Doppler imaging of foot arteries was conducted in 37 diabetic patients and 36 non-diabetic subjects to determine their morphological (total vascular diameter and flow lumen diameter) and functional parameters (spectral analysis). Results In diabetic patients, the overall vascular diameter and wall thickness were statistically significantly larger when compared to the control group in the right dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.01; P=0.001), left dorsalis pedis artery (P=0.007; P=0.006), right posterior tibial artery (P=0.005; P=0.0005), and left posterior tibial artery (P=0.007; P=0.0002). No significant differences were observed in both groups in flow lumen diameters and blood flow parameters (PSV, EDV, PI, RI). In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index in the right dorsalis pedis artery (r=0.38; P=0.02), right posterior tibial artery (r=0.38; P=0.02) and left posterior tibial artery (r=0.42; P=0.009). The pulsatility index within the dorsalis pedis artery decreased with increased trophic skin changes (r=–0.431, P=0.009). Conclusions In the diabetic group, overall artery diameters larger than and flow lumina comparable to the control group suggest vessel wall thickening occurring in the early stage of diabetes. Doppler flow parameters are comparable in both groups. In the diabetic group, the level of HbA1c positively correlated with flow resistance index and negative correlation was observed between the intensity of trophic skin changes and the pulsatility index. PMID:25202434

  10. Epidemic Contact Tracing via Communication Traces

    PubMed Central

    Farrahi, Katayoun; Emonet, Rémi; Cebrian, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Traditional contact tracing relies on knowledge of the interpersonal network of physical interactions, where contagious outbreaks propagate. However, due to privacy constraints and noisy data assimilation, this network is generally difficult to reconstruct accurately. Communication traces obtained by mobile phones are known to be good proxies for the physical interaction network, and they may provide a valuable tool for contact tracing. Motivated by this assumption, we propose a model for contact tracing, where an infection is spreading in the physical interpersonal network, which can never be fully recovered; and contact tracing is occurring in a communication network which acts as a proxy for the first. We apply this dual model to a dataset covering 72 students over a 9 month period, for which both the physical interactions as well as the mobile communication traces are known. Our results suggest that a wide range of contact tracing strategies may significantly reduce the final size of the epidemic, by mainly affecting its peak of incidence. However, we find that for low overlap between the face-to-face and communication interaction network, contact tracing is only efficient at the beginning of the outbreak, due to rapidly increasing costs as the epidemic evolves. Overall, contact tracing via mobile phone communication traces may be a viable option to arrest contagious outbreaks. PMID:24787614

  11. Performance Of A Doppler-Corrected MDPSK Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Hinedi, Sami; Agan, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    Report presents theoretical analysis of effect of rate of change of Doppler shift of received multiple-differential-phase-shift-keyed (MDPSK) radio signal on performance of Doppler-corrected differential detector. In particular detector, phase of received signal corrected for Doppler shift by use of Doppler estimator designed to operate in presence of negligibly small Doppler rate.

  12. Equations for Bistatic Doppler Shift and Rate of Change of Doppler Shift of Dark Satellite Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Equations are given for the doppler shift and rate of change of doppler shift for the bistatic case where an orbiting, nontransmitting earth... of change of doppler shift, satellite height, earth-center angle between the receiver and the satellite, and zenith angle from receiver to satellite are shown for a typical satellite, 1958 Alpha, Explorer I....have been computed, using transmitting and receiving sites of the Space Surveillance System. Plots of various relationships between doppler shift, rate

  13. Calibration of echocardiographic tissue doppler velocity, using simple universally applicable methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhutia, Niti M.; Zolgharni, Massoud; Willson, Keith; Cole, Graham; Nowbar, Alexandra N.; Manisty, Charlotte H.; Francis, Darrel P.

