Science.gov

Sample records for pulverization

  1. Dry pulverized solid material pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W.; Bonin, John H.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1984-07-31

    Apparatus is shown for substantially increasing the feed rate of pulverized material into a pressurized container. The apparatus includes a rotor that is mounted internal to the pressurized container. The pulverized material is fed into an annular chamber defined by the center of the rotor. A plurality of impellers are mounted within the annular chamber for imparting torque to the pulverized material.

  2. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  3. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  4. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, Jennifer L.; Rodgers, Larry W.; Koslosy, John V.; LaRue, Albert D.; Kaufman, Keith C.; Sarv, Hamid

    1998-01-01

    A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

  5. Deep pulverization along active faults ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, M.

    2013-12-01

    Pulverization is a intensive damage observed along some active faults. Rarely found in the field, it has been associated with dynamic damage produced by large earthquakes. Pulverization has been so far only described at the ground surface, consistent with the high frequency tensile loading expected for earthquake occurring along bimaterial faults. However, we discuss here a series of hints suggesting that pulverization is expected also several hundred of meters deep. In the deep well drilled within Nojima fault after the 1995 Kobe earthquake, thin sections reveal non localized damage, with microfractured pervading a sample, but with little shear disturbing the initial microstructure. In the SAFOD borehole drilled near Parkfield, Wiersberg and Erzinger (2008) made gas monitoring while drilling found large amount of H2 gas in the sandstone west to the fault. They attribute this high H2 concentration to mechanochemical origin, in accordance with some example of diffuse microfracturing found in thin sections from cores of SAFOD phase 3 and from geophysical data from logs. High strain rate experiments in both dry (Yuan et al, 2011) and wet samples (Forquin et al, 2010) show that even under confining pressures of several tens of megapascals, diffuse damage similar to pulverization is possible. This could explain the occurrence of pulverization at depth.

  6. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  7. Laser ignition of pulverized coals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Narato, Kiyoshi; Ito, Kazuyuki . Hitachi Research Lab.)

    1994-04-01

    The authors present a novel experiment to study the ignition of pulverized coal. A dilute stream of particles is dropped into a laminar, upward-flow wind tunnel with a quartz test section. The gas stream is not preheated. A single pulse from a Nd:YAG laser is focused through the tunnel and ignites the fuel. The transparent test section and cool walls allow for optical detection of the ignition process. In this article they describe the experiment and demonstrate its capabilities by observing the ignition behavior of spherical, amorphous-carbon particles and two coal: an anthracite and a high-volatile bituminous coal. The ignition behaviors of the carbon spheres and the anthracite are as expected for heterogeneous ignition, while the mechanism of the bituminous coal is uncertain. Calculations are also presented to describe the physical behavior of a laser-heated particle, and the heat transfer and chemistry of heterogeneous ignition.

  8. Ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic contamination in pulverized coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.; Alexander, C.C.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Although no significant major-element contamination is introduced by grinding coal in a steel pulverizer, abraded steel particles can conceivably affect the magnetic properties of pulverized coal. Magnetic and scanning-electron-microscope analyses of pulverized coal and coal fragments from the Herrin No. 6 seam in Illinois showed ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic contamination from the grinder. Significant changes in the magnetic properties of the coal were noted, indicating a total steel contamination of approximately 0.02 wt%. When coal samples were vibrated in the magnetic field of the vibrating-sample magnetometer, the superparamagnetic steel particles moved through the pulverized coal, and participated in the formation of multidomain clusters that in turn substantially affected the magnetization of the coal. ?? 1982.

  9. Boost pulverizer performance with new exhauster rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Lauber, J.A.

    1994-10-01

    Georgia Power Co.'s Jack McDonough station, near Atlanta, Ga, consists of two tangentially fired boilers rated 1.734-million lb/hr, each paired with a 265-MW turbine/generator. The plant's primary fuel is Eastern Bituminous coal, which is ground by five pulverizers. In April 1993, it first began evaluating a new high-efficiency rotor for the pulverizer exhausters, supplied by ABB C-E Services Inc. Windsor, Conn. McDonough was designed to burn coal with a Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) of 55 and is typically supplied fuel with an HGI of 45. Thus, the units must operate with all five pulverizers to obtain full load, although each was intended to generate full load using four pulverizers. Now that the plant is burning low-sulfur coal to comply with the clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the increased hardness limits McDonough's full-load capabilities and will dramatically increase pulverizer maintenance. Management was left with two options: a complete pulverizer replacement or further modifications. (The mills had already been upgraded several years ago.) The introduction of high-efficiency rotors for the exhauster fans made the second option more attractive. Unfortunately, the vendor had no significant operating experience with the rotor design, still in the developmental stage. Therefore, the plant decided to install a test rotor at McDonough Unit 2. This article is a review of the rotor's basic theory of operation, test results, and wear characteristics experienced at the unit.

  10. Pushing the pulverized coal envelope with LEBS

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.

    1995-11-01

    In response to challenges from technologies such as IGCC and PFBC, the ABB LEBS Team has proposed removing the barriers to very large advances in environmental and thermal performance of pulverized coal plants. Pulverized coal will continue to be the source of more than half of our electric generation well into the next century and we must develop low-risk low-cost advances that will compete with the claimed performance of other technologies. This paper describes near-term PC technologies for new and retrofit applications which will accomplish this.

  11. Pushing the pulverized coal envelope with LEBS

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.

    1995-12-31

    In response to challenges from technologies such as IGCC and PFBC, the ABB LEBS Team has proposed removing the barrier to very large advances in environmental and thermal performance of pulverized coal plants. Pulverized coal will continue to be the source of more than half of our electric generation well into the next century and we must develop low-risk low-cost advances that will compete with the claimed performance of other technologies. This paper describes near-term PC technologies for new and retrofit applications which will accomplish this.

  12. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  13. Pulverized glass as an alternative filter medium

    SciTech Connect

    Piccirillo, J.B.; Letterman, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    A significant amount of low-value, recycled glass is stockpiled at recycling facilities or landfilled. This study was conducted to investigate the use of pulverized recycled glass as a filter medium in slow sand filtration. The glass was pulverized using a flail mill-type pulverizer. The size distribution of the pulverizer output was adjusted by sieving to meet the grain size requirements of the Ten States Standards and the USEPA for filter media were compared to a fourth unit containing silica sand media. The filter influent was spiked with clay, coliform group bacteria and the cysts and oocyst of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Over an 8 month period of continuous operation, the performance of the glass sand filter media was as good as or better than the silica sand, with removals of 56% to 96% for turbidity; 99.78% to 100.0% for coliform bacteria; 99.995% to 99.997% for giardia cysts; and 99.92% to 99.97% for cryptosporidium oocysts. According to a cost-benefit analysis, converting waste glass into filter media may be economically advantageous for recycling facilities.

  14. Method of improving the storage safety of pulverized brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Schoppe, F.

    1982-04-13

    A method is given with the help of which pulverized brown coal can be stored safely, that is, it can be made safe against self ignition. The pulverized brown coal is mixed with at least 20% by weight anthracite dust until the particle mixture shows a uniform , black, anthracite-like color. Defined limits for the grain size of the pulverized brown coal and the anthracite dust must be observed.

  15. 6. FF coal pulverizer (ball mill inside). GG building in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FF coal pulverizer (ball mill inside). GG building in background did preliminary crushing; pulverizer to left, coal conveyor and air cleaning towers to right; conveyor on left brought crushed coal to FF. Looking north/northeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  16. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fins, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fins are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized material then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal.

  17. Drying of pulverized material with heated condensible vapor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1984-08-16

    Apparatus for drying pulverized material utilizes a high enthalpy condensable vapor such as steam for removing moisture from the individual particles of the pulverized material. The initially wet particulate material is tangentially delivered by a carrier vapor flow to an upper portion of a generally vertical cylindrical separation drum. The lateral wall of the separation drum is provided with a plurality of flow guides for directing the vapor tangentially therein in the direction of particulate material flow. Positioned concentrically within the separation drum and along the longitudinal axis thereof is a water-cooled condensation cylinder which is provided with a plurality of collection plates, or fines, on the outer lateral surface thereof. The cooled collection fines are aligned counter to the flow of the pulverized material and high enthalpy vapor mixture to maximize water vapor condensation thereon. The condensed liquid which includes moisture removed from the pulverized materials then flows downward along the outer surface of the coolant cylinder and is collected and removed. The particles travel in a shallow helix due to respective centrifugal and vertical acceleration forces applied thereto. The individual particles of the pulverized material are directed outwardly by the vortex flow where they contact the inner cylindrical surface of the separation drum and are then deposited at the bottom thereof for easy collection and removal. The pulverized material drying apparatus is particularly adapted for drying coal fines and facilitates the recovery of the pulverized coal. 2 figs.

  18. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  19. 66. BUILDING NO. 554, REWORK POWDER GRINDING ROUSE, PULVERIZING, WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. BUILDING NO. 554, REWORK POWDER GRINDING ROUSE, PULVERIZING, WATER DRY HOUSE, LOOKING NORTH (DEMOLITION IN PROGRESS). - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. 38. 8 sisters and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 8 sisters and powerhouse, pulverizer building for powerhouse, coal conveyor, blast stoves, "A" furnace, stoves, "B" furnace, stoves, "C" furnace, bottle cars. Looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  1. 65. BUILDING NO. 554, REWORK POWDER GRINDING HOUSE, PULVERIZING, WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. BUILDING NO. 554, REWORK POWDER GRINDING HOUSE, PULVERIZING, WATER DRY HOUSE, LOOKING SOUTH AT NORTH SIDE (DEMOLITION IN PROGRESS) OF BUILDING ONCE USED FOR REWORK POWDER GRINDING AND PULVERIZING (SEE NJ-36-C-33 FOR DIAGRAM OF THIS RECLAMATION PROCESS). THIS BUILDING ALSO SERVED AS A WATER DRY HOUSE. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  2. Kinetic extruder - a dry pulverized solid material pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W [Palo Alto, CA; Bonin, John H [Sunnyvale, CA; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    Method and apparatus are shown for the continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up chamber to a plurality of two-stage sprues mounted in the rotor. Control nozzles downstream from the sprues meter the flow of coal through the sprues.

  3. Kinetic extruder - a dry pulverized solid material pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, J. W.; Bonin, J. H.; Daniel, A. D. Jr.

    1983-03-15

    Method and apparatus are shown for the continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up chamber to a plurality of two-stage sprues mounted in the rotor. Control nozzles downstream from the sprues meter the flow of coal through the sprues. 19 figs.

  4. 9. VIEW OF 'BLUE STREAK' HAMMER MILL (Prater Pulverizer Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF 'BLUE STREAK' HAMMER MILL (Prater Pulverizer Co., Chicago, Illinois), LOCATED IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE BASEMENT, WAS ADDED IN THE EARLY 1930s. THIS WAS THE MILL'S FIRST ELECTRIC-POWERED MACHINERY. THE HAMMER MILL WAS USED TO PULVERIZE OATS, ALFALFA MEAL, AND CORN. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. Performance and risks of advanced pulverized-coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nalbandian, H.

    2009-07-01

    This article is based on an in-depth report of the same title published by the IEA Clean Coal Centre, CCC/135 (see Coal Abstracts entry Sep 2008 00535). It discusses the commercial, developmental and future status of pulverized fuel power plants including subcritical supercritical and ultra supercritical systems of pulverized coal combustion, the most widely used technology in coal-fired power generation. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Experimental study on ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high-temperature oxygen condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. W.; Liu, Y. H.; Dong, P.

    2016-08-01

    The high-temperature oxygen ignition technology of pulverized coal, which can replace the oil gun and achieve oil-free pulverized coal ignition by mixing the high- temperature oxygen and the pulverized coal stream directly, was proposed and a relevant ignition experimental system was built. The ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high-temperature oxygen condition were investigated: the ignition process was described and analyzed, the influence of relevant parameters on the pulverized coal stream ignition were obtained and analyzed. The results showed: when the oxygen heating temperature is over 750 °C, the pulverized coal stream could be ignited successfully by high-temperature oxygen; increasing the pulverized coal concentration, primary air temperature and oxygen volume flow rate or decreasing the primary air velocity is helpful for the ignition and combustion of the pulverized coal stream.

  7. Enhancement of pulverized coal combustion by plasma technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gorokhovski, M.A.; Jankoski, Z.; Lockwood, F.C.; Karpenko, E.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-assisted pulverized coal combustion is a promising technology for thermal power plants (TPP). This article reports one- and three- dimensional numerical simulations, as well as laboratory and industrial measurements of coal combustion using a plasma-fuel system (PFS). The chemical kinetic and fluid mechanics involved in this technology are analysed. The results show that a PFS, can be used to promote early ignition and enhanced stabilization of a pulverized coal flame. It is shown that this technology, in addition to enhancing the combustion efficiency of the flame, reduces harmful emissions from power coals of all ranks (brown, bituminous, anthracite and their mixtures). Data summarising the experience of 27 pulverized coal boilers in 16 thermal power plants in several countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, Korea, Ukraine, Slovakia, Mongolia and China), embracing steam productivities from 75 to 670 tons per hour (TPH), are presented. Finally, the practical computation of the characteristics of the PFS, as function of coal properties, is discussed.

  8. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    DOEpatents

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  9. Ultrasonic Apparatus for Pulverizing Brittle Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Dolgin, Benjamin; Chang, Zensheu

    2004-01-01

    The figure depicts an apparatus that pulverizes brittle material by means of a combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibration, hammering, and abrasion. The basic design of the apparatus could be specialized to be a portable version for use by a geologist in collecting powdered rock samples for analysis in the field or in a laboratory. Alternatively, a larger benchtop version could be designed for milling and mixing of precursor powders for such purposes as synthesis of ceramic and other polycrystalline materials or preparing powder samples for x-ray diffraction or x-ray fluorescence measurements to determine crystalline structures and compositions. Among the most attractive characteristics of this apparatus are its light weight and the ability to function without need for a large preload or a large power supply: It has been estimated that a portable version could have a mass <0.5 kg, would consume less than 1 W h of energy in milling a 1-cm3 volume of rock, and could operate at a preload <10 N. The basic design and principle of operation of this apparatus are similar to those of other apparatuses described in a series of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the two most relevant being Ultrasonic/ Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38 and Ultrasonic/ Sonic Mechanisms for Deep Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. As before, vibrations are excited by means of a piezoelectric actuator, an ultrasonic horn, and a mass that is free to move axially over a limited range. As before, the ultrasonic harmonic motion of the horn drives the free-mass in a combination of ultrasonic harmonic and lower-frequency hammering motion. In this case, the free-mass is confined within a hollow cylinder that serves as a crushing chamber, and the free-mass serves as a crushing or milling tool. The hammering of the free-mass against a material sample at the lower end of the chamber grinds the sample into

  10. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  11. Influence of wheat kernel physical properties on the pulverizing process.

    PubMed

    Dziki, Dariusz; Cacak-Pietrzak, Grażyna; Miś, Antoni; Jończyk, Krzysztof; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-10-01

    The physical properties of wheat kernel were determined and related to pulverizing performance by correlation analysis. Nineteen samples of wheat cultivars about similar level of protein content (11.2-12.8 % w.b.) and obtained from organic farming system were used for analysis. The kernel (moisture content 10 % w.b.) was pulverized by using the laboratory hammer mill equipped with round holes 1.0 mm screen. The specific grinding energy ranged from 120 kJkg(-1) to 159 kJkg(-1). On the basis of data obtained many of significant correlations (p < 0.05) were found between wheat kernel physical properties and pulverizing process of wheat kernel, especially wheat kernel hardness index (obtained on the basis of Single Kernel Characterization System) and vitreousness significantly and positively correlated with the grinding energy indices and the mass fraction of coarse particles (> 0.5 mm). Among the kernel mechanical properties determined on the basis of uniaxial compression test only the rapture force was correlated with the impact grinding results. The results showed also positive and significant relationships between kernel ash content and grinding energy requirements. On the basis of wheat physical properties the multiple linear regression was proposed for predicting the average particle size of pulverized kernel.

  12. PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION: POLLUTANT FORMATION AND CONTROL, 1970-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the support role of EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory in the major research effort directed by EPA in the l970s to understand pollutant formation during pulverized coal combustion (PCC). Understanding the conversion of fuel nitrogen to nit...

  13. Apparatus and method to pulverize rock using a superconducting electromagnetic linear motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A rock pulverizer device based on a superconducting linear motor. The superconducting electromagnetic rock pulverizer accelerates a projectile via a superconducting linear motor and directs the projectile at high speed toward a rock structure that is to be pulverized by collision of the speeding projectile with the rock structure. The rock pulverizer is comprised of a trapped field superconducting secondary magnet mounted on a movable car following a track, a wire wound series of primary magnets mounted on the track, and the complete magnet/track system mounted on a vehicle used for movement of the pulverizer through a mine as well as for momentum transfer during launch of the rock breaking projectile.

  14. Ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high oxygen concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Yue-sheng Fan; Zheng Zou; Zidong Cao; Yingchao Xu; Xiaoke Jiang

    2008-03-15

    In order to reduce overall fuel consumption, or partially substitute a 'valuable' fuel with a poor one, in electric power plant boilers, oxygen enrichment of combustion air can be very effective. Combustion characteristics of three Chinese pulverized coals, Shenmu bituminous, Tianhushan anthracite, and Duolun lignite, and three different particle sizes, under high oxygen concentrations more than 21%, have been investigated using thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry analysis (TG/DSC) and a drop-tube furnace. Results showed that the ignitability, the combustion property, and the burnout were largely improved when added oxygen was used, especially for small particles, the influence of oxygen on the bituminous coal was greater than the lignite and the anthracite, and the suitable O{sub 2} concentration for the ignition of pulverized coal flow should be controlled below 40%. 38 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Hydrogen production with coal using a pulverization device

    DOEpatents

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing hydrogen from coal is described wherein high temperature steam is brought into contact with coal in a pulverizer or fluid energy mill for effecting a steam-carbon reaction to provide for the generation of gaseous hydrogen. The high temperature steam is utilized to drive the coal particles into violent particle-to-particle contact for comminuting the particulates and thereby increasing the surface area of the coal particles for enhancing the productivity of the hydrogen.

  16. Amphiphilic semi-interpenetrating polymer networks using pulverized rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahidi, Nima

    Scrap rubber materials provide a significant challenge to either reuse or safe disposal. Every year, millions of tires are discarded to landfills in the United States, consuming a staggering amount of land space, creating a high risk for large fires, breeding mosquitoes that spread diseases, and wasting the planet's natural resources. This situation cannot be sustained. The challenge of reusing scrap rubber materials is mainly due to the crosslinked structure of vulcanized rubber that prevent them from melting and further processing for reuse. The most feasible recycling approach is believed to be a process in which the vulcanized rubber is first pulverized into a fine powder and then incorporated into new products. The production of fine rubber particles is generally accomplished through the use of a cryogenic process that is costly. Therefore, development of a cost effective technology that utilizes a large quantity of the scrap rubber materials to produce high value added materials is an essential element in maintaining a sustainable solution to rubber recycling. In this research, a cost effective pulverization process, solid state shear extrusion (SSSE), was modified and used for continuous pulverization of the rubber into fine particles. In the modified SSSE process, pulverization takes place at high compressive shear forces and a controlled temperature. Furthermore, an innovative particle modification process was developed to enhance the chemical structure and surface properties of the rubber particles for manufacturing of high value added products. Modification of rubber particles was accomplished through the polymerization of a hydrophilic monomer mixture within the intermolecular structure of the hydrophobic rubber particles. The resulting composite particles are considered as amphiphilic particulate phase semi-interpenetrating polymer networks (PPSIPNs). The modified rubber particles are water dispersible and suitable for use in a variety of aqueous media

  17. Nitric oxide emission from pulverized coal blend flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kopparthi, V.; Gollahalli, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    An experimental study of the nitric oxide emission from pulverized blended coal flames as a function of blending mass ratio is presented. Coals of three ranks (anthracite, bituminous, and lignite), and of the same rank (bituminous), but of different origin (Oklahoma and Wyoming mines), were used as fuels. Also, their blends (anthracite-bituminous, anthracite-lignite, lignite-bituminous, and Oklahoma-Wyoming coals) at mass ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 were studied. Correlations of nitric oxide emission index (mass/unit energy release) with blend mass ratio are presented.

  18. Development of an incineration system for pulverized spent charcoal

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Osamu; Shibata, Minoru; Kani, Koichi

    1995-12-31

    In the existing charcoal treatment system granular charcoal is charged directly into an incinerator together with other combustible waste. Since the combustion rate of the charcoal is slow in this system, there is a problem that unburnt charcoal accumulates at the bottom of the incinerator, when incineration is performed for an extended period of time. To prevent this difficulty, the combustion rate of the charcoal must be limited to 6 kg/h. To increase the incineration rate of charcoal, the authors have developed a system in which the charcoal is pulverized and incinerated while it is mixed with propane gas. The operational performance of this system was tested using an actual equipment.

  19. Extending gear life in a coal pulverizer gearbox

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2007-08-15

    A coal-fired power plant in the Western United States experienced short gearbox life in the 13 coal pulverizers operating at the plant. Wear on the bronze bull gear faces was suspected to have been caused by high particulate loading of coal dust and dirt in the gear oil, catalytic reaction between gear oil additives and some of the particulates generated, and high levels of copper in the gear oil. By addressing particulate ingress, adding filtration and switching to a synthetic gear oil, significant benefits were made to the power plant and gear oil life was extended. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  20. Effect of pulverization on hydration kinetic behaviors of creatine anhydrate powders.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yukoh; Shiraishi, Sumihiro; Otsuka, Makoto

    2004-12-25

    The crystal orientation of creatine monohydrate varies significantly with tableting performance and pulverizing mechanism. Furthermore, the X-ray diffraction patterns of anhydrous forms of untreated creatine monohydrate and of pulverized creatine monohydrate exhibit different crystal orientations. However, hygroscopic forms of unpulverized creatine anhydrate and pulverized creatine anhydrate was exhibit the same diffraction peak pattern. The hygroscopicity of unpulverized and pulverized creatine anhydrate has been investigated by hydration kinetic methods using isothermal differential scanning calorimetry data. Testing of the hygroscopicity of unpulverized and pulverized creatine anhydrate at various levels of relative humidity (RH) at 25 degrees C revealed that the anhydrate was stable at less than 33% RH, but was transformed into the monohydrate at more than 52% RH. Hydration data of unpulverized and pulverized creatine anhydrate at 60% and 75% RH were calculated to determine hydration kinetics using various solid-state kinetic models. The hydration type of unpulverized and pulverized creatine anhydrate powder follows the zero-order mechanism (Polany-Winger equation) R1. The transition rate constant of pulverized creatine anhydrate, calculated from the slope of the straight line, was about 1.34-1.36 times higher than that of unpulverized creatine anhydrate.

  1. Determination of the mineral distribution in pulverized coal using densitometry and laser particle sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Zhang; Yan-xue Mo; Ming Sun; Xian-yong Wei

    2005-12-01

    Coal particle size and mineral matter content have important effects on coal combustion. The mineral content of five Chinese coals was determined by a method combining densitometry and particle-size analysis. The finer particles of pulverized samples were found to contain more mineral content. Rank also had a significant influence on the particle-size ash-content distribution of pulverized coal particles. The sharpest size-ash distribution was found in pulverized anthracite samples; a broader distribution was found with bituminous coal samples, while a uniform distribution was observed in pulverized lignite samples. Ash in higher ash anthracite or lower ash bituminous coal is more evenly distributed. It is a combined effect of size distribution, yield, and proximate analysis of their density separation fractions. Mineral matter tends to distribute more evenly in finer pulverized coals. This results from a relative increase of the low-density fraction in the finer particles. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Installation for the thermal treatment of pulverant mineral products

    SciTech Connect

    Lebesque, J.

    1985-06-11

    An installation for the thermal treatment of a pulverant mineral product by gases has a support frame at a first level, a furnace for the thermal treatment of the pulverant mineral product in suspension in hot gases generated by the combustion of air and a fuel, two groups of series-connected cyclones connected to the furnace, one of the groups of cyclones being arranged upstream of the furnace and the other group of cyclones being arranged downstream of the furnace, and conduits connecting the cyclones to each other and to the furnace so that exhaust gases from the furnace pass successively through all the cyclones of the one group while a current of air passes through all the cyclones of the other group before entering the furnace to serve as the combustion air, the exhaust gases heating the product before it enters the furnace and the air current cooling the treated product. The furnace and two of the cyclones located, respectively, immediately upstream and immediately downstream of the furnace are mounted on the support frame at the first level. A superstructure is affixed to the support frame and supports the remaining cyclones at a second level higher than the first level.

  3. Impact of nongray multiphase radiation in pulverized coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Somesh; Wu, Bifen; Modest, Michael; Zhao, Xinyu

    2016-11-01

    Detailed modeling of radiation is important for accurate modeling of pulverized coal combustion. Because of high temperature and optical properties, radiative heat transfer from coal particles is often more dominant than convective heat transfer. In this work a multiphase photon Monte Carlo radiation solver is used to investigate and to quantify the effect of nongray radiation in a laboratory-scale pulverized coal flame. The nongray radiative properties of carrier phase (gas) is modeled using HITEMP database. Three major species - CO, CO2, and H2O - are treated as participating gases. Two optical models are used to evaluate radiative properties of coal particles: a formulation based on the large particle limit and a size-dependent correlation. Effect of scattering due to coal particle is also investigated using both isotropic scattering and anisotropic scattering using a Henyey-Greenstein function. Lastly, since the optical properties of ash is very different from that of coal, the effect of ash content on the radiative properties of coal particle is examined. This work used Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI-1053575.

  4. Characterization of dehydration behavior of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate powders.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yukoh; Shiraishi, Sumihiro; Otsuka, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    Creatine, which is well known as an important substance for muscular activity, is synthesized from amino acids such as glycine, arginine and ornithine in liver and kidney. It then accumulates in skeletal muscle as creatine phosphoric acid. The aim of this study was to understand the dehydration behavior of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate at various temperatures. The removal of crystal water was investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The X-ray diffraction pattern of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate agreed with reported data for creatine monohydrate. However, the diffraction peaks of the (100), (200) and (300) planes of pulverized creatine monohydrate were much stronger than those of untreated creatine monohydrate. On the other hand, the diffraction peaks of the (012) and (013) planes of untreated creatine monohydrate were much stronger than those of pulverized creatine monohydrate. The dehydration of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate was investigated at various storage temperatures, and the results indicated that untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate were transformed into the anhydrate at more than 30 degrees C. After dehydration, the particles of untreated and pulverized creatine anhydrate had many cracks. The dehydration kinetics of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate were analyzed by the Hancock-Sharp equation on the basis of the isothermal DSC data. The dehydrations of untreated and pulverized creatine monohydrate both followed a zero-order mechanism (Polany-Winger equation). However, the transition rate constant, calculated from the slope of the straight line, was about 2.2-7.7 times higher for pulverized creatine monohydrate than for untreated creatine monohydrate. The Arrhenius plots (natural logarithm of the dehydration rate constant versus the reciprocal of absolute temperature) of the isothermal DSC data for

  5. Pulverized coal injection operation on CSC No. 3 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.M.; Hsu, C.H.

    1996-12-31

    The pulverized coal injection system was introduced for the first time in No. 1 and No. 2 blast furnace at China Steel Corporation (CSC) in 1988. Currently the coal injection rate for both blast furnaces has steadily risen to 70--89 kg/thm (designed value). No 3 blast furnace (with an inner volume of 3400 m3) was also equipped with a PCI system of Armco type and started coal injection on November 17, 1993. During the early period, some problems such as injection lance blocking, lance-tip melting down, flexible hose wear, grind mill tripping occasionally interrupted the stable operation of blast furnace. After a series of efforts offered on equipment improvement and operation adjustment, the PC rate currently reaches to 90--110 kg/thm and furnace stable operation is still being maintained with productivity more than 2.20.

  6. Determination of the true density of pulverized coal samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A method using the gas-comparison pycnometer with helium gas as the penetrating medium measures precisely the true volume of a pulverized coal sample. The true density of a solid is calculated as the true unit volume of the solid exclusive of its pore space which is divided into the weight of the sample. The method is similar to that used to determine the density of refractory materials but the procedure is modified to yield precise density determinations of coal samples. These modifications diminish effects of trapped moisture and gases on the volume measurement. The helium gas-comparison pycnometer method is rapid, reliable, precise, and requires minimal analytical equipment and sample preparation, and also is non-destructive to the coal sample. Using this method, densities can be determined on coal samples of subbituminous to low-volatile bituminous rank and perhaps also on samples of lignite. The density of anthracite samples has not been determined by this method.

  7. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion in cement rotary kiln

    SciTech Connect

    Shijie Wang; Jidong Lu; Weijie Li; Jie Li; Zhijuan Hu

    2006-12-15

    In this paper, based on analysis of the chemical and physical processes of clinker formation, a heat flux function was introduced to take account of the thermal effect of clinker formation. Combining the models of gas-solid flow, heat and mass transfer, and pulverized coal combustion, a set of mathematical models for a full-scale cement rotary kiln were established. In terms of commercial CFD code (FLUENT), the distributions of gas velocity, gas temperature, and gas components in a cement rotary kiln were obtained by numerical simulation of a 3000 t/d rotary kiln with a four-channel burner. The predicted results indicated that the improved model accounts for the thermal enthalpy of the clinker formation process and can give more insight (such as fluid flow, temperature, etc,) from within the cement rotary kiln, which is a benefit to better understanding of combustion behavior and an improvement of burner and rotary kiln technology. 25 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Improved low NOx firing systems for pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Laux, S.; Grusha, J.; Rosin, T.; Hausman, G.L.

    1999-07-01

    More stringent emission limits or the addition of post combustion NOx control create the need for improvements of NOx emissions from pulverized coal boilers. Many boilers retrofitted with Low NOx technology during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the CAAA fail or marginally meet their requirements. Technical solutions range from addition of overfire air and state-of-the-art low NOx burners to low cost additions of combustion enhancements. Regardless of the combustion NOx control method used, stoichiometries local to the burners must be maintained at the designed values at all times to provide high NOx performance at low efficiency loss due to unburned fuel. This paper describes Foster Wheeler's approach to NOx emission improvements for existing low NOx firing systems. The technology to measure air and coal flow individually for each burner and to control the parameters for optimum combustion are presented and discussed. Field experience shows the installation and advantages of the technology.

  9. Means and apparatus for throttling a dry pulverized solid material pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W [Palo Alto, CA; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.; Bonin, John H [Sunnyvale, CA

    1982-01-01

    Method and apparatus are shown for control of continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up zone chamber to a plurality of sprues mounted in the rotor. Control of the pressure within control nozzles downstream from the sprues adjusts the flow rate of coal through the sprues.

  10. Means and apparatus for throttling a dry pulverized solid material pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, J. W.; Daniel, Jr, A. D.; Bonin, J. H.

    1982-12-07

    Method and apparatus are shown for control of continuous feeding of pulverized material to a high pressure container. A rotor is located within the high pressure container. The pulverized material is fed from a feed hopper through a stationary feed pipe to a vented spin-up zone chamber to a plurality of sprues mounted in the rotor. Control of the pressure within control nozzles downstream from the sprues adjusts the flow rate of coal through the sprues. 9 figs.

  11. The partitioning of trace elements during pulverized coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seames, Wayne Stewart

    The environmental impact resulting from the release of trace elements during coal combustion is an important issue for the coal-fired electric utility industry. Trace elements exit the combustor by partitioning between the flue gas and the fly ash particles. A comprehensive study has been conducted to investigate the mechanisms governing the partitioning of trace elements during pulverized coal combustion. The behavior of seven trace elements (arsenic, selenium, antimony, cobalt, cesium, thorium, and cerium) in six pulverized coals were studied under commercially relevant conditions in a well-described laboratory combustion environment. The partitioning of trace elements is governed by the extent of volatilization during combustion, the form of occurrence in the flue gas, and the mechanisms controlling vapor-to-solid phase transformation to fly ash particle surfaces. The most common vapor-to-solid phase partitioning mechanism for semi-volatile trace elements is reaction with active fly ash surfaces. Trace elements that form oxy-anions upon volatilization (e.g. arsenic, selenium, antimony) will react with active calcium and iron cation fly ash surface sites. Trace elements that form simple oxides upon volatilization (e.g. cobalt, cesium) will react with active aluminum oxy-anion fly ash surface sites. The maximum combustion temperature affects the availability of active calcium and iron surface sites but not aluminum sites. Sulfur inhibits the reactivity of oxy-anions with iron surface sites. For coals with high sulfur contents (>1 wt % as SO 2), volatilized trace elements that form oxy-anions will partition by reaction with calcium surface sites if sufficient sites are available. For coals with low sulfur contents, volatilized trace elements that form oxy-anions, will partition by reaction with iron surface sites. Volatilized trace elements that form oxy-anions will not partition by reaction if the coal sulfur content is high and the calcium content is low (<3 wt

  12. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Philips, S.D.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    The need to improve efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions commercial furnaces has prompted energy companies to search for optimized operating conditions and improved designs in their fossil-fuel burning facilities. Historically, companies have relied on the use of empirical correlations and pilot-plant data to make decisions about operating conditions and design changes. The high cost of collecting data makes obtaining large amounts of data infeasible. The main objective of the data book is to provide a single source of detailed three-dimensional combustion and combustion-related data suitable for comprehensive combustion model evaluation. Five tasks were identified as requirements to achieve the main objective. First, identify the types of data needed to evaluate comprehensive combustion models, and establish criteria for selecting the data. Second, identify and document available three-dimensional combustion data related to pulverized coal combustion. Third, collect and evaluate three-dimensional data cases, and select suitable cases based on selection criteria. Fourth, organize the data sets into an easy-to-use format. Fifth, evaluate and interpret the nature and quality of the data base. 39 refs., 15 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Simulation of coal ash deposition under pulverized coal combustion conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, S.; Cliffe, K.R.

    1994-12-31

    The deposition of coal ash onto the superheater tubes of a pulverized fuel fired boiler is simulated by injecting soda lime silica glass, SLSG, particles into hot combustion gases produced from the combustion of natural gas and by measuring the amount of deposit formed on a probe in a horizontally fired furnace. The effect of various parameters, including gas and probe surface temperatures, gas velocity, particle size and composition on deposit formation were investigated. The results showed that operating parameters, namely the gas temperature and probe surface temperature are of primary importance since deposition rates doubled over the range investigated. The deposition rate of 6 and 8 {mu}m particles was constant and considered to be controlled by their transport to the probe surface while that of larger particles showed an asymptotic behavior which suggested the deposition rate was controlled by the stickiness of the deposit surface on the probe. The addition of NaCl to SLSG particles increased deposition rates by approximately 100%, while addition of CACO{sub 3} showed no influence on the deposition rate of the SLSG particles. The addition of NaCl to CACO{sub 3} formed less deposit than CaCO{sub 3} particles on their own. Similarly, the deposition rate of SLSG and CaCO{sub 3} was lowered by addition of NaCl into it. This was probably caused by formation of some high melting point compounds between NaCl and CACO{sub 3}.

  14. Experimental study on preheated combustion of pulverized semi-coke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Zhu, Jianguo; Lu, Qinggang; Zhou, Zuxu

    2015-06-01

    In a test rig, pulverized semi-coke was preheated to 850oC in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and then combusted at 1100oC in a down-fired combustor (DFC). Experiments were conducted to reveal the effects of three secondary air nozzle cases (co-axial jet, top circular jet and wall circular jet) on the NO emission. The results show that the optimized secondary air nozzle can reduce NO emission. O2 concentration profile is the major factor affecting NO generation and emission, which is led by the secondary air nozzle. The lower O2 concentration led to the generation of lower initial NO. The NO emission at the exit of the DFC was reduced from 189 to 92 mg/m3 (@ 6% O2) with the decrease of initial generation. The peak of NO at 100 mm below the nozzle should be attributed to the oxidization of NH3 in the syngas, rather than the oxidization of fuel-N in the char. The low and well-distributed O2 concentration contributes to the reduction of initial NO, which helps to reduce the NO emission. The combustion efficiencies of the cases of the co-axial jet, the top circular jet, and the wall circular jet are 97.88%, 98.94% and 98.74%, respectively.

  15. Numerical predictions of burner performance during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Zarnescu, V.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1999-07-01

    The performance of four burners in terms of temperature and velocity profiles, residence time and NO{sub x} emissions was predicted using numerical simulations and a two-dimensional model for pulverized coal combustion. Numerical predictions for two burners used in a pilot-scale 0.5 MM Btu/hr (146.5 kW) down-fired combustor (DFC) are presented. Two other burner configurations were evaluated and compared with the ones used with the DFC for attaining lower NO{sub x} levels. Simulations were conducted for both coal and coal-water slurry as primary fuels. A sensitivity analysis of predictions with respect to variations of the model parameters was performed. The results suggest that the higher NO{sub x} reduction with one of the burners used in the DFC is due to the improved near-burner aerodynamics and to better flame attachment. These improved conditions are influenced by a combination of geometric and flow parameters, such as burner dimensions, quart diameter, inlet velocity, inlet temperature and swirl number.

  16. Examination of pulverized waste recycled glass as filter media in slow sand filtration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piccirillo, J.B.; Letterman, R.D.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pulverization of waste recycled glass to produce glass sand for slow sand filters. Pulverization experiments were performed using a fail mill pulverizer. The glass sand product from the pulverizer meets the size distribution requirements of ASTM-C-33 without size distribution adjustment. The size distribution must be adjusted to meet the grain size distribution requirements of the Ten States Standards and the USEPA for filter media used in slow sand filters. Pulverized glass that meet slow sand filter media specifications is an effective alternative to silica sand as a filter media for slow sand filtration. Three pilot plant slow sand filters with glass sand filter media were compared to a fourth filter containing silica sand filter media. Over an 8 month period of continuous operation, the performance of the glass sand filter media was as good or better than the silica sands, with removals of 56% to 96% for turbidity; 99.78% to 100.0% for coliform bacteria; 99.995% to 99.997% for giardia cysts; 99.92% and 99.97% for cryptosporidium oocysts. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, converting waste glass into filter media may be economically advantageous for recycling facilities.

  17. Co-firing of asphalt fired dust in pulverized coal fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Kiga, Takashi; Watanabe, Shinjl

    1999-07-01

    In order to make clear whether the dust collected at the electrostatic precipitator (EP) of asphalt fired boilers can be co-fired in pulverized coal fired boilers, laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests have been conducted. Test results showed that although dust from asphalt firing had as only a little amount of volatile matter as semi-anthracite or anthracite had, it revealed burn-out properties like bituminous. When it was co-fired with pulverized coal by 2% by that input, a considerable increase in SO{sub 2} emission was noted, while NOx emission was somewhat decreased compared with coal firing. From these verifications, it was confirmed that the co-firing of dust from asphalt firing in pulverized coal fired boiler was applicable to actual plants so far as the De-SOx system permitted.

  18. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    PubMed

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-07-01

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner.

  19. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  20. Pulverized fault rocks and damage asymmetry along the Arima-Takatsuki Tectonic Line, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Shimamoto, T.

    2011-08-01

    We present field and laboratory data on pulverized rocks at the Hakusui-kyo outcrop of the Arima-Takatsuki Tectonic Line (ATTL), which is a dextral strike slip fault with ~ 17 km displacement juxtaposing granite to the south against rhyolite to the north. The majority of slip at the surface is localized to a clay-rich gouge fault core 8-10 cm in width, surrounded by a coarsening outwards fault breccias up to 3 m wide. Fault damage is highly asymmetric with respect to the slipping zone. The granite south of the fault has a pulverized damage zone up to 200 m wide, while the rhyolite to the north has only about 3 m wide non-pulverized fault breccia. The degree of pulverization in the granite decreases approximately logarithmically with normal distance from the slip zone. The highly fractured pulverized rocks exhibit several distinct textural characteristics. In thin section, grains appear to be highly comminuted but the original grain shapes and margins are recognizable. Microfractures tend to be tensile in no preferred orientation. Grain fragments display little to no rotation and lack evidence of in-situ shear. Consequently, at macroscale the rocks appear to preserve original granitic textures, despite being highly fractured and friable. The observed pulverization and rock damage asymmetry are most consistent with generation mechanism involving ruptures on a bimaterial interface with statistically preferred propagation direction, leading to damage primarily on the side with higher seismic velocity at depth. This is supported by laboratory measurements of P-wave ultrasonic velocities on intact samples which indicate that the granites have consistently higher velocity than the rhyolite with increasing confining pressure.

