Science.gov

Sample records for pulstar instrumentation power

  1. Characterization of the PULSTAR Ultracold Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medlin, Graham Lucas

    Ultracold neutrons (UCN) are free neutrons with sufficiently low energy such that they may be confined for lengths of time approaching the neutron lifetime. They have great potential for a wide range of experimental studies, however almost all of these studies are limited by the available UCN density. A UCN source is being installed at the PULSTAR reactor at North Carolina State University (NCSU) that will efficiently provide a high UCN flux per available reactor power. The NCSU source is uniquely placed outside the reactor pool and features a system to transport neutrons from the reactor core. This transport is modeled and benchmarked against foil activation measurements. To produce UCN, a heavy water thermal moderator is coupled with a solid methane cold moderator, the temperature of which can be optimized for down-scattering in the solid deuterium UCN converter. This work will present the construction and testing of the NCSU source's cryostat, cryogenic helium system, and gas handling systems, including a deuterium spin-state converter and Raman spectrometer. Further, this work will characterize the growth of the solid deuterium crystal in our UCN source cryostat.

  2. Community uses the NCSU pulstar reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, C.W.; Weaver, J.N. )

    1993-01-01

    The North Carolina State University (NCSU) PULSTAR reactor is a 1-MW light water pool-type reactor that began operation in 1972 as part of the university's land grant mission for teaching, research, and service. The nuclear services program was formed at the same time to develop and provide nuclear analytical services for members of the university research and industrial community. The majority of these services are neutron activation analysis (NAA) and low-level counting. Other services include neutron radiography, prompt gamma analysis, and neutron depth profiling. Industrial short courses on radiation safety and radioisotope techniques are offered regularly. The PULSTAR reactor facility has more than 800 visitors per year, most of whom are secondary school students participating in reactor-sharing activities.

  3. Cryogenic testing of the PULSTAR UCN Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Christian; Hawari, Ayman; Huffman, Paul; Korobkina, Ekaterina; Leung, Kent; Medlin, Graham; Wehring, Bernard; Young, Albert

    2016-09-01

    An ultracold neutron (UCN) source is being constructed at the NC State University 1 MW PULSTAR reactor facility. UCN will be utilized for multiple experiments, including an investigation of systematic effects relevant to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)-based neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) experiment. The UCN source consist of 1 L of solid deuterium that will reside in the thermal column of the reactor, surrounded by heavy water and methane moderators. Construction of the source is complete and cryogenic testing is in progress to fully characterize growth of the solid deuterium crystal under various pressures and heat loads. Results of this testing program will be presented.

  4. Physics methods development for the NCSU PULSTAR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, P.B.; Mayo, C.W.; Giavedoni, E.

    1996-12-31

    The safety analysis reports (SARs) of all university research reactors include analyses that determine reactor physics parameters. The initial SAR analyses utilized numerical models, codes, cross-section libraries, and computing platforms available at the time. Advances and updates in all of these contributing areas make it difficult or impractical to resort to the earlier methodologies for meeting current analysis needs. Many facilities updated their physics methods during the high-enrichment uranium (HEU) to low-enrichment uranium (LEU) conversion effort. These facilities updated their SAR with current methodologies. The North Carolina State University`s (NCSU`s) PULSTAR research reactor was designed to use low-enrichment (4%) fuel, and as a result, the facility did not update the reactor physics analyses during the HEU-to-LEU conversion program. An effort is currently under way at NCSU to develop new and updated methods for reactor physics calculations. Currently planned physics calculations for the PULSTAR reactor support both reactor licensing and experimental facility development goals. These goals include the following: 1. Increase excess reactivity by introducing beryllium reflector assemblies and a mixed-enrichment core. 2. Characterize various experimental facilities in support of neutron transmutation doping, prompt gamma analysis, and neutron depth profiling. 3. Establish core loading patterns that optimize characteristics for experimental facilities. Two and three-dimensional, multigroup models utilizing the DANT-SYS and MCNP codes have been developed in support of these goals. Results and lessons learned with the DANT-SYS code are presented in this paper.

  5. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  6. Mixed enrichment core design for the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, C.W.; Verghese, K.; Huo, Y.G.

    1997-12-01

    The North Carolina State University PULSTAR Reactor license was renewed for an additional 20 years of operation on April 30, 1997. The relicensing period added additional years to the facility operating time through the end of the second license period, increasing the excess reactivity needs as projected in 1988. In 1995, the Nuclear Reactor Program developed a strategic plan that addressed the future maintenance, development, and utilization of the facility. Goals resulting from this plan included increased academic utilization of the facility in accordance with its role as a university research facility, and increased industrial service use in accordance with the mission of a land grant university. The strategic plan was accepted, and it is the intent of the College of Engineering to operate the PULSTAR Reactor as a going concern through at least the end of the current license period. In order to reach the next relicensing review without prejudice due to low excess reactivity, it is desired to maintain sufficient excess reactivity so that, if relicensed again, the facility could continue to operate without affecting users until new fuel assistance was provided. During the NC State University license renewal, the operation of the PULSTAR Reactor at the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY Buffalo) was terminated. At that time, the SUNY Buffalo facility had about 240 unused PULSTAR Reactor fuel pins with 6% enrichment. The objective of the work reported here was to develop a mixed enrichment core design for the NC State University PULSTAR reactor which would: (1) demonstrate that 6% enriched SUNY buffalo fuel could be used in the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor within the existing technical specification safety limits for core physics parameters; (2) show that use of this fuel could permit operating the NC State University PULSTAR Reactor to 2017 with increased utilization; and (3) assure that the decision whether or not to relicense the facility would

  7. Aeronautic Instruments. Section V : Power Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, G E; Sylvander, R C; Mueller, E F; Wilhelm, R M; Eaton, H N; Warner, John A C

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 gives a general discussion of the uses, principles, construction, and operation of airplane tachometers. Detailed description of all available instruments, both foreign and domestic, are given. Part 2 describes methods of tests and effect of various conditions encountered in airplane flight such as change of temperature, vibration, tilting, and reduced air pressure. Part 3 describes the principal types of distance reading thermometers for aircraft engines, including an explanation of the physical principles involved in the functioning of the instruments and proper filling of the bulbs. Performance requirements and testing methods are given and a discussion of the source of error and results of tests. Part 4 gives methods of tests and calibration, also requirements of gauges of this type for the pressure measurement of the air pressure in gasoline tanks and the engine oil pressure on airplanes. Part 5 describes two types of gasoline gauges, the float type and the pressure type. Methods of testing and calibrating gasoline depth gauges are given. The Schroeder, R. A. E., and the Mark II flowmeters are described.

  8. Plasma instrumentation for fusion power reactor control

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, G.T.; Bauer, J.F.; Maya, I.; Miley, G.H.

    1985-07-01

    Feedback control will be implemented in fusion power reactors to guard against unpredicted behavior of the plant and to assure desirable operation. In this study, plasma state feedback requirements for plasma control by systems strongly coupled to the plasma (magnet sets, RF, and neutral beam heating systems, and refueling systems) are estimated. Generic considerations regarding the impact of the power reactor environment on plasma instrumentation are outlined. Solutions are proposed to minimize the impact of the power reactor environment on plasma instrumentation. Key plasma diagnostics are evaluated with respect to their potential for upgrade and implementation as power reactor instruments.

  9. Ultracold neutron source at the PULSTAR reactor: Engineering design and cryogenic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobkina, E.; Medlin, G.; Wehring, B.; Hawari, A. I.; Huffman, P. R.; Young, A. R.; Beaumont, B.; Palmquist, G.

    2014-12-01

    Construction is completed and commissioning is in progress for an ultracold neutron (UCN) source at the PULSTAR reactor on the campus of North Carolina State University. The source utilizes two stages of neutron moderation, one in heavy water at room temperature and the other in solid methane at ~ 40 K, followed by a converter stage, solid deuterium at 5 K, that allows a single down scattering of cold neutrons to provide UCN. The UCN source rolls into the thermal column enclosure of the PULSTAR reactor, where neutrons will be delivered from a bare face of the reactor core by streaming through a graphite-lined assembly. The source infrastructure, i.e., graphite-lined assembly, heavy-water system, gas handling system, and helium liquefier cooling system, has been tested and all systems operate as predicted. The research program being considered for the PULSTAR UCN source includes the physics of UCN production, fundamental particle physics, and material surface studies of nanolayers containing hydrogen. In the present paper we report details of the engineering and cryogenic design of the facility as well as results of critical commissioning tests without neutrons.

  10. An ultracold neutron source at the NC State University PULSTAR reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobkina, E.; Wehring, B. W.; Hawari, A. I.; Young, A. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Golub, R.; Xu, Y.; Palmquist, G.

    2007-08-01

    Research and development is being completed for an ultracold neutron (UCN) source to be installed at the PULSTAR reactor on the campus of North Carolina State University (NCSU). The objective is to establish a university-based UCN facility with sufficient UCN intensity to allow world-class fundamental and applied research with UCN. To maximize the UCN yield, a solid ortho-D 2 converter will be implemented coupled to two moderators, D 2O at room temperature, to thermalize reactor neutrons, and solid CH 4, to moderate the thermal neutrons to cold-neutron energies. The source assembly will be located in a tank of D 2O in the space previously occupied by the thermal column of the PULSTAR reactor. Neutrons leaving a bare face of the reactor core enter the D 2O tank through a 45×45 cm cross-sectional area void between the reactor core and the D 2O tank. Liquid He will cool the disk-shaped UCN converter to below 5 K. Independently, He gas will cool the cup-shaped CH 4 cold-neutron moderator to an optimum temperature between 20 and 40 K. The UCN will be transported from the converter to experiments by a guide with an inside diameter of 16 cm. Research areas being considered for the PULSTAR UCN source include time-reversal violation in neutron beta decay, neutron lifetime determination, support measurements for a neutron electric-dipole-moment search, and nanoscience applications.

  11. Power control electronics for cryogenic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Biswajit; Gerber, Scott S.; Patterson, Richard L.; Myers, Ira T.

    1995-01-01

    In order to achieve a high-efficiency high-density cryogenic instrumentation system, the power processing electronics should be placed in the cold environment along with the sensors and signal-processing electronics. The typical instrumentation system requires low voltage dc usually obtained from processing line frequency ac power. Switch-mode power conversion topologies such as forward, flyback, push-pull, and half-bridge are used for high-efficiency power processing using pulse-width modulation (PWM) or resonant control. This paper presents several PWM and multiresonant power control circuits, implemented using commercially available CMOS and BiCMOS integrated circuits, and their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature (77 K) as compared to their room temperature (300 K) performance. The operation of integrated circuits at cryogenic temperatures results in an improved performance in terms of increased speed, reduced latch-up susceptibility, reduced leakage current, and reduced thermal noise. However, the switching noise increased at 77 K compared to 300 K. The power control circuits tested in the laboratory did successfully restart at 77 K.

  12. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the point where it enters the instrument. For electrical instruments, the power is considered to be... from one source, or a fault in any part of the power distribution system does not interfere with the...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... power source; and (3) A visual means integral with each instrument to indicate when the power adequate... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply. 29.1331... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Instruments: Installation § 29...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1331 - Instruments using a power supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... power source; and (3) A visual means integral with each instrument to indicate when the power adequate... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instruments using a power supply. 29.1331... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Instruments: Installation § 29...

  15. (Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation technology)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1990-10-10

    While on vacation, the traveler attended the European Nuclear Conference in Lyon, France. This trip was part of an outside activity approved by DOE. The traveler is a consultant to Loyola College, serving as chairman of a panel to assess the state of the art in the controls and instrumentation technology in the European nuclear community. This study is being conducted by Loyola College under subcontract to the National Science Foundation. The traveler was surprised by the level of automation claimed (by the company Siemens AG KWU) to be present in the German Konvoi nuclear power plants. The claim was that this was done to improve the safety of the plant by keeping the operator out of the loop'' for the first 30 minutes of some transients or accidents.

  16. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Instruments using a power source. 23.1331... where it enters the instrument. For electric and vacuum/pressure instruments, the power is considered to be adequate when the voltage or the vacuum/pressure, respectively, is within approved limits. (b)...

  17. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... separate power indicator to indicate when power is not adequate to sustain proper instrument performance. If a separate indicator is used, it must be located so that the pilot using the instruments can monitor the indicator with minimum head and eye movement. The power must be sensed at or near the point...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... separate power indicator to indicate when power is not adequate to sustain proper instrument performance. If a separate indicator is used, it must be located so that the pilot using the instruments can monitor the indicator with minimum head and eye movement. The power must be sensed at or near the point...

  19. Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E

    2017-08-15

    We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.

  20. Development of an Ultracold Neutron Source at the NC State PULSTAR Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmquist, Grant R.; Golub, Robert; Hawari, Ayman I.; Holley, Adam T.; Huffman, Paul R.; Korobkina, Ekaterina; Wehring, Bernard W.; Xu, Yanping; Young, Albert R.

    2006-10-01

    Development of an ultracold neutron (UCN) source is underway at the North Carolina State University 1 MW PULSTAR reactor facility. Fast neutrons from the reactor core are moderated first by heavy water at room temperature and then by solid methane at a temperature of approximately 25 K. The cold neutrons emerging from the methane are then down-scattered to lower energies (< 300 neV) by phonons in the 5 K solid ortho-deuterium converter. The UCN emerging from the deuterium source are guided to the experimental area through diamond-like carbon-coated quartz. The anticipated UCN densities in an experimental volume connected to the end of the guide should exceed densities presently obtained at the UCN source at the Institute Laue--Langevin. The current status of the design and construction will be discussed, with an emphasis on the thermal modeling of the cryostat cooling system. This work is supported in part by NSF grant #0314114 and funds from the DOE INIE program.

  1. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instruments using a power source. 23.1331 Section 23.1331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 23.1331 Instrument...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1331 - Instruments using a power source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Instruments using a power source. 23.1331 Section 23.1331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... vacuum/pressure instruments, the power is considered to be adequate when the voltage or the...

  3. Power calculator for instrumental variable analysis in pharmacoepidemiology.

    PubMed

    Walker, Venexia M; Davies, Neil M; Windmeijer, Frank; Burgess, Stephen; Martin, Richard M

    2017-05-30

    Instrumental variable analysis, for example with physicians' prescribing preferences as an instrument for medications issued in primary care, is an increasingly popular method in the field of pharmacoepidemiology. Existing power calculators for studies using instrumental variable analysis, such as Mendelian randomization power calculators, do not allow for the structure of research questions in this field. This is because the analysis in pharmacoepidemiology will typically have stronger instruments and detect larger causal effects than in other fields. Consequently, there is a need for dedicated power calculators for pharmacoepidemiological research. The formula for calculating the power of a study using instrumental variable analysis in the context of pharmacoepidemiology is derived before being validated by a simulation study. The formula is applicable for studies using a single binary instrument to analyse the causal effect of a binary exposure on a continuous outcome. An online calculator, as well as packages in both R and Stata, are provided for the implementation of the formula by others. The statistical power of instrumental variable analysis in pharmacoepidemiological studies to detect a clinically meaningful treatment effect is an important consideration. Research questions in this field have distinct structures that must be accounted for when calculating power. The formula presented differs from existing instrumental variable power formulae due to its parametrization, which is designed specifically for ease of use by pharmacoepidemiologists.

  4. Modification of Velocity Power Spectra by Thermal Plasma Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittlesey, P. L.; Zank, G. P.; Cirtain, J. W.; Wright, K. H.; Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    The upcoming Solar Probe Plus mission (Launch 2018) will launch with the newest and fastest space plasma instrumentation to date. The Solar Wind Electrons, Alphas, and Protons (SWEAP) instrument suite, which measures thermal plasma, will make measurements faster than the local gyro-frequency and proton plasma frequency. By developing an end-to-end computer model of a SWEAP instrument, this work explores the specific instrumental effects of thermal space plasma measurement, particularly in the reproduction of velocity power spectra, or Power Spectral Densities (PSDs). This model reproduces the slowest measurement cadence of the Solar Probe Cup (SPC), a Faraday cup (FC) style instrument on that will measure thermal plasma density, velocity, and temperature on SPP. By using the calibrated model to model measurement of fully determined and synthetic turbulent time series data, a consistent underestimation of the velocity power spectral indices has been quantified, with possible implications for previous missions flying similar instrumentation.

  5. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition... Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to...

  6. Navy Seabees: Versatile Instruments of Power Projection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-16

    do create a reality effect which impact the public and the policy makers”46 Access to reclusive states like Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia , East Timor...States. United States Ambassador Penn wrote a powerful message regarding the Seabees’ role on 10 January 2013 Embassy’s blog: In Cambodia , the Seabees...powers and regional players are vying for influence among independent nations. Cambodia is one example of the Seabees’ clout, where the U.S. and China

  7. Accelerators - instruments and symbols for power

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, E.

    1985-10-01

    I examine the cult of accelerator physics, describe the laws which govern its development, compare and contrast it with other similar cults in the past, and search for its driving force. It is a story of sheer power. Not only of grand projects whose scale dwarfs everything we have imagined, whose funds deplete federal treasuries and whose real estate transcends national boundaries, but also of the very symbols of human power, directly connected to the destiny of our race.

  8. Optical fiber instrumentation of a high power generator and turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Erlon Vagner; Dreyer, Uilian José; de Morais Sousa, Kleiton; Babinski, Valderi Junot; Somenzi, Jonas; Mezzadri, Felipe; de Lourenço Junior, Ivo; Martelli, Cicero; Cardozo da Silva, Jean Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The instrumentation of a high power generator and its complementary systems including the turbine bearings is presented and discussed. The generator consists of a 175MW hydroelectric generator installed in the Salto Osório power plant in the southern region of Brazil. Results show good agreement with the already existing instrumentation and demonstrate the technology potential for a full optical fiber sensing system to monitor these large machines.

  9. BEAM INSTRUMENTATION FOR HIGH POWER HADRON BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will describe developments in the beam diagnostics which support the understanding and operation of high power hadron accelerators. These include the measurement of large dynamic range transverse and longitudinal beam profiles, beam loss detection, and non-interceptive diagnostics.

  10. Electric vehicle power train instrumentation: Some constraints and considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of pulse modulation control (choppers) to dc motors creates unique instrumentation problems. In particular, the high harmonic components contained in the current waveforms require frequency response accommodations not normally considered in dc instrumentation. In addition to current sensing, accurate power measurement requires not only adequate frequency response but must also address phase errors caused by the finite bandwidths and component characteristics involved. The implications of these problems are assessed.

  11. Information as An Instrument and a Source of National Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    events. Information’s History The concept of information as a source or instrument of power is not new. Leaders have used information as a tool since...economic prowess and advantages from our lVad in information technology. However, these advantages alone will not elevate information to equal status with

  12. Science Instrument Sensitivities to Radioisotope Power System Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bairstow, Brian; Lee, Young; Smythe, William; Zakrajsek, June

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) have been and will be enabling or significantly enhancing for many missions, including several concepts identified in the 2011 Planetary Science Decadal Survey. Some mission planners and science investigators might have concerns about possible impacts from RPS-induced conditions upon the scientific capabilities of their mission concepts. To alleviate these concerns, this paper looks at existing and potential future RPS designs, and examines their potential radiation, thermal, vibration, electromagnetic interference (EMI), and magnetic fields impacts on representative science instruments and science measurements. Radiation impacts from RPS on science instruments are of potential concern for instruments with optical detectors and instruments with high-voltage electronics. The two main areas of concern are noise effects on the instrument measurements, and long-term effects of instrument damage. While RPS by their nature will contribute to total radiation dose, their addition for most missions should be relatively small. For example, the gamma dose rate from one Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) would be an order of magnitude lower than the environmental dose rate at Mars, and would have a correspondingly lower contribution to instrument noise and to any permanent damage to payload sensors. Increasing the number of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules used in an RPS would be expected to increase the generated radiation proportionally; however, the effect of more GPHS modules is mitigated from a strictly linear relationship by self-shielding effects. The radiation field of an RPS is anisotropic due to the deviation of the modules from a point-source-geometry. For particularly sensitive instruments the total radiation dose could be mitigated with separation or application of spot shielding. Though a new, higher-power RPS could generate more heat per unit than current designs, thermal impact to the flight

  13. Electric vehicle power train instrumentation - Some constraints and considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triner, J. E.; Hansen, I. G.

    1977-01-01

    The application of pulse modulation control (choppers) to dc motors creates unique instrumentation problems. In particular, the high-harmonic components contained in the current waveforms require frequency-response accommodations not normally considered in dc instrumentation. In addition to current sensing, accurate power measurement not only requires adequate frequency response but also must address phase errors caused by the finite bandwidths and component characteristics involved. This paper discusses the implications of these problems and reports on the degree to which they have been solved at Lewis Research Center.

  14. Solar electric power for instruments at remote sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    Small photovoltaic (PV) systems are the preferred method to power instruments operating at permanent locations away from the electric power grid. The low-power PV power system consists of a solar panel or small array of panels, lead-acid batteries, and a charge controller. Even though the small PV power system is simple, the job of supplying power at a remote site can be very demanding. The equipment is often exposed to harsh conditions. The site may be inaccessible part of the year or difficult and expensive to reach at any time. Yet the system must provide uninterrupted power with minimum maintenance at low cost. This requires good design. Successful small PV systems often require modifications by a knowledgeable fieldworker to adapt to conditions at the site. Much information is available in many places about solar panels, lead-acid batteries, and charging systems but very little of it applies directly to low power instrument sites. The discussion here aims to close some of the gap. Each of the major components is described in terms of this application with particular attention paid to batteries. Site problems are investigated. Finally, maintenance and test procedures are given. This document assumes that the reader is engaged in planning or maintaining low-power PV sites and has basic electrical and electronic knowledge. The area covered by the discussion is broad. To help the reader with the many terms and acronyms used, they are shown in bold when first used and a glossary is provided at the end of the paper.

  15. Wireless Instrumentation System and Power Management Scheme Therefore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Blalock, Norman N. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A wireless instrumentation system enables a plurality of low power wireless transceivers to transmit measurement data from a plurality of remote station sensors to a central data station accurately and reliably. The system employs a relay based communications scheme where remote stations that cannot communicate directly with the central station due to interference, poor signal strength, etc., are instructed to communicate with other of the remote stations that act as relays to the central station. A unique power management scheme is also employed to minimize power usage at each remote station and thereby maximize battery life. Each of the remote stations prefembly employs a modular design to facilitate easy reconfiguration of the stations as required.

  16. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this paper is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. The paper will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. The paper also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems will be discussed.

  17. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this paper is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. The paper will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. The paper also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems will be discussed.

  18. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1993-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs is reported. The data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems are described. How the systems were used is described and the challenges encountered to make them work are covered. Examples of raw data and derived results are shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems are discussed. For some flight research applications where miniaturized instrumentation is a requirement, the authors conclude that commercially available data loggers and sensors are viable alternatives. In fact, the data loggers and sensors make it possible to gather research-quality data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  19. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this article is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. This article will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. It also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. For some flight research applications where miniaturized instrumentation is a requirement, the authors conclude that commercially available data loggers and sensors are viable alternatives. In fact, the data loggers and sensors make it possible to gather research-quality data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  20. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this article is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. This article will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. It also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. For some flight research applications where miniaturized instrumentation is a requirement, the authors conclude that commercially available data loggers and sensors are viable alternatives. In fact, the data loggers and sensors make it possible to gather research-quality data in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  1. Low power data acquisition unit for autonomous geophysical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prystai, Andrii

    2017-04-01

    The development of an autonomous instrumentation for field research is always a challenge which needs knowledge and application of recent advances in technology and components production. Using this information a super-low power, low-cost, stand-alone GPS time synchronized data acquisition unit was created. It comprises an extended utilization of the microcontroller modules and peripherals and special firmware with flexible PLL parameters. The present report is devoted to a discussion of synchronization mode of data sampling in autonomous field instruments with possibility of GPS random breaks. In the result the achieved sampling timing accuracy is better than ± 60 ns without phase jumps and distortion plus fixed shift depending on the sample rate. The main application of the system is for simultaneous measurement of several channels from magnetic and electric sensors in field conditions for magneto-telluric instruments. First utilization of this system was in the new developed versions of LEMI-026 magnetometer and LEMI-423 field station, where it was applied for digitizing of up to 6 analogue channels with 32-bit resolution in the range ± 2.5V, digital filtration (LPF) and maximum sample rate 4kS/s. It is ready for record in 5 minutes after being turned on. Recently, this system was successfully utilized with the drone-portable magnetometers destined for the search of metallic objects, like UXO, in rural areas, research of engineering underground structure and for mapping ore bodies. The successful tests of drone-portable system were made and tests results are also discussed.

  2. Special function instruments for binary cycle geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robertus, R.J.; Shannon, D.W.; Sullivan, R.G.

    1984-04-01

    Three special instruments have been designed to support plant operations at the Heber geothermal power plant in Heber, California. All are aids to give operating information which no commercial instruments can provide. The first is a package for determining CO/sub 2/ breakout conditions for a particular brine. Brine is sampled continuously at either the wellhead or the plant inlet. A temperature-pressure curve is generated which will span all possible operating combinations. That information tells designers or operators what pump pressures must be used to keep the CO/sub 2/ in solution. A second package unit will detect the presence of ppM levels of isobutane in either brine or water streams. It samples actual flowing brine streams continuously. The function is to alert operators when leaks are occurring in heat exchangers. A final unit senses water in flowing hydrocarbon streams. The sampled streams can be either liquid or vapor. Sensitivity is close to actual solubility limit for water in isobutane. This device warns operators when their hydrocarbon has been contaminated with brine (or cooling water).

  3. Flight Technology Improvement. [spaceborne optical radiometric instruments, attitude control, and electromechanical and power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Shortcomings in spaceborne instrumentation technology are analyzed and recommendations are given for corrections and technology development. The technologies discussed are optical radiometric instruments and calibration, attitude control and determination, and electromechanical and power subsystems.

  4. The effects of nuclear power generators upon electronic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Truscello, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of electronic instruments susceptible to neutron and gamma radiation is evaluated by means of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator /RTG/. The gamma field of the RTG affects instrument operation and requires shielding, the neutron field does not affect operation via secondary capture-gamma production.

  5. Report of the Power Sub systems Panel. [spacecraft instrumentation technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Problems in spacecraft power system design, testing, integration, and operation are identified and solutions are defined. The specific technology development problems discussed include substorm and plasma design data, modeling of the power subsystem and components, power system monitoring and degraded system management, rotary joints for transmission of power and signals, nickel cadmium battery manufacturing and application, on-array power management, high voltage technology, and solar arrays.

  6. The Assessment of Expressive and Instrumental Power Value Orientations in Sport and in Everyday Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredemeier, B. J.

    A typical assumption has been that women and men possess distinct power orientations: women have expressive characteristics, such as interdependence and cooperativeness, while men have instrumental characteristics, such as self reliance and competitiveness. An inventory assessing expressive and instrumental power orientations (PVO's) was developed…

  7. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 141 - Flight Instructor Instrument (For an Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Airplane, Helicopter, or Powered-Lift Instrument Instructor Rating, as Appropriate) Certification Course G Appendix G to Part 141 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Pt. 141, App. G Appendix G to Part 141...

  8. Unlocking the astrometric power of the HST imaging instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhurina-Platais, Vera; Borncamp, David; Avila, Roberto J.; Grogin, Norman A.; Sabbi, Elena; Smith, Linda J.

    2017-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope can yield sub-milli-arc-second accuracy in differential astrometry and 0.1% precision in photometry. To achieve such high accuracy, a number of instrumental issues and systematics must be understood and accounted for. The most important are: stability of the geometric distortion with time and across the filters, understanding small pixel-grid irregularities at various scales. These systematics may affect the measurements of apparent magnitudes, positions, parallaxes, and proper motions. In addition, they worsen the appearance of combined dithered images and the alignment of cross-instrument frames. A deep understanding of the current HST imaging instruments is beneficial to the future space missions such as JWST and WFIRST.

  9. Ozone monitoring at remote sites using low-power instrumentation

    Treesearch

    John L. Korfmacher; Robert C. Musselman

    2014-01-01

    Collection of non-urban ambient ozone data at regional or larger scales (for example, Peake and Fong 1990; Bytnerowicz et al. 2004) is cost- and labor-intensive. Collection efforts are often further complicated by difficulty of access to data collection sites, the need for climate-controlled facilities to house instrumentation, and a requirement for a connection to...

  10. Development of an Instrument for Measuring Clinicians’ Power Perceptions in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Bartos, Christa E.; Fridsma, Douglas B.; Butler, Brian S.; Penrod, Louis E.; Becich, Michael J.; Crowley, Rebecca S.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of an instrument to measure clinicians’ perceptions of their personal power in the workplace in relation to resistance to computerized physician order entry (CPOE). The instrument is based on French and Raven’s six bases of social power and uses a semantic differential methodology. A measurement study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of the survey. The survey was administered online and distributed via a URL by email to 19 physicians, nurses, and health unit coordinators from a university hospital. Acceptable reliability was achieved by removing or moving some semantic differential word pairs used to represent the six power bases (alpha range from 0.76–0.89). The Semantic Differential Power Perception (SDPP) survey validity was tested against an already validated instrument and found to be acceptable (correlation range from 0.51–0.81). The SDPP survey instrument was determined to be both reliable and valid. PMID:18375189

  11. Cleaning ability and induced dentin loss of a magnetostrictive ultrasonic instrument at different power settings.

    PubMed

    Lampe Bless, Kathrin; Sener, Beatrice; Dual, Jürg; Attin, Thomas; Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2011-04-01

    Some laboratory studies have evaluated the oscillation mode of ultrasonic scalers. None of them recorded its influence on calculus removal and quantified dental hard tissue loss. This study aimed to compare the performance of a magnetostrictive ultrasonic instrument at different power settings in vitro in relation to the tip oscillation activity. The oscillation activity of the straight Slimline® insert in the Cavitron® ultrasonic scaling device was analyzed at five different power settings with the help of two laser vibrometers. The performance of this instrument was tested on 60 roots of human single-rooted teeth. Twelve roots each were randomly assigned to be instrumented at a given power setting. Every root was instrumented for 120 s at a standardized instrumentation force of 0.1 ± 0.05 N. In addition, another 30 periodontally involved roots with subgingival calculus were instrumented accordingly to assess the calculus removal potential. The surface characteristics after instrumentation were analyzed under scanning electron microscope. The instrumentation at minimum power setting resulted in an mean increase of the root surface roughness of 0.18 ± 0.28 compared to 0.51 ± 0.48 at maximum power setting (P = 0.0327). The loss of dental hard tissue amounted to 11.37 ± 3.64 at minimum compared to 23.37 ± 15.76 at maximum power (P = 0.0010). The higher the power setting, the more calculus was removed. The values of the latter ranged between 4.04 ± 1.87 and 11.26 ± 4.66 mm² of cleaned dentin surface area (P = 0.0065). At lower power settings, a more favorable relation between cleaning ability, loss of dentine, and surface roughness was found.

  12. Specifying and calibrating instrumentations for wideband electronic power measurements. [in switching circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesco, D. J.; Weikle, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    The wideband electric power measurement related topics of electronic wattmeter calibration and specification are discussed. Tested calibration techniques are described in detail. Analytical methods used to determine the bandwidth requirements of instrumentation for switching circuit waveforms are presented and illustrated with examples from electric vehicle type applications. Analog multiplier wattmeters, digital wattmeters and calculating digital oscilloscopes are compared. The instrumentation characteristics which are critical to accurate wideband power measurement are described.

  13. PROSAD: a powerful platform for instrument calibration and quantification.

    PubMed

    Floridia, Matteo; Cristoni, Simone

    2014-03-15

    There is critical need for instrument calibration and correction procedures that can improve the quality of mass spectral quantitative results. Currently, mass spectrometry (MS) technologies suffer from certain biases related to instrumental responses, which tend to restrict its application. To overcome these biases, we developed the PROgressive SAmple Dosage (PROSAD) platform and tested it. PROSAD, an optimized sample preparation and data analysis method, is used in conjunction with a liquid chromatography (LC)/MS system and a low-voltage ionization source (e.g., no-discharge atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (ND-APCI)). The mass spectrometers used for this report were an HCT Ultra ion trap, a LTQ XL Orbitrap, and a TSQ Vantage triple-stage quadrupole. The PROSAD elaborative system, because of its dedicated mathematical algorithm, provided a dynamic linear calibration check and correction. We tested PROSAD using a leucomalachite green-fish homogenate assay. Atrazine in tea matrix samples were also quantified. Better quantification was achieved using PROSAD compared with the classic linear, static calibration procedure in both test cases. PROSAD provides a dynamically optimized calibration curve that affords increased stability, accuracy, and precision for the quantification of MS data. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Commitment of Force: Employing Force as an Instrument of Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    25–46. 19 Ibid. 20 Edwin J. Arnold, ―The Use of Military Power in Pursuit of National Interests,‖ Parameters (Spring 1994): 8. 21 Robert Gilpin ...The Misguided Liberal Hawks,‖ New York Times, October 8, 2007; Ivo Daalder and Robert Kagan, ―The Next Intervention,‖ Washington Post, August 6, 2007

  15. Power Distribution For Cryogenic Instruments At 6-40K The James Webb Space Telescope Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumler, Peter; Lundquist, Ray; Alvarez, Jose Lorenzo; Sincell, Jeff; Tuttle, Jim

    2011-10-01

    The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) operates its instruments passively cooled at around 40 Kelvin (K), with a warm Instrument Electronic Compartment (IEC) at 300K attached to it. From the warm electronics all secondary signal and power harnesses have to bridge this 300-40K temperature difference and minimize the power dissipation and parasitic heat leak into the cold region. After an introduction of the ISIM with its instruments, the IEC with the electronics, and the harness architecture with a special radiator, this paper elaborates on the cryogenic wire selection and tests performed to establish current de-rating rules for different wire types. Finally failure modes are analyzed for critical instrument interfaces that could inject excessive currents and heat into the harness and cold side, and several solutions for the removal of such failures are presented.

  16. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi; Loebl, Andy; Mays, Gary T; Muhlheim, Michael David; Mullens, James Allen; Poore III, Willis P; Qualls, A L; Wilson, Thomas L; Waterman, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same

  17. Thermal Earth Resource Monitoring Instrument (THERMI) size, weight and power reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newswander, T.; Bergen, Z.; Hancock, J.; Hansen, S.; Shumway, A.; Stauder, J.; Williams, D.

    2015-09-01

    The Thermal Earth Resource Monitoring Instrument (THERMI) has been designed to meet stringent Landsat heritage requirements with reduced size, weight and power (SWaP). The instrument design provides Earth resource monitoring through the use of two long-wave infrared bands that measure the land surface temperatures. These bands are especially valuable for monitoring water resources and water use. Instrument subsystems, including electronics, cryocooler, thermal management, optical telescope assembly, focal plane module, in-flight calibrator, and scene select mirror were studied and conceptually designed to reduce overall THERMI SWaP. Reductions in SWaP make it possible for THERMI to fit on a small satellite bus with room available for an additional optical instrument. Since mission cost historically correlates well with mass and power on-orbit, it is expected that significant cost savings will result from the predicted SWaP reductions.

  18. Analysis of in-core coolant temperatures of FFTF instrumented fuels tests at full power

    SciTech Connect

    Hoth, C.W

    1981-01-01

    Two full size highly instrumented fuel assemblies were inserted into the core of the Fast Flux Test Facility in December of 1979. The major objectives of these instrumented tests are to provide verification of the FFTF core conditions and to characterize temperature patterns within FFTF driver fuel assemblies. A review is presented of the results obtained during the power ascents and during irradiation at a constant reactor power of 400 MWt. The results obtained from these instrumented tests verify the conservative nature of the design methods used to establish core conditions in FFTF. The success of these tests also demonstrates the ability to design, fabricate, install and irradiate complex, instrumented fuel tests in FFTF using commercially procured components.