    2014-03-01

    Some of the challenges with tissue Doppler measurement include: apparent inconsistency between manufacturers, uncertainty over which part of the trace to make measurements and a lack of calibration of measurements. We develop and test tools to solve these problems in echocardiography laboratories. We designed and constructed an actuator and phantom setup to produce automatic reproducible motion, and used it to compare velocities measured using 3 echocardiographic modalities: M-mode, speckle tracking, and tissue Doppler, against a non-ultrasound, optical gold standard. In the clinical phase, 25 patients underwent M-mode, speckle tracking and tissue Doppler measurements of tissue velocities. In-vitro, the M-mode and speckle tracking velocities were concordant with optical assessment. Of the three possible tissue Doppler measurement conventions (outer, middle and inner line) only the middle line agreed with the optical assessment (discrepancy -0.20 (95% confidence interval -0.44 to 0.03)cm/s, p=0.11, outer +5.19(4.65 to 5.73)cm/s, p<0.0001, inner -6.26(-6.87 to -5.65)cm/s, p<0.0001). All 4 studied manufacturers showed a similar pattern. M-mode was therefore chosen as the in-vivo gold standard. Clinical measurements of tissue velocities by speckle tracking and the middle line of the tissue Doppler were concordant with M-mode, while the outer line significantly overestimated (+1.27(0.96 to 1.59)cm/s, p<0.0001) and the inner line underestimated (-1.81(-2.11 to -1.52)cm/s, p<0.0001). Echocardiographic velocity measurements can be calibrated by simple, inexpensive tools. We found that the middle of the tissue Doppler trace represents velocity correctly. Echocardiographers requiring velocities to match between different equipment, settings or modalities should use the middle line as the "guideline".

  14. Parametric Trace Slicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore (Inventor); Chen, Feng (Inventor); Chen, Guo-fang; Wu, Yamei; Meredith, Patrick O. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A program trace is obtained and events of the program trace are traversed. For each event identified in traversing the program trace, a trace slice of which the identified event is a part is identified based on the parameter instance of the identified event. For each trace slice of which the identified event is a part, the identified event is added to an end of a record of the trace slice. These parametric trace slices can be used in a variety of different manners, such as for monitoring, mining, and predicting.

  15. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  16. Trace Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Whitefield, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and

  17. [Doppler color in superficial adenopathies].

    PubMed

    Giovagnorio, F

    1999-03-01

    Superficial lymph nodes are frequently involved in different diseases. Their location makes them suitable for effective assessment with high-resolution US and color Doppler has been recently suggested as a tool for increasing sensitivity in lymph node studies. Thus, we investigated the main vascular patterns detectable in abnormal superficial lymph nodes. We evaluated 260 nodes in 180 adult patients; the nodes were located in the cervicofacial ring (78, 30%), internal jugular stations (104, 40%), and supraclavicular (44, 17%), axillary (21, 8%), and inguinal (13, 5%) stations. Color Doppler was performed with 7.5-13 MHz linear transducers, with parameters adjusted for slow-flow detection (5-6 MHz frequency, 700-900 Hz PRF, 50 Hz band filter, high color persistence). Disease assessment required fine-needle biopsy (95 nodes in 95 patients) and clinical follow-up (165 nodes in 85 patients). Fifty-five nodes (21%) presented acute and 130 (50%) chronic inflammation: 75 nodes (29%) were metastatic. The following vascular patterns were detected: a single vascular pole (type I) was seen in chronic inflammation (72% sensitivity, 86% specificity, 57% positive and 92% negative predictive value); an enlarged single vascular pole, with 2-3 enlarged branches (type II) in acute adenitis (80% sensitivity, 81% specificity, 78% positive and 83% negative predictive value); multiple vascular poles with many deformed and displaced branches converging centrally (type III) in metastases (76% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive and 91% negative predictive value). We conclude that color and power Doppler are useful integrations to B-mode US because they can detect specific signs of malignancy such as peripheral vascular poles and intranodal displacement of vessels.

  18. Feasibility of using a reliable automated Doppler flow velocity measurements for research and clinical practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolgharni, Massoud; Dhutia, Niti M.; Cole, Graham D.; Willson, Keith; Francis, Darrel P.

    2014-03-01

    Echocardiographers are often unkeen to make the considerable time investment to make additional multiple measurements of Doppler velocity. Main hurdle to obtaining multiple measurements is the time required to manually trace a series of Doppler traces. To make it easier to analyse more beats, we present an automated system for Doppler envelope quantification. It analyses long Doppler strips, spanning many heartbeats, and does not require the electrocardiogram to isolate individual beats. We tested its measurement of velocity-time-integral and peak-velocity against the reference standard defined as the average of three experts who each made three separate measurements. The automated measurements of velocity-time-integral showed strong correspondence (R2 = 0.94) and good Bland-Altman agreement (SD = 6.92%) with the reference consensus expert values, and indeed performed as well as the individual experts (R2 = 0.90 to 0.96, SD = 5.66% to 7.64%). The same performance was observed for peak-velocities; (R2 = 0.98, SD = 2.95%) and (R2 = 0.93 to 0.98, SD = 2.94% to 5.12%). This automated technology allows <10 times as many beats to be acquired and analysed compared to the conventional manual approach, with each beat maintaining its accuracy.