  1. Additional reduction in serum phosphorus levels by pulverized lanthanum carbonate chewable in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tetsuri; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Masaki; Mitsuhashi, Tetsuya; Shizuku, Junichi; Takahashi, Naoshi; Ohba, Takashi; Miyajima, Sayako; Kabaya, Takashi; Otsuka, Kuniaki; Nitta, Kosaku

    2013-04-01

    Lanthanum carbonate (LC) is one of the relatively new phosphate binders. The general LC dosage form is a chewable pharmaceutical preparation. This investigation was targeted to subjects who do not chew LC chewable preparations adequately, for the purpose of studying the clinical efficacy of changing to pulverized prescriptions, such as changes in serum phosphorus levels (P levels). The study took place at Minamisenju Hospital in October 2011, with 41 subjects on maintenance hemodialysis. We pulverized all of the LC chewable medicines of the LC insufficient mastication group (non-chewing: NC group, n = 18) using a crusher, and changed them to pulverized prescriptions. The testing period was set at 10 weeks. In the NC group, there was a significant lowering of P levels from 5.86 ± 1.31 mg/dL before pulverization of the LC chewable preparation (week 0) to 5.38 ± 1.26 mg/dL after 2 weeks of administration of the pulverized medication (P = 0.0310), 5.20 ± 1.25 mg/dL after 4 weeks (P = 0.0077), and 5.12 ± 1.34 mg/dL after 6 weeks (P = 0.0167). P levels in other patients than NC group showed no significant change. In this study, the P levels in the NC group was lowered significantly by changing the LC chewable to the pulverized prescription, and the residual LC images on the abdominal X-rays disappeared to the point where they could barely be confirmed.

  2. Pulverization Texturein Fault Damage Zones: A result of Implosion Damage or Dynamic Compressive Stresses?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, T. K.; Girty, G.; Whearty, J.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Micro-brecciation, or pulverization, is recognized as a fundamental component of the architecture and damage products of many large faults, although the precise mechanisms to produce this damage are debated, with both compressive and tensile mechanisms proposed. We characterized several sites along the San Jacinto fault, southern California, where the total depth of exhumation for the life history of the fault can be determined, to study the confining stresses required for pulverization. In basement rock near Anza, where exhumation is less than 100 m, granitic dikes injected into schist of the Burnt Valley Complex are pulverized out to several meters from the fault core, whereas the schist is brecciated at the macro-scale and contains narrow centimeter-thick seams of black cataclasite. Similar relationships are observed in Horse Canyon, which is exhumed about 400 m below a regional Tertiary erosion surface, where granitic dikes emplaced into schist are pulverized out to distances of several tens of meters from the fault core. These observations imply that very low confining stress is required for micro-brecciation in granitic rock. Unconsolidated sandstones (alluvial fan deposits) along the SJF in Rock House Canyon are undeformed where the deposits are exhumed by about 70 m, but show incipient pulverization (high-density, sub-grain cracking) at 120 m depth of exhumation. Cracks oriented perpendicular to the fault formed in individual quartz and feldspar grains out to a few meters from the fault core. These observations suggest that the confining stress required for onset of pulverization in unconsolidated deposits is on the order of 2-2.5 MPa. As the tensile strength of quartz is an order of magnitude higher than these confining stresses, the most likely mechanism that is producing this damage is dynamic compressive stresses during passage of the rupture front.

  3. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nenad Sarunac; Edward Levy

    2005-03-01

    This is the eighth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Analyses were performed to determine the effects of coal product moisture on unit performance. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level affects parameters such as boiler efficiency, power required to drive the fluidizing air fan, other station service power needed for fans and pulverizers, net unit heat rate, thermal energy rejected by the cooling tower, and stack emissions.

  4. The structure of submicron ash from combustion of pulverized South African and Colombian coals

    SciTech Connect

    Kauppinen, E.I.; Lind, T.M.; Valmarui, T.; Ylaetalo, S.; Jokiniemi, J.K.; Powell, Q.; Gurav, A.S.; Kodas, T.T.; Mohr, M.

    1996-12-31

    The formation of submicron ash particles during the utility-scale pulverized combustion of South African Klein Kopie and Colombian El Dorado coals was studied by measuring the ash particle number and mass size distributions in the size range 0.01--1 {micro}m upstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Ash morphology, composition and microstructure were studied by high resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopes (SEM and TEM). The authors propose new mechanisms for the formation of submicron agglomerated ash particles in pulverized coal-fired boiler flames.

  5. Coal grinding by roller grinding mills for pulverized coal injection in blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kasseck, K.; Salewski, G.

    1995-10-01

    Roller grinding mills are increasingly being used for producing the pulverized coal required for injection into blast furnaces, an accepted technology worldwide for lowering coke consumption in blast furnaces. Coal is currently being injected into blast furnaces at the rate of 80 to 200 kg/tonne of hot metal which results in a coke savings of 72 to 180 kg/tonne of hot metal. The pulverized coal for coal injection is produced in coal grinding and drying plants currently having a capacity from 15 to 240 tonnes/hr. The grinding plant with Loesche roller grinding mills at the Ilva steelworks, Taranto, Italy, that is described, illustrates design concepts and operation.

  6. Characterization of pressurized fluidized bed and pulverized coal fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, H.S.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Thomas, G.O.; Hamm, J.R.; Bezella, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the major technical and economic characteristics of a steam-cooled and an air-cooled pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) power plant concept along with the characteristics of a pulverized coal fired power plant equipped with an adipic acid enhanced wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization system. The conceptual designs were prepared to satisfy a set of common groundrules that were developed for the study. The power plants are of the grassroots type, located on a generic plant site. The designs incorporate technological advances available for commercialization in the 1990 time frame. The net power outputs of the base case plants, using Illinois No. 6 coal, range from 502 MWe for the pulverized coal fired plant to 554 MWe for the air-cooled PFB plant. The net power plant heat rates vary from 9725 Btu/kWh for the pulverized coal fired plant to 8710 Btu/kWh for the steam-cooled PFB plant. For the economic groundrules set for the study, the pulverized coal fired plant utilizing an advanced flue gas desulfurization concept had the lowest specific capital cost and lowest levelized cost of electricity. However, utility and site specific conditions could materially alter the relative merits of the various concepts in a given utility application.

  7. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  8. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state shear pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    2001-01-30

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  9. Reconstituted polymeric materials derived from post-consumer waste, industrial scrap and virgin resins made by solid state pulverization

    DOEpatents

    Khait, K.

    1998-09-29

    A method of making polymeric particulates is described wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatible agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product. 29 figs.

  10. [Study of laser energy in multi-element detection of pulverized coal flow with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Ping; Lu, Ji-Dong; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Shi-He; Yao, Shun-Chun; Pan, Feng-Ping; Dong, Xuan; Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The logical range of laser power density and optimum laser power density were explored for multi-element analysis of pulverized coal flow with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in the present paper. The range of laser energy was chosen from 20 to 160 mJ in the experiment. Pulverized coal less than 200 microm in diameter of particles fell freely through feeder outlet and the rate of flow was controlled by screw feeder. Emissions were collected with pulse laser at 1 064 nm focusing on pulverized coal flow and plasma was generated. The intensity and cause of fluctuation of emission spectra at various laser energy levels were studied. A suitable range of laser power density is from 14.4 to 34.4 GW x cm(-2), and the optimum laser power density is 19.5 GW x cm(-2) for the determination of pulverized coal flow with LIBS.

  11. A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Boiko; S.V. Pachkovskii

    2008-12-15

    A diffusion-kinetic model for pulverized-coal combustion and heat-and-mass transfer in a gas stream is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the burnout dynamics of Kansk-Achinsk coals in the pulverized state at different treatment conditions and different model parameters are presented. The mathematical model describes the dynamics of thermochemical conversion of solid organic fuels with allowance for complex physicochemical phenomena of heat-and-mass exchange between coal particles and the gaseous environment.

  12. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

    2005-04-01

    This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

  13. Combustion and gasification characteristics of pulverized coal using high-temperature air

    SciTech Connect

    Hanaoka, R.; Nakamura, M.; Kiga, T.; Kosaka, H.; Iwahashi, T.; Yoshikawa, K.; Sakai, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Mochida, S.

    1998-07-01

    In order to confirm performance of high-temperature-air combusting of pulverized coal, laboratory-scale combustion and gasification tests of coal were conducted changing air temperature and oxygen concentration in the air. Theses were conducted in a drop tube furnace of 200mm in inside diameter and 2,000mm in length. The furnace was heated by ceramic heater up to 1,300 C. A high-temperature air preheater utilizing the HRS (High Cycle Regenerative Combustion System) was used to obtain high-temperature combustion air. As the results, NOx emission was reduced when pulverized coal was fired with high-temperature-air. On the other hand, by lower oxygen concentration in combustion air diluted by nitrogen, NOx emission slightly decreased while became higher under staging condition.

  14. Use of microstrip patch antennas in grain and pulverized materials permittivity measurement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El Sabbagh, M.A.; Ramahi, O.M.; Trabelsi, S.; Nelson, S.O.; Khan, L.

    2003-01-01

    A free-space microwave system developed for the measurement of the relative complex permittivity of granular materials and of pulverized materials was reported. The system consists of a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna separated by a space filled by the sample to be characterized and a network analyzer for transmission measurement. The receiving antenna was mounted on a movable plate, which gives the flexibility of having different sample thicknesses.

  15. Radiative heat transfer in PC (pulverized coal) furnaces burning deeply cleaned coals

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1990-05-01

    A three-dimensional spectral radiation transport model has been developed for assessing the impact of burning deeply cleaned coals on heat absorption patterns in pulverized coal (PC) furnaces. Spectroscopic data are used for calculating the absorption coefficients of participating gases. Mie theory is invoked for determining the extinction and scattering efficiencies of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, ash and soot are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Analysis of Fracture Pattern of Pulverized Quartz Formed by Stick Slip Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Osamu; Muto, Jun; Otsuki, Kenshiro; Kano, Harumasa; Sasaki, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    In order to clarify how wall rocks of faults are damaged, fracture pattern analysis was performed imaging experimentally pulverized rocks by a micro-focus X-ray CT. Analyzed samples are core (diameter of 2cm) of single crystals of synthetic quartz and natural quartzites, which were pre-cut 50° to the core axis and mirror-polished. Experiments were conducted with axial strain rate of 10-3/s under the confining pressure of 180 MPa and room temperature using gas apparatus. Intense fracturing of the core occurred during the stick-slip with very large stress drop. Although thin melt layer is formed on the slip plane, the core is pulverized overall by tensile fracturing characterized by apparent lack of shear deformation. X-ray CT images demonstrate the fracture pattern being strongly controlled by slip direction and shear sense. Cracks are exponentially increased toward the slip plane and concentrated in the central portion rather than outer margin of core. Cracks tend to develop parallel to core axis and at high to moderate angles (90° ~ ±50°) with the plane including both core axis and slip direction, and lean to be higher angle to the surface near the slip plane. Due to this fracture pattern, the pulverized fragments show polygonal column or needle in shape with sharp and curving edges irrespective of their sizes, and the intensely fractured slip surface exhibit distinct rugged topography of an array of ridges developed perpendicular to slip direction. Mode and distribution pattern of fractures indicate that the stress concentration at the rupture front during dynamic rupture propagation or the constructive interference of reflected seismic waves focused at the center of core are possible mechanisms of pulverization.

  17. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    DOEpatents

    Eissenberg, David M.; Liu, Yin-An

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  18. Preparation of Polyimide/MWCNT Nanocomposites via Solid State Shearing Pulverization (S3P) Processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruojin; Zhao, Fenghua; Zhang, Huanhuan; Yu, Xiaoyan; Ding, Huili; Naito, Kimiyoshi; Qu, Xiongwei; Zhang, Qingxin

    2015-05-01

    Polyimide/multiwall carbon nanotube (PI/MWCNT) nanocomposite films with homogeneous MWCNTs dispersion were prepared via a solid state shearing pulverization (S3P) approach. Polyimide precursor, viz., poly(amic acid) (PAA), was synthesized from 4,4'-oxydianiline (ODA) and pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA). Then, 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) was mixed with the PAA powder and acid functionalized MWCNTs (acid-MWCNTs) by solid state shearing pulverization (S3P) approach. Finally, PI/MWCNT nanocomposite films were prepared by thermal imidization at elevated temperatures. Using such an approach not only the MWCNTs are well-dispersed but also the mechanical and thermal properties of PI are improved. The tensile strength of PI was enhanced by 74% and the elongation at break decreased to 10.35% with 5.0 wt% acid- MWCNT loading. And the glass transition temperature of PI was increased to 341 degrees C from 303 degrees C because of the strong interfacial bonding between PI and acid-MWCNTs. The solid state shearing pulverization (S3P) approach developed in this study provides a novel method to prepare various polymer composites with desired particle dispersion.

  19. Insights into pulverized rock formation from dynamic rupture models of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, R. M.; Duan, B.

    2017-02-01

    Pulverized rocks (PR) are extremely incohesive and highly fractured rocks found within the damage zones of several large strike-slip faults around the world. They maintain their crystal structure, show little evidence of shearing or chemical alteration, and are believed to be produced by strong tensile forces. Several mechanisms for pulverization have been proposed based on simple qualitative analyses or laboratory experiments under simplified loading conditions. Numerical modelling, however, can offer new insights into what is needed to produce PR and likely conditions of formation. We perform dynamic rupture simulations of different earthquakes, varying the magnitude, the slip distribution, and the rupture speed (supershear and subshear), while measuring the stresses produced away from the fault. To contextualize our results, a basic threshold of 10 MPa is set as the tensile strength of the rock mass and recordings are made of where, when, and by how much this threshold is exceeded for each earthquake type. Guided by field observations, we discern that a large (>Mw 7.1) subshear earthquake along a bimaterial fault produces a pulverized rock distribution most consistent with observations. The damage is asymmetric with the majority on the stiffer side of the fault extending out for several hundred metres. Within this zone there is a large and sudden volumetric expansion in all directions as the rupture passes. We propose that such an extreme tensile stress state, repeated for every earthquake, eventually produces the PR seen in the field.

  20. Applicability of the mixture of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Shin-Ichi; Kiga, Takashi; Miyamae, Shigehiro

    1994-12-31

    In some future, it is expected for Japanese power stations to be hard to get a high-grade coal like a bituminous coal. We conducted therefore pilot scale tests of pulverized blends of bituminous coal and anthracite using a 1.2MWt tunnel furnace in order to evaluate the applicability of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boilers. One kind of bituminous coal and two kinds of anthracite, one was of low ash content and another was of high ash content, were prepared for the test. Previously to pilot scale tests, coal properties and ash properties of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite were analyzed to estimate the characteristics of combustion, ash deposition, and so on. In the test, we investigated the combustion efficiency, NOx emission, characteristics of ignition stability and grindability changing the blend rate of anthracite. Results of our study indicated that the critical restrictions on the blending rate of anthracite were unburnt carbon in fly ash and NOx emission as for coals tested. The acceptable limitation on blending rate of anthracite was 10 and 20%, respectively for two kinds of conventional pulverized coal fired boiler. Concerning to the grindability, it became worse with increasing the blending rate of anthracite from grindability test using a roller mill, while it became better estimating from HGI.

  1. Effect of microstructure on the breakage of tin bronze machining chips during pulverization via jet milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshari, Elham; Ghambari, Mohammad; Farhangi, Hasan

    2016-11-01

    In this study, jet milling was used to recycle tin bronze machining chips into powder. The main purpose of this study was to assess the effect of the microstructure of tin bronze machining chips on their breakage behavior. An experimental target jet mill was used to pulverize machining chips of three different tin bronze alloys containing 7wt%, 10wt%, and 12wt% of tin. Optical and electron microscopy, as well as sieve analysis, were used to follow the trend of pulverization. Each alloy exhibited a distinct rate of size reduction, particle size distribution, and fracture surface appearance. The results showed that the degree of pulverization substantially increased with increasing tin content. This behavior was attributed to the higher number of machining cracks as well as the increased volume fraction of brittle δ phase in the alloys with higher tin contents. The δ phase was observed to strongly influence the creation of machining cracks as well as the nucleation and propagation of cracks during jet milling. In addition, a direct relationship was observed between the mean δ-phase spacing and the mean size of the jet-milled product; i.e., a decrease in the δ-phase spacing resulted in smaller particles.

  2. Insights into Pulverized Rock Formation from Dynamic Rupture Models of Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, R. M.; Duan, B.

    2016-11-01

    Pulverized rocks (PR) are extremely incohesive and highly fractured rocks found within the damage zones of several large strike-slip faults around the world. They maintain their crystal structure, show little evidence of shearing or chemical alteration, and are believed to be produced by strong tensile forces. Several mechanisms for pulverization have been proposed based on simple qualitative analyses or laboratory experiments under simplified loading conditions. Numerical modeling, however, can offer new insights into what is needed to produce PR and likely conditions of formation. We perform dynamic rupture simulations of different earthquakes, varying the magnitude, the slip distribution, and the rupture speed (supershear and subshear), while measuring the stresses produced away from the fault. To contextualize our results, a basic threshold of 10 MPa is set as the tensile strength of the rock mass and recordings are made of where, when, and by how much this threshold is exceeded for each earthquake type. Guided by field observations, we discern that a large (> Mw 7.1) subshear earthquake along a bimaterial fault produces a pulverized rock distribution most consistent with observations. The damage is asymmetric with the majority on the stiffer side of the fault extending out for several hundred meters. Within this zone there is a large and sudden volumetric expansion in all directions as the rupture passes. We propose that such an extreme tensile stress state, repeated for every earthquake, eventually produces the PR seen in the field.

  3. Experimental and theoretical analyses of pulverization and recycling of vulcanized rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgili, Ecevit Atalay

    A two-stage process for recycling of vulcanized rubber was proposed. In the first stage, the vulcanized rubber was shredded into granulates, and then the granulates were pulverized into fine particles using a single screw extruder in the solid state shear extrusion (SSSE) process. In the second stage, the produced rubber powder was compression molded to produce new items. The major objective of this research is to understand the fundamental aspects of the pulverization and the compression molding of the rubber powder. Fine rubber particles were obtained using the SSSE process when the granulates were compressed sufficiently, and loss of strain energy due to viscoelastic stress relaxation was minimized by significant cooling in the pulverization zone. Agglomeration of rubber particles was found to be competing with the pulverization process. A sharp temperature gradient in the rubber was experimentally determined, which was qualitatively predicted by our heat transfer computer simulation. The rubber particles produced by the SSSE process and the unprocessed rubber granulates were analyzed using physical, thermal, and chemical characterization methods. The characterization study showed that the particles had irregular shapes with convoluted surfaces, and that the powder had a larger specific surface area compared with a cryogenically produced powder. The particles had lower crosslink density than the granulates indicating the breakage of sulfur crosslinks in the rubber, which makes the SSSE powder very suitable for many recycling applications. In the second stage, the produced powder within several size ranges was compression molded at various processing conditions. Rubber slabs with low-medium tensile strength were obtained without using any virgin rubber. It was found that the strength of the slabs is strongly dependent on the degree of particle bonding. Inhomogeneous shearing deformations of a homogeneous thermoelastic slab and a non-homogeneous rubber-like slab

  4. Temperature, velocity and species profile measurements for reburning in a pulverized, entrained flow, coal combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Tree, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen oxide emissions from pulverized coal combustion have been and will continue to be a regulated pollutant for electric utility boilers burning pulverized coal. Full scale combustion models can help in the design of new boilers and boiler retrofits which meet emissions standards, but these models require validation before they can be used with confidence. The objective of this work was to obtain detailed combustion measurements of pulverized coal flames which implement two NO reduction strategies, namely reburning and advanced reburning, to provide data for model validation. The data were also compared to an existing comprehensive pulverized coal combustion model with a reduced mechanism for NO reduction under reburning and advanced reburning conditions. The data were obtained in a 0.2 MW, cylindrical, down-fired, variable swirl, pulverized coal reactor. The reactor had a diameter of 0.76 m and a length of 2.4 m with access ports along the axial length. A Wyodak, sub-bituminous coal was used in all of the measurements. The burner had a centrally located primary fuel and air tube surrounded by heated and variably swirled secondary air. Species of NO, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were measured continuously. Aqueous sampling was used to measure HCN and NH{sub 3} at specific reactor locations. Samples were drawn from the reactor using water quenched suction probes. Velocity measurements were obtained using two component laser doppler anemometry in back-scatter mode. Temperature measurements were obtained using a shielded suction pyrometer. A series of six or more radial measurements at six or more axial locations within the reactor provided a map of species, temperature, and velocity measurements. In total, seven reactor maps were obtained. Three maps were obtained at baseline conditions of 0, 0.5 and 1.5 swirl and 10% excess air. Two maps were obtained under reburning conditions of 0.78 stoichiometric ratio and 1.5 swirl and 0.9 stoichiometric ratio and

  5. Pulverized Tejon Lookout Granite: Attempts at Placing Constraints on the Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisk, M.; Dor, O.; Rockwell, T.; Girty, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.

    2007-12-01

    We have described and analyzed pulverized Tejon Lookout granite recovered from several transects of the western segment of the Garlock fault on Tejon Ranch in southern California. Observations and data collected at this location are compared to a sampled transect of the San Andreas fault at Tejon Pass previously studied by Wilson et al. (2005), also exposing the Tejon Lookout granite. The purpose of this study is to characterize the physical and chemical properties of the pervasively pulverized leucocratic rocks at multiple locations and to hopefully place constraints on the processes producing them. To accomplish this we performed particle size analysis with the use of both laser particle analyzer and pipette methodology; major and trace chemistry analyses determined by XRF; clay mineralogy determined by XRD; and we evaluated fabric and texture through the study of thin sections. Recovered samples met the field criteria of pulverization developed by Dor et al., 2006 - that is, the individual 1-2 mm-sized crystals can be recognized in the field but the granite (including quartz and feldspar) can be mashed with ones fingers and exhibits the texture of toothpaste. All samples were analyzed on a Horiba LA930 Laser Particle Analyzer in an attempt to reproduce the earlier results of Wilson et al. (2005) with similar methodology. We also utilized the classic pipette methodology to ensure complete discrimination of particle sizes. Our PSD analysis shows that the dominant particle size falls in the 31-125 micron range, much coarser than previously reported by Wilson et al. (2005), with >90% of the total sample falling in the >31 micron size range. We can reproduce the previously documented results by allowing the samples to circulate for long periods of time at slow circulation speeds in the laser particle size analyzer, during which time the coarse fraction settles out, thereby leaving only the fine fraction for detection. However, subsequent increase in the circulation

  6. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Wall Heat Flux in Pulverized-Coal Furnaces and Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun

    A mathematical model of combustion and heat transfer within a cylindrical enclosure firing pulverized coal has been developed and tested against two sets of measured data (one is 1993 WSU/DECO Pilot test data, the other one is the International Flame Research Foundation 1964 Test (Beer, 1964)) and one independent code FURN3D from the Argonne National Laboratory (Ahluwalia and IM, 1992). The model called PILC assumes that the system is a sequence of many well-stirred reactors. A char burnout model combining diffusion to the particle surface, pore diffusion, and surface reaction is employed for predicting the char reaction, heat release, and evolution of char. The ash formation model included relates the ash particle size distribution to the particle size distribution of pulverized coal. The optical constants of char and ash particles are calculated from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. The Mie theory is applied to determine the extinction and scattering coefficients. The radiation heat transfer is modeled using the virtual zone method, which leads to a set of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations for the temperature field within the furnace and on its walls. This enables the heat fluxes to be evaluated. In comparisons with the experimental data and one independent code, the model is successful in predicting gas temperature, wall temperature, and wall radiative flux. When the coal with greater fineness is burnt, the particle size of pulverized coal has a consistent influence on combustion performance: the temperature peak was higher and nearer to burner, the radiation flux to combustor wall increased, and also the absorption and scattering coefficients of the combustion products increased. The effect of coal particle size distribution on absorption and scattering coefficients and wall heat flux is significant. But there is only a small effect on gas temperature and fuel fraction burned; it is speculated

  7. Experimental study on combustion characteristics and NOX emissions of pulverized anthracite preheated by circulating fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Lu, Qing-Gang

    2011-08-01

    A 30 kW bench-scale rig of pulverized anthracite combustion preheated by a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was developed. The CFB riser has a diameter of 90 mm and a height of 1,500 mm. The down-fired combustion chamber (DFCC) has a diameter of 260 mm and a height of 3,000 mm. Combustion experiments were carried out using pulverized anthracite with 6.74% volatile content. This low volatile coal is difficult to ignite and burn out. Therefore, it requires longer burnout time and higher combustion temperature, which results in larger NOX emissions. In the current study, important factors that influence the combustion characteristics and NOX emissions were investigated such as excess air ratio, air ratio in the reducing zone, and fuel residence time in the reducing zone. Pulverized anthracite can be quickly preheated up to 800°C in CFB when the primary air is 24% of theoretical air for combustion, and the temperature profile is uniform in DFCC. The combustion efficiency is 94.2%, which is competitive with other anthracite combustion technologies. When the excess air ratio ranges from 1.26 to 1.67, the coal-N conversion ratio is less than 32% and the NOX emission concentration is less than 371 mg/m3 (@6% O2). When the air ratio in the reducing zone is 0.12, the NOX concentration is 221 mg/m3 (@6% O2), and the coal-N conversion ratio is 21%, which is much lower than that of other boilers.

  8. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits

  9. Co-utilization of pulverized coal ash and flue gas scrubber sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.; Harnby, N.

    1984-01-01

    The increased use of coal to generate electricity and of scrubbers to reduce SO/sub x/ emissions is creating solid waste disposal problems of increasing magnitude. The lime-sinter process for the recovery of alumina from pulverized fuel ash (PFA) provides a means for co-utilization of these wastes. The FGD scrubber sludge is used as a mineralizer and partial replacement for the limestone. Extractable alumina-containing compounds are formed and high alumina yields result at moderate sintering temperatures. The process residue formed shows promise as a raw material for the manufacture of portland cement. 8 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Anatomy of an upgraded pulverized coal facility: Combustion modification through flue gas scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.U.; Savichky, W.J.; O`Dea, D.T.

    1997-12-31

    Regeneration is a biological term for formation or creating anew. In the case of Milliken station, a species of steam generation (Tangentus coali) regeneration refers to refitting critical systems with the latest technological advances to reduce emissions while maintaining or improving performance. The plant has undergone a series of operations which provided anatomical changes as well as a face lift. Each of the two units were place in suspended animation (outage) to allow these changes to be made. The paper describes the project which includes retrofitting combustion systems, pulverizers, boiler liners, scrubbers, and control room. This retrofit is meant to increase thermal efficiency while reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides.

  11. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

    2006-01-01

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

  12. Engineering and organizational solutions for improvement of engineering and economic characteristics of the TPE-216 boilers equipped with MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, M. V.; Safronov, P. G.

    2014-07-01

    Efficiency of coal-fired boilers is determined in many respects by optimal operation of the coal-pulverizing plants that are increasingly frequently equipped with pulverizing fans. By an example of retrofitted MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans, the effects of different factors on the performance and economic efficiency of the coal-pulverizing plants are analyzed. The experience gained in retrofitting MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans by introducing the three-crusher operation mode of a TPE-216 boiler employing the internal recirculation and a blading device in the classifier was also studied. Optimization of the boiler's operation mode was made when switching over from the four-crusher to the three-crusher mode, which considerably improved the engineering and economic characteristics.

  13. Pathways for conversion of char nitrogen to nitric oxide during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, A.; Murphy, J.J.; Blevins, L.G.; Shaddix, C.R.; Winter, F.; Haynes, B.S.

    2009-03-15

    The conversion of nitrogen in char (char-N) to NO was studied both experimentally and computationally. In the experiments, pulverized coal char was produced from a U.S. high-volatile bituminous coal and burned in a dilute suspension at 1170 K, 1370 K and 1570 K, at an excess oxygen concentration of 8% (dry), with different levels of background NO. In some experiments, hydrogen bromide (HBr) was added to the vitiated air as a tool to alter the concentration of gas-phase radicals. During char combustion, low NO concentration and high temperature promoted the conversion of char-N to NO. HBr addition altered NO production in a way that depended on temperature. At 1170 K the presence of HBr increased NO production by 80%, whereas the addition of HBr decreased NO production at higher temperatures by 20%. To explain these results, three mechanistic descriptions of char-N evolution during combustion were evaluated with computational models that simulated (a) homogeneous chemistry in a plug-flow reactor with entrained particle combustion, and (b) homogeneous chemistry in the boundary layer surrounding a reacting particle. The observed effect of HBr on NO production could only be captured by a chemical mechanism that considered significant release of HCN from the char particle. Release of HCN also explained changes in NO production with temperature and NO concentration. Thus, the combination of experiments and simulations suggests that HCN evolution from the char during pulverized coal combustion plays an essential role in net NO production. (author)

  14. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.S.K.

    2008-09-15

    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.

  15. Experiment Investigation on Concentration and Mass Flow Measurement of Pulverized Coal Using Electrical Capacitance Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Sun, M.; Wang, X. Y.; Liu, S.

    2010-03-01

    Accurate measurement of the concentration of pulverized coal in various pipes plays a key role in assuring safe and economic operation in a pulverized coal-fired boiler in the process of combustion. In this paper, experimental studies are implemented on the measurement of a lean mass flow in a pneumatic conveying pipeline using electrical capacitance tomography (ECT). In this system, a cyclone separator is employed, where the sensors are placed, in order to compensate the inhomogeneity of the sensor sensitivity. The mass flow rate is determined from the solids velocity and the volumetric concentration. The former is measured by cross-correlating the capacitance fluctuations caused by the conveyed solids, and the latter by an image reconstruction method, and then this two parameters are combined to give the solids mass flow rate. The distribution of void fraction in radial direction, the average void fraction and the wavy characteristics are analyzed. The feasibility and reliability of the method are verified by the experimental results.

  16. Study on macro-petrographic classification and combustion characteristics of pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, H.; Xu, X.; Wang, S.

    1997-12-31

    Macro-petrographical compositions of pulverized coal (PC) have a strong effect on its combustion characteristics. In this paper, according to the difference of burn-out performance, Chinese Yangquan anthracite, Xishan lean coal and Shenmu bituminous coal were separated into clarite, durite and inorganic matter and then the micro-petrographical, proximate and ultimate analyses were made for each part. The combustion kinetic parameters of the clarite and durite of the coals were tested and they are quite different for each coal type. This classification of pulverized coal into clarite, durite and inorganic matter is closer to real engineering conditions of combustion, and it will be helpful to study PC burnout performance. A numerical method was used to precisely calculate the velocity and temperature distribution of gas and the residence time of PC char particle in a Drop Tube Furnace (DTF), and all these were checked by experiments. The combustion kinetic parameters of Yangquan clarite and durite chars were given by the DTF experiment.

  17. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  18. Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.

    2005-09-01

    The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

  19. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    DOE PAGES

    Ganguli, Rajive; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » he impact of particle size distribution (PSD) of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal), emissions (SO 2 , NO x , CO), and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash).he study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions.he PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns.here was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO 2 , NO x , and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg) data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD.he results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal).hese plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency) and thereby, increasing their marketability.« less

  20. Kinetics of devolatilization and oxidation of a pulverized biomass in an entrained flow reactor under realistic combustion conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Santiago; Remacha, Pilar; Ballester, Javier; Ballesteros, Juan C.; Gimenez, Antonio

    2008-03-15

    In this paper the results of a complete set of devolatilization and combustion experiments performed with pulverized ({proportional_to}500 {mu}m) biomass in an entrained flow reactor under realistic combustion conditions are presented. The data obtained are used to derive the kinetic parameters that best fit the observed behaviors, according to a simple model of particle combustion (one-step devolatilization, apparent oxidation kinetics, thermally thin particles). The model is found to adequately reproduce the experimental trends regarding both volatile release and char oxidation rates for the range of particle sizes and combustion conditions explored. The experimental and numerical procedures, similar to those recently proposed for the combustion of pulverized coal [J. Ballester, S. Jimenez, Combust. Flame 142 (2005) 210-222], have been designed to derive the parameters required for the analysis of biomass combustion in practical pulverized fuel configurations and allow a reliable characterization of any finely pulverized biomass. Additionally, the results of a limited study on the release rate of nitrogen from the biomass particle along combustion are shown. (author)

  1. EMISSION OF ORGANIC HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSION OF PULVERIZED COAL IN A SMALL-SCALE COMBUSTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from the combustion of pulverized coal have become an important issue in light of the requirements of Title I11 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, which impose emission limits on 189 compounds and compound classes. Although pre...

  2. Experimental and modeling study of the effect of CH(4) and pulverized coal on selective non-catalytic reduction process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanwen; Cai, Ningsheng; Yang, Jingbiao; Xu, Bo

    2008-10-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide using ammonia combined with methane and pulverized coal additives has been studied in a drop tube furnace reactor. Simulated flue gas with 1000 ppm NO(x) and 3.4% excess oxygen was generated by cylinder gas. Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 700-1200 degrees C to investigate the effects of additives on the DeNO(x) performance. Subsequently, a kinetic mechanism was modified and validated based on experimental results, and a computational kinetic modeling with CHEMKIN was conducted to analyze the secondary pollutants. For both methane and pulverized coal additives, the temperature window is shifted towards lower temperatures. The appropriate reaction temperature is shifted to about 900 and 800 degrees C, respectively with 1000 ppm methane and 0.051 g min(-1) pulverized lignite coal. The addition of methane and pulverized coal widens the temperature window towards lower temperature suggesting a low temperature application of the process. Furthermore, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) reaction rate is accelerated evidently with additives and the residence time to complete the reaction is shortened distinctly. NO(x) reduction efficiency with 80% is achieved in about 0.3s without additive at 1000 degrees C. However, it is achieved in only about 0.2s with 100 ppm methane as additive, and only 0.07 and 0.05s are needed respectively for the cases of 500 and 1000 ppm methane. The modified kinetic modeling agrees well with the experimental results and reveals additional information about the process. Investigation on the byproducts where NO(2) and N(2)O were analyzed by modeling and the others were investigated by experimental means indicates that emissions would not increase with methane and pulverized coal additions in SNCR process and the efficacious temperature range of SNCR reaction is widened approximately with 100 degrees C.

  3. A comparison study of ash formation during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fuel form. specifically pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), on the particle size distribution (PSD) and inorganic composition of the ash formed during combustion. Three areas of primary interest were fuel particle and droplet size distribution, mineral matter PSD, and the composition and occurrence of inorganics in the fuel. The reactions of pyrite, silicates, aluminosilicates, and alkali and alkaline earth elements during combustion are traced. Two coals, a West Virginia Elk Creek high volatile A bituminous coal and the North Dakota Beulah lignite, were fired as a standard utility grind pulverized fuel and a CWSF at 316.2 MJ/h at 20% excess air in the Penn State Combustion Laboratory down-fired combustor. Fuel PSD and droplet size distribution of the pulverized coal and CWSF are important in determining the PSD of the respective ash when the PSD of the mineral matter and the composition and occurrence of the inorganics in the two fuels are similar, as in the case of the Elk Creek fuels. The mechanism for ash formation in both Elk Creek fuels was coalescence and agglomeration of the inorganics in the coal. The Elk Creek CWSF ash was coarser than the pulverized coal ash due to the larger CWSF char size formed during atomization. The average diameter of the inorganic particles identified in the pulverized coal ash was 2.6 times smaller than those identified in the fuel. The mechanism for ash formation in the Beulah CWSF was coalescence and agglomeration of inherent mineral matter. The average diameter of the inorganic particles identified in the CWSF ash was 3.3 times larger than those identified in the fuel.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Modeling for High Rate Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) into the Blast Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2008-10-15

    Pulverized coal injection (PCI) into the blast furnace (BF) has been recognized as an effective way to decrease the coke and total energy consumption along with minimization of environmental impacts. However, increasing the amount of coal injected into the BF is currently limited by the lack of knowledge of some issues related to the process. It is therefore important to understand the complex physical and chemical phenomena in the PCI process. Due to the difficulty in attaining trus BF measurements, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been identified as a useful technology to provide such knowledge. CFD simulation is powerful for providing detailed information on flow properties and performing parametric studies for process design and optimization. In this project, comprehensive 3-D CFD models have been developed to simulate the PCI process under actual furnace conditions. These models provide raceway size and flow property distributions. The results have provided guidance for optimizing the PCI process.

  5. The implication of CFB technology for repowering of old pulverized coal boiler in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabov, G.A.; Nadirov, I.I.

    1999-07-01

    One of the main priorities of the energy strategy of Russia is to develop new economically efficient and environmentally friendly technologies. At the moment more than 100 old pulverized coal boilers with steam capacity of 170--240 t/h need to be reconstructed. Modern requirements on pollution and the possibility of low-grade coal firing make the use of CFB technology attractive. This paper presents some results of an economic comparison and estimations of the power range vs typical Russian fuel quality. The authors compared different CFB technology modifications. As a result it was demonstrated that it would be feasible to use CFB boilers with simple impact ash collectors. Some technical data of boiler design for the Nesvetay thermal power plant (TPP) and Cherepetskay TPP are given. The prediction of CFB boiler operation parameters is based on CFB pilot data and results of the mathematical analysis.

  6. Pretreatment of biomass by torrefaction and carbonization for coal blend used in pulverized coal injection.

    PubMed

    Du, Shan-Wen; Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lucas, John A

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the utility potential of pretreated biomass in blast furnaces, the fuel properties, including fuel ratio, ignition temperature, and burnout, of bamboo, oil palm, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse, and Madagascar almond undergoing torrefaction and carbonization in a rotary furnace are analyzed and compared to those of a high-volatile coal and a low-volatile one used in pulverized coal injection (PCI). The energy densities of bamboo and Madagascar almond are improved drastically from carbonization, whereas the increase in the calorific value of rice husk from the pretreatment is not obvious. Intensifying pretreatment extent significantly increases the fuel ratio and ignition temperature of biomass, but decreases burnout. The fuel properties of pretreated biomass materials are superior to those of the low-volatile coal. For biomass torrefied at 300°C or carbonized at temperatures below 500°C, the pretreated biomass can be blended with coals for PCI.

  7. Pulverized fuel combustion: modeling and scaleup methodologies. First quarterly report, September 19-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Paul F.; Wolf, Thomas L.; Gelb, Alan

    1981-01-01

    This document is the first quarterly progress report on the effort to develop an understanding of the stability and carbon carryover characteristics of pulverized fuel combustors. This work is to be accomplished by improving and extending a model developed for entrained flow coal gasifier analysis by including a better description of the finite rate coal pyrolysis, pyrolysis product chemistry, char reactions, particle-particle interactions, radiative transport and recirculation/mixing. The data to be analyzed with the model will include data from simple (cylindrical symmetry) geometry combustors with premixed and mixing reactants, swirl and recirculation. The analysis of these data with the model should lead to an understanding of the effects of fuel type, swirl, recirculation, O/F ratio and mixing rate on the location (stability) of the flame and the carbon carryover from the combustor.

  8. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  9. Pulverized coal torch combustion in a furnace with plasma-coal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Askarova, A. S.; Nagibin, A. O.

    2010-09-01

    Combustion of a pulverized coal torch has been numerically simulated on the basis of the equations of multicomponent turbulent two-phase flows. The results of three-dimensional simulation of conventional and plasma activated coal combustion in a furnace are presented. Computer code Cinar ICE was verified at coal combustion in the experimental furnace with thermal power of 3 MW that was equipped with plasma-fuel system. Operation of the furnace has been studied at the conventional combustion mode and with plasma activation of coal combustion. Influence of plasma activation of combustion on thermotechnical characteristics of the torch and decrease of carbon loss and nitrogen oxides concentration at the furnace outlet has been revealed.