  19. Analysis instrument test on mathematical power the material geometry of space flat side for grade 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusmaryono, Imam; Suyitno, Hardi; Dwijanto, Karomah, Nur

    2017-08-01

    The main problem of research to determine the quality of test items on the material side of flat geometry to assess students' mathematical power. The method used is quantitative descriptive. The subjects were students of class 8 as many as 20 students. The object of research is the quality of test items in terms of the power of mathematics: validity, reliability, level of difficulty and power differentiator. Instrument mathematical power ratings are tested include: written tests and questionnaires about the disposition of mathematical power. Data were obtained from the field, in the form of test data on the material geometry of space flat side and questionnaires. The results of the test instrument to the reliability of the test item is influenced by many factors. Factors affecting the reliability of the instrument is the number of items, homogeneity test questions, the time required, the uniformity of conditions of the test taker, the homogeneity of the group, the variability problem, and motivation of the individual (person taking the test). Overall, the evaluation results of this study stated that the test instrument can be used as a tool to measure students' mathematical power.

  20. Data processing unit and power system for the LANL REM instrument package. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lockhart, W.

    1994-03-01

    The NEPSTP spacecraft needs highly reliable instrumentation to measure the nuclear reactor health and performance. These reactor measurements are essential for initial on-orbit phase operations and documentation of performance over time. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the guidance of W. C. Feldman, principal investigator, has designed the Radiation Environment Monitoring (REM) package to meet these needs. The instrumentation package contains two neutron detectors, one gamma-ray detector, a data processing unit, and an instrument power system. The REM package is an integration of quick turn-around, state of the practice technology for detectors, data processors, and power systems. A significant portion of REM consists of subsystems with flight history. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has been tasked by LANL to design support electronics, including the Data Processing Unit (DPU) and Power System for REM. The goal for this project is to use technologies from current programs to speed up and simplify the design process. To meet these design goals, the authors use an open architecture VME bus for the DPU and derivatives of CASSINI power supplies for the instrument power system. To simplify integration and test activities, they incorporate a proven software development strategy and tool kits from outside vendors. The objective of this report is to illustrate easily incorporated system level designs for the DPU, power system and ground support electronics (GSE) in support of the important NEPSTP program.

  1. Perceptually Salient Regions of the Modulation Power Spectrum for Musical Instrument Identification.

    PubMed

    Thoret, Etienne; Depalle, Philippe; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a listener to recognize sound sources, and in particular musical instruments from the sounds they produce, raises the question of determining the acoustical information used to achieve such a task. It is now well known that the shapes of the temporal and spectral envelopes are crucial to the recognition of a musical instrument. More recently, Modulation Power Spectra (MPS) have been shown to be a representation that potentially explains the perception of musical instrument sounds. Nevertheless, the question of which specific regions of this representation characterize a musical instrument is still open. An identification task was applied to two subsets of musical instruments: tuba, trombone, cello, saxophone, and clarinet on the one hand, and marimba, vibraphone, guitar, harp, and viola pizzicato on the other. The sounds were processed with filtered spectrotemporal modulations with 2D Gaussian windows. The most relevant regions of this representation for instrument identification were determined for each instrument and reveal the regions essential for their identification. The method used here is based on a "molecular approach," the so-called bubbles method. Globally, the instruments were correctly identified and the lower values of spectrotemporal modulations are the most important regions of the MPS for recognizing instruments. Interestingly, instruments that were confused with each other led to non-overlapping regions and were confused when they were filtered in the most salient region of the other instrument. These results suggest that musical instrument timbres are characterized by specific spectrotemporal modulations, information which could contribute to music information retrieval tasks such as automatic source recognition.

  2. Perceptually Salient Regions of the Modulation Power Spectrum for Musical Instrument Identification

    PubMed Central

    Thoret, Etienne; Depalle, Philippe; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The ability of a listener to recognize sound sources, and in particular musical instruments from the sounds they produce, raises the question of determining the acoustical information used to achieve such a task. It is now well known that the shapes of the temporal and spectral envelopes are crucial to the recognition of a musical instrument. More recently, Modulation Power Spectra (MPS) have been shown to be a representation that potentially explains the perception of musical instrument sounds. Nevertheless, the question of which specific regions of this representation characterize a musical instrument is still open. An identification task was applied to two subsets of musical instruments: tuba, trombone, cello, saxophone, and clarinet on the one hand, and marimba, vibraphone, guitar, harp, and viola pizzicato on the other. The sounds were processed with filtered spectrotemporal modulations with 2D Gaussian windows. The most relevant regions of this representation for instrument identification were determined for each instrument and reveal the regions essential for their identification. The method used here is based on a “molecular approach,” the so-called bubbles method. Globally, the instruments were correctly identified and the lower values of spectrotemporal modulations are the most important regions of the MPS for recognizing instruments. Interestingly, instruments that were confused with each other led to non-overlapping regions and were confused when they were filtered in the most salient region of the other instrument. These results suggest that musical instrument timbres are characterized by specific spectrotemporal modulations, information which could contribute to music information retrieval tasks such as automatic source recognition. PMID:28450846

  3. Validation of smart sensor technologies for instrument calibration reduction in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H M; Mitchell, D W; Petersen, K M; Shell, C S

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a research and development project on the validation of new techniques for on-line testing of calibration drift of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. These techniques generally involve a computer-based data acquisition and data analysis system to trend the output of a large number of instrument channels and identify the channels that have drifted out of tolerance. This helps limit the calibration effort to those channels which need the calibration, as opposed to the current nuclear industry practice of calibrating essentially all the safety-related instrument channels at every refueling outage.

  4. A Dynamic Instrumentation Amplifier for Low-Power and Low-Noise Biopotential Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongpal; Ko, Hyoungho

    2016-01-01

    A low-power and low-noise dynamic instrumentation amplifier (IA) for biopotential acquisition is presented. A dynamic IA that can reduce power consumption with a timely piecewise power-gating method, and noise level with an alternating input and chopper stabilization technique is fabricated with a 0.13-μm CMOS. Using the reconfigurable architecture of the IA, various combinations of the low-noise schemes are investigated. The combination of power gating and chopper stabilization shows a lower noise performance than the combination of power gating and alternating input switching scheme. This dynamic IA achieved a power reduction level of 50% from 10 µA to 5 µA and a noise reduction of 90% from 9.1 µVrms to 0.92 µVrms with the combination of the power gating and chopper stabilization scheme.

  5. Summary of the Flight Technology Improvement Workshop. [spaceborne optical radiometric instruments, attitude control, and electromechanical and power subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Spaceborne instrumentation technology deficiencies are summarized. Recommendations are given for technology development, improvements in existing technology, and policy changes needed to facilitate the use of improved technology. Optical radiometric instruments, attitude control, and electromechanical and power subsystems are considered.

  6. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  7. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  8. The Instruments of Power: A Computer-Assisted Game for the ACSC Curriculum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Tolbert, Brian G. "Instruments of Power Game and Rules Development." Air Command and Staff College, 2005. Wang, Wallace. Visual Basic 6 for Dummies . New...Wang, Visual Basic 6 for Dummies (New York, NY: Wiley Publishing, 1998), 56-58. 56 Hasbro, Risk Rules (Pawtucket, RI: 1999). 57 Hasbro, Risk II Game

  9. A biosignal instrumentation system using capacitive coupling for power and signal isolation.

    PubMed

    Piipponen, Kari Väinö Tapio; Sepponen, Raimo; Eskelinen, Pekka

    2007-10-01

    Requirements for patient safety and a high interference rejection ratio in medical equipment create a demand for effective isolation devices. A system scale approach that uses capacitive coupling for power and signal isolation is presented. In addition, we describe the development of an instrumentation system prototype that applies microwaves for power exchange and bidirectional data transfer across the isolation barrier. The system consists of an isolated transducer unit, a central unit, and a single coaxial cable between the units. The isolation capacitance is as low as 1.6 pF, inclusive of the digital data transfer and power exchange up to 600 mW of isolated direct current (dc) power. The system is suitable for line-powered biopotential measurements and it is shown that reducing the isolation capacitance from 180 to 1.6 pF improves the power line rejection by 30 dB in a typical electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement setup.

  10. Power MOSFET Linearizer of a High-Voltage Power Amplifier for High-Frequency Pulse-Echo Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hojong; Woo, Park Chul; Yeom, Jung-Yeol; Yoon, Changhan

    2017-04-04

    A power MOSFET linearizer is proposed for a high-voltage power amplifier (HVPA) used in high-frequency pulse-echo instrumentation. The power MOSFET linearizer is composed of a DC bias-controlled series power MOSFET shunt with parallel inductors and capacitors. The proposed scheme is designed to improve the gain deviation characteristics of the HVPA at higher input powers. By controlling the MOSFET bias voltage in the linearizer, the gain reduction into the HVPA was compensated, thereby reducing the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers. In order to verify the performance improvement of the HVPA implementing the power MOSFET linearizer, we measured and found that the gain deviation of the power MOSFET linearizer integrated with HVPA under 10 V DC bias voltage was reduced (-1.8 and -0.96 dB, respectively) compared to that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (-2.95 and -3.0 dB, respectively) when 70 and 80 MHz, three-cycle, and 26 dBm input pulse waveforms are applied, respectively. The input 1-dB compression point (an index of linearity) of the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (24.17 and 26.19 dBm at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively) at 10 V DC bias voltage was increased compared to that of HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (22.03 and 22.13 dBm at 70 and 80 MHz, respectively). To further verify the reduction of the echo harmonic distortion components generated by the ultrasonic transducers, the pulse-echo responses in the pulse-echo instrumentation were compared when using HVPA with and without the power MOSFET linearizer. When three-cycle 26 dBm input power was applied, the second, third, fourth, and fifth harmonic distortion components of a 75 MHz transducer driven by the HVPA with power MOSFET linearizer (-48.34, -44.21, -48.34, and -46.56 dB, respectively) were lower than that of the HVPA without the power MOSFET linearizer (-45.61, -41.57, -45.01, and -45.51 dB, respectively). When five-cycle 20 dBm input

  11. Power and sample size calculations for Mendelian randomization studies using one genetic instrument.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Guy; Cowling, Benjamin J; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-08-01

    Mendelian randomization, which is instrumental variable analysis using genetic variants as instruments, is an increasingly popular method of making causal inferences from observational studies. In order to design efficient Mendelian randomization studies, it is essential to calculate the sample sizes required. We present formulas for calculating the power of a Mendelian randomization study using one genetic instrument to detect an effect of a given size, and the minimum sample size required to detect effects for given levels of significance and power, using asymptotic statistical theory. We apply the formulas to some example data and compare the results with those from simulation methods. Power and sample size calculations using these formulas should be more straightforward to carry out than simulation approaches. These formulas make explicit that the sample size needed for Mendelian randomization study is inversely proportional to the square of the correlation between the genetic instrument and the exposure and proportional to the residual variance of the outcome after removing the effect of the exposure, as well as inversely proportional to the square of the effect size.

  12. Statistical power as a function of Cronbach alpha of instrument questionnaire items.

    PubMed

    Heo, Moonseong; Kim, Namhee; Faith, Myles S

    2015-10-14

    In countless number of clinical trials, measurements of outcomes rely on instrument questionnaire items which however often suffer measurement error problems which in turn affect statistical power of study designs. The Cronbach alpha or coefficient alpha, here denoted by C(α), can be used as a measure of internal consistency of parallel instrument items that are developed to measure a target unidimensional outcome construct. Scale score for the target construct is often represented by the sum of the item scores. However, power functions based on C(α) have been lacking for various study designs. We formulate a statistical model for parallel items to derive power functions as a function of C(α) under several study designs. To this end, we assume fixed true score variance assumption as opposed to usual fixed total variance assumption. That assumption is critical and practically relevant to show that smaller measurement errors are inversely associated with higher inter-item correlations, and thus that greater C(α) is associated with greater statistical power. We compare the derived theoretical statistical power with empirical power obtained through Monte Carlo simulations for the following comparisons: one-sample comparison of pre- and post-treatment mean differences, two-sample comparison of pre-post mean differences between groups, and two-sample comparison of mean differences between groups. It is shown that C(α) is the same as a test-retest correlation of the scale scores of parallel items, which enables testing significance of C(α). Closed-form power functions and samples size determination formulas are derived in terms of C(α), for all of the aforementioned comparisons. Power functions are shown to be an increasing function of C(α), regardless of comparison of interest. The derived power functions are well validated by simulation studies that show that the magnitudes of theoretical power are virtually identical to those of the empirical power. Regardless

  13. On-line calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.; Farmer, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    An on-line instrumentation monitoring system was developed and validated for use in nuclear power plants. This system continuously monitors the calibration status of instrument channels and determines whether or not they require manual calibrations. This is accomplished by comparing the output of each instrument channel to an estimate of the process it is monitoring. If the deviation of the instrument channel from the process estimate is greater than an allowable limit, then the instrument is said to be {open_quotes}out of calibration{close_quotes} and manual adjustments are made to correct the calibration. The success of the on-line monitoring system depends on the accuracy of the process estimation. The system described in this paper incorporates both simple intercomparison techniques as well as analytical approaches in the form of data-driven empirical modeling to estimate the process. On-line testing of the calibration of process instrumentation channels will reduce the number of manual calibrations currently performed, thereby reducing both costs to utilities and radiation exposure to plant personnel.

  14. Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and longterm operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal

  15. Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and long-term operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal

  16. Ultra Low Temperature Ultra Low Power Instrument Packages for Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Yeh, P. S.; Cooper, L.; Feng, S.; Young, E.

    2010-01-01

    Achievement of solar system exploration roadmap goals will involve robotic or human deployment and longterm operation of surface science packages remote from human presence, thus requiring autonomous, self-powered operation. The major challenge such packages face will be operating during long periods of darkness in extreme cold potentially without the Pu238 based power and thermal systems available to Apollo era packages (ALSEP). Development of such science payloads will thus require considerable optimization of instrument and subsystem design, packaging and integration for a variety of planetary surface environments in order to support solar system exploration fully. Our work supports this process through the incorporation of low temperature operational components and design strategies which radically minimize power, mass, and cost while maximizing the performance under extreme surface conditions that are in many cases more demanding than those routinely experienced by spacecraft in deep space. Chief instruments/instrument package candidates include those which could provide long-term monitoring of the surface and subsurface environments for fundamental science and human crew safety. The initial attempt to design a 10 instrument environmental monitoring package with a solar/battery based power system led to a package with a unacceptably large mass (500 kg) of which over half was battery mass. In phase 1, a factor of 5 reduction in mass was achieved, first through the introduction of high performance electronics capable of operating at far lower temperature and then through the use of innovative thermal balance strategies involving the use of multi-layer thin materials and gravity-assisted heat pipes. In phase 2, reported here, involves strategies such as universal incorporation of ULT/ULP digital and analog electronics, and distributed or non-conventionally packaged power systems. These strategies will be required to meet the far more challenging thermal

  17. On the Measurement of Power Law Creep Parameters from Instrumented Indentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharshan Phani, P.; Oliver, W. C.; Pharr, G. M.

    2017-08-01

    Recently the measurement of the creep response of materials at small scales has received renewed interest largely because the equipment required to perform high-temperature nanomechanical testing has become available to an increasing number of researchers. Despite that increased access, there remain several significant experimental and modeling challenges in small-scale mechanical testing at elevated temperatures that are as yet unresolved. In this regard, relating the creep response observed with high-temperature instrumented indentation experiments to macroscopic uniaxial creep response is of great practical value. In this review, we present an overview of various methods currently being used to measure creep with instrumented indentation, with a focus on geometrically self-similar indenters, and their relative merits and demerits from an experimental perspective. A comparison of the various methods to use those instrumented indentation results to predict the uniaxial power law creep response of a wide range of materials will be presented to assess their validity.

  18. Red Cloud’s War: A Failure to Effectively Coordinate the Instruments of National Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    history of North America since the arrival of Europeans contains numerous examples of the way in which the instruments of national power were...War, tribes were themselves split as a result of white conflict. In the history of the United States’ dealings with American Indians, through all of...Indian History of the American West (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971), 123. 13 CHAPTER 2 THE APPROACH TO WAR The purpose of this chapter

  19. Real-time digital simulator with digital/analog conversion interface for testing power instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Taoka, Hisao; Iyoda, Isao; Noguchi, Hideo ); Sato, Nobuyuki; Nakazawa, Taro; Yamazaki, Akira )

    1994-05-01

    The need for real-time simulation stems from the fact that in many practical situations it is desirable to analyze the dynamic behavior of a large power system with advanced equipment that has complex and high-speed performance. Analog simulators are effective, however they impose serious limitations on the size of the system that is being modeled. The authors have studied and developed a real-time digital simulator using a hypercube computer, and realized a real-time performance available for the analysis of large power systems. Now as the second step of their study, they developed a digital/analog conversion interface for testing actual power instruments. The interface exchanges the variables of fundamental frequency domain in the real-time digital simulator, and the variables of exact time domain in the analog equipment connected to the simulator. In this paper, the authors describe the detail of their digital/analog conversion interface of a real-time digital simulator for testing advanced power instruments. Its conversion algorithm, system configuration of the simulator with the interface, experimental results are also presented in it.

  20. Battery-powered portable instrument system for single-cell trapping, impedance measurements, and modeling analyses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sung-Lin; Chiang, Yang; Wang, Min-Haw; Chen, Ming-Kun; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2014-08-01

    A battery-powered portable instrument system for the single-HeLa-cell trapping and analyses is developed. A method of alternating current electrothermal (ACET) and DEP are employed for the cell trapping and the method of impedance spectroscopy is employed for cell characterizations. The proposed instrument (160 mm × 170 mm × 110 mm, 1269 g) equips with a highly efficient energy-saving design that promises approximately 120 h of use. It includes an impedance analyzer performing an excitation voltage of 0.2-2 Vpp and a frequency sweep of 11-101 kHz, function generator with the sine wave output at an operating voltage of 1-50 Vpp with a frequency of 4-12 MHz, cell-trapping biochip, microscope, and input/output interface. The biochip for the single cell trapping is designed and simulated based on a combination of ACET and DEP forces. In order to improve measurement accuracy, the curve fitting method is adopted to calibrate the proposed impedance spectroscopy. Measurement results from the proposed system are compared with results from a precision impedance analyzer. The trapped cell can be modeled for numerical analyses. Many advantages are offered in the proposed instrument such as the small volume, real-time monitoring, rapid analysis, low cost, low-power consumption, and portable application. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Aging of electronics with application to nuclear power plant instrumentation. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jr, R T; Thome, F V; Craft, C M

    1983-01-01

    A survey to identify areas of needed research to understand aging mechanisms for electronics in nuclear power plant instrumentation has been completed. The emphasis was on electronic components such as semiconductors, capacitors, and resistors used in safety-related instrumentation in the reactor containment area. The environmental and operational stress factors which may produce degradation during long-term operation were identified. Some attention was also given to humidity effects as related to seals and encapsulants, and failures in printed circuit boards and bonds and solder joints. Results suggest that neutron as well as gamma irradiations should be considered in simulating the aging environment for electronic components. Radiation dose-rate effects in semiconductor devices and organic capacitors need to be further investigated, as well as radiation-voltage bias synergistic effects in semiconductor devices and leakage and permeation of moisture through seals in electronics packages.

  2. Instrument failure detection and estimation methodology for the nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, D.Y.; No, H.C. )

    1990-02-01

    To detect instrument failures in the nuclear power plant, a failure detection and isolation (FDI) method based on the Kalman filter is developed. As soon as the residual (difference between an estimated value and its measurement) exceeds the predetermined bound, the Kalman filter indicates the possibility of failures. Various simulations were performed to verify and validate the FDI logic in detecting steam generator pressurizer instrument failures. It is proved that the FDI technique can detect not only a single failure but also simultaneous common-mode and sequential multiple failures of several direct redundancies. Also it can correctly estimate the physical states in real time and the remaining time may be used for control with signal validation.

  3. Instrumentation and Control Needs for Reliable Operation of Lunar Base Surface Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turso, James; Chicatelli, Amy; Bajwa, Anupa

    2005-01-01

    As one of the near-term goals of the President's Vision for Space Exploration, establishment of a multi-person lunar base will require high-endurance power systems which are independent of the sun, and can operate without replenishment for several years. These requirements may be obtained using nuclear power systems specifically designed for use on the lunar surface. While it is envisioned that such a system will generally be supervised by humans, some of the evolutions required maybe semi or fully autonomous. The entire base complement for near-term missions may be less than 10 individuals, most or all of which may not be qualified nuclear plant operators and may be off-base for extended periods thus, the need for power system autonomous operation. Startup, shutdown, and load following operations will require the application of advanced control and health management strategies with an emphasis on robust, supervisory, coordinated control of, for example, the nuclear heat source, energy conversion plant (e.g., Brayton Energy Conversion units), and power management system. Autonomous operation implies that, in addition to being capable of automatic response to disturbance input or load changes, the system is also capable of assessing the status of the integrated plant, determining the risk associated with the possible actions, and making a decision as to the action that optimizes system performance while minimizing risk to the mission. Adapting the control to deviations from design conditions and degradation due to component failures will be essential to ensure base inhabitant safety and mission success. Intelligent decisions will have to be made to choose the right set of sensors to provide the data needed to do condition monitoring and fault detection and isolation because of liftoff weight and space limitations, it will not be possible to have an extensive set of instruments as used for earth-based systems. Advanced instrumentation and control technologies will be

  4. Self-powered instrumented knee implant for early detection of postoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Almouahed, Shaban; Gouriou, Manuel; Hamitouche, Chafiaa; Stindel, Eric; Roux, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In-vivo measurement of tibiofemoral forces transmitted through Total Knee Replacement (TKR) during normal walking allows the early detection of postoperative complications such as the tibiofemoral misalignment and soft-tissue imbalance. In addition, the in-vivo data can help to improve the design of TKR in order to reduce polyethylene wear and consequently to increase the lifespan of knee implant. A self-powered custom-designed tibial implant instrumented with four piezoceramics has been developed in order to detect the aforementioned complications by measuring the relative change in pressure center (COP) position for different levels of eccentric compressive loading. Moreover, the energy harvested by the piezoceramics can be used to power a transmission system located at the stem of knee implant to wirelessly transmit the in-vivo data outside the implant for further processing and display.

  5. The predictive power of SIMION/SDS simulation software for modeling ion mobility spectrometry instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hanh; McJunkin, Timothy R.; Miller, Carla J.; Scott, Jill R.; Almirall, José R.

    2008-09-01

    The combined use of SIMION 7.0 and the statistical diffusion simulation (SDS) user program in conjunction with SolidWorks® with COSMSOSFloWorks® fluid dynamics software to model a complete, commercial ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was demonstrated for the first time and compared to experimental results for tests using compounds of immediate interest in the security industry (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,7-dinitrofluorene, and cocaine). The effort of this research was to evaluate the predictive power of SIMION/SDS for application to IMS instruments. The simulation was evaluated against experimental results in three studies: (1) a drift:carrier gas flow rates study assesses the ability of SIMION/SDS to correctly predict the ion drift times; (2) a drift gas composition study evaluates the accuracy in predicting the resolution; (3) a gate width study compares the simulated peak shape and peak intensity with the experimental values. SIMION/SDS successfully predicted the correct drift time, intensity, and resolution trends for the operating parameters studied. Despite the need for estimations and assumptions in the construction of the simulated instrument, SIMION/SDS was able to predict the resolution between two ion species in air within 3% accuracy. The preliminary success of IMS simulations using SIMION/SDS software holds great promise for the design of future instruments with enhanced performance.

  6. Powerful low-cost laser lab instrumentation using 32-bit microcontrollers and an Android tablet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyler, Edward

    2012-06-01

    Recently, our laboratory has developed several homemade instruments based on 16-bit microcontrollers.ootnotetextE.E. Eyler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 013105 (2011). Since then, powerful 32-bit microcontrollers have become available, often including host-mode USB interfaces. Concurrently, Android-based tablets with high-resolution graphical displays have become commonplace. With appropriate programming, some tablets can communicate via USB, allowing them to serve as bidirectional touch-screen interfaces. I will describe ramp and timing sequence generators with resolution up to 12.5 ns that can be constructed with very little cost or effort, by making minor additions to commercial development boards. With these instruments, a graphical tablet interface is used mainly for parameter entry, but it is even more useful as a data display for applications such as laser frequency locking or signal monitoring. To minimize programming for the Android devices, my approach is to develop just a few general-purpose ``apps'' that can operate a wide range of instruments. When the USB interface is connected, the microcontroller informs the tablet of its display requirements. This arrangement can eliminate the need for dedicated computers, custom data entry units, or oscilloscopes.

  7. The Predictive Power of SIMION/SDS Simulation Software for Modeling Ion Mobility Spectrometry Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Hanh Lai; Timothy R. McJunkin; Carla J. Miller; Jill R. Scott; Jose R. Almirall

    2008-09-01

    The combined use of SIMION 7.0 and the statistical diffusion simulation (SDS) user program in conjunction with SolidWorks® with COSMSOFloWorks® fluid dynamics software to model a complete, commercial ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was demonstrated for the first time and compared to experimental results for tests using compounds of immediate interest in the security industry (e.g., 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and cocaine). The effort of this research was to evaluate the predictive power of SIMION/SDS for application to IMS instruments. The simulation was evaluated against experimental results in three studies: 1) a drift:carrier gas flow rates study assesses the ability of SIMION/SDS to correctly predict the ion drift times; 2) a drift gas composition study evaluates the accuracy in predicting the resolution; and 3) a gate width study compares the simulated peak shape and peak intensity with the experimental values. SIMION/SDS successfully predicted the correct drift time, intensity, and resolution trends for the operating parameters studied. Despite the need for estimations and assumptions in the construction of the simulated instrument, SIMION/SDS was able to predict the resolution between two ion species in air within 3% accuracy. The preliminary success of IMS simulations using SIMION/SDS software holds great promise for the design of future instruments with enhanced performance.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) in the vapors of surgical power instruments.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G K; Robinson, W S

    1991-01-01

    Cool vapors and aerosols produced by several common surgical power instruments and hot smoke plumes generated with electrocautery on known HIV-1 innoculated blood were gently bubbled through sterile viral culture media. Tissue culture cells were then added and cell infection was detected by the appearance of HIV-1 P-24 core antigen assayed by ELISA in the culture medium. HIV-1 was cultured from cool aerosols and vapors generated by a 30,000 RPM spinning router tip, an instrument similar to the Midas Rex and the Stryker oscillating bone saw. No infectious HIV-1 was detected in aerosols generated by a Valley Lab electrocautery or with a manual wound irrigation syringe known as a Travenol Uromatic irrigator. We have demonstrated that HIV-1 can remain viable in cool aerosols generated by certain surgical power tools and this raises the possibility of HIV transmission to medical personnel exposed to aerosols similarly generated during the care of HIV infected patients. Further work is required to determine whether such a risk exists but caution should be exercised by those exposed to aerosols generated during procedures on HIV-1 infected patients.

  9. Power and particle balance studies using an instrumented limiter system on ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, T.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Bigelow, T.S.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hiroe, S.; Murakami, M.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R.

    1991-06-01

    Power and particle balance studies on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron are carried out using a rail limiter system. Both top and bottom limiters are made of graphite tile arrays, and these tiles are instrumented with thermocouples and Langmuir probes for calorimetric and particle flux measurements. Initial experimental results indicate that the limiter power loss accounts for about 12% of the total and the radiation loss for about 30% of the total; the rest of the plasma heating power appears to be going to the vessel wall. The particle flux to the limiters is also about 18%. The fractions of power and particle flux to the limiters are relatively lower than in tokamaks because of the low edge safety factor, q {approximately}1 rather than q {approximately}3 as in a typical tokamak, at the natural boundary of the ATF plasma (which results from the magnetic stellarator configuration of this currentless device). Therefore, for limiters of the same size, these fractions are about a factor of q lower in ATF than in a comparable tokamak device. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Design Challenges of Power Systems for Instrumented Spacecraft with Very Low Perigees in the Earth's Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moran, Vickie Eakin; Manzer, Dominic D.; Pfaff, Robert E.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Gervin, Jan C.

    1999-01-01

    Designing a solar array to power a spacecraft bus supporting a set of instruments making in situ plasma and neutral atmosphere measurements in the ionosphere at altitudes of 120km or lower poses several challenges. The driving scientific requirements are the field-of-view constraints of the instruments resulting in a three-axis stabilized spacecraft, the need for an electromagnetically unperturbed environment accomplished by designing an electrostatically conducting solar array surface to avoid large potentials, making the spacecraft body as small and as symmetric as possible, and body-mounting the solar array. Furthermore, the life and thermal constraints, in the midst of the effects of the dense atmosphere at low altitude, drive the cross-sectional area of the spacecraft to be small particularly normal to the ram direction. Widely varying sun angles and eclipse durations add further complications, as does the growing desire for multiple spacecraft to resolve spatial and temporal variations packaged into a single launch vehicle. Novel approaches to insure adequate orbit-averaged power levels of approximately 250W include an oval-shaped cross section to increase the solar array collecting area during noon-midnight orbits and the use of a flywheel energy storage system. The flywheel could also be used to help maintain the spacecraft's attitude, particularly during excursions to the lowest perigee altitudes. This paper discusses the approaches used in conceptual power designs for both the proposed Dipper and the Global Electrodynamics Connections (GEC) Mission currently being studied at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  11. Actuation of elastomeric microvalves in point-of-care settings using handheld, battery-powered instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Addae-Mensah, Kweku A; Cheung, Yuk Kee; Fekete, Veronika; Rendely, Matthew S; Sia, Samuel K

    2010-06-21

    Although advanced fluid handling using elastomeric valves is useful for a variety of lab-on-a-chip procedures, their operation has traditionally relied on external laboratory infrastructure (such as gas tanks, computers, and ground electricity). This dependence has held back the use of elastomeric microvalves for point-of-care settings. Here, we demonstrate that microfabricated microvalves, via liquid-filled control channels, can be actuated using only a handheld instrument powered by a 9 V battery. This setup can achieve on-off fluid control with fast response times, coordinated switching of multiple valves, and operation of a biological assay. In the future, this technique may enable the widely used elastomeric microvalves (made by multilayer soft lithography) to be increasingly adopted for portable sensors and lab-on-a-chip systems.

  12. An adaptable multiple power source for mass spectrometry and other scientific instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T.-Y.; Anderson, G. A.; Norheim, R. V.; Prost, S. A.; LaMarche, B. L.; Leach, F. E.; Auberry, K. J.; Smith, R. D.; Koppenaal, D. W.; Robinson, E. W.; Paša-Tolić, L.

    2015-09-01

    An Adaptable Multiple Power Source (AMPS) system has been designed and constructed. The AMPS system can provide up to 16 direct current (DC) (±400 V; 5 mA), 4 radio frequency (RF) (two 500 VPP sinusoidal signals each, 0.5-5 MHz) channels, 2 high voltage sources (±6 kV), and one ˜40 W, 250 °C temperature-regulated heater. The system is controlled by a microcontroller, capable of communicating with its front panel or a computer. It can assign not only pre-saved fixed DC and RF signals but also profiled DC voltages. The AMPS system is capable of driving many mass spectrometry components and ancillary devices and can be adapted to other instrumentation/engineering projects.

  13. An Adaptable Multiple Power Source for Mass Spectrometry and other Scientific Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Anderson, Gordon A.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Prost, Spencer A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Leach, Franklin E.; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Smith, Richard D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Robinson, Errol W.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana

    2015-09-18

    Power supplies are commonly used in the operation of many types of scientific equipment, including mass spectrometers and ancillary instrumentation. A generic modern mass spectrometer comprises an ionization source, such as electrospray ionization (ESI), ion transfer devices such as ion funnels and multipole ion guides, and ion signal detection apparatus. Very often such platforms include, or are interfaced with ancillary elements in order to manipulate samples before or after ionization. In order to operate such scientific instruments, numerous direct current (DC) channels and radio frequency (RF) signals are required, along with other controls such as temperature regulation. In particular, DC voltages in the range of ±400 V, along with MHz range RF signals with peak-to-peak amplitudes in the hundreds of volts range are commonly used to transfer ionized samples under vacuum. Additionally, an ESI source requires a high voltage (HV) DC source capable of producing several thousand volts and heaters capable of generating temperatures up to 300°C. All of these signals must be properly synchronized and managed in order to carry out ion trapping, accumulation and detection.

  14. Compact Low Power DPU for Plasma Instrument LINA on the Russian Luna-Glob Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Walter; Riihelä, Pekka; Kallio, Esa

    2013-04-01

    The Swedish Institute for Space Physics in Kiruna is bilding a Lunar Ions and Neutrals Analyzer (LINA) for the Russian Luna-Glob lander mission and its orbiter, to be launched around 2016 [1]. The Finnish Meteorological Institute is responsible for designing and building the central data processing units (DPU) for both instruments. The design details were optimized to serve as demonstrator also for a similar instrument on the Jupiter mission JUICE. To accommodate the originally set short development time and to keep the design between orbiter and Lander as similar as possible, the DPU is built around two re-programmable flash-based FPGAs from Actel. One FPGA contains a public-domain 32-bit processor core identical for both Lander and orbiter. The other FPGA handles all interfaces to the spacecraft system and the detectors, somewhat different for both implementations. Monitoring of analog housekeeping data is implemented as an IP-core from Stellamar inside the interface FPGA, saving mass, volume and especially power while simplifying the radiation protection design. As especially on the Lander the data retention before transfer to the orbiter cannot be guaranteed under all conditions, the DPU includes a Flash-PROM containing several software versions and data storage capability. With the memory management implemented inside the interface FPGA, one of the serial links can also be used as test port to verify the system, load the initial software into the Flash-PROM and to control the detector hardware directly without support by the processor and a ready developed operating system and software. Implementation and performance details will be presented. Reference: [1] http://www.russianspaceweb.com/luna_glob_lander.html.

  15. Experimental study of the potential hazards of surgical smoke from powered instruments.

    PubMed

    In, S M; Park, D-Y; Sohn, I K; Kim, C-H; Lim, H L; Hong, S-A; Jung, D Y; Jeong, S-Y; Han, J H; Kim, H J

    2015-11-01

    Many surgical instruments have been replaced with powered devices in open gastrointestinal and laparoscopic surgery. The production of smoke as a result of vaporization of surgical tissue is inevitable, and exposure to surgical smoke is a long-standing concern. These vapours are potentially hazardous to patients and surgical teams. The present research was designed to compare various surgical devices to determine whether viable cells exist in their surgical smoke. The search for viable cells in surgical smoke was conducted using both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Various cancers were cauterized with electrocautery, radiofrequency ablation and ultrasonic scalpels, and the resulting surgical smoke was aspirated with Transwell(®) membrane; viable cells were sought in the surgical smoke. In an in vivo experiment, samples of SCC7 were cauterized with an ultrasonic scalpel and the sediment from the rinsed Transwell(®) membrane liquid after centrifugation was injected subcutaneously into the lower back of mice. Viable cells were found only in the smoke from ultrasonic scalpels (in all 25 samples taken 5 cm from the cautery; 2 of 25 samples at 10 cm). Viable cells in the surgical smoke from ultrasonic scalpels implanted in mice grew in 16 of 40 injection sites. Histological and biochemical analyses revealed that these cancer cells were identical to the cancer cells cauterized by the ultrasonic scalpel. Viable tumour cells are produced in the surgical smoke from tumour dissection by ultrasonic scalpel. Surgical relevance Surgical smoke is a byproduct of dissection using a number of powered devices. Hazards to operating room personnel and patients are unclear. This study has shown that use of an ultrasonic dissection device can produce smoke that contains viable tumour cells. Although the model is somewhat artificial, a theoretical risk exists, and measures to evacuate surgical smoke efficiently are important. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Extreme of Landscape in Nuclear Physics via High Power Accelerators and Innovative Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    2013-06-01

    The advent of high power light and heavy ion accelerators producing intense secondary radioactive ion beams (RIB) made possible the exploration of a new territory of nuclei with extreme in Mass and/or N/Z ratios. To pursue the investigation of this "terra incognita" several projects, based on second generation accelerators producing intense stables and RIB, all aiming at the increase by several orders of magnitude of the RIB intensities are now under construction and/or planned for the end of this decade in the world. RIB production at SPES@Legnaro, SPIRAL2@GANIL, ALTO@Orsay, ISAC@TRIUMPF and HIE-ISOLDE@CERN are based on the ISOL method, RIBF@RIKEN, FRIB@MSU-NSCL, FAIR@GSI with the new Super-FRS fragment - separator takes advantage of the "In Flight" technique. Projects of high intensity heavy ions, and low energy drivers (< 10 MeV/n) are also foreseen at Flerov Laboratory@DUBNA, GSI, RIKEN and GANIL. Technical performances, innovative new instrumentation and methods, and keys experiments in connection with these second generation high intensity facilities will be reviewed.