  19. Comparison of transvaginal color Doppler imaging and color Doppler energy for assessment of intraovarian blood flow.

    PubMed

    Tailor, A; Jurkovic, D; Bourne, T H; Natucci, M; Collins, W P; Campbell, S

    1998-04-01

    To investigate any systematic differences in the analysis of blood flow velocity waveforms derived by color Doppler imaging and color Doppler energy examination of corpora lutea and adnexal tumors, to test whether the accuracy for diagnosing ovarian malignancy differs between end points derived by color Doppler imaging and color Doppler energy, and to compare the reproducibility of flow velocity waveform analysis obtained by both methods. Fifty-six asymptomatic women with presumed corpora lutea and 67 women with known adnexal masses were included in the study. They all were examined using transvaginal sonography with color Doppler imaging and color Doppler energy. Pulsed Doppler sonography was used to obtain flow velocity waveforms to determine the pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), peak systolic velocity, and time-averaged maximum velocity. The tumors were classified retrospectively according to histologic criteria. There were 52 women with benign, three with borderline, and 12 with malignant ovarian tumors. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no systematic differences in the values of all four measurements performed under color Doppler imaging and color Doppler energy for all cases of corpora lutea and adnexal tumors (PI: P=.153, RI: P=.197, peak systolic velocity: P=.355, time-averaged maximum velocity: P=.159). All cases of borderline and malignant tumors had detectable pulsatile blood flow with color Doppler imaging and color Doppler energy. Forty-two (80.8%) of the benign tumors had flow detectable with color Doppler imaging, compared with 40 (76.9%) with color Doppler energy (P=.480). Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed a marginal but nonsignificant improvement in diagnostic performance with color Doppler energy compared with color Doppler imaging for all four measurements (PI: P=.182, RI: P=.178, peak systolic velocity: P=.254, time-averaged maximum velocity: P=.238). The intraclass correlation coefficients

  20. Luminosity Dependence and Search Doppler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanParadijs, Johannes A.

    1998-01-01

    The research supported by this grant covered two projects: (1) a study of the luminosity dependence of the properties of atoll sources; and (2) a search for Doppler shifts in the pulse arrival times of the anomalous pulsar 4U 0142+61. Following the discovery of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) in Sco X-1 studies of the X-ray properties of atoll sources have been dominated by searches for these QPOS, and the study of their dependence on other source properties, such as X-ray luminosity and spectral state. In the project supported by grant NAG5-3269 we have detected kHz QPOs for several atoll sources. The physical interpretation of these QPO is as yet unclear, but simple models (such as the Keplerian beat frequency model) can probably be excluded. The results of this research have been reported. We have studied the X-ray pulsations of the anomalous X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61 using the Rossi XTE. A detailed search for Doppler shifts did not lead to a positive detection. The upper limits exclude almost all types of possible companion stars, except white dwarfs. However, the latter can be excluded since anomalous X-ray pulsars are very young objects. We therefore conclude that anomalous X-ray pulsars are single neutron stars.

  1. Doppler ultrasound exam of an arm or leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... the risk of problems with the heart and circulatory system. Most smoking-related deaths are caused by cardiovascular problems, not lung cancer. Alternative Names Peripheral vascular disease - Doppler; PVD - Doppler; PAD - Doppler; Blockage of leg ...

  2. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  3. Airborne Differential Doppler Weather Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghini, R.; Bidwell, S.; Liao, L.; Rincon, R.; Heymsfield, G.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Precipitation Radar aboard the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite has shown the potential for spaceborne sensing of snow and rain by means of an incoherent pulsed radar operating at 13.8 GHz. The primary advantage of radar relative to passive instruments arises from the fact that the radar can image the 3-dimensional structure of storms. As a consequence, the radar data can be used to determine the vertical rain structure, rain type (convective/stratiform) effective storm height, and location of the melting layer. The radar, moreover, can be used to detect snow and improve the estimation of rain rate over land. To move toward spaceborne weather radars that can be deployed routinely as part of an instrument set consisting of passive and active sensors will require the development of less expensive, lighter-weight radars that consume less power. At the same time, the addition of a second frequency and an upgrade to Doppler capability are features that are needed to retrieve information on the characteristics of the drop size distribution, vertical air motion and storm dynamics. One approach to the problem is to use a single broad-band transmitter-receiver and antenna where two narrow-band frequencies are spaced apart by 5% to 10% of the center frequency. Use of Ka-band frequencies (26.5 GHz - 40 GHz) affords two advantages: adequate spatial resolution can be attained with a relatively small antenna and the differential reflectivity and mean Doppler signals are directly related to the median mass diameter of the snow and raindrop size distributions. The differential mean Doppler signal has the additional property that this quantity depends only on that part of the radial speed of the hydrometeors that is drop-size dependent. In principle, the mean and differential mean Doppler from a near-nadir viewing radar can be used to retrieve vertical air motion as well as the total mean radial velocity. In the paper, we present theoretical calculations for the