  10. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Gu Feng; Wei Zhang

    2004-04-01

    This is the fifth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A theoretical model, for computing the effects of dryer design and operating conditions on performance of a continuous flow fluidized bed dryer, operating at steady state conditions, is described. Numerical results from the model, compared to data from a pilot scale lignite dryer located at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station, show good agreement. The dryer model was used to perform parametric calculations on the effects of dryer design and operating conditions on dryer performance and required in-bed heat transfer. Other analyses show the first order effects of firing lignite and PRB coals, dried to various moisture levels, on flow rates of coal, combustion air and flue gas, fan and mill power and unit heat rate.

  11. Pathways for conversion of char nitrogen to nitric oxide at pulverized coal combustion conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Molina, Alejandro; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Blevins, Linda Gail; Murphy, Jeffrey J.

    2004-03-01

    The conversion of nitrogen in char (char-N) to NO was studied both experimentally and computationally. In the experiments, pulverized coal char was produced from a U.S. high-volatile bituminous coal and burned in a dilute suspension at 1170 K, 1370 K and 1570 K, at an excess oxygen concentration of 8% (dry), with different levels of background NO. In some experiments, hydrogen bromide (HBr) was added to the vitiated air as a tool to alter the concentration of gas-phase radicals. During char combustion, low NO concentration and high temperature promoted the conversion of char-N to NO. HBr addition altered NO production in a way that depended on temperature. At 1170 K the presence of HBr increased NO production by 80%, whereas the addition of HBr decreased NO production at higher temperatures by 20%. To explain these results, three mechanistic descriptions of char-N evolution during combustion were evaluated with computational models that simulated (a) homogeneous chemistry in a plug-flow reactor with entrained particle combustion, and (b) homogeneous chemistry in the boundary layer surrounding a reacting particle. The observed effect of HBr on NO production could only be captured by a chemical mechanism that considered significant release of HCN from the char particle. Release of HCN also explained changes in NO production with temperature and NO concentration. Thus, the combination of experiments and simulations suggests that HCN evolution from the char during pulverized coal combustion plays an essential role in net NO production. Keywords: Coal; Char; Nitric oxide; Halogen.

  12. New perspectives on the transition between discrete fracture, fragmentation, and pulverization during brittle failure of rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, W. A.; Ghaffari, H.; Barber, T. J.; Borjas, C.

    2015-12-01

    The motions of Earth's tectonic plates are typically measured in millimeters to tens of centimeters per year, seemingly confirming the generally-held view that tectonic processes are slow, and have been throughout Earth's history. In line with this perspective, the vast majority of laboratory rock mechanics research focused on failure in the brittle regime has been limited to experiments utilizing slow loading rates. On the other hand, many natural processes that pose significant risk for humans (e.g., earthquakes and extraterrestrial impacts), as well as risks associated with human activities (blow-outs, explosions, mining and mine failures, projectile penetration), occur at rates that are hundreds to thousands of times faster than those typically simulated in the laboratory. Little experimental data exists to confirm or calibrate theoretical models explaining the connection between these dramatic events and the pulverized rocks found in fault zones, impacts, or explosions; however the experimental data that does exist is thought-provoking: At the earth's surface, the process of brittle fracture passes through a critical transition in rocks at high strain rates (101-103s-1) between regimes of discrete fracture and distributed fragmentation, accompanied by a dramatic increase in strength. Previous experimental works on this topic have focused on key thresholds (e.g., peak stress, peak strain, average strain rate) that define this transition, but more recent work suggests that this transition is more fundamentally dependent on characteristics (e.g., shape) of the loading pulse and related microcrack dynamics, perhaps explaining why for different lithologies different thresholds more effectively define the pulverization transition. In this presentation we summarize some of our work focused on this transition, including the evolution of individual defects at the microscopic, microsecond scale and the energy budget associated with the brittle fragmentation process as a

  13. Study on trace metal partitioning in pulverized combustion of bituminous coal and dry sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Cenni, R.; Gerhardt, T.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.; Frandsen, F.

    1998-12-31

    In Germany, the feasibility of co-combustion of sewage sludge in power plants is under evaluation. A study of the influence of co-firing of dry municipal sewage sludge on the behavior of the metals Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, zn during pulverized coal combustion is presented. Sewage sludge contains higher concentrations of the metals listed above than the reference coal, but a lower concentration of Cl, that enhances the volatility of many metals. Experiments were performed in a semi-industrial scale pulverized fuel combustion chamber. Ash was collected at four locations: bottom hopper, air preheater, cyclone, and bag filter. From the bottom hopper to the filter, the particle size decreased and ash particles were progressively enriched in volatile elements. Mass balances of the metals were performed and the enrichment trends on the ash collected at the different locations were calculated. Increasing the sewage sludge share in the blend caused a significant increase in the recovery rate in the solid phase. In spite of that, the calculated concentrations in the flue gas of Hg and zn increased. Sewage sludge co-firing influences the combustion process and the post-combustion environment in many ways. This study focuses on the effect of the different flue gas composition on the condensation temperature of metal species. The system was modeled by assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. The results indicated that the increasing recovery of Zn might be caused by enhanced condensation and the increasing recovery of Hg by adsorption on ash particles. The increasing recovery of the other metals seemed referable to failure in vaporization and it cannot be studied with an equilibrium approach.

  14. Pulverized coal combustion. Semi-annual report, October 1, 1981-March 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, I.; Jost, M.; Kruger, C.H.

    1982-05-01

    A flow tube reactor for the study of the reactivity of pulverized coal under controlled conditions has been developed. The reactor system incorporates optical diagnostics as well as probe sampling techniques to measure the reactivity of coals with differing physical and chemical properties. The aim of the research is to provide fundamental data that can be used in the design and development of coal combustion systems. Two size ranges of pulverized Montana Rosebud and one size of Illinois No. 6 coal were burned in a 7.3% oxygen-containing Ar/N/sub 2/ atmosphere. Gas temperatures were between 1140 K and 1750 K. In addition several measurements were made of micropore volume using CO/sub 2/ adsorption at room temperature. Qualitative behavior of both coals at high gas temperatures is consistent with a two stage combustion mechanism: devolatilization followed by char burnout. Results for the low temperature cases are less easy to interpret. Despite the fact that both diffusion and heterogeneous chemical rates decrease with decreasing temperature, the reactivity rates in the low gas temperature environment are comparable to those in the high gas temperature. It is quite likely that devolatilization occurring over periods much longer than 20 msec contributes to this high reactivity. Physical and chemical measurements have been made on the raw and partially burned coal. Specific mircopore volume, specific internal surface area, particle size distribution, and chemical composition have been determined. No single measurement as yet explains the unexpectedly high reactivity rates for coals in the lower gas temperature environment.

  15. Influence of the feed moisture, rotor speed, and blades gap on the performances of a biomass pulverization technology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Siyi; Zhou, Yangmin; Yi, Chuijie; Luo, Yin; Fu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a novel biomass pulverization technology was proposed by our group. In this paper, further detailed studies of this technology were carried out. The effects of feed moisture and crusher operational parameters (rotor speed and blades gap) on product particle size distribution and energy consumption were investigated. The results showed that higher rotor speed and smaller blades gap could improve the hit probability between blades and materials and enhance the impacting and grinding effects to generate finer products, however, resulting in the increase of energy consumption. Under dry conditions finer particles were much more easily achieved, and there was a tendency for the specific energy to increase with increasing feed moisture. Therefore, it is necessary for the raw biomass material to be dried before pulverization.

  16. Online X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Heavy Metals in Pulverized Coal on a Conveyor Belt.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhang; XinLei, Zhang; WenBao, Jia; Qing, Shan; YongSheng, Ling; DaQian, Hei; Da, Chen

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metals in haze episode will continue to threaten the quality of public health around the world. In order to decrease the emission of heavy metals produced from coal burning, an online X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer system, consisting of an XRF analyzer with data acquisition software and a laser rangefinder, was developed to carry out the measurement of heavy metals in pulverized coal. The XRF analyzer was mounted on a sled, which can effectively smooth the surface of pulverized coal and reduce the impact of surface roughness during online measurement. The laser rangefinder was mounted over the sled for measuring the distance between a pulverized coal sample and the analyzer. Several heavy metals and other elements in pulverized coal were online measured by the XRF analyzer directly above a conveyor belt. The limits of detection for Hg, Pb, Cr, Ti, Fe, and Ca by the analyzer were 44 ± 2, 34 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 41 ± 4, 19 ± 3, and 65 ± 2 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the elements mentioned was less than 7.74%. By comparison with the results by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), relative deviation (%D) of the online XRF analyzer was less than 10% for Cr, Ti, and Ca, in the range of 0.8-24.26% for Fe, and greater than 20% for Hg and Pb.

  17. Numerical study of Pavlovskiy coal pulverized combustion in the furnace of BKZ-210-140 steam boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorin, A. S.; Gil, A. V.; Khaustov, P. S.; Tabakaev, R. B.; Buslov, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper pulverized combustion of insufficiently investigated low-grade Pavlovskiy coal is simulated using the modern engineering software FIRE 3D. The object of study is a widespread in Russia BKZ-210-140 steam boiler. The results of computer simulation are represented with average temperatures in horizontal sections and oxygen concentration. Curves are plotted for three steam generating capacity loads of the boiler: 100%, 70% and 50%.

  18. Overcoming sustainability and energy challenges in polymer science via solid-state shear pulverization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Philip

    Solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) is an innovative, continuous, environmentally benign, and industrially scalable process used to make materials that cannot be made via conventional processing techniques, reduce material cost by eliminating processing steps, and/or produce materials with superior properties as a result of better break-up and dispersion of additives. The SSSP process employs a modified twin-screw extruder in which the barrels are cooled rather than heated. This allows for high shear and compressive forces on the material during operation, which results in repeated fragmentation and fusion steps in the solid state. Technologically, this thesis provides the first in-depth study of the concept of specific energy in SSSP and how this variable can be tailored to optimize the end-properties while lowering costs for processing homopolymer, blend, or polymer composite systems. Furthermore, this thesis demonstrates the successful injection molding of SSSP-processed materials. An 80/20 wt% polypropylene (PP) and microcrystalline cellulose composite was manufactured with SSSP and injection molded into a bottle cap. These caps showed major benefits over neat PP such as increased stiffness and reduction in oxygen permeability. Finally, a description is provided of how SSSP can be used as a one-step solid-state compounding process that can add color, UV stabilizers, anti-statics, and other processing aids to polymer and uniformly and effectively disperses them in the polymer while pulverizing to a fine powder for roto-molding. Scientifically, process-structure-property relationships are investigated in detail with several homopolymers. The SSSP process is used to disperse heterogeneous nucleation agents (naturally found in commercial pellets) in the polymer. This led to major structural changes such as an increase in crystallizability and crystallinity for poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and in rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) at constant crystallinity for Nylon 11

  19. The safety and economics of high ash anthracite fired mixing with petroleum-coke in pulverized coal-fired furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Sun, X.; Li, F.

    1996-12-31

    Petroleum-coke was fired only in CFB because of its content of high S and low volatile matter. It will bring environmental and flame stability problems if petroleum-coke is fired in a pulverized coal-fired furnace. Low rank anthracite is fired in many pulverized coal-fired furnaces without flame stability problems. Here the authors blend high ash anthracite with petroleum-coke as the fuel for a pulverized coal-fired furnace to decrease the ash content in the fuel. Experimental results had shown that in mixing with petroleum-coke, the combustion behavior of the blended fuel was improved and ash deposition characteristic would not change compared with high ash anthracite. Using coal/petroleum-coke as the fuel for furnace can bring great benefits for the environment and furnace. But S content in blended fuel must be controlled under the regulation of S content in coal and the volatile content should not decrease too low for the coal-fired furnace design to avoid the environmental and flame stability problems.

  20. Pulverized-coal combustion. Semi-annual report, September 18, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    A flow tube reactor for the study of the reactivity of pulverized coal under controlled conditions has been developed at Stanford University. The reactor system incorporates advanced optical diagnostics as well as probe sampling techniques to measure the reactivity of coals with differing physical and chemical properties. The aim of the research is to provide fundamental data that can be used in the design and development of coal combustion systems. Reactor characterization measurements with a number of diagnostics have shown that the system performs according to design specifications. In recent experiments, Montana Rosebud coal was found to have a relatively high oxidation reactivity. Marked qualitative differences in oxidation behavior, associated with the rate of volatile evolution, were observed as the gas temperaute was increased from about 1100/sup 0/K to 1500/sup 0/K. Electron microscopy analysis showed the development of a complex macropore structure during burnout. The existence of this structure is consistent with preliminary data indicating a dependence of reactivity on particle size differing from that predicted by some theories.

  1. Experimental characterization of an industrial pulverized coal-fired furnace under deep staging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2007-07-01

    Measurements have been performed in a 300 MWe, front-wall-fired, pulverized-coal, utility boiler. This boiler was retrofitted with boosted over fire air injectors that allowed the operation of the furnace under deeper staging conditions. New data are reported for local mean gas species concentration of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NOx, gas temperatures and char burnout measured at several ports in the boiler including those in the main combustion and staged air regions. Comparisons of the present data with our previous measurements in this boiler, prior to the retrofitting with the new over fire system, show lower O{sub 2} and higher CO concentrations for the new situation as a consequence of the lower stoichiometry in the main combustion zone associated with the present boiler operating condition. Consistently, the measured mean NOx concentrations in the main combustion zone are now lower than those obtained previously, yielding emissions below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3}at 6% O{sub 2}. Finally, the measured values of particle burnout at the furnace exit are acceptable being those measured in the main combustion zone comparable with those obtained with the conventional over fire system.

  2. Behavior of amino acids when volatilized in the presence of silica gel and pulverized basaltic lava.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, V A; Navarro-Gonzalez, R; Basiuk, E V

    1998-04-01

    To evaluate the types of amino acid thermal transformations caused by silicate materials, we studied the volatilization products of Aib, L-Ala, L-Val and L-Leu under temperatures of up to 270 degrees C in the presence of silica gel as a model catalyst and pulverized basaltic lava samples. It was found that silica gel catalyzes nearly quantitative condensation of amino acids, where piperazinediones are the major products, whereas lava samples have much lower catalytic efficiency. In addition bicyclic and tricyclic amidines and several products of their subsequent thermal decomposition have been identified using the coupled technique of GC-FTIR-MS and HPLC-PB-MS, with auxiliary computer simulation of IR spectra and NMR spectroscopy. The decomposition is due to dehydrogenation, elimination of the alkyl substituents and dehydration as well as cleavage of the bicyclic ring system. The imidazole ring appears to be more resistant to thermal decomposition as compared to the pyperazine moiety, giving rise to the formation of different substituted imidazolones. The amidines were found to hydrolyze under treatment with concentrated HCl, releasing the starting amino acids and thus behaving as amino acid anhydrides. The thermal transformations cause significant racemization of amino acid residues. Based on our observations, the formation of amidine-type products is suggested to be rather common in the high-temperature experiments on amino acid condensation.

  3. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Hugo Caram; Zheng Yao; Gu Feng

    2003-10-01

    This is the third Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment, instrumentation and procedures being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Laboratory data are presented on the effects of bed depth on drying rate. These show that drying rate decreased strongly with an increase in bed depth as the settled bed depth varied from 0.25 to 0.65 m. These tests were performed with North Dakota lignite having a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) top size, constant inlet air and heater surface temperatures, constant rate of heat addition per unit initial mass of wet coal and constant superficial air velocity. A theoretical model of the batch dryer is described. This model uses the equations for conservation of mass and energy and empirical data on the relationship between relative humidity of the air and coal moisture content at equilibrium. Outputs of the model are coal moisture content, bed temperature, and specific humidity of the outlet air as functions of time. Preliminary comparisons of the model to laboratory drying data show very good agreement.

  4. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

    2006-03-01

    U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

  5. Experimental study on cement clinker co-generation in pulverized coal combustion boilers of power plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlong; Luo, Zhongyang; Shi, Zhenglun; Cen, Kefa

    2006-06-01

    The idea to co-generate cement clinker in pulverized coal combustion (PCC) boilers of power plants is introduced and discussed. An experimental study and theoretical analysis showed this idea to be feasible and promising. By adding quick lime as well as other mineralizers to the coal and grinding the mixture before combustion, sulfoaluminate cement clinker with a high content of silicate (SCCHS) could be generated. The main mineral phases in SCCHS are 2CaO x SiO2 (dicalcium-silicate), 3CaO x 3Al2O3 x CaSO4 (calcium-sulfoaluminate) and 2CaO x A12O3 SiO2 (gehlenite). Performance tests showed that the SCCHS met the requirements for utilization in common construction. Based on this idea, zero solid waste generation from PCC would be realized. Furthermore, thermal power production and cement production could be combined, and this would have a significant effect on both environmental protection and natural resource saving.

  6. Simultaneous combustion of waste plastics with coal for pulverized coal injection application

    SciTech Connect

    Sushil Gupta; Veena Sahajwalla; Jacob Wood

    2006-12-15

    A bench-scale study was conducted to investigate the effect of simultaneous cofiring of waste plastic with coal on the combustion behavior of coals for PCI (pulverized coal injection) application in a blast furnace. Two Australian coals, premixed with low- and high-density polyethylene, were combusted in a drop tube furnace at 1473 K under a range of combustion conditions. In all the tested conditions, most of the coal blends including up to 30% plastic indicated similar or marginally higher combustion efficiency compared to those of the constituent coals even though plastics were not completely combusted. In a size range up to 600 {mu}m, the combustion efficiency of coal and polyethylene blends was found be independent of the particle size of plastic used. Both linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) are shown to display similar influence on the combustion efficiency of coal blends. The effect of plastic appeared to display greater improvement on the combustion efficiency of low volatile coal compared to that of a high volatile coal blend. The study further suggested that the effect of oxygen levels of the injected air in improving the combustion efficiency of a coal-plastic blend could be more effective under fuel rich conditions. The study demonstrates that waste plastic can be successfully coinjected with PCI without having any adverse effect on the combustion efficiency particularly under the tested conditions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-ji; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Xiao, Rui; Tang, Zhi-yong; Ren, Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and fly ash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements were investigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. One coefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. These elements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile. Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be located between groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, the more relative enrichment of trace elements (except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms of trace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of trace elements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not always improve the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Trace elements should be classified in accordance with factors.

  8. FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1992-08-01

    A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S[sub 4]), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0[sub 2], H[sub 2]0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

  9. FURN3D: A computer code for radiative heat transfer in pulverized coal furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1992-08-01

    A computer code FURN3D has been developed for assessing the impact of burning different coals on heat absorption pattern in pulverized coal furnaces. The code is unique in its ability to conduct detailed spectral calculations of radiation transport in furnaces fully accounting for the size distributions of char, soot and ash particles, ash content, and ash composition. The code uses a hybrid technique of solving the three-dimensional radiation transport equation for absorbing, emitting and anisotropically scattering media. The technique achieves an optimal mix of computational speed and accuracy by combining the discrete ordinate method (S{sub 4}), modified differential approximation (MDA) and P, approximation in different range of optical thicknesses. The code uses spectroscopic data for estimating the absorption coefficients of participating gases C0{sub 2}, H{sub 2}0 and CO. It invokes Mie theory for determining the extinction and scattering coefficients of combustion particulates. The optical constants of char, soot and ash are obtained from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. A control-volume formulation is adopted for determining the temperature field inside the furnace. A simple char burnout model is employed for estimating heat release and evolution of particle size distribution. The code is written in Fortran 77, has modular form, and is machine-independent. The computer memory required by the code depends upon the number of grid points specified and whether the transport calculations are performed on spectral or gray basis.

  10. Formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high-temperature environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wu, Jheng-Syun

    2008-05-01

    The formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high temperatures are studied experimentally. By conducting a drop-tube furnace, fuel pyrolysis processes in industrial furnaces are simulated in which three different reaction temperatures of 1000, 1200, and 1400 degrees C are considered. Experimental observations indicate that when the reaction temperature is 1000 degrees C, submicron particles are produced, whereas the particle size is dominated by nanoscale for the temperature of 1400 degrees C. Thermogravimetric analysis of the aerosol particles stemming from the pyrolysis temperature of 1000 degrees C reveals that the thermal behavior of the aerosol is characterized by a three-stage reaction with increasing heating temperature: (1) a volatile-reaction stage, (2) a weak-reaction stage, and (3) a soot-reaction stage. However, with the pyrolysis temperature of 1400 degrees C, the volatile- and weak-reaction stages almost merge together and evolve into a chemical-frozen stage. The submicron particles (i.e., 1000 degrees C) are mainly composed of volatiles, tar, and soot, with the main component of the nanoscale particles (i.e., 1400 degrees C) being soot. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in the aerosols are also analyzed. It is found that the PAH content in generated aerosols decreases dramatically as the pyrolysis temperature increases.

  11. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  12. Soil and fertilizer amendments and edge effects on the floral succession of pulverized fuel ash

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, P.

    2009-01-15

    Plots of fresh pulverized fuel ash (PFA, an industrial waste) were inoculated with soils from existing PFA sites and fertilizers in a factorial design, then left unmanaged for 12 years during which time the floral development and soil chemistry were monitored annually. For the first 3 years, the site supported a sparse mix of chenopods (including the scarce Chenopodium glaucum) and halophytes. As salinity declined, ruderals, legumes, and grasses plus the fire-site moss Funaria hygrometrica colonized, followed by Festuca arundinacea grassland (NVC community MG12) and Hippophae rhamnoides scrub. Dactylorhiza incarnata (orchidacea) appeared after 7 years, but only in plots that had received soil from existing orchid colonies. Four years later, a larger second generation of Dactylorhiza appeared, but only in the central zone of the site where vegetation was thinnest. By year 12, the site was dominated by coarse grasses and scrub, with early successional species persisting only in the sparsely vegetated center, where nitrate levels were lowest. This edge effect is interpreted as centripetal encroachment, a process of potentially wider concern for the conservation of low-fertility habitat patches. Overall, seed bank inoculation seems to have introduced few but desirable species (D. incarnata, Pyrola rotundifolia, some halophytes, and annuals), whereas initial application of organic fertilizer had long-lasting ({ge} 10 years) effects on cover and soil composition.

  13. Wicking of light hydrophobic liquid phase from water by pulverized rubber: Theoretical and experimental analyses.

    PubMed

    Boglaienko, Daria; Tansel, Berrin

    2017-03-05

    Pulverized rubber (PR) can be utilized for capturing floating oils to prevent spreading and volatilization of hydrocarbons. Experiments were conducted using PR with four different particle sizes (ranging from 0.075 to 0.600mm) and South Louisiana crude oil. The oil capture performance of the PR particles was compared with that of powdered activated carbon (AC). Oil-particle interactions were analyzed using capillary theories for lateral aggregation and wicking processes, as well as sorption capacity in relation to particle size. The sorption capacity (as oil to sorbent ratio) for PR with particle size 0.115mm (4.41g/g) was comparable to that of AC with particle size 0.187mm (5.00g/g). Sorption efficiency (oil:powder ratio, g/g) of the PR increased with decreasing particle size. Sorption of oil by PR occurred rapidly (in less than 10min) which indicated strong capillary action. No additional sorption occurred after 30min. For the PR sample with larger particle size (0.600-0.400mm), lateral aggregation was clearly noticeable. The PR-oil aggregates could be easily removed from the water surface without breaking. The cost, availability and recycling potential of PR make it a feasible alternative material for oil spill response and industrial applications which require removal of floating oils.

  14. Comparion of Mercury Emissions Between Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler and Pulverized Coal Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. J.; Duan, Y. F.; Zhao, C. S.

    Mercury emissions between a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) utility boiler and two pulverized coal (PC) boilers equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) were in situ measured and compared. The standard Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) was used to sample the flue gas before and after the ESP. Various mercury speciations such as Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp in flue gas and total mercury in fly ashes were analyzed. The results showed that the mercury removal rate of the CFB boiler is nearly 100%; the mercury emission in stack is only 0.028 g/h. However, the mercury removal rates of the two PC boilers are 27.56% and 33.59% respectively, the mercury emissions in stack are 0.80 and 51.78 g/h respectively. It concluded that components of the ESP fly ashes especially their unburnt carbons have remarkable influence on mercury capture. Pore configurations of fine fly ash particles have non-ignored impacts on mercury emissions.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics study of pulverized coal combustion in blast furnace raceway

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.S.; Maldonado, D.; Guo, B.Y.; Yu, A.B.; Austin, P.; Zulli, P.

    2009-12-15

    In this work, a numerical model is used to study the flow and coal combustion along the coal plume in a large-scale setting simulating the lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway region of a blast furnace. The model formulation is validated against the measurements in terms of burnout for both low and high volatile coals. The typical phenomena related to coal combustion along the coal plume are simulated and analyzed. The effects of some operational parameters on combustion behavior are also investigated. The results indicate that oxygen as a cooling gas gives a higher coal burnout than methane and air. The underlying mechanism of coal combustion is explored. It is shown that under the conditions examined, coal burnout strongly depends on the availability of oxygen and residence time. Moreover, the influences of two related issues, i.e. the treatment of volatile matter (VM) and geometric setting in modeling, are investigated. The results show that the predictions of final burnouts using three different VM treatments are just slightly different, but all comparable to the measurements. However, the influence of the geometric setting is not negligible when numerically examining the combustion of pulverized coal under blast furnace conditions.

  16. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-10-01

    This is the seventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with lignite and Powder River Basin coals to determine the effects of inlet air moisture level on the equilibrium relationship between coal moisture and exit air relative humidity and temperature. The results show that, for lignite, there is a slight dependence of equilibrium moisture on inlet humidity level. However, the equilibrium relationship for PRB coal appears to be independent of inlet air humidity level. The specific equilibrium model used for computing lignite coal dryer performance has a significant effect on the prediction accuracy for exit air relative humidity; but its effects on predicted coal product moisture, exit air temperature and specific humidity are minimal. Analyses were performed to determine the effect of lignite product moisture on unit performance for a high temperature drying system. With this process design, energy for drying is obtained from the hot flue gas entering the air preheater and the hot circulating cooling water leaving the steam condenser. Comparisons were made to the same boiler operating with lignite which had been dried off-site.

  17. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy

    2003-03-01

    This is the first Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment and instrumentation being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Results of fluidization and drying tests performed with North Dakota lignite, having a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) top size, are presented. The experiments were performed with a 381 mm (15 inch) settled bed depth, with inlet air and in-bed heater surface temperatures of 44.3 C (110 F), and with the superficial air velocity ranging from 0.2 m/s to 1.4 m/s. Drying rate is shown to be a strong function of air velocity, increasing seven-fold from 0.2 m/s to 1.4 m/s. Increases in velocity from 0.75 m/s (minimum fluidization velocity) to 1.4 m/s resulted in a doubling of the drying rate.

  18. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  19. Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga

    2007-07-01

    High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Catalytical growth of carbon nanotubes/fibers from nanocatalysts prepared by laser pulverization of nickel sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, J.; Lu, Y.F.; Tan, K.F.; Wang, X.W.

    2006-01-15

    Dispersed nickel sulfate (NiSO{sub 4}) microclusters on Si substrates were fragmented by pulsed excimer laser irradiation to serve as catalysts for carbon nanotube/nanofiber (CNT/CNF) growth. At proper fluences, NiSO{sub 4} clusters were pulverized into nanoparticles. The sizes of clusters/nanoparticles were found to be dependent on laser fluence and laser pulse number. By increasing the laser fluence from 100 to 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}, the size of disintegrated particles decreased drastically from several micrometers to several nanometers. It was found that laser-induced disintegration of as-dispersed NiSO{sub 4} clusters was mainly due to physical fragmentation by transient thermal expansion/contraction. Thermal melting of nanoparticles in a multipulse regime was also suggested. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) was used for growth of CNTs from the pulsed-laser treated catalysts. For samples irradiated at 100 and 200 mJ/cm{sup 2}, CNFs were dominant products. These CNFs grew radially out of big NiSO{sub 4} clusters, forming dendritic CNF bunches. For samples irradiated at 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}, dense multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNFs) with uniform diameters were obtained. It is suggested that elemental Ni was formed through thermal decomposition of NiSO{sub 4} clusters/nanoparticles during HFCVD. The size and the shape of the Ni aggregation, which were determined by the initial size of NiSO{sub 4} clusters/nanoparticles, might affect the preference in the synthesis of CNTs or CNFs.

  1. Effect of air-staging on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff

    2007-08-15

    The concerns regarding global warming and need for new energy resources brought the concept of biomass and waste as secondary fuels to the power industry. Mercury emissions in cases of cofiring of chicken manure, olive residue, and B-wood with a high volatile bituminous coal blend are studied in the first part of this paper. The use of secondary fuels significantly affects NOx emissions due to different types of nitrogen present in the fuel matrix. Air-staging is a proven in-furnace NOx reduction technology. The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate the effect of air-staging on partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor at 1300{sup o}C with a 20%th share of secondary fuels. Elemental and total gaseous mercury from the reactor is measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with elemental and surface properties. Reducing the air stoichiometry in the primary zone of the combustor increases unburnt carbon which in turn reduces mercury emissions in the gas phase. Ash analysis shows the effect of surface area, particle size, and unburnt carbon on mercury capture. Calcium variation in the ash was observed due to formation of different slag in reducing and oxidizing conditions and might have affected the mercury capture in combination with the above parameters. A low iron concentration of ash does not seem to affect the capture of mercury. The results will help in predicting different forms of mercury emitted from the furnace at desired operating conditions which will eventually form the basis for the design of the control strategies for mercury emissions. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Hugo Caram; Zheng Yao; Gu Feng

    2004-01-01

    This is the fourth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment, instrumentation and procedures being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Experimental data were obtained during this last quarter on the effects of particle size on drying rate for a North Dakota lignite. Other experiments looked at drying a PRB coal. The tests comparing drying rates with lignite particles of different diameters were carried out with particle top sizes from 2 to 9.5 mm and covered a range of air velocities. The results show that drying rate increased with air velocity, but that, within the accuracy of the data, the data for all four particle size distributions follow the same curve. This suggests the higher drying rates associated with the larger particles are due to higher air velocities and not to any inherently different drying rates due to particle size. The drying data with the PRB coal show qualitatively similar behavior to that observed with lignite. However, quantitative comparisons of the drying rate data obtained so far for the two coals show the PRB dried at rates which were 14 to 20 percent lower than the lignite, for comparable process conditions. The equilibrium relationship between relative humidity and coal moisture was refined using a correction for temperature. This reduced the scatter in the coal moisture versus relative humidity data and improved the predictions made with the first principle drying model.

  3. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Wei Zhang

    2004-07-01

    This is the sixth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. Coal drying experiments were performed with a Powder River Basin coal to measure the effects of fluidization velocity and drying temperature on rate of drying in a batch drying process. Comparisons to computational results using the batch bed drying model show good agreement. Comparisons to drying results with North Dakota lignite at the same process conditions confirm the lignite dries slightly more rapidly than the PRB. Experiments were also carried out to determine the effects of inlet air humidity on drying rate. The specific humidity ranged from a value typical for air at temperatures near freezing to a value for 30 C air at 90 percent relative humidity. The experimental results show drying rate is strongly affected by inlet air humidity, with the rate decreasing with more humid inlet air. The temperature of the drying process also plays a strong role, with the negative impacts of high inlet moisture being less of a factor in a higher temperature drying process. Concepts for coal drying systems integrated into a power plant were developed. These make use of hot circulating cooling water from the condenser, steam extraction from the turbine cycle and thermal energy extracted from hot flue gas, in various combinations. Analyses are under way to calculate the effects of drying system design and process conditions on unit performance, emissions, and cooling tower makeup water.

  4. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON NOx REDUCTION UNDER PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Subha K. Kumpaty; Kannikeswaran Subramanian; Victor P. Nokku; Tyrus L. Hodges; Adel Hassouneh; Ansumana Darboe; Sravan K. Kumpati

    1998-06-01

    In this work, both computer simulation and experimental studies were conducted to investigate several strategies for NO{sub x} reduction under pulverized coal combustion conditions with an aim to meet the stringent environmental standards for NO{sub x} control. Both computer predictions and reburning experiments yielded favorable results in terms of NO{sub x} control by reburning with a combination of methane and acetylene as well as non-selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with ammonia following reburning with methane. The greatest reduction was achieved at the reburning stoichiometric ratio of 0.9; the reduction was very significant, as clearly shown in Chapters III and V. Both the experimental and computational results favored mixing gases: methane and acetylene (90% and 10% respectively) and methane and ammonia (98% and 2%) in order to get optimum reduction levels which can not be achieved by individual gases at any amounts. Also, the above gaseous compositions as reburning fuels seemed to have a larger window of stoichiometric ratio (SR2 < 0.9) as opposed to just methane (SR2=0.9) so as to reduce and keep NO{sub x} at low ppm levels. From the various computational runs, it has been observed that although there are several pathways that contribute to NO{sub x} reduction, the key pathway is NO {r_arrow} HCN {r_arrow} NH{sub 3} {r_arrow} N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. With the trends established in this work, it is possible to scale the experimental results to real time industrial applications using computational calculations.

  5. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  6. An investigation on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from pulverized coal combustion systems

    PubMed

    Pisupati; Wasco; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Results from a series of tests conducted to study the emission of polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from bench-scale and small industrial, water-tube boiler are discussed. A Middle Kittanning, and Upper Freeport seam coals were used in the study. Samples were extracted from the reactor outlet and from the inlet and outlet sides of the research boiler's (RB) baghouse using EPA promulgated methods.Only acenaphthene and fluoranthene were detected in down-fired combustor (DFC) samples. In addition to these two, naphthalene was detected in the RB samples. Emission factors ranged from 80 to 320 &mgr;g/kg of fuel fired. Although there were minor trends in the emissions' data, given the reproducibility limits for PAH compounds, no significant differences were found in the emissions with respect to the fuel type or form (pulverized coal (PC) vs. coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF), and raw vs. cleaned coal) and firing conditions (high and low excess air). The PAH emissions showed a decrease with increase in the firing rate.A bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR) was used to study the effects of temperature and residence time on PAH formation. The results revealed near constant PAH concentrations in the solid-phase samples, while the PAH concentrations in the vapor-phase samples increased as a function of temperature. At a temperature of around 1300 degrees C, the rate of PAH formation was exceeded by the rate of PAH oxidation, and PAH concentrations in the vapor phase began to decrease.

  7. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  8. CFD investigation on the flow and combustion in a 300 MWe tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaldi, Nawel; Chouari, Yoldoss; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The characteristics of the flow, combustion and temperature in a 300 MWe tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnace are numerically studied using computational fluid dynamics. The mathematical model is based on a Eulerian description for the continuum phase and a Lagrangian description for coal particles. The combustion reaction scheme was modeled using eddy dissipation concept. The application of a proper turbulence model is mandatory to generate accurate predictions of flow and heat transfer during combustion. The current work presents a comparative study to identify the suitable turbulence model for tangentially fired furnace problem. Three turbulence models including the standard k-ɛ model, the RNG k-ɛ model and the Reynolds Stress model, RSM are examined. The predictions are compared with the published experimental data of Zheng et al. (Proc Combust Inst 29: 811-818, 2002). The RNG k-ɛ model proves to be the most suitable turbulence model, offering a satisfactory prediction of the velocity, temperature and species fields. The detailed results presented in this paper may enhance the understanding of complex flow patterns and combustion processes in tangentially fired pulverized-coal furnaces.

  9. Study of the evolution of particle size distributions and its effects on the oxidation of pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Santiago; Ballester, Javier

    2007-11-15

    This paper discusses the factors influencing the evolution of particle size during the combustion of pulverized coal, as well as their consequences for the interpretation of burnout curves. A detailed experimental characterization of the evolution of the particle size distribution (PSD) of a pulverized coal (anthracite) burned under realistic conditions in an entrained flow reactor is presented and used as the reference data for the subsequent analysis. The data show evidence for particle fragmentation at relatively short times (or, equivalently, high unburnt fractions). The formation of fragments comparable in size to the parent coal/char particles is modeled with a simple fragmentation scheme, which results in an improved reproduction of the PSD's evolution. The effects of fragmentation on the burnout curves are then studied in detail. An enhancement of their curvature is observed, which results in a better fit of the experimental data; in particular, the high conversion range, where the largest discrepancies between predictions and measurements are usually found, is well reproduced with this ''extended'' model. Simultaneously, the increase of specific surface caused by particle fragmentation causes an increase in the conversion rate, and a smaller total conversion time. To fit the experimental data, new optimal kinetic parameters are calculated. Finally, the potential relevance of fragmentation in the simulation of industrial pf plants is discussed. (author)

  10. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  11. Optimal Synthesis of a Pulverized Coal Power Plant with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash R. Kotecha; Juan M. Salazar; Stephen Zitney

    2009-01-01

    Coal constitutes an important source of fuel for the production of power in the United States. For instance, in January 2009, pulverized coal (PC) power plants alone contributed to over 45 percent of the Nation's total electric power production. However, PC power plants also contribute to increased emissions of greenhouse gases principally carbon-dioxide (CO2). Recently, various carbon capture strategies have been under active investigation so as to make these plants compete with the more environmental friendly renewable energy sources. One such technology that has received considerable success is the capture of CO2 by an amine-based solvent extraction process. However, an aqueous absorption/stripping technology when used in a PC power plant can reduce the net power output of the plant by as much as 20-40%. The energy penalty comes from heating up the solvent in the regenerator, balancing the enthalpy of reaction, and water stripping. This energy penalty poses considerable limitations on commercial viability of the solvent extraction process and, as a result, various energy-saving modifications have been proposed in the literature ranging from the use of hybrid solvents to novel stripper configurations. In this paper, we show that the energy penalty can be further reduced by heat integration of various PC plant components with the carbon capture system. In addition to the release of greenhouse gases to the environment, PC plants also consume a large amount of freshwater. It is estimated that subcritical and supercritical PC plants have water losses of 714 gal/MWh and 639 gal/MWh, respectively. Water loss is based on an overall balance of the plant source and exit streams. This includes coal moisture, air humidity, process makeup, cooling tower makeup (equivalent to evaporation plus blowdown), process losses (including losses through reactions, solids entrainment, and process makeup/blowdown) and flue gas losses. The primary source of water used in PC power plants

  12. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Quarterly progress report No. 6, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gollahalli, S.R.

    1995-03-01

    This sixth quarterly report describes the activities and accomplishments of the research team at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, related to the project entitled ``Combustion of Pulverized Coal in Vortex Structures`` during the period January 1, 1995 to March 31, 1995. The work performed in this quarter consisted of the following four tasks: (1) design and fabrication of a computer-driven traversing mechanism for traversing LDV transmitter and receiving optics, (2) color schlieren photography, (3) presenting a report in the panel-review meeting in Pittsburgh, (4) installation of additional safety devices in response to the letter of Dr. Sean Plasynski, and (5) streamwise velocity measurement in the isothermal heterogeneous shear layer with nonreacting particles using LDV. In the next quarter, we plan to continue this work with heated shear layers in which particles undergo pyrolysis. Flow visualization and mean velocity field measurement instrumentation will continue as the major experimental techniques.

  13. Advanced pulverized coal combustor for control of NO/sub x/ emissions. First quarterly report, September 24-December 24, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pam, R.; Chu, E. K.; Kelly, J. T.

    1981-01-30

    The first quarter results under the Advanced Pulverized Coal Combustor for Control of NO/sub x/ Emissions Program (DOE Contract DE-AC22-80PC30296) are reported. A preliminary gas phase reaction model for predicting fuel NO/sub x/ formation during combustion of methane fuel has been constructed. Predictions of NO/sub x/ formation under stirred reactor conditions agree with existing experimental data. Thermal NO/sub x/ and coal reaction data will be developed and verified during the next reporting period. Progress has been made in formulating the changes necessary to upgrade the Acurex PROF code for use as the comprehensive data analysis tool in this program. The radiation modeling and the incorporation of the needed modifications into the PROF code will occur during the next reporting period. The idealized combustor was designed, and requests for bids to fabricate the combustor were submitted. Combustor fabrication will be completed during the next reporting period.