  17. Sound Arguments and Power in Evaluation Research and Policy-Making: A Measuring Instrument and Its Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Igno M. A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes an instrument for assessing the extent to which either sound arguments or power are found in scientific and political discussions. Empirical research is described that investigated the relation between the quality of evaluation research and the quality of discussion in policy-making processes in which the research is used. (Contains 47…

  18. Validation of the Efficacy of a Solar-Thermal Powered Autoclave System for Off-Grid Medical Instrument Wet Sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Kaseman, Tremayne; Boubour, Jean; Schuler, Douglas A.

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave used for the wet sterilization of medical instruments in off-grid settings where electrical power is not readily available. Twenty-seven trials of the solar-thermal powered system were run using an unmodified non-electric autoclave loaded with a simulated bundle of medical instruments and biological test agents. Results showed that in 100% of the trials the autoclave achieved temperatures in excess of 121°C for 30 minutes, indicator tape displayed visible reactions to steam sterilization, and biological tests showed that microbial agents had been eliminated, in compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for efficacious wet sterilization. PMID:22848098

  19. Validation of the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave system for off-grid medical instrument wet sterilization.

    PubMed

    Kaseman, Tremayne; Boubour, Jean; Schuler, Douglas A

    2012-10-01

    This work describes the efficacy of a solar-thermal powered autoclave used for the wet sterilization of medical instruments in off-grid settings where electrical power is not readily available. Twenty-seven trials of the solar-thermal powered system were run using an unmodified non-electric autoclave loaded with a simulated bundle of medical instruments and biological test agents. Results showed that in 100% of the trials the autoclave achieved temperatures in excess of 121°C for 30 minutes, indicator tape displayed visible reactions to steam sterilization, and biological tests showed that microbial agents had been eliminated, in compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention requirements for efficacious wet sterilization.

  20. Jet-engine combustor spectral radiation measurements using fiberoptic instrumentation system. Radiant energy power source for jet aircraft. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Doellner, O.L.

    1986-02-01

    This report is a summary of spectral radiation measurements made at Williams Air Force Base, Chandler, Arizona on a General Electric J-85-5 engine. The spectral radiation measurements consisted of a complete axial profile down the combustor and are directed toward the application of Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft. Radiant Energy Power Source for Jet Aircraft relates to the use of photovoltaic cells to generate the electrical power demands of the aircraft. The photovoltaic cells are mounted inside the casing of the jet engine, are thermally insulated from the normally hot engine casing, and are appropriately cooled. The photovoltaic cells receive their required radiant energy from the combustion flame by holes in the combustion liner. The instrumentation system used to make these measurements employed fiberoptic probes - entering the engine by way of an existing (modified) access plate - to obtain the radiation measurements. Such an instrumentation system has the strong advantage of being able to measure radiation from all the holes running axially down the combustor without making any holes in the plenum/engine casing - as would be necessary if sapphire observation windows were used. This report is thus more than a discussion of spectral radiation measurements made on a jet engine: it is also a report of the design and evolution of the fiberoptic instrumentation system used to make these measurements. The instrumentation system was designed and built from fundamental first principles, as described in detail in this report. It is believed that this fiberoptic instrumentation system will find application with gas-turbine manufacturers.

  1. Transnasal endoscopic approach with powered instrumentation for treating squamous papilloma in the nasopharyngeal surface of the soft palate.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-H; Lee, Y-O; Lee, C-H; Cho, K-S

    2013-05-01

    To demonstrate a safe and effective method for complete resection of squamous papilloma in the nasopharyngeal surface of the soft palate. This technique was used on a patient in whom the papilloma had twice recurred following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. Case report and review of the relevant literature. The patient reported in this paper had recurrent squamous papilloma in the nasopharyngeal surface of the soft palate following uvulopalatopharyngoplasty. He also suffered from nasal regurgitation when drinking water. This lesion, which was difficult to access, was successfully treated via a transnasal endoscopic approach using powered instrumentation. This case report highlights a novel approach for the complete removal of a recurrent papilloma in a relatively inaccessible location. Compared with a transoral approach such as uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, the transnasal endoscopic approach using powered instrumentation could provide a safer, faster, easier and less invasive means of treating squamous papilloma in the nasopharyngeal surface of the soft palate, especially for a lesion that recurs following a transoral approach.

  2. Constellation nuclear instrument analysis required in support of the Extended Power Up-rate for Ginna Station

    SciTech Connect

    Guider, J.; Quinn, E. L.

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Instrumentation and Control design changes required for the Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) at the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Station in Ontario, N.Y. Ginna is a pressurized-water reactor (PWR) plant of the Westinghouse 2-loop design. The request for the EPU was filed on July 7, 2005 and approved by NRC on July 11, 2006 and included an increase in the maximum steady-state reactor core power level from 1520 megawatts thermal to 1775 MWt, which is an increase of approximately 17%. (authors)

  3. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  4. Cordless Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Black & Decker's new cordless lightweight battery powered precision instruments, adapted from NASA's Apollo Lunar Landing program, have been designed to give surgeons optimum freedom and versatility in the operating room. Orthopedic instrument line includes a drill, a driver/reamer and a sagittal saw. All provide up to 20 minutes on a single charge. Power pack is the instrument's handle which is removable for recharging. Microprocessor controlled recharging unit can recharge two power packs together in 30 minutes. Instruments can be gas sterilized, steam-sterilized in an autoclave or immersed for easy cleaning.

  5. Effects-Based Operations: Air Power as the Sole Military Instrument of Power, Has it Matured Enough?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    BACKGROUND He who controls the past, controls the future; and he who controls the present, controls the past. — George Orwell In order to enhance the...50. 77 Ibid., p. 51. 78 George W. Bush (address to Congress, Washington, DC, 20 September 2001). Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news...bence.html (accessed 31 MAR 2006). Berg, Paul D. “Effects-Based Airpower and Space Power.” Air and Space Power Journal, Spring 2006: 17. Bush, George

  6. Hard Power and Soft Power: The Utility of Military Force as an Instrument of Policy in the 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    as a substitute for the threat or use of mili- tary force. Each kind of power has its limitations, but the obvious and familiar challenges ...Nicolson, 2005); Strategy and History: Essays on Theory and Practice (Routledge, 2007; Potomac Books, 2009); National Security Dilem- mas: Challenges ...terms mainly of calcu- lable costs and benefits , principally the former, soft power works through the persuasive potency of ideas that foreigners find

  7. On-Line Monitoring of Instrument Channel Performance in Nuclear Power Plant Using PEANO

    SciTech Connect

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Hoffmann, Mario; Shankar, Ramesh; Davis, Eddie L.

    2002-07-01

    On-Line monitoring evaluates instrument channel performance by assessing its consistency with other plant indications. Industry and EPRI experience at several plants has shown this overall approach to be very effective in identifying instrument channels that are exhibiting degrading or inconsistent performance characteristics. On-Line monitoring of instrument channels provides information about the condition of the monitored channels through accurate, more frequent monitoring of each channel's performance over time. This type of performance monitoring is a methodology that offers an alternate approach to traditional time-directed calibration. On-line monitoring of these channels can provide an assessment of instrument performance and provide a basis for determining when adjustments are necessary. Elimination or reduction of unnecessary field calibrations can reduce associated labor costs, reduce personnel radiation exposure and reduce the potential for miss-calibration. PEANO is a system for on-line calibration monitoring developed in the years 1995-2000 at the Institutt for energiteknikk (IFE), Norway, which makes use of Artificial Intelligence techniques for its purpose. The system has been tested successfully in Europe in off-line tests with EDF (France), Tecnatom (Spain) and ENEA (Italy). PEANO is currently installed and used for on-line monitoring at the HBWR reactor in Halden. This paper describes the results of performance tests on PEANO with real data from a US PWR plant, in the framework of a co-operation among IFE, EPRI and Edan Engineering, to evaluate the potentials of PEANO for future installations in US nuclear plants. (authors)

  8. Use of a New Low-Power Laser-Based Instrumentation to Measure Methane Emissions from Remote Permafrost Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Sturtevant, Cove; Peltola, Olli; Schreiber, Peter; Zulueta, Rommel; Haapanala, Sami; Mammarella, Ivan; Rinne, Janne; Vesala, Timo; McDermitt, Dayle; Oechel, Walt

    2013-04-01

    . Remote permafrost wetlands of Arctic tundra, northern boreal peatlands of Canada and Siberia, and other highly methanogenic ecosystems have few eddy covariance methane measurement stations. Those existing are often located near grid power sources and roads rather than in the middle of the methane-producing ecosystem, while those that are placed appropriately may require extraordinary efforts to build and maintain them, with large investments into man-power and infrastructure. Alternatively, open-path instrumentation allows methane flux measurements at normal pressure without a need for a pump. As a result, the measurements can be done with very low-power (e.g., 7-10 Watts) light (5 .2 kg) instruments permitting solar- and wind- powered remote deployments in hard-to-reach sites from permanent, portable or mobile stations, and cost-effective additions of a methane measurement to the present array of CO2 and H2O measurements. The low-power operation and light weight of open-path eddy covariance station is important for number of ecosystems (rice fields, landfills, wetlands, cattle yards, etc.), but it is especially important for permafrost and other cold regions where grid power and access roads are generally not available, and logistics of running the experiment is particularly expensive. Emerging research using low-power laser-based instrumentation to measure CH4 emissions are presented from several permafrost ecosystems with contrasting setups, weather, and moisture conditions. Principles of open-path instrument operation, station characteristics and requirements are also discussed, as well as concurrent measurements of CO2 and H2O emissions using open-path and enclosed instrumentation.

  9. The power of a musical instrument: Franklin, the Mozarts, Mesmer, and the glass armonica.

    PubMed

    Gallo, D A; Finger, S

    2000-11-01

    In 1761 Benjamin Franklin invented the armonica (often referred to as the glass harmonica), an instrument designed to simplify the playing of the musical glasses. The instrument immediately became popular and inspired compositions by Wolfgang Mozart, who had the opportunity to hear and play one at the house of Franz Anton Mesmer. Armonica music was used by Mesmer in his séances, because he felt it could promote healing by propagating a mystical fluid that he called animal magnetism through the body. After Mesmer's theories were debunked by a highly respected panel of scientists, the armonica fell out of vogue. Because Franklin was on the panel that examined the discredited mesmerism, he indirectly contributed to his own invention's demise.

  10. The Increasing of Air and Biogas Mixer Instrument for Generating Friendly Environmental Electricity Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketut Lasmi, Ni; Singarimbun, Alamta; Srigutomo, Wahyu

    2016-08-01

    The abolition of BBM Subsidize by the government causes increasing of its price, so a solution is necessary to find an alternative energy that is relatively cheap, environmentally friendly and affordable by all layers of society. Biogas is one of the renewable energy resources that are potential to be developed, especially in a farming area, because up until now, animal's excrement is not yet optimally used and it causes problem to environment. In response to this, one innovation to do is to make an instrument which is able to mix biogas and air by venture pipe using the basic theory of fluid mechanic, in order to raise the use of biogas as electricity source. Biogas conversion is done by changing fuel in benzene 5 kilowatt genset to biogas so it becomes a biogas genset. The biogas pressure is controlled when it enters the mixer instrument so that the velocity of biogas when it enters and it comes out the mixer is the same, and it will gain different pressure between biogas and air. By the pressure difference between biogas in the mixer instrument, biogas goes to the burning room so that the conversion of mechanical energy biogas to electricity will happen, and it will be applied as light and society's needs.

  11. 14 CFR 25.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maximum and minimum safe limits; (c) Each takeoff and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; and (d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller speed range that is...

  12. 14 CFR 25.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maximum and minimum safe limits; (c) Each takeoff and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; and (d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller speed range that is...

  13. 14 CFR 25.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maximum and minimum safe limits; (c) Each takeoff and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; and (d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller speed range that is...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1549 - Powerplant and auxiliary power unit instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maximum and minimum safe limits; (c) Each takeoff and precautionary range must be marked with a yellow arc or a yellow line; and (d) Each engine, auxiliary power unit, or propeller speed range that is...

  15. IFU simulator: a powerful alignment and performance tool for MUSE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, Florence; Boudon, Didier; Daguisé, Eric; Dubois, Jean-Pierre; Jarno, Aurélien; Kosmalski, Johan; Piqueras, Laure; Remillieux, Alban; Renault, Edgard

    2014-07-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation Very Large Telescope (VLT) integral field spectrograph (1x1arcmin² Field of View) developed for the European Southern Observatory (ESO), operating in the visible wavelength range (0.465-0.93 μm). A consortium of seven institutes is currently commissioning MUSE in the Very Large Telescope for the Preliminary Acceptance in Chile, scheduled for September, 2014. MUSE is composed of several subsystems which are under the responsibility of each institute. The Fore Optics derotates and anamorphoses the image at the focal plane. A Splitting and Relay Optics feed the 24 identical Integral Field Units (IFU), that are mounted within a large monolithic instrument mechanical structure. Each IFU incorporates an image slicer, a fully refractive spectrograph with VPH-grating and a detector system connected to a global vacuum and cryogenic system. During 2012 and 2013, all MUSE subsystems were integrated, aligned and tested to the P.I. institute at Lyon. After successful PAE in September 2013, MUSE instrument was shipped to the Very Large Telescope in Chile where that was aligned and tested in ESO integration hall at Paranal. After, MUSE was directly transferred in monolithic way without dismounting onto VLT telescope where the first light was overcame. This talk describes the IFU Simulator which is the main alignment and performance tool for MUSE instrument. The IFU Simulator mimics the optomechanical interface between the MUSE pre-optic and the 24 IFUs. The optomechanical design is presented. After, the alignment method of this innovative tool for identifying the pupil and image planes is depicted. At the end, the internal test report is described. The success of the MUSE alignment using the IFU Simulator is demonstrated by the excellent results obtained onto MUSE positioning, image quality and throughput. MUSE commissioning at the VLT is planned for September, 2014.

  16. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  17. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  18. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Radiation safety in the Russian atomic power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, Aleksandr S.; Kiselev, Gennadii V.

    2003-07-01

    Of all the radioactive wastes known in nuclear power industry and engineering, long-lived actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel are the most hazardous. One way to reduce their radiation hazard is to resort to nuclear transmutation, which can be performed either in reactors of various types or in accelerator-driven subcritical systems, whose nuclear safety is superior to that of conventional reactors. Fundamentally resolving the problem of the destruction of long-lived radioactive wastes is likely to stimulate progress in the development of the nuclear power industry.

  19. Power Calculations to Select Instruments for Clinical Trial Secondary Endpoints. A Case Study of Instrument Selection for Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Subjects with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sjoding, Michael W; Schoenfeld, David A; Brown, Samuel M; Hough, Catherine L; Yealy, Donald M; Moss, Marc; Angus, Derek C; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2017-01-01

    After the sample size of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) is set by the power requirement of its primary endpoint, investigators select secondary endpoints while unable to further adjust sample size. How the sensitivity and specificity of an instrument used to measure these outcomes, together with their expected underlying event rates, affect an RCT's power to measure significant differences in these outcomes is poorly understood. Motivated by the design of an RCT of neuromuscular blockade in acute respiratory distress syndrome, we examined how power to detect a difference in secondary endpoints varies with the sensitivity and specificity of the instrument used to measure such outcomes. We derived a general formula and Stata code for calculating an RCT's power to detect differences in binary outcomes when such outcomes are measured with imperfect sensitivity and specificity. The formula informed the choice of instrument for measuring post-traumatic stress-like symptoms in the Reevaluation of Systemic Early Neuromuscular Blockade RCT ( www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT02509078). On the basis of published sensitivities and specificities, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised was predicted to measure a 36% symptom rate, whereas the Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms instrument was predicted to measure a 23% rate, if the true underlying rate of post-traumatic stress symptoms were 25%. Despite its lower sensitivity, the briefer Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms instrument provided superior power to detect a difference in rates between trial arms, owing to its higher specificity. Examining instruments' power to detect differences in outcomes may guide their selection when multiple instruments exist, each with different sensitivities and specificities.

  20. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Medical instruments based on high-power diode and fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gapontsev, V. P.; Minaev, V. P.; Savin, V. I.; Samartsev, I. E.

    2002-11-01

    The characteristics and possible applications of scalpels based on diode and fibre lasers emitting at 0.97, 1.06, 1.56, and 1.9 μm, which are produced and developed by the IRE-Polyus Co., are presented. The advantages of such devices and the possibilities for increasing their output power and extending their spectral range are shown.

  1. Comparison by objective parameters in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis managed medically and surgically (with and without powered instruments)

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Samarendra; Patro, Sourabha K.; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare mucociliary clearance time and quality of life in patients who underwent sinus surgery using conventional and powered instruments, and in patients who were treated nonsurgically. Methods: A total of 151 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were included. Fifty-four patients were treated conservatively, 48 patients were managed surgically by using conventional instruments and 49 patients were managed by using a microdebrider. Kupferberg nasal endoscopy grades, 20-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores, Lund-Mackay scores, and mucociliary clearance time were analyzed. Results: On comparison among the groups, it was found that there was a significant difference between group A (nonsurgically treated) compared with group B (surgery by conventional means) or group C (surgery with microdebrider) in nasal endoscopic grades, Lund-Mackay scores, 20-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test scores, and mucociliary clearance time. However, in comparison between groups B and C, there was no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Mucociliary clearance time tended to recover after starting treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis both after conservative treatment and after surgical treatment. Surgery provided better improvement in different objective scores in chronic rhinosinusitis. There exists no statistical difference in parameters independent of the instrument used for surgery. PMID:28107141

  2. Space Power Program, Instrumentation and Control System Architecture, Pre-conceptual Design, for Information

    SciTech Connect

    JM Ross

    2005-10-20

    The purpose of this letter is to forward the Prometheus preconceptual Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system architecture (Enclosure (1)) to NR for information as part of the Prometheus closeout work. The preconceptual 1&C system architecture was considered a key planning document for development of the I&C system for Project Prometheus. This architecture was intended to set the technical approach for the entire I&C system. It defines interfaces to other spacecraft systems, defines hardware blocks for future development, and provides a basis for accurate cost and schedule estimates. Since the system requirements are not known at this time, it was anticipated that the architecture would evolve as the design of the reactor module was matured.

  3. Geomagnetic field mapping from a satellite: Spatial power spectra of the geomagnetic field at various satellite altitudes relative to natural noise sources and instrument noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The spectra for the field are presented together with power spectra of the natural magnetospheric and ionosheric noise and a power spectrum of instrumental noise for a typical fluxgate magnetometer. The source of these data is described. The implications of these data relative to desirable instrument frequency resonse, stability and resolution specification as well as the implications relative to desirable spacecraft position and orientation accuracy specifications and desirable environmental (temperature, magnetic noise) specifications are discussed. Implications of these power spectra relative to choice of a suitable magnetometer and relative to desirable methods of data processing are considered. Finally, implications for desirable orbit and mission duration are discussed.

  4. Instrumental sensing of stationary source emissions. [sulphur dioxide remote sensing for coal-burning power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herget, W. F.; Conner, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    A variety of programs have been conducted within EPA to evaluate the capability of various ground-based remote-sensing techniques for measuring the SO2 concentration, velocity, and opacity of effluents from coal-burning power plants. The results of the remote measurements were compared with the results of instack measurements made using EPA reference methods. Attention is given to infrared gas-filter correlation radiometry for SO2 concentration, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy for SO2 concentration, ultraviolet matched-filter correlation spectroscopy for SO2 concentration, infrared and ultraviolet television for velocity and SO2 concentration, infrared laser-Doppler velocimetry for plume velocity, and visible laser radar for plume opacity.

  5. Prospects in Nuclear Structure and Reactions with New Generation of High Power Accelerators and Innovative Instrumentation in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gales, S.

    2014-09-01

    The advent of high power light and heavy ion accelerators producing intense secondary radioactive ion beams (RIB) made possible the exploration of a new territory of nuclei with extreme in Mass and/or N/Z ratios. To pursue the investigation of this "terra incognita" several projects, based on second generation accelerators producing intense stables and RIB, all aiming at the increase by several orders of magnitude of the RIB intensities are now under construction and/or planned for the end of this decade in the world. In Europe RIB production at SPES@Legnaro, SPIRAL2@GANIL, ALTO@Orsay and HIE-ISOLDE@CERN are based on the ISOL method, whereas FAIR@GSI with the new Super-FRS fragment-separator takes advantage of the "In Flight" technique. Projects of high intensity heavy ions, and low energy drivers (< 10 MeV/n) are also foreseen at Flerov Laboratory @DUBNA, GSI, and GANIL. Technical performances, innovative new instrumentation and methods, and keys experiments in connection with these second generation high intensity facilities will be reviewed.

  6. Medical devices; general and plastic surgery devices; classification of the powered surgical instrument for improvement in the appearance of cellulite. Final order.

    PubMed

    2014-06-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the powered surgical instrument for improvement in the appearance of cellulite into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  7. Learning root debridement with curettes and power-driven instruments. Part II: Clinical results following mechanical, nonsurgical therapy.

    PubMed

    Rühling, A; König, J; Rolf, H; Kocher, T; Schwahn, C; Plagmann, H C

    2003-07-01

    In a manikin study we recently assessed how effectively student operators were able to learn scaling with curettes (GRA) and power-driven instruments (PP). Calculating the debrided root area effectiveness was low in both groups without systematic training or without a motivational program. After 10 weeks (20 h) of training, operators reached a high effectiveness of 84.7% (GRA) and 81.6% (PP). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of nonsurgical treatment as performed by these student operators. In a clinical trial, 19 students trained in the use of Gracey curettes for 10 weeks (=20 h) (GRA10) and Periopolisher system for 1 week (=2 h) (PP1), and 20 students trained in the use of Gracey curettes for 1 week (GRA1) and the Periopolisher for 10 weeks (PP10) treated one patient each in a split-mouth design. At baseline and 6 months, we recorded probing depth (PD), probing attachment level (PAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) by computer-assisted probing. Statistical analysis was carried out for moderate (category B) and deep sites (category C). Groups were compared using Student's t-tests (p<0.05). Category B sites showed a PD reduction of 1.2/1.0 mm (GRA10/GRA1) and 1.1 mm (PP10/PP1). PAL gain was 0.5/0.3 mm (GRA10/GRA1) and 0.4/0.2 mm (PP10/PP1). In category C sites, PD reduction was 2.1/2.3 mm (GRA10/GRA1) and 2.0 mm (PP10/PP1) with a PAL gain of 0.6/0.9 mm (GRA10/GRA1) and 0.4 mm (PP10/PP1). BOP was significantly lower in all groups. The results show that student operators who had received a systematical training on manikins and had attained different effectiveness results were able to treat periodontally diseased patients successfully using both Gracey and Periopolisher instruments.

  8. Present status of aircraft instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1932-01-01

    This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.

  9. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemian, H.M.

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.

  10. The Observed Response of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 Columns to NOx Emission Controls on Power Plants in the United States: 2005-2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; deFoy, Benjamin; Lamsal, Lok N.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2013-01-01

    We show that Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) tropospheric column data may be used to assess changes of the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States, though careful interpretation of the data is necessary. There is a clear response for OMI NO2 data to NOx emission reductions from power plants associated with the implementation of mandated emission control devices (ECDs) over the OMI record (2005e2011). This response is scalar for all intents and purposes, whether the reduction is rapid or incremental over several years. However, it is variable among the power plants, even for those with the greatest absolute decrease in emissions. We document the primary causes of this variability, presenting case examples for specific power plants.

  11. The observed response of Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 columns to NOx emission controls on power plants in the United States: 2005-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; de Foy, Benjamin; Lamsal, Lok N.; Streets, David G.; Lu, Zifeng; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2013-12-01

    We show that Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) tropospheric column data may be used to assess changes of the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from power plants in the United States, though careful interpretation of the data is necessary. There is a clear response for OMI NO2 data to NOx emission reductions from power plants associated with the implementation of mandated emission control devices (ECDs) over the OMI record (2005-2011). This response is scalar for all intents and purposes, whether the reduction is rapid or incremental over several years. However, it is variable among the power plants, even for those with the greatest absolute decrease in emissions. We document the primary causes of this variability, presenting case examples for specific power plants.

  12. International Atomic Energy Agency specialists meeting on experience in ageing, maintenance, and modernization of instrumentation and control systems for improving nuclear power plant availability

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Specialist`s Meeting on Experience in Aging, Maintenance and Modernization of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Improving Nuclear Power Plant Availability that was held at the Ramada Inn in Rockville, Maryland on May 5--7, 1993. The Meeting was presented in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the International Atomic Energy Agency. There were approximately 65 participants from 13 countries at the Meeting. Individual reports have been cataloged separately.

  13. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smidts, Carol; Huang, Funqun; Li, Boyuan; Li, Xiang

    2016-03-25

    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems’ characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  14. Estimation of sulphur dioxide emission rate from a power plant based on the remote sensing measurement with an imaging-DOAS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Jihyo; Kim, Young J.; Baek, Jongho; Lee, Hanlim

    2016-10-01

    Major anthropogenic sources of sulphur dioxide in the troposphere include point sources such as power plants and combustion-derived industrial sources. Spatially resolved remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases is desirable for better estimation and validation of emission from those sources. It has been reported that Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (I-DOAS) technique can provide the spatially resolved two-dimensional distribution measurement of atmospheric trace gases. This study presents the results of I-DOAS observations of SO2 from a large power plant. The stack plume from the Taean coal-fired power plant was remotely sensed with an I-DOAS instrument. The slant column density (SCD) of SO2 was derived by data analysis of the absorption spectra of the scattered sunlight measured by an I-DOAS over the power plant stacks. Two-dimensional distribution of SO2 SCD was obtained over the viewing window of the I-DOAS instrument. The measured SCDs were converted to mixing ratios in order to estimate the rate of SO2 emission from each stack. The maximum mixing ratio of SO2 was measured to be 28.1 ppm with a SCD value of 4.15×1017 molecules/cm2. Based on the exit velocity of the plume from the stack, the emission rate of SO2 was estimated to be 22.54 g/s. Remote sensing of SO2 with an I-DOAS instrument can be very useful for independent estimation and validation of the emission rates from major point sources as well as area sources.

  15. Ozone monitoring instrument observations of interannual increases in SO2 emissions from Indian coal-fired power plants during 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A

    2013-12-17

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71% during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year(-1) produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R = 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and annual average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by >60% during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  16. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  17. Transformer failure and common-mode loss of instrument power at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 on August 13, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    On August 13, 1991, at Nine Mile Point Unit 2 nuclear power plant, located near Scriba, New York, on Lake Ontario, the main transformer experienced an internal failure that resulted in degraded voltage which caused the simultaneous loss of five uninterruptible power supplies, which in turn caused the loss of several nonsafety systems, including reactor control rod position indication, some reactor power and water indication, control room annunciators, the plant communications system, the plant process computer, and lighting at some locations. The reactor was subsequently brought to a safe shutdown. Following this event, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission dispatched an Incident Investigation Team to the site to determine what happened, to identify the probable causes, and to make appropriate findings and conclusions. This report describes the incident, the methodology used by the team in its investigation, and presents and the team's findings and conclusions. 59 figs., 14 tabs.

  18. 14 CFR 91.205 - Powered civil aircraft with standard category U.S. airworthiness certificates: Instrument and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certificated after March 11, 1996, in accordance with part 23 of this chapter, an approved aviation red or.... (12) If the aircraft is operated for hire over water and beyond power-off gliding distance from shore...” means that area of the land adjacent to the water which is above the high water mark and excludes...

  19. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Buurke, Jaap H; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H V; Rietman, Johan S

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an instrumented wheelchair on a treadmill while upper-extremity kinematic, kinetic and surface electromyographical data was collected during propulsion with and without power-assist. As a result during power-assisted propulsion the peak resultant force exerted at the hand-rim decreased and was performed with significantly less abduction and internal rotation at the shoulder. At shoulder level the anterior directed force and internal rotation and flexion moments decreased significantly. In addition, posterior and the minimal inferior directed forces and the external rotation moment significantly increased. The stroke angle decreased significantly, as did maximum shoulder flexion, extension, abduction and internal rotation. Stroke-frequency significantly increased. Muscle activation in the anterior deltoid and pectoralis major also decreased significantly. In conclusion, compared to hand-rim propulsion power-assisted propulsion seems effective in reducing potential risk factors of overuse injuries with the highest gain on decreased range of motion of the shoulder joint, lower peak propulsion force on the rim and reduced muscle activity.

  20. Micro-Inspector Avionics Module (MAM): A Self-Contained Low Power, Reconfigurable Avionics Platform for Small Spacecrafts and Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashtijou, Mohammad; He, Yutao; Watson, R. Kevin; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes development of a radiation tolerant, low power, reconfigurable avionics module aimed at meeting the avionics needs of the JPL Micro-Inspector spacecraft. This module represents a complete avionics system, consisting of two PowerPC 405 CPUs embedded within a reconfigurable FPGA fabric of over 8 Million logic gates, 64MB of EDAC protected Flash storage and 128MB of EDAC protected DDR SDRAM or SDRAM memories, along with FPGA SEU mitigation logic, and all necessary power conversion. Processor SEU mitigation is achieved by running the two processors in a lock-step and compare configuration. All of these building blocks are integrated into a double sided circuit board that takes as little as 6 square inches of board space. This module can be embedded into a user system as part of a bigger circuit assembly or as a self contained module. This module is being developed as part of a JPL led Micro-Inspector Program, funded by NASA ESMD aimed at producing a 10Kg micro spacecraft.

  1. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  2. Mars Miniature Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Hayati, Samad; Lavery, David; McBrid, Karen

    2006-01-01

    For robotic Mars missions, all the science information is gathered through on-board miniature instruments that have been developed through many years of R&D. Compared to laboratory counterparts, the rover instruments require miniaturization, such as low mass (1-2 kg), low power (> 10 W) and compact (1-2 liter), yet with comparable sensitivity. Since early 1990's, NASA recognized the need for the miniature instruments and launched several instrument R&D programs, e.g., PIDDP (Planetary Instrument Definition and Development). However, until 1998, most of the instrument R&D programs supported only up to a breadboard level (TRL 3, 4) and there is a need to carry such instruments to flight qualifiable status (TU 5, 6) to respond to flight AOs (Announcement of Opportunity). Most of flight AOs have only limited time and financial resources, and can not afford such instrument development processes. To bridge the gap between instrument R&D programs and the flight instrument needs, NASA's Mars Technology Program (MTP) created advanced instrumentation program, Mars Instrument Development Project (MIDP). MIDP candidate instruments are selected through NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process [l]. For example, MIDP 161998-2000) selected and developed 10 instruments, MIDP II (2003-2005) 16 instruments, and MIDP III (2004-2006) II instruments.Working with PIs, JPL has been managing the MIDP tasks since September 1998. All the instruments being developed under MIDP have been selected through a highly competitive NRA process, and employ state-of-the-art technology. So far, four MIDP funded instruments have been selected by two Mars missions (these instruments have further been discussed in this paper).

  3. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  4. "Chiron": A Proposed Remote Sensing Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis Instrument for a Nuclear Powered Prometheus Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Keller, John W.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Mildner, David F. R.

    2004-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) from neutron capture is an important experimental method that yields information on the elemental abundance of target materials. Gamma ray analysis has been used in planetary exploration missions by taking advantage of the production of neutrons as a result of Galactic Cosmic Ray interaction within the planetary surfaces. The .gamma ray signal that can be obtained from the GCR production of neutrons is very low, so we seek a superior neutron source. NASA s Project Prometheus and the Dept. of Energy aim to develop a nuclear power system for planetary exploration. This provides us with a tremendous opportunity to harness the reactor as a source of neutrons that can be used for PGAA. We envision a narrow stream of neutrons from the reactor directed toward the surface of an asteroid or comet producing the prompt gamma ray signal for analysis. Under ideal conditions of neutron flux and spacecraft orbit, both the signal strength and the spatial resolution will improved by several orders of magnitude over previously missions.

  5. Contribution to the safety assessment of instrumentation and control software for nuclear power plants: Application to SPIN N4

    SciTech Connect

    Soubies, B.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M.

    1995-04-01

    1300 MWe pressurised water reactors (PWRs), like the 1400 MWe reactors, operate with microprocessor-based safety systems. This is particularly the case for the Digital Integrated Protection System (SPIN), which trips the reactor in an emergency and sets in action the safeguard functions. The softwares used in these systems must therefore be highly dependable in the execution of their functions. In the case of SPIN, three players are working at different levels to achieve this goal: the protection system manufacturer, Merlin Gerin; the designer of the nuclear steam supply system, Framatome; the operator of the nuclear power plants, Electricite de France (EDF), which is also responsible for the safety of its installations. Regulatory licenses are issued by the French safety authority, the Nuclear Installations Safety Directorate (French abbreviation DSIN), subsequent to a successful examination of the technical provisions adopted by the operator. This examination is carried out by the IPSN and the standing group on nuclear reactors. This communication sets out: the methods used by the manufacturer to develop SPIN software for the 1400 MWe PWRs (N4 series); the approach adopted by the IPSN to evaluate the safety software of the protection system for the N4 series of reactors.

  6. Aeronautic instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everling, E; Koppe, H

    1924-01-01

    The development of aeronautic instruments. Vibrations, rapid changes of the conditions of flight and of atmospheric conditions, influence of the air stream all call for particular design and construction of the individual instruments. This is shown by certain examples of individual instruments and of various classes of instruments for measuring pressure, change of altitude, temperature, velocity, inclination and turning or combinations of these.

  7. Gyroscopic Instruments for Instrument Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brombacher, W G; Trent, W C

    1938-01-01

    The gyroscopic instruments commonly used in instrument flying in the United States are the turn indicator, the directional gyro, the gyromagnetic compass, the gyroscopic horizon, and the automatic pilot. These instruments are described. Performance data and the method of testing in the laboratory are given for the turn indicator, the directional gyro, and the gyroscopic horizon. Apparatus for driving the instruments is discussed.

  8. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  9. 14 CFR 25.1337 - Powerplant instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant instruments. 25.1337 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Instruments: Installation § 25.1337 Powerplant instruments. (a) Instruments and instrument lines. (1) Each powerplant and auxiliary power unit...

  10. Inter-Instrument Comparison of Remote Sensing Devices and a New Method For Calculating On Road NOx Emissions and Validation of Vehicle Specific Power.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Christopher E; Tate, James E; Shepherd, Simon P; Carslaw, David C

    2017-03-13

    to be more accurate than previous methods. Implications Synchronised remote sensing measurements of NO were taken using two different remote sensing devices in an off-road study. It was found that the measurements taken by both instruments were well correlated. Fractional NO2 measurements from a prior study, measurable on only one device, were used to create new NOx emission factors for the device that could not be measured by the second device. These estimates were validated against direct measurement of total NOx emission factors and shown to be an improvement on previous methodologies. Validation of Vehicle Specific Power was performed with good correlation observed.