  4. PATH TO NEXRAD: Doppler Radar Development at the National Severe Storms Laboratory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Rodger A.; Lewis, John M.

    2005-10-01

    In this historical paper, we trace the scientific- and engineering-based steps at the National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) and in the larger weather radar community that led to the development of NSSL's first 10-cm-wavelength pulsed Doppler radar. This radar was the prototype for the current Next Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD), or Weather Surveillance Radar-1998 Doppler (WSR-88D) network.We track events, both political and scientific, that led to the establishment of NSSL in 1964. The vision of NSSL's first director, Edwin Kessler, is reconstructed through access to historical documents and oral histories. This vision included the development of Doppler radar, where research was to be meshed with the operational needs of the U.S. Weather Bureau and its successor—the National Weather Service.Realization of the vision came through steps that were often fit-ful, where complications arose due to personnel concerns, and where there were always financial concerns. The historical research indicates that 1) the engineering prowess and mentorship of Roger Lhermitte was at the heart of Doppler radar development at NSSL; 2) key decisions by Kessler in the wake of Lhermitte's sudden departure in 1967 proved crucial to the ultimate success of the project; 3) research results indicated that Doppler velocity signatures of mesocyclones are a precursor of damaging thunderstorms and tornadoes; and 4) results from field testing of the Doppler-derived products during the 1977 79 Joint Doppler Operational Project—especially the noticeable increase in the verification of tornado warnings and an associated marked decrease in false alarms—led to the government decision to establish the NEXRAD network.

  5. Hemodynamic effect of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for lower limb atherosclerosis. A study based on pulsed Doppler ultrasound flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, J J; Stranden, E; Gjølberg, T

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of ankle pressure index (API) and arterial flow velocity including calculation of pulsatility index (PI) from the common femoral and pedal arteries were performed in 89 limbs of 75 patients before and after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) (63 iliac and 26 femoropopliteal). A pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound flowmeter was used. An increase of API at rest of at least 0.15 or the absence of pressure drop after exercise following PTA was used as criteria for a hemodynamically successful angioplasty. In patients with hemodynamically successful PTA of an iliac obstruction PI increased from 4.2 to 8.6 (p less than 0.001); 91 per cent of these patients improved clinically. When iliac angioplasty was hemodynamically unsuccessful, PI remained unchanged; 11 per cent of these patients improved clinically. All limbs with hemodynamically successful PTA of a femoropopliteal obstruction improved clinically and PI increased from 3.1 to 8.7 (p less than 0.001). After hemodynamically unsuccessful femoropopliteal PTA, PI remained unchanged though 25 per cent of these patients improved clinically. These results illustrate that measurement of arterial flow velocity with calculation of PI may be a useful supplement for the functional evaluation of the effect of PTA, since symptomatic response alone may be unreliable.

  6. Detection of Site-Specific Blood Flow Variation in Humans during Running by a Wearable Laser Doppler Flowmeter

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Wataru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2015-01-01

    Wearable wireless physiological sensors are helpful for monitoring and maintaining human health. Blood flow contains abundant physiological information but it is hard to measure blood flow during exercise using conventional blood flowmeters because of their size, weight, and use of optic fibers. To resolve these disadvantages, we previously developed a micro integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter using microelectromechanical systems technology. This micro blood flowmeter is wearable and capable of stable measurement signals even during movement. Therefore, we attempted to measure skin blood flow at the forehead, fingertip, and earlobe of seven young men while running as a pilot experiment to extend the utility of the micro blood flowmeter. We measured blood flow in each subject at velocities of 6, 8, and 10 km/h. We succeeded in obtaining stable measurements of blood flow, with few motion artifacts, using the micro blood flowmeter, and the pulse wave signal and motion artifacts were clearly separated by conducting frequency analysis. Furthermore, the results showed that the extent of the changes in blood flow depended on the intensity of exercise as well as previous work with an ergometer. Thus, we demonstrated the capability of this wearable blood flow sensor for measurement during exercise. PMID:26445047