  14. Mesoporous Silicon Sponge as an Anti-Pulverization Structure for High-Performance Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaolin; Gu, Meng; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Kennard, Rhiannon; Yan, Pengfei; Chen, Xilin; Wang, Chong M.; Sailor, Michael J.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun

    2014-07-08

    Nanostructured silicon is a promising anode material for high performance lithium-ion batteries, yet scalable synthesis of such materials, and retaining good cycling stability in high loading electrode remain significant challenges. Here, we combine in-situ transmission electron microscopy and continuum media mechanical calculations to demonstrate that large (>20 micron) mesoporous silicon sponge (MSS) prepared by the scalable anodization method can eliminate the pulverization of the conventional bulk silicon and limit particle volume expansion at full lithiation to ~30% instead of ~300% as observed in bulk silicon particles. The MSS can deliver a capacity of ~750 mAh/g based on the total electrode weight with >80% capacity retention over 1000 cycles. The first-cycle irreversible capacity loss of pre-lithiated MSS based anode is only <5%. The insight obtained from MSS also provides guidance for the design of other materials that may experience large volume variation during operations.

  15. Pressing device for producing compacts from source material in powder form in particular pulverized nuclear reactor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Heller, G.; Adelmann, M.; Konigs, W.; Wendorf, W.

    1984-04-17

    Pressing device for producing compacts from source material in powder form, in particular pulverized nuclear reactor fuel having a die-plate contained in platen and a bore associated with a ram, for receiving source material powder, a filling shoe, and a reservoir for powder connected by a hose to the filling shoe. The device is characterized by a passing wheel in the filling shoe as filling aid means; a tube containing a feedscrew disposed between the reservoir and hose as metering means; the reservoir having a bottom part with a can type place-on part with an opening eccentric to the axis; a coupling part and a cover part are placed on the open part of the can, these parts are also provided with a passageway to the feedscrew eccentric to the longitudinal axis.

  16. Partitioning behavior of trace elements during pilot-scale combustion of pulverized coal and coal-water slurry fuel

    PubMed

    Nodelman; Pisupati; Miller; Scaroni

    2000-05-29

    Release pathways for inorganic hazardous air pollutants (IHAPs) from a pilot-scale, down-fired combustor (DFC) when firing pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) were identified and quantified to demonstrate the effect of fuel form on IHAP partitioning, enrichment and emissions. The baghouse capturing efficiency for each element was calculated to determine the effectiveness of IHAP emission control. Most of the IHAPs were enriched in the fly ash and depleted in the bottom ash. Mercury was found to be enriched in the flue gas, and preferentially emitted in the vapor phase. When firing CWSF, more IHAPs were partitioned in the bottom ash than when firing PC. Significant reduction of Hg emissions during CWSF combustion was also observed.

  17. [Industrial pulverized coal low NO{sub x} burner, Phase I] technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Market evaluation of industrial pulverized coal usage, and of typical industries and applications where the low-NO{sub x}, burner may be sold, was partially completed at the end of this reporting period. The study identified three coals that may adequately meet the requirements of the low-NO{sub x} burner modeling study, and of the intended industrial applications. These were: (a) Pittsburgh Seam Bituminous, (b) Pittsburgh No. 8, and (c) Utah Bituminous. The first burner design, for modeling studies, was developed for a nominal output of 5.0 million Btu/hr. All input and process parameters, and all major dimensions of the burner have been determined. Burner design sketch was developed. Standard jet pump geometry of the fuel-rich burner flow path (US Patents No. 4,445,842 and No. 3,990,831), has been modified for use with pulverized coal. Staged air was added. Staged air, in conjunction with recirculated flue gas, has been found by ADL, MIT and other researchers to be effective in NO{sub x}, reduction. No attempt has been made to achieve compactness of design. The primary and seconder, air inlets and flow passages are separate, although in the industrial burner they will be combined. Flue gas may be drawn into the burner either from the hot furnace chamber, or from the flue stack after recuperation. However, to satisfy the energy requirements for volatilizing the coal, flue gas temperature above 2000{degrees}F may be needed. With the preliminary burner design completed, and suitable coals for the modeling study selected, type project is ready to proceed to the kinetic modeling tasks at MIT.

  18. [Industrial pulverized coal low NO[sub x] burner, Phase I] technical progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Market evaluation of industrial pulverized coal usage, and of typical industries and applications where the low-NO[sub x], burner may be sold, was partially completed at the end of this reporting period. The study identified three coals that may adequately meet the requirements of the low-NO[sub x] burner modeling study, and of the intended industrial applications. These were: (a) Pittsburgh Seam Bituminous, (b) Pittsburgh No. 8, and (c) Utah Bituminous. The first burner design, for modeling studies, was developed for a nominal output of 5.0 million Btu/hr. All input and process parameters, and all major dimensions of the burner have been determined. Burner design sketch was developed. Standard jet pump geometry of the fuel-rich burner flow path (US Patents No. 4,445,842 and No. 3,990,831), has been modified for use with pulverized coal. Staged air was added. Staged air, in conjunction with recirculated flue gas, has been found by ADL, MIT and other researchers to be effective in NO[sub x], reduction. No attempt has been made to achieve compactness of design. The primary and seconder, air inlets and flow passages are separate, although in the industrial burner they will be combined. Flue gas may be drawn into the burner either from the hot furnace chamber, or from the flue stack after recuperation. However, to satisfy the energy requirements for volatilizing the coal, flue gas temperature above 2000[degrees]F may be needed. With the preliminary burner design completed, and suitable coals for the modeling study selected, type project is ready to proceed to the kinetic modeling tasks at MIT.

  19. A role of hydrocarbon reaction for NO{sub x} formation and reduction in fuel-rich pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Kamikawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Orita, Hisayuki

    2010-08-15

    We have investigated an index for modeling a NO{sub x} reaction mechanism of pulverized coal combustion. The reaction mechanism of coal nitrogen was examined by drop-tube furnace experiments under various burning conditions. We proposed the gas phase stoichiometric ratio (SRgas) as a key index to evaluate NO{sub x} concentration in fuel-rich flames. The SRgas was defined as: SRgas {identical_to} amount of fuel required for stoichiometry combustion/amount of gasified fuel where, the amount of gasified fuel was defined as the amount of fuel which had been released to the gas phase by pyrolysis, oxidation and gasification reactions. When SRgas < 1.0, NO{sub x} concentration was strongly influenced by the value of SRgas. In this condition, the NO{sub x} concentration was hardly influenced by coal type, particle diameter, or reaction time. We developed a model to analyze NO{sub x} and XN(HCN, NH{sub 3}) concentrations for pulverized coal/air combustion and coal/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2} combustion, based on the index. NO{sub x} and XN concentrations did not reproduce the experimental results without considering reactions between hydrocarbons and NO{sub x}. The hydrocarbon reaction was important for both NO{sub x} and XN, especially for air combustion. In the present model, an empirical formula was used to estimate the total concentration of hydrocarbons in coal flame. The reaction of heavy hydrocarbons which had plural aromatic rings was very important to analyze the reaction mechanism of hydrocarbons for coal combustion in detail. When burning temperature and SRgas were the same, total hydrocarbon concentration in a coal flame was larger than that of a light gaseous hydrocarbon flame. Total hydrocarbon concentration in oxy-fuel combustion was lower than that in air combustion. We verified the proposed model by experimental results obtained for a drop-tube furnace and a laboratory-scale furnace that had an installed low-NO{sub x} burner. (author)

  20. Design of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal in power plants.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wangbao; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Lei; Ma, Weiguang; Jia, Suotang

    2009-08-01

    It is vitally important for a power plant to determine the chemical composition of coal prior to combustion in order to obtain optimal boiler control. In this work, a fully software-controlled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system comprising a LIBS apparatus and sampling equipment has been designed for possible application to power plants for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal. Special attention was given to the LIBS system, the data processing methods (especially the normalization with Bode Rule/DC Level) and the specific settings (the software-controlled triggering source, high-pressure gas cleaning device, sample-preparation module, sampling module, etc.), which gave the best direct measurement for C, H, Si, Na, Mg, Fe, Al, and Ti with measurement errors less than 10% for pulverized coal. Therefore, the apparatus is accurate enough to be applied to industries for on-line monitoring of pulverized coal. The method of proximate analysis was also introduced and the experimental error of A(ad) (Ash, 'ad' is an abbreviation for 'air dried') was shown in the range of 2.29 to 13.47%. The programmable logic controller (PLC) controlled on-line coal sampling equipment, which is designed based upon aerodynamics, and is capable of performing multipoint sampling and sample-preparation operation.

  1. Quantitative characterization of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in pneumatic conveying pipelines using electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Yan, Yong; Shao, Jiaqing; Wang, Lijuan; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Chao

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative data about the dynamic behaviour of pulverized coal and biomass-coal blends in fuel injection pipelines allow power plant operators to detect variations in fuel supply and oscillations in the flow at an early stage, enable them to balance fuel distribution between fuel feeding pipes and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Electrostatic sensor arrays and data fusion algorithms are combined to provide a non-intrusive solution to the measurement of fuel particle velocity, relative solid concentration and flow stability under pneumatic conveying conditions. Electrostatic sensor arrays with circular and arc-shaped electrodes are integrated in the same sensing head to measure ‘averaged’ and ‘localized’ characteristics of pulverized fuel flow. Data fusion techniques are applied to optimize and integrate the results from the sensor arrays. Experimental tests were conducted on the horizontal section of a 150 mm bore pneumatic conveyor circulating pulverized coal and sawdust under various flow conditions. Test results suggest that pure coal particles travel faster and carry more electrostatic charge than biomass-coal blends. As more biomass particles are added to the flow, the overall velocity of the flow reduces, the electrostatic charge level on particles decreases and the flow becomes less stable compared to the pure coal flow.

  2. Study on the effect of the operating condition on a pulverized coal-fired furnace using computational fluid dynamics commercial code

    SciTech Connect

    Manish Kumar; Santi Gopal Sahu . man_manna@yahoo.com

    2007-12-15

    Computer models for coal combustion are not sufficiently accurate to enable the design of pulverized coal fired furnaces or the selection of coal based on combustion behavior. Most comprehensive combustion models can predict with reasonable accuracy flow fields and heat transfer but usually with a much lesser degree of accuracy than the combustion of coal particles through char burnout. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is recognized widely to be a cost-effective, advanced tool for optimizing the design and operating condition of the pulverized coal-fired furnaces for achieving cleaner and efficient power generation. Technologists and researchers are paying remarkable attention to CFD because of its value in the pulverized fuel fired furnace technology and its nonintrusiveness, sophistication, and ability to significantly reduce the time and expense involved in the design, optimization, trouble-shooting, and repair of power generation equipment. An attempt to study the effect of one of the operating conditions, i.e., burner tilts on coal combustion mechanisms, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), and heat flux distribution pattern, within the furnace has been made in this paper by modeling a 210 MW boiler using commercial CFD code FLUENT. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Design of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, W.B.; Zhang, L.; Dong, L.; Ma, W.G.; Jia, S.T.

    2009-08-15

    It is vitally important for a power plant to determine the chemical composition of coal prior to combustion in order to obtain optimal boiler control. In this work, a fully software-controlled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system comprising a LIBS apparatus and sampling equipment has been designed for possible application to power plants for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal. Special attention was given to the LIBS system, the data processing methods (especially the normalization with Bode Rule/DC Level) and the specific settings (the software-controlled triggering source, high-pressure gas cleaning device, sample preparation module, sampling module, etc.), which gave the best direct measurement for C, H, Si, Na, Mg, Fe, Al, and Ti with measurement errors less than 10% for pulverized coal. Therefore, the apparatus is accurate enough to be applied to industries for on-line monitoring of pulverized coal. The method of proximate analysis was also introduced and the experimental error of A(ad) (Ash, 'ad' is an abbreviation for 'air dried') was shown in the range of 2.29 to 13.47%. The programmable logic controller (PLC) controlled on-line coal sampling equipment, which is designed based upon aerodynamics, and is capable of performing multipoint sampling and sample-preparation operation.

  4. Effective Blending of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene with High-Density Polyethylene via Solid-State Shear Pulverization (SSSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, Mirian; Torkelson, John

    2014-03-01

    Compared with conventional polyolefins, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) possesses outstanding mechanical properties, including impact strength and crack resistance, that make it it highly desirable for applications ranging from body armor to implants. Unfortunately, UHMWPE has an ultrahigh melt viscosity that renders common melt processes ineffective for making products from UHMWPE. Attempts to overcome this problem by blending UHMWPE with polyethylene (PE) by conventional melt mixing have been unsuccessful because of the enormous viscosity mismatch between blend components and have led to large suspensions of UHMWPE particles within a PE matrix. Here, we show the utility of solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) in achieving effectively and intimately mixed UHMWPE/PE blends. For blends with up to 50 wt% UHMWPE we observe only slight increases in viscosity (η) at high shear rates but major increases in η with increasing UHMWPE content at low shear rates. Using extensional rheology, we confirm the strain hardening behavior of SSSP blends. Additionally, shear rheology and differential scanning calorimetry data indicate that the degree of mixing between UHMWPE and HDPE domains can be increased dramatically with subsequent passes of SSSP and single screw extrusion. Finally, blends prepared via SSSP show dramatic increases in impact strength; e.g., for a 30/70 wt% UHMWPE/HDPE blend, impact strength increases by about 300 % (relative to the parent neat HDPE).

  5. African American male and female student perceptions of Pulvers Body Images: implications for obesity, health care, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sherine R; Hossain, Mian Bazle; Bronner, Yvonne

    2014-08-01

    Differences in male and female perception response to the Pulvers Body Image Scale (PBIS) were examined among 356 freshmen African American students attending an urban historically Black college/university (HBCU). Participants completed a questionnaire identifying images that best represented their current, healthy, and ideal body image. Compared with males, more females selected the normal body image as their ideal (63.3% vs. 15.3%) and healthy body shape (59.3% vs. 15.3%) (p<.001). Compared with females, more males selected the overweight body image as their ideal (44.6% vs. 30.2%) and healthy body shape (52.2% vs. 36.2%) (p<.01). Similarly, more males selected the obese body image as their ideal (40.1% vs. 6.5%) and healthy body shape (32.5% vs. 4.5%) compared with females (p<.001). Male freshmen at an HBCU perceive a larger body image as healthy and ideal more often than their female counterparts, thereby increasing the potential for their weight-related health risks.

  6. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Quarterly progress report No. 8, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gollahalli, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    This eighth quarterly report describes the activities and accomplishments of the research team at the University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, related to the project entitled {open_quotes}Combustion of Pulverized Coal in Vortex Structures{close_quotes} during the period July 1, 1995 to September 30, 1995. The work performed in this quarter consisted of the following four tasks: (i) Completion of the schlieren flow visualization experiments, (ii) Conducting experiments with particulate laden shear layers in cold flow to measure mean velocity and turbulence intensity field, (iii) Conducting experiments with particulate laden shear layers in heated flow where the initial temperature was above the pyrolysis temperature of the coal, (iii) Conducting experiments with particulate laden shear layers in heated flow where the initial temperature was above the ignition temperature of the coal, and (iv) Revising and preparing the final version of a paper for the Energy Conference to be held in Houston in 1996. A 90-day no-cost extension of the project was obtained. In the final quarter, we plan to complete this work by conducting the final task of measuring concentration fields.

  7. Char particle fragmentation and its effect on unburned carbon during pulverized coal combustion. Final report, March 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    This document is the final report of work on a project concerned with the fragmentation of char particles during pulverized coal combustion that was conducted at the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University, Stanford, California. The project is intended to satisfy, in part, PETC`s research efforts to understand the chemical and physical processes that govern coal combustion. The overall objectives of the project were: (1) to characterize the fragmentation events as a function of combustion environment, (2) to characterize fragmentation with respect to particle porosity and mineral loadings, (3) to assess overall mass loss rates with respect to particle fragmentation, and (4) to quantify the impact of fragmentation on unburned carbon in ash. The knowledge obtained during the course of this project can be used to predict accurately the overall mass loss rates of coals based on both the physical and chemical characteristics of their chars. The work provides a means of assessing reasons for unburned carbon in the ash of coal fired boilers and furnaces.

  8. Char particle fragmentation and its effect on unburned carbon during pulverized coal combustion. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The project is intended to satisfy, in part, PETC`s research efforts to understand the chemical and physical processes that govern coal combustion. The work is pertinent to the char oxidation phase of coal combustion and focuses on how the fragmentation of coal char particles affects overall mass loss rates and how char fragmentation phenomena influence coal conversion efficiency. The knowledge and information obtained will allow the development of engineering models that can be used to predict accurately char particle temperatures and total mass loss rates during pulverized coal combustion. The overall objectives of the project are: (1) to characterize fragmentation events as a function of combustion environment, (2) to characterize fragmentation with respect to particle porosity and mineral loadings, (3) to assess overall mass loss rates with respect to particle fragmentation, and (4) to quantify the impact of fragmentation on unburned carbon in ash. The knowledge obtained during the course of this project will be used to predict accurately the overall mass loss rates of coals based on the mineral content and porosity of their chars. The work will provide a means of assessing reasons for unburned carbon in the ash of coal fired boilers and furnaces.

  9. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion. Quarterly report, March 15, 1988--June 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Niksa, S.; Kruger, C.H.

    1988-08-01

    The primary topics in this program are the size distribution of particulates from pulverized coal firing and the thermochemical transformations of pyrite at typical p. f. firing conditions. In the laboratory, both of these aspects involve representative sampling of particulates from a high temperature combustor, as well as synthetic model fuels with specified pore structure and pyrite loadings. During the period March 15, 1988 through June 15, 1988 we continued to develop the components for representative sampling of particulates in our one-dimensional coal flow reactor, and also began to synthesize carbons with controlled porosity and pyrite loadings. The first element in the collection and analysis train, the extraction probe for solid samples, is complete. In shakedown evaluations, the probe met all design specifications and is ready for use. A housing for the probe was designed and is now being fabricated. This component supports the sampling probe at specified positions in the Stanford Coal Flow Reactor (SCFR), and also collects and quenches the effluent from the reactor, and transports it to the laboratory exhaust system. We have synthesized carbons from furfuryl alcohol, according to the procedure developed by Senior and Flagan at Caltech. These carbons are virtually identical to samples prepared at Caltech, and SEM-photomicrographs confirmed that the carbon is glassy with no large pores.

  10. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  11. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) and 10M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 degrees C for 48h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  12. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-15

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}) and 10 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 deg. C for 48 h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0 MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers.

  13. Building ceramics with an addition of pulverized combustion fly ash from the thermal power plant Nováky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Húlan, Tomáš; Trník, Anton; Medved, Igor; Štubňa, Igor; Kaljuvee, Tiit

    2016-07-01

    Pulverized combustion fly ash (PFA) from the Power plant Nováky (Slovakia) is analyzed for its potential use in the production of building ceramics. Three materials are used to prepare the mixtures: illite-rich clay (IRC), PFA and IRC fired at 1000 °C (called grog). The mixtures contain 60 % of IRC and 40 % of a non-plastic compound (grog or PFA). A various amount of the grog is replaced by PFA and the effect of this substitution is studied. Thermal analyses (TGA, DTA, thermodilatometry, and dynamical thermomechanical analysis) are used to analyze the processes occurring during firing. The flexural strength and thermal conductivity are determined at room temperature after firing in the temperature interval from 800 to 1100 °C. The results show that an addition of PFA slightly decreases the flexural strength. The thermal conductivity and porosity are practically unaffected by the presence of PFA. Thus, PFA from the Power plant Nováky is a convenient non-plastic component for manufacturing building ceramics.

  14. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  15. Chemical and toxicological characterization of organic constituents in fluidized-bed and pulverized coal combustion: a topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Chess, E.K.; Later, D.W.; Wilson, B.W.; Harris, W.R.; Remsen, J.F.

    1984-04-01

    Coal combustion fly ash from both conventional pulverized coal combustion (PCC) and fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) have been characterized as to their organic constituents and microbial mutagenic activity. The PCC fly ash was collected from a commercial utility generating plant using a low sulfur coal. The FBC fly ash was from a bench-scale developmental unit at the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center. Bulk samples of each fly ash were extracted using benzene/methanol and further separated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Subfractions from the HPLC separation were analyzed by gas chromatography using both element-specific nitrogen-phosphorus detectors and flame ionization detectors. Microbial mutagenicity assay results indicated that the crude organic extracts were mutagenic, and that both the specific activity and the overall activity of the PCC material was greater than that of the FBC material. Comparison of results from assays using S. typhimurium, TA1538NR indicated that nitrated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) were responsible for much of the mutagenic activity of the PCC material. Similar results were obtained for assays of the FBC organic extract with standard and nitroreductase-deficient strains of S. typhimurium, TA100 and TA1538. Mutagenically active HPLC fractions were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and GC mass spectrometry (GC/MS), as well as probe inlet low and high resolutions MS. The discovery and identification of nitrated, oxygenated PAC are important because the presence of both nitro and/or keto functionalities on certain PAC has been shown to confer or enhance mutagenic activity.

  16. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  17. Effect of secondary fuels and combustor temperature on mercury speciation in pulverized fuel co-combustion: part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shishir P. Sable; Wiebren de Jong; Ruud Meij; Hartmut Spliethoff

    2007-08-15

    The present work mainly involves bench scale studies to investigate partitioning of mercury in pulverized fuel co-combustion at 1000 and 1300{sup o}C. High volatile bituminous coal is used as a reference case and chicken manure, olive residue, and B quality (demolition) wood are used as secondary fuels with 10 and 20% thermal shares. The combustion experiments are carried out in an entrained flow reactor with a fuel input of 7-8 kWth. Elemental and total gaseous mercury concentrations in the flue gas of the reactor are measured on-line, and ash is analyzed for particulate mercury along with other elemental and surface properties. Animal waste like chicken manure behaves very differently from plant waste. The higher chlorine contents of chicken manure cause higher ionic mercury concentrations whereas even with high unburnt carbon, particulate mercury reduces with increase in the chicken manure share. This might be a problem due to coarse fuel particles, low surface area, and iron contents. B-wood and olive residue cofiring reduces the emission of total gaseous mercury and increases particulate mercury capture due to unburnt carbon formed, fine particles, and iron contents of the ash. Calcium in chicken manure does not show any effect on particulate or gaseous mercury. It is probably due to a higher calcium sulfation rate in the presence of high sulfur and chlorine contents. However, in plant waste cofiring, calcium may have reacted with chlorine to reduce ionic mercury to its elemental form. According to thermodynamic predictions, almost 50% of the total ash is melted to form slag at 1300{sup o}C in cofiring because of high calcium, iron, and potassium and hence mercury and other remaining metals are concentrated in small amounts of ash and show an increase at higher temperatures. No slag formation was predicted at 1000{sup o}C. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Speciation and mass-balance of mercury from pulverized coal fired power plants burning western Canadian subbituminous coals.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, F

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study carried out on six pulverized coal-fired power plants in western Canada burning subbituminous coal for the mass-balance and speciation of mercury. The main objectives of this study were to: determine the total gaseous mercury (TGM) emitted from stacks of power plants using the Ontario Hydro method; identify the speciation of emitted mercury such as metallic (Hg(0)) and gaseous elemental (GEM) mercury; and perform mass-balance calculations of mercury for milled-coal, bottom ash, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) fly ash and stack-emitted mercury based on three tests. Sampling of mercury was carried out using the Ontario Hydro method and mercury was determined using the USEPA method 7473 by cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAAS). The sample collection efficiencies confirmed that both oxidized and the elemental mercury had been successfully sampled at all power plants. The total gaseous mercury emitted (TGM) is 6.95-15.66 g h(-1) and is mostly in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg(0)) form. The gaseous elemental mercury is emitted at a rate of 6.59-12.62 g h(-1). Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, Hg(2+)) is emitted at a rate of 0.34-3.68 g h(-1). The rate of emission of particulate mercury (Hg(p)) is low and is in the range 0.005-0.076 g h(-1). The range of mass-balances for each power plant is more similar to the variability in measured mercury emissions, than to the coal and ash analyses or process data. The mass-balance calculations for the six power plants, performed on results of the three tests at each power plant, are between 86% and 123%, which is acceptable and within the range 70-130%. The variation in mass-balance of mercury for the six power plants is mostly related to the variability of coal feed rate.

  19. Ocean sequestration of carbon dioxide: modeling the deep ocean release of a dense emulsion of liquid Co2-in-water stabilized by pulverized limestone particles.

    PubMed

    Golomb, D; Pennell, S; Ryan, D; Barry, E; Swett, P

    2007-07-01

    The release into the deep ocean of an emulsion of liquid carbon dioxide-in-seawater stabilized by fine particles of pulverized limestone (CaCO3) is modeled. The emulsion is denser than seawater, hence, it will sink deeper from the injection point, increasing the sequestration period. Also, the presence of CaCO3 will partially buffer the carbonic acid that results when the emulsion eventually disintegrates. The distance that the plume sinks depends on the density stratification of the ocean, the amount of the released emulsion, and the entrainment factor. When released into the open ocean, a plume containing the CO2 output of a 1000 MW(el) coal-fired power plant will typically sink hundreds of meters below the injection point. When released from a pipe into a valley on the continental shelf, the plume will sink about twice as far because of the limited entrainment of ambient seawater when the plume flows along the valley. A practical system is described involving a static mixer for the in situ creation of the CO2/seawater/pulverized limestone emulsion. The creation of the emulsion requires significant amounts of pulverized limestone, on the order of 0.5 tons per ton of liquid CO2. That increases the cost of ocean sequestration by about $13/ ton of CO2 sequestered. However, the additional cost may be compensated by the savings in transportation costs to greater depth, and because the release of an emulsion will not acidify the seawater around the release point.

  20. Assessment of pulverized-coal-fired combustor performance. Parametric screening studies for the calculation of heat transfer in combustion chambers. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, W.

    1982-01-01

    The screening studies performed to identify those parameters most influencing the thermal performance of full-scale combustion chambers, such as those of industrial furnaces or utility boilers are presented. Special attention is given to pulverized-coal (p.f.) firing. The report consists basically of two parts. Part one deals with overall thermal behavior, expressed in terms of a furnace efficiency and a furnace exit temperature. In part two, local heat transfer, characterized by local temperature and heat flux distributions, is investigated. It is also shown how these local inhomogeneities may influence the overall performance. The screening studies are carried out analytically.

  1. Effect [of] co-combustion of sewage sludge and biomass on combustion behavior and emissions in pulverized fuel systems

    SciTech Connect

    Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass not only has a considerable potential as an additional fuel source but also shows a reasonable cost level in comparison to other renewable energies. The practicable fuel types are both residual material from forestry and agriculture, such as wood or straw, and especially cultivated reproducible feedstock such as Miscanthus Sinensis, whole cereal plants, poplars, or willows. Besides as single fuel, it is also considered to be sensible to utilize biomass in co-combustion in existing firing systems, such as pc-fired power stations. Biomass or sewage sludge utilized as additional fuel in coal combustion systems has consequences on combustion behavior, emissions, corrosion and residual matter. The effects of burning sewage sludge and agricultural residuals such as straw and manure as well as specially grown energy plants in combination with coal were studied in a 0.5 MW pulverized fuel test facility and a 20 kW electrically heated combustor. A major aspect of the investigations had been the required preparation and milling of the additional fuels. The investigations showed that in co-combustion of straw with coal, a grinding of 6 mm and finer is sufficient. The definitely coarser milling degree of biomass delays combustion and is observable by in-flame measurements. The investigations reveal that biomass addition has a positive effect on emissions. Since biomass in most cases contains considerably less sulphur than coal, an increasing biomass share in the thermal output makes the SO{sub 2} emissions decrease proportionally. In addition, SO{sub 2} can partly be captured in the ash by the alkaline-earth fractions of the biomass ash. As for sewage sludge, the emissions of SO{sub 2} correlate with the sulphur content of the fuel and, hence, rise with an increasing share of this biomass. Independently from the type, biomass shows a considerably stronger release of volatile matter. This latter fact may have a positive impact on NOx emissions when NOx

  2. Comparative analysis of the influence of turbulence models on the description of the nitrogen oxides formation during the combustion of swirling pulverized coal flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Chernetskaya, N.; Chernetskiy, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the results of numerical research on the influence of the two- parametric k-ε, and k-ω SST turbulence models as well as Reynolds stress model (RSM) on the description of the nitrogen oxides formation during the combustion of pulverized coal in swirling flow. For the numerical simulation of turbulent flow of an incompressible liquid, we used the Reynolds equation taking into account the interfacial interactions. To solve the equation of thermal radiation transfer, the P1 approximation of spherical harmonics method was employed. The optical properties of gases were described based on the sum of gray gases model. To describe the motion of coal particles we used the method of Lagrange multipliers. Burning of coke residue was considered based on diffusion - kinetic approximation. Comparative analysis has shown that the choice of turbulence model has a significant impact on the root mean square (RMS) values of the velocity and temperature pulsation components. This leads to significant differences in the calculation of the nitrogen oxides formation process during the combustion of pulverized coal.

  3. Reducing NOx Emissions for a 600 MWe Down-Fired Pulverized-Coal Utility Boiler by Applying a Novel Combustion System.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lun; Fang, Qingyan; Lv, Dangzhen; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Yiping; Chen, Gang; Duan, Xuenong; Wang, Xihuan

    2015-11-03

    A novel combustion system was applied to a 600 MWe Foster Wheeler (FW) down-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler to solve high NOx emissions, without causing an obvious increase in the carbon content of fly ash. The unit included moving fuel-lean nozzles from the arches to the front/rear walls and rearranging staged air as well as introducing separated overfire air (SOFA). Numerical simulations were carried out under the original and novel combustion systems to evaluate the performance of combustion and NOx emissions in the furnace. The simulated results were found to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The novel combustion system enlarged the recirculation zones below the arches, thereby strengthening the combustion stability considerably. The coal/air downward penetration depth was markedly extended, and the pulverized-coal travel path in the lower furnace significantly increased, which contributed to the burnout degree. The introduction of SOFA resulted in a low-oxygen and strong-reducing atmosphere in the lower furnace region to reduce NOx emissions evidently. The industrial measurements showed that NOx emissions at full load decreased significantly by 50%, from 1501 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%) to 751 mg/m3 (O2 at 6%). The carbon content in the fly ash increased only slightly, from 4.13 to 4.30%.

  4. Determination of the radiative of pulverized-coal particles. Technical progress report, third quarter of the third year, March 15, 1990--June 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Menguec, M.P.; Dsa, D.; Manickavasagam, S.; Dutta, P.; Mahadeviah, A.

    1991-12-31

    For accurate modeling of radiative transfer in combustion systems, radiative properties of combustion products are required. It is usually difficult to calculate the properties of nonhomogeneous and irregular-shaped pulverized-coal and char particles, because of the lack of information on optical constants and unavailability of simple and accurate theoretical models. Because of this, it is preferable to determine the required properties from experiments in situ. This can be accomplished by combining optical diagnostic techniques with inverse analyses of radiative transfer problem. In this study, experiments were conducted using a CO{sub 2}-laser nephelometer to measure angular distribution of light scattered by a cold-layer of pulverized-coal particles. The data obtained from the experiments were used along with a new step-phase function approximation in a numerical inverse radiation scheme to obtain ``effective`` extinction coefficient and scattering phase function for coal particles in narrow size distributions. In addition to that, a mercury-arc-lamp monochromator system was used to obtain spectral absorption coefficient of coal particles as a function of wavelength and coal size.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL RADIATIVELY/CONDUCTIVELY STABILIZED BURNER FOR SIGNIFICANT REDUCTION OF NOx EMISSIONS AND FOR ADVANCING THE MODELING AND UNDERSTANDING OF PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Noam Lior; Stuart W. Churchill

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the proposed study was the study and analysis of, and design recommendations for, a novel radiatively-conductively stabilized combustion (RCSC) process for pulverized coal, which, based on our prior studies with both fluid fuels and pulverized coal, holds a high promise to reduce NO{sub x} production significantly. We have primarily engaged in continuing and improving our process modeling and analysis, obtained a large amount of quantitative information about the effects of the major parameters on NO{sub x} production, conducted an extensive exergy analysis of the process, evaluated the practicalities of employing the Radiatively-Conductively Stabilized Combustor (RCSC) to large power and heat plants, and improved the experimental facility. Prior experimental work has proven the feasibility of the combustor, but slagging during coal combustion was observed and should be dealt with. The primary outcomes and conclusions from the study are: (1) we developed a model and computer program that represents the pulverized coal combustion in the RCSC, (2) the model predicts that NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by a number of methods, detailed in the report. (3) the exergy analysis points out at least a couple of possible ways to improve the exergetic efficiency in this combustor: increasing the effectiveness of thermal feedback, and adjusting the combustor mixture exit location, (4) because of the low coal flow rates necessitated in this study to obtain complete combustion in the burner, the size of a burner operating under the considered conditions would have to be up to an order of magnitude, larger than comparable commercial burners, but different flow configurations of the RCSC can yield higher feed rates and smaller dimensions, and should be investigated. Related to this contract, eleven papers were published in journals and conference proceedings, and ten invited presentations were given at university and research institutions, as well as at

  6. Basic combustion and pollutant-formation processes for pulverized fuels. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, 1 October 1980-31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Germane, Geoffery J.; Smoot, L. Douglas

    1981-01-15

    A study of basic combustion and pollutant formation processes for pulverized solid fossil fuels has been initiated. The solid fossil fuels under consideration for this research include such solid fuels as non-bituminous coal types, solvent refined coal, combustion char, petroleum coke, oil shale and tar sand. The potential industrial application of pulverized fuels other than coal provides some promise for relief from present and future conventional fuel shortages. Utilization problems with these fuels such as flame stability, fuel handling, pollutant emission and ash and slag formation in large-scale furnaces may be fundamentally addressed in laboratory reactors using properly scaled operating variables. An extensive literature search was begun to assess current knowledge relative to utilization of these fuels. This review will provide a basis for selection of three solid fuels for testing. Pertinent information from industrial contacts will also be used in the fuel selection. The criteria to be used in the selection of these fuels include availability for economic industrial use, adaptability, grindability, flame stability, entrainability, uniformity, applicability to direct firing with air, solidity with heating, availability to the BYU Combustion Laboratory, cost, other physical characteristics affecting their use, industrial input and recommendations, and DOE approval. The existing laboratory coal combustor at BYU will be modified to provide flexibility for a potentially wide range of operating characteristics with the selected solid fuels. A computer system has been identified for interface both to the reactor for data acquisition and control of operating variables and to the main research computer for final data reduction and display.

  7. [An investigation of the formation of] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions when firing pulverized coal in a bench-scale drop tube reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pisupati, S.V.; Wasco, R.S.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contain provisions which will set standards for the allowable emissions of 188 analytes designated as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This list of HAPs was used to establish an initial list of source categories for which EPA would be required to establish technology-based emission standards, which would result in regulated sources sharply reducing routine emissions of toxic air pollutants. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) has also been referred to as polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Nine major categories of POM have been defined by EPA. The study of organic compounds from coal combustion is complex and the results obtained so far are inconclusive with respect to emission factors. The most common organic compounds in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, EPA has specified 16 PAH compounds as priority pollutants. These are naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and dibenz[ah]anthracene. Penn State`s Combustion Laboratory is equipped to collect and analyze the HAPs in the flue gas from fossil fuels combustion. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of unit temperature on PAH emissions. A Modified Method 5 sampling train was used to isokinetically collect samples at desired locations in flue gas streams. The collected sample can be separated into solid, condensed liquid and gaseous phases. The PAHs of interest are extracted from the collected sample, concentrated, then separated and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This study was conducted using a bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR). The fuel selected for this study was a Middle Kittanning seam coal pulverized to 80% passing US Standard 200 mesh (commonly

  8. PASSIVE CONTROL OF PARTICLE DISPERSION IN A PARTICLE-LADEN CIRCULAR JET USING ELLIPTIC CO-ANNULAR FLOW: A MEANS FOR IMPROVING UTILIZATION AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL BURNER

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2003-06-01

    A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.

  9. Measurements of the flame emissivity and radiative properties of particulate medium in pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces by image processing of visible radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chun Lou; Huai-Chun Zhou; Peng-Feng Yu; Zhi-Wei Jiang

    2007-07-01

    Due to the complicated processes for coal particles burning in industrial furnaces, their radiative properties, such as the absorption and scattering coefficients, which are essential to make reliable calculation of radiative transfer in combustion computation, are hard to be given exactly by the existing methods. In this paper, multiple color image detectors were used to capture approximately red, green, and blue monochromatic radiative intensity images in the visible wavelength region, and the flame emissivity and the radiative properties of the particulate media in three pulverized-coal-fired boiler furnaces were got from the flame images. It was shown that as the load increased, the flame emissivity and the radiative properties increased too; these radiative parameters had the largest values near the burner zone, and decreased along the combustion process. Compared with the combustion medium with a low-volatile anthracite coal burning in a 670 t/h boiler, the emissivity and the absorption coefficient of the medium with a high-volatile bituminous coal burning in a 1025 t/h boiler were smaller near the outlet zone, but were larger near the burner zone of the furnace, due to the significant contribution of soot to the radiation. This work will be of practical importance in modeling and calculating the radiative heat transfer in combustion processes, and improving the technology for in situ, multi-dimensional visualization of large-scale combustion processes in coal-fired furnaces of power plants. 18 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Combustion characteristics and NOx emissions of two kinds of swirl burners in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.Q.; Jing, J.P.; Chen, Z.C.; Ren, F.; Xu, B.; Wei, H.D.; Ge, Z.H.

    2008-07-01

    Measurements were performed in a 300-MWe wall-fired pulverized-coal utility boiler. Enhanced ignition-dual register (EI-DR) burners and centrally fuel rich (CFR) swirl coal combustion burners were installed in the bottom row of the furnace during experiments. Local mean concentrations of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and NOx gas species, gas temperatures, and char burnout were determined in the region of the two types of burners. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners, local mean CO concentrations, gas temperatures and the temperature gradient are higher and mean concentrations of O{sub 2} and NOx along the jet flow direction in the burner region are lower than for the enhanced ignition-dual register burners. Moreover, the mean O{sub 2} concentration is higher and the gas temperature and mean CO concentration are lower in the side wall region. For centrally fuel rich swirl coal combustion burners in the bottom row, the combustion efficiency of the boiler increases from 96.73% to 97.09%, and NOx emission decreases from 411.5 to 355 ppm at 6% O{sub 2} compared to enhanced ignition-dual register burners and the boiler operates stably at 110 MWe without auxiliary fuel oil.

  11. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, R. Menanteau, S.

    2016-01-15

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10{sup 5} K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  12. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, R.; Menanteau, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>105 K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  13. Basic combustion and pollutant-formation processes for pulverized fuels. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, 1 July 1981-30 September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Germane, G.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1981-10-15

    This contract study of basic combustion and pollutant formation processes for pulverized solid fossil fuels includes coal-water mixtures and chars derived from coal pyrolysis, liquefaction or gasification processes. The factors that affect the physical properties of coal-water mixtures (CWM) have been identified and characterization tests initiated to determine how these variables (e.g., solids loading, particle size, particle size distribution, additives) affect the coal slurries. A bench-scale apparatus consisting of a pressure vessel and an atomizing nozzle was designed and is being fabricated. This apparatus will assist in the development of handling and atomization techniques for the combustion tests. It will also aid in comparing viscosities of slurries of different solids loadings and coal types. Chars were obtained for characterization tests. A series of potential tests to characterize the chars was identified. Grading and sizing of the chars was begun as well as elemental analysis. Samples of the chars were sent to Phillips for CO/sub 2/ reactivity tests to be performed. Coding for incorporation of swirling flows into the two-dimensional coal combustion model (PCGC-2) was completed. Debugging was initiated and sample computations are performed for a gaseous, isothermal system for low swirl numbers. Convergence problems were encountered when attempts were made to complete runs at higher swirl numbers.