  11. Measurement Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    International Technology Corporation (INTEC) manufactures a line of instruments used for determining the optical properties of materials used in solar energy applications. Some of INTEC's instruments are based on NASA technology, including the Willey Alpha Meter and McDonald Emissometer. The emissometer is a commercial version of a system developed by Lewis Research Center to test efficiency- increasing coatings on solar panels. These instruments are used by manufacturers of solar equipment, government, university and private laboratories.

  12. Characterization and determination of 28 elements in fly ashes collected in a thermal power plant in Argentina using different instrumental techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero, Julieta; Polla, Griselda; Jiménez Rebagliati, Raúl; Plá, Rita; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2007-02-01

    Different techniques were selected for comprehensive characterization of seven samples of fly ashes collected from the electrostatic precipitator of the San Nicolás thermal power plant (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Particle size was measured using laser based particle size analyzer. X-ray diffraction powder (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the mineral phase present in the matrix consisting basically of aluminosilicates and large amounts of amorphous material. The predominant crystalline phases were mullite and quartz. Major and minors elements (Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Si and Ti) were detected by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V and Zn) content was quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Different acid mixtures and digestion procedures were compared for subsequent ICP OES measurements of the dissolved samples. The digestion procedures used were: i) a mixture of FH + HNO 3 + HClO 4 (open system digestion); ii) a mixture of FH + HNO 3 (MW-assisted digestion); iii) a mixture of HF and aqua regia (MW-assisted digestion). Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was employed for the determination of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Ce, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U and Yb. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of two certified materials namely, i) NIST 1633b, coal fly ash and ii) GBW07105, rock. Mean elements content spanned from 41870 μg g - 1 for Fe to 1.14 μg g - 1 for Lu. The study showed that Fe (41870 μg g - 1 ) ≫ V (1137 μg g - 1 ) > Ni (269 μg g - 1 ) > Mn (169 μg g - 1 ) are the main components. An enrichment, with respect to crustal average, in many elements was observed especially for As, V and Sb that deserve particular interest from the environmental and human health point of view.

  13. Instrumentation for Mars Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    The main portion of the project was to support the "MAE" experiment on the Mars Pathfinder mission and to design instrumentation for future space missions to measure dust deposition on Mars and to characterize the properties of the dust. A second task was to analyze applications for photovoltaics in new space environments, and a final task was analysis of advanced applications for solar power, including planetary probes, photovoltaic system operation on Mars, and satellite solar power systems.

  14. SURVEY INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C J

    1954-01-19

    This pulse-type survey instrument is suitable for readily detecting {alpha} particles in the presence of high {beta} and {gamma} backgrounds. The instruments may also be used to survey for neutrons, {beta} particles and {gamma} rays by employing suitably designed interchangeable probes and selecting an operating potential to correspond to the particular probe.

  15. Small Cold Temperature Instrument Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Feng, S.; Brigham, D.; Beaman, B.

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system with ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a 'cold temperature surface operational' version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower temperature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package. We build on our previous work to develop strategies for incorporating Ultra Low Temperature/Ultra Low Power (ULT/ULP) electronics, lower voltage power supplies, as well as innovative thermal design concepts for instrument packages. Cryotesting has indicated that our small Si RHBD CMOS chips can deliver >80% of room temperature performance at 40K (nominal minimum lunar surface temperature). We leverage collaborations, past and current, with the JPL battery development program to increase power system efficiency in extreme environments. We harness advances in MOSFET technology that provide lower voltage thresholds for power switching circuits incorporated into our low voltage power supply concept. Conventional power conversion has a lower efficiency. Our low power circuit concept based on 'synchronous rectification' could produce stable voltages as low as 0.6 V with 85% efficiency. Our distributed micro-battery-based power supply concept incorporates cold temperature power supplies operating with a 4 V or 8 V battery. This work will allow us to provide guidelines for applying the low temperature, low power system approaches generically to the widest range of surface instruments.

  16. Instrument Measures Ocular Counterrolling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitan, Barry M.; Reschke, Millard F.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, battery-powered, noninvasive unit replaces several pieces of equipment and operator. Instrument that looks like pair of goggles with small extension box measures ocular counterrotation. Called "otolith tilt-translation reinterpretation" (OTTR) goggles, used in studies of space motion sickness. Also adapted to use on Earth and determine extent of impairment in patients who have impaired otolith functions.

  17. 14 CFR 121.307 - Engine instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine instruments. 121.307 Section 121.307..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.307 Engine instruments. Unless the Administrator allows or requires different instrumentation for turbine engine powered...

  18. 14 CFR 121.307 - Engine instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engine instruments. 121.307 Section 121.307..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.307 Engine instruments. Unless the Administrator allows or requires different instrumentation for turbine engine powered...

  19. 14 CFR 121.307 - Engine instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engine instruments. 121.307 Section 121.307..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.307 Engine instruments. Unless the Administrator allows or requires different instrumentation for turbine engine powered...

  20. 14 CFR 121.307 - Engine instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine instruments. 121.307 Section 121.307..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.307 Engine instruments. Unless the Administrator allows or requires different instrumentation for turbine engine powered...

  1. 14 CFR 121.307 - Engine instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine instruments. 121.307 Section 121.307..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Instrument and Equipment Requirements § 121.307 Engine instruments. Unless the Administrator allows or requires different instrumentation for turbine engine powered...

  2. Instrumentation '79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Surveys the state of commerical development of analytical instrumentation as reflected by the Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy. Includes optical spectroscopy, liquid chromatography, magnetic spectrometers, and x-ray. (Author/MA)

  3. Instrumentation Cables Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Chris Bensdotter

    2016-10-01

    A fire at a nuclear power plant (NPP) has the potential to damage structures, systems, and components important to safety, if not promptly detected and suppressed. At Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975, a fire in the reactor building damaged electrical power and control systems. Damage to instrumentation cables impeded the function of both normal and standby reactor coolant systems, and degraded the operators’ plant monitoring capability. This event resulted in additional NRC involvement with utilities to ensure that NPPs are properly protected from fire as intended by the NRC principle design criteria (i.e., general design criteria 3, Fire Protection). Current guidance and methods for both deterministic and performance based approaches typically make conservative (bounding) assumptions regarding the fire-induced failure modes of instrumentation cables and those failure modes effects on component and system response. Numerous fire testing programs have been conducted in the past to evaluate the failure modes and effects of electrical cables exposed to severe thermal conditions. However, that testing has primarily focused on control circuits with only a limited number of tests performed on instrumentation circuits. In 2001, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) conducted a series of cable fire tests designed to address specific aspects of the cable failure and circuit fault issues of concern1. The NRC was invited to observe and participate in that program. The NRC sponsored Sandia National Laboratories to support this participation, whom among other things, added a 4-20 mA instrumentation circuit and instrumentation cabling to six of the tests. Although limited, one insight drawn from those instrumentation circuits tests was that the failure characteristics appeared to depend on the cable insulation material. The results showed that for thermoset insulated cables, the instrument reading tended to drift

  4. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  5. Advanced sensors and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Zimmerman, Joe E.; Douglas, Kevin R.; Morrison, Rusty

    1990-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating the readiness of Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation to meet the requirements of new initiatives in space. The following technical objectives and technologies are briefly discussed: smart and nonintrusive sensors; onboard signal and data processing; high capacity and rate adaptive data acquisition systems; onboard computing; high capacity and rate onboard storage; efficient onboard data distribution; high capacity telemetry; ground and flight test support instrumentation; power distribution; and workstations, video/lighting. The requirements for high fidelity data (accuracy, frequency, quantity, spatial resolution) in hostile environments will continue to push the technology developers and users to extend the performance of their products and to develop new generations.

  6. Crystallographic Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslanov, L. A.; Fetisov, G. V.; Howard, J. A. K.

    1998-07-01

    Innovations in crystallographic instrumentation and the rapid development of methods of diffraction measurement have led to a vast improvement in our ability to determine crystal and molecular structure. This up-to-date resource will allow the reader to harness the potential of X-ray diffraction instruments. Different sources of X-radiation used in crystallography are introduced, including synchrotron radiation, as well as a systematic review of detectors for X-rays and basic instruments for single crystal and powder diffractometry. The principles of the diffraction experiment are discussed and related to their practical application with a comparative description of different scan procedures. Diffraction data collection and processing are also reviewed and methods for error correction are described. This book will provide a useful guide for researchers and students starting in this area of science, as well as skilled crystallographers.

  7. Instrumented SSH

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  8. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  9. Geoscience instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, E. A. (Editor); Mercanti, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Geoscience instrumentation systems are considered along with questions of geoscience environment, signal processing, data processing, and design problems. Instrument platforms are examined, taking into account ground platforms, airborne platforms, ocean platforms, and space platforms. In situ and laboratory sensors described include acoustic wave sensors, age sensors, atmospheric constituent sensors, biological sensors, cloud particle sensors, electric field sensors, electromagnetic field sensors, precision geodetic sensors, gravity sensors, ground constituent sensors, horizon sensors, humidity sensors, ion and electron sensors, magnetic field sensors, tide sensors, and wind sensors. Remote sensors are discussed, giving attention to sensing techniques, acoustic echo-sounders, gamma ray sensors, optical sensors, radar sensors, and microwave radiometric sensors.

  10. U.S. Foreign Policy and the Military Instrument of National Power: Important Questions and a Model for Developing Military Engagement Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    September 26, 2007). 8 policy was influenced not only by a Social Gospel21, but by influential theologians and one in particular named Reinhold...Service College Fellows. The views expressed in this student academic research paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy ...or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. U.S. FOREIGN POLICY AND THE MILITARY INSTRUMENT OF

  11. Instrument Remote Control via the Astronomical Instrument Markup Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sall, Ken; Ames, Troy; Warsaw, Craig; Koons, Lisa; Shafer, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project ongoing at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Information Systems Center (ISC) supports NASA's mission by defining an adaptive intranet-based framework that provides robust interactive and distributed control and monitoring of remote instruments. An astronomical IRC architecture that combines the platform-independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of Extensible Markup Language (XML) to express hierarchical data in an equally platform-independent, as well as human readable manner, has been developed. This architecture is implemented using a variety of XML support tools and Application Programming Interfaces (API) written in Java. IRC will enable trusted astronomers from around the world to easily access infrared instruments (e.g., telescopes, cameras, and spectrometers) located in remote, inhospitable environments, such as the South Pole, a high Chilean mountaintop, or an airborne observatory aboard a Boeing 747. Using IRC's frameworks, an astronomer or other scientist can easily define the type of onboard instrument, control the instrument remotely, and return monitoring data all through the intranet. The Astronomical Instrument Markup Language (AIML) is the first implementation of the more general Instrument Markup Language (IML). The key aspects of our approach to instrument description and control applies to many domains, from medical instruments to machine assembly lines. The concepts behind AIML apply equally well to the description and control of instruments in general. IRC enables us to apply our techniques to several instruments, preferably from different observatories.

  12. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  13. Weather Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    This booklet presents some activities to measure various weather phenomena. Directions for constructing a weather station are included. Instruments including rain gauges, thermometers, wind vanes, wind speed devices, humidity devices, barometers, atmospheric observations, a dustfall jar, sticky-tape can, detection of gases in the air, and pH of…

  14. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T.J.; Witkover, R.L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. RHIC instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-10

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 10{sup 11} protons to 250 GeV, or 10{sup 9} fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  16. RHIC instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shea, T. J.; Witkover, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) consists of two 3.8 km circumference rings utilizing 396 superconducting dipoles and 492 superconducting quadrupoles. Each ring will accelerate approximately 60 bunches of 1011 protons to 250 GeV, or 109 fully stripped gold ions to 100 GeV/nucleon. Commissioning is scheduled for early 1999 with detectors for some of the 6 intersection regions scheduled for initial operation later in the year. The injection line instrumentation includes: 52 beam position monitor (BPM) channels, 56 beam loss monitor (BLM) channels, 5 fast integrating current transformers and 12 video beam profile monitors. The collider ring instrumentation includes: 667 BPM channels, 400 BLM channels, wall current monitors, DC current transformers, ionization profile monitors (IPMs), transverse feedback systems, and resonant Schottky monitors. The use of superconducting magnets affected the beam instrumentation design. The BPM electrodes must function in a cryogenic environment and the BLM system must prevent magnet quenches from either fast or slow losses with widely different rates. RHIC is the first superconducting accelerator to cross transition, requiring close monitoring of beam parameters at this time. High space-charge due to the fully stripped gold ions required the IPM to collect magnetically guided electrons rather than the conventional ions. Since polarized beams will also be accelerated in RHIC, additional constraints were put on the instrumentation. The orbit must be well controlled to minimize depolarizing resonance strengths. Also, the position monitors must accommodate large orbit displacements within the Siberian snakes and spin rotators. The design of the instrumentation will be presented along with results obtained during bench tests, the injection line commissioning, and the first sextant test.

  17. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry.

    PubMed

    McSween, Harry Y; McNutt, Ralph L; Prettyman, Thomas H

    2011-11-29

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon's crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus.

  18. Computers in Scientific Instrumentation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-13

    The CPU bus Attachment. In the first applications or d 4ata are connected to the central ues parallel digital lines for data an computers to...simple function se- Mg on ae results of its previous opera- designing instruments that can provide hotios by being directly labeled for the ties. In...that the signal from the sensor is with an operating system is powerful , that might be found in appropriately pro- interpretable to give the sought- for

  19. 21 CFR 886.4855 - Ophthalmic instrument table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument table is an AC-powered or manual device on which ophthalmic instruments are intended to be placed. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The AC-powered device...

  20. Constructing an Evidence-Base for Future CALL Design with "Engineering Power": The Need for More Basic Research and Instrumental Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Zöe

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the goal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) research should be to construct a reliable evidence-base with "engineering power" and generality upon which the design of future CALL software and activities can be based. In order to establish such an evidence base for future CALL design, it suggests that CALL…

  1. 47 CFR 73.58 - Indicating instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indicating instruments. 73.58 Section 73.58... Broadcast Stations § 73.58 Indicating instruments. (a) Each AM broadcast station must be equipped with indicating instruments which conform with the specifications described in § 73.1215 for determining power...

  2. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation is based on the concept of smart sensor technology for testing with intelligence needed to perform sell-diagnosis of health, and to participate in a hierarchy of health determination at sensor, process, and system levels. A virtual sensor test instrumentation consists of five elements: (1) a common sensor interface, (2) microprocessor, (3) wireless interface, (4) signal conditioning and ADC/DAC (analog-to-digital conversion/ digital-to-analog conversion), and (5) onboard EEPROM (electrically erasable programmable read-only memory) for metadata storage and executable software to create powerful, scalable, reconfigurable, and reliable embedded and distributed test instruments. In order to maximize the efficient data conversion through the smart sensor node, plug-and-play functionality is required to interface with traditional sensors to enhance their identity and capabilities for data processing and communications. Virtual sensor test instrumentation can be accessible wirelessly via a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) or a Smart Transducer Interlace Module (STIM) that may be managed under real-time rule engines for mission-critical applications. The transducer senses the physical quantity being measured and converts it into an electrical signal. The signal is fed to an A/D converter, and is ready for use by the processor to execute functional transformation based on the sensor characteristics stored in a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS). Virtual sensor test instrumentation is built upon an open-system architecture with standardized protocol modules/stacks to interface with industry standards and commonly used software. One major benefit for deploying the virtual sensor test instrumentation is the ability, through a plug-and-play common interface, to convert raw sensor data in either analog or digital form, to an IEEE 1451 standard-based smart sensor, which has instructions to program sensors for a wide variety of

  3. WISDOM GPR aboard the ExoMars rover : a powerful instrument to investigate the state and distribution of water in the Martian shallow subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorizon, S.; Ciarletti, V.; Clifford, S. M.; Plettemeier, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Water Ice Subsurface Deposits Observation on Mars (WISDOM) Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been selected as part of the Pasteur payload for the European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars 2018 mission. The main scientific objectives of the mission are to search for evidence of past or present life and to characterize the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. A rover equipped with a 2 meters capacity drill and a suite of instruments will land on Mars in 2018, collect and analyze samples from outcrops and at depth. The WISDOM GPR will support these activities by sounding the subsurface and provide understanding of the geologic context and evolution of the local environment. When operated on the ExoMars rover, WISDOM will offer the possibility to understand the 3D geology in terms of stratigraphy and structure, spatial heterogeneities as well as the compositional and electromagnetic properties of the subsurface. According to these scientific objectives, this radar has been designed as a polarimetric step frequency GPR, operating from 0.5 GHz to 3GHz, which allows the sounding of the first 3 meters of the subsurface with a vertical resolution of a few centimeters. The importance of this GPR is particularly enhanced by its ability to investigate the water content, state (ice or liquid) and distribution in the subsurface, which are crucial clues to constrain the possibility of life traces evidence. In addition, WISDOM will be operated at a distance of 30 cm above the ground. This configuration allows the monitoring of potential transient liquid water that could appear on Mars surface. Results from several laboratory tests and a campaign in alpine ice caves in Austria are consistent with the expected performances of WISDOM regarding the question of water characterization. The specific configuration of the antennas allows the retrieval of the first layer permittivity value from the surface echo, which is related to the water content

  4. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  5. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  6. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  7. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT...

  8. 18 CFR 12.41 - Monitoring instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monitoring instruments. 12.41 Section 12.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT SAFETY OF WATER POWER PROJECTS AND PROJECT WORKS...

  9. Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Part II. Diagnostics and instrumentation MHD channel combutor. Progres report. [Flow calculations for combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, M.H.; Lederman, S.; Sforza, P.; Matalon, M.

    1980-01-01

    This is Part II of the Technical Progress Report on Tasks II-IV of the subject contract. It deals sequentially with Diagnostics and Instrumentation, the MHD Channel and the Combustor. During this period, a significant effort has gone into establishing a schematic design of a laser diagnostic system which can be applied to the flow-train of the MHD system, and to acquiring, assembling and shaking down a laboratory set-up upon which a prototype can be based. With further reference to the MHD Channel, a model analysis has been initiated of the two-dimensional MHD boundary layer between two electrodes in the limit of small magnetic Reynolds numbers with negligible effect of the flow on the applied magnetic field. An objective of this model study is the assessment of variations in initial conditions on the boundary layer behavior. Finally, the problem of combustion modeling has been studied on an initial basis. The open reports on this subject depict a high degree of empiricism, centering attention on global behavior mainly. A quasi-one-dimensional model code has been set-up to check some of the existing estimates. Also a code for equilibrium combustion has been activated.

  10. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  11. Rain radar instrument definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Nicolas; Chenebault, J.; Suinot, Noel; Mancini, Paolo L.

    1996-12-01

    As a result of a pre-phase a study, founded by ESA, this paper presents the definition of a spaceborne Rain Radar, candidate instrument for earth explorer precipitation mission. Based upon the description of user requirements for such a dedicated mission, a mission analysis defines the most suitable space segment. At system level, a parametric analysis compares pros and cons of instrument concepts associated with rain rate retrieval algorithms in order to select the most performing one. Several trade-off analysis at subsystem level leads then to the definition of the proposed design. In particular, as pulse compression is implemented in order to increase the radar sensitivity, the selected method to achieve a pulse response with a side-lobe level below--60 dB is presented. Antenna is another critical rain radar subsystem and several designs are com pared: direct radiating array, single or dual reflector illuminated by single or dual feed arrays. At least, feasibility of centralized amplification using TWTA is compared with criticality of Tx/Rx modules for distributed amplification. Mass and power budgets of the designed instrument are summarized as well as standard deviations and bias of simulated rain rate retrieval profiles. The feasibility of a compliant rain radar instrument is therefore demonstrated.

  12. Earl Wood--a research career noted for development of novel instruments driven by the power of the indicator dilution concept.

    PubMed

    Ritman, Erik L

    2014-11-01

    During World War 2, Earl Wood was charged with elucidating the biomedical factors in acceleration-induced loss of consciousness experienced by pilots in high-performance aircraft. For this, he developed devices for measurement and recording of blood pressure and tissue blood content. Those data lead to the design and fabrication of successful countermeasures to acceleration-induced loss of consciousness with an inflatable "G-suit" and "M1" breath-holding maneuver. After World War 2, he utilized and modified these instruments and made use of indicator dilution techniques by continuous intracardiac blood sampling to greatly increase the specificity and sensitivity of diagnosis of intracardiac anatomic and functional abnormalities in patients with congenital heart disease. This contributed to the greatly increased success rate of open-heart surgery in the 1950s. In the 1960s, he built on the then recently available video-coupled electronic X-ray image intensifier to develop X-ray fluoroscopy-based recording of indicator dilution signals in all cardiac chambers and surrounding great vessels without the need for placing catheter tips at those locations for blood sampling. However, these blood flow-related data were of limited value, as they were not measured concurrent with myocardial functional demand for perfusion. In the 1970s, he overcame this limitation by developing a high-speed multislice X-ray imaging scanner to provide tomographic images of concurrent dynamic cardiac anatomy and the indicator dilution-based estimates of blood flow distributions. On his retirement at age 70 in 1982, he had accomplished his 2 decade-old goal of the ability to make accurate concurrent, minimally invasive, and indicator dilution-based measurement of cardiovascular structure to function relationships.

  13. FHR Process Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, David Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactors (FHRs) are entering into early phase engineering development. Initial candidate technologies have been identified to measure all of the required process variables. The purpose of this paper is to describe the proposed measurement techniques in sufficient detail to enable assessment of the proposed instrumentation suite and to support development of the component technologies. This paper builds upon the instrumentation chapter of the recently published FHR technology development roadmap. Locating instruments outside of the intense core radiation and high-temperature fluoride salt environment significantly decreases their environmental tolerance requirements. Under operating conditions, FHR primary coolant salt is a transparent, low-vapor-pressure liquid. Consequently, FHRs can employ standoff optical measurements from above the salt pool to assess in-vessel conditions. For example, the core outlet temperature can be measured by observing the fuel s blackbody emission. Similarly, the intensity of the core s Cerenkov glow indicates the fission power level. Short-lived activation of the primary coolant provides another means for standoff measurements of process variables. The primary coolant flow and neutron flux can be measured using gamma spectroscopy along the primary coolant piping. FHR operation entails a number of process measurements. Reactor thermal power and core reactivity are the most significant variables for process control. Thermal power can be determined by measuring the primary coolant mass flow rate and temperature rise across the core. The leading candidate technologies for primary coolant temperature measurement are Au-Pt thermocouples and Johnson noise thermometry. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow measurement, that includes high-temperature tolerant standoffs, is a potential coolant flow measurement technique. Also, the salt redox condition will be monitored as an indicator of its corrosiveness. Both

  14. Power sources.

    PubMed

    Luciano, A A

    1995-09-01

    The rapid development of endoscopic surgery has created an ever-increasing demand for new instruments, such as lasers of various wavelengths, and new applications of high-frequency electrosurgery. The technology has advanced rapidly and it is sometimes difficult to understand the different applications of these new instruments and take full advantage of these developments. This article has reviewed the basic principles of the various power sources commonly utilized in gynecologic surgery and described the clinical applications of each of them.

  15. Optical Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  16. Modification of the high latitude ionosphere F region by X-mode powerful HF radio waves: Experimental results from multi-instrument diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.; Kalishin, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    We present experimental results concentrating on a variety of phenomena in the high latitude ionosphere F2 layer induced by an extraordinary (X-mode) HF pump wave at high heater frequencies (fH=6.2-8.0 MHz), depending on the pump frequency proximity to the ordinary and extraordinary mode critical frequencies, foF2 and fxF2. The experiments were carried out at the EISCAT HF heating facility with an effective radiated power of 450-650 MW in October 2012 and October-November 2013. Their distinctive feature is a wide diapason of critical frequency changes, when the fH/foF2 ratio was varied through a wide range from 0.9 to 1.35. It provides both a proper comparison of X-mode HF-induced phenomena excited under different ratios of fH/foF2 and an estimation of the frequency range above foF2 in which such X-mode phenomena are still possible. It was shown that the HF-enhanced ion and plasma lines are excited above foF2 when the HF pump frequency is lying in range between the foF2 and fxF2, foF2≤fH≤fxF2, whereas small-scale field-aligned irregularities continued to be generated even when fH exceeded fxF2 by up to 1 MHz and an X-polarized pump wave cannot be reflected from the ionosphere. Another parameter of importance is the magnetic zenith effect (HF beam/radar angle direction) which is typical for X-mode phenomena under fH/foF2 >1 as well as fH/foF2 ≤1. We have shown for the first time that an X-mode HF pump wave is able to generate strong narrowband spectral components in the SEE spectra (within 1 kHz of pump frequency) in the ionosphere F region, which were recorded at distance of 1200 km from the HF heating facility. The observed spectral lines can be associated with the ion acoustic, electrostatic ion cyclotron, and electrostatic ion cyclotron harmonic waves (otherwise known as neutralized ion Bernstein waves). The comparison between the O- and X-mode SEE spectra recorded at distance far from HF heating facility clearly demonstrated that variety of the narrowband

  17. Solid motor diagnostic instrumentation. [design of self-contained instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Arens, W. E.; Wuest, W. S.

    1973-01-01

    A review of typical surveillance and monitoring practices followed during the flight phases of representative solid-propellant upper stages and apogee motors was conducted to evaluate the need for improved flight diagnostic instrumentation on future spacecraft. The capabilities of the flight instrumentation package were limited to the detection of whether or not the solid motor was the cause of failure and to the identification of probable primary failure modes. Conceptual designs of self-contained flight instrumentation packages capable of meeting these reqirements were generated and their performance, typical cost, and unit characteristics determined. Comparisons of a continuous real time and a thresholded hybrid design were made on the basis of performance, mass, power, cost, and expected life. The results of this analysis substantiated the feasibility of a self-contained independent flight instrumentation module as well as the existence of performance margins by which to exploit growth option applications.

  18. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of...

  19. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1425 - Lens measuring instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lens measuring instrument. 886.1425 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1425 Lens measuring instrument. (a) Identification. A lens measuring instrument is an AC-powered device intended to measure the power of lenses...

  3. Spacecraft instrument technology and cosmochemistry

    PubMed Central

    McSween, Harry Y.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements by instruments on spacecraft have significantly advanced cosmochemistry. Spacecraft missions impose serious limitations on instrument volume, mass, and power, so adaptation of laboratory instruments drives technology. We describe three examples of flight instruments that collected cosmochemical data. Element analyses by Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometers on the Mars Exploration Rovers have revealed the nature of volcanic rocks and sedimentary deposits on Mars. The Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Lunar Prospector orbiter provided a global database of element abundances that resulted in a new understanding of the Moon’s crust. The Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer on Cassini has analyzed the chemical compositions of the atmosphere of Titan and active plumes on Enceladus. PMID:21402932

  4. GEO Sounding Using Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiue, James; Krimchansky, Sergey; Susskind, Joel; Krimchansky, Alexander; Chu, Donald; Davis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    There are several microwave instruments in low Earth orbit (LEO) that are used for atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding in conjunction with companion IR sounders as well as by themselves. These instruments have achieved a certain degree of maturity and undergoing a redesign to minimize their size, mass, and power from the previous generation instruments. An example of these instruments is the AMSU-A series, now flying on POES and AQUA spacecraft with the IR sounders HIRS and AIRS. These older microwave instruments are going to be replaced by the ATMS instruments that will fly on NPP and NPOESS satellites with the CrIS sounder. A number of techniques learned from the ATMS project in instrument hardware design and data processing are directly applicable to a similar microwave sounder on a geosynchronous platform. These techniques can significantly simplify the design of a Geostationary orbit (GEO) microwave instrument, avoiding costly development and minimizing the risk of not being able to meet the scientific requirements. In fact, some of the 'enabling' technology, such as the use of MMIC microwave components (which is the basis for the ATMS' much reduced volume) can be directly applied to a GEO sounder. The benefits of microwave sounders are well known; for example, they penetrate non-precipitating cloud cover and allow for use of colocated IR observations in up to 80% cloud cover. The key advantages of a microwave instrument in GEO will be the ability to provide high temporal resolution as well as uniform spatial resolution and extend the utility of a colocated advanced IR sounder to cases in which partial cloud cover exists. A footprint of the order of 100 km by 100 km resolution with hemispherical coverage within one hour can be easily achieved for sounding channels in the 50 to 59 GHz range. A GEO microwave sounder will also allow mesoscale sampling of select regions.

  5. Instrument Packages for Cold, Dark, High Radiation Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Beaman, B.; Brigham, D.; Feng, S.

    2011-03-01

    We are developing a small cold temperature in-strument package concept that integrates cold tempera-ture power system and radhard ULT ULP electronics into a ‘cold temperature surface operational’ version of a planetary surface instrument package.

  6. North Carolina Drug Education School Evaluation Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sewhan; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes the theoretical framework, measurement properties, predictive power, and reliability and validity of the Drug Education School Evaluation Instrument (DESEI), used to determine the effectiveness of the North Carolina Drug Education Schools. The DESEI is included. (BH)

  7. Instrumentation System Diagnoses a Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Vokrot, Peter; Zavala, Carlos; Burns, Bradley

    2008-01-01

    An improved self-validating thermocouple (SVT) instrumentation system not only acquires readings from a thermocouple but is also capable of detecting deterioration and a variety of discrete faults in the thermocouple and its lead wires. Prime examples of detectable discrete faults and deterioration include open- and short-circuit conditions and debonding of the thermocouple junction from the object, the temperature of which one seeks to measure. Debonding is the most common cause of errors in thermocouple measurements, but most prior SVT instrumentation systems have not been capable of detecting debonding. The improved SVT instrumentation system includes power circuitry, a cold-junction compensator, signal-conditioning circuitry, pulse-width-modulation (PWM) thermocouple-excitation circuitry, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a digital data processor, and a universal serial bus (USB) interface. The system can operate in any of the following three modes: temperature measurement, thermocouple validation, and bonding/debonding detection. The software running in the processor includes components that implement statistical algorithms to evaluate the state of the thermocouple and the instrumentation system. When the power is first turned on, the user can elect to start a diagnosis/ monitoring sequence, in which the PWM is used to estimate the characteristic times corresponding to the correct configuration. The user also has the option of using previous diagnostic values, which are stored in an electrically erasable, programmable read-only memory so that they are available every time the power is turned on.

  8. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.

    1994-04-19

    Instrumentation is described for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials. 9 figures.

  9. Low activated incore instrument

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.

    1994-01-01

    Instrumentation for nuclear reactor head-mounted incore instrumentation systems fabricated of low nuclear cross section materials (i.e., zirconium or titanium). The instrumentation emits less radiation than that fabricated of conventional materials.

  10. 47 CFR 73.58 - Indicating instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... defective instrument is the antenna current meter of a nondirectional station which does not employ a remote antenna ammeter, or if the defective instrument is the common point meter of a station which employs a directional antenna and does not employ a remote common point meter, the operating power shall be...

  11. 47 CFR 73.58 - Indicating instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... defective instrument is the antenna current meter of a nondirectional station which does not employ a remote antenna ammeter, or if the defective instrument is the common point meter of a station which employs a directional antenna and does not employ a remote common point meter, the operating power shall be...

  12. Instrumentation for measuring energy inputs to implements

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, F.D.; Wilhelm, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    A microcomputer-based instrumentation system for monitoring tractor operating parameters and energy inputs to implements was developed and mounted on a 75-power-takeoff-KW tractor. The instrumentation system, including sensors and data handling equipment, is discussed. 10 refs.

  13. Assessment of bilateral asymmetry in cycling using a commercial instrumented crank system and instrumented pedals.

    PubMed

    Bini, Rodrigo R; Hume, Patria A

    2014-09-01

    The accuracy of commercial instrumented crank systems for symmetry assessment in cycling has not been fully explored. Therefore, the authors' aims were to compare peak crank torque between a commercial instrumented crank system and instrumented pedals and to assess the effect of power output on bilateral asymmetries during cycling. Ten competitive cyclists performed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Forces and pedal angles were recorded using right and left instrumented pedals synchronized with crank-torque measurements using an instrumented crank system. Differences in right (dominant) and left (nondominant) peak torque and asymmetry index were assessed using effect sizes. In the 100- to 250-W power-output range, the instrumented pedal system recorded larger peak torque (dominant 55-122%, nondominant 23-99%) than the instrumented crank system. There was an increase in differences between dominant and nondominant crank torque as power output increased using the instrumented crank system (7% to 33%) and the instrumented pedals (9% to 66%). Lower-limb asymmetries in peak torque increased at higher power-output levels in favor of the dominant leg. Limitations in design of the instrumented crank system may preclude the use of this system to assess peak crank-torque symmetry.

  14. Evaluating musical instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  15. Portable musical instrument amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, David E.

    1990-07-24

    The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

  16. Optomechanical medical devices (instruments)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Roger S.

    2004-03-01

    Optomechanical Medical Devices (Instruments) use lightwaves (UV, Visible, IR) for one or more of the following functions; to observe, to measure, to record, to test (align) and or to cut/repair. The evolution of Optomechanical Medical Devices probably started when the first torch or candle or petrochemical lamp used a polished reflector (possibly with a concave configuration) to examine a part of a patient's body (possibly a wound).Once the glass lens was invented, light sources of any type could be forcussed to increase illuminating power on a selected area. Medical Devices have come a great distance since these early items. Skipping across time to three rather significant inventions and advancements, we are well into the era of Laser and Fiber Optics and Advanced Photodetectors, all being integrated into Medical Devices. The most notable fields have been Ophthalmology, Dermatology, and Surgery. All three fields have been able to incorporate both the use of the Laser and the use of Fiber Optics (and at times the use of Photodetectors), into a single device (instrument). Historical: Philipp Bozzini (a Doctor, maybe) in the early 1800's used a hollow tube (tube material not identified) to project the light of a candle through the tube to view a patient's 'what ever'. Only Philipp, the patient and G-d knows what was being viewed. This ws the first recorded information on what could be considered the very first 'Endoscope examination'

  17. FTIR instrumentation for atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuteson, Robert O.; Revercomb, Henry E.; Best, Fred A.; Smith, William L.

    1993-09-01

    During the last six years, extensive observations of atmospheric emitted radiance in the spectral region from 3.6 - 20 micrometers with resolving powers of 1000 - 4000 have been made, both from the ground and nadir viewing from NASA high altitude aircraft. Two recent field experiments in which both instruments participated are the FIRE II/SPECTRE experiment Nov. - Dec. 1991 in Coffeyville, KS and the STORMFEST experiment Feb. - Mar. 1992 in Seneca, KS. Experience with these instruments has led to instrument designs for advanced sounders on geostationary and polar orbiting satellites. Applications include remote sensing of atmospheric temperature and water vapor for improved weather forecasting, measurement of cloud radiative impact for improvement of global climate modelling, and trace gas retrieval for climate and air pollution monitoring.

  18. [Portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment].

    PubMed

    Cao, Shuai; Chen, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    A portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment containing sensor module, acquisition board and embedded module was developed for home care in this paper. The sensor module consists of one ECG module and three pulse wave extraction modules, synchronously acquiring human ECG and pulse wave signal of carotid, radial, and dorsal, respectively. The acquisition board converts the sensor module's analog output signals into digital signals and transmits them to the embedded module. The embedded module realizes the functions including signal display, storage and the calculation and output of pulse wave velocity. The structure of the proposed portable instrument is simple, easy to use, and easy to expand. Small size, low cost, and low power consumption are also the advantages of this device. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed portable instrument for arteriosclerosis assessment has high accuracy, good repeatability and can assess the degree of atherosclerosis appropriately.