  7. Left ventricular long axis tissue Doppler systolic velocity is independently related to heart rate and body size.

    PubMed

    Peverill, Roger E; Chou, Bon; Donelan, Lesley

    2017-01-01

    The physiological factors which affect left ventricular (LV) long-axis function are not fully defined. We investigated the relationships of resting heart rate and body size with the peak velocities and amplitudes of LV systolic and early diastolic long axis motion, and also with long-axis contraction duration. Two groups of adults free of cardiac disease underwent pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging at the septal and lateral mitral annular borders. Group 1 (n = 77) were healthy subjects <50 years of age and Group 2 (n = 65) were subjects between 40-80 years of age referred for stress echocardiography. Systolic excursion (SExc), duration (SDur) and peak velocity (s') and early diastolic excursion (EDExc) and peak velocity (e') were measured. SExc was not correlated with heart rate, height or body surface area (BSA) for either LV wall in either group, but SDur was inversely correlated with heart rate for both walls and both groups, and after adjustment for heart rate, males in both groups had a shorter septal SDur. Septal and lateral s` were independently and positively correlated with SExc, heart rate and height in both groups, independent of sex and age. There were no correlations of heart rate, height or BSA with either e` or EDExc for either wall in either group. Heart rate and height independently modify the relationship between s` and SExc, but neither are related to EDExc or e`. These findings suggest that s` and SExc cannot be used interchangeably for the assessment of LV long-axis contraction.

  8. Detection of Site-Specific Blood Flow Variation in Humans during Running by a Wearable Laser Doppler Flowmeter.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Wataru; Nogami, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Furue, Masutaka; Higurashi, Eiji; Sawada, Renshi

    2015-10-05

    Wearable wireless physiological sensors are helpful for monitoring and maintaining human health. Blood flow contains abundant physiological information but it is hard to measure blood flow during exercise using conventional blood flowmeters because of their size, weight, and use of optic fibers. To resolve these disadvantages, we previously developed a micro integrated laser Doppler blood flowmeter using microelectromechanical systems technology. This micro blood flowmeter is wearable and capable of stable measurement signals even during movement. Therefore, we attempted to measure skin blood flow at the forehead, fingertip, and earlobe of seven young men while running as a pilot experiment to extend the utility of the micro blood flowmeter. We measured blood flow in each subject at velocities of 6, 8, and 10 km/h. We succeeded in obtaining stable measurements of blood flow, with few motion artifacts, using the micro blood flowmeter, and the pulse wave signal and motion artifacts were clearly separated by conducting frequency analysis. Furthermore, the results showed that the extent of the changes in blood flow depended on the intensity of exercise as well as previous work with an ergometer. Thus, we demonstrated the capability of this wearable blood flow sensor for measurement during exercise.

  9. Time Course of Isoflurane-Induced Vasodilation: A Doppler Ultrasound Study of the Left Coronary Artery in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lenzarini, Francesca; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Faita, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Isoflurane is widely used as vasodilator in studies of coronary flow reserve (CFR) in small animals, but the protocols have not been standardized. This study assessed the time course of the increase in isoflurane-induced flow in the mouse coronary artery by pulsed-wave Doppler measurements at 1% isoflurane concentration maintained for 6 min and then increased to 2.5% for 30 min. Velocity-time integral and velocity peak values were best fitted by the sigmoid model, which allowed derivation of the mean time (Tt90 = 14 min) of high-isoflurane needed to reach 90% of the hyperemic plateau value. In subsequent experiments, CFR was measured at 4 min (mean time of literature data) and 14 min of hyperemic response. The 4-min CFR was significantly lower than the 14 -min CFR, and the Bland-Altman plot revealed significant bias of the 4-min CFR against the 14-min CFR. This result suggests that measurements of flow velocity at times shorter than 14 min may be inappropriate for expressing the effective value of CFR.

  10. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, S. L.; Zhao, X. P.; Liu, S.; Shen, F. L.; Li, L. L.; Luo, C. R.