  14. Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kramlich, J.C.; Chenevert, B.; Park, Jungsung

    1995-08-02

    Previous work has shown that pulverized bituminous coals that were treated by coal cleaning (via froth flotation) or aerodynamic sizing exhibited altered aerosol emission characteristics. Specifically, the emissions of aerosol for the cleaned and sized coals increased by as much as one order of magnitude. The goals of the present program are to: (1) perform measurements on carefully characterized coals to identify the means by which the coal treatment increases aerosol yields; (2) investigate means by which coal cleaning can be done in a way that will not increase aerosol yields; and (3) identify whether this mechanism can be used to reduce aerosol yields from systems burning straight coal. The current experimental series focuses on the use of artificial char to study sodium vaporization and aerosol formation associated with dispersed sodium and mineral inclusions. Artificial char has the advantage over natural coal in that the composition can be precisely controlled, such that the influences of specific mineral composition and content can be investigated. The study showed: the addition of calcite had no effect of the aerosol yield; increased amounts of pyrite did not lead to increased residual ash formation; in spite of the increase in mineral content, the yield of aerosol on the backup filter did not correlate with the amount of added minerals; and the general trend was for reduced aerosol yields as the amount of bentonite increased which suggested that the bentonite was effective at complexing sodium and reducing its overall vaporization.

  15. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, R; Menanteau, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10(5) K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  16. Effective Mixing of UHMWPE with Polyethylene: Rheological, Mechanical and Crystallization Behavior of Novel Blends Made by Solid-State Shear Pulverization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, Mirian; Torkelson, John

    2013-03-01

    In comparison with conventional polyolefins, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) possesses outstanding mechanical properties, including impact strength, making it highly desirable for applications ranging from body armor to implants. Unfortunately, UHMWPE comes with a downside: an ultrahigh melt viscosity that renders common melt processes useless for making products from UHMWPE. Attempts to overcome this problem by blending UHMWPE with polyethylene (PE) by conventional melt mixing have been unsuccessful because of the enormous viscosity mismatch and have led to suspensions of UHMWPE particles within a PE matrix. Here, we show the utility of solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) to effectively and intimately mix UHMWPE/PE blends. Oscillatory shear rheology of blends containing up to 20 wt% UHMWPE shows both the major impact of the UHMWPE fraction in strongly modifying the low shear rate flow behavior and the very muted effect of that fraction on the high shear rate flow behavior. The latter effect indicates that such blends can be processed by melt extrusion and injection molding. Differential scanning calorimetry supports the presence of co-crystallization in these blends. Mechanical properties of these blends, including impact strength, will also be discussed.

  17. Study of a blast-furnace smelting technology which involves the injection of pulverized-coal fuel, natural gas, and an oxygen-enriched blast into the hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Ryzhenkov, A.N.; Yaroshevskii, S.L.; Zamuruev, V.P.; Popov, V.E.; Afanas'eva, Z.K.

    2006-05-15

    Studies were made of features of a blast-furnace smelting technology that involves the injection of natural gas (NG), oxygen (O{sub 2}) and pulverized-coal fuel (PCF) into the hearth. The technology has been implemented in the compensation and overcompensation regimes, which has made it possible to maintain or improve the gas dynamics of the furnace, the conditions for the reduction of iron oxides, the heating of the charge, and PCF combustion in the tuyere zone as PCF consumption is increased and coke use is decreased. Under the given conditions, with the blast having an oxygen content of 25.64-25.7%, the hearth injection of 131-138 kg PCF and 65-69 m{sup 3} NG for each ton of pig iron has made it possible to reduce coke consumption by 171-185 kg/ton pig (30.2-32.7%), reduce the consumption of comparison fuel by 36-37 kg/ton (5.2-5.3%), and lower the production cost of the pig iron by 43-49 hryvnas/ton (3.7-6.4%). Here, furnace productivity has increased 3.8-6.5%, while the quality of the conversion pig iron remains the same as before. Measures are being implemented to further increase the level and efficiency of PCF use.

  18. Investigation of the relationship between particulate-bound mercury and properties of fly ash in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Sen Li; Chin-Min Cheng; Bobby Chen; Yan Cao; Jacob Vervynckt; Amanda Adebambo; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-12-15

    The properties of fly ash in coal-fired boilers influence the emission of mercury from power plants into the environment. In this study, seven different bituminous coals were burned in a full-scale 100 MWe pulverized coal combustion boiler and the derived fly ash samples were collected from a mechanical hopper (MH) and an electrostatic precipitator hopper (ESP). The mercury content, specific surface area (SSA), unburned carbon, and elemental composition of the fly ash samples were analyzed to evaluate the correlation between the concentration of particulate-bound mercury and the properties of coal and fly ash. For a given coal, it was found that the mercury content in the fly ash collected from the ESP was greater than in the fly ash samples collected from the MHP. This phenomenon may be due to a lower temperature of flue gas at the ESP (about 135{sup o}C) compared to the temperature at the air preheater (about 350{sup o}C). Also, a significantly lower SSA observed in MH ash might also contribute to the observation. A comparison of the fly ash samples generated from seven different coals using statistical methods indicates that the mercury adsorbed on ESP fly ashes has a highly positive correlation with the unburned carbon content, manganese content, and SSA of the fly ash. Sulfur content in coal showed a significant negative correlation with the Hg adsorption. Manganese in fly ash is believed to participate in oxidizing volatile elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to ionic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}). The oxidized mercury in flue gas can form a complex with the fly ash and then get removed before the flue gas leaves the stack of the boiler.

  19. Reactivity of pulverized coals during combustion catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Xuzhong; Guo, Zhancheng; Wang, Zhi

    2010-02-15

    Effects of CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on combustion reactivity of several fuels, including three ranks of coals, graphite and anthracite chars, were investigated using thermo-gravimetric analyzer. The results indicated that the combustion reactivity of all the samples except lignite was improved with CeO{sub 2} or Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition. It was interesting to note that the ignition temperatures of anthracite were decreased by 50 C and 53 C, respectively, with CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition and that its combustion rates were increased to 15.4%/min and 12.2%/min. Ignition temperatures of lignite with CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition were 250 C and 226 C, and the combustion rates were 12.8% and 19.3%/min, respectively. When compared with those of lignite without catalysts, no obvious catalytic effects of the two catalysts on its combustion reactivity were revealed. The results from the combustion of the three rank pulverized coals catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} indicated significant effects of the two catalysts on fixed carbon combustion. And it was found that the higher the fuel rank, the better the catalytic effect. The results of combustion from two kinds of anthracite chars showed obvious effects of anthracite pyrolysis catalyzed by CeO{sub 2} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on its combustion reactivity. (author)

  20. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. A physical pulverization strategy for preparing a highly active composite of CoOx and crushed graphite for lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Kwak, Won-Jin; Park, Jin-Bum; Shin, Chang-Dae; Lu, Jun; Curtiss, Larry; Amine, Khalil; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2014-07-21

    A new physical pulverization strategy has been developed to prepare a highly active composite of CoOx and crushed graphite (CG) for the cathode in lithium-oxygen batteries. The effect of CoOx loading on the charge potential in the oxygen evolution reaction (Li(2)O(2) →2 Li(+) +O(2) +2e(-)) was investigated in coin-cell tests. The CoOx (38.9 wt %)/CG composite showed a low charge potential of 3.92 V with a delivered capacity of 2 mAh cm(-2) under a current density of 0.2 mA cm(-2). The charge potential was 4.10 and 4.15 V at a capacity of 5 and 10 mAh cm(-2), respectively, with a current density of 0.5 mA cm(-2). The stability of the electrolyte and discharge product on the gas-diffusion layer after the cycling were preliminarily characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The high activity of the composite was further analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and potential-step chronoamperometry. The results indicate that our near-dry milling method is an effective and green approach to preparing a nanocomposite cathode with high surface area and porosity, while using less solvent. Its relative simplicity compared with the traditional solution method could facilitate its widespread application in catalysis, energy storage, and materials science.

  2. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 2: Combustion of brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin in a vortex furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper continues with the description of study results for an improved-design steam boiler vortex furnace, for the full-scale configuration of which the numerical modeling of a three-dimensional turbulent two-phase reacting flow has been performed with allowance for all the principal heat and mass transfer processes in the torch combustion of pulverized Berezovsk brown coal from the Kansk-Achinsk Basin. The detailed distributions of velocity, temperature, concentration, and heat flux fields in different cross sections of the improved vortex furnace have been obtained. The principal thermoengineering and environmental characteristics of this furnace are given.

  3. Influence of staged-air on airflow, combustion characteristics and NO(x) emissions of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler with direct flow split burners.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqi; Kuang, Min; Zhang, Jia; Han, Yunfeng; Zhu, Qunyi; Yang, Lianjie; Kong, Weiguang

    2010-02-01

    Cold airflow experiments were conducted to investigate the aerodynamic field in a small-scale furnace of a down-fired pulverized-coal 300 MW(e) utility boiler arranged with direct flow split burners enriched by cyclones. By increasing the staged-air ratio, a deflected flow field appeared in the lower furnace; larger staged-air ratios produced larger deflections. Industrial-sized experiments on a full-scale boiler were also performed at different staged-air damper openings with measurements taken of gas temperatures in the burner region and near the right-side wall, wall heat fluxes, and gas components (O(2), CO, and NO(x)) in the near-wall region. Combustion was unstable at staged-air damper openings below 30%. For openings of 30% and 40%, late ignition of the pulverized coal developed and large differences arose in gas temperatures and heat fluxes between the regions near the front and rear walls. In conjunction, carbon content in the fly ash was high and boiler efficiency was low with high NO(x) emission above 1200 mg/m(3) (at 6% O(2) dry). For fully open dampers, differences in gas temperatures and heat fluxes, carbon in fly ash and NO(x) emission decreased yielding an increase in boiler efficiency. The optimal setting is fully open staged-air dampers.

  4. Screening and life-cycle cost models for new pulverized-coal heating plants: An integrated computer-based module for the central heating plant economic evaluation program (CHPECON). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, R.; Kinast, J.A.; Biederman, R.; Blazek, C.F.; Lin, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    Public Law 99-190 requires the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal for steam generation, but DOD also has an obligation to use the most economical fuel. In support of the coal conversion effort, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has been tasked to develop a series of screening and life-cycle cost models to determine when and where specific coal-combustion technologies can economically be implemented in Army central heating plants. This report documents a pulverized coal-fired boiler analysis model, part of the USACERL-developed Central Heating Plant Economics model (CHPECON). The model is divided into two parts. A preliminary screening model contains options for evaluating new heating plants and cogeneration facilities fueled with pulverized coal, as well as the previous options. A cost model uses the entries provided by the screening model to provide a conceptual facility design, capital (installed) costs of the facility, operation and maintenance costs over the life of the facility, and life-cycle costs. Using these numbers the model produces a summary value for the total life-cycle cost of the plant, and a levelized cost of service.

  5. Ignition and Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Biomass under Different Oxy-fuel O2/N2 and O2/CO2 Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatami Firoozabadi, Seyed Reza

    This work studied the ignition and combustion of burning pulverized coals and biomasses particles under either conventional combustion in air or oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Oxy-fuel combustion is a 'clean-coal' process that takes place in O2/CO2 environments, which are achieved by removing nitrogen from the intake gases and recirculating large amounts of flue gases to the boiler. Removal of nitrogen from the combustion gases generates a high CO2-content, sequestration-ready gas at the boiler effluent. Flue gas recirculation moderates the high temperatures caused by the elevated oxygen partial pressure in the boiler. In this study, combustion of the fuels took place in a laboratory laminar-flow drop-tube furnace (DTF), electrically-heated to 1400 K, in environments containing various mole fractions of oxygen in either nitrogen or carbon-dioxide background gases. The experiments were conducted at two different gas conditions inside the furnace: (a) quiescent gas condition (i.e., no flow or inactive flow) and, (b) an active gas flow condition in both the injector and furnace. Eight coals from different ranks (anthracite, semi-snthracite, three bituminous, subbituminous and two lignites) and four biomasses from different sources were utilized in this work to study the ignition and combustion characteristics of solid fuels in O2/N2 or O2/CO2 environments. The main objective is to study the effect of replacing background N2 with CO2, increasing O2 mole fraction and fuel type and rank on a number of qualitative and quantitative parameters such as ignition/combustion mode, ignition temperature, ignition delay time, combustion temperatures, burnout times and envelope flame soot volume fractions. Regarding ignition, in the quiescent gas condition, bituminous and sub-bituminous coal particles experienced homogeneous ignition in both O2/N 2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres, while in the active gas flow condition, heterogeneous ignition was evident in O2/CO 2. Anthracite, semi

  6. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBtu/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    The project objective was to demonstrate a technology which can be used to retrofit oil/gas designed boilers, and conventional pulverized coal fired boilers to direct coal firing, by using a patented sir cooled coal combustor that is attached in place of oil/gas/coal burners. A significant part of the test effort was devoted to resolving operational issues related to uniform coal feeding, efficient combustion under very fuel rich conditions, maintenance of continuous slag flow and removal from the combustor, development of proper air cooling operating procedures, and determining component materials durability. The second major focus of the test effort was on environmental control, especially control of SO{sub 2} emissions. By using staged combustion, the NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by around 3/4 to 184 ppmv, with further reductions to 160 ppmv in the stack particulate scrubber. By injection of calcium based sorbents into the combustor, stack SO{sub 2} emissions were reduced by a maximum of of 58%. (VC)

  7. Improved gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair using mechanical pulverization and bead-assisted liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Cheong, Jae Chul; Lee, Jae Il; In, Moon Kyo

    2011-03-20

    A gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric (GC-NCI-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in human hair. After decontamination, hair samples were weighed (25mg), mechanically pulverized with a bead mill, and incubated in 0.7 mL of 1.0M sodium hydroxide at 95 °C for 30 min. Bead-assisted liquid-liquid extraction was performed with n-hexane:ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v), a method developed in our laboratory. The extract was evaporated to dryness, derivatized with pentafluoropropanol and pentafluoropropionic anhydride, and analyzed by GC-MS/MS in the negative ion chemical ionization mode using methane as the reagent gas. The linear ranges were 0.05-10.0 pg/mg for THC-COOH with the coefficient of determination (r(2) = 0.9976). The intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 1.7 and 13.8%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracies were -4.8 to 10.0% and -3.9 to 3.8%, respectively. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.015 and 0.05 pg/mg, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 79.4-87.1%. The results indicate that the proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate, and precise for determination of THC-COOH in hair. The method identified THC-COOH in hair specimens from suspected marijuana abusers.

  8. Combustion and NOx emission characteristics with respect to staged-air damper opening in a 600 MWe down-fired pulverized-coal furnace under deep-air-staging conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Min; Li, Zhengqi; Wang, Zhihua; Jing, Xinjing; Liu, Chunlong; Zhu, Qunyi; Ling, Zhongqian

    2014-01-01

    Deep-air-staging combustion conditions, widely used in tangential-fired and wall-arranged furnaces to significantly reduce NOx emissions, are premature up to now in down-fired furnaces that are designed especially for industry firing low-volatile coals such as anthracite and lean coal. To uncover combustion and NOx emission characteristics under deep-air-staging conditions within a newly operated 600 MWe down-fired furnace and simultaneously understand the staged-air effect on the furnace performance, full-load industrial-size measurements taken of gas temperatures and species concentrations in the furnace, CO and NOx emissions in flue gas, and carbon in fly ash were performed at various staged-air damper openings of 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50%. Increasing the staged-air damper opening, gas temperatures along the flame travel (before the flame penetrating the staged-air zone) increased initially but then decreased, while those in the staged-air zone and the upper part of the hopper continuously decreased and increased, respectively. On opening the staged-air damper to further deepen the air-staging conditions, O2 content initially decreased but then increased in both two near-wall regions affected by secondary air and staged air, respectively, whereas CO content in both two regions initially increased but then decreased. In contrast to the conventional understanding about the effects of deep-air-staging conditions, here increasing the staged-air damper opening to deepen the air-staging conditions essentially decreased the exhaust gas temperature and carbon in fly ash and simultaneously increased both NOx emissions and boiler efficiency. In light of apparently low NOx emissions and high carbon in fly ash (i.e., 696-878 mg/m(3) at 6% O2 and 9.81-13.05%, respectively) developing in the down-fired furnace under the present deep-air-staging conditions, further adjustments such as enlarging the staged-air declination angle to prolong pulverized-coal residence times in the

  9. NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION DURING PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data on the overall conversion of coal-nitrogen to NOx were obtained at 1250 K and 1750 K for a residence time of one second. The conversion of coal-nitrogen to NOx decreased monotonically with increasing fuel/oxygen equivalence ratio and decreased slightly with increasing temper...

  10. Pulverization of coffee silverskin extract as a source of antioxidant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S.; Kusumocahyo, S. P.; Widiputri, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    Coffee silverskin (CS) is waste from coffee roasting process that has a value as source of antioxidant. In this research, two types of variant coffee Robusta and Arabica CS were extracted for their phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity. The extraction was done at 40°C for 60 minutes using hydroalcoholic solvent. The phenolic, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Robusta CS extract were 816.75 ± 63.24 mg GAE/L and 32.82 ± 2.47 mg QE/L, and 54.80% inhibition respectively, while for Arabica CS extract were 473.51 ± 56.70 mg GAE/L, 18.58 ± 2.47 mg QE/L, and 26.30% inhibition respectively. Thus, the Robusta coffee silverskin extract has higher value of total phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity than Arabica coffee silverskin extract. To produce high antioxidant powder of CS extract, the effect of drying method (freeze drying and spray drying) affecting the phenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The effect of evaporation prior to both drying processes was also evaluated. Evaporation caused up to 23% of total phenolic content degradation. Spray drying resulted in dried CS extract with degradation of total phenolic content up to 17%. On the other hand, freeze drying resulted no major degradation of total phenolic content. However, the coffee silverskin extract can be directly spray dried without evaporation resulting in higher amount of phenolic content in the powder than the one which was evaporated first.

  11. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Pulverizing aeration as a method of lakes restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczorowska, E.; Podsiadłowski, S.

    2012-04-01

    The principal threat to lakes of the temperate zone is posed by factors accelerating their eutrophication and causing marked deoxygenation of the deeper layers of water, mainly the hypo- and metalimnion. Among their effects are frequent phytoplankton blooms, including those of blue-green algae, and general deterioration of water quality also affecting the abundance and health status of fish. The chief concern is a disturbed proportion between the amount of complex chemical compounds, especially organic, and the oxygen content of lake waters. Natural processes of water oxygenation are not too intensive, because they are practically limited to the epilimnion layer, connected as they are with the activity of aquatic plants of the littoral and sublittoral zone (which tends to disappear in contaminated lakes) and wind energy (the effect of waving). In summer conditions, with a relatively great chemical activity of bottom deposits, the intensity of those processes is usually inadequate. Hence, in 1995 a research was launched in the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of the Agricultural University in Poznań on an integrated lake restoration technology whose core was a self-powered aerator capable of oxygenating also the bottom layers of water (the hypolimnion) of deep lakes. The aerator uses energy obtained from a Savonius rotor mainly to diffuse gases: to release hydrogen sulphide, which usually saturates the hypolimnion water completely, and then to saturate this water with oxygen. Even early studies showed the constructed device to be highly efficient in improving oxygen conditions in the bottom zone. They also made it clear that it should be equipped with an autonomous system designed to inactivate phosphorus, one of the principal factors determining the rate of lake degradation. In 2003 the first wind-driven pulverising aerator equipped with such a system was installed in Town Lake in Chodzież. The aim of this work is to present the principles of operation of a wind-driven pulverising aerator with a phosphorus inactivation system, as well as its general technical characteristics and preliminary results of a study of its performance.

  13. Mathematical modeling of MILD combustion of pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffel, N.; Mancini, M.; Weber, R.; Szlek, A.

    2009-09-15

    MILD (flameless) combustion is a new rapidly developing technology. The IFRF trials have demonstrated high potential of this technology also for N-containing fuels. In this work the IFRF experiments are analyzed using the CFD-based mathematical model. Both the Chemical Percolation Devolatilization (CPD) model and the char combustion intrinsic reactivity model have been adapted to Guasare coal combusted. The flow-field as well as the temperature and the oxygen fields have been accurately predicted by the CFD-based model. The predicted temperature and gas composition fields have been uniform demonstrating that slow combustion occurs in the entire furnace volume. The CFD-based predictions have highlighted the NO{sub x} reduction potential of MILD combustion through the following mechanism. Before the coal devolatilization proceeds, the coal jet entrains a substantial amount of flue gas so that its oxygen content is typically not higher than 3-5%. The volatiles are given off in a highly sub-stoichiometric environment and their N-containing species are preferentially converted to molecular nitrogen rather than to NO. Furthermore, there exists a strong NO-reburning mechanism within the fuel jet and in the air jet downstream of the position where these two jets merge. In other words, less NO is formed from combustion of volatiles and stronger NO-reburning mechanisms exist in the MILD combustion if compared to conventional coal combustion technology. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic properties of pulverized coal during rapid heating devolatilization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Proscia, W.M.; Freihaut, J.D.; Rastogi, S.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1994-07-01

    The thermodynamic properties of coal under conditions of rapid heating have been determined using a combination of UTRC facilities including a proprietary rapid heating rate differential thermal analyzer (RHR-DTA), a microbomb calorimeter (MBC), an entrained flow reactor (EFR), an elemental analyzer (EA), and a FT-IR. The total heat of devolatilization, was measured for a HVA bituminous coal (PSOC 1451D, Pittsburgh No. 8) and a LV bituminous coal (PSOC 1516D, Lower Kittaning). For the HVA coal, the contributions of each of the following components to the overall heat of devolatilization were measured: the specific heat of coal/char during devolatilization, the heat of thermal decomposition of the coal, the specific heat capacity of tars, and the heat of vaporization of tars. Morphological characterization of coal and char samples was performed at the University of Pittsburgh using a PC-based image analysis system, BET apparatus, helium pcynometer, and mercury porosimeter. The bulk density, true density, CO{sub 2} surface area, pore volume distribution, and particle size distribution as a function of extent of reaction are reported for both the HVA and LV coal. Analyses of the data were performed to obtain the fractal dimension of the particles as well as estimates for the external surface area. The morphological data together with the thermodynamic data obtained in this investigation provides a complete database for a set of common, well characterized coal and char samples. This database can be used to improve the prediction of particle temperatures in coal devolatilization models. Such models are used both to obtain kinetic rates from fundamental studies and in predicting furnace performance with comprehensive coal combustion codes. Recommendations for heat capacity functions and heats of devolatilization for the HVA and LV coals are given. Results of sample particle temperature calculations using the recommended thermodynamic properties are provided.

  15. Effect of bead milling on chemical and physical characteristics of activated carbons pulverized to superfine sizes.

    PubMed

    Partlan, Erin; Davis, Kathleen; Ren, Yiran; Apul, Onur Guven; Mefford, O Thompson; Karanfil, Tanju; Ladner, David A

    2016-02-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (S-PAC) is an adsorbent material with particle size between roughly 0.1-1 μm. This is about an order of magnitude smaller than conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC), typically 10-50 μm. S-PAC has been shown to outperform PAC for adsorption of various drinking water contaminants. However, variation in S-PAC production methods and limited material characterization in prior studies lead to questions of how S-PAC characteristics deviate from that of its parent PAC. In this study, a wet mill filled with 0.3-0.5 mm yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide grinding beads was used to produce S-PAC from seven commercially available activated carbons of various source materials, including two coal types, coconut shell, and wood. Particle sizes were varied by changing the milling time, keeping mill power, batch volume, and recirculation rate constant. As expected, mean particle size decreased with longer milling. A lignite coal-based carbon had the smallest mean particle diameter at 169 nm, while the wood-based carbon had the largest at 440 nm. The wood and coconut-shell based carbons had the highest resistance to milling. Specific surface area and pore volume distributions were generally unchanged with increased milling time. Changes in the point of zero charge (pH(PZC)) and oxygen content of the milled carbons were found to correlate with an increasing specific external surface area. However, the isoelectric point (pH(IEP)), which measures only external surfaces, was unchanged with milling and also much lower in value than pH(PZC). It is likely that the outer surface is easily oxidized while internal surfaces remain largely unchanged, which results in a lower average pH as measured by pH(PZC).

  16. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2005-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

  17. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  18. Wood plastic composite produced by nonmetals from pulverized waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Tang, Yinen; Xu, Zhenming

    2010-01-01

    Nonmetals reclaimed from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) are used to replace wood flour in the production of wood plastic composite (WPC). To evaluate property durability against weather exposure, the effects of accelerated aging process on the properties of WPC are investigated. The results show that filling of nonmetals in WPC improves the flexural strength and tensile strength, and reduces screw withdrawal strength. Before hollow WPC with 15% nonmetals (H-15-WPC) underwent aging process, H-15-WPC had a flexural strength of 25.8 MPa, a tensile strength of 9.8 MPa, a charpy impact strength of 3.4 kJ/m(2), and face/edge screw withdrawal strength of 121/115 N/mm. It is found that flexural strength of H-15-WPC decreases linearly with the increase of accelerated aging cycles, and the effects of aging test on tensile and impact strength of H-15-WPC are minor. For solid WPC, the accelerated aging test decreases screw withdrawal strength slightly. All the results indicate that nonmetals of waste PCBs can be reused as an alternative for wood flour in WPC products rather than resorting to their landfill or combustion.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  20. Conventional pulverized coal and fluidized bed combustion testing of San Miguel lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.L.; Goblirsch, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The information generated at GFETC can be summarized in the following way: (1) The ash fouling furnace is an empirical tool which provides good information on relative fouling potential of various fuels. In the case of San Miguel lignite, tests suggest a severe fouling problem if conventional boiler designs are employed. (2) No effect in either deposition rate or deposit strength was seen when MgO and CaCO/sub 3/ were used as additives. For these tests a single addition rate was utilized at two different injection points in the system. (3) Deposits from the combustion of San Miguel lignite are very different from those observed when burning a Northern Great Plains lignite, primarily because of the building of deposits from the refractory wall. (4) No bed agglomeration was noted under the varied run conditions used in AFBC testing of this lignite fuel. (5) The AFBC NO/sub chi/ level emitted in the flue gas were always less than the NSPS limit of 0.6 lbs NO/sub 2//10/sup 6/ Btu. (6) Utilization of inherent alkali was less than that observed for North Dakota lignites. It was possible to meet NSPS standards of 90% sulfur capture using limestone addition. Use of lower grade fuels such as the lignite from the San Miguel mine is inevitable if we are to meet the expanding needs for energy in the United States today. To make use of these different fuels extensive testing on laboratory and pilot scales will be beneficial in avoiding major problems due to the different characteristics these materials possess. The present successful operation of a full scale boiler using the San Miguel lignite is a good example of the value pilot scale studies can have on the road to successful operation.

  1. Analytical evaluation of the protection offered by sealed tractor cabins during crop pulverization with fenitrothion.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Michelle; Faletti, Milena Michele; Madureira, Luiz Augusto Dos Santos; Bauer, Fernando Cesar

    2016-12-01

    The practice of large-scale agriculture requires the use of pesticides in order to maximize production. This activity has gained increasing attention in recent years, especially from rural workers, due to the risks associated with long-term exposure to pesticides. To minimize these risks, personal protection equipment (e.g., covers, gloves, and goggles) and collective protection equipment (e.g., agricultural tractors with sealed cabins) have been developed. In general, these approaches are intended to reduce the contact of farmers and agricultural machinery operators with the more toxic and stable compounds, an example of which is fenitrothion. In this study, fenitrothion was used as a marker to evaluate the protection afforded inside a sealed tractor cabin. To simulate the pesticide exposure, tests were performed using artificial cotton targets as passive adsorptive agents inside the cabin during the pesticide application. Samples were extracted according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) procedure using ultrasonic extraction and as proposed by the Brazilian Standard for Solid Waste Classification (NBR 10004). The extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The chromatographic method was optimized using a factorial design. The combined results indicated that the best conditions were achieved using a mobile phase with a water/acetonitrile ratio of 35:65, a column temperature of 40 °C, and a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a total analysis time of <10 min. The method was evaluated in the linear range of 0.50 to 2.01 mg/kg, with a determination coefficient of 0.9886. The precision was evaluated on different days and the relative standard deviations were between 0.17 and 3.41 %. In relation to the accuracy, recovery values of 95 to 104 % were obtained. The detection and quantification limits were 0.18 and 0.50 mg/kg, respectively. None of the target cottons showed concentrations of fenitrothion above the limit of detection of 0.18 mg/kg.

  2. BENCH-SCALE STUDIES TO IDENTIFY PROCESS PARAMETERS CONTROLLING REBURNING WITH PULVERIZED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report addresses the evaluation of a technology which is a combination of two technologies used to control the atmospheric emission of NOx by stationary sources: (1) combustion modification (controls flame temperature and maximizes fuel-rich residence time to minimize NOx for...

  3. ON TRIMODAL PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN FLY ASH FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion generated fine particles, defined as those with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 micrometers, have come under increased regulatory scrutiny because of suspected links to adverse human health effects. Whereas classical theories regarding coal combustion suggest that ...

  4. Comparison of chars obtained under oxy-fuel and conventional pulverized coal combustion atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles G. Borrego; Diego Alvarez

    2007-12-15

    In this study, two coals of different rank (a high volatile and a low volatile bituminous) have been burned in a drop tube reactor using O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures with increasing oxygen content from 0 to 21%. Various oxygen concentrations have been selected for each set of experiments in order to follow both the progress of combustion and the influence of oxygen content in the devolatilization behavior of coal. Results show that a higher amount of O{sub 2} in CO{sub 2} than in N{sub 2} is needed to achieve similar burnout levels. Significant differences were found in the influence of oxygen content on the devolatilization behavior of the lower and higher rank coal. The limited amount of oxygen in the reacting atmosphere resulted in volatile release inhibition for the high volatile bituminous coal, whereas the more plastic low volatile coal was hardly affected. The presence of variable amounts of oxygen in CO{sub 2} had a small influence on the char particle appearance. The chars from both the combustion series (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) and the oxy-fuel series (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) were similar for each parent coal in terms of reactivity and micropore surface area measured by CO{sub 2} adsorption. The main difference between both series of chars relied on the surface area determined by N{sub 2} adsorption (SBET) and on the size distribution of pores which was shifted to a larger size for the oxy-fuel series. The difference between both series of chars was larger for the high volatile bituminous coal chars than for the low volatile bituminous coal chars. This might have important implications for combustion under the diffusion-controlled regime. 29 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  5. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  6. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  7. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Diaz, R.; Niksa, S.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the present work is to introduce an experimental program that will eventually lead to time-resolved iron ash composition over the technological operating domain. The preceding literature survey suggests two important stipulations on any such experimental program. The first stipulation is that good control must be established over the operating conditions, to accurately quantify their effects. The other is that data must be obtained rapidly, to thoroughly cover the important operating domain. This work presents a series of studies that has characterized the desulfurization of pyrite during the early stages of combustion. An experimental system was established and used to monitor the effects of oxygen, temperature, and residence time on the evolution of condensed phase products of the combustion of pure pyrite. (VC)

  8. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gollahalli, S.R.; Butuk, N.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the project were: (i) to understand the effects of heating one of the streams on the characteristics of shear layers, (ii) to investigate the changes in the characteristics of large scale vortex structures in the shear layer caused by the introduction of inert solid particles in one of the feed streams; (iii) to understand the effects of pyrolyzing solids on the shear layer behavior; and (iv) to study the effects of combustion of particles and their pyrolysis products on the shear layer structure, heat release rate, and pollutant emission characteristics. An experimental facility for generating two-dimensional shear layers containing vortex structures has been designed and fabricated. The experimental facility is essentially a low speed wind tunnel designed to (i) provide two gas streams, initially with uniform velocity profiles and isotropic turbulence, mixing at the end of a splitter plate, (ii) introduce vorticity by passively perturbing one of the streams, (iii) allow heating of one of the streams to temperatures high enough to cause pyrolysis of coal particles, and (iv) provide a natural gas flame in one of the streams to result in ignition and burning of coal particles.

  9. Ash particulate formation from pulverized coal under oxy-fuel combustion conditions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunlu; Lighty, JoAnn S

    2012-05-01

    Aerosol particulates are generated by coal combustion. The amount and properties of aerosol particulates, specifically size distribution and composition, can be affected by combustion conditions. Understanding the formation of these particles is important for predicting emissions and understanding potential deposition. Oxy-fuel combustion conditions utilize an oxygen-enriched gas environment with CO(2). The high concentration of CO(2) is a result of recycle flue gas which is used to maintain temperature. A hypothesis is that high CO(2) concentration reduces the vaporization of refractory oxides from combustion. A high-temperature drop-tube furnace was used under different oxygen concentrations and CO(2) versus N(2) to study the effects of furnace temperature, coal type, and gas phase conditions on particulate formation. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) were utilized for particle size distributions ranging from 14.3 nm to 20 μm. In addition, particles were collected on a Berner low pressure impactor (BLPI) for elemental analysis using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Three particle size modes were seen: ultrafine (below 0.1 μm), fine (0.1 to 1.0 μm), and coarse (above 1 μm). Ultrafine mass concentrations were directly related to estimated particle temperature, increasing with increasing temperature. For high silicon and calcium coals, Utah Skyline and PRB, there was a secondary effect due to CO(2) and the hypothesized reaction. Illinois #6, a high sulfur coal, had the highest amount of ultrafine mass and most of the sulfur was concentrated in the ultrafine and fine modes. Fine and coarse mode mass concentrations did not show a temperature or CO(2) relationship. (The table of contents graphic and abstract graphic are adapted from ref 27.).

  10. Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Woo; Jang, Cheol-Hyeon

    2011-03-01

    Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500°C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

  11. Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang-Woo; Jang, Cheol-Hyeon

    2011-03-15

    Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

  12. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend leading submodels of coal transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation energy technologies. During the first project quarter, a technical kick-off meeting was held on the Brown campus involving PIs from Brown (Hurt, Calo), BYU (Fletcher), and B&W (Sayre, Burge). Following this first meeting the current version of CBK (Version 8) was transferred to B&W McDermott and the HP-CBK code developed by BYU was transferred to Brown to help guide the code development in this project. Also during the first project year, progress was reviewed at an all-hands meeting was held at Brigham Young University in August, 2001. The meeting was attended by PIs Fletcher, Hurt, Calo, and Sayre, and also by affiliated investigators Steven Burge from McDermott and Prof. William Hecker from BYU. During the first project year, significant progress was made on several fronts, as described in detail in the previous annual report. In the current second annual report, we report on progress made on two important project tasks. At Brown University: (1) Char combustion reactivities at 500 C in air were determined for a diverse set of solid fuels and organic model compound chars. These varied over 4 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 700 C, and over 3 orders of magnitude for the chars prepared at 1000 C. The resultant reactivities correlate poorly with organic elemental composition and with char surface area. (2) Specially-acquired model materials with minute amounts of inorganic matter exhibit low reactivities that fall in a narrow band as a function of wt-% carbon. Reactivities in this sample subset correlate reasonably well with total char surface area. (3) A hybrid chemical/statistical model was developed which explains most of the observed reactivity variation based on four variables: the amounts of nano-dispersed K, nanodispersed (Ca+Mg), elemental carbon (wt-% daf), and nano-dispersed vanadium, listed in decreasing order of importance. Catalytic effects play a very significant role in the oxidation of most practical solid fuel chars. Some degree of reactivity estimation is possible using only elemental analyses of parent fuels, but only if correlative techniques make use of the existing body of knowledge on the origin, form and dispersion of inorganic matter in various fuel classes. During the past year at BYU, work focused primarily on renovation of the BYU high pressure drop tube reactor (HPDT). This work has included design and testing of a flat-flame burner that can be operated at high pressure. A high-temperature, high-pressure gas profile has been achieved within this high-pressure flat-flame burner (HP-FFB). Detailed descriptions of the design and testing of the HP-FFB are given in this report. In addition, continued char reactivity experiments in the high pressure thermogravimetric analyzer (HP-TGA) have been performed on chars produced at different pressures in the HPDT. Results of the HP-TGA reactivity studies on a high-volatile A bituminous (Pittsburgh No.8) char are that intrinsic char activation energy increases with pyrolysis pressure, and that the oxygen order is roughly 0.9. These results are different than previous research on chars produced at atmospheric pressure. These new data show that the rate constant decreases with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the hydrogen content of the new chars produced at elevated pressures was fairly high ({approx}2 wt. %, daf), and char samples produced at higher temperatures are desired. During the next project year, experimental work on oxygen reactivity at high pressure will continue at BYU, and on CO{sub 2} reactivity at high pressure at Brown University. Selected chars produced at BYU under high pressure conditions will also be used at Brown for reactivity studies.

  13. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF THE ROTARY COMBUSTOR FOR REFIRING PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Murray F. Abbott; Jamal B. Mereb; Simon P. Hanson; Michael J. Virr

    2000-11-01

    The Rotary Combustor is a novel concept for burning coal with low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions. It burns crushed coal in a fluid bed where the bed is maintained in a rotating drum by centripetal force. Since this force may be varied, the combustor may be very compact, and thus be a direct replacement for a p.c. burner on existing boilers. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate that a typical industrial boiler can be refired with the modified prototype Rotary Combustor to burn Ohio high-sulfur coal with low emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The primary problem that must be resolved to demonstrate sustained operations with coal is temperature control in the rotating fluid bed. The prototype Rotary Combustor was assembled and installed on the T-850P CNB boiler at the CONSOL Energy site in South Park, Pennsylvania. Several design improvements were investigated and implemented during the assembly to improve the prototype Rotary Combustor operations compared to prior tests at Detroit Stoker in Monroe, Michigan. An Operating Manual and Safety Review were completed. The shakedown test phase was initiated. Two major problems were initially encountered: binding of the rotating drum at operating temperatures, and reduced fluid-bed pressure drop after short periods of operation. Plating the brush seal rotary land ring with a chrome carbide plasma spray and lubricating the seal prior to each test sufficiently resolved these problems to permit a limited number of operations tests. Unlike previous tests at Detroit Stoker, sustained operation of the prototype Rotary Combustor was accomplished burning a high-Btu fuel, metallurgical coke. The prototype Rotary Combustor was operated with coke in gasifier mode on two occasions. Fluid-bed temperature spiking was minimized with manual control of the feeds (coke, air and steam), and no clinker formation problems were encountered in either test. Emission levels of NO{sub x} were measured at about 270 ppmv which were higher those targeted for the device which were 100 ppmv. This was assumed to be because of the aforementioned temperature spiking. The primary operating problem remains control of the fluid-bed temperature. Although improvements were made, steam flow control was manual, and very coarse. To accomplish this will require finer control of the steam flow to the rotary drum air plenum, and development of an algorithm for automatic control using the Moore APACS{trademark}. This is the recommended succeeding step in the development of the Rotary Combustor for industrial or utility use.

  14. Computational Modeling and Experimental Studies on NO(x) Reduction Under Pulverized Coal Combustion Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpaty, S.K.; Subramanian, K.; Hodges, T.L.

    1997-09-01

    During this quarter efforts were made to conduct reburning experiments with coal. Our efforts met with partial success but there arose persistent problems with the operation of the coal feeder. This entire quarter has been the most challenging time for the research team in terms of solving the problems and carrying out the intended experiments. Discussed below are some of the results as well as challenges. We hope to overcome the problems in due time. At the writing of this report, some parts of the coal feeder are being rebuilt by MK Fabrication.

  15. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized encoal PDF fired boiler. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. This report describes the plant design.

  16. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized coal boiler with flue gas desulfurization. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications.

  17. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    West, C E

    1980-09-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 pound (coal) per hour staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft diameter aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 pound capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time.