  19. Instrument Packages for the Cold, Dark, High Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Millar, P. S.; Yeh, P. S.; Beamna, B.; Brigham, D.; Feng, S.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a small cold temperature instrument package concept that integrates a cold temperature power system and radhard ultra low temperature ultra low power electronics components and power supplies now under development into a cold temperature surface operational version of a planetary surface instrument package. We are already in the process of developing a lower power lower tem-perature version for an instrument of mutual interest to SMD and ESMD to support the search for volatiles (the mass spectrometer VAPoR, Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) both as a stand alone instrument and as part of an environmental monitoring package.

  20. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  1. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  2. Portable direct reading instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermon-Cruz, Ivette Z.

    1991-09-01

    Direct reading instruments are those instruments in which the analysis of the contaminant is carried out within the instrument itself. When selecting equipment, the industrial hygienist must consider the physical characteristics of the instruments as well as their performance characteristics and price. Some of the methods of detection that are used in instruments with multi-gas detection capabilities are: photoionization, Flame ionization, infrared, gas chromatography, infrared photoacoustic, and electrochemical.

  3. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  4. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  5. 18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... instrument assets. 367.1750 Section 367.1750 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change in...

  6. 18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... instrument assets. 367.1750 Section 367.1750 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change in...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1311 - Electronic display instrument systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and attitude that are independent from the airplane's primary electrical power system. These secondary... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electronic display instrument systems. 23... Equipment Instruments: Installation § 23.1311 Electronic display instrument systems. (a) Electronic...

  8. 21 CFR 886.4855 - Ophthalmic instrument table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument table. 886.4855 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4855 Ophthalmic instrument table. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument table is an AC-powered or manual device on which ophthalmic...

  9. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to provide...

  10. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  11. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  12. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  13. 21 CFR 886.1360 - Visual field laser instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Visual field laser instrument. 886.1360 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1360 Visual field laser instrument. (a) Identification. A visual field laser instrument is an AC-powered device intended to...

  14. Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperl, Gary

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

  15. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  16. Woodwind Instrument Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sperl, Gary

    1980-01-01

    The author presents a simple maintenance program for woodwind instruments which includes the care of tendon corks, the need for oiling keys, and methods of preventing cracks in woodwind instruments. (KC)

  17. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-30

    This frame from an animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager MARDI instrument onboard NASA Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars.

  18. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  19. 21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgical instrument motors and accessories....4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a) Identification. Surgical instrument motors and accessories are AC-powered, battery-powered, or air-powered devices intended for use during...

  20. 21 CFR 878.4820 - Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgical instrument motors and accessories....4820 Surgical instrument motors and accessories/attachments. (a) Identification. Surgical instrument motors and accessories are AC-powered, battery-powered, or air-powered devices intended for use during...

  1. Instrumentation in arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gurvis, D E

    1987-10-01

    Successful operations result from the interplay of several factors. The artfulness and technical skill of the surgeon are paramount. The instruments are also important. Whereas in traditional surgery one instrument can often be substituted for another with equally good results, arthroscopic surgery offers no such luxury. The specialized instruments are the sine qua non of the procedure. An intimate knowledge of the instruments and their uses and abuses comes together in an arthroscopic procedure to produce the end result: a successfully completed arthroscopy.

  2. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Oxygen Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, F L

    1923-01-01

    This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report.

  3. The Instrumental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Devin Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…

  4. The Instrumental Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Devin Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to enable better predictive models by engaging raw experimental data through the Instrumental Model. The Instrumental Model captures the protocols and procedures of experimental data analysis. The approach is formalized by encoding the Instrumental Model in an XML record. Decoupling the raw experimental data from…

  5. Influence of playing wind instruments on activity of masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Gotouda, A; Yamaguchi, T; Okada, K; Matsuki, T; Gotouda, S; Inoue, N

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of change in sound tone of playing wind instruments on activity of jaw-closing muscles and the effect of sustained playing for a long time on fatigue of jaw-closing muscles. Electromyograms (EMG) of 19 brass instrument players and 14 woodwind instrument players were measured while playing instruments in tuning tone and high tone and under other conditions. Nine brass instrument players and nine woodwind instrument players played instruments for 90 min. Before and after the exercise, power spectral analyses of EMG from masseter muscles at 50% of maximum voluntary clenching level were performed and mean power frequency (MPF) were calculated. Root mean square (RMS) of EMG in masseter and temporal muscles while playing were slightly larger than those at rest but extremely small in comparison with those during maximum clenching. Root mean square in orbicularis oris and digastric muscles were relatively large when playing instruments. In the brass instrument group, RMS in high tone was significantly higher than that in tuning tone in all muscles examined. In the woodwind instrument group, RMS in high tone was not significantly higher than that in tuning tone in those muscles. Mean power frequency was not decreased after sustained playing in both instrument groups. These findings indicate that contractive load to jaw-closing muscles when playing a wind instrument in both medium and high tone is very small and playing an instrument for a long time does not obviously induce fatigue of jaw-closing muscles.

  6. Laparoscopic dissecting instruments.

    PubMed

    Park, A E; Mastrangelo, M J; Gandsas, A; Chu, U; Quick, N E

    2001-03-01

    The authors provide an overview of laparoscopic dissecting instruments and discuss early development, surgical options, and special features. End effectors of different shapes and functions are described. A comparison of available energy sources for laparoscopic instruments includes discussion of thermal dissection, ultrasonic dissection, and water-jet dissection. The ergonomic risks and challenges inherent in the use of current laparoscopic instruments are outlined, as well as ergonomic issues for the design of future instruments. New directions that laparoscopic instrumentation may take are considered in connection with developing technology in robotics, haptic feedback, and MicroElectroMechanical Systems.

  7. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  9. Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post∕premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time.

  10. Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post∕premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time. PMID:21280897

  11. Seismic instrumentation of buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Çelebi, Mehmet

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.

  12. Prototype ultrasonic instrument for quantitative testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Dubois, J. L.; Kranz, P. R.

    1972-01-01

    A prototype ultrasonic instrument has been designed and developed for quantitative testing. The complete delivered instrument consists of a pulser/receiver which plugs into a standard oscilloscope, an rf power amplifier, a standard decade oscillator, and a set of broadband transducers for typical use at 1, 2, 5 and 10 MHz. The system provides for its own calibration, and on the oscilloscope, presents a quantitative (digital) indication of time base and sensitivity scale factors and some measurement data.

  13. The USNA MIDN Microdosimeter Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Ziegler, J. F.; Nelson, M. E.; Dolecek, Q.; Heyne, J.; Veade, T.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Zaider, M.; Dicello, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the MIcroDosimetry iNstrument (MIDN) mission now under development at the United States Naval Academy. The instrument is manifested to fly on the MidSTAR-1 spacecraft, which is the second spacecraft to be developed and launched by the Academy s faculty and midshipmen. Launch is scheduled for 1 September 2006 on an ATLAS-5 launch vehicle. MIDN is a rugged, portable, low power, low mass, solid-state microdosimeter designed to measure in real time the energy distributions of energy deposited by radiation in microscopic volumes. The MIDN microdosimeter sensor is a reverse-biased silicon p-n junction array in a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) configuration. Microdosimetric frequency distributions as a function of lineal energies determine the radiation quality factors in support of radiation risk estimation to humans.

  14. Isotopic CO2 Instrumentation for UAV Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Silver, J.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon dioxide is the largest component of anthroprogenic green house gas emissions. Knowing atmospheric 13CO2/12CO2 ratios precisely is important for understanding biogenic and anthroprogenic sources and sinks for carbon. Instrumentation mounted on UAV aircraft would enable important spatial isotopic CO2 information. However, current isotopic CO2 instrumentation have unfavorable attributes for UAV use, such as high power requirements, high cost, high weight, and large size. Here we present the early development of a compact isotopic CO2 instrument that is designed to nullify effects of pressure, temperature and moisture, and will ultimately be suitable for UAV deployment.

  15. 21 CFR 882.4845 - Powered rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4845 Powered rongeur. (a) Identification. A powered rongeur is a powered instrument used for cutting or biting bone during surgery involving...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4845 - Powered rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4845 Powered rongeur. (a) Identification. A powered rongeur is a powered instrument used for cutting or biting bone during surgery involving...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4845 - Powered rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4845 Powered rongeur. (a) Identification. A powered rongeur is a powered instrument used for cutting or biting bone during surgery involving...

  18. 21 CFR 882.4845 - Powered rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4845 Powered rongeur. (a) Identification. A powered rongeur is a powered instrument used for cutting or biting bone during surgery involving...

  19. 21 CFR 882.4845 - Powered rongeur.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4845 Powered rongeur. (a) Identification. A powered rongeur is a powered instrument used for cutting or biting bone during surgery involving...

  20. Designing communication and remote controlling of virtual instrument network system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lin; Wang, Houjun; Zhou, Xue; Zhou, Wenjian

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a virtual instrument network through the LAN and finally remote control of virtual instruments is realized based on virtual instrument and LabWindows/CVI software platform. The virtual instrument network system is made up of three subsystems. There are server subsystem, telnet client subsystem and local instrument control subsystem. This paper introduced virtual instrument network structure in detail based on LabWindows. Application procedure design of virtual instrument network communication, the Client/the programming mode of the server, remote PC and server communication far realizing, the control power of the workstation is transmitted, server program and so on essential technical were introduced. And virtual instruments network may connect to entire Internet on. Above-mentioned technology, through measuring the application in the electronic measurement virtual instrument network that is already built up, has verified the actual using value of the technology. Experiment and application validate that this design is resultful.

  1. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  2. Review of Instrumented Indentation

    PubMed Central

    VanLandingham, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumented indentation, also known as depth-sensing indentation or nanoindentation, is increasingly being used to probe the mechanical response of materials from metals and ceramics to polymeric and biological materials. The additional levels of control, sensitivity, and data acquisition offered by instrumented indentation systems have resulted in numerous advances in materials science, particularly regarding fundamental mechanisms of mechanical behavior at micrometer and even sub-micrometer length scales. Continued improvements of instrumented indentation testing towards absolute quantification of a wide range of material properties and behavior will require advances in instrument calibration, measurement protocols, and analysis tools and techniques. In this paper, an overview of instrumented indentation is given with regard to current instrument technology and analysis methods. Research efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) aimed at improving the related measurement science are discussed. PMID:27413609

  3. Instrumentation, Control, and Intelligent Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-09-01

    Abundant and affordable energy is required for U.S. economic stability and national security. Advanced nuclear power plants offer the best near-term potential to generate abundant, affordable, and sustainable electricity and hydrogen without appreciable generation of greenhouse gases. To that end, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been charged with leading the revitalization of nuclear power in the U.S. The INL vision is to become the preeminent nuclear energy laboratory with synergistic, world-class, multi-program capabilities and partnerships by 2015. The vision focuses on four essential destinations: (1) Be the preeminent internationally-recognized nuclear energy research, development, and demonstration laboratory; (2) Be a major center for national security technology development and demonstration; (3) Be a multi-program national laboratory with world-class capabilities; (4) Foster academic, industry, government, and international collaborations to produce the needed investment, programs, and expertise. Crucial to that effort is the inclusion of research in advanced instrumentation, control, and intelligent systems (ICIS) for use in current and advanced power and energy security systems to enable increased performance, reliability, security, and safety. For nuclear energy plants, ICIS will extend the lifetime of power plant systems, increase performance and power output, and ensure reliable operation within the system's safety margin; for national security applications, ICIS will enable increased protection of our nation's critical infrastructure. In general, ICIS will cost-effectively increase performance for all energy security systems.

  4. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  5. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havskov, Jens; Alguacil, Gerardo

    Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors' practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems.

  6. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  7. Sterilization of Medical Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-06

    possible use with medical instruments and skin catheters. To address this challenge, MicroStructure Technologies (MicroST) is developing an...Project: DARPA - Sterilization of Medical Instruments Contract: # FA9550-06-C-0054 Principal Investigator: Joseph Birmingham Report: FINAL Report 1...as medical instruments and skin catheters. To address this challenge, MicroStructure Technologies (MicroST) is proposing a compact, low maintenance

  8. Alternative Policy Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    CpRE CENTER FOR POLICY RESEARCH IN EDUCATION Alternative Policy o Instruments I Lorraine M. McDonnell Richard F. Elmore November 1987 DTICELECTE...03 Alternative Policy Instruments Lorraine M. McDonnell The RAND Corporation Richard F. Elmore Michigan State University November 1987 THRAND...range of policy instruments available or on the political and organizational conditions needed for each to work as intended. Policy decisions would

  9. Instrument validation project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, B.A.; Daymo, E.A.; Geeting, J.G.H.; Zhang, J.

    1996-06-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company Project W-211 is responsible for providing the system capabilities to remove radioactive waste from ten double-shell tanks used to store radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The project is also responsible for measuring tank waste slurry properties prior to injection into pipeline systems, including the Replacement of Cross-Site Transfer System. This report summarizes studies of the appropriateness of the instrumentation specified for use in Project W-211. The instruments were evaluated in a test loop with simulated slurries that covered the range of properties specified in the functional design criteria. The results of the study indicate that the compact nature of the baseline Project W-211 loop does not result in reduced instrumental accuracy resulting from poor flow profile development. Of the baseline instrumentation, the Micromotion densimeter, the Moore Industries thermocouple, the Fischer and Porter magnetic flow meter, and the Red Valve Pressure transducer meet the desired instrumental accuracy. An alternate magnetic flow meter (Yokagawa) gave nearly identical results as the baseline fischer and Porter. The Micromotion flow meter did not meet the desired instrument accuracy but could potentially be calibrated so that it would meet the criteria. The Nametre on-line viscometer did not meet the desired instrumental accuracy and is not recommended as a quantitative instrument although it does provide qualitative information. The recommended minimum set of instrumentation necessary to ensure the slurry meets the Project W-058 acceptance criteria is the Micromotion mass flow meter and delta pressure cells.

  10. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  11. Space applications instrumentation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minzner, R. A.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A compendium of resumes of 158 instrument systems or experiments, of particular interest to space applications, is presented. Each resume exists in a standardized format, permitting entries for 26 administrative items and 39 scientific or engineering items. The resumes are organized into forty groups determined by the forty spacecraft with which the instruments are associated. The resumes are followed by six different cross indexes, each organized alphabetically according to one of the following catagories: instrument name, acronym, name of principal investigator, name of organization employing the principal investigator, assigned experiment number, and spacecraft name. The resumes are associated with a computerized instrument resume search and retrieval system.

  12. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    PubMed

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  13. Instrument performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Swinth, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    Deficiencies exist in both the performance and the quality of health physics instruments. Recognizing the implications of such deficiencies for the protection of workers and the public, in the early 1980s the DOE and the NRC encouraged the development of a performance standard and established a program to test a series of instruments against criteria in the standard. The purpose of the testing was to establish the practicality of the criteria in the standard, to determine the performance of a cross section of available instruments, and to establish a testing capability. Over 100 instruments were tested, resulting in a practical standard and an understanding of the deficiencies in available instruments. In parallel with the instrument testing, a value-impact study clearly established the benefits of implementing a formal testing program. An ad hoc committee also met several times to establish recommendations for the voluntary implementation of a testing program based on the studies and the performance standard. For several reasons, a formal program did not materialize. Ongoing tests and studies have supported the development of specific instruments and have helped specific clients understand the performance of their instruments. The purpose of this presentation is to trace the history of instrument testing to date and suggest the benefits of a centralized formal program.

  14. Ratio imaging instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kenneth; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2003-01-01

    Using ratio imaging to obtain quantitative information from microscope images is a powerful tool that has been used successfully in numerous studies. Although ratio imaging reduces the effects of many parameters that can interfere with accurate measurements, it is not a panacea. In designing a ratio imaging experiment, all of the potential problems discussed in this chapter must be considered. Undoubtedly, other problems that were not discussed can also interfere with accurate and meaningful measurements. Many of the problems discussed here were observed in the authors' laboratories. In our experience there are no standard routines or methods that can foresee every problem before it has been encountered. Good experimental design can minimize problems, but the investigator must continue to be alert. Progress in instrumentation continues to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in ratio imaging. CCD cameras with 12- to 14-bit pixel depth are being used more frequently, and several confocal microscope manufacturers are now also using 12-bit digitization. The dramatic increase in the use of confocal microscopes over the past decade is now causing microscope manufacturers to more critically evaluate the effect of axial chromatic aberration in objectives, and recent designs to minimize this problem are being implemented. Other developments such as the use of AOTFs to attenuate laser lines extend the applicability of ratio imaging. Ratio imaging is clearly applicable to a wide range of cell biological problems beyond its widespread use for measuring ion concentrations. Imaginative but careful use of this technique should continue to provide novel insights into the properties of cells.

  15. MISR Instrument Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, David; Garay, Michael; Diner, David; Thompson, Charles; Hall, Jeffrey; Rheingans, Brian; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2008-01-01

    The MISR Interactive eXplorer (MINX) software functions both as a general-purpose tool to visualize Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument data, and as a specialized tool to analyze properties of smoke, dust, and volcanic plumes. It includes high-level options to create map views of MISR orbit locations; scrollable, single-camera RGB (red-greenblue) images of MISR level 1B2 (L1B2) radiance data; and animations of the nine MISR camera images that provide a 3D perspective of the scenes that MISR has acquired. NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 55 The plume height capability provides an accurate estimate of the injection height of plumes that is needed by air quality and climate modelers. MISR provides global high-quality stereo height information, and this program uses that information to perform detailed height retrievals of aerosol plumes. Users can interactively digitize smoke, dust, or volcanic plumes and automatically retrieve heights and winds, and can also archive MISR albedos and aerosol properties, as well as fire power and brightness temperatures associated with smoke plumes derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Some of the specialized options in MINX enable the user to do other tasks. Users can display plots of top-of-atmosphere bidirectional reflectance factors (BRFs) versus camera-angle for selected pixels. Images and animations can be saved to disk in various formats. Also, users can apply a geometric registration correction to warp camera images when the standard processing correction is inadequate. It is possible to difference the images of two MISR orbits that share a path (identical ground track), as well as to construct pseudo-color images by assigning different combinations of MISR channels (angle or spectral band) to the RGB display channels. This software is an interactive application written in IDL and compiled into an IDL Virtual Machine (VM) ".sav" file.

  16. JBI instrumentation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muccio, M.; Lopez, E.; McKeel, R.

    2005-05-01

    The Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) is an information management infrastructure that provides a basic set of flexible core services: publish, subscribe, and query. Managed Information Objects (MIOs) are published by JBI clients and are subsequently managed and disseminated to other subscribing JBI Clients by the JBI Core Services. MIOs can also be archived into a repository managed by the JBI Core Services upon publication and can later be queried for by JBI Clients. A reference implementation (RI) of the JBI Core Services using Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) technology is currently being developed at the Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate (AFRL/IF) in Rome, NY. JBI Instrumentation Services will allow users to gain insight into what activity is occurring inside the JBI Core Services. The phase 1 Instrumentation Services implementation has been developed as a standalone system that interacts with the JBI Core Services through a set of interfaces that provide a low impact, multi-implementation compatible connection. The Instrumentation Services Architecture makes use of the Instrumentation Entity Model to create entities that describe the real elements of the JBI Core Services: platforms, connections, users, nodes, and sequences. These entities populate the Instrumentation Space and are accessed by clients through the Instrumentation Client API (ICAPI). A web-based client that makes use of this ICAPI has been developed to visualize instrumentation information and demonstrate the capabilities of the Instrumentation Services. This client utilizes numerical rate graphs and dynamic graph trees to visualize JBI activity. This paper describes the phase 1 Instrumentation Services Architecture and development efforts involved in creating the JBI Instrumentation Services and prototype instrumentation client.

  17. Miniature Radioisotope Power Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielewski, Artur B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed miniature power source generates electricity for years from heat developed in small radioisotope unit without addition of fuel or dependence on sunlight. Called powerstick, is relatively inexpensive, lightweight, and rugged. Supplies power to small vehicles or scientific instruments in remote locations on Earth or in outer space. Envisioned uses include Mars miniature rovers and monitoring equipment for toxic or nuclear storage sites.

  18. Scrapeoff layer studies with an instrumented limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Mioduszewski, P.; Edmonds, P.H.; Emerson, L.C.; Simpkins, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    An instrumented limiter was used as a diagnostic to measure energy deposition and power fluxes in the scrapeoff layer. The limiter consisted of an array of 12 tiles, each equipped with a thermocouple. This arrangement represented a calorimeter array that yielded the total limiter energy and decay length of the power flux in the scrapeoff layer. Energy deposition and decay lengths are discussed for various plasma parameters.

  19. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Galen W., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Identifies a trend in analytical chemistry toward greater use of instruments and a need for an understanding of the basic principles involved in instrumentation. This need can be fulfilled using homebuilt equipment; examples are provided in the areas of electrolytic conductance and electronic coulometry. (GS)

  20. Instrument for Curriculum Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge; Benson, RoseAnn

    A comprehensive Instrument for Curriculum Evaluation (ICE) was developed to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate curriculum materials. The instrument contains 115 statements for assessing 11 aspects of curriculum: philosophy, needs assessment, theme, goals, learning objectives and standards, scope and sequence, field testing, instructor…

  1. Instrumentation in endourology

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rakesh; Monga, Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices. PMID:21904568

  2. Sterilization of endoscopic instruments.

    PubMed

    Sabnis, Ravindra B; Bhattu, Amit; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar

    2014-03-01

    Sterilization of endoscopic instruments is an important but often ignored topic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the sterilization of endoscopic instruments and elaborate on the appropriate sterilization practices. Autoclaving is an economic and excellent method of sterilizing the instruments that are not heat sensitive. Heat sensitive instruments may get damaged with hot sterilization methods. Several new endoscopic instruments such as flexible ureteroscopes, chip on tip endoscopes, are added in urologists armamentarium. Many of these instruments are heat sensitive and hence alternative efficacious methods of sterilization are necessary. Although ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide are excellent methods of sterilization, they have some drawbacks. Gamma irradiation is mainly for disposable items. Various chemical agents are widely used even though they achieve high-level disinfection rather than sterilization. This article reviews various methods of endoscopic instrument sterilization with their advantages and drawbacks. If appropriate sterilization methods are adopted, then it not only will protect patients from procedure-related infections but prevent hypersensitive allergic reactions. It will also protect instruments from damage and increase its longevity.

  3. Contaminated dental instruments.

    PubMed

    Smith, A; Dickson, M; Aitken, J; Bagg, J

    2002-07-01

    There is current concern in the UK over the possible transmission of prions via contaminated surgical instruments. Some dental instruments (endodontic files) raise particular concerns by virtue of their intimate contact with terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve. A visual assessment using a dissecting light microscope and scanning electron microscopy of endodontic files after clinical use and subsequent decontamination was performed. The instruments examined were collected from general dental practices and from a dental hospital. Seventy-six per cent (22/29) of the files retrieved from general dental practices remained visibly contaminated, compared with 14% (5/37) from the dental hospital. Current methods for decontaminating endodontic instruments used in dentistry may be of an insufficient standard to completely remove biological material. Improved cleaning methods and the feasibility of single use endodontic instruments require further investigation.

  4. Aeronautic Instruments. Section II : Altitude Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mears, A H; Henrickson, H B; Brombacher, W G

    1923-01-01

    This report is Section two of a series of reports on aeronautic instruments (Technical Report nos. 125 to 132, inclusive). This section discusses briefly barometric altitude determinations, and describes in detail the principal types of altimeters and barographs used in aeronautics during the recent war. This is followed by a discussion of performance requirements for such instruments and an account of the methods of testing developed by the Bureau of Standards. The report concludes with a brief account of the results of recent investigations. For accurate measurements of altitude, reference must also be made to thermometer readings of atmospheric temperature, since the altitude is not fixed by atmospheric pressure alone. This matter is discussed in connection with barometric altitude determination.

  5. BICEP2 III: Instrumental systematics

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.

    2015-11-23

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call "deprojection," for filtering the leading order beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ~10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. Lastly, the contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10–3.

  6. Bicep2. III. INSTRUMENTAL SYSTEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aikin, R. W.; Bock, J. J.; Brevik, J. A.; Filippini, J. P.; Golwala, S. R.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Barkats, D.; Benton, S. J.; Bischoff, C. A.; Buder, I.; Karkare, K. S.; Bullock, E.; Dowell, C. D.; Duband, L.; Fliescher, S.; Halpern, M.; Hasselfield, M.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Collaboration: Bicep2 Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-01

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call “deprojection,” for filtering the leading order beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ∼10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. The contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10{sup −3}.

  7. BICEP2 III: Instrumental systematics

    DOE PAGES

    Ade, P. A. R.

    2015-11-23

    In a companion paper, we have reported a >5σ detection of degree scale B-mode polarization at 150 GHz by the Bicep2 experiment. Here we provide a detailed study of potential instrumental systematic contamination to that measurement. We focus extensively on spurious polarization that can potentially arise from beam imperfections. We present a heuristic classification of beam imperfections according to their symmetries and uniformities, and discuss how resulting contamination adds or cancels in maps that combine observations made at multiple orientations of the telescope about its boresight axis. We introduce a technique, which we call "deprojection," for filtering the leading ordermore » beam-induced contamination from time-ordered data, and show that it reduces power in Bicep2's actual and null-test BB spectra consistent with predictions using high signal-to-noise beam shape measurements. We detail the simulation pipeline that we use to directly simulate instrumental systematics and the calibration data used as input to that pipeline. Finally, we present the constraints on BB contamination from individual sources of potential systematics. We find that systematics contribute BB power that is a factor of ~10× below Bicep2's three-year statistical uncertainty, and negligible compared to the observed BB signal. Lastly, the contribution to the best-fit tensor/scalar ratio is at a level equivalent to r = (3–6) × 10–3.« less

  8. Programming for a nuclear reactor instrument simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new computerized control system for a transient test reactor incorporates a simulator for pre-operational testing of control programs. The part of the simulator pertinent to the discussion here consists of two microprocessors. An 8086/8087 reactor simulator calculates simulated reactor power by solving the reactor kinetics equations. An 8086 instrument simulator takes the most recent power value developed by the reactor simulator and simulates the appropriate reading on each of the eleven reactor instruments. Since the system is required to run on a one millisecond cycle, careful programming was required to take care of all eleven instruments in that short time. This note describes the special programming techniques used to attain the needed performance.

  9. Academic Evaluation: Universal Instrument? Tool for Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Mariela; Gras, Natalia; Sutz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Research agendas and academic evaluation are inevitably linked. By means of economic incentives, promotion, research funding, and reputation academic evaluation is a powerful influence on the production of knowledge; moreover, it is often conceived as a universal instrument without consideration of the context in which it is applied. Evaluation…

  10. Academic Evaluation: Universal Instrument? Tool for Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianco, Mariela; Gras, Natalia; Sutz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Research agendas and academic evaluation are inevitably linked. By means of economic incentives, promotion, research funding, and reputation academic evaluation is a powerful influence on the production of knowledge; moreover, it is often conceived as a universal instrument without consideration of the context in which it is applied. Evaluation…

  11. Thirty Meter Telescope science instruments: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Luc; Ellerbroek, Brent; Bhatia, Ravinder; Radovan, Matthew; Chisholm, Eric

    2016-08-01

    An overview of the current status of the science instruments for the Thirty Meter Telescope is presented. Three first-light instruments as well as a science calibration unit for AO-assisted instruments are under development. Developing instrument collaborations that can design and build these challenging instruments remains an area of intense activity. In addition to the instruments themselves, a preliminary design for a facility cryogenic cooling system based on gaseous helium turbine expanders has been completed. This system can deliver a total of 2.4 kilowatts of cooling power at 65K to the instruments with essentially no vibrations. Finally, the process for developing future instruments beyond first light has been extensively discussed and will get under way in early 2017.

  12. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440 Section 367.2440 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES...

  13. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities. 367.2440 Section 367.2440 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY..., FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES...

  14. The DKIST Instrumentation Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeger, Friedrich

    2016-05-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope with its four meter diameter aperture will be the largest telescope in the world for solar observations when it is commissioned in the year 2019. In order to harness its scientific potential immediately, DKIST will integrate five instruments that each will provide unique functionality to measure properties of the solar atmosphere at unprecedented spatial resolution.In this paper we discuss the unique capabilities in the DKIST instrument suite that consists of the Visible Broadband Imager (VBI), the Visible Spectro-Polarimeter (ViSP), the Visible Tunable Filter (VTF), the Diffraction-Limited Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (DL-NIRSP), and the Cryogenic Near-Infrared Spectro-Polarimeter (Cryo-NIRSP).In addition, we will explain the facility's approach to supporting high spatial resolution data acquisition with multiple instruments simultaneously by means of the Facility Instrument Distribution Optics. This system of wavelength separating and interchangeable beamsplitters will enable a variety of different ways to optically configure the light beam to the instruments. This approach ensures that the DKIST instruments can use their individual advantages in a multitude of different observing scenarios. The DKIST instrumentation suite will enable crucial new insights into complex physical processes that occur on spatial scales that are smaller than any solar structure observed in the past.

  15. XML in an Adaptive Framework for Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework for instrument command and control, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC), that combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms.

  16. XML in an Adaptive Framework for Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework for instrument command and control, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC), that combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms.

  17. Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument

    DOEpatents

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2011-06-14

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  18. Evolutionary programming for neutron instrument optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Phillip M.; Pappas, Catherine; Habicht, Klaus; Lelièvre-Berna, Eddy

    2006-11-01

    Virtual instruments based on Monte-Carlo techniques are now integral part of novel instrumentation development and the existing codes (McSTAS and Vitess) are extensively used to define and optimise novel instrumental concepts. Neutron spectrometers, however, involve a large number of parameters and their optimisation is often a complex and tedious procedure. Artificial intelligence algorithms are proving increasingly useful in such situations. Here, we present an automatic, reliable and scalable numerical optimisation concept based on the canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The algorithm was used to optimise the 3D magnetic field profile of the NSE spectrometer SPAN, at the HMI. We discuss the potential of the GA which combined with the existing Monte-Carlo codes (Vitess, McSTAS, etc.) leads to a very powerful tool for automated global optimisation of a general neutron scattering instrument, avoiding local optimum configurations.

  19. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  20. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  1. Wind instruments and headaches.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lage, Juan F; Galarza, Marcelo; Pérez-Espejo, Miguel-Angel; López-Guerrero, Antonio L; Felipe-Murcia, Matías

    2013-03-01

    The authors illustrate the cases of two children with headaches, one diagnosed with Chiari type 1 malformation and the other with hydrocephalus, who played wind instruments. Both patients manifested that their headaches worsened with the efforts made during playing their musical instruments. We briefly comment on the probable role played by this activity on the patients' intracranial pressure and hypothesize that the headaches might be influenced by increases in their intracranial pressure related to Valsalva maneuvers. We had serious doubts on if we should advise our young patients about giving up playing their music instruments.

  2. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-11

    AD-A095 680 ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GRO--ETC F/S 1/4 TESTING AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS .(U) FEB 81 CLASSIFIED TOP-6-3-013 ML I...Test and Evaluation Command -?Final 7, Ts .to .. eg----- ( -4_ Fia - / + I ORG REPORT STesting Aircraft Instruments , j P I- I. AUTHOR(es) S. CONTRACT...Identify by block number) This document presents information and procedures for testing aircraft flight and systems performance instruments in the functional

  3. Instrument Attitude Precision Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is presented in this paper to analyze attitude precision and control for an instrument gimbaled to a spacecraft subject to an internal disturbance caused by a moving component inside the instrument. Nonlinear differential equations of motion for some sample cases are derived and solved analytically to gain insight into the influence of the disturbance on the attitude pointing error. A simple control law is developed to eliminate the instrument pointing error caused by the internal disturbance. Several cases are presented to demonstrate and verify the concept presented in this paper.

  4. Writing Instrument Profiles for Mastery of Instrumental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Daniel; Fernandez, Jorge; Nalliah, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Because of the rapidly changing nature of chemical instrumentation, students must be trained in how to learn and understand new instruments. Toward this end, students are asked to create small instrument manuals, or instrument profiles, for the major pieces of equipment studied during an instrumental analysis course. This writing-intensive process…

  5. CALIPSO Instrument Operational

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-18

    CALIPSO Instrument Operational Thursday, September 11, 2014 The CALIPSO payload is back in data acquisition mode as of Wednesday, September 17, 2014.  CALIPSO data processing has returned to a nominal state, and...

  6. Carbon Footprint Reduction Instruments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page outlines the major differences between Renewable Energy Certificates (REC) and Project Offsets and what types of claims each instrument allows the organization to make in regards to environmental emissions claims.

  7. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z < 3.5. The status of VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  8. NPP: The Five Instruments

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The NPP satellite has 5 instruments on board: VIIRS, CERES, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS. Each one will deliver a specific set of data helping weather prediction and climate studies. This video is a quick ...

  9. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  10. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  11. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  12. Low cost instrumentation amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Amplifier can be used for many applications requiring high input impedance and common mode rejection, low drift, and gain accuracy on order of one percent. Performance of inexpensive amplifier approaches that of some commercial instrumentation amplifiers in many specifications.

  13. AIR Instrument Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, I. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Maiden, D. L.; Goldhagen, P.; Shinn, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The large number of radiation types composing the atmospheric radiation requires a complicated combination of instrument types to fully characterize the environment. A completely satisfactory combination has not as yet been flown and would require a large capital outlay to develop. In that the funds of the current project were limited to essential integration costs, an international collaboration was formed with partners from six countries and fourteen different institutions with their own financial support for their participation. Instruments were chosen to cover sensitivity to all radiation types with enough differential sensitivity to separate individual components. Some instruments were chosen as important to specify the physical field component and other instruments were chosen on the basis that they could be useful in dosimetric evaluation. In the present paper we will discuss the final experimental flight package for the ER-2 flight campaign.

  14. IXO: The Instrument Complement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nousek, John A.; IWG, IXO

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) has recently been created as a mission concept by a joint team of NASA, ESA and JAXA scientists, based on the previous Constellation-X and XEUS concepts. Definition of the IXO instruments is still under evolution, but the core instrument complement will include a Wide Field X-ray Imager, an X-ray Calorimeter / Narrow Field X-ray Imager, and an X-ray Grating Spectrometer. Other, modest additional instruments (such as a hard X-ray capability, a polarimeter, and a high time resolution detector) will also be considered. We present the current status of the IXO instrument complement and offer the opportunity for discussion of ideas relevant to the IXO mission concept process.

  15. Mars Observer instrument complement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komro, Fred G.; Hujber, Frank N.

    1991-10-01

    The mechanical and electrical characteristics and the functional designs of the eight scientific instruments of the Mars Observer's instrument complex are described, and their respective principal investigators and sponsoring institutions are listed. These instruments include a gamma-ray spectrometer, a magnetometer/electron reflectometer, the Mars balloon relay, the Mars Observer camera, the Mars Observer laser altimeter, a pressure modulator infrared radiometer, a thermal emission spectrometer, and an ultrastable oscillator. With these instruments, the Mars Observer will be able to determine the elemental and mineralogical character of Martial surface material; to define globally the topography and the gravitational field; to establish the nature of the magnetic field; to determine the spatial and temporal distribution abundances, sources, and sinks of volatile material and dust over a seasonal cycle; and to explore the structure and circulation of Martian atmosphere.