    2016-08-01

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with ‘flute-like’ acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  11. Observation of the Zero Doppler Effect.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Chen, Hong

    2016-04-05

    The normal Doppler effect has well-established applications in many areas of science and technology. Recently, a few experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear in negative-index metamaterials. Here we report an experimental observation of the zero Doppler effect, that is, no frequency shift irrespective of the relative motion between the wave signal source and the detector in a zero-index metamaterial. This unique phenomenon, accompanied by the normal and inverse Doppler effects, is generated by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in a composite right/left-handed transmission line loaded with varactors when operating in the near zero-index passband, or the right/left-handed passband. This work has revealed a complete picture of the Doppler effect in metamaterials and may lead to potential applications in electromagnetic wave related metrology.

  12. Observation of the Zero Doppler Effect

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Jia; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Xiaodong; Fang, Kai; Zhao, Junfei; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The normal Doppler effect has well-established applications in many areas of science and technology. Recently, a few experimental demonstrations of the inverse Doppler effect have begun to appear in negative-index metamaterials. Here we report an experimental observation of the zero Doppler effect, that is, no frequency shift irrespective of the relative motion between the wave signal source and the detector in a zero-index metamaterial. This unique phenomenon, accompanied by the normal and inverse Doppler effects, is generated by reflecting a wave from a moving discontinuity in a composite right/left-handed transmission line loaded with varactors when operating in the near zero-index passband, or the right/left-handed passband. This work has revealed a complete picture of the Doppler effect in metamaterials and may lead to potential applications in electromagnetic wave related metrology. PMID:27046395

  13. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R

    2016-08-31

    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  14. Development of the doppler electron velocimeter: theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Reu, Phillip L.

    2007-03-01

    Measurement of dynamic events at the nano-scale is currently impossible. This paper presents the theoretical underpinnings of a method for making these measurements using electron microscopes. Building on the work of Moellenstedt and Lichte who demonstrated Doppler shifting of an electron beam with a moving electron mirror, further work is proposed to perfect and utilize this concept in dynamic measurements. Specifically, using the concept of ''fringe-counting'' with the current principles of transmission electron holography, an extension of these methods to dynamic measurements is proposed. A presentation of the theory of Doppler electron wave shifting is given, starting from the development of the de Broglie wave, up through the equations describing interference effects and Doppler shifting in electron waves. A mathematical demonstration that Doppler shifting is identical to the conceptually easier to understand idea of counting moving fringes is given by analogy to optical interferometry. Finally, potential developmental experiments and uses of a Doppler electron microscope are discussed.

  15. Detection of Early Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Young Patients With Thalassemia Major Using Tissue Doppler Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bornaun, Helen; Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Oztarhan, Kazim; Dedeoglu, Savas; Erfidan, Erkan; Gundogdu, Muge; Aydogan, Gonul; Cengiz, Dicle

    2016-01-01

    Background Myocardial iron overload is the most common cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia major (TM), also known as beta-thalassemia. T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best way of monitoring cardiac iron, and new echocardiographic techniques can be used to assess cardiac function. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function of patients with TM using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and to determine whether this echocardiographic technique is an adequate diagnostic tool for the screening and detection of subclinical cardiac dysfunction. Patients and Methods Eighty-four patients with TM were evaluated by conventional echocardiography and pulse-wave TDI. The data of the TM group (Group 1) were compared with that of 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (Group 2). Cardiovascular T2* MRI examinations were performed in 49 of the 85 patients. Results The patients with TM had significantly lower values for weight, height, body mass index, systolic arterial pressure, deceleration time, E’/A’, and ejection time (ET) than the controls. Group 1 also had significantly higher values for peak early diastolic velocity (E) over peak late diastolic velocity (A), peak early diastolic velocity of TDI (E’), peak late diastolic velocity of TDI (A’), E/E’, isovolumetric relaxation time, isovolumetric contraction time, and RV magnetic perfusion imaging (MPI) than Group 2. Conclusions RV diastolic dysfunction occurs before systolic deterioration in patients with TM and cannot be screened with conventional echocardiographic techniques. In routine practice, TDI measurements, MPI (for global function) and the E/E’ parameter (for diastolic function) can be used to screen and detect early RV dysfunction. PMID:27617076

  16. Non-invasive technique for assessment of vascular wall stiffness using laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Adriaan; Segers, Patrick; Heuten, Hilde; Goovaerts, Inge; Ennekens, Guy; Vrints, Christiaan; Baets, Roel; Dirckx, Joris