  18. Measurements and modeling of pulverized fuel char in an entrained flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebria, Mazdak

    In recent years, the combustion zone of utility boilers were modified for NOx control and this made the task of maintaining low residual carbon levels in boiler fly ash much more difficult. To predict the relationships between boiler operating conditions and residual carbon-in-ash, there is a need for improvements in determining the appropriate char reactivity to use in simulating coal-fired combustors and in relating this reactivity to unburned coal characteristics. To aid in this effort, a tubular, downward-fired, refractory-lined, laminar entrained flow reactor (EFR) was built to provide a pilot scale environment with 2 seconds residence time for studying coal combustion. Using a commercial CFD code (FLUENT), a three dimensional numerical model of coal burning in the EFR was created to evaluate common char burnout kinetic modeling approaches. EFR experimental data was obtained for operating conditions adjusted to reproduce particle Lagrangian temperature and oxygen concentration time histories typically found in coal-fired utility boilers. The radial temperature profiles were measured at different axial locations in the EFR with a suction pyrometer and thermocouples. The temperature distribution in the reactor agreed well with the simulations. A gas analyzer with a quenching probe was used to measure the oxygen distribution to similarly confirm oxygen distribution in the EFR. A semi-isokinetic particulate sampling probe was used to extract ash samples at different heights in the reactor to measure the evolution of loss on ignition (LOI). Measured LOI values were used to validate the model against predicted values. Reaction kinetics rates in the model were adjusted to bring agreement between calculated LOI and the measured values from the experimental results. The LOI predictions by kinetic-diffusion and CBK model are very similar at the late stage of char burnout. The results indicate that we can achieve sufficient accuracy for the prediction of final carbon-in-ash using the much simpler kinetic-diffusion model. The ratio of reaction rates of two coals in the low temperature TGA experiment were compared with the high temperature EFR experiment. The ratio of reaction rate between two coal chars in the TGA experiments was nearly one order of magnitude higher than in the EFR experiments.

  19. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  20. Modeling the behavior of selenium in Pulverized-Coal Combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Senior, Constance; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost O.L.; Sarofim, Adel

    2010-11-15

    The behavior of Se during coal combustion is different from other trace metals because of the high degree of vaporization and high vapor pressures of the oxide (SeO{sub 2}) in coal flue gas. In a coal-fired boiler, these gaseous oxides are absorbed on the fly ash surface in the convective section by a chemical reaction. The composition of the fly ash (and of the parent coal) as well as the time-temperature history in the boiler therefore influences the formation of selenium compounds on the surface of the fly ash. A model was created for interactions between selenium and fly ash post-combustion. The reaction mechanism assumed that iron reacts with selenium at temperatures above 1200 C and that calcium reacts with selenium at temperatures less than 800 C. The model also included competing reactions of SO{sub 2} with calcium and iron in the ash. Predicted selenium distributions in fly ash (concentration versus particle size) were compared against measurements from pilot-scale experiments for combustion of six coals, four bituminous and two low-rank coals. The model predicted the selenium distribution in the fly ash from the pilot-scale experiments reasonably well for six coals of different compositions. (author)

  1. Temperature, velocity and Species Profile Measurements for Reburning in a Pulverized, Entrained Flow, Coal Combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Tree, D.R.

    1997-10-01

    Measurements of effluent NO{sub x}, CO, and O{sub 2} have been obtained for various reburning locations in the controlled profile reactor. the location of the reburning zone and tertiary air zone have been varied to find an optimal location for detailed reburning profile measurements. No{sub x} reduction of greater than 70% has been seen with natural gas injection in and just below the primary combustion zone. Strategic injection of the natural gas for reburning reduces the total No{sub x} reduction capability of reburning. Modeling efforts continue in trying to match the modeling solution to the detailed baseline data taken in previous measurement. The use of more accurate measured boundary conditions did not appear to improve the model predictions greatly but the use of more detailed turbulence models was found to improve the predictions, the predictions are still far from matching the combustion measurements.

  2. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  3. Behavior of fluorine and chlorine in Spanish coal fired power plants with pulverized coal boilers and fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    López-Vilariño, J M; Fernández-Martínez, G; Turnes-Carou, I; Muinategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2003-06-01

    Behavior and contents of fluorine and chlorine in coal feedstock, combustion wastes (slag and fly ash) and emissions were studied in five conventional coal fired power plants and in a fluidized bed coal power plant. The halide levels found in the used coal were quite low. Mass balances and emission factors were calculated. The volatility of these elements makes the gaseous emission the main target between the residues. The influence of combustion parameters is not clearly established. Several analytical techniques (ion selective electrodes, capillary electrophoresis and ion chromatography) are employed to determinate the halide concentration in the different samples taken in the power plants studied (coal, slag, fly ash and flue gases).

  4. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process. Computer simulations for coal: LB blends were performed by modifying an existing computer code to include the drying and phosphorus (P) oxidation models. The gasification studies revealed that there is bed agglomeration in the case of chicken litter biomass due to its higher alkaline oxide content in the ash. Finally, the results of the economic analysis show that considerable fuel cost savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings is reduced.

  5. CO-FIRING COAL, FEEDLOT, AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND LFB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thien; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2002-01-15

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. In this project a co-firing technology is proposed which would use manure that cannot be used for fertilizer, for power generation. Since the animal manure has economic uses as both a fertilizer and as a fuel, it is properly referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) for cow manure, or litter biomass (LB) for chicken manure. The biomass will be used a as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in existing coal fired combustion devices. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Therefore, it is the goal of the current research to develop an animal biomass cofiring technology. A cofiring technology is being developed by performing: (1) studies on fundamental fuel characteristics, (2) small scale boiler burner experiments, (3) gasifier experiments, (4) computer simulations, and (5) an economic analysis. The fundamental fuel studies reveal that biomass is not as high a quality fuel as coal. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, higher in moisture, higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution), and lower in heat content than coal. Additionally, experiments indicate that the biomass fuels have higher gas content, release gases more readily than coal, and less homogeneous. Small-scale boiler experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} pollutant emissions produced will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. This is a surprising result as the levels of N are higher in the biomass fuel than in coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when used in a reburning process to reduce NO{sub x} emissions. Since crushing costs of biomass fuels may be prohibitive, stoker firing may be cost effective; in order simulate such a firing, future work will investigate the performance of a gasifier when fired with larger sized coal and biomass. It will be a fixed bed gasifier, and will evaluate blends, coal, and biomass. Computer simulations were performed using the PCGC-2 code supplied by BYU and modified by A&M with three mixture fractions for handling animal based biomass fuels in order to include an improved moisture model for handling wet fuels and phosphorus oxidation. Finally the results of the economic analysis show that considerable savings can be achieved with the use of biomass. In the case of higher ash and moisture biomass, the fuel cost savings will be reduced, due to increased transportation costs. A spreadsheet program was created to analyze the fuel savings for a variety of different moisture levels, ash levels, and power plant operating parameters.

  6. Performance and thermal behavior of wood plastic composite produced by nonmetals of pulverized waste printed circuit boards.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Tang, Yinen; Xu, Zhenming

    2010-07-15

    A new kind of wood plastic composite (WPC) was produced by compounding nonmetals from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), recycled high-density polyethylene (HDPE), wood flour and other additives. The blended granules were then extruded to profile WPC products by a conical counter-rotating twin-screw extruder. The results showed that the addition of nonmetals in WPC improved the flexural strength and tensile strength and reduced screw withdrawal strength. When the added content of nonmetals was 40%, the flexural strength of WPC was 23.4 MPa, tensile strength was 9.6 MPa, impact strength was 3.03 J/m(2) and screw withdrawal strength was 1755 N. Dimensional stability and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of WPC panels were also investigated. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analysis showed that thermal degradation of WPC mainly included two steps. The first step was the decomposition of wood flour and nonmetals from 260 to 380 degrees C, and the second step was the decomposition of HDPE from 440 to 500 degrees C. The performance and thermal behavior of WPC produced by nonmetals from PCBs achieves the standard of WPC. It offers a novel method to treat nonmetals from PCBs.

  7. Radiation/turbulence interactions in pulverized-coal flames. Second year technical progress report, September 30, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Menguec, M.P.; McDonough, J.M.; Manickavsagam, S.; Mukerji, S.; Wang, D.; Ghosal, S.; Swabb, S.

    1995-12-31

    Our goal in this project is to investigate the interaction of radiation and turbulence in coalfired laboratory scale flames and attempt to determine the boundaries of the ``uncertainty domain`` in Figure 3 more rigorously. We have three distinct objectives: (1) To determine from experiments the effect of turbulent fluctuations on the devolatilization/pyrolysis of coal particles and soot yield, and to measure the change in the ``effective`` radiative properties of particulates due to turbulence interactions; (2) To perform local small-scale simulations to investigate the radiation-turbulence interactions in coal-fired flames starting from first principles; and (3) To develop a thorough and rigorous, but computationally practical, turbulence model for coal flames, starting from the experimental observations and small scale simulations.

  8. COMPARISON OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELEMENTAL PARTITIONING FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL AND RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particloe size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction, electr...

  9. Behavior study of trace elements in pulverized lignite, bottom ash, and fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece.

    PubMed

    Megalovasilis, Pavlos; Papastergios, Georgios; Filippidis, Anestis

    2013-07-01

    The Kozani-Ptolemais-Amyntaio basin constitutes the principal coal field of Greece. Approximately 50% of the total power production of Greece is generated by five power stations operating in the area. Lignite samples, together with the corresponding fly ash and bottom ash were collected, over a period of 3 months, from the power plant of Amyntaio and analyzed for their content in 16 trace elements. The results indicate that Y, Nb, U, Rb, Zr, Ni, Pb, Ba, Zn, Sr, Cu, and Th demonstrate an organic affinity during the combustion of lignite, while V has an inorganic affinity. Three elements (Co, Cr, and Sc) show an intermediate affinity.

  10. Chlorine in solid fuels fired in pulverized fuel boilers sources, forms, reactions, and consequences: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Tillman; Dao Duong; Bruce Miller

    2009-07-15

    Chlorine is a significant source of corrosion and deposition, both from coal and from biomass, and in PF boilers. This investigation was designed to highlight the potential for corrosion risks associated with once-through units and advanced cycles. The research took the form of a detailed literature investigation to evaluate chlorine in solid fuels: coals of various ranks and origins, biomass fuels of a variety of types, petroleum cokes, and blends of the above. The investigation focused upon an extensive literature review of documents dating back to 1991. The focus is strictly corrosion and deposition. To address the deposition and corrosion issues, this review evaluates the following considerations: concentrations of chlorine in available solid fuels including various coals and biomass fuels, forms of chlorine in those fuels, and reactions - including reactivities - of chlorine in such fuels. The assessment includes consideration of alkali metals and alkali earth elements as they react with, and to, the chlorine and other elements (e.g., sulfur) in the fuel and in the gaseous products of combustion. The assessment also includes other factors of combustion: for example, combustion conditions including excess O{sub 2} and combustion temperatures. It also considers analyses conducted at all levels: theoretical calculations, bench scale laboratory data and experiments, pilot plant experiments, and full scale plant experience. Case studies and plant surveys form a significant consideration in this review. The result of this investigation focuses upon the concentrations of chlorine acceptable in coals burned exclusively, in coals burned with biomass, and in biomass cofired with coal. Values are posited based upon type of fuel and combustion technology. Values are also posited based upon both first principles and field experience. 86 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. EFFECTS OF CHANGING COALS ON THE EMISSIONS OF METAL HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses tests conducted at EPA's Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division to evaluate the effects of changing coals on emissions of metal hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired boilers. Six coals were burned in a 29 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) down-fired combustor und...

  12. Radiative heat transfer in pulverized-coal-fired boilers: Development of the absorptive/reflective character of initial ash deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.H.; Harb, J.N.; Baxter, L.L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Gupta, R.P.; Wall, T.F.

    1994-02-01

    Emission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy data provide in situ, time-resolved, spectral emissivity measurements for ash deposits generated from two US Powder River Basin coals under realistic combustion conditions. The first three hours of deposit growth on a tube in cross flow in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor detail the development of surface emissivity with time. Measured emissivities vary significantly with wavelength, reflecting the influence of the physical, chemical, and optical properties of the deposit. At long wavelengths (>7{mu}m), emission bands exhibit characteristics of sulfates and silicates. The spectral emissivity measured in this region approaches a steady value, indicating that the deposit becomes opaque. In contrast, deposits are not opaque at shorter wavelengths where the measured emissivity is influenced by the properties of the underlying metal surface. Theoretical predictions of the emissivity of a particulate layer were performed and results are compared to the measured values. The theory adequately predicts the general features of spectral variation of the emissivity. The predicted trends in emissivity with particle size and deposit composition are also consistent with experimental observations. Total (Planck-weighted) emissivities are calculated from the measured spectral values for the deposits at flame temperatures. They increase with time from the clean tube value (0.2 to 0.3) to values typical of deposits formed from western US coals (0.45 to 0.55). The total absorptivities are also calculated based on wall temperatures and found to be somewhat lower than the corresponding emissivities (0.30 to 0.37). In all cases, the ash deposits exhibit more reflective behavior than deposits generated from most eastern US coals with emissivities of the order of 0.7 to 0.9.

  13. Numerical simulation of ash vaporization during pulverized coal combustion in the laboratory-scale single-burner furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Jiancai Sui; Minghou Xu; Jihua Qiu; Yu Qiao; Yun Yu; Xiaowei Liu; Xiangpeng Gao

    2005-08-01

    CFD tools have been developed to effectively simulate complex, reacting, multiphase flows that exist in utility boilers. In this paper, a model of ash vaporization was established and integrated into a self-developed CFD code to predict ash vaporization in the coal combustion process. Experimental data from a single-particle combustion was used to validate the above model. The calibrated model was then applied to simulate the ash vaporization in a 92.9 kW laboratory-scale single-burner furnace. The effects of different combustion conditions, including air staging, on the ash vaporization were investigated. The results showed that the fraction of ash vaporization is mostly sensitive to coal particle temperature. Ash vaporization primarily occurred after a short interval along the coal particle trajectories when the particle temperatures increased to 1800 K. Air staging influenced the ash vaporization by changing the gas temperature distribution in the furnace. The simulation results showed that the more extreme the staging condition, the lower the overall peak temperature, and hence the lower the amount of ash vaporization. 26 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Assessment of pulverized-coal-fired combustion performance: Final report for the period September 1980--September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, W.F.; Clark, W.; Pohl, J.H.; Payne, R.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate an engineering analysis procedure which could be used to assess the impact on thermal performance of converting gas and oil fired equipment to coal. The program consisted of four major tasks: (1) Engineering Analysis. The objective was to evaluate currently available models which could be used to predict combustor performance and to define a procedure which could be used to assess the impact of a coal firing in a boiler or furnace; (2) Reactor Studies. The purpose was to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the radiative properties of fly ash clouds; (3) Pilot Scale Experiments. This involved a combustion trial with gas and coals which were burned at 0.7 /times/ 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr in a pilot-scale combustor. The purpose was to verify and supplement the results of the small-scale reactor studies on the radiant properties of coal flames at larger scale; (4) Reporting. Engineering analysis procedures were used to identify those fuels related properties which had a major impact on the thermal performance of furnaces. The major result of the study is that thermal performance of coal-fired furnaces is dominated by the formation of fly ash deposits on the heat transfer surfaces. The key parameters which influence thermal performance are: thickness, thermal conductivity, and surface emissivity or absorptivity. 105 refs., 170 figs., 29 tabs.

  15. Assessment of pulverized-coal-fired combustor performance. Models for coal-combustor performance: analytical tool verification

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, W.

    1981-02-01

    The development of mathematical models that describe the complex heat transfer processes which occur in industrial combustion chambers is discussed. These combustor models are grouped as either pure heat transfer models or as coupled fluid flow, combustion, and heat transfer models. Two models of the first type and one of the second type are described together with some basic assumptions and sample problems which illustrate their major features and capabilities. (LCL)

  16. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO2 Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Jr., Herbert E.; Chiu, John H.; Edberg, Carl D.; Thibeault, Paul R.; Turek, David G.

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO2 from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO2 for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  17. Comparison of particle size distributions and elemental partitioning from the combustion of pulverized coal and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Linak, W P; Miller, C A; Wendt, J O

    2000-08-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) research examining the characteristics of primary PM generated by the combustion of fossil fuels is being conducted in efforts to help determine mechanisms controlling associated adverse health effects. Transition metals are of particular interest, due to the results of studies that have shown cardiopulmonary damage associated with exposure to these elements and their presence in coal and residual fuel oils. Further, elemental speciation may influence this toxicity, as some species are significantly more water-soluble, and potentially more bio-available, than others. This paper presents results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particle size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction as well as electrical mobility, time-of-flight, and light-scattering techniques. Size-classified PM samples from this study are also being utilized by colleagues for animal instillation experiments. Experimental results on the mass and compositions of particles between 0.03 and > 20 microns in aerodynamic diameter show that PM from the combustion of these fuels produces distinctive bimodal and trimodal PSDs, with a fine mode dominated by vaporization, nucleation, and growth processes. Depending on the fuel and combustion equipment, the coarse mode is composed primarily of unburned carbon char and associated inherent trace elements (fuel oil) and fragments of inorganic (largely calcium-alumino-silicate) fly ash including trace elements (coal). The three coals also produced a central mode between 0.8- and 2.0-micron aerodynamic diameter. However, the origins of these particles are less clear because vapor-to-particle growth processes are unlikely to produce particles this large. Possible mechanisms include the liberation of micron-scale mineral inclusions during char fragmentation and burnout and indicates that refractory transition metals can contribute to PM < 2.5 microns without passing through a vapor phase. When burned most efficiently, the residual fuel oil produces a PSD composed almost exclusively of an ultrafine mode (approximately 0.1 micron). The transition metals associated with these emissions are composed of water-soluble metal sulfates. In contrast, the transition metals associated with coal combustion are not significantly enriched in PM < 2.5 microns and are significantly less soluble, likely because of their association with the mineral constituents. These results may have implications regarding health effects associated with exposure to these particles.

  18. Co-combustion of coal and biomass in pulverized fuel and fluidized bed systems -- Activities and research in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, H.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass or sewage sludge utilized as additional fuel in coal combustion systems has consequences on combustion behavior, emissions, corrosion, and residual matter. Therefore, at the beginning of 1993 the European Union within the frame of the APAS program launched a project called ``Combined Combustion of Biomass/Sewage Sludge and Coal''. Within this project, the effects of burning sewage sludge and agricultural residuals such as straw and manure as well as specially grown energy plants in combination with coals of various ranks and origin were studied for the most common large-scale systems in order to establish both the optimum and the technically achievable process modifications necessary for co-combustion. Based on the experience of the APAS program, the objective of a further EU-co-funded project titled ``Operational problems, trace emissions and by-product management for industrial biomass co-combustion'' was to concentrate the research effort on the problem areas like slagging, fouling, corrosion, ash utilization and trace emissions for different co-combustion systems and carefully investigate technical options to avoid these negative effects. The solution of these technical problems is essential for a technically and economically feasible and environmentally advantageous co-combustion and will promote a widespread utilization of existing biomass resources. The project provides a comparison of different biomass co-utilization concepts with regard to fouling, slagging, corrosion, ash utilization and trace emissions. In detail the project incorporated biofuels like wood, wood pulp, bark, straw, wood matter from pressed olive stones and sewage sludge. The major operational problems like slagging, fouling and corrosion were investigated in both PF and CFB units of various scales. Finally the effect of co-combustion on the by-product management - handling, utilization and disposal are evaluated and compared with a pure coal or pure biomass combustion system, respectively. As a further approach to avoid the above problems of co-utilization the pretreatment of biomass to remove the undesired components before combustion has been investigated by washing, pyrolysis or gasification prior to combustion. The potential of utilization the gaseous product from pyrolysis or gasification as reburn fuel for NO reduction was evaluated.

  19. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

  20. Production of all trans-beta-carotene by using impinging flow of supercritical carbon dioxide anti-solvent pulverization.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Chen; Chng, Lee-Muei; Wang, Yuan-Chuen; Shieh, Chwen-Jen; Lin, Kuo-Li; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Chou, Hong-Nong; Chang, Chieh-Ming J

    2012-12-28

    This work investigated column elution chromatography coupled with supercritical anti-solvent precipitation to produce carotenoid rich microsized particulates from microalgal Dunaliella salina species. The extract contained carotenoids ranging from 61.3 mg/g(salina) to 72.5 mg/g(salina) using ultrasonic stirred ethyl ether or tetrahydrofuran (THF) extraction. When 10 L of ethyl alcohol was employed to elute the THF extract, purity of trans-β-carotene is 823.6 mg/g with a recovery of 86.2%. It was found that the supercritical anti-solvent of THF solution at 160 bar and 318 K produced powdered particulates with a purity of carotenoids above 90%. Subsequently, a central composite response surface design method was used to design supercritical anti-solvent precipitation of carotenoid-rich THF solution. This was accomplished by increasing the pressure from 140 bar to 180 bar and the time from 40 min to 60 min at a feed flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. A CO(2) flow rate of 15 L/min and a temperature of 318 K were also used to determine the effects on purity and recovery of trans-β-carotene. The combined process produced micronized precipitates with a mean particle size ranging from 3.5 μm to 19 μm and the purity of trans-β-carotene attained was 926.8 mg/g with a recovery of 54%.

  1. Pyrite thermochemistry, ash agglomeration, and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion: Quarterly report, June 15, 1988--September 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Akan-Etuk, A.; Niksa, S.; Kruger, C.H.

    1988-10-01

    We perfected the synthesis of carbons with controlled macroporosity and pyrite loadings. Lycopodium spores were found to be ideal formers of macroporosity, being monodisperse, spherical, and nontoxic. They are added as a powder during the furfuryl alcohol polymerization, so the number density of voids is easily controlled. They are almost completely volatilized during curing, and leave no ash or residue. Our procedure generates nominally uniform, 16 micron spherical voids in a microporous carbon matrix. Pyrite inclusions are generated by adding sized pyrite particles during the furfuryl alcohol polymerization. However, the pyrite loading was found to be difficult to control. Due to its high density, the pyrite tends to settle throughout the synthesis. We must rely on ultracentrifugation using a range of liquids with controlled specific gravity to segregate samples with controlled pyrite loadings. 3 figs.

  2. The Concept and Economics of RDF-3 (Refuse Derived Fuel) Utilization in a Navy Size Pulverized Coal Boiler.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Rates: Technical/Operational 7-2 Cost Projections for 10% and 20% Substitu- tion Rates: Financial 7-4 Viii SECTION 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report...potential methods for making the proposed concept more economically attractive and provides comparitive technical, operational and financial information...X , 1 ;W ; ;1 ;1 :1 ; 44 4v’" a * 4 N >C gmo "lt4I ~ @ td ’O~ 4 C C, NC Q =N a 4 L, I’ at ~ *~~NN " I J * 4 ~ 4~ 4I 44; 1.4 It I N 4 N -12 4 i N 4 4

  3. DIFFERENTIAL PULMONARY INFLAMMATION AND IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY BY SIZE-FRACTIONATED FLY ASH PARTICLES FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents results of research on the adverse health effects associated with exposure to airborne particulate matter. Pulmonary inflammatory responses were examined in CDI mice after intratracheal instillation of 25 or 100 micrograms of ultrafine (<0.2 micrometers), fine ...

  4. Effects of preignition on pulverized coal combustion. Sixth quarterly report, 1 January 1982-31 March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.A.; Kothandaraman, G.; Schertzer, S.P.; Palm, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Task 1, pore structure optimization, is complete as reported in Section 2. The results of Task 1 predict that high reactivity chars require high porosities and a higher concentration of large pores. The experimental studies of Task 2 illustrate the dependence of these quantities on heating rate and final temperature. The data obtained for Texas Lignite suggest that porosity (hence reactivity) is strongly dependent on the final pyrolysis temperature with the maximum porosity occurring at 1300 K. The data also indicate that to a lesser extent, the heating rate affects pore structure. Higher heating rates increase the relative number of large pores and thus can enhance reactivity by a factor of two. Hence, the optimum pore structure for char reactivity may be obtained by preparing char at 1300 K and high heating rates (> 1000 K/s). Such chars could be four times as reactive as chars prepared at 2000 K and 1 to 10 K/s. The theory of pore evolution was completed last quarter. Potential mechanisms of pore evolution have been identified and described. For the most part, all mechanisms lead to the preservtion of the 1/r/sub p//sup 3/ distribution. This is the statistically derived pore distribution function which originally lead to the pore tree.

  5. An examination of heat rate improvements due to waste heat integration in an oxycombustion pulverized coal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Joshua M.

    Oxyfuel, or oxycombustion, technology has been proposed as one carbon capture technology for coal-fired power plants. An oxycombustion plant would fire coal in an oxidizer consisting primarily of CO2, oxygen, and water vapor. Flue gas with high CO2 concentrations is produced and can be compressed for sequestration. Since this compression generates large amounts of heat, it was theorized that this heat could be utilized elsewhere in the plant. Process models of the oxycombustion boiler, steam cycle, and compressors were created in ASPEN Plus and Excel to test this hypothesis. Using these models, heat from compression stages was integrated to the flue gas recirculation heater, feedwater heaters, and to a fluidized bed coal dryer. All possible combinations of these heat sinks were examined, with improvements in coal flow rate, Qcoal, net power, and unit heat rate being noted. These improvements would help offset the large efficiency impacts inherent to oxycombustion technology.

  6. 40 CFR 63.10021 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, operating limits, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... function of mill and/or cyclone loadings, cyclone and pulverizer coal feeder loadings, or other pulverizer..., mills, pulverizers, cyclones, and sensors; (4) As applicable, evaluate windbox pressures and...

  7. Flue Gas Cleanup at Temperatures about 1400 C for a Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant: State and Perspectives in the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, M.E.C.; Oeking, K.; Hannes, K.

    2002-09-18

    The PPCC technology, a combined cycle, requires comprehensive cleaning of the flue gases because coal contains a large variety of minerals and other substances. This would lead to fast destruction of the gas turbine blades due to erosion and corrosion. The present specifications of the turbine manufacturers for the required flue gas quality are at a maximum particulate content of 5 mg/m3 s.t.p., diameter of < 5 {micro}m, and a maximum alkali content < 0.01 mg/m3 s.t.p. The PPCC project is aimed at cleaning the flue gases of pressurized coal combustion. This method will be applied at temperature ranges where the ash is in a liquid state and which will be thus cleaned from coarse particulate material by agglomeration and inertial force separators. Appropriate separating methods are also being investigated and developed for the hazardous gaseous contents, e.g. alkali compounds, which are released during the coal combustion process. The following companies are working on the development within the scope of a collaborative project to find a feasible technical solution: Babcock-Borsig-Power Env. GmbH (BBP Env.), E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, SaarEnergie GmbH, Siemens AG, and Steag AG.

  8. Computational modeling and experimental studies on NO{sub x} reduction under pulverized coal combustion conditions. Third quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpaty, S.K.; Subramanian, K.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental plan outlining the first year`s activity was sent to Dr. Lori Gould, Project Officer/Contracting Officer`s Technical Representative on April 24, 1995. An approval was received with some questions on June 15, 1995. However, with some foresight of the director of the in-house combustion group of the PETC, Dr. Ekmann, a tentative hold-off on the purchase of the equipment was requested by the project officer on June 29, 1995. Enclosed with that request were some of Dr. Ekmann`s concerns. The research team spent the month of July in study of pertinent literature as well as in the preparation of the responses to Dr. Gould`s comments and Dr. Ekmann`s concerns. These responses included the choice of the reactor, reactor design, rate of gas heating, detailed test matrix and answers to host of other comments. Upon review of the above information submitted on July 24, 1995 by the Rust research team, the project officer called for a conference call on September 6, 1995 which involved the PI (Dr. Kumpaty), the research consultant (Mr. Subramanian), Dr. Gould and Dr. Ekmann. Dr. Ekmann insisted that further calculations be made on the rate of gas heating without taking radiation into account. Accordingly, calculations pertaining to the rate of gas heating based on convection were performed and submitted to Dr. Ekmann on September 13, 1995. This report contains the information emerged through the dialogue between the Rust College research team and the PETC represented by Dr. Gould and Dr. Ekmann during this quarter.

  9. Factor of explosiveness of pulverized fuel as a basis for classification of natural solid fuels with respect to their storageability in open coal depots

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Tolchinskii; A.Yu. Lavrent'ev

    2003-01-15

    Existing methods for estimating the storageability of fuel in open coal depots are analyzed. It is inferred that the capacity of coals for oxidation and spontaneous combustion cannot be unambiguously associated with the name of the coal basin, deposit, or grade. Methods for calculating a generalized parameter reflecting a fuel group are suggested. It is shown that the explosiveness factor Kf of solid fuels calculated from the data on technical and elemental compositions can be used as a generalized characteristic for classifying fuels according to their resistance to oxidation and spontaneous combustion.

  10. Engineering and Economic Analysis of an Advanced Ultra-Supercritical Pulverized Coal Power Plant with and without Post-Combustion Carbon Capture Task 7. Design and Economic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Booras, George; Powers, J.; Riley, C.; Hendrix, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report evaluates the economics and performance of two A-USC PC power plants; Case 1 is a conventionally configured A-USC PC power plant with superior emission controls, but without CO2 removal; and Case 2 adds a post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) system to the plant from Case 1, using the design and heat integration strategies from EPRI’s 2015 report, “Best Integrated Coal Plant.” The capture design basis for this case is “partial,” to meet EPA’s proposed New Source Performance Standard, which was initially proposed as 500 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1100 lb-CO2/MWh (gross), but modified in August 2015 to 635 kg-CO2/MWh (gross) or 1400 lb-CO2/MWh (gross). This report draws upon the collective experience of consortium members, with EPRI and General Electric leading the study. General Electric provided the steam cycle analysis as well as v the steam turbine design and cost estimating. EPRI performed integrated plant performance analysis using EPRI’s PC Cost model.

  11. Relationship between textural properties, fly ash carbons, and Hg capture in fly ashes derived from the combustion of anthracitic pulverized feed blends

    SciTech Connect

    Isabel Surez-Ruiz; Jose B. Parra

    2007-08-15

    In this work, the textural properties of a series of whole anthracitic-derived fly ashes sampled in eight hoppers from the electrostatic precipitators and their sized fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) are investigated. Data from N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K, helium density, and mercury porosimetry have contributed to establish a relationship between the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, VTOT, porosity, carbon content (the type of fly ash carbons), and Hg retention in these fly ashes. The unburned carbons in these ashes are macroporous materials, and they are different from the carbons in fly ashes from classes C and F (the latter derived from the combustion of bituminous coals) and show different textural properties. These ashes represent the end member of the fly ash classes C and F with respect to certain textural properties. Although the BET surface area and VTOT values for the studied samples are the lowest reported, they increase with the increase in carbon content, anisotropic carbon content, and particle size of the ashes. Thus, a positive relationship between all these parameters and Hg capture by the coarser ash fractions was found. The finest fraction of carbons ({lt}25 {mu}m) represented an exception. Although it makes a significant contribution to the total carbon of the whole fly ashes and shows relatively higher surface areas and VTOT values, its Hg concentration was found to be the lowest. This suggests that the type of unburned carbons in the finest fraction and/or other adsorption mechanisms may play a role in Hg concentration. Because the textural properties of anisotropic carbons depend on their subtype and on their origin, the need for its differentiation has been evidenced. 54 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Experimental investigation on distribution of heat flux in boiler of wall tangentially combustion with horizontal dense-dilute pulverized-coal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Houzhang; Xu Tongmo; Hui Shien

    1999-07-01

    In this dissertation, burners are distributed on four walls of boiler for form Wall Tangentially Combustion with Horizontal Dense-Dilute P.C Stream, and test with Yibin anthracite coal is made. The experimental results show that near the middle of boiler walls, wall heat flux in boiler is maximum, and heat flux projected in the centers of four walls is 1.375 times of that in the corners. Meantime, maximum relative wall temperature difference in burner zone in the way of Wall Tangentially Combustion is 1/4.5 of corner tangentially combustion.

  13. ADVANCES IN CONTROL OF PM2..5 AND PM2..5 PRECURSORS GENERATED BY THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter smaller than 2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) is of concern due to adverse health effects associated with elevated ambient mass concentrations of PM2.5. PM2.5 from coal-fired utility boilers is composed of directly emitted (primary) particles and...

  14. Char particle fragmentation and its effect on unburned carbon during pulverized coal combustion. Quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, R.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    During this quarter, activities were undertaken primarily in Tasks 1 and 2: synthetic chars were produced and characterized, the solids-sampling probe was fabricated and tested, and chars were pyrolyzed in the pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (PTGA). During the PTGA tests, problems associated with aligning the balance pan were resolved as well as were problems associated with overshooting the target temperature during the temperature ramping. The PTGA is now ready for use in pyrolysis and combustion tests. Synthetic chars prepared with 50%, 60% and 67% weight percent lycopodium were produced and characterized. Apparent density measurements indicate that the porosities of the chars are 0.47, 0.57, and 0.60, respectively. Presently, synthetic chars having porosities in the range 17% to 60% are available for experiments. The pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) was modified to allow gas blending and switching. With this modification, char particles can be heated in an inert environment to a temperature of interest before switching to an oxidizing environment. In several tests, particles of varying porosity were heated to 1000 {degree}C in a nitrogen environment and then combusted in an atmospheric environment containing 10% oxygen in nitrogen. During the heating period, particles were observed to lose about 10% of their weight. This weight loss is associated with the release of volatiles, the hydrogen and oxygen remaining in the synthetic char after curing at 550{degree}C for one hour. The PTGA results indicate that heating the one-hour cured char in a nitrogen environment at a rate of 10{degree}C/min to 1000{degree}C is sufficient to remove the volatiles.

  15. Effects of preignition on pulverized-coal combustion. Second quarterly report, 1 January 1981-31 March 1981. [Above 800K

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, Girard A.; Kothandaraman, G.

    1981-04-01

    The technical effort on pore structure optimization is complete. The basic conclusion is that particle size and porosity are the most important physical properties of char when considering char oxidation above 800K. The distribution of porosity with pore size is of secondary importance. The internal surface area and pore aspect ratio have no significant influence on char oxidation above 800K. The apparatus for the bench scale pore evolution experiments has been constructed. Coal samples will be heated at various rates to various final temperatures and the pore structure of the remaining char will be measured. Preliminary data have been analyzed using N/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ adsorption, Hg porosimetry and Hg and He densities. In future studies, the CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ adsorption will be omitted as they have not yielded any surprising empirical results and do not offer any information which is useful to the theory of a tailored pore structure for enhanced char reactivity. The Hg and He densities are important as they yield the char pososity and the Hg porosimetry is important as it yields the size distribution of the large pores which control char oxidation. Both the He pycnometer and Hg porosimeter have been purchased. All future experiments and char analyses will be performed in-house. The theory of pore evolution has been initiated. A statistical description of the pore tree has been developed.

  16. Kinetic modeling of the formation and growth of inorganic nano-particles during pulverized coal char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DOE PAGES

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Niu, Yanqing; Hui, Shi'en; ...

    2016-08-01

    In this formation of nano-particles during coal char combustion, the vaporization of inorganic components in char and the subsequent homogeneous particle nucleation, heterogeneous condensation, coagulation, and coalescence play decisive roles. Furthermore, conventional measurements cannot provide detailed information on the dynamics of nano-particle formation and evolution, In this study, a sophisticated intrinsic char kinetics model that considers ash effects (including ash film formation, ash dilution, and ash vaporization acting in tandem), both oxidation and gasification by CO2 and H2O, homogeneous particle nucleation, heterogeneous vapor condensation, coagulation, and and coalescence mechanisms is developed and used to compare the temporal evolution of themore » number and size of nano-particles during coal char particle combustion as a function of char particle size, ash content, and oxygen content in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres .« less

  17. New results gained with the GSP process for the gasification of pulverized coal, description of the feeding system and solution of environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, F.; Brandt, H.; Kretschmer, H.; Richter, H.; Schingnitz, M.

    1988-01-01

    Both economic analyses and analyses concerning the solution of problems of environmental protection have shown that gasification of coal and the conversion of the produced gas into electrical energy, SNG or syntheses gas is getting more and more attractive. Since 1983 a gasification complex working according to the GSP process has been in operation at Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe in the GDR. It produces more than 50 000 m/sup 3/ raw gas per hour from these coals. The present paper describes technical and technological solutions, practical results and experience gained during operation as a precondition for the construction of large-scale gas works with an annual output of two to four billions m/sup 3/ raw gas. When discussing these problems it is demonstrated that the environmental compatibility of this coal gasification process meets the highest requirements even if coal that is rich in ash and sulphur and contains salt is used.

  18. Char particle fragmentation and its effect on unburned carbon during pulverized coal combustion. Quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, R.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    Additional samples of synthetic char were produced and characterized. These chars were prepared with lycopodium to polymer mass ratios of 0:1, 1:2, and 1:8. Combined with the char prepared with a lycopodium to polymer of 1:4 that was discussed last quarter, we now have synthetic chars varying in porosity from 17% to 37%. These chars will be used in the forthcoming char fragmentation experiments. Using both a tap density technique and mercury intrusion porosimetry on synthetic char with no macropores, a value of 0.39 was determined for the bed void fraction of tightly packed particles in the 75--125 {mu}m size range. The true density of the synthetic char was found to be 1.58 g/cc using helium pycnometry. From these measurements, the apparent density and porosity for each batch of char were determined. The mechanical grinding procedure was refined to obtain a greater size fraction of particles in the 75--125 {mu}m size range of interest. An investigation of the log-normal distribution function for describing the measured particle size distribution was performed. It was noted that a log-nominal distribution function adequately described the breadth and mean size of the size classified particles but does not completely capture the wings of the distribution. The log-normal distribution will be useful, however, in describing the changing distribution that results from mass loss and fragmentation, phenomena that tend to shift the distribution to smaller sizes. Preliminary experiments were performed with the pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (PTGA). Combustion in air of synthetic chars having 17% and 24% porosity revealed that the overall particle burning rates of the chars were essentially the same. In the combustion tests, temperature was ramped from 300 K to 1173 K at 25{degrees}C/min. This indicates that under these conditions there were no diffusional resistances to particle burning.

  19. Char particle fragmentation and its effect on unburned carbon during pulverized coal combustion. Quarterly report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, R.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1993-10-01

    The overall objectives of the project are: (1) to correlate char particle porosity with fragmentation phenomena, (2) to determine if mineral matter in the coal affects fragmentation patterns, and (3) to relate the effects of fragmentation events to unburned carbon in ash. The knowledge obtained during the course of this project will be used to predict accurately the overall mass loss rates of coals based on the mineral content and porosity of their chars. The work will provide a means of assessing reasons for unburned carbon in the ash of coal fired boilers and furnaces. The project is divided into four research tasks. Specific objectives associated with each task are as follows: Task 1--production and characterization of synthetic chars; Task 2--baseline char combustion experiments; Task 3--char fragmentation studies; and Task 4--fragmentation modeling. Results from the first two tasks are presented.

  20. Two-in-one fuel combining sugar cane with low rank coal and its CO₂ reduction effects in pulverized-coal power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Bae, Jong-Soo; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Se-Joon; Hong, Jai-Chang; Lee, Byoung-Hwa; Jeon, Chung-Hwan; Choi, Young-Chan

    2013-02-05

    Coal-fired power plants are facing to two major independent problems, namely, the burden to reduce CO(2) emission to comply with renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and cap-and-trade system, and the need to use low-rank coal due to the instability of high-rank coal supply. To address such unresolved issues, integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) with carbon capture and storage (CCS) has been suggested, and low rank coal has been upgraded by high-pressure and high-temperature processes. However, IGCC incurs huge construction costs, and the coal upgrading processes require fossil-fuel-derived additives and harsh operation condition. Here, we first show a hybrid coal that can solve these two problems simultaneously while using existing power plants. Hybrid coal is defined as a two-in-one fuel combining low rank coal with a sugar cane-derived bioliquid, such as molasses and sugar cane juice, by bioliquid diffusion into coal intrapores and precarbonization of the bioliquid. Unlike the simple blend of biomass and coal showing dual combustion behavior, hybrid coal provided a single coal combustion pattern. If hybrid coal (biomass/coal ratio = 28 wt %) is used as a fuel for 500 MW power generation, the net CO(2) emission is 21.2-33.1% and 12.5-25.7% lower than those for low rank coal and designed coal, and the required coal supply can be reduced by 33% compared with low rank coal. Considering high oil prices and time required before a stable renewable energy supply can be established, hybrid coal could be recognized as an innovative low-carbon-emission energy technology that can bridge the gulf between fossil fuels and renewable energy, because various water-soluble biomass could be used as an additive for hybrid coal through proper modification of preparation conditions.