  16. Cardiovascular instrumentation for spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schappell, R. T.; Polhemus, J. T.; Ganiaris, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The observation mechanisms dealing with pressure, flow, morphology, temperature, etc. are discussed. The approach taken in the performance of this study was to (1) review ground and space-flight data on cardiovascular function, including earlier related ground-based and space-flight animal studies, Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and recent bed-rest studies, (2) review cardiovascular measurement parameters required to assess individual performance and physiological alternations during space flight, (3) perform an instrumentation survey including a literature search as well as personal contact with the applicable investigators, (4) assess instrumentation applicability with respect to the established criteria, and (5) recommend future research and development activity. It is concluded that, for the most part, the required instrumentation technology is available but that mission-peculiar criteria will require modifications to adapt the applicable instrumentation to a space-flight configuration.

  17. TES Instrument Operational Status

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-26

    ... UPDATE: (1/24/2017)  The TES instrument metrology laser end of life testing that resumed on January 11, 2017 provided a gradual increase in the laser diode current. This increase has resulted in the restoration of the ...

  18. Aeronautic Instruments. Section III : Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Franklin L; Stearns, H O

    1923-01-01

    Part 1 contains a discussion and description of the various types of air speed measuring instruments. The authors then give general specifications and performance requirements with the results of tests on air speed indicators at the Bureau of Standards. Part 2 reports methods and laboratory apparatus used at the Bureau of Standards to make static tests. Methods are also given of combining wind tunnel tests with static tests. Consideration is also given to free flight tests. Part 3 discusses the problem of finding suitable methods for the purpose of measuring the speed of aircraft relative to the ground.

  19. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  20. Distributed System Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    PARADISE is a distributed instrumentation system working on DISE under CRONUS and uses a variety of tools and an Integration Platform. 20. DISTRIBUTION...distributed instrumentation system working on DISE under CRONUS and uses a variety of tools and an Integration Platform. In choosing the design approach...careful feasibility study, and have been proven to be suitable (in te: ins of performance, intrusiveness and functionality) for CRONUS and the DISE

  1. [The instrument for thermography].

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Shinsuke

    2014-07-01

    Thermography is an imaging method using the instrument to detect infrared rays emitted from the body surface, and to plot them as a distribution diagram of the temperature information. Therefore, a thermographic instrument can be assumed to measure the skin temperature of the diseased region. Such an instrument is a useful device for noninvasive and objective assessment of various diseases. Examination using a thermographic instrument can assess the autonomic dysfunction by measuring the skin blood flow involved with the sympathetic innervation. Thermography is useful in assisting the determination of the therapeutic effect. However, autonomic dysfunction should be confirmed correctly with the assessment of thermatome that shows abnormal thermal distribution in the region of the disease. Thermography should make noticeable the difference between the body temperature of abnormal and normal sites, and show the alteration of temperature. Monitoring using thermography is useful to determine the effect of sympathetic nerve block. If a thermographic instrument is used, it is important that examiners should understand the function of the instrument, as well as its advantages and disadvantages.

  2. Medical instrument data exchange.

    PubMed

    Gumudavelli, Suman; McKneely, Paul K; Thongpithoonrat, Pongnarin; Gurkan, D; Chapman, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    Advances in medical devices and health care has been phenomenal during the recent years. Although medical device manufacturers have been improving their instruments, network connection of these instruments still rely on proprietary technologies. Even if the interface has been provided by the manufacturer (e.g., RS-232, USB, or Ethernet coupled with a proprietary API), there is no widely-accepted uniform data model to access data of various bedside instruments. There is a need for a common standard which allows for internetworking with the medical devices from different manufacturers. ISO/IEEE 11073 (X73) is a standard attempting to unify the interfaces of all medical devices. X73 defines a client access mechanism that would be implemented into the communication controllers (residing between an instrument and the network) in order to access/network patient data. On the other hand, MediCAN technology suite has been demonstrated with various medical instruments to achieve interfacing and networking with a similar goal in its open standardization approach. However, it provides a more generic definition for medical data to achieve flexibility for networking and client access mechanisms. In this paper, a comparison between the data model of X73 and MediCAN will be presented to encourage interoperability demonstrations of medical instruments.

  3. Advanced optical instruments technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shao, Mike; Chrisp, Michael; Cheng, Li-Jen; Eng, Sverre; Glavich, Thomas; Goad, Larry; Jones, Bill; Kaarat, Philip; Nein, Max; Robinson, William

    1992-01-01

    The science objectives for proposed NASA missions for the next decades push the state of the art in sensitivity and spatial resolution over a wide range of wavelengths, including the x-ray to the submillimeter. While some of the proposed missions are larger and more sensitive versions of familiar concepts, such as the next generation space telescope, others use concepts, common on the Earth, but new to space, such as optical interferometry, in order to provide spatial resolutions impossible with other concepts. However, despite their architecture, the performance of all of the proposed missions depends critically on the back-end instruments that process the collected energy to produce scientifically interesting outputs. The Advanced Optical Instruments Technology panel was chartered with defining technology development plans that would best improve optical instrument performance for future astrophysics missions. At this workshop the optical instrument was defined as the set of optical components that reimage the light from the telescope onto the detectors to provide information about the spatial, spectral, and polarization properties of the light. This definition was used to distinguish the optical instrument technology issues from those associated with the telescope, which were covered by a separate panel. The panel identified several areas for optical component technology development: diffraction gratings; tunable filters; interferometric beam combiners; optical materials; and fiber optics. The panel also determined that stray light suppression instruments, such as coronagraphs and nulling interferometers, were in need of general development to support future astrophysics needs.

  4. Instrumentation of sampling aircraft for measurement of launch vehicle effluents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wornom, D. E.; Woods, D. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Tyson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    An aircraft was selected and instrumented to measure effluents emitted from large solid propellant rockets during launch activities. The considerations involved in aircraft selection, sampling probes, and instrumentation are discussed with respect to obtaining valid airborne measurements. Discussions of the data acquisition system used, the instrument power system, and operational sampling procedures are included. Representative measurements obtained from an actual rocket launch monitoring activity are also presented.

  5. Nuclear instrumentation system design in FFTF and CRBRP

    SciTech Connect

    Warrick, R.P.

    1980-02-01

    The Nuclear Instrumentation System installed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is described. The Nuclear Instrumentation System includes equipment for monitoring neutron flux levels from shutdown to full power. Detector location and mounting provisions are described. The design basis for equipment design is provided. Detailed discussion of startup testing in FFTF follows a brief discussion of pre-delivery development work and testing. Finally, a description of the Nuclear Instrumentation System planned for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant is provided.

  6. Readability as Applied to an ABE Assessment Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. C.; Wahlstrom, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the procedure for applying the Fog, Flesch, and Fry readability formulas to the Internal, Powerful Others, and Chance Scales and for modifying the instrument for use with adult basic education (ABE) students. (Author/CH)

  7. The Nebraska Instrument Sharing Consortium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The Nebraska Instrument Sharing Consortium (NISC) is a group of small colleges that have banded together to provide modern instrumentation to their students at an affordable price. Consortium activities are described, including how the instruments are moved between campuses. (JN)

  8. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative... the fair value of the derivative instrument....

  9. 18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change...

  10. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative... the fair value of the derivative instrument....

  11. 18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1750 Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the change...

  12. 18 CFR 367.2440 - Account 244, Derivative instrument liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 244, Derivative..., Derivative instrument liabilities. This account must include the change in the fair value of all derivative... the fair value of the derivative instrument....

  13. New Instruments Shed Light On Astronomy's Future.

    PubMed

    Travis, J

    1994-04-15

    KONA, HAWAII-The snowy 14,000-foot summit of Mauna Kea, with its bevy of powerful telescopes including the just-completed Keck, provided an appropriate backdrop for a recent ocean-side gathering of astronomers and engineers to discuss "Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation for the 21st Century." Last month's meeting was organized by the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, and included a status report on liquid mirror telescopes, discussion of a space observatory that may make optical and x-ray astronomers best friends, and a modest proposal to cover the globe with a network of small, automated telescopes.

  14. Instrumentation for Sensitive Gas Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    An improved instrument for optical absorption spectroscopy utilizes off-axis paths in an optical cavity in order to increase detection sensitivity while suppressing resonance effects. The instrument is well suited for use in either cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) [in which one pulses an incident light beam and measures the rate of decay of light in the cavity] or integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) [in which one uses a continuous-wave incident light beam and measures the power of light in the cavity as a function of wavelength]. Typically, in optical absorption spectroscopy, one seeks to measure absorption of a beam of light in a substance (usually a gas or liquid) in a sample cell. In CRDS or ICOS, the sample cell is placed in (or consists of) an optical cavity, so that one can utilize multiple reflections of the beam to increase the effective optical path length through the absorbing substance and thereby increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption. If an absorbing substance is not present in the optical cavity, one can utilize the multiple passes of the light beam to increase the sensitivity for measuring absorption and scattering by components of the optical cavity itself. It is desirable to suppress the effects of resonances in the cavity in order to make the spectral response of the cavity itself as nearly constant as possible over the entire wavelength range of interest. In the present instrument, the desired flattening of the spectral response is accomplished by utilizing an off-axis beam geometry to effectively decrease the frequency interval between longitudinal electromagnetic modes of the cavity, such that the resulting transmission spectrum of the cavity is nearly continuous: in other words, the cavity becomes a broad-band optical device.

  15. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN HYDROLOGIC INSTRUMENTATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latkovich, Vito J.

    1985-01-01

    The availability of space-age materials and implementation of state-of-the-art electronics is making possible the recent developments of hydrologic instrumentation. Material developments include: Synthetic-fiber sounding and tag lines; fiberglass wading rod; polymer (plastic) sheaves, pulleys and sampler components; and polymer (plastic) bucket wheels for current meters. These materials are very cost effective and efficient. Electromechanical and electronic developments and applications include: adaptable data acquisition system; downhole sampler for hazardous substances; current-meter digitizer; hydraulic power/drive system for discharge measurements and water-quality sampling; non-contact water-level sensors; minimum data recorder; acoustic velocity meters, and automated current meter discharge-measurement system.

  16. Nonmetallic Diaphragms for Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, H N; Buckingham, C T

    1925-01-01

    This report, the second of a series of reports relating to the general subject of instrument diaphragms. The first report of the series was published as Technical Report no. 165, "diaphragms for aeronautic instruments," and comprised an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles. The present report relates entirely to nonmetallic diaphragms, the use of which in certain types of pressure elements has been increasing for some time. Little, if any, information has been available to aid the designer of instruments using this form of pressure element. It was to attempt to meet the need for such information that the investigation reported in this paper was undertaken. The report describes the various materials which have been used as nonmetallic diaphragms, discusses the factors which affect the performance of the diaphragms and gives the results of tests made for the purpose of investigating the effect produced by these factors.

  17. The AFTA coronagraph instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaklan, Stuart; Levine, Marie; Foote, Marc; Rodgers, Michael; Underhill, Michael; Marchen, Luis; Klein, Dan

    2013-09-01

    The Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (AFTA) study in 2012-2013 included a high-contrast stellar coronagraph to complement the wide-field infrared survey (WFIRST) instrument. The idea of flying a coronagraph on this telescope was met with some skepticism because the AFTA pupil has a large central obscuration with six secondary mirror struts that impact the coronagraph sensitivity. However, several promising coronagraph concepts have emerged, and a corresponding initial instrument design has been completed. Requirements on the design include observations centered 0.6 deg off-axis, on-orbit robotic serviceability, operation in a geosynchronous orbit, and room-temperature operation (driven by the coronagraph's deformable mirrors). We describe the instrument performance requirements, the optical design, an observational scenario, and integration times for typical detection and characterization observations.

  18. Aethalometer™ Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Sedlacek, Arthur J

    2016-04-01

    The Aethalometer is an instrument that provides a real-time readout of the concentration of “Black” or “Elemental” carbon aerosol particles (BC or E) in an air stream (see Figure 1 and Figure 2). It is a self-contained instrument that measures the rate of change of optical transmission through a spot on a filter where aerosol is being continuously collected and uses the information to calculate the concentration of optically absorbing material in the sampled air stream. The instrument measures the transmitted light intensities through the “sensing” portion of the filter, on which the aerosol spot is being collected, and a “reference” portion of the filter as a check on the stability of the optical source. A mass flowmeter monitors the sample air flow rate. The data from these three measurements is used to determine the mean BC content of the air stream.

  19. SPI instrumental background characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, P.; Vedrenne, G.; Roques, J. P.; Schönfelder, V.; Teegarden, B. J.; von Kienlin, A.; Knödlseder, J.; Wunderer, C.; Skinner, G. K.; Weidenspointner, G.; Attié, D.; Boggs, S.; Caraveo, P.; Cordier, B.; Diehl, R.; Gros, M.; Leleux, P.; Lichti, G. G.; Kalemci, E.; Kiener, J.; Lonjou, V.; Mandrou, P.; Paul, Ph.; Schanne, S.; von Ballmoos, P.

    2003-11-01

    In its space environment the INTEGRAL observatory is subject to an intense irradiation by energetic cosmic-ray particles that leads, via nuclear interactions with the telescope and spacecraft materials, to an important background of false events. In this paper we present the characteristics of the instrumental background that is observed in the spectrometer SPI (SPectrometer of INTEGRAL). We explain the tuning that has been performed on the parameters of the anticoincidence system in order to optimise the telescope sensitivity over the full energy range. Temporal variations of the instrumental background are discussed and methods are proposed that allow for their modelling in first order. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), Czech Republic and Poland, and with the participation of Russia and the USA.

  20. Micro mushroom instrumentation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    An electronics circuit which provides for the recording of instrumentation data on an optical disk is disclosed. The optical disk is formatted in a spiral format instead of concentric tracks. The spiral format allows data to be recorded without the gaps that would be associated with concentric tracks. The instrumentation system provides each channel with a program instrumentation amplifier, a six pole lowpass switched capacitor filter, a sample and hold amplifier, and a digital to analog converter to provide automatic offset capability. Since each channel has its own components, simultaneous samples of every channel can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be captured. All of the input signal's channel variables can be changed under software control without hardware changes. A single board computer is used for a system controller.

  1. Instrumentation at Gemini Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Boccas, Maxime; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Gomez, Percy; Murowinski, Rick; Chené, André-Nicolas; Henderson, David

    2014-07-01

    Gemini South's instrument suite has been completely transformed since our last biennial update. We commissioned the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and its associated Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI) as well as Flamingos-2, our long-slit and multi-object infrared imager and spectrograph, and the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI). We upgraded the CCDs in GMOS-S, our multi-object optical imager and spectrograph, with the GMOS-N CCD upgrade scheduled for 2015. Our next instrument, the Gemini High-resolution Optical SpecTrograph (GHOST) is in its preliminary design stage and we are making plans for the instrument to follow:Gen4#3.

  2. Lightning Instrumentation at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Jose L.; Eng, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes lightning phenomena with a brief explanation of lightning generation and lightning activity as related to KSC. An analysis of the instrumentation used at launching Pads 39 A&B for measurements of lightning effects is included with alternatives and recommendations to improve the protection system and upgrade the actual instrumentation system. An architecture for a new data collection system to replace the present one is also included. A novel architecture to obtain lightning current information from several sensors using only one high speed recording channel while monitoring all sensors to replace the actual manual lightning current recorders and a novel device for the protection system are described.

  3. Microtechnology for instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Mariella, R.

    1998-01-01

    For the last two decades, the majority of research and development at LLNL in microtechnology has focused on photonics devices and bulk micromachining, including miccroelectro-mechanical systems and associated areas. For the last ten years, we have used these capabilities to address our analytical instrumentation needs. Just as the miniature photonics have enable the fabrication of analytical instruments that are either higher performance, smaller, more portable, or are combinations of these. Examples of these are our portable thermal cyclers for DNA analysis, our hand-held gas chromatograph, our flow-stream-waveguide-based flow cytometer, and our etched-microchannel electrophoresis systems. This presentation will describe these and related developments.

  4. Animation of MARDI Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    This animation shows a zoom into the Mars Descent Imager (MARDI) instrument onboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix team will soon attempt to use a microphone on the MARDI instrument to capture sounds of Mars.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Instrumentation in wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takashima, K.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements in designing instrumentation systems and measurements of various physical quantities in wind tunnels are surveyed. Emphasis is given to sensors used for measuring pressure, temperature, and angle, and the measurements of air turbulence and boundary layers. Instrumentation in wind tunnels require accuracy, fast response, diversity and operational simplicity. Measurements of force, pressure, attitude angle, free flow, pressure distribution, and temperature are illustrated by a table, and a block diagram. The LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) method for measuring air turbulence and flow velocity and measurement of skin friction and flow fields using laser holograms are discussed. The future potential of these techniques is studied.

  6. Instrumentation in medical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1995-05-01

    The demand for clinical use of accelerated heavy charged-particle (proton and light-ion) beams for cancer treatment is now burgeoning worldwide. Clinical trials are underway at more than a dozen accelerators. Several hospital-based accelerator facilities dedicated to radiation treatment of human cancer have been constructed, and their number is growing. Many instruments in medical systems have been developed for modifying extracted particle beams for clinical application, monitoring the delivery of the treatment beams, and controlling the treatment processes to ensure patient safety. These in turn demand new developments of instruments in controlling beam extraction, beam tuning, and beam transportation at the medical systems.

  7. Standard NIM Instrumentation System

    SciTech Connect

    Costrell, Louis; Lenkszus, Frank R.; Rudnick, Stanley J.; Davey, Eric; Gould, John; Rankowitz, Seymour; Sims, William P.; Whitney, R. Roy; Dobinson, Robert W.; Verweij, Henk; Latner, Norman; Negro, Vincent C.; Barsotti, Edward J.; Droege, Thomas E.; Kerns, Cordon; Turner, Kathleen J.; Downing, Robert W.; Kirsten, Frederick A.; Larsh, A. E.; Loken, Stewart C.; Mack, Dick A.; Wagner, Lee J.; Lucena, Robert C.; O'Brien, Dennis W.; Gjovig, Allan; Naivar, Frank; Nelson, Ronald O.; White, D. Hywell; Akerlof, Carl; Stilwell, Donald E.; Trainor, James H.; Gobbi, Bruno; Biggerstaff, John A.; Hill, Nat W.; Schulze, Gerald K.; Gustavson, David B.; Horelick, Dale; Kunz, Paul F.; Paffrath, Leo; Walz, Helmut V.; Dawson, W. Kenneth; Cresswell, John; Dhawan, Satish; Gingell, Charles E. L.

    1990-05-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID-20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  8. Ocean Observation Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) was developed by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. for Ames Research Center under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract as a simulator for an advanced oceanographic satellite instrument. The instrument measures water temperature and detects water color in nine wavelengths. Water color indicates chlorophyll content or phytoplankton. After EOCAP assistance and technical improvements, the AOCI was successfully commercialized by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc. One version provides commercial fishing fleets with information about fish locations, and the other is used for oceanographic research.

  9. Instrumental carbon monoxide dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Stetter, J R; Rutt, D R

    1980-10-01

    Modern technology for the ambient monitoring of carbon monoxide has been developed to produce a portable electrochemical instrument capable of the personal exposure to carbon monoxide. The performance characteristics of this device have been studied so that the unambiguous interpretation of field data could be performed. A study of the carbon monoxide exposure in a light manufacturing facility illustrate that effective dosimetry can be performed with expectations of accuracy typically better than +/- 15%, and that voluntary carbon monoxide exposures such as smoking were a significant contribution to the individual's exposure. Significant definition of the carbon monoxide exposure profile can be achieved with an instrument approach to the collection of the dosimetric data.

  10. Distributed Framework for Dynamic Telescope and Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy J.; Case, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been developed specifically for a single instrument. Such solutions are frequently expensive and are inflexible to support the next instrument development effort. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC) that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. IRC combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms. The IRC framework provides the ability to communicate to components anywhere on a network using the JXTA protocol for dynamic discovery of distributed components. JXTA (see httD://www.jxta.org,) is a generalized protocol that allows any devices connected by a network to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner. IRC uses JXTA to advertise a device's IML and discover devices of interest on the network. Devices can join or leave the network and thus join or leave the instrument control environment of IRC. Currently, several astronomical instruments are working with the IRC development team to develop custom components for IRC to control their instruments. These instruments include: High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC), a first light instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA); Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), a Principal Investigator instrument for SOFIA; and Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE), a prototype of the SAFIRE instrument, used at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Most recently, we have

  11. Distributed Framework for Dynamic Telescope and Instrument Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Troy J.; Case, Lynne

    2002-12-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been developed specifically for a single instrument. Such solutions are frequently expensive and are inflexible to support the next instrument development effort. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC) that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. IRC combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms. The IRC framework provides the ability to communicate to components anywhere on a network using the JXTA protocol for dynamic discovery of distributed components. JXTA (see http://www.jxta.org) is a generalized protocol that allows any devices connected by a network to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner. IRC uses JXTA to advertise a device?s IML and discover devices of interest on the network. Devices can join or leave the network and thus join or leave the instrument control environment of IRC. Currently, several astronomical instruments are working with the IRC development team to develop custom components for IRC to control their instruments. These instruments include: High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC), a first light instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA); Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), a principal investigator instrument for SOFIA; and Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE), a prototype of the SAFIRE instrument, used at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Most recently, we have

  12. Electronic load for testing power generating devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E. B.; Stepfer, G.

    1968-01-01

    Instrument tests various electric power generating devices by connecting the devices to the input of the load and comparing their outputs with a reference voltage. The load automatically adjusts until voltage output of the power generating device matches the reference.

  13. Instrumentation Control Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  14. Elementary Instrumental Music Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dolores A.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Our former Elementary Instrumental Music Program for 4th-6th graders was costly and ineffective. Students were bused to a high school in the middle of the instructional day--costs (time and transportation) were not compensatory with the program, which was experiencing a significant drop-out rate.…

  15. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Percussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Jesse

    A course in introduction to music emphasizing harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory approach in which pupils will develop skill in playing percussion instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will recognize duple, triple,…

  16. Portable dynamic fundus instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gerald R. (Inventor); Meehan, Richard T. (Inventor); Hunter, Norwood R. (Inventor); Caputo, Michael P. (Inventor); Gibson, C. Robert (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A portable diagnostic image analysis instrument is disclosed for retinal funduscopy in which an eye fundus image is optically processed by a lens system to a charge coupled device (CCD) which produces recordable and viewable output data and is simultaneously viewable on an electronic view finder. The fundus image is processed to develop a representation of the vessel or vessels from the output data.

  17. HARMONI instrument control electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigante, José V.; Rodríguez Ramos, Luis F.; Zins, Gerard; Schnetler, Hermine; Pecontal, Arlette; Herreros, José Miguel; Clarke, Fraser; Bryson, Ian; Thatte, Niranjan

    2014-07-01

    HARMONI is an integral field spectrograph working at visible and near-infrared wavelengths over a range of spatial scales from ground layer corrected to fully diffraction-limited. The instrument has been chosen to be part of the first-light complement at the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). This paper describes the instrument control electronics to be developed at IAC. The large size of the HARMONI instrument, its cryogenic operation, and the fact that it must operate with enhanced reliability is a challenge from the point of view of the control electronics design. The present paper describes a design proposal based on the current instrument requirements and intended to be fully compliant with the ESO E-ELT standards, as well as with the European EMC and safety standards. The modularity of the design and the use of COTS standard hardware will benefit the project in several aspects, as reduced costs, shorter schedule by the use of commercially available components, and improved quality by the use of well proven solutions.

  18. Music: Instrumental Techniques, Strings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Philip

    A course in music which emphasizes harmony is presented. The approach used is a laboratory one in which pupils will develop skill in playing orchestral string instruments, sing, listen to, read and compose music with emphasis on elementary concepts of harmony. Course objectives include: (1) The student will select the title of a familiar melody…

  19. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  20. Integrating Nephelometer Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Uin, J.

    2016-03-01

    The Integrating Nephelometer (Figure 1) is an instrument that measures aerosol light scattering. It measures aerosol optical scattering properties by detecting (with a wide angular integration – from 7 to 170°) the light scattered by the aerosol and subtracting the light scattered by the carrier gas, the instrument walls and the background noise in the detector (zeroing). Zeroing is typically performed for 5 minutes every day at midnight UTC. The scattered light is split into red (700 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm) wavelengths and captured by three photomultiplier tubes. The instrument can measure total scatter as well as backscatter only (from 90 to 170°) (Heintzenberg and Charlson 1996; Anderson et al. 1996; Anderson and Ogren 1998; TSI 3563 2015) At ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement), two identical Nephelometers are usually run in series with a sample relative humidity (RH) conditioner between them. This is possible because Nephelometer sampling is non-destructive and the sample can be passed on to another instrument. The sample RH conditioner scans through multiple RH values in cycles, treating the sample. This kind of setup allows to study how aerosol particles’ light scattering properties are affected by humidification (Anderson et al. 1996). For historical reasons, the two Nephelometers in this setup are labeled “wet” and “dry”, with the “dry” Nephelometer usually being the one before the conditioner and sampling ambient air (the names are switched for the MAOS measurement site due to the high RH of the ambient air).

  1. Elementary Instrumental Music Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dolores A.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Our former Elementary Instrumental Music Program for 4th-6th graders was costly and ineffective. Students were bused to a high school in the middle of the instructional day--costs (time and transportation) were not compensatory with the program, which was experiencing a significant drop-out rate.…

  2. Experimenting with Woodwind Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Simple experiments involving musical instruments of the woodwind family can be used to demonstrate the basic physics of vibrating air columns in resonance tubes using nothing more than straightforward measurements and data collection hardware and software. More involved experimentation with the same equipment can provide insight into the effects…

  3. Process Instrumentation. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, A. O., III; Fowler, Malcolm

    This module provides instructional materials that are designed to help teachers train students in job skills for entry-level jobs as instrumentation technicians. This text addresses the basics of troubleshooting control loops, and the transducers, transmitters, signal conditioners, control valves, and controllers that enable process systems to…

  4. The GLO Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordley, L.; Marshall, B. T.; McHugh, M. J.; Hervig, M. E.; Paxton, G. J.; Fish, C. S.; Bailey, S. M.; Marchant, A.

    2011-12-01

    Advanced solar occultation sensors, miniature in size and complexity, are now possible with modern space-qualified components and measurement techniques. This poster describes the GLO (Gfcr Limb Occultation) instrument, a static sensor with cubesat dimensions that performs solar occultation measurements using a combination of broadband and gas filter correlation channels. GLO can be applied to measure temperature, pressure, aerosol, and trace gases from cloud-top to the lower thermosphere. Though GLO has a broad range of applicability, for this poster we present a version of GLO designed for the UTLS. A feasibility study for such an instrument demonstrates unprecedented fidelity in retrieved profiles, with sub kilometer vertical resolution, of temperature, pressure, aerosol extinction from 0.4 to 4 microns and trace gases that are key to understanding UTLS exchange. Using a single 2D detector array to image the sun for all channels simultaneously, a 10 x 10 x 20 cm instrument is shown to provide UTLS profile measurements of geophysical parameters that are predicted to match or surpass the quality of such profiles from previous limb sensors. A suite of GLO instruments in different orbits can be used to provide global coverage that rivals limb emission sensors, but with occultation measurement capabilities in calibration, precision and accuracy.

  5. Instrumentation Control Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document contains 22 units to consider for use in a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of instrumentation control technician. All the units listed will not necessarily apply to every situation or tech prep consortium, nor will all the competencies within each unit be appropriate. Several units appear within each specific…

  6. Instrument for Textbook Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge

    An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

  7. AC resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, P.J.

    1983-10-04

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument. 8 figs.

  8. AC Resistance measuring instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hof, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    An auto-ranging AC resistance measuring instrument for remote measurement of the resistance of an electrical device or circuit connected to the instrument includes a signal generator which generates an AC excitation signal for application to a load, including the device and the transmission line, a monitoring circuit which provides a digitally encoded signal representing the voltage across the load, and a microprocessor which operates under program control to provide an auto-ranging function by which range resistance is connected in circuit with the load to limit the load voltage to an acceptable range for the instrument, and an auto-compensating function by which compensating capacitance is connected in shunt with the range resistance to compensate for the effects of line capacitance. After the auto-ranging and auto-compensation functions are complete, the microprocessor calculates the resistance of the load from the selected range resistance, the excitation signal, and the load voltage signal, and displays of the measured resistance on a digital display of the instrument.

  9. Designing Intelligent Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Erner, Philip M.; Frasso, Scott

    2007-11-01

    Remote science operations require automated systems that can both act and react with minimal human intervention. One such vision is that of an intelligent instrument that collects data in an automated fashion, and based on what it learns, decides which new measurements to take. This innovation implements experimental design and unites it with data analysis in such a way that it completes the cycle of learning. This cycle is the basis of the Scientific Method. The three basic steps of this cycle are hypothesis generation, inquiry, and inference. Hypothesis generation is implemented by artificially supplying the instrument with a parameterized set of possible hypotheses that might be used to describe the physical system. The act of inquiry is handled by an inquiry engine that relies on Bayesian adaptive exploration where the optimal experiment is chosen as the one which maximizes the expected information gain. The inference engine is implemented using the nested sampling algorithm, which provides the inquiry engine with a set of posterior samples from which the expected information gain can be estimated. With these computational structures in place, the instrument will refine its hypotheses, and repeat the learning cycle by taking measurements until the system under study is described within a pre-specified tolerance. We will demonstrate our first attempts toward achieving this goal with an intelligent instrument constructed using the LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT robotics platform.

  10. Ozone monitoring instrument (OMI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Johan; van den Oord, Gijsbertus H. J.; Hilsenrath, Ernest; te Plate, Maurice B.; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Dirksen, Ruud

    2002-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is an UV-Visible imaging spectrograph using two dimensional CCD detectors to register both the spectrum and the swath perpendicular to the flight direction. This allows having a wide swath (114 degrees) combined with a small ground pixel (nominally 13 x 24 km). The instrument is planned for launch on NASA's EOS-AURA satellite in June 2003. Currently the OMI Flight Model is being build. This shortly follows the Instrument Development Model (DM) which was built to, next to engineering purposes, verify the instrument performance. The paper presents measured results from this DM for optical parameters such as distortion, optical efficiency, stray light and polarization sensitivity. Distortion in the spatial direction is shown to be on sub-pixel level and the stray light levels are very low and almost free from ghost peaks. The polarization sensitivity is presently demonstrated to be below 10-3 but we aim to lower the detection limit by an order of magnitude to make sure that spectral residuals do not mix with trace gas absorption spectra. Critical detector parameters are presented such as the very high UV quantum efficiency (60 % at 270 nm), dark current behavior and the sensitivity to radiation.

  11. Instrument for Textbook Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huetteman, Julie Doidge

    An instrument to assist in assessing textbooks was created to provide a concise format for comparison and evaluation. Textbook characteristics were selected to illustrate content and proportion of characteristics of textbooks. Nine textbook characteristics were selected for quantifying the content areas of textbooks: (1) number of pages in the…

  12. A Quantitative Evaluation of Dissolved Oxygen Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pijanowski, Barbara S.

    1971-01-01

    The implications of the presence of dissolved oxygen in water are discussed in terms of its deleterious or beneficial effects, depending on the functional consequences to those affected, e.g., the industrialist, the oceanographer, and the ecologist. The paper is devoted primarily to an examination of the performance of five commercially available dissolved oxygen meters. The design of each is briefly reviewed and ease or difficulty of use in the field described. Specifically, the evaluation program treated a number of parameters and user considerations including an initial check and trial calibration for each instrument and a discussion of the measurement methodology employed. Detailed test results are given relating to the effects of primary power variation, water-flow sensitivity, response time, relative accuracy of dissolved-oxygen readout, temperature accuracy (for those instruments which included this feature), error and repeatability, stability, pressure and other environmental effects, and test results obtained in the field. Overall instrument performance is summarized comparatively by chart.

  13. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  14. Advanced Instruments and Their Impact on Earth Science Missions (I)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Jonathan; Komar, George; Lemmerman, Loren; Gerber, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A past paper (IAA-B4-1004) analyzed the costs associated with developing, launching and operating a constellation of small satellites for earth observations. That study provided examples of measurements that could be made with such a system, per-unit cost goals and an overview of technologies that might be applied to spacecraft (s/c) subsystems to minimize power, mass and volume. However, that paper largely ignored instruments and the impacts of instrument size, mass, and power reductions on future mission feasibility. This paper reviews instruments that have been or are being funded by NASA to reduce power consumption, mass, volume; to lower downlink demands; and/or lower unit costs. The instruments in question could be used in single spacecraft missions or implemented in spacecraft constellations to increase temporal or spatial coverage. The instrument descriptions describe measurements enabled and/or enhanced, concluding with descriptions of the instruments. Instruments chosen consist primarily of those with low s/c system resource demands, e.g., power or communications bandwidth.

  15. IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center: Advancing Portable Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; Bilek, S. L.; Anderson, K. R.

    2016-12-01

    IRIS PASSCAL has supported portable seismology for 30 years providing instrumentation and services for nearly 1200 PI-driven experiments. Throughout this time, the scientific community continues to pursue cutting-edge science questions, requiring a steady evolution of IRIS PASSCAL Instrument Center (PIC) services. Deployment strategies and station designs have evolved with the introduction of new technology and from the collective experience of the PI community. New equipment, new power technologies, and extreme environments provide additional challenges. Experiments have also increased in size and complexity, requiring new methods of handling and integrating data. Several recent developments and enhancements to communications hardware, data management, station power, and station design have simplified logistics and increased station reliability. Here we present: advancements in Iridium communications station state-of-health and data transmission; evaluation of battery technologies that simplify station design; software for integrating and storing multimode experiment data; and next generation station designs.

  16. UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-18

    UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500 MHz NMR ...UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition Report Title For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500...MHz NMR have been delivered, installed, and incorporated into research and two lab courses. While no results from these instruments have been

  17. Distributed framework for dyanmic telescope and instrument control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Troy J.; Case, Lynne

    2003-02-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been developed specifically for a single instrument. Such solutions are frequently expensive and are inflexible to support the next instrument development effort. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC) that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. IRC combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe graphical user interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms. The IRC framework provides the ability to communicate to components anywhere on a network using the JXTA protocol for dynamic discovery of distributed components. JXTA (see http://www.jxta.org) is a generalized protocol that allows any devices connected by a network to communicate in a peer-to-peer manner. IRC uses JXTA to advertise a devices IML and discover devices of interest on the network. Devices can join or leave the network and thus join or leave the instrument control environment of IRC. Currently, several astronomical instruments are working with the IRC development team to develop custom components for IRC to control their instruments. These instruments include: High resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC), a first light instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA); Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), a Principal Investigator instrument for SOFIA; and Fabry-Perot Interferometer Bolometer Research Experiment (FIBRE), a prototype of the SAFIRE instrument, used at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). Most recently, we have been

  18. netherland hydrological modeling instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogewoud, J. C.; de Lange, W. J.; Veldhuizen, A.; Prinsen, G.

    2012-04-01

    Netherlands Hydrological Modeling Instrument A decision support system for water basin management. J.C. Hoogewoud , W.J. de Lange ,A. Veldhuizen , G. Prinsen , The Netherlands Hydrological modeling Instrument (NHI) is the center point of a framework of models, to coherently model the hydrological system and the multitude of functions it supports. Dutch hydrological institutes Deltares, Alterra, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, RWS Waterdienst, STOWA and Vewin are cooperating in enhancing the NHI for adequate decision support. The instrument is used by three different ministries involved in national water policy matters, for instance the WFD, drought management, manure policy and climate change issues. The basis of the modeling instrument is a state-of-the-art on-line coupling of the groundwater system (MODFLOW), the unsaturated zone (metaSWAP) and the surface water system (MOZART-DM). It brings together hydro(geo)logical processes from the column to the basin scale, ranging from 250x250m plots to the river Rhine and includes salt water flow. The NHI is validated with an eight year run (1998-2006) with dry and wet periods. For this run different parts of the hydrology have been compared with measurements. For instance, water demands in dry periods (e.g. for irrigation), discharges at outlets, groundwater levels and evaporation. A validation alone is not enough to get support from stakeholders. Involvement from stakeholders in the modeling process is needed. There fore to gain sufficient support and trust in the instrument on different (policy) levels a couple of actions have been taken: 1. a transparent evaluation of modeling-results has been set up 2. an extensive program is running to cooperate with regional waterboards and suppliers of drinking water in improving the NHI 3. sharing (hydrological) data via newly setup Modeling Database for local and national models 4. Enhancing the NHI with "local" information. The NHI is and has been used for many

  19. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  20. Artifacts Of Spectral Analysis Of Instrument Readings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Report presents experimental and theoretical study of some of artifacts introduced by processing outputs of two nominally identical low-frequency-reading instruments; high-sensitivity servo-accelerometers mounted together and operating, in conjunction with signal-conditioning circuits, as seismometers. Processing involved analog-to-digital conversion with anti-aliasing filtering, followed by digital processing including frequency weighting and computation of different measures of power spectral density (PSD).