    2014-06-01

    It has been shown that in cardiovascular risk management, stiffness of large arteries has a very good predictive value for cardiovascular disease and mortality. This parameter is best known when estimated from the pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured between the common carotid artery (CCA) in the neck and femoral artery in the groin, but may also be determined locally from short-distance measurements on a short vessel segment. In this work, we propose a novel, non-invasive, non-contact laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) technique for evaluating PWV locally in an elastic vessel. First, the method was evaluated in a phantom setup using LDV and a reference method. Values correlated significantly between methods (R ≤ 0.973 (p ≤ 0.01)); and a Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the mean bias was reasonably small (mean bias ≤ -2.33 ms). Additionally, PWV was measured locally on the skin surface of the CCA in 14 young healthy volunteers. As a preliminary validation, PWV measured on two locations along the same artery was compared. Local PWV was found to be between 3 and 20 m s-1, which is in line with the literature (PWV = 5-13 m s-1). PWV assessed on two different locations on the same artery correlated significantly (R = 0.684 (p < 0.01)). In summary, we conclude that this new non-contact method is a promising technique to measure local vascular stiffness in a fully non-invasive way, providing new opportunities for clinical diagnosing.

  17. Evaluation of turbulence measurement techniques from a single Doppler lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Timothy A.; Choukulkar, Aditya; Brewer, W. Alan; Sandberg, Scott P.; Weickmann, Ann M.; Pichugina, Yelena L.; Banta, Robert M.; Oncley, Steven P.; Wolfe, Daniel E.

    2017-08-01

    Measurements of turbulence are essential to understand and quantify the transport and dispersal of heat, moisture, momentum, and trace gases within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Through the years, various techniques to measure turbulence using Doppler lidar observations have been proposed. However, the accuracy of these measurements has rarely been validated against trusted in situ instrumentation. Herein, data from the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) are used to verify Doppler lidar turbulence profiles through comparison with sonic anemometer measurements. For 17 days at the end of the experiment, a single scanning Doppler lidar continuously cycled through different turbulence measurement strategies: velocity-azimuth display (VAD), six-beam scans, and range-height indicators (RHIs) with a vertical stare.Measurements of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), turbulence intensity, and stress velocity from these techniques are compared with sonic anemometer measurements at six heights on a 300 m tower. The six-beam technique is found to generally measure turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity the most accurately at all heights (r2 ≈ 0.78), showing little bias in its observations (slope of ≈ 0. 95). Turbulence measurements from the velocity-azimuth display method tended to be biased low near the surface, as large eddies were not captured by the scan. None of the methods evaluated were able to consistently accurately measure the shear velocity (r2 = 0.15-0.17). Each of the scanning strategies assessed had its own strengths and limitations that need to be considered when selecting the method used in future experiments.

  18. Coherent Doppler Laser Radar: Technology Development and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating, developing, and applying coherent Doppler laser radar technology for over 30 years. These efforts have included the first wind measurement in 1967, the first airborne flights in 1972, the first airborne wind field mapping in 1981, and the first measurement of hurricane eyewall winds in 1998. A parallel effort at MSFC since 1982 has been the study, modeling and technology development for a space-based global wind measurement system. These endeavors to date have resulted in compact, robust, eyesafe lidars at 2 micron wavelength based on solid-state laser technology; in a factor of 6 volume reduction in near diffraction limited, space-qualifiable telescopes; in sophisticated airborne scanners with full platform motion subtraction; in local oscillator lasers capable of rapid tuning of 25 GHz for removal of relative laser radar to target velocities over a 25 km/s range; in performance prediction theory and simulations that have been validated experimentally; and in extensive field campaign experience. We have also begun efforts to dramatically improve the fundamental photon efficiency of the laser radar, to demonstrate advanced lower mass laser radar telescopes and scanners; to develop laser and laser radar system alignment maintenance technologies; and to greatly improve the electrical efficiency, cooling technique, and robustness of the pulsed laser. This coherent Doppler laser radar technology is suitable for high resolution, high accuracy wind mapping; for aerosol and cloud measurement; for Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) measurements of atmospheric and trace gases; for hard target range and velocity measurement; and for hard target vibration spectra measurement. It is also suitable for a number of aircraft operations applications such as clear air turbulence (CAT) detection; dangerous wind shear (microburst) detection; airspeed, angle of attack, and sideslip measurement; and fuel savings through