  1. Modeling of pulverized coal combustion processes in a vortex furnace of improved design. Part 1: Flow aerodynamics in a vortex furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasinsky, D. V.; Salomatov, V. V.; Anufriev, I. S.; Sharypov, O. V.; Shadrin, E. Yu.; Anikin, Yu. A.

    2015-02-01

    Some results of the complex experimental and numerical study of aerodynamics and transfer processes in a vortex furnace, whose design was improved via the distributed tangential injection of fuel-air flows through the upper and lower burners, were presented. The experimental study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a spatial turbulent flow was performed on the isothermal laboratory model (at a scale of 1 : 20) of an improved vortex furnace using a laser Doppler measurement system. The comparison of experimental data with the results of the numerical modeling of an isothermal flow for the same laboratory furnace model demonstrated their agreement to be acceptable for engineering practice.

  2. Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Quarterly technical progress report No. 6, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kramlich, J.C.; Butcher, E.K.; Chenevert, B.

    1994-04-30

    During the present quarter the model was coded and tested on the Illinois coal. Some features of the process need discussion. After devolatilization, the char particle heats towards its steady-state combustion temperature. At approximately 1200--1300 K, the particle quickly goes from a temperature where the equilibrium sodium vapor pressure is negligible to a temperature where it is at one atmosphere. This shows that the sodium vaporization occurs under non-isothermal conditions, although the rapid rate of sodium diffusion relative to particle heating suggests that the quasi steady-state formulation for the sodium vaporization portion of the problem is appropriate. It also illustrates the two-stage release pattern for the sodium: (1) an early rapid release of organically-bound sodium, and (2) a more delayed release of acid-washable sodium, and sodium that was complexed into clay chemicals during the organic sodium vaporization. The conditions reported for the present calculations are as follows: Coal: 8.7% ash, 12% H{sub 2}O, 33.5% volatile matter. Elemental sodium represent 0.82% of the ash. For purposes of calculation, the char particle is presumed to consist of the fixed carbon from the proximate analysis, along with the ash. This establishes the mass fraction of sodium and other minerals in the char at the start of char combustion. For the baseline condition, the char particle was assumed to be 50% covered by attached excluded mineral, and the included mineral matter was assumed to be divided into monodisperse 0.5 {mu}m particles that are evenly dispersed throughout the char. The diameter of the char particle was 25 {mu}m.

  3. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index <7 %, whereas the RE index for fly ash (9-54%) was comparatively higher and variable. Extremely high Hg was concentrated in gypsum (≤4500 ng/g), which is produced in the WFGD system. Mass balance calculation shows that the shares of Hg in bottom ash, fly ash, WFGD products (gypsum, effluents, sludge), and stack emissions were <2, 17-32, 7-22, and 54-82%, respectively. The Hg-removal efficiencies of ESPs, WFGD, and ESPs + WFGD were 17-32, 10-29, and 36-46%, respectively. The Hg-emission factor of studied boilers was in a high range of 0.24-0.29 g Hg/t coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010.

  4. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: FOSSIL FUEL CO-FIRING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report identifies refuse derived fuel (RDF) processing operations and various RDF types; describes such fossil fuel co-firing techniques as coal fired spreader stokers, pulverized coal wall fired boilers, pulverized coal tangentially fired boilers, and cyclone fired boilers; ...

  5. Simplified process for leaching precious metals from fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Shore, Lawrence; Matlin, Ramail

    2009-12-22

    The membrane electrode assemblies of fuel cells are recycled to recover the catalyst precious metals from the assemblies. The assemblies are cryogenically embrittled and pulverized to form a powder. The pulverized assemblies are then mixed with a surfactant to form a paste which is contacted with an acid solution to leach precious metals from the pulverized membranes.

  6. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBTU/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30

    This work contains to the final report of the demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor. Titles include: Chronological Description of the Clean Coal Project Tests,'' Statistical Analysis of Operating Data for the Coal Tech Combustor,'' Photographic History of the Project,'' Results of Slag Analysis by PA DER Module 1 Procedure,'' Properties of the Coals Limestone Used in the Test Effort,'' Results of the Solid Waste Sampling Performed on the Coal Tech Combustor by an Independent Contractor During the February 1990 Tests.'' (VC)

  7. Toxic emissions from a cyclone burner boiler with an ESP and with the SNOX demonstration and from a pulverized coal burner boiler with an ESP/wet flue gas desulfurization system

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, G.M.; Riggs, K.B.; Kelly, T.J.; Barrett, R.E.; Peltier, R.G.; Cooper, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Emission factors for VOC and aldehydes, dioxins/furans, and PAH/SVOC are presented in Tables 6--8, respectively. Each table includes results for Coal Creek, Niles Boiler, and the SNOX process. As shown in Table 6, benzene and toluene were measured in the Coal Creek, Niles Boiler, and SNOX stack emissions in highly variable concentrations. Over 90 percent of the VOC analyzed were not detected in the stack gases, and the emission factor for these VOC ranges from 1.1 to 1.4 {mu}g/MJ for the three systems. Emission factors for the four aldehydes that were measured range from 0.47 to 31 {mu}g/MJ for Coal Creek, 1.7 to 38 {mu}g/MJ for the Niles Boiler, and 3.6 to 167 {mu}g/MJ for the SNOX process. Acetaldehyde is at the highest concentration of the four aldehydes in all three units, a finding which is consistent with previous work. Dioxin/furan emission factors are provided in Table 7. Emission, factors for these compounds range from 0.40 to 6.51 pg/MJ for Coal Creek and 0.45 to 8.14 pg/MJ for the Niles Boiler. Dioxins/furans were not determined in the SNOX process. The compounds 1,2,3,4,6,7,8heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran were detected in both units. The predominance of these species in high SO{sub 2} environments has been previously observed. All other 2,3,7,8 substituted dioxin/furan isomers listed in Table 8 were not detected in either unit. Table 8 lists the emission factors for PAH/SVOC. Emission factors range from 0.3 to 233 ng/MJ for Coal Creek, 0.5 to 273 ng/MJ for the Niles Boiler, and 0.3 to 130 ng/MJ for the SNOX process. Acetophenone is at the highest concentration of the PAH/SVOC in all three units. Naphthalene, dibenzofuran, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene are also present at relatively high concentrations in comparison to the other PAH/SVOC.

  8. Kinetic modeling of the formation and growth of inorganic nano-particles during pulverized coal char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Niu, Yanqing; Hui, Shi'en; Wang, Shuai

    2016-08-01

    In this formation of nano-particles during coal char combustion, the vaporization of inorganic components in char and the subsequent homogeneous particle nucleation, heterogeneous condensation, coagulation, and coalescence play decisive roles. Furthermore, conventional measurements cannot provide detailed information on the dynamics of nano-particle formation and evolution, In this study, a sophisticated intrinsic char kinetics model that considers ash effects (including ash film formation, ash dilution, and ash vaporization acting in tandem), both oxidation and gasification by CO2 and H2O, homogeneous particle nucleation, heterogeneous vapor condensation, coagulation, and and coalescence mechanisms is developed and used to compare the temporal evolution of the number and size of nano-particles during coal char particle combustion as a function of char particle size, ash content, and oxygen content in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres .

  9. Reduction of noxious substance emissions at the pulverized fuel combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the Almaty heat electropower station using the "Overfire Air" technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarova, A. S.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Bolegenova, S. A.; Maximov, V. Yu.; Yergalieva, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The computational experiments using the "Overfire Air" (OFA) technology at the coal dust torch combustion in the combustor of the BKZ-160 boiler of the heat power plant No. 2 in Almaty have been conducted. The results show a possibility of reaching a reduction of the emission of noxious nitrogen oxides NO x and minimizing the energy losses. The results of numerical experiments on the influence of the additional air supply on the main characteristics of heat and mass transfer are presented. A comparison with the base regime of the solid fuel combustion when there is no supply of the additional air (OFA = 0 %) has been made.

  10. 32 CFR 701.105 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., melting, chemical decomposition, burying, pulping, pulverizing, shredding, or mutilation). Magnetic media...) Ensure that privacy considerations are addressed in the reengineering of business processes and...

  11. 32 CFR 701.105 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., melting, chemical decomposition, burying, pulping, pulverizing, shredding, or mutilation). Magnetic media...) Ensure that privacy considerations are addressed in the reengineering of business processes and...

  12. 32 CFR 701.105 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., melting, chemical decomposition, burying, pulping, pulverizing, shredding, or mutilation). Magnetic media...) Ensure that privacy considerations are addressed in the reengineering of business processes and...

  13. 32 CFR 701.105 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., melting, chemical decomposition, burying, pulping, pulverizing, shredding, or mutilation). Magnetic media...) Ensure that privacy considerations are addressed in the reengineering of business processes and...

  14. Process for producing high-concentration slurry of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaoji, K.; Itoh, H.; Kamao, M.; Takao, Sh.; Tatsumi, Sh.

    1985-02-19

    High concentrated coal-water slurry is produced by coarsely crushing coal, thereafter pulverizing the coarsely crushed coal, together with water and a slurry dispersant, according to necessity, in a wet-type ball mill, and feeding back one portion of the finely pulverized coal slurry thus obtained into the inlet of the wet-type ball mill.

  15. Development of coal-feeding systems at the Morgantown Energy Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobday, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Systems for feeding crushed and pulverized coal into coal conversion reactor vessels are described. Pneumatic methods for feeding pulverized coal, slurry feeders, and coal pumps, methods for steam pickup, and a method for drying a water-coal slurry in a steam fluidized bed subsequent to feeding the coal into a reactor vessel are included.

  16. 40 CFR 60.1465 - What definitions must I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. Continuous...-fired (pulverized coal/refuse-derived fuel) combustion unit means a combustion unit that combusts coal and refuse-derived fuel simultaneously, in which pulverized coal is introduced into an air stream...

  17. 40 CFR 60.1465 - What definitions must I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. Continuous...-fired (pulverized coal/refuse-derived fuel) combustion unit means a combustion unit that combusts coal and refuse-derived fuel simultaneously, in which pulverized coal is introduced into an air stream...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1465 - What definitions must I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. Continuous...-fired (pulverized coal/refuse-derived fuel) combustion unit means a combustion unit that combusts coal and refuse-derived fuel simultaneously, in which pulverized coal is introduced into an air stream...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1465 - What definitions must I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. Continuous...-fired (pulverized coal/refuse-derived fuel) combustion unit means a combustion unit that combusts coal and refuse-derived fuel simultaneously, in which pulverized coal is introduced into an air stream...

  20. Blast-furnace performance with coal-dust injection

    SciTech Connect

    G.G. Vasyura

    2007-07-01

    For the blast furnace shop at OAO Alchevskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (AMK) the injection of pulverized fuel is promising. Preliminary steps toward its introduction are underway, including analytical research. In this context, blast furnace performance when using pulverized coal is calculated in this study.

  1. 28. VIEW OF BOILER 901 (IS IT 900?) AT GROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF BOILER 901 (IS IT 900?) AT GROUND LEVEL. INSTALLED IN 1928 IT WAS FIRED WITH PULVERIZED COAL. THE PULVERIZERS ARE LOCATED TO THE LEFT AND RIGHT OF THE CENTER ASH PIT ACCESS, BELOW THE CIRCULAR AIR INTAKES. THE PULVERIZED ON THE LEFT WAS POWERED WITH AN ELECTRIC MOTOR WHILE THE UNIT ON THE RIGHT WAS DRIVEN BY A STEAM TURBINE. THE HOPPER (TOP CENTER) WAS FILLED VIA A LARRY CAR WHICH RODE ON TRACKS SUSPENDED ABOVE THE FIRING AISLE. THIS BOILER WAS SHUT DOWN IN 1957. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  2. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOEpatents

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

  3. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOEpatents

    Rashid Khan, M.

    1988-05-05

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOEpatents

    Smith, William C.; Paulson, Leland E.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  5. Reconstituted Polymeric Materials Derived From Post-Consumer Waste, Industrial Scrap And Virgin Resins Made By Solid State Shear Pulverizat

    DOEpatents

    Khait, Klementina

    2005-02-01

    A method of making polymeric particulates wherein polymeric scrap material, virgin polymeric material and mixtures thereof are supplied to intermeshing extruder screws which are rotated to transport the polymeric material along their length and subject the polymeric material to solid state shear pulverization and in-situ polymer compatibilization, if two or more incompatible polymers are present. Uniform pulverized particulates are produced without addition of a compatibilizing agent. The pulverized particulates are directly melt processable (as powder feedstock) and surprisingly yield a substantially homogeneous light color product.

  6. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... intake. (d) Fermentation tanks, drying pans, trays or belts, scrapers, curing racks, and equipment used for pulverizing pan dried albumen shall be constructed of approved materials in such a manner as...

  7. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... intake. (d) Fermentation tanks, drying pans, trays or belts, scrapers, curing racks, and equipment used for pulverizing pan dried albumen shall be constructed of approved materials in such a manner as...

  8. 46 CFR 164.003-3 - Material and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... in a machine using the air-blow method. Mechanical separation of fiber masses is permitted, but machines using violent beating which breaks down the fibers or causes undue powdering or pulverizing...

  9. 46 CFR 164.003-3 - Material and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in a machine using the air-blow method. Mechanical separation of fiber masses is permitted, but machines using violent beating which breaks down the fibers or causes undue powdering or pulverizing...

  10. 46 CFR 164.003-3 - Material and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in a machine using the air-blow method. Mechanical separation of fiber masses is permitted, but machines using violent beating which breaks down the fibers or causes undue powdering or pulverizing...

  11. Fluidized coal combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  12. 14. Battery of coke ovens (DX?) on right, pusher cars ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Battery of coke ovens (DX?) on right, pusher cars on right, hot gas pipes on left and overhead; pulverized coal bunker is tall, vertical structure on left. looking south - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  13. 46 CFR 164.003-3 - Material and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in a machine using the air-blow method. Mechanical separation of fiber masses is permitted, but machines using violent beating which breaks down the fibers or causes undue powdering or pulverizing...

  14. 46 CFR 164.003-3 - Material and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in a machine using the air-blow method. Mechanical separation of fiber masses is permitted, but machines using violent beating which breaks down the fibers or causes undue powdering or pulverizing...

  15. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  16. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey C.C. Woodburn, Photographer. January 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey C.C. Woodburn, Photographer. January 12, 1934 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE (WEST ELEVATION) - Ferdinand Daniel Pulver House, County Road F-70 Vicinity, Vandalia, Jasper County, IA

  17. 40 CFR 76.4 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... York, NY 10036 or from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case Postale 56, CH-1211 Geneve 20, Switzerland. (1) ISO 9931 (December, 1991) “Coal—Sampling of Pulverized Coal...

  18. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier has... soon as practicable after reaching its destination. Charcoal screenings, or ground, crushed,...

  19. 49 CFR 177.838 - Class 4 (flammable solid) materials, Class 5 (oxidizing) materials, and Division 4.2 (pyroforic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... such dangerous materials are charcoal screenings, ground, crushed, or pulverized charcoal, and lump charcoal. (c) Lading ventilation, precautions against spontaneous combustion. Whenever a motor carrier has... soon as practicable after reaching its destination. Charcoal screenings, or ground, crushed,...

  20. Mechanisms of pyrite oxidation to non-slagging species. Quartery report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Akan-Etuk, A.E.J.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents results of investigations on the transformation of iron pyrite to non-slagging species during staged combustion of pulverized coal. Work focuses on the oxidation of iron pyrite to magnetite.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.178 - Powered industrial trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Metal dust Carbon black coal dust, coke dust Grain dust, flour dust, starch dust, organic dust Baled... processing plants, starch plants, sugar pulverizing plants, malting plants, hay grinding plants, and...

  2. Application of optical flow algorithms and flame image sequences analysis in combustion process diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaś, J.; Kotyra, A.

    2016-09-01

    Co-combusting pulverized coal and biomass is a very complex process. One way of determining the state of the combustion process is analyzing flame image sequences. Several video streams of co-combusting biomass and pulverized coal with different combustion settings were recorded with a high-speed camera at the laboratory stand. Taking into account dynamic changes between successive frames of such video streams the optical flow algorithms were applied for obtaining the information about the combustion process state.

  3. Whole Adult Organism Transcriptional Profiling of Acute Metal Exposures in Male Zebrafish

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-10

    adult organism transcriptional profiling of acute metal exposures in male Zebrafish Naissan Hussainzada1, John A Lewis2, Christine E Baer4, Danielle L...fish were pulverized under liquid nitrogen using a SPEX 6750 freezer mill (SPEX Sample Prep, Metuchen, NJ). Total RNA was isolated from the pulverized...advantages and current limitations. Toxicol Pathol 2003, 31(Suppl):62–87. 3. Carvan MJ III, Dalton TP, Stuart GW, Nebert DW: Transgenic zebrafish as

  4. Nanosizing of poorly water soluble compounds using rotation/revolution mixer.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, Takayuki; Endo, Tomoko; Jianguo, Yao; Yuminoki, Kayo; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2009-10-01

    In this study, nanoparticles of various poorly water soluble compounds were prepared by wet milling that was carried out using a rotation/revolution mixer and zirconia balls. To be compared with Beads mill, rotation/revolution mixer has superior in very quick process (5 min) and needs very few amounts of zirconia balls (2.4 g) for pulverizing drugs to nanometer range. Phenytoin, indomethacin, nifedipine, danazol, and naproxen were selected as the standard poorly water soluble compounds. Various parameters of the rotation/revolution mixer were studied to decide the optimal pulverization conditions for the production of nanoparticles of the abovementioned compounds. The rotation/revolution speed, shape of the mixing vessel, amount of zirconia balls, and volume of the vehicle (methylcellulose solution) mainly affected the pulverization of the compounds. Using the mixer, phenytoin could be pulverized to nanoparticles within a few minutes. The particle size was confirmed by using a scanning electron microscope and a particle size analyzer. The crystallinity of the pulverized phenytoin particles was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was observed that the pulverized phenytoin particles retained their crystallinity, and amorphous phenytoin was not detected. Particles of other poorly water soluble compounds were also reduced to the nanometer range by using this method.

  5. Use of large pieces of printed circuit boards for bioleaching to avoid 'precipitate contamination problem' and to simplify overall metal recovery.

    PubMed

    Adhapure, N N; Dhakephalkar, P K; Dhakephalkar, A P; Tembhurkar, V R; Rajgure, A V; Deshmukh, A M

    2014-01-01

    Very recently bioleaching has been used for removing metals from electronic waste. Most of the research has been targeted to using pulverized PCBs for bioleaching where precipitate formed during bioleaching contaminates the pulverized PCB sample and making the overall metal recovery process more complicated. In addition to that, such mixing of pulverized sample with precipitate also creates problems for the final separation of non metallic fraction of PCB sample. In the present investigation we attempted the use of large pieces of printed circuit boards instead of pulverized sample for removal of metals. Use of large pieces of PCBs for bioleaching was restricted due to the chemical coating present on PCBs, the problem has been solved by chemical treatment of PCBs prior to bioleaching. In short,•Large pieces of PCB can be used for bioleaching instead of pulverized PCB sample.•Metallic portion on PCBs can be made accessible to bacteria with prior chemical treatment of PCBs.•Complete metal removal obtained on PCB pieces of size 4 cm × 2.5 cm with the exception of solder traces. The final metal free PCBs (non metallic) can be easily recycled and in this way the overall recycling process (metallic and non metallic part) of PCBs becomes simple.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Polypropylene / MWCNT Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujari, Saswati; Burghardt, Wesley; Ramanathan, Thillaiyan; Brinson, L. Catherine; Kasimatis, Kosmas; Torkelson, John

    2008-03-01

    Dispersions of multiwall carbon nanotubes in polypropylene are prepared via melt batch mixing and solid-state shear pulverization, and characterized via linear viscoelastic measurements, SEM, polypropylene crystallization kinetics, electrical conductivity and dynamic mechanical analysis. Increasing the intensity or duration of the melt mixing leads to higher dispersion, evidenced by increases in a low-frequency elastic plateau and accelerated PP crystallization kinetics attributed to more effective heterogeneous nucleation. The sample prepared by pulverization exhibits faster crystallization kinetics than any of the melt blended samples, but in contrast shows no measurable low frequency elastic plateau. Electrical conductivity measurements similarly show higher conductivity in melt blended samples. This may be attributable to scission of the nanotubes during pulverization, such that even well dispersed tubes cannot form an entangled network at a given concentration. At the same time, pulverized composites show marked increase in stiffness at low loadings, indicating that tube scission due to pulverization is not catastrophic. Conversely, long mixing times required in melt blending cause substantial thermal degradation of the polymer matrix with a corresponding loss of mechanical properties.

  7. Carbon dioxide remediation via oxygen-enriched combustion using dense ceramic membranes

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Bose, Arun C.; McIlvried, Howard G.

    2001-01-01

    A method of combusting pulverized coal by mixing the pulverized coal and an oxidant gas to provide a pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture and contacting the pulverized coal-oxidant gas mixture with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture. An oxygen-containing gas is passed in contact with a dense ceramic membrane of metal oxide material having electron conductivity and oxygen ion conductivity that is gas-impervious until the oxygen concentration on one side of the membrane is not less than about 30% by volume. An oxidant gas with an oxygen concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and a CO.sub.2 concentration of not less than about 30% by volume and pulverized coal is contacted with a flame sufficiently hot to combust the mixture to produce heat and a flue gas. One dense ceramic membrane disclosed is selected from the group consisting of materials having formulae SrCo.sub.0.8 Fe.sub.0.2 O.sub.x, SrCo.sub.0.5 FeO.sub.x and La.sub.0.2 Sr.sub.0.8 Co.sub.0.4 Fe.sub.0.6 O.sub.x.

  8. TUNING SILICON NANORODS FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Au, M.

    2010-11-23

    Silicon is a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries in regarding of high capacity, low cost and safety, but it suffers poor cycling stability due to the pulverization induced by severe volume expansion/shrinkage (297%) during lithium insertion/extraction. In our previous investigation on aluminum nanorods anodes, it is found the selection of substrates in which Al nanorods grown plays the role in prevention of pulverization resulting in the increase of cycling life. Adapting this knowledge, we investigated the Si based nanorods anodes by tuning its composition and element distribution. Our results show that although the Si nanorods demonstrated higher initial anodic capacity of 1500 mAh/g, it diminished after 50 cycles due to morphology change and pulverization. By codepositing Cu, the Si-Cu composite nanorods demonstrated sustainable capacity of 500 mAh/g in 100 cycles attributing to its flexible and less brittle nature.

  9. [Distribution of fluoride in the combustion products of coal].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhong; Qi, Qingjie; Zhou, Junhu; Cao, Xinyu; Cen, Kefa

    2003-07-01

    The static distribution characteristic of fluoride in the combustion products of coal was studied by ashing procedure of coal, and the dynamic distribution characteristics of fluorine in the combustion products of coal in pulverized-coal-fired boiler and layer-burning boiler were investigated. Experimental results identified that fluorine in coal belong to volatile elements, fluorine in fly ash and bottom ash were non-rich. About 94.5% of the fluorine in coal emitted as gaseous-fluorine during coal combustion in pulverized-coal-fired boiler, and about 80% of the fluorine in coal emitted as gaseous-fluorine during coal combustion in layer-burning boiler. 55%-60% of the fluorine in fly ash of pulverized-coal-fired boiler were distributed in fly ash particles with a diameter of 74 microns-104 microns.

  10. The Surface Chemical Composition of Lunar Samples and Its Significance for Optical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, T.; Bilson, E.; Baron, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The surface iron, titanium, calcium, and silicon concentration in numerous lunar soil and rock samples was determined by Auger electron spectroscopy. All soil samples show a large increase in the iron to oxygen ratio compared with samples of pulverized rock or with results of the bulk chemical analysis. A solar wind simulation experiment using 2 keV energy alpha -particles showed that an ion dose corresponding to approximately 30,000 years of solar wind increased the iron concentration on the surface of the pulverized Apollo 14 rock sample 14310 to the concentration measured in the Apollo 14 soil sample 14163, and the albedo of the pulverized rock decreased from 0.36 to 0.07. The low albedo of the lunar soil is related to the iron + titanium concentration on its surface. A solar wind sputter reduction mechanism is discussed as a possible cause for both the surface chemical and optical properties of the soil.

  11. Variation in coal composition. A computational approach to study the mineral composition of individual coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Charon, O.; Kang, S.G.; Graham, K.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Mineral matter transformations, and therefore fly ash evolution, during pulverized coal combustion depend on the amount, composition and spatial distribution of the inorganic matter within individual pulverized coal particles. Thus, it is necessary to have information on the mineral composition of individual particles, as well as that of the raw pulverized coal. A model has been developed to predict the variation of individual coal particle compositions. It uses CCSEM data for a given raw coal as input and randomly distributes the mineral inclusions in the coal volume. By random selection of monosize coal particles, it is possible to generate distributions of mineral content for any particle size distribution of coal. The model has been checked by comparing computed results with data on the composition variations of narrowly size and density classified fractions of an Upper Freeport bituminous coal. The results for individual coal particle compositions are used to generate information on the variability of the composition of the fly ash generated during combustion.

  12. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  13. Elektroprivreda Kosova Kosovo A. Unit 2. Life-extension study. (BVI Project 17031, BVI File 40. 0406). Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Elektroprivreda Kosova (EPK) has five units in operation at its Kosovo A power station. Unit 2, which began commercial operation in 1964, is the subject of the study. That unit burns brown coal in a pulverized coal steam generator and uses electrostatic precipitators to remove particulate. EPK would like to extend the life of Unit 2 by 25 years. The study evaluates several alternatives to life extension. In the first three alternatives, the existing Unit 2 boiler would be life extended with new pulverized coal equipment without a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. In the fourth alternative, the existing boiler would be life extended with new pulverized coal equipment with flue gas desulfurization equipment. In the fifth alternative, the existing boiler would be converted to fluidized bed combustion. The evaluation compares technical, economic, and financial aspects of the alternatives.

  14. Density-permittivity relationships for powdered and granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.O.

    2005-10-01

    Relationships between the permittivities of powdered or granular solid materials and their bulk densities (density of the air-particle mixture) are discussed. Linear relationships between functions of the permittivity and bulk density are identified that are useful in determining permittivity of solids from measurements of the permittivity of pulverized samples. The usefulness of several dielectric mixture equations for calculating solid material permittivity from measured permittivity of pulverized samples is also discussed. Results of testing linear extrapolation techniques and dielectric mixture equations on pulverized coal, limestone, plastics, and granular wheat and flour are presented. Recommendations are provided for reliable estimation of solid material permittivities or changes in permittivities of powdered and granular materials as a result of changes in their bulk densities.

  15. Analyses of characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.Y.; Xu, D.L.; Coulthard, J.; Xu, C.L.; Wang, S.M.

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic pulverized fuel meters and their applications. At the University of Teesside, UK, the electrostatic technique has been used to measure pulverized fuel flow concentration, velocity, and mass flow rate under lean-phase condition. The mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the root-mean-square (rms) value of the meter's output voltage and solids mass flow rate. The effects of solids velocity and particle size on measurements have also been reflected in the model. Furthermore, the model presents the sensitivity variations over the cross-sectional area of meter and along the pipe axis. The article also introduces the research carried out at Southeast University in China, where the technique has been extended to measure dense-phase flow of pulverized coal, which is common in gasification and blast furnaces.

  16. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    DOEpatents

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2016-08-09

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  17. Ignition Rate Measurement of Laser-Ignited Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.C.; Kabadi, V.

    1997-05-01

    We are proposing to establish a novel experiment to study the ignition of pulverized coals under conditions relevant to utility boiler. Specifically, our aims are to determine the ignition mechanism, which is either homogeneous or heterogeneous, of pulverized coal particles under various condition of particle size, coal type, freestream oxygen concentration, and heating rate. Furthermore, we will measure the ignition rate constants of various coals by direct measurement of the particle temperature at ignition, and incorporating this measurement into a mathematical model for the ignition process.

  18. Ignition Rate Measurement of Laser-Ignited Coals

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Chen; Vinayak Kabadi

    1997-10-31

    We established a novel experiment to study the ignition of pulverized coals under conditions relevant to utility boilers. Specifically, we determined the ignition mechanism of pulverized-coal particles under various conditions of particle size, coal type, and freestream oxygen concentration. We also measured the ignition rate constant of a Pittsburgh #8 high-volatile bituminous coal by direct measurement of the particle temperature at ignition, and incorporating this measurement into a mathematical model for the ignition process. The model, called Distributed Activation Energy Model of Ignition, was developed previously by our group to interpret conventional drop-tube ignition experiments, and was modified to accommodate the present study.

  19. Engineering support for magnetohydrodynamic power plant analysis and design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Marchmont, G.; Rogali, R.; Shikar, D.

    1980-01-01

    The major factors which influence the economic engineering selection of stack inlet temperatures in combined cycle MHD powerplants are identified and the range of suitable stack inlet temperatures under typical operating conditions is indicated. Engineering data and cost estimates are provided for four separately fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) system designs for HTAH system thermal capacity levels of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 MWt. An engineering survey of coal drying and pulverizing equipment for MHD powerplant application is presented as well as capital and operating cost estimates for varying degrees of coal pulverization.

  20. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  1. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2014-10-07

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  2. Process for the recovery of alumina from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Murtha, M.J.

    1983-08-09

    An improvement in the lime-sinter process for recovering alumina from pulverized coal fly ash is disclosed. The addition of from 2 to 10 weight percent carbon and sulfur to the fly ash-calcium carbonate mixture increase alumina recovery at lower sintering temperatures.

  3. Green Nanochemistry Approach to Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle, Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    through the mechanical pulverization method. The highest output was achieved with DSSCs created through the use of chemically extracted blueberry ...anthocyanin and (b) purified anthocyanin. ......................................................4 Figure 4. Pure (a) blackberry and (b) blueberry ...blackberries and blueberries . 2. Materials and Experimental Procedure The DSSCs used in this experiment were composed of a fluorine-doped, tin-oxide (FTO

  4. Fluidized-bed combustion reduces atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonke, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    Method of reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxides released during combustion of fossil fuels is described. Fuel is burned in fluidized bed of solids with simultaneous feeding of crushed or pulverized limestone to control emission. Process also offers high heat transfer rates and efficient contacting for gas-solid reactions.

  5. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  6. 10. DD and GG breaker building and associated conveyors. DD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DD and GG breaker building and associated conveyors. DD is coke transfer hous ein foreground; GG is breaker building in center. Coal bunker is tall building to left; 2-story coke conveyor on left brought coal to powerhouse pulverizer. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  7. PRIMARY PARTICLES GENERATED BY THE COMBUSTION OF HEAVY FUEL OIL AND COAL: REVIEW OF RESEARCH RESULTS FROM EPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Researchers at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and
    Development (ORD) have conducted a series of tests to characterize the size and composition of primary particulate matter (PM) generated from the combustion of heavy fuel oil and pulverize...

  8. PCFB Repowering Project 80 MW plant description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This report documents the design of a 80 MW Pressurized Circulating Fluidized Bed (PCFB) boiler for the repowering of Unit 1 at the Des Moines Energy Center. Objective is to demonstrate that PCFB combined-cycle technology is cost effective and environmentally superior compared to traditional pulverized coal burning facilities.

  9. Potential Flue Gas Impurities in Carbon Dioxide Streams Separated from Coal-fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    For geological sequestration of CO2 separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This s...

  10. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antiplasmodial investigations of Terminalia brownii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stem bark of Terminalia brownii was collected from Machakos county, Kenya, in November 2011, and identified at the University Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nairobi, where a voucher specimen (JM2011/502) was deposited. The stem bark was air dried in shade and pulverized....

  11. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  12. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM FOSSIL FUEL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of coal combustion as a significant global source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions was reexamined through on-line emission measurements from six pulverized-coal-fired utility boilers and from laboratory and pilot-scale combustors. The full-scale utility boilers yielded d...

  13. Coal beneficiation. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning laboratory and field investigations of a variety of methods and equipment used in coal beneficiation processes. Grinding, washing, flotation techniques, dewatering, and drying are among the preparation techniques discussed. Some attention is given to combustion characteristics of pulverized coal. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. 26. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING EAST AT BOILER 904. BOILER 904 WAS MANUFACTURED BY RILEY STOKER AND INSTALLED IN 1944. ORIGINALLY FUELED BY PULVERIZED COAL, IT WAS CONVERTED TO GAS/OIL OPERATION IN 1978 AND OPERATED UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  15. Clean coal technologies in electric power generation: a brief overview

    SciTech Connect

    Janos Beer; Karen Obenshain

    2006-07-15

    The paper talks about the future clean coal technologies in electric power generation, including pulverized coal (e.g., advanced supercritical and ultra-supercritical cycles and fluidized-bed combustion), integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), and CO{sub 2} capture technologies. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. 40 CFR 60.1940 - What definitions must I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. Continuous... meeting the definition of “medical/infectious waste” in § 60.51c. Mixed fuel-fired (pulverized coal/refuse-derived fuel) combustion unit means a combustion unit that combusts coal and refuse-derived...

  17. 40 CFR 60.51a - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fluff). Household, commercial/retail, and institutional wastes include: (1) Yard waste; (2) Refuse... disposal, including all ash handling systems that are connected to the bottom ash handling system; and (iii.../refuse-derived fuel mixed fuel-fired combustor or pulverized coal/RDF mixed fuel-fired combustor means...

  18. 40 CFR 60.1940 - What definitions must I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. Continuous... meeting the definition of “medical/infectious waste” in § 60.51c. Mixed fuel-fired (pulverized coal/refuse-derived fuel) combustion unit means a combustion unit that combusts coal and refuse-derived...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1940 - What definitions must I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. Continuous... meeting the definition of “medical/infectious waste” in § 60.51c. Mixed fuel-fired (pulverized coal/refuse-derived fuel) combustion unit means a combustion unit that combusts coal and refuse-derived...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1940 - What definitions must I know?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... heat to the combustion system in preparation for waste disposal or energy production. Continuous... meeting the definition of “medical/infectious waste” in § 60.51c. Mixed fuel-fired (pulverized coal/refuse-derived fuel) combustion unit means a combustion unit that combusts coal and refuse-derived...

  1. DESIGN AND CHARACTERIZATION OF AN ULTRAFINE COAL ASH AEROSOL GENERATOR FOR DIRECT ANIMAL EXPOSURE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary ultrafine particulate matter (PM) is produced during pulverized coal combustion by the nucleation and heterogeneous condensation of vapor-phase species. This differs from the mechanisms that control the formation of the supermicron fly ash that is heavily influenced by t...

  2. TRACE METAL TRANSFORMATION MECHANISMS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article reviews mechanisms governing the fate of trace metals during coal combustion and presents new theoretical results that interpret existing data. Emphasis is on predicting the size-segregated speciation of trace metals in pulverized-coal-fired power plant effluents. Thi...

  3. Concentration of oil shale by froth flotation. Monthly technical letter report, April 1-30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.

    1983-07-28

    Highlights of progress during April 1983 are sumarized. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the fine shale particles produced during crushing can be upgraded by froth flotation. The Anvil points shale was crushed in a jaw crusher followed by pulverizing in a disintegrator. The pulverized shale with a top particle size of 0.05 cm was separated into three size fractions. The results of flotation with these fractions are shown. The results indicated that upgrading is possible with the relatively coarse particles (> 100 ..mu..mm). However the kerogen content of the concentrate and the recovery of kerogen were considerably less with the dry pulverized shale than with the wet ground shale for the same particle size range. The fine particles (< 100 ..mu..m,) obtained from pulverizing were highly hydrophobic and could not be wetted easily; they tend to float on the water rather than sink unless severely agitated mechanically. During froth flotation most of the shale particles ended up in the concentrate (froth) resulting in no upgrading. These observations indicate the fines produced during crushing operations can be upgraded by froth flotation except when they are extremely fine.

  4. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  5. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  6. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  7. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  8. 30 CFR 77.301 - Dryer heating units; operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dryer heating units; operation. 77.301 Section... MINES Thermal Dryers § 77.301 Dryer heating units; operation. (a) Dryer heating units shall be operated...) Dryer heating units which are fired by pulverized coal, shall be operated and maintained in...

  9. Reuse of spent granular activated carbon for organic micro-pollutant removal from treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingyi; Shang, Ran; Heijman, Bas; Rietveld, Luuk

    2015-09-01

    Spent granular activated carbons (sGACs) for drinking water treatments were reused via pulverizing as low-cost adsorbents for micro-pollutant adsorption from a secondary treated wastewater effluent. The changes of physicochemical characteristics of the spent carbons in relation to the fresh carbons were determined and were correlated to the molecular properties of the respective GAC influents (i.e. a surface water and a groundwater). Pore size distribution analysis showed that the carbon pore volume decreased over a wider size range due to preloading by surface water, which contains a broader molecular weight distribution of organic matter in contrast to the groundwater. However, there was still considerable capacity available on the pulverized sGACs for atrazine adsorption in demineralized water and secondary effluent, and this was particularly the case for the groundwater spent GAC. However, as compared to the fresh counterparts, the decreased surface area and the induced surface acidic groups on the pulverized sGACs contributed both to the lower uptake and the more impeded adsorption kinetic of atrazine in the demineralized water. Nonetheless, the pulverized sGACs, especially the one preloaded by surface water, was less susceptible to adsorption competition in the secondary effluent, due to its negatively charged surface which can repulse the accessibility of the co-present organic matter. This suggests the reusability of the drinking water spent GACs for micro-pollutant adsorption in the treated wastewater.

  10. A FUEL-RICH PRECOMBUSTOR. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS - VOLUME IV. ALTERNATE CON- CEPTS FOR SOX, NOX, AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  11. Coal fired fluid bed module for a single elevation style fluid bed power plant

    DOEpatents

    Waryasz, Richard E.

    1979-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the burning of pulverized fuel having a specific waterwall arrangement that comprises a structurally reinforced framework of wall tubes. The wall tubes are reversely bent from opposite sides and then bonded together to form tie rods that extend across the bed to support the lateral walls thereof.

  12. Toward a unified mechanism for neat-coal and coal-slurry ignition. [Lurgi and Wellman-Galusha syngases

    SciTech Connect

    Reuther, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    By comparing results from separate experiments with singular flat flame combustors at The Pennsylvania State University Fuels and Combustion Laboratory, a rather novel chemical mechanism for pulverized and slurried coal ignition has been advanced. Much more extensive experimental research on coals and their volatiles is underway in order to evaluate its limitations. Low-Btu coal-derived syngases appear to possess some remarkable physicochemistry which may be critical to an advanced understanding of coal ignition in general. It should be pointed out in closing that the incorporation of OH free-radical chemistry in pulverized coal combustion should not be thought of as alchemy. In 1969, Mulcahy and Smith (Mulcahy, M., Smith, I. Kinetics of Combustion of Pulverized Fuel: A Review of Theory and Experiment, Rev. Pure Appl. Chem. 19: 81 (1969)) in their now classic review paper on the kinetics of pulverized coal combustion, recommended that the role of OH in coal flames be explored. This paper represents a first step toward that goal. 3 figures.

  13. Steel slag affects pH and Si content of container substrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A substrate representing a typical greenhouse potting mix was prepared using 85% sphagnum peat and 15% perlite. The substrate was filled into 10 cm wide containers. A pulverized steel slag (SS) from a basic oxygen furnace, and dolomitic limestone (DL) were amended to the base substrate at a rate o...

  14. Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives from said compositions, and cementitious compositions and aggregates produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Minnick, L. John

    1983-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing synthetic shaped cementitious compositions having high quality even without the addition of high energy binders, such as portland cement, through the use of the spent residue from a fluidized combustion bed of the type wherein limestone particles are suspended in a fluidized medium and sulfur oxides are captured, and pulverized coal fly ash.

  15. Stably operating pulse combustor and method

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, B.T.; Reiner, D.

    1990-05-29

    A pulse combustor apparatus is described which is adapted to burn either a liquid fuel or a pulverized solid fuel within a preselected volume of the combustion chamber. The combustion process is substantially restricted to an optimum combustion zone in order to attain effective pulse combustion operation. 4 figs.