  1. Low-Dimensional Feature Representation for Instrument Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, Mizuki; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Ikeda, Kazushi; Ishii, Shin

    For monophonic music instrument identification, various feature extraction and selection methods have been proposed. One of the issues toward instrument identification is that the same spectrum is not always observed even in the same instrument due to the difference of the recording condition. Therefore, it is important to find non-redundant instrument-specific features that maintain information essential for high-quality instrument identification to apply them to various instrumental music analyses. For such a dimensionality reduction method, the authors propose the utilization of linear projection methods: local Fisher discriminant analysis (LFDA) and LFDA combined with principal component analysis (PCA). After experimentally clarifying that raw power spectra are actually good for instrument classification, the authors reduced the feature dimensionality by LFDA or by PCA followed by LFDA (PCA-LFDA). The reduced features achieved reasonably high identification performance that was comparable or higher than those by the power spectra and those achieved by other existing studies. These results demonstrated that our LFDA and PCA-LFDA can successfully extract low-dimensional instrument features that maintain the characteristic information of the instruments.

  2. 18 CFR 367.1750 - Account 175, Derivative instrument assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 175, Derivative instrument assets. 367.1750 Section 367.1750 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY.... Account 421, Miscellaneous income or loss (§ 367.4210), must be credited or debited, as appropriate, with...

  3. 95. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    95. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770). BATTERY RACK FOR BACKUP BOOSTER POWER ON LEFT; BATTERY RACK FOR BACKUP AEROSPACE GROUND EQUIPMENT (AGE) POWER ON RIGHT. BATTERY CHARGER IS RIGHT OF BATTERY RACKS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a... device and the battery-powered device are exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter, subject to the limitations in § 886.9. The battery-powered device...

  5. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a... device and the battery-powered device are exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter, subject to the limitations in § 886.9. The battery-powered device...

  6. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a... device and the battery-powered device are exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter, subject to the limitations in § 886.9. The battery-powered device...

  7. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a... device and the battery-powered device are exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter, subject to the limitations in § 886.9. The battery-powered device...

  8. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a... device and the battery-powered device are exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter, subject to the limitations in § 886.9. The battery-powered device...

  9. 117. VIEW OF CABINETS ON EAST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. VIEW OF CABINETS ON EAST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206), LSB (BLDG. 751). FEATURES LEFT TO RIGHT: ALTERNATING CURRENT POWER DISTRIBUTION RELAY BOX, AIRBORNE BEACON ELECTRONIC TEST SYSTEM (ABETS), AUTOPILOT CHECKOUT CONTROLS, POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  11. Space telescope scientific instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the Space Telescope (ST) observatory, the design concepts of the five scientific instruments which will conduct the initial observatory observations, and summarizes their astronomical capabilities. The instruments are the wide-field and planetary camera (WFPC) which will receive the highest quality images, the faint-object camera (FOC) which will penetrate to the faintest limiting magnitudes and achieve the finest angular resolution possible, and the faint-object spectrograph (FOS), which will perform photon noise-limited spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry on objects substantially fainter than those accessible to ground-based spectrographs. In addition, the high resolution spectrograph (HRS) will provide higher spectral resolution with greater photometric accuracy than previously possible in ultraviolet astronomical spectroscopy, and the high-speed photometer will achieve precise time-resolved photometric observations of rapidly varying astronomical sources on short time scales.

  12. Instrument techniques for rheometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ying Y.; Kassim, Hamida O.

    2005-10-01

    This article presents a review of some latest advances in rheology measuring techniques. Consideration is given to the modification and approaches in conventional measuring techniques and also to the development of specialty instruments. A number of sensing technologies such as nuclear-magnetic-resonance imaging and ultrasonic pulse Doppler mapping have recently been adopted to produce viscoelastic measurements for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian materials. The working principles of these technologies and their applications are described. Other recent developments in modifications of conventional rheometers for performance enhancement and for complex material characterizations have been thoroughly discussed. Some instrument designs and their special applications, such as interfacial rheometers, extensional rheometers, and high-pressure rheometers, have also been evaluated in detail.

  13. THE ARCADE 2 INSTRUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Singal, J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Kogut, A.; Mirel, P.; Wollack, E.; Levin, S.; Seiffert, M.; Limon, M.; Lubin, P.; Villela, T.; Wuensche, C. A.

    2011-04-01

    The second generation Absolute Radiometer for Cosmology, Astrophysics, and Diffuse Emission (ARCADE 2) instrument is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the radiometric temperature of the cosmic microwave background and Galactic and extragalactic emission at six frequencies from 3 to 90 GHz. ARCADE 2 utilizes a double-nulled design where emission from the sky is compared to that from an external cryogenic full-aperture blackbody calibrator by cryogenic switching radiometers containing internal blackbody reference loads. In order to further minimize sources of systematic error, ARCADE 2 features a cold fully open aperture with all radiometrically active components maintained at near 2.7 K without windows or other warm objects, achieved through a novel thermal design. We discuss the design and performance of the ARCADE 2 instrument in its 2005 and 2006 flights.

  14. Reading Instruments: Objects, Texts and Museums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Katharine; Frappier, Mélanie; Neswald, Elizabeth; Trim, Henry

    2013-05-01

    Science educators, historians of science and their students often share a curiosity about historical instruments as a tangible link between past and present practices in the sciences. We less often integrate instruments into our research and pedagogy, considering artefact study as the domain of museum specialists. We argue here that scholars and teachers new to material culture can readily use artefacts to reveal rich and complex networks of narratives. We illustrate this point by describing our own lay encounter with an artefact turned over for our analysis during a week-long workshop at the Canada Science and Technology Museum. The text explains how elements as disparate as the military appearance of the instrument, the crest stamped on its body, the manipulation of its telescopes, or a luggage tag revealed the object's scientific and political significance in different national contexts. In this way, the presence of the instrument in the classroom vividly conveyed the nature of geophysics as a field practice and an international science, and illuminated relationships between pure and applied science for early twentieth century geologists. We conclude that artefact study can be an unexpectedly powerful and accessible tool in the study of science, making visible the connections between past and present, laboratory and field, texts and instruments.

  15. Landsat's TIRS Instrument

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-26

    The Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) will fly on the next Landsat satellite, the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The right side of the instrument is what's called the 'nadir side,' that's the side that points toward Earth when the instrument is in space. The black circle visible on the right side is where the optics for the instrument are located. In that area are the lens and the detectors. The white area is a radiator that radiates heat to keep the telescope and the detector cool. The black hole on the white area on the left is what the satellite operators point to deep space when they calibrate the instrument to the cold temperatures of space. TIRS was built on an accelerated schedule at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. and will now be integrated into the LDCM spacecraft at Orbital Science Corp. in Gilbert, Ariz. The Landsat Program is a series of Earth observing satellite missions jointly managed by NASA and the U.S. Geological Survey. Landsat satellites have been consistently gathering data about our planet since 1972. They continue to improve and expand this unparalleled record of Earth's changing landscapes for the benefit of all. For more information on Landsat, visit: 
www.nasa.gov/landsat Credit: NASA/GSFC/Rebecca Roth NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Instrumentation: endoscopes and equipment.

    PubMed

    Gaab, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    The technology and instrumentation for neuroendoscopy are described: endoscopes (principles, designs, applications), light sources, instruments, accessories, holders, and navigation. Procedures for cleaning, sterilizing, and storing are included. The description is based on the author's own technical development and neuroendoscopic experience, published technology and devices, and publications on endoscopic surgery. The main work horses in neuroendoscopy are rigid glass rod endoscopes (Hopkins optics) due to the optical quality, which allows full high-definition video imaging, different angles of view, and autoclavability, which is especially important in neuroendoscopy due to the risk of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease infection. Applications are endoscopy assistance to microsurgery, stand-alone endoscopy controlled approaches such as transnasal skull base, ventriculoscopy, and cystoscopy in the cranium. Rigid glass rod optics are also applicable in spinal endoscopy and peripheral nerve decompression using special tubes and cannulas. Rigid minifiberoptics with less resolution may be used in less complex procedures (ventriculoscopy, cystoscopy, endoscopy assistance with pen-designs) and have the advantages of smaller diameters and disposable designs. Flexible fiberoptics are usually used in combination with rigid scopes and can be steered, e.g. through the ventricles, in spinal procedures for indications including syringomyelia and multicystic hydrocephalus. Upcoming flexible chip endoscopes ("chip-in-the-tip") may replace flexible fiberoptics in the future, offering higher resolution and cold LED-illumination, and may provide for stereoscopic neuroendoscopy. Various instruments (mechanical, coagulation, laser guides, ultrasonic aspirators) and holders are available. Certified methods for cleaning and sterilization, with special requirements in neuroapplications, are important. Neuroendoscopic instrumentation is now an established technique in neurosurgical practice and

  17. Instrumented Architectural Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs...attribute of the underlying Lisp base of the simulation system that changes in these definitions have immediate effect even during a simulation run...methods for a component, the concerns surrounding component design are effectively partitioned from component instrumentation. Panels are put together

  18. Instrument Talk : HARPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Curto, Gaspare

    2017-09-01

    " The HARPS spectrograph will be briefly described and its quest for high precision radial velocity measurements (RV) will be outlined. In particular various RV systematics and our experience from the operational point of view will be discussed. Various upgrades were performed to address these systematics and to improve the instrument precision, and their main results will be shown. A "forward look" of HARPS in the 2020s will be attempted."

  19. Control Structure Interaction Instrumentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Univesity of New York AFOSR/NA 8c. ADDRESS (City. State and ZIP Codej 7b. ADORESS.(City. State and ZIP Code) ’ . P.O. Box 9 AFOSR/NA, Bldg. 410 .’ . Albany...Center for Control Sciences at Brown Univesity through the AFOSR University Research Initiative Program. 20. OISTRISUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRA . T...time implementation by parallel processing. Several other associated instrumentation devices were also purchased including a digital oscilloscope, a 386

  20. Highly Sophisticated Virtual Laboratory Instruments in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskins, T.

    2006-12-01

    Many areas of Science have advanced or stalled according to the ability to see what can not normally be seen. Visual understanding has been key to many of the world's greatest breakthroughs, such as discovery of DNAs double helix. Scientists use sophisticated instruments to see what the human eye can not. Light microscopes, scanning electron microscopes (SEM), spectrometers and atomic force microscopes are employed to examine and learn the details of the extremely minute. It's rare that students prior to university have access to such instruments, or are granted full ability to probe and magnify as desired. Virtual Lab, by providing highly authentic software instruments and comprehensive imagery of real specimens, provides them this opportunity. Virtual Lab's instruments let explorers operate virtual devices on a personal computer to examine real specimens. Exhaustive sets of images systematically and robotically photographed at thousands of positions and multiple magnifications and focal points allow students to zoom in and focus on the most minute detail of each specimen. Controls on each Virtual Lab device interactively and smoothly move the viewer through these images to display the specimen as the instrument saw it. Users control position, magnification, focal length, filters and other parameters. Energy dispersion spectrometry is combined with SEM imagery to enable exploration of chemical composition at minute scale and arbitrary location. Annotation capabilities allow scientists, teachers and students to indicate important features or areas. Virtual Lab is a joint project of NASA and the Beckman Institute at the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. Four instruments currently compose the Virtual Lab suite: A scanning electron microscope and companion energy dispersion spectrometer, a high-power light microscope, and a scanning probe microscope that captures surface properties to the level of atoms. Descriptions of instrument operating principles and

  1. An ice lithography instrument.

    PubMed

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J A

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  2. An ice lithography instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-15

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  3. Mandolin Family Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, David J.; Rossing, Thomas D.

    The mandolin family of instruments consists of plucked chordophones, each having eight strings in four double courses. With the exception of the mandobass, the courses are tuned in intervals of fifths, as are the strings in violin family instruments. The soprano member of the family is the mandolin, tuned G3-D4-A4-E5. The alto member of the family is the mandola, tuned C3-G3-D4-A4. The mandola is usually referred to simply as the mandola in the USA, but is called the tenor mandola in Europe. The tenor member of the family is the octave mandolin, tuned G2-D3-A3-E4. It is referred to as the octave mandolin in the USA, and as the octave mandola in Europe. The baritone member of the family is the mandocello, or mandoloncello, tuned C2-G2-D3-A3. A variant of the mandocello not common in the USA is the five-course liuto moderno, or simply liuto, designed for solo repertoire. Its courses are tuned C2-G2-D3-A3-E4. A mandobass was also made by more than one manufacturer during the early twentieth century, though none are manufactured today. They were fretted instruments with single string courses tuned E1-A1-D2-G2. There are currently a few luthiers making piccolo mandolins, tuned C4-G4-D5-A5.

  4. Instrumentation and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaishi, C.V.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-12-01

    This Technology Status Report describes research and accomplishments for the Instrumentation and Diagnostics (I D) Projects within the Advanced Research and Technology Development (AR TD) Program of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE). Process understanding and control can be improved through the development of advanced instrumentation and diagnostics. The thrust of the I D Projects is to further develop existing measurement and control techniques for application to advanced coal-based technologies. Project highlights are: an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) instrument has been developed to analyze trace elements in gasification and combustion process streams. An in situ two-color Mie scattering technique with LSS can simultaneously measure the size, velocity, and elemental composition of coal particles during combustion. A high-temperature, fluorescence thermometry technique has accurately measured gas temperatures during field testing in combustion and gasification environments. Expert systems have been developed to improve the control of advanced coal-based processes. Capacitance flowmeters were developed to determine the mass flowrate, solid volume fraction, and particle velocities of coal slurries. 32 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Methods for Estimation of Market Power in Electric Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turcik, M.; Oleinikova, I.; Junghans, G.; Kolcun, M.

    2012-01-01

    The article is related to a topical issue of the newly-arisen market power phenomenon in the electric power industry. The authors point out to the importance of effective instruments and methods for credible estimation of the market power on liberalized electricity market as well as the forms and consequences of market power abuse. The fundamental principles and methods of the market power estimation are given along with the most common relevant indicators. Furthermore, in the work a proposal for determination of the relevant market place taking into account the specific features of power system and a theoretical example of estimating the residual supply index (RSI) in the electricity market are given.

  6. Gemini's instrumentation program: latest results and long-range plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccas, Maxime; Kleinman, S. J.; Goodsell, Stephen; Tollestrup, Eric; Adamson, Andrew; Arriagada, Gustavo; Christou, Julian; Gonzalez, Patricio; Hanna, Kevin; Hartung, Markus; Lazo, Manuel; Mason, Rachel; Neichel, Benoît; Perez, Gabriel; Simons, Doug; Walls, Brian; White, John

    2012-09-01

    The Gemini Observatory is going through an extraordinary time with astronomical instrumentation. New powerful capabilities are delivered and are soon entering scientific operations. In parallel, new instruments are being planned and designed to align the strategy with community needs and enhance the competitiveness of the Observatory for the next decade. We will give a broad overview of the instrumentation program, focusing on achievements, challenges and strategies within a scientific, technical and management perspective. In particular we will discuss the following instruments and projects (some will have dedicated detailed papers in this conference): GMOS-CCD refurbishment, FLAMINGOS-2, GeMS (MCAO system and imager GSAOI), GPI, new generation of A&G, GRACES (fiber feed to CFHT ESPaDOnS) and GHOS (Gemini High-resolution Optical Spectrograph), and provide some updates about detector controllers, mid-IR instruments, Altair, GNIRS, GLAO and future workhorse instruments.

  7. Lightweight Regulated Power Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Power-supply circuit regulates output voltage by adjusting frequency of chopper circuit according to variations. Currently installed in battery charger for electric wheelchair, circuit is well suited to other uses in which light weight is important - for example, in portable computers, radios, and test instruments.

  8. CARMENES instrument overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the CARMENES instrument and of the survey that will be carried out with it during the first years of operation. CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exoearths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation radial-velocity instrument under construction for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. The scientific goal of the project is conducting a 600-night exoplanet survey targeting ~ 300 M dwarfs with the completed instrument. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate echelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 μm at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. The spectrographs are housed in vacuum tanks providing the temperature-stabilized environments necessary to enable a 1 m/s radial velocity precision employing a simultaneous calibration with an emission-line lamp or with a Fabry-Perot etalon. For mid-M to late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 μm (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES has been optimized in this range. The CARMENES instrument consists of two spectrographs, one equipped with a 4k x 4k pixel CCD for the range 0.55 - 1.05 μm, and one with two 2k x 2k pixel HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.95 - 1.7μm. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with two optical fibers, one for the target, and one for calibration light. The front end contains a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera; on-axis as well as off-axis guiding modes are implemented. Fibers with octagonal cross-section are employed to ensure good stability of the output in the presence of residual guiding errors. The

  9. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  10. Topics in Chemical Instrumentation, Cl. Thermoluminescence: Part II. Instrumentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manche, Emanuel P.

    1979-01-01

    Presents part two on the use of the detection of thermoluminescence as an analytical tool for the chemistry laboratory and allied science. This part discusses instrumentation used and investigates recent developments in instrumentation for thermoluminescence. (HM)

  11. Using XML and Java Technologies for Astronomical Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Case, Lynne; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project, is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is that the software is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML), a dialect of XML. IML is used to describe the command sets and command formats of the instrument, communication mechanisms, format of the data coming from the instrument, and characteristics of the graphical user interface to control and monitor the instrument. The IRC framework allows the users to define a data analysis pipeline which converts data coming out of the instrument. The data can be used in visualizations in order for the user to assess the data in real-time, if necessary. The data analysis pipeline algorithms can be supplied by the user in a variety of forms or programming languages. Although the current integration effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), first-light instruments of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument. Plans are underway to test the framework

  12. Using XML and Java Technologies for Astronomical Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy; Case, Lynne; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, instrument command and control systems have been highly specialized, consisting mostly of custom code that is difficult to develop, maintain, and extend. Such solutions are initially very costly and are inflexible to subsequent engineering change requests, increasing software maintenance costs. Instrument description is too tightly coupled with details of implementation. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, under the Instrument Remote Control (IRC) project, is developing a general and highly extensible framework that applies to any kind of instrument that can be controlled by a computer. The software architecture combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML), a human readable and machine understandable way to describe structured data. A key aspect of the object-oriented architecture is that the software is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML), a dialect of XML. IML is used to describe the command sets and command formats of the instrument, communication mechanisms, format of the data coming from the instrument, and characteristics of the graphical user interface to control and monitor the instrument. The IRC framework allows the users to define a data analysis pipeline which converts data coming out of the instrument. The data can be used in visualizations in order for the user to assess the data in real-time, if necessary. The data analysis pipeline algorithms can be supplied by the user in a variety of forms or programming languages. Although the current integration effort is targeted for the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE), first-light instruments of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the framework is designed to be generic and extensible so that it can be applied to any instrument. Plans are underway to test the framework

  13. Laptop photothermal reflectance measurement instrument assembled with optical fiber components.

    PubMed

    Yarai, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Takuji

    2007-05-01

    In this article, we propose a laptop photothermal reflectance measurement instrument assembled with optical fiber components. The primary feature of this instrument is that all of the optical routes for the pumping and probing beams, as well as the beam sources using a laser diode, are composed of optical fiber and optical fiber components. With this configuration, the problems related to the technical shortcomings of the conventional instrument can be solved completely. Our proposed instrument is also appropriate for in situ measurement of the thermoproperties of thin film. The dimensions of our instrument's case are 400 mm wide, 250 mm deep, and 60 mm tall, and its weight is approximately 1 kg, containing the power supply for driving the laser diode of the pumping beam and electronics for the detection of photothermal reflectance. These are at least 120 and 150 smaller than the volume and weight of the conventional commercial instrument, respectively. Nevertheless, it is only necessary to prepare a synchronous detection instrument for signal recovery (e.g., lock-in amplifier) with our instrument. To evaluate our instrument's thermoproperty measurement capability, we measured the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Au thin film. The thermal diffusivity of 1.5-microm-thick Au film measured by our instrument matched previously reported values within a margin of error of a few percent.

  14. 115. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. VIEW OF SOUTHWEST CORNER OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206), LSB (BLDG. 751). BATTERY RACK ON LEFT FOR BACKUP BOOSTER POWER; BATTERY RACK ON RIGHT FOR BACKUP AEROSPACE GROUND EQUIPMENT (AGE) POWER. RECTIFIER SUPPLYING PRIMARY POWER ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PHOTO; BATTERY CHARGER BETWEEN RECTIFIER AND BATTERY RACKS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. SOFIE instrument ground calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Scott; Fish, Chad; Romrell, Devin; Gordley, Larry; Hervig, Mark

    2006-08-01

    Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), in partnership with GATS, Inc., designed and built an instrument to conduct the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE). SOFIE is the primary infrared sensor in the NASA Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) instrument suite. AIM's mission is to study polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs). SOFIE will make measurements in 16 separate spectral bands, arranged in eight pairs between 0.29 and 5.3 μm. Each band pair will provide differential absorption limb-path transmission profiles for an atmospheric component of interest, by observing the sun through the limb of the atmosphere during solar occultation as AIM orbits Earth. A pointing mirror and imaging sun sensor coaligned with the detectors are used to track the sun during occultation events and maintain stable alignment of the sun on the detectors. Ground calibration experiments were performed to measure SOFIE end-to-end relative spectral response, nonlinearity, and spatial characteristics. SDL's multifunction infrared calibrator #1 (MIC1) was used to present sources to the instrument for calibration. Relative spectral response (RSR) measurements were performed using a step-scan Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). Out-of-band RSR was measured to approximately 0.01% of in-band peak response using the cascaded filter Fourier transform spectrometer (CFFTS) method. Linearity calibration was performed using a calcium fluoride attenuator in combination with a 3000K blackbody. Spatial characterization was accomplished using a point source and the MIC1 pointing mirror. SOFIE sun sensor tracking algorithms were verified using a heliostat and relay mirrors to observe the sun from the ground. These techniques are described in detail, and resulting SOFIE performance parameters are presented.

  16. ZBLAN Viscosity Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William

    2001-01-01

    The past year's contribution from Dr. Kaukler's experimental effort consists of these 5 parts: a) Construction and proof-of-concept testing of a novel shearing plate viscometer designed to produce small shear rates and operate at elevated temperatures; b) Preparing nonlinear polymeric materials to serve as standards of nonlinear Theological behavior; c) Measurements and evaluation of above materials for nonlinear rheometric behavior at room temperature using commercial spinning cone and plate viscometers available in the lab; d) Preparing specimens from various forms of pitch for quantitative comparative testing in a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer, Thermal Mechanical Analyzer; and Archeological Analyzer; e) Arranging to have sets of pitch specimens tested using the various instruments listed above, from different manufacturers, to form a baseline of the viscosity variation with temperature using the different test modes offered by these instruments by compiling the data collected from the various test results. Our focus in this project is the shear thinning behavior of ZBLAN glass over a wide range of temperature. Experimentally, there are no standard techniques to perform such measurements on glasses, particularly at elevated temperatures. Literature reviews to date have shown that shear thinning in certain glasses appears to occur, but no data is available for ZBLAN glass. The best techniques to find shear thinning behavior require the application of very low rates of shear. In addition, because the onset of the thinning behavior occurs at an unknown elevated temperature, the instruments used in this study must provide controlled low rates of shear and do so for temperatures approaching 600 C. In this regard, a novel shearing parallel plate viscometer was designed and a prototype built and tested.

  17. 18 CFR 367.1760 - Account 176, Derivative instrument assets-Hedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... instrument assets-Hedges. 367.1760 Section 367.1760 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1760 Account 176, Derivative instrument assets—Hedges. (a) This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the...

  18. 18 CFR 367.1760 - Account 176, Derivative instrument assets-Hedges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... instrument assets-Hedges. 367.1760 Section 367.1760 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Balance Sheet Chart of Accounts Current and Accrued Assets § 367.1760 Account 176, Derivative instrument assets—Hedges. (a) This account must include the amounts paid for derivative instruments, and the...

  19. 78 FR 13860 - Application(s) for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Use: The instrument will be used to obtain a powerfully detailed picture of the architecture of the... High- Technologies Corp., Japan. Intended Use: The instrument will be used to observe the shape, size... Euclid Ave., Cleveland, OH 44106-4965. Instrument: Electron Microscope. Manufacturer: JEOL Ltd., Japan...

  20. Diaphragms for Aeronautic Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, M D

    1924-01-01

    This investigation was carried out at the request of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and comprises an outline of historical developments and theoretical principles, together with a discussion of expedients for making the most effective use of existing diaphragms actuated by the hydrostatic pressure form an essential element of a great variety instruments for aeronautic and other technical purposes. The various physical data needed as a foundation for rational methods of diaphragm design have not, however, been available hitherto except in the most fragmentary form.

  1. Diamonds for beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmayer, Erich

    2013-04-19

    Diamond is perhaps the most versatile, efficient and radiation tolerant material available for use in beam detectors with a correspondingly wide range of applications in beam instrumentation. Numerous practical applications have demonstrated and exploited the sensitivity of diamond to charged particles, photons and neutrons. In this paper, a brief description of a generic diamond detector is given and the interaction of the CVD diamond detector material with protons, electrons, photons and neutrons is presented. Latest results of the interaction of sCVD diamond with 14 MeV mono-energetic neutrons are shown.

  2. Biomagnetic instrumentation and measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iufer, E. J.

    1978-01-01

    The instruments and techniques of biomagnetic measurement have progressed greatly in the past 15 years and are now of a quality appropriate to clinical applications. The paper reports on recent developments in the design and application of SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers to biomagnetic measurement. The discussion covers biomagnetic field levels, magnetocardiography, magnetic susceptibility plethysmography, ambient noise and sensor types, principles of operation of a SQUID magnetometer, and laboratory techniques. Of the many promising applications of noninvasive biomagnetic measurement, magnetocardiography is the most advanced and the most likely to find clinical application in the near future.

  3. Instrument Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Jayakody, Chatura; Hull-Ryde, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined quality control (QC) processes are used to determine whether a certain procedure or action conforms to a widely accepted standard and/or set of guidelines, and are important components of any laboratory quality assurance program (Popa-Burke et al., J Biomol Screen 14: 1017-1030, 2009). In this chapter, we describe QC procedures useful for monitoring the accuracy and precision of laboratory instrumentation, most notably automated liquid dispensers. Two techniques, gravimetric QC and photometric QC, are highlighted in this chapter. When used together, these simple techniques provide a robust process for evaluating liquid handler accuracy and precision, and critically underpin high-quality research programs.

  4. Beam Instrument Development System

    SciTech Connect

    DOOLITTLE, LAWRENCE; HUANG, GANG; DU, QIANG; SERRANO, CARLOS

    2016-01-08

    Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.

  5. Instrumental musicians' hazards.

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, R A

    2001-01-01

    In the last two decades, injuries to instrumental musicians have been well documented. Major categories of performance-related injuries include musculoskeletal overuse, nerve entrapment/thoracic outlet syndrome, and focal dystonia. Other areas of concern to instrumentalists include hypermobility, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, and hearing loss. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, physical exam, treatment, and prevention of common problems of instrumentalists. Emphasis is placed on the team approach of treatment and prevention and the need for close collaboration of the various health professionals, music educators, and performers. Additional resources are presented for those interested in pursuing performing arts medicine in greater detail.

  6. Introduction to PET instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Turkington, T G

    2001-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce technologists to the basic principles of PET imaging and to the instrumentation used to acquire PET data. PET imaging is currently being done on a variety of imaging system types, and the technologist will be introduced to these systems and learn about the basic physical image-degrading factors in PET. After reading this article, the technologist should be able to describe the basics of coincidence imaging, identify at least 3 physical degrading factors in PET, and describe 2 different types of PET scanning systems.

  7. Ultrasonic Vitrectomy Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuchinich, D.

    Contemporary vitrectomy devices utilize an air driven stylus reciprocating within a sheath at a sonic frequency, guillotining and then aspirating the vitreous gel admitted through a distal port in the side of the sheath. A small handheld ultrasonic instrument (Banko 1971) operating at 50 kHz, utilizing a solid titanium stylus, within a 20 needle gauge sheath, vibrating at an excursion between 150 and 200 microns, has been developed to precisely and rapidly liquefy and aspirate, at 360 mmHg vacuum, vitreous humor from bovine eyes.

  8. Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

  9. Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, H. John

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in this viewgraph presentation include information on 1) Historic instruments at Goddard; 2) Integrated Design Capability at Goddard; 3) The Instrument Synthesis and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL).

  10. LBL's Pollution Instrumentation Comparability Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, R. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Contained are condensed excerpts from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Survey of Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. The survey describes instrumentation used to analyze air and water quality, radiation emissions, and biomedical impacts. (BB)

  11. LBL's Pollution Instrumentation Comparability Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, R. D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Contained are condensed excerpts from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Survey of Instrumentation for Environmental Monitoring. The survey describes instrumentation used to analyze air and water quality, radiation emissions, and biomedical impacts. (BB)

  12. The Spatial Power Motivation Scale: a semi-implicit measure of situational power motivation.

    PubMed

    Schoel, Christiane; Zimmer, Katharina; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new nonverbal and unobtrusive measure to assess power motive activation, the Spatial Power Motivation Scale (SPMS). The unique features of this instrument are that it is (a) very simple and economical, (b) reliable and valid, and (c) sensitive to situational changes. Study 1 demonstrates the instrument's convergent and discriminant validity with explicit measures. Study 2 demonstrates the instrument's responsiveness to situational power motive salience: anticipating and winning competition versus losing competition and watching television. Studies 3 and 4 demonstrate that thoughts of competition result in higher power motivation specifically for individuals with a high dispositional power motive.

  13. Water-Powered Astronomical Clock Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    The construction of water-powered astronomical instruments was a long tradition of instrument making that started in the second century AD with Zhang Heng's water-powered celestial globe. The technology reached a peak when, in the eleventh century, Su Song and his team constructed the Water-Powered Astronomical Clock Tower which combined the armillary sphere, the celestial globe, and the time-keeping mechanism into a large automatic structure. Su Song's instrument contained a mechanism for controlling the water-powered movements of its wheels that amounts to an "escapement mechanism" for a mechanical clock. A new reconstruction of the mechanism is introduced in this chapter.

  14. A new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torbert, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    The Faraday Ring Ammeter was the subject of this grant for a new innovative instrument for space plasma instrumentation. This report summarizes our progress in this work. Briefly, we have conducted an intensive series of experiments and trials over three years, testing some five configurations of the instrument to measure currents, resulting in two Ph.D. theses, supported by this grant, and two flight configurations of the instrument. The first flight would have been on a NASA-Air Force collaborative sounding rocket, but was not flown because of instrumental difficulties. The second has been successfully integrated on the NASA Auroral Turbulence payload which is to be launched in February, 1994.

  15. Electronic Instruments -- Played or Used?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulveland, Randall Dana

    1998-01-01

    Compares the experience of playing an acoustic instrument to an electronic instrument by analyzing the constant structures and relationships between the experiences. Concludes that students' understanding of the physical experience of making music increases when experiences with acoustic instruments precede their exposure to electronic…

  16. Spacecraft instrument calibration and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gille, J. C.; Feldman, P.; Hudson, R.; Lean, J.; Madden, R.; Mcmaster, L.; Mount, G.; Rottman, G.; Simon, P. C.

    1989-01-01

    The following topics are covered: instrument degradation; the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) Experiment; the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS); the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE-1) and SAGE-2 instruments; the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) UV ozone and near infrared airglow instruments; and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS).

  17. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  18. Mallet Instruments Challenge Beginning Percussionists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grumley, Fred

    1983-01-01

    Orff mallet instruments should be used in beginning band classes. Adding mallet instruments would expand a beginner's concept of percussion instruments. Just as important, the percussion section would provide a solid melodic and harmonic foundation to assist beginning wind instrumentalists with their insecurities about pitch. (RM)

  19. Instruments for Water Quality Measurements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sidney L.; Mack, Dick A.

    1975-01-01

    This discussion gives a general picture of the instrumentation available or being developed for measuring the four major categories of water pollutants: metals, nutrients, pesticides and oxygen demand. The instruments are classified as follows: manually operated laboratory analyzers, automated laboratory instrumentation, manual field monitors, and…

  20. Space science instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzworth, R. H.

    1989-03-01

    This grant was intended to be used for the purchase of high quality laboratory and data analysis instrumentation for the pursuit of space plasma physics research. Two of the first purchases were a 6250 BPI magnetic tape drive and a large, fast disk drive. These improved the satellite data analysis capability greatly and reduced the system backup time. With the big disk drive it became possible to dump entire magnetic tapes to disk for faster, more efficient processing. Several microcomputers improve both personnel computing as well as general connectivity within the group and on campus in general. Other microcomputers function in the laboratory setting by acting as hosts for several instrument interfaces for communication with satellite and balloon payloads as well as laboratory VLF signal processing equipment. Perhaps the single most expensive item purchased was an analog tape drive for reading and writing 16 in. analog magnetic tapes. This analog tape drive is used for the direct processing of FM and directly recorded telemetry data from the balloon and rocket payloads.

  1. Instrumentation for Submillimeter Polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragovan, M.; Novak, G.

    1984-01-01

    During the last two years three instruments were built and operated for detection of polarization in the submillimeter to millimeter wavelength bands. In principle, simply rotating a polarizing grid in front of the detector would be sufficient to determine the state of linear polarization. In practice severe systematic problems are found with this approach. Everything in the light path has potential for inducing polarization. The telescope, apertures in the lightpath, and the Winston light collectors all introduce systematic errors. (The polarization/depolarization induced by these devices is due to diffraction and the finite conductivity of the metals used). Two of the polarimeters are for use on the KAO; the third is for the IRTF on Mauna Kea. The airplane polarimeters, M1 and M2, were specifically designed to minimize the systematic errors. The ground based polarimeter uses our f/35 photometer with an external polarizing grid as the analyzer. With all three instruments the key to success is the data collector and analysis scheme.

  2. The QUIET Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, T.; Kangaslahti, P.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leitch, E. M.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ( approx 1 deg.) . Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4 m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 micro Ks(exp 1/2)) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0.1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 micro Ks(exp 1/2) at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0.01 (QUIET Collaboration 2012) The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range l approximately equals 25-975 . These are the largest HEMT-ba.sed arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument,

  3. An Instrumental Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Think of guitars and you think of rock and country music, or the vigorous rhythms of the gypsy flamenco, or perhaps the classical strumming of a Segovia. About the last thing you would associate with guitars is aerospace technology. Yet there is a connection. A whole family of quality guitars is an outgrowth of helicopter rotor research conducted for the military services and NASA by an aerospace contractor. These musical spinoffs, commercially available and rapidly gaining in popularity, are the Ovation guitar line, manufactured by Ovation Instruments, Inc., Bloomfield, Connecticut. Ovation Instruments is a subsidiary of Kaman Corporation, a diversified company originally formed to develop and build helicopters. A helicopter's rotor system, with thousands of moving parts, is highly susceptible to vibration. For rotor efficiency, vibration must be "dampened," or reduced. Like other helicopter builders, Kaman Corporation spent years of research toward that end. The technology thus developed, together with the availability of staff experts in vibration engineering, sparked an idea in the mind of the company's president and founder, Charles H. Karnan. A guitarist of professional caliber, Kaman reasoned that vibration-dampening technology could be turned around to enhance vibration and thereby produce a guitar with superior sound.

  4. The QUIET Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, C.; et al.

    2012-07-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is designed to measure polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background, targeting the imprint of inflationary gravitational waves at large angular scales ({approx}1{sup o}). Between 2008 October and 2010 December, two independent receiver arrays were deployed sequentially on a 1.4m side-fed Dragonian telescope. The polarimeters which form the focal planes use a highly compact design based on High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) that provides simultaneous measurements of the Stokes parameters Q, U, and I in a single module. The 17-element Q-band polarimeter array, with a central frequency of 43.1 GHz, has the best sensitivity (69 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2}) and the lowest instrumental systematic errors ever achieved in this band, contributing to the tensor-to-scalar ratio at r < 0:1. The 84-element W-band polarimeter array has a sensitivity of 87 {mu}Ks{sup 1/2} at a central frequency of 94.5 GHz. It has the lowest systematic errors to date, contributing at r < 0:01. The two arrays together cover multipoles in the range {ell} {approx} 25 -- 975. These are the largest HEMT-based arrays deployed to date. This article describes the design, calibration, performance of, and sources of systematic error for the instrument.

  5. Far ultraviolet instrument technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, Larry J.; Schaefer, Robert K.; Zhang, Yongliang; Kil, Hyosub

    2017-02-01

    The far ultraviolet (FUV) spectral range (from about 115 nm to 180 nm) is one of the most useful spectral regions for characterizing the upper atmosphere (thermosphere and ionosphere). The principal advantages are that there are FUV signatures of the major constituents of the upper atmosphere as well as the signatures of the high-latitude energy inputs. Because of the absorption by thermospheric O2, the FUV signatures are seen against a "black" background, i.e., one that is not affected by ground albedo or clouds and, as a consequence, can make useful observations of the aurora during the day or when the Moon is above the horizon. In this paper we discuss the uses of FUV remote sensing, summarize the various techniques, and discuss the technological challenges. Our focus is on a particular type of FUV instrument, the scanning imaging spectrograph or SIS: an instrument exemplified by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Ultraviolet Imager and Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics Global Ultraviolet Imager. The SIS combines spatial imaging of the disk with limb profiles as well as spectral information at each point in the scan.

  6. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 27 - Airworthiness Criteria for Helicopter Instrument Flight

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this purpose. If standby batteries are provided, they may be charged from the aircraft electrical... the main bus any power source developing hazardous overvoltage. (3) Each required flight instrument using a power supply (electric, vacuum, etc.) must have a visual means integral with the instrument to...

  7. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

    1987-01-01

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

  8. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  9. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  10. The modern trends in space electromagnetic instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, V. E.

    The future trends of the experimental plasma physics development in outer space demand more and more exact and sophisticated scientific instrumentation. Moreover, the situation is complicated by constant reduction of financial support of scientific research, even in leading countries. This resulted in the development of mini; micro and nanosatellites with low price and short preparation time. Consequently, it provoked the creation of new generation of scientific instruments with reduced weight and power consumption but increased level of metrological parameters. The recent state of the development of electromagnetic (EM) sensors for microsatellites is reported. For flux-gate magnetometers (FGM) the reduction of weight as well as power consumption was achieved not only due to the use of new electronic components but also because of the new operation mode development. The scientific and technological study allowed to decrease FGM noise and now the typical noise figure is about 10 picotesla rms at 1 Hz and the record one is below 1 picotesla. The super-light version of search-coil magnetometers (SCM) was created as the result of intensive research. These new SCMs can have about six decades of operational frequency band with upper limit ˜ 1 MHz and noise level of few femtotesla with total weight about 75 grams, including electronics. A new instrument.- wave probe (WP) - which combines three independent sensors in one body - SCM, split Langmuir probe and electric potential sensor - was created. The developed theory confirms that WP can directly measure the wave vector components in space plasmas.

  11. Back to Basics: Instrument Cleaning.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    Adequately cleaning and processing surgical instruments may be challenging for perioperative team members; however, the cleaning and processing of instruments are critical steps in making instruments safe to use on patients and achieving an appropriately safe OR environment. Instruments that are cleaned properly have had organic debris and soil removed, rendering them ready for sterilization or disinfection. This Back to Basics article covers the basic steps and considerations for cleaning and processing instruments before sterilization. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Instrumentation for optical ocean remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esaias, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    Instruments used in ocean color remote sensing algorithm development, validation, and data acquisition which have the potential for further commercial development and marketing are discussed. The Ocean Data Acquisition System (ODAS) is an aircraft-borne radiometer system suitable for light aircraft, which has applications for rapid measurement of chlorophyll pigment concentrations along the flight line. The instrument package includes a three channel radiometer system for upwelling radiance, an infrared temperature sensor, a three-channel downwelling irradiance sensor, and Loran-C navigation. Data are stored on a PC and processed to transects or interpolated 'images' on the ground. The instrument has been in operational use for two and one half years. The accuracy of pigment concentrations from the instrument is quite good, even in complex Chesapeake Bay waters. To help meet the requirement for validation of future satellite missions, a prototype air-deployable drifting buoy for measurement of near-surface upwelled radiance in multiple channnels is undergoing test deployment. The optical drifter burst samples radiance, stores and processes the data, and uses the Argos system as a data link. Studies are underway to explore the limits to useful lifetime with respect to power and fouling.

  13. Key Science Instrument Installed into Webb Structure

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-04-29

    A technician is installing the bolts that will hold the MIRI, or Mid-Infrared Instrument, to the composite Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) structure, or the black frame. The MIRI is attached to a balance beam, called the Horizontal Integration Tool (HIT), hanging from a precision overhead crane. That's the same tool that Hubble engineers used to prepare hardware for its servicing missions. Photo Credit: NASA/Chris Gunn; Text Credit: NASA/Laura Betz ---- Engineers worked meticulously to implant the James Webb Space Telescope's Mid-Infrared Instrument into the ISIM, or Integrated Science Instrument Module, in the cleanroom at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. As the successor to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, the Webb telescope will be the most powerful space telescope ever built. It will  observe the most distant objects in the universe, provide images of the first galaxies formed and see unexplored planets around distant stars. For more information, visit: www.jwst.nasa.gov NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  14. Instrument design and optimization using genetic algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelzel, Robert; Bentley, Phillip M.; Fouquet, Peter

    2006-10-15

    This article describes the design of highly complex physical instruments by using a canonical genetic algorithm (GA). The procedure can be applied to all instrument designs where performance goals can be quantified. It is particularly suited to the optimization of instrument design where local optima in the performance figure of merit are prevalent. Here, a GA is used to evolve the design of the neutron spin-echo spectrometer WASP which is presently being constructed at the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. A comparison is made between this artificial intelligence approach and the traditional manual design methods. We demonstrate that the search of parameter space is more efficient when applying the genetic algorithm, and the GA produces a significantly better instrument design. Furthermore, it is found that the GA increases flexibility, by facilitating the reoptimization of the design after changes in boundary conditions during the design phase. The GA also allows the exploration of 'nonstandard' magnet coil geometries. We conclude that this technique constitutes a powerful complementary tool for the design and optimization of complex scientific apparatus, without replacing the careful thought processes employed in traditional design methods.

  15. The XGS instrument on-board THESEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuschino, F.; Campana, R.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Elmi, I.; Feroci, M.; Frontera, F.; Rachevski, A.; Rignanese, L. P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Rashevskaya, I.; Bellutti, P.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-10-01

    Consolidated techniques used for space-borne X-ray and gamma-ray instruments are based on the use of scintillators coupled to Silicon photo-detectors. This technology associated with modern very low noise read-out electronics allows the design of innovative architectures able to reduce drastically the system complexity and power consumption, also with a moderate-to-high number of channels. These detector architectures can be exploited in the design of space instrumentation for gamma-spectroscopy with the benefit of possible smart background rejection strategies. We describe a detector prototype with 3D imaging capabilities to be employed in future gamma-ray and particle space missions in the 0.002-100 MeV energy range. The instrument is based on a stack of scintillating bars read out by Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) at both ends. The spatial segmentation and the crystal double-side readout allow a 3D position reconstruction with ∼3 mm accuracy within the full active volume, using a 2D readout along the two external faces of the detector. Furthermore, one of the side of SDDs can be used simultaneously to detect X-rays in the 2-30 keV energy range. The characteristics of this instrument make it suitable in next generation gamma-ray and particle space missions for Earth or outer space observations, and it will be briefly illustrated.

  16. Key Science Instrument Installed into Webb Structure

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Engineers Tom Huber (behind MIRI) and Mick Wilks (inside black ISIM Structure) check that MIRI is integrated precisely. The engineers have to make sure that MIRI, the only instrument on the Webb telescope that 'sees' mid-infrared light, is precisely positioned so that it and the other instruments can glimpse the formation of galaxies and see deeper into the universe than ever before. Photo Credit: NASA/Chris Gunn; Text Credit: NASA/Laura Betz ---- Engineers worked meticulously to implant the James Webb Space Telescope's Mid-Infrared Instrument into the ISIM, or Integrated Science Instrument Module, in the cleanroom at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. As the successor to NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, the Webb telescope will be the most powerful space telescope ever built. It will observe the most distant objects in the universe, provide images of the first galaxies formed and see unexplored planets around distant stars. For more information, visit: www.jwst.nasa.gov NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbaum, Jesse M.

    2016-05-01

    The Astronomical Instrumentation System Markup Language (AISML) is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) based file format for maintaining and exchanging information about astronomical instrumentation. The factors behind the need for an AISML are first discussed followed by the reasons why XML was chosen as the format. Next it's shown how XML also provides the framework for a more precise definition of an astronomical instrument and how these instruments can be combined to form an Astronomical Instrumentation System (AIS). AISML files for several instruments as well as one for a sample AIS are provided. The files demonstrate how AISML can be utilized for various tasks from web page generation and programming interface to instrument maintenance and quality management. The advantages of widespread adoption of AISML are discussed.

  18. Instrument specificity in experienced musicians.

    PubMed

    Drost, Ulrich C; Rieger, Martina; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that experienced pianists have acquired integrated action-effect (A-E) associations. In the present study, we were interested in how specific these associations are for the own instrument by investigating pianists and guitarists. A-E associations were examined by testing whether the perception of a "potential" action-effect has an influence on actions. Participants played chords on their instrument in response to visual stimuli, while they were presented task-irrelevant auditory distractors (congruent or incongruent) in varying instrument timbre. In Experiment 1, pianists exhibited an interference effect with timbres of their own instrument category (keyboard instruments: piano and organ). In Experiment 2 guitarists showed an interference effect only with guitar timbre. Thus, integrated A-E associations primarily seem to consist of a specific component on a sensory-motor level involving the own instrument. Additionally, categorical knowledge about how an instrument is played seems to be involved.

  19. Robotic servicing of EOS instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Razzaghi, Andrea I.; Juberts, Maris

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses robotic servicing of the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) instruments. The goals of implementing a robotic servicing system on EOS would be to maintain the instruments throughout the required mission life and minimize life-cycle costs. To address robot servicing, an initial design concept has been developed which will be applied to a representative EOS instrument. This instrument will be used as a model for determining the most practical level of servicing of its parts, and how to design these parts for robot servicing. Using this representative EOS instrument as a model, a generic design scheme will be developed that can be applied to all EOS instruments. The first task is to determine how to identify which parts must be designed for robot servicing. Next, the requirements imposed on the instruments and the servicing robot when designing for robot serviceability must be examined.

  20. Sentinel-1 Instrument Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeij, Paul; Torres, Ramon; Geudtner, Dirk; Brown, Michael; Deghaye, Patrick; Navas-Traver, Ignacio; Ostergaard, Allan; Rommen, Bjorn; Floury, Nicolas; Davidson, Malcolm

    2013-03-01

    The forthcoming European Space Agency (ESA) Sentinel-1 (S-1) C-band SAR constellation will provide continuous all-weather day/night global coverage, with six days exact repetition time (near daily coverage over Europe and Canada) and with radar data delivery within 3 to 24 hours. These features open new possibilities for operational maritime services. The Sentinel-1 space segment has been designed and is being built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. It is expected that Sentinel-1A be launched in 2013. This paper will provide an overview of the Sentinel-1 system, the status and characteristics of the technical implementation. The key elements of the system supporting the maritime user community will be highlighted.

  1. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  2. Instrumented Architectural Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delagi, B. A.; Saraiya, N.; Nishimura, S.; Byrd, G.

    1987-01-01

    Simulation of systems at an architectural level can offer an effective way to study critical design choices if (1) the performance of the simulator is adequate to examine designs executing significant code bodies, not just toy problems or small application fragements, (2) the details of the simulation include the critical details of the design, (3) the view of the design presented by the simulator instrumentation leads to useful insights on the problems with the design, and (4) there is enough flexibility in the simulation system so that the asking of unplanned questions is not suppressed by the weight of the mechanics involved in making changes either in the design or its measurement. A simulation system with these goals is described together with the approach to its implementation. Its application to the study of a particular class of multiprocessor hardware system architectures is illustrated.

  3. Instruments speak global language

    SciTech Connect

    Nudo, L.

    1993-07-01

    If all goes as planned, companies that use instruments for measurement and control will get more complete, reliable and repeatable information about their processes with advanced digital devices that speak a global language. That language, in technical terms, is known as international fieldbus. But it's not much different from English's role as the international language of business. Companies that use a remote measurement device for environmental applications, such as pH control and fugitive emissions control, are candidates for fieldbus devices, which are much faster and measure more process variables than their counterpart analog devices. With the advent of a global fieldbus, users will see digital valves, solenoids and multivariable transmitters. Fieldbus technology redefines the roles of the control system and field devices. The control system still serves as a central clearinghouse, but field devices will handle more control and reporting functions and generate data that can be used for trending and preventive maintenance.

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  5. LANDSAT instruments characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Y. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Work performed for the LANDSAT instrument characterization task in the areas of absolute radiometry, coherent noise analysis, and between-date smoothing is reported. Absolute radiometric calibration for LANDSAT-5 TM under ambient conditions was performed. The TM Radiometric Algorithms and Performance Program (TRAPP) was modified to create optional midscan data files and to match the TM Image Processing System (TIPS) algorithm for pulse determination. Several data reduction programs were developed, including a linear regression and its plotted result. A fast Fourier transformation study was conducted on the resequenced TM data. Subscenes of homogeneous water within scenes over Pensacola, Florida were used for testing the FFT on the resequenced data. Finally, a gain and pulse height stability study of LANDSAT 5 TM spectral bands was performed.

  6. Geophysical instrumentation near Parkfield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Because scientists expect the anticipated earthquake to resemble the historic Parkfield earthquakes, and in particular that in 1966, the data from the 1966 shock were used to site instruments for optimun benefit before, during, and after the next shock. the primary feature used for siting was the "1966 rupture zone," which is shown as the orange fault traces on the maps in this section. This zone defines the extent of surface tectonic cracks in 1966 and includes the source areas for fore shocks to the 1934 and 1966 earthquakes (north end of the zone) as well as for apparent precursory fault creep in 1966 (near center of the zone). Scientists believe that if precursors to the next shock are observed, they most likely will be near the 1966 rupture zone. 

  7. TRU VU rig instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Boone, S.G.

    1993-02-15

    TRU VU was developed in response to the growing need for real time rig instrumentation that interface various rig systems into a common database. TRU VU is a WITS compatible (Wellsite Information Transfer Standard) system that logs drilling data and MWD data into a common database. Real time data as well as historical data can be viewed from up to eight locations on the rig or from numerous locations in communication with the rig. The TRU VU well monitoring package can be configured to operate manned or unmanned depending on the specific requirements of the operator or drilling contractor. TRU VU does not require a drilling recorder and is totally independent of all rig systems. For example, depth is monitored directly from the draw works and can monitor pipe movement while drilling or tripping. Weight on bit is zeroed automatically on each connection and does not require manual input.

  8. Ideology as instrument.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna

    2007-12-01

    Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. (Copyright) 2007 APA.

  9. Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert

    2012-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  10. 98. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770). POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS AND CABLE DISTRIBUTION UNITS IN EAST ROW OF CABINETS; LOGIC CONTROL AND MONITOR UNITS FOR BOOSTER AND FUEL SYSTEMS, AND SIGNAL CONDITIONERS IN WEST ROW OF CABINETS. CABLE TRAY TUNNEL ENTRANCE TO LSB (BLDG. 770) AT THE SOUTH END OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106). - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 97. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770). EAST ROW OF CABINETS INCLUDES, LEFT TO RIGHT: CABLE DISTRIBUTION UNITS, AUTOPILOT CHECKOUT CONTROLS, AND POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS. NOTE OVERHEAD DUCTS FOR INSTRUMENT AIR CONDITIONING AND CABLE TRAYS ON EAST, WEST, AND SOUTH WALLS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Water Purification System and Instrument Air Receiver Tank, view to the south. The water purification system is visible in the right foreground of the photograph and the instrument air receiver tank is visible in the right background of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  13. Research of MBC based on fieldbus and intelligent instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing-Shu; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Yong-Guang; Cao, Wen-Liang

    2005-12-01

    The automatization in power plat will enter the era of Digitalization and Information from that of Distributed Control System (DCS) and Network with the realization of enterprise informatization as measure and improvement of enterprise profit as the destination. Maintenance Based on Condition (MBC) is analyzed to be more rational than the traditional MBC, which can reduce the maintenance cost, prolong the life of device and improve the reliability and available rate of the unit. The intelligent instrument based on fieldbus is also discussed to be more intellectualized than the traditional one, such as self-calibration, self-compensation, self-validation, etc, which has more powerful function and can provide more accurate and sufficient information and data that can reflect the state of process and instrument itself. The MBC based on fieldbus and intelligent instrument represents the tendency of MBC in power plant.

  14. Flexible Rover Architecture for Science Instrument Integration and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bualat, Maria G.; Kobayashi, Linda; Lee, Susan Y.; Park, Eric

    2006-01-01

    At NASA Ames Research Center, the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) fields the K9 and K10 class rovers. Both use a mobile robot hardware architecture designed for extensibility and reconfigurability that allows for rapid changes in instrumentation and provides a high degree of modularity. Over the past ssveral years, we have worked with instrument developers at NASA centers, universities, and national laboratories to integrate or partially integrate their instruments onboard the K9 and K10 rovers. Early efforts required considerable interaction to work through integration issues such as power, data protocol and mechanical mounting. These interactions informed the design of our current avionics architecture, and have simplified more recent integration projects. In this paper, we will describe the IRG extensible avionics and software architecture and the effect it has had on our recent instrument integration efforts, including integration of four Mars Instrument Development Program devices.

  15. Falsification Testing of Instrumental Variables Methods for Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    PubMed

    Pizer, Steven D

    2016-04-01

    To demonstrate how falsification tests can be used to evaluate instrumental variables methods applicable to a wide variety of comparative effectiveness research questions. Brief conceptual review of instrumental variables and falsification testing principles and techniques accompanied by an empirical application. Sample STATA code related to the empirical application is provided in the Appendix. Comparative long-term risks of sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones for management of type 2 diabetes. Outcomes include mortality and hospitalization for an ambulatory care-sensitive condition. Prescribing pattern variations are used as instrumental variables. Falsification testing is an easily computed and powerful way to evaluate the validity of the key assumption underlying instrumental variables analysis. If falsification tests are used, instrumental variables techniques can help answer a multitude of important clinical questions. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  16. Advanced CO2 removal process control and monitor instrumentation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Dalhausen, M. J.; Klimes, R.

    1982-01-01

    A progam to evaluate, design and demonstrate major advances in control and monitor instrumentation was undertaken. A carbon dioxide removal process, one whose maturity level makes it a prime candidate for early flight demonstration was investigated. The instrumentation design incorporates features which are compatible with anticipated flight requirements. Current electronics technology and projected advances are included. In addition, the program established commonality of components for all advanced life support subsystems. It was concluded from the studies and design activities conducted under this program that the next generation of instrumentation will be greatly smaller than the prior one. Not only physical size but weight, power and heat rejection requirements were reduced in the range of 80 to 85% from the former level of research and development instrumentation. Using a microprocessor based computer, a standard computer bus structure and nonvolatile memory, improved fabrication techniques and aerospace packaging this instrumentation will greatly enhance overall reliability and total system availability.

  17. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  18. Ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, Michael S.; Hsu, David K.; Thompson, Donald O.; Wormley, Samuel J.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument uses active switches and a timing and drive circuitry to control electrical energy to a transducer, the discharging of the transducer, and the opening of an electrical pathway to the receiving circuitry for the returning echoes. The active switches utilize MOSFET devices along with decoupling circuitry to insure the preservation of the unipolar nature of the pulses, insure fast transition times, and maintain broad band width and time resolution. A housing contains the various circuitry and switches and allows connection to a power supply and a movable ultrasonic transducer. The circuitry maintains low impedance input to the transducer during transmitting cycles, and high impedance between the transducer and the receiving circuit during receive cycles to maintain the unipolar pulse shape. A unipolar pulse is valuable for nondestructive evaluation, a prime use for the present instrument.

  19. Ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument

    DOEpatents

    Hughes, M.J.; Hsu, D.K.; Thompson, D.O.; Wormley, S.J.

    1993-04-06

    An ultrasonic unipolar pulse/echo instrument uses active switches and a timing and drive circuitry to control electrical energy to a transducer, the discharging of the transducer, and the opening of an electrical pathway to the receiving circuitry for the returning echoes. The active switches utilize MOSFET devices along with decoupling circuitry to insure the preservation of the unipolar nature of the pulses, insure fast transition times, and maintain broad band width and time resolution. A housing contains the various circuitry and switches and allows connection to a power supply and a movable ultrasonic transducer. The circuitry maintains low impedance input to the transducer during transmitting cycles, and high impedance between the transducer and the receiving circuit during receive cycles to maintain the unipolar pulse shape. A unipolar pulse is valuable for nondestructive evaluation, a prime use for the present instrument.

  20. Portable calibration instrument of hemodialysis unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Liang-bing; Li, Dong-sheng; Chen, Ai-jun

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of meeting the rapid development of blood purification in China, improve the level of blood purification treatment, and get rid of the plight of the foreign technology monopolization to promise patients' medical safety, a parameter-calibrator for the hemodialysis unit, which can detect simultaneously multi-parameter, is designed. The instrument includes a loop, which connects to the hemodialysis unit. Sensors are in the loop in series, so that the dialysis can flow through this loop and the sensors can acquisitive data of various parameters. In order to facilitate detection and carrying, the integrated circuit part modularly based on the ultralow-power microcontrollers,TI MSP430 is designed. High-performance and small-packaged components are used to establish a modular, high-precision, multi-functional, portable system. The functions and the key technical indexes of the instrument have reached the level of products abroad.

  1. Building Bigger, Better Instruments with Dry Cryostats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Voellmer, George

    2010-01-01

    The cylindrical instrument volume allowable n SOFIA is large, comprising perhaps 400 liters at 4K. However, the cryogen accommodation to enable this environment consumes roughly 20% of the volume, and worsens rues, airworthiness/safety, and handling/operation, Present-day pulse tube coolers have negligible cold volumes, provide adequate cooling powers, and reach colder temperatures than stored cryogen. In addition, they permit safer, more reliable, lower maintenance instrument operation. While the advantages of dry cryostats are well-known and commonly used in labs and ground-based astronomical facilities, SOFIA would require some charges in accommodations to permit a pulse tube cooler to operate on board, Whil e these changes are not negligible, we present our investigation into the feasibility and desirability of making SOFIA a dry cryostat-capable observatory

  2. Building Bigger, Better Instruments with Dry Cryostats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Voellmer, George

    2010-01-01

    The cylindrical instrument volume allowable n SOFIA is large, comprising perhaps 400 liters at 4K. However, the cryogen accommodation to enable this environment consumes roughly 20% of the volume, and worsens rues, airworthiness/safety, and handling/operation, Present-day pulse tube coolers have negligible cold volumes, provide adequate cooling powers, and reach colder temperatures than stored cryogen. In addition, they permit safer, more reliable, lower maintenance instrument operation. While the advantages of dry cryostats are well-known and commonly used in labs and ground-based astronomical facilities, SOFIA would require some charges in accommodations to permit a pulse tube cooler to operate on board, Whil e these changes are not negligible, we present our investigation into the feasibility and desirability of making SOFIA a dry cryostat-capable observatory

  3. Trace cable, locate faults with one instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, A. )

    1994-12-01

    One of the problems with cable-tracing instruments that use radio-frequency (RF) signals is that they tend to radiate to nontarget conductors belonging to other utilities, such as telecommunications, gas, and cable TV. False readings generated by these RF units put repair crews at risk of locating the wrong lines, marking them, digging them up and so damaging another company's facilities. Crews at Florida Power Light Co (FP L) now are using a microprocessor-controlled transmitter that energizes the target cable at about 7776 Hz. This tracing frequency energizes only the secondary cable, even when nontarget conductors are nearby. An above-ground receiver detects this signal and guides the operator along the cable path. The instrument, known as the SFL-2000, is sold by AVO International, Blue Bell, Pa. 3 figs.

  4. Angle measurement with laser feedback instrument.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenxue; Zhang, Shulian; Long, Xingwu

    2013-04-08

    An instrument for angle measurement based on laser feedback has been designed. The measurement technique is based on the principle that when a wave plate placed into a feedback cavity rotates, its phase retardation varies. Phase retardation is a function of the rotating angle of the wave plate. Hence, the angle can be converted to phase retardation. The phase retardation is measured at certain characteristic points identified in the laser outputting curve that are then modulated by laser feedback. The angle of a rotating object can be measured if it is connected to the wave plate. The main advantages of this instrument are: high resolution, compact, flexible, low cost, effective power, and fast response.

  5. Incidence of instrument separation using LightSpeed rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Kenneth I; Hammond, Nathan B; Biggs, Stephen G; Ibarrola, Jose L

    2006-01-01

    The use of nickel-titanium rotary instrument systems has gained popularity over the past 10 years. One of these instrument systems is the LightSpeed (LightSpeed Technology, Inc, San Antonio, TX). One drawback for all nickel-titanium rotary instruments is the incidence of instrument separation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nonretrievable instrument separation using the LightSpeed system in a clinical setting. A total of 3543 canals were treated over a 24 month period and during that time, 46 LightSpeed instruments were separated and found to be nonretrievable, resulting in a separation rate of 1.30%. This rate was lower than previous reported studies.

  6. Influence of oscillating and rotary cutting instruments with electric and turbine handpieces on tooth preparation surfaces.

    PubMed

    Geminiani, Alessandro; Abdel-Azim, Tamer; Ercoli, Carlo; Feng, Changyong; Meirelles, Luiz; Massironi, Domenico

    2014-07-01

    Rotary and nonrotary cutting instruments are used to produce specific characteristics on the axial and marginal surfaces of teeth being prepared for fixed restorations. Oscillating instruments have been suggested for tooth preparation, but no comparative surface roughness data are available. To compare the surface roughness of simulated tooth preparations produced by oscillating instruments versus rotary cutting instruments with turbine and electric handpieces. Different grit rotary cutting instruments were used to prepare Macor specimens (n=36) with 2 handpieces. The surface roughness obtained with rotary cutting instruments was compared with that produced by oscillating cutting instruments. The instruments used were as follows: coarse, then fine-grit rotary cutting instruments with a turbine (group CFT) or an electric handpiece (group CFE); coarse, then medium-grit rotary cutting instruments with a turbine (group CMT) or an electric handpiece (group CME); coarse-grit rotary cutting instruments with a turbine handpiece and oscillating instruments at a low-power (group CSL) or high-power setting (group CSH). A custom testing apparatus was used to test all instruments. The average roughness was measured for each specimen with a 3-dimensional optical surface profiler and compared with 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honestly significant difference post hoc test for multiple comparisons (α=.05). Oscillating cutting instruments produced surface roughness values similar to those produced by similar grit rotary cutting instruments with a turbine handpiece. The electric handpiece produced smoother surfaces than the turbine regardless of rotary cutting instrument grit. Rotary cutting instruments with electric handpieces produced the smoothest surface, whereas the same instruments used with a turbine and oscillating instruments achieved similar surface roughness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Instrumentation and control systems, equipment location; instrumentation and control building, instrumentation room, bays and console plan. Specifications No. Eng-04-353-55-72; drawing no. 60-09-12; sheet 110 of 148; file no. 1321/61. Stamped: Record drawing - as constructed. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Control Center, Test Area 1-115, near Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. Evaluation of Instrumentation and Dynamic Thermal Ratings for Overhead Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A.

    2013-01-31

    In 2010, a project was initiated through a partnership between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the New York Power Authority (NYPA) to evaluate EPRI's rating technology and instrumentation that can be used to monitor the thermal states of transmission lines and provide the required real-time data for real-time rating calculations. The project included the installation and maintenance of various instruments at three 230 kV line sites in northern New York. The instruments were monitored, and data collection and rating calculations were performed for about a three year period.

  9. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 13. Practical Aspects of Instrumentation System Installation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    often makes the installation of flight test instrumentation very complex . Very often available areas within the aircraft cannot be used until...Both ENI data listings should use units of voltage and current rather than decibels. The frequency spectrum ofeach level noted should also ba ...tor good design. Its very nature implies increased weight, complexity , space and power; not to mentior a usually more complicated system checkout. The

  10. Virtual Instrument Simulator for CERES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    1997-01-01

    A benchtop virtual instrument simulator for CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) has been built at NASA, Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA. The CERES instruments will fly on several earth orbiting platforms notably NASDA's Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. CERES measures top of the atmosphere radiative fluxes using microprocessor controlled scanning radiometers. The CERES Virtual Instrument Simulator consists of electronic circuitry identical to the flight unit's twin microprocessors and telemetry interface to the supporting spacecraft electronics and two personal computers (PC) connected to the I/O ports that control azimuth and elevation gimbals. Software consists of the unmodified TRW developed Flight Code and Ground Support Software which serves as the instrument monitor and NASA/TRW developed engineering models of the scanners. The CERES Instrument Simulator will serve as a testbed for testing of custom instrument commands intended to solve in-flight anomalies of the instruments which could arise during the CERES mission. One of the supporting computers supports the telemetry display which monitors the simulator microprocessors during the development and testing of custom instrument commands. The CERES engineering development software models have been modified to provide a virtual instrument running on a second supporting computer linked in real time to the instrument flight microprocessor control ports. The CERES Instrument Simulator will be used to verify memory uploads by the CERES Flight Operations TEAM at NASA. Plots of the virtual scanner models match the actual instrument scan plots. A high speed logic analyzer has been used to track the performance of the flight microprocessor. The concept of using an identical but non-flight qualified microprocessor and electronics ensemble linked to a virtual instrument with identical system software affords a relatively inexpensive

  11. 21 CFR 882.4525 - Microsurgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4525 Microsurgical instrument. (a) Identification. A microsurgical instrument is a nonpowered surgical instrument used in neurological...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4525 - Microsurgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4525 Microsurgical instrument. (a) Identification. A microsurgical instrument is a nonpowered surgical instrument used in neurological...

  13. 21 CFR 882.4525 - Microsurgical instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4525 Microsurgical instrument. (a) Identification. A microsurgical instrument is a nonpowered surgical instrument used in neurological...

  14. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  15. Electrical power technology for robotic planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Shirbacheh, M.; Bents, D. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Power technologies which will enable a range of robotic rover vehicle missions by the end of the 1990s and beyond are discussed. The electrical power system is the most critical system for reliability and life, since all other on board functions (mobility, navigation, command and data, communications, and the scientific payload instruments) require electrical power. The following are discussed: power generation, energy storage, power management and distribution, and thermal management.

  16. Woelter Instrument-Optical Design

    SciTech Connect

    Nederbragt, W W

    2002-10-11

    Hundreds of target assemblies will be constructed annually for use on NIF or OMEGA in the near future. Currently, we do not have the capability to tomographically characterize the target assemblies at the desired resolution. Hence, we cannot verify if an assembly has been assembled correctly. The Engineering Directorate, through the LDRD program, is currently funding an x-ray instruments that could solve this problem. This instrument is based on a Woelter [1] Type-I design. We will refer to this design as the Woelter instrument in the remainder of the report. Ideally, the Woelter instrument will create images with sub-micrometer resolution. Moreover, the instrument will have a field-of-view large enough to cover an entire target assembly (up to a 2 mm square), which would eliminate the need to take multiple radiographs to get one complete target image. This report describes the optical design of the Woelter instrument.

  17. The tissue diagnostic instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Paul; Yu, Hongmei; Schultz, David; Rodriguez, Azucena; Yurtsev, Eugene A.; Orr, Jessica; Tang, Simon; Miller, Jon; Wallace, Joseph; Zok, Frank; Li, Cheng; Souza, Richard; Proctor, Alexander; Brimer, Davis; Nogues-Solan, Xavier; Mellbovsky, Leonardo; Peña, M. Jesus; Diez-Ferrer, Oriol; Mathews, Phillip; Randall, Connor; Kuo, Alfred; Chen, Carol; Peters, Mathilde; Kohn, David; Buckley, Jenni; Li, Xiaojuan; Pruitt, Lisa; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Alliston, Tamara; Weaver, Valerie; Lotz, Jeffrey

    2009-05-01

    Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device designed to probe the mechanical properties of normal and diseased soft and hard tissues not only in the laboratory but also in patients. The TDI can distinguish between the nucleus and the annulus of spinal disks, between young and degenerated cartilage, and between normal and cancerous mammary glands. It can quantify the elastic modulus and hardness of the wet dentin left in a cavity after excavation. It can perform an indentation test of bone tissue, quantifying the indentation depth increase and other mechanical parameters. With local anesthesia and disposable, sterile, probe assemblies, there has been neither pain nor complications in tests on patients. We anticipate that this unique device will facilitate research on many tissue systems in living organisms, including plants, leading to new insights into disease mechanisms and methods for their early detection.

  18. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered

  19. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

  20. Instrumentation Working Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle; Miake-Lye, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation Working Group compiled a summary of measurement techniques applicable to gas turbine engine aerosol precursors and particulates. An assessment was made of the limits, accuracy, applicability, and technology readiness of the various techniques. Despite advances made in emissions characterization of aircraft engines, uncertainties still exist in the mechanisms by which aerosols and particulates are produced in the near-field engine exhaust. To adequately assess current understanding of the formation of sulfuric acid aerosols in the exhaust plumes of gas turbine engines, measurements are required to determine the degree and importance of sulfur oxidation in the turbine and at the engine exit. Ideally, concentrations of all sulfur species would be acquired, with emphasis on SO2 and SO3. Numerous options exist for extractive and non-extractive measurement of SO2 at the engine exit, most of which are well developed. SO2 measurements should be performed first to place an upper bound on the percentage of SO2 oxidation. If extractive and non-extractive techniques indicate that a large amount of the fuel sulfur is not detected as SO2, then efforts are needed to improve techniques for SO3 measurements. Additional work will be required to account for the fuel sulfur in the engine exhaust. Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CI-MS) measurements need to be pursued, although a careful assessment needs to be made of the sampling line impact on the extracted sample composition. Efforts should also be placed on implementing non-intrusive techniques and extending their capabilities by maximizing exhaust coverage for line-of-sight measurements, as well as development of 2-D techniques, where feasible. Recommendations were made to continue engine exit and combustor measurements of particulates. Particulate measurements should include particle size distribution, mass fraction, hydration properties, and volatile fraction. However, methods to ensure that unaltered