  16. Post Combustion Test Bed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Cabe, James E.; King, Dale A.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-12-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) assessment methodology and slip-stream testing platform enables the comprehensive early-stage evaluation of carbon capture solvents and sorbents utilizing a breadth of laboratory experimental capability as well as a testing platform at a nearby 600 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  17. Rapid Semi-Quantitative Surface Mapping of Airborne-Dispersed Chemicals Using Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals can be dispersed accidentally, deliberately, or by weather-related events. Rapid mapping of contaminant distributions is necessary to assess exposure risks and to plan remediation, when needed. Ten pulverized aspirin or NoDozTM tablets containing caffeine wer...

  18. Hardgrove grindability index and petrology used as an enhanced predictor of coal feed rate

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C. )

    1990-01-01

    An improved predictor of coal pulverization behavior and coal feed rate is under development at the CAER based upon the interaction between Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) and coal petrology. With educated attention, this interaction may be a useful tool to enhance coal feed rates if cautiously extended to the mining environment where blends of coal lithotypes are produced.

  19. Synthesis of Fire-Extinguishing Dawsonites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altman, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple nonaqueous process synthesizes sodium or potassium, dawsonites effective against hydrocarbon fuel fires. Fire-extinguishing alkali metal dawsonites are prepared using a finely-pulverized equimolar mixture of hydrogen carbonate, or carbonates and aluminum hydroxide heated for 1 to 6 hours under carbon dioxide pressure.

  20. Fluidized-bed boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Makansi, J.; Schwieger, R.

    1987-05-01

    This environment-friendly approach to coal combustion is the success story of the decade. Starting with a comparison to pulverized-coal and stoker-fired systems, the report presents the state of commercialization of the leading types, discusses their differences and similarities, describes design features of individual models, compares their operating experience and pollutant emissions.

  1. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  2. Soot, organics, and ultrafine ash from air- and oxy-fired coal combustion

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper/presentation is concerned with determining the effects of oxy-combustion of coal on the composition of the ultrafine fly ash. To this end, a 10 W externally heated entrained flow furnace was modified to allow the combustion of pulverized coal in flames under practicall...

  3. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF AEROSOLS FROM COLLAPSED BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne pollutants can rise to extreme levels when large buildings fall down. The terrorist attack on New York's World Trade Center (WTC) towers caused the release of an enormous quantity of pulverized building materials and combustion products into the local environment. Partic...

  4. Method and apparatus for separating material

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2004-11-23

    An apparatus for sorting particles composed of a mixture of particles with differing physical and chemical characteristics. The apparatus includes a comminutor or a pulverizer for reducing the size of the particles. The apparatus includes a mechanism for separating undesired material from desired material.

  5. 3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTHWEST. BUILDINGS NOTED IN ID-29-2 APPEAR, IN ADDITION TO DRY ORE PLANT AND BONNOT COAL PULVERIZING EQUIPMENT BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  6. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  11. 40 CFR 61.150 - Standard for waste disposal for manufacturing, fabricating, demolition, renovation, and spraying...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder. (b) All asbestos-containing waste material shall be deposited... FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Asbestos § 61.150 Standard for waste... collection, processing (including incineration), packaging, or transporting of any asbestos-containing...

  12. TECHNOECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED-CYCLE POWER GENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a technoeconomic appraisal of the integrated (coal) gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system. lthough not yet a proven commercial technology, IGCC is a future competitive technology to current pulverized-coal boilers equipped with SO2 and NOx controls, because of i...

  13. Impact of the grinding process on the quantification of ethyl glucuronide in hair using a validated UPLC-ESI-MS-MS method.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Natalie; Wille, Sarah M R; Di Fazio, Vincent; Ramírez Fernández, Maria Del Mar; Yegles, Michel; Lambert, Willy E E; Samyn, Nele

    2015-01-01

    The Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) has provided cutoffs for the quantification of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair to indicate occasional or chronic/excessive alcohol consumption. Although several sensitive methods have been reported, past proficiency test results show a lack of reproducibility. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method (LLOQ of 10 pg EtG/mg hair) has been validated according to the international guidelines, including the successful participation in five proficiency tests. This method was subsequently used to evaluate the impact of different grinding conditions (cut, weakly or extensively pulverized hair samples) on the final measured EtG concentration. Hair from alcohol consumers (n = 2) and commercially available quality control samples (QCs) (n = 2) was used. For the QCs, extensive pulverization led to a significantly higher amount of measured EtG. In the hair samples obtained from volunteers, cut or weakly pulverized hair resulted in EtG concentrations below the LLOQ, while the mean concentrations of 14 and 40 pg EtG/mg hair were determined after extensive pulverization. Differences in sample preparation could partially explain inter-laboratory variability. As the differences in results can lead to a different interpretation even when applying the SoHT cutoffs, it is of interest to standardize sample preparation techniques in the field of EtG hair testing.

  14. Stably operating pulse combustor and method

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, Ben T.; Reiner, David

    1990-01-01

    A pulse combustor apparatus adapted to burn either a liquid fuel or a pulverized solid fuel within a preselected volume of the combustion chamber. The combustion process is substantially restricted to an optimum combustion zone in order to attain effective pulse combustion operation.

  15. Coal Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Coal slurries are "clean" pulverized coal mixed with oil or water. Significant fuel savings can be realized when using coal slurries. Advanced Fuels Technology (AFT) utilized a COSMIC program, (Calculation of Complex Chemical Equilibrium Compositions), which provides specific capabilities for determining combustion products. The company has developed a cleaning process that removes much of the mineral sulphur and ash from the coals.

  16. 1. Sheeler redact: Lower east/west conveyor from wharf carried coke ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Sheeler redact: Lower east/west conveyor from wharf carried coke to highline for blast furnaces; upper south/north conveyor carried coal to GG; double window carried coal to powerhouse pulverizer building for powerhouse in background. Looking north/northeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  17. 25. Wood quench tower, chemical tank on right, hot gas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Wood quench tower, chemical tank on right, hot gas pipes between coke ovens and compressor building XX), coal conveyor to pulverizer building on right, water tank to left of quench tower. Looking north/northwest - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  18. H-Coal Pilot Plant: coal-preparation test. Technical report No. T-5

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, D.C.; Smith, E.R.

    1980-07-15

    Initial commissioning and test results for the coal-pulverizing-and-drying system in Section 100 are reported. The results obtained in calibrating the weigh feeder which feeds the prepared coal to the Slurry Mix Tank, Q-236, are also given. Coal was first fed to the pulverizing system on April 14 for approximately thirty minutes. On May 2, the pulverizing system was successfully operated for six hours with the bowl mill coal feed rate purposefully varied between 50 and 100% of full load. The system was then voluntarily shut down. These and subsequent operations have demonstrated that: (1) the bowl mill can be operated at coal feed rates of 20 to 40 tons/h, (2) that a 7.6 weight percent moisture coal feed stock can be easily dried to 2.0 weight percent moisture, and (3) that the bowl mill can be adjusted to routinely produce a 90 to 98 weight percent - 100 mesh product (95% - 100 mesh average) with 72 to 89 weight percent passing 200 mesh (80% - 200 mesh average). During the start-up operations, special tests were conducted to determine the heat losses from the pulverizing system. The results indicate that the average system heat loss is 2,850,000 Btu/h and that the thermal efficiency, defined as the number of Btus required to heat and dry the coal divided by the number of Btus supplied by the fuel, is about 81%. The coal grinding tests also demonstrated that even at the relatively low temperatures (200 to 300/sup 0/F) that were maintained in the pulverizing system the fine coal dust produced readily reacts with the low amount of oxygen in the dryer flue gases. The prepared coal weigh feeder was calibrated for a range of 5 to 12.5 tons/h.

  19. Control of coal combustion SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions by in-boiler injection of CMA. Sixth quarterly project status report, 1 January 1994--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.L.; Steciak, J.; Simons, G.

    1994-06-01

    Conclusions: 1. Impregnation of pulverized coal particles by CMA and CA (and to leser extent MA) was found to increase the combustion temperature of both the volatile and the char phases. Effects of the additives on the burntime of either of the two phases could not be clearly detected. 2. The pretreatment of pulverized (75-90{mu}m) and micronized (3.5{mu}m mean) and beneficiated coals with CMA, CA or MA (at a Ca/S = 2) substantially reduced the emission of SO{sub 2}, at gas temperatures between 1250 to 1450 K, followed by a cool-down zone, in fuel-lean combustion ({phi} = 0.35-0.57). 3. The combustion of CMA-, CA-, or MA-treated pulverized coal in normal air suggested that all three sulfur caption mechanisms, mentioned in the introduction, were evident in the present experiments. 4. The results of experiments in normal air and in atmospheres containing 40% oxygen suggested that the release and subsequent sulfation of CaO and MgO aerosols may be the main mechanism for sulfur removal in the virtually ash-free micronized coal that was treated with CMA. 5. NO{sub x} emissions were increased with higher gas temperatures. Micronized coal produced 25% less NO{sub x} than pulverized coal. This could be due to its lower nitrogen content and slightly more fuel-rich conditions for the micronized coal combustion, as well as localized fuel-rich conditions surrounding the small particles as the volatiles and char burn together. 6. The emissions of NO{sub x} from CMA-treated pulverized coal were similar to those from untreated coal, whereas CMA-treated micronized coal released slightly more NO{sub x} than it did when untreated. The latter event may be caused by the added fuel oxygen associated with the effective penetration of the CMA additive.

  20. Surface structure and biocompatibility of demineralized dentin matrix granules soaked in a simulated body fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Murata, Masaru; Hino, Jun; Nagano, Futami; Shigyo, Tatsuhiro; Nomura, Takafumi; Inano, Hiroyuki; Itabashi, Kohji; Yamagishi, Tohru; Nakamura, Katsuo; Takahashi, Touru; Iida, Shunji; Kashiwazaki, Haruhiko

    2012-12-01

    Demineralized dentin matrix (DDM) granules with excellent biocompatibility were easily prepared using unnecessary human teeth by a new cooling-pulverizing and demineralizing technique. Extracted human teeth were pulverized together with saline ice at 12,000 rpm-rotation number of a ZrO2 blade for 30 s in a ZrO2 vessel. The pulverized granules exhibited the particle size distribution of 0.5-2 mm that was efficient for regeneration of alveolar bone. The (Ca/P) ratios of the granules were 1.60-1.66, which were close to the stoichiometric value of 1.67 for standard hydroxyapatite (HAp). Small amounts of Na+ and Mg2+ ions present at less than 1% were detected. The pulverized granules were dissolved with stirring under 500 rpm for 10-60 min in 2.0%-HNO3 solutions to obtain partial or complete DDM granules. As the dissolution time increased, crystallinity of HAp phase lowered and asperity on surfaces of the granules became outstanding due to elution of mineral components. At the dissolution of 60 min, the pulverizing granules were completely demineralized and the weight decreased to about one-fifth. To improve surface activity of the DDM granules without denaturation of bone growth factors, the DDM granules were soaked at 309.5 K and pH 7.40 in a simulated body fluid (SBF). HAp microcrystals were gradually precipitated on surfaces of the DDM granules with increasing the soaking time. Different morphology of the precipitates was observed, depending on the demineralization situation of the pulverized granules. For the DDM with low dissolution efficiency of 42%, porous bone-like apatites at 24 h after the soaking and fiber-oriented aggregates at 144 h were recognized. The bioactive DDM granules were implanted into the subcutaneous tissues of the back region of rats. At 4 weeks after the implantation, bio-absorption by comparatively small amounts of multi-giant cells was recognized around the surface layers of DDM granules.

  1. Dissolution of bulk specimens of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, W. F.; Merkle, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    An accurate chemical characterization of silicon nitride has become important in connection with current efforts to incorporate components of this material into advanced heat engines. However, there are problems concerning a chemical analysis of bulk silicon nitride. Current analytical methods require the pulverization of bulk specimens. A pulverization procedure making use of grinding media, on the other hand, will introduce contaminants. A description is given of a dissolution procedure which overcomes these difficulties. It has been found that up to at least 0.6 g solid pieces of various samples of hot pressed and reaction bonded silicon nitride can be decomposed in a mixture of 3 mL hydrofluoric acid and 1 mL nitric acid overnight at 150 C in a Parr bomb. High-purity silicon nitride is completely soluble in nitric acid after treatment in the bomb. Following decomposition, silicon and hydrofluoric acid are volatilized and insoluble fluorides are converted to a soluble form.

  2. Simulation of Mechanical Behavior of Agglutinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakagawa, Masami; Moon, Tae-Hyun

    2005-01-01

    Due to lack of "real" lunar soil or even lunar simulant, it is difficult to characterize the interaction between lunar soil (or simulant) with different surfaces that are involved in excavation and processing machinery. One unique feature possessed by lunar soil is the agglutinates produced by repeated high-speed micrometeoroid impacts and subsequent pulverization[l and 2]. The large particles are impacted by micrometeoroids [Fig.l] and pulverized to produce finer particles. This process continues until there are no more "large" particles left on the surface of the moon. Due to high impact speed, the impact melting process fuses fines to make agglutinates such as shown in Fig. 2. We will present a series of simulation results and movies will be shown to indicate brittle behavior of each individual agglutinate and also similar compressibility charts shown by Carrier et al. [3]. Fig. 3 shows our preliminary result of the simulated oedometer tests.

  3. Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

  4. The first known use of vermillion.

    PubMed

    Martín-Gil, J; Martín-Gil, F J; Delibes-de-Castro, G; Zapatero-Magdaleno, P; Sarabia-Herrero, F J

    1995-08-16

    Vermillion has been shown to be useful in preserving human bones from 5000 years ago. Remarkably well-preserved human bones have been found in the dolmenic burial 'La Velilla' in Osorno (Palencia, Spain), carefully covered by pulverized cinnabar (vermillion) which ensured their preservation even in non-favorable climatic conditions. We believe the red powder was deliberately deposited for preservative use because no cinnabar mine is to be found within 160 km, because of the large amount (hundreds of kilograms) used, and because its composition, red mercuric sulphide, is similar to that of preparations used in technical embalming. This finding pushes back the data of the use of mercury ore for preservation by four millennia in South America, and by at least one millennium in the Old World. Chemical and thermal analyses of vermillion in La Velilla have demonstrated its great purity and shown that the cinnabar was pulverized and washed (but not heated), producing a bright red-orange tone.

  5. Distribution of methanogenic potential in fractions of turf grass used as inoculum for the start-up of thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Suwannoppadol, Suwat; Ho, Goen; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to investigate thermophilic methanogens in turf used as an inoculum. Results showed that Methanoculleus sp. regarded as hydrogenotrophic and Methanosarcina sp. regarded as acetoclastic methanogens were present in turf tested. However, active acetoclastic methanogens were present in turf soil only. The current study showed that thermophilic methanogens were present in various turf grass species: Stenotaphrum secundatum, Cynodon dactylon, and Zoysia japonica. Severe treatments of grass leaves under oxic conditions, including blending, drying and pulverizing did not affect the thermophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogenic activity of the grass. A dried and pulverized grass extract could be generated that can serve as a readily storable methanogenic inoculum for thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The methanogens could also be physically extracted into an aqueous suspension, suitable as an inoculum. The possible contribution of the presence of methanogens on grass plants to global greenhouse emissions is briefly discussed.

  6. Graphene oxide wrapped croconic acid disodium salt for sodium ion battery electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chao; Zhu, Yujie; Xu, Yunhua; Liu, Yihang; Gao, Tao; Wang, Jing; Wang, Chunsheng

    2014-03-01

    Croconic acid disodium salt (CADS), a renewable or recyclable organic compound, is investigated as an anode material in sodium ion battery for the first time. The pristine micro-sized CADS delivers a high capacity of 246.7 mAh g-1, but it suffers from fast capacity decay during charge/discharge cycles. The detailed investigation reveals that the severe capacity loss is mainly attributed to the pulverization of CADS particles induced by the large volume change during sodiation/desodiation rather than the generally believed dissolution of CADS in the organic electrolyte. Minimizing the particle size can effectively suppress the pulverization, thus improving the cycling stability. Wrapping CADS with graphene oxide by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis can enhance the integration and conductivity of CADS electrodes, thus providing a high capacity of 293 mAh g-1.

  7. CE IGCC repowering project: Controls & instrumentation. Topical report, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The IGCC Control System is used to provide operator interface and controls for manual and auto operation of the IGCC Repowering Project Located at Springfield, Illinois. A Distributed Control System (DCS) is provided for analog (process control) loop functions and to provide the operator interface. A Data Acquisition System (DAS) is provided for gathering performance data and optimization. Programmable Logic Controllers will be provided for the following digital control systems: (a) GSSS (Gasifier Supervisory Safety System) including pulverized coal handling and char handling; (b) Coal Pulverization System; (c) HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generation); (d) Hot Gas Cleanup System; (e) Steam Turbine; and (f) Combined Cycle Operation. In general all systems are provided for auto/manual cascade operation; upstream equipment is interlocked to be proven in service operation and/or valve position before downstream equipment may operate.

  8. Oxy-coal Combustion Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, J.; Eddings, E.; Lighty, J.; Ring, T.; Smith, P.; Thornock, J.; Y Jia, W. Morris; Pedel, J.; Rezeai, D.; Wang, L.; Zhang, J.; Kelly, K.

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this project is to move toward the development of a predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for pilot-scale, single-burner, oxy-coal operation. This validation research brings together multi-scale experimental measurements and computer simulations. The combination of simulation development and validation experiments is designed to lead to predictive tools for the performance of existing air fired pulverized coal boilers that have been retrofitted to various oxy-firing configurations. In addition, this report also describes novel research results related to oxy-combustion in circulating fluidized beds. For pulverized coal combustion configurations, particular attention is focused on the effect of oxy-firing on ignition and coal-flame stability, and on the subsequent partitioning mechanisms of the ash aerosol.

  9. Update of progress for Phase II of B&W`s advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, D.K.; Madden, D.A.; Rodgers, L.W.

    1995-11-01

    Over the past five years, advances in emission control techniques at reduced costs and auxiliary power requirements coupled with significant improvements in steam turbine and cycle design have significantly altered the governing criteria by which advanced technologies have been compared. With these advances, it is clear that pulverized coal technology will continue to be competitive in both cost and performance with other advanced technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) or first generation Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) technologies for at least the next decade. In the early 1990`s it appeared that if IGCC and PFBC could achieve costs comparable to conventional pulverized coal plants, their significantly reduced NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions would make them more attractive. A comparison of current emission control capabilities shows that all three technologies can already achieve similarly low emissions levels.

  10. Recommended guidelines for solid fuel use in cement plants

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.L.; Jayaraman, H.; Tseng, H.

    2007-07-01

    Pulverized solid fuel use at cement plants in North America is universal and includes bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and any combination of these materials. Provided are guidelines for the safe use of pulverized solid fuel systems in cement plants, including discussion of the National Fire Protection Association and FM Global fire and explosion prevention standards. Addressed are fire and explosion hazards related to solid fuel use in the cement industry, fuel handling and fuel system descriptions, engineering design theory, kiln system operations, electrical equipment, instrumentation and safety interlock issues, maintenance and training, and a brief review of code issues. New technology on fire and explosion prevention including deflagration venting is also presented.

  11. Effects of cerium on the hydrogen absorption-desorption properties of rare earth-Mg-Ni hydrogen-absorbing alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Shigekazu; Ishida, Jun; Kishida, Kyosuke; Inui, Haruyuki

    2017-04-01

    The influence of Ce addition on the phase constitution, microstructure, hydrogen absorption/desorption properties and battery performances of newly developed rare earth (RE)-Mg-Ni hydrogen-absorbing superlattice alloys for negative electrode materials in Ni-metal hydride (MH) batteries were investigated. The partial substitution of RE (La and Nd) with Ce results in a higher discharge performance and a lower cycle life in the battery. The Ce addition greatly affects the phase constitution, which is mainly characterized by increased formation of the AB2 phase (A = RE or Mg and B = Ni or Al). The existence of the AB2 phase is found to accelerate alloy pulverization and oxidation when the alloys are used as negative electrode materials in Ni-MH model cells. The accelerated pulverization and oxidation are considered to be responsible for the observed higher discharge performance and lower cycle life in the batteries, respectively.

  12. Parametric study of potential early commercial power plants Task 3-A MHD cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The development of costs for an MHD Power Plant and the comparison of these costs to a conventional coal fired power plant are reported. The program is divided into three activities: (1) code of accounts review; (2) MHD pulverized coal power plant cost comparison; (3) operating and maintenance cost estimates. The scope of each NASA code of account item was defined to assure that the recently completed Task 3 capital cost estimates are consistent with the code of account scope. Improvement confidence in MHD plant capital cost estimates by identifying comparability with conventional pulverized coal fired (PCF) power plant systems is undertaken. The basis for estimating the MHD plant operating and maintenance costs of electricity is verified.

  13. The VRFurnace: A Virtual Reality Application for Energy System Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Peter Eric

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the Virtual Reality Furnace (VRFurnace) application, an interactive 3-D visualization platform for pulverized coal furnace analysis. The VRFurnace is a versatile toolkit where a variety of different CFD data sets related to pulverized coal furnaces can be studied interactively. The toolkit combines standard CFD analysis techniques with tools that more effectively utilize the 3-D capabilities of a virtual environment. Interaction with data is achieved through a dynamic instructional menu system. The application has been designed for use in a projection-based system which allows engineers, management, and operators to see and interact with the data at the same time. Future developments are discussed and will include the ability to combine multiple power plant components into a single application, allow remote collaboration between different virtual environments, and allow users to make changes to a flow field and see the results of these changes as they are made creating a complete virtual power plant.

  14. Low emission U-fired boiler combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Ake, Terence; Beittel, Roderick; Lisauskas, Robert A.; Reicker, Eric

    2000-01-01

    At least one main combustion chamber contains at least one pulverized coal burner. Each pulverized coal burner is operatively arranged for minimizing NO.sub.X production and for maintaining a predetermined operating temperature to liquefy ash within the combustion chamber. The combustion chamber includes a slag drain for removing slag from the combustion chamber. A slag screen is positioned in a generally U-shaped furnace flow pattern. The slag screen is positioned between the combustion chamber and a radiant furnace. The radiant furnace includes a reburning zone for in-furnace No.sub.X reduction. The reburning zone extends between a reburning fuel injection source and at least one overfire air injection port for injecting air.

  15. Modeling and full-scale tests of vortex plasma-fuel systems for igniting high-ash power plant coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Chernetskiy, M. Yu.; Dekterev, A. A.; Filimonov, S. A.

    2015-06-01

    The processes of supplying pulverized-coal fuel into a boiler equipped with plasma-fuel systems and its combustion in the furnace of this boiler are investigated. The results obtained from 3D modeling of conventional coal combustion processes and its firing with plasma-assisted activation of combustion in the furnace space are presented. The plasma-fuel system with air mixture supplied through a scroll is numerically investigated. The dependence of the swirled air mixture flow trajectory in the vortex plasma-fuel system on the scroll rotation angle is revealed, and the optimal rotation angle at which stable plasma-assisted ignition of pulverized coal flame is achieved is determined.

  16. Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials

    DOEpatents

    Friedman, Joseph; Oberg, Carl L.; Russell, Larry H.

    1980-01-01

    A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

  17. PISCES field chemical emissions monitoring project: Site 20 emissions report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This report is one of a series sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in the area of trace substance emissions from fossil-fuel power Plants. This report presents the results of a sampling and analytical study to characterize trace substances emissions at Site 20. Site 20 is a pulverized coal-fired boiler burning a medium-sulfur bituminous coal. Site 20 is a large, pulverized coal-fired power plant that bums a lignite coal. Site 20 employs electrostatic precipitators and a flue gas desulfurization system for particulate and SO{sub 2} control. The objective of this report is to transmit the detailed data to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assist the Agency in evaluating utility trace chemical emissions as well as the associated health risk impacts-as mandated in Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. This report does not attempt to compare the results with other sites.

  18. Effects of gas temperature fluctuations on the evolution of Nitrogenous species during coal devolatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.T.; Zhang, J.

    2009-02-15

    The effects of gas temperature fluctuations on the instantaneous evolution processes of nitrogenous species were investigated for pulverized coal particles undergoing devolatilization in a hot gas. The instantaneous mass variations of nitrogenous species released from the particles with diameters of 10-50 {mu} m were computed for different conditions. The instantaneous gas temperature was varied with time either in a simple harmonic way or in a random way. The calculated results showed that, under different time-average gas temperatures, the HCN evolution behaviors of particles with different diameters were all affected by the gas temperature fluctuations. The gas temperature fluctuations led to more rapid HCN release from the pulverized coal particles compared to the results obtained without gas temperature fluctuations. The effects were further enhanced by increasing the amplitude or intensity of the gas temperature fluctuations.

  19. The freezing point depression of mammalian tissues in relation to the question of osmotic activity of cell fluid.

    PubMed

    APPELBOOM, J W; BRODSKY, W A; DENNIS, W H; DIAMOND, I; MILEY, J F; REHM, W S

    1956-11-20

    The freezing point depression of freshly excised frozen tissues, pulverized in a hydraulic press or in a mortar, is greater than that of plasma. Even at 0 degrees C. the freezing point depression of such homogenates increases significantly with time. Dilution data indicate that such freezing point data are valid. The presence of intact cells has been shown in smears of tissues pulverized in a mortar, but not in smears of those crushed in a hydraulic press. The osmolarity of various diluent solutions affects the calculated osmotic activity of tissue homogenates presumably because of delayed diffusion between the diluent and cell fluid. With a hypertonic NaCl diluent, spuriously low values of tissue osmotic activity are found from calculations assuming instantaneous mixing between homogenates and diluents. The limitations of data from cryoscopic experiments and from tissue-swelling experiments are discussed in relation to the basic question of whether or not cell fluid is isotonic to extracellular fluid.

  20. Fundamental study of ash formation and deposition: Effect of reducing stoichiometry. Quarterly report No. 3, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Bool, L.E.; Sarofim, A.F.; Zeng, T.; Peterson, T.W.; Gallien, D.; Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E.; Shah, N.

    1994-03-01

    The technical objectives of this project are: (a) to identify the partitioning of inorganic coal constituents among vapor, submicron fume, and fly ash products generated during the combustion of pulverized coal under a variety of combustion conditions. Fuel lean and fuel rich combustion conditions will be considered. (b) To identify and quantify the fundamental processes by which the transformations of minerals and organically-associated inorganic species occurs. Emphasis will be placed on identifying any changes that occur as a result of combustion under substoichiometric combustion conditions. (c) To incorporate the effects of combustion stoichiometry into an Engineering Model for Ash Formation based upon the understanding developed in (a) and (b). When completed, this model will predict the particle size and chemical composition distributions of ash formed during the combustion of pulverized coal under a broad range of conditions.

  1. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  2. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOEpatents

    Tao, John C.

    1983-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  3. Method for reducing NOx during combustion of coal in a burner

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Bing; Parasher, Sukesh; Hare, Jeffrey J.; Harding, N. Stanley; Black, Stephanie E.; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2008-04-15

    An organically complexed nanocatalyst composition is applied to or mixed with coal prior to or upon introducing the coal into a coal burner in order to catalyze the removal of coal nitrogen from the coal and its conversion into nitrogen gas prior to combustion of the coal. This process leads to reduced NOx production during coal combustion. The nanocatalyst compositions include a nanoparticle catalyst that is made using a dispersing agent that can bond with the catalyst atoms. The dispersing agent forms stable, dispersed, nano-sized catalyst particles. The catalyst composition can be formed as a stable suspension to facilitate storage, transportation and application of the catalyst nanoparticles to a coal material. The catalyst composition can be applied before or after pulverizing the coal material or it may be injected directly into the coal burner together with pulverized coal.

  4. RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel) Utilization in a Navy Stoker Coal-Fired Boiler.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    based upon the most practical and economical fuel mix. RDF-3 has a high degree of refinement and is best suited for use with pulverized coal where...thermally efficient way to convert waste to energy products. The factors contributing to this high conver- sion efficiency are the ability of the boiler...are also disadvantages with the RDF-to-energy conversion scheme, including the following: An MSW-to-RDF processing plant will require complex, high

  5. Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO/N{sub 2}O control in coal fired systems using BioLime{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, G.A.; Place, W.J.; Oehr, K.H.; Zhou, J.

    1997-07-01

    BioLime{trademark}, a material comprised of organic calcium salts derived from organic waste (sawdust, municipal solid waste or agricultural waste), is used to simultaneously control SO{sub x}, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O emissions from pulverized coal combustion (PCC) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) with calcium utilizations greater than 90%, i.e., 90% SO{sub 2} removal at Ca/S=1.

  6. Building Self-Healing Alloy Architecture for Stable Sodium-Ion Battery Anodes: A Case Study of Tin Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jianfeng; Fan, Xiulin; Luo, Chao; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-03-23

    The rational design of anode materials is a challenge in developing sodium ion batteries. Alloy anodes provide high gravimetric and volumetric capacities but suffer the short cycle life as a result of the continuous and accumulated pulverization, resulting from a large volume change during the cycling process. Herein, using pure Sn, an irreversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction (SnO), and a reversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction (Sn4P3) as samples, we demonstrate that the pulverization and aggregation of the alloy anode can be partially recovered and the accumulation of pulverization and aggregation during charge/discharge cycles can be terminated using a reversible conversion reaction combined with an alloy reaction. The cycling stability of three Sn-based anodes increases in order of Sn4P3 > SnO > Sn. The enhancement in Sn4P3 can be attributed to a reversible reaction of Sn4P3 + 9Na ↔ 4Sn + 3Na3P, which repairs the cracks, damage, and aggregation of Sn particles that occurred in the alloy process of 4Sn + 15Na ↔ Na15Sn4 during cycling and, hence, terminates the pulverization. The repair mechanism looks like the self-healing feature in nature, where the damage can be healed by itself. Therefore, the suggested mechanism can be called self-healing, while the repaired anode can be termed as the self-healing anode. The use of self-healing strategies to build an electrode architecture is new and highly desirable because it can increase the cycle life and provide a general approach toward stable electrode materials.

  7. Cosmic bombardment V: Threat object-dispersing approaches to active planetary defense

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L. |; Ishikawa, M. |; Hyde, R.

    1995-05-24

    Earth-impacting comets and asteroids with diameters {approx}0.03 - 10 km pose the greatest threats to the terrestrial biosphere in terms of impact frequency-weighted impact consequences, and thus are of most concern to designers of active planetary defenses. Specific gravitational binding energies of such objects range from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -2} J/gm, and are small compared with the specific energies of 1x10{sup 3} to 3x10{sup 3} J/gm required to vaporize objects of typical composition or the specific energies required to pulverize them, which are 10{sup -1} to 10 J/gm. All of these are small compared to the specific kinetic energy of these objects in the Earth- centered frame, which is 2x10{sup 5} to 2x10{sup 6} J/gm. The prospect naturally arises of negating all such threats by deflecting, pulverizing or vaporizing the objects. Pulverization-with-dispersal is an attractive option of reasonable defensive robustness. Examples of such equipments - which employ no explosives of any type - are given. Vaporization is the maximally robust defensive option, and may be invoked to negate threat objects not observed until little time is left until Earth-strike, and pulverization-with-dispersal has proven inadequate. Physically larger threats may be vaporized with nuclear explosives. No contemporary technical means of any kind appear capable of directly dispersing the -100 km diameter scale Charon- class cometary objects recently observed in the outer solar system, although such objects may be deflected to defensively useful extents. Means of implementing defenses of each of these types are proposed for specificity, and areas for optimization noted. Biospheric impacts of threat object debris are briefly considered, for bounding purposes. Experiments are suggested on cometary and asteroidal objects.

  8. Demonstration/Validation of Hazardous Air Pollutant-Free Torque Seal Inspection Lacquer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    formulation samples were dried in an oven until the sample weight remained constant. This dried material was pulverized in a coffee bean grinder to...0.5-oz Tubes Pounds of Material Pounds of HAP 8030011432702 Red 1638 51.19 10.24 8030011250055 Orange 847 26.47 5.29 8030004081137 Green 42...system diagram. Figure 2. Torque Seal applied to UH-1 helicopter. Green - Baseline Red-HAP free 7 free and baseline Torque Seal formulations

  9. Use of Dilute Flowable Backfill for Corrosion Mitigation of Buried Pipe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Research Laboratory Dilute Flowable Backfill Properties Controlled Low Strength Material (CLSM) • Flowable Fill – pulverized aggregate, Portland cement...in flowable fill and native soil cement mixtures • Laboratory Analysis at ERDC-CERL – To provide comparative performance results – Evaluate several...Requirements: • Steel pipe segments to be embedded in a flowable fill and a soil-cement at Ft. Hood, TX • Periodic Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR

  10. Determining of combustion process state based on flame images analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawicki, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents comparison image classification method of combustion biomass and pulverized coal. Presented research is related with 10% and 20% weight fraction of the biomass. Defined two class of combustion: stable and unstable for nine variants with different power, secondary air value parameters and fixed amount biomass. Used artificial neural networks and support vector machine to classify flame image which correspond with the state of the. combustion process.

  11. Biological Synthesis of Substituted o-Aminophenols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reve:e ;f ne.ezjry an ,der-,y Zq block -.. alnber) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Biology, polymer synthesis, specialty materials , 06...for Neurospora crassa tyrosinase was developed. This procedure simply involves pulverizing the frozen mycelium into a powder, suspension 3 of that...alkalescens, the nitro-reductase seems3to consist essentially of hydrogenase and a ferrodoxin-like material that can be separated from each other by Sephadex G

  12. Clean power generation from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.; Basu, P.

    2007-09-15

    The chapter gives an overview of power generation from coal, describing its environmental impacts, methods of cleaning coal before combustion, combustion methods, and post-combustion cleanup. It includes a section on carbon dioxide capture, storage and utilization. Physical, chemical and biological cleaning methods are covered. Coal conversion techniques covered are: pulverized coal combustion, fluidized-bed combustion, supercritical boilers, cyclone combustion, magnetohydrodynamics and gasification. 66 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Mechanical, Mathematical, and Computer Modeling in Penetration Mechanics - IV (Hybrid Models for Nanostructured Ceramics - II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-30

    model of penetration of long elastically deformable projectiles into semi- infinite targets 3 Introduction 3 1. Basic model equations of penetration...of non- deformable projectiles into semi-infinite target 4 1.1. Geometrical scheme of penetration model of non- deformable projectile 4 1.2. Velocity...c. 20 1.3. Pulverized region (a < r < b). 22 2. Example 25 III. Investigation of deformation process at high-speed loadings of ceramic materials

  14. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. Technical progress report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  15. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  16. Method of preventing oxidation of graphite fireproof material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, S.; Suzuki, H.

    1981-01-01

    A method of preventing oxidation of graphite fireproof material is given. A blend of 1 to 33 weight parts alumina and 3 to 19 parts of K2O + Na2O in 100 parts of SiO2 is pulverized followed by addition of 5 to 160 parts of silicon carbide powder in 100 parts of the mixture. This is thoroughly blended and coated on the surface of graphite fireproof material.

  17. Rapid Methods for the Laboratory Identification of Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    investigated for the selective agglutination of coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci. An agglutination slide test employing Mangifera ... indica (mango) extract, wheat germ agglutinin (WC.A), and crude Limulus polyphemus (horseshoe crab’ lectin was found to agglutinate 96% (79 of 82) of...M. indica extract was prepared from the dried seeds of commercially purchased mangoes. The seeds were pulverized in a CRC micromill and extracted

  18. 27. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. VIEW OF SOUTHERN PORTION OF EAST BOILER ROOM LOOKING EAST AT UPPER PORTION BOILER 904. BOILER 904 WAS MANUFACTURED BY RILEY STOKER AND INSTALLED IN 1944. ORIGINALLY FUELED BY PULVERIZED COAL, IT WAS CONVERTED TO GAS/OIL OPERATION IN 1978 AND OPERATED UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  20. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOEpatents

    Aida, T.; Squires, T.G.; Venier, C.G.

    1983-08-11

    A process is disclosed for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF FISK STREET ELECTRIC GENERATING STATION COMPLEX, LOOKING SOUTH; IN THE CENTER, BEHIND THE STACK IS THE GENERATING STATION BUILT IN 1959; THE TALL METAL-CLAD BUILDING CONTAINS A COAL BUNKER, COAL PULVERIZER, FURNACE, BOILER, SUPER-HEATER, STEAM PIPES, AND HOT-AIR DUCTS. TO THE RIGHT OF THIS 1959 GENERATING STATION IS THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Evaluating Macro and Microscopic Rock Damage from Explosions and the Effects on Shear Wave Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2014-0167 TR-2014-0167 EVALUATING MACRO AND MICROSCOPIC ROCK DAMAGE FROM EXPLOSIONS AND THE EFFECTS ON SHEAR WAVE...Macro and Microscopic Rock Damage from Explosions and the Effects on Shear Wave Generation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-10-C-0257 5b. GRANT NUMBER...the rock was highly pulverized and granulated. Outward and above the emplacement level, the granite was characterized by high angle fractures

  3. Pilot Plant Program for the AED Advanced Coal Cleaning System. Phase II. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc. (AED), has developed a proprietary coal cleaning process which employs a combination of ionization and electrostatic separation to remove both sulfur and ash from dry pulverized coal. The Ohio Department of Energy sponsored the first part of a program to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate the process in a continuous-flow pilot plant. Various coals used by Ohio electric utilities were characterized and classified, and sulfur reduction, ash reduction and Btu recovery were measured. Sulfur removal in various coals ranged from 33 to 68% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal ranged from 17 to 59% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal of particles greater than 53 microns ranged from 46 to 88%. Btu recovery ranged from 90 to 97%. These results, especially the large percentage removal of ash particles greater than 53 microns, suggest that the AED system can contribute materially to improved boiler performance and availability. The study indicated the following potential areas for commercial utilization of the AED process: installation between the pulverizer and boiler of conventional coal-fired power utilities; reclamation of fine coal refuse; dry coal cleaning to supplement, and, if necessary, to take the place of conventional coal cleaning; upgrading coal used in: (1) coal-oil mixtures, (2) gasification and liquefaction processes designed to handle pulverized coal; and (3) blast furnaces for making steel, as a fuel supplement to the coke. Partial cleaning of coking coal blends during preheating may also prove economically attractive. Numerous other industrial processes which use pulverized coal such as the production of activated carbon and direct reduction of iron ore may also benefit from the use of AED coal cleaning.

  4. Chalcocite Oxidation and Coupled Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A M; Beck, J V

    1972-03-10

    The reaction of cell suspensions of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans with pulverized chalcocite (Cu(2)S) in a Warburg manometric apparatus resulted in oxygen uptake accompanied by increased solubilization of copper and fixation of carbon dioxide. Since the only detectable oxidized products were cupric ions and the more oxidized form of the sulfide mineral, that is, digenite or covellite, the apparent source of energy for the carbon dioxide fixation was provided by the oxidation of the cuprous copper of the chalcocite.

  5. Final Asbestos Report (AREE 65) Base Realignment and Closure Environmental Evaluation (BRAC EE), Part 2, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-05-01

    Material friability 0 = non-friable I = low friability 2 = moderate friability 3 = high friability b. Occupant accessibility 0 = low accessibility to...the material was classified, the suspect ACBM was characterized to determine the materials’ friability . Characterization consisted of touching the...condition; maximum score is 17. PART Ih: EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT FACTORS A. Material Friability : Defined by USEPA as crumbled, pulverized,or reduced to

  6. Tailoring the physical properties of homopolymers and polymer nanocomposites via solid-state processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, Cynthia

    Numerous approaches can be used to modify polymer properties. In this thesis, it is demonstrated that an innovative, continuous, industrially scalable process called solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) can be used to enhance polymer properties with and without the addition of nanofillers. The SSSP process employs a modified twin-screw extruder in which the barrel is cooled rather than heated, resulting in the polymer being processed at a temperature below its glass transition temperature, if the polymer is amorphous, or its melt transition temperature, if the polymer is semi-crystalline. The material processed via SSSP experiences high levels of shear and compressive stresses, resulting in many repeated fragmentation and fusion steps during pulverization, which can lead to mechanochemistry. This research provides the first in-depth study on the effect of SSSP processing on the molecular structure as well as physical properties of homopolymers. Rheological characterization has demonstrated an increase in the melt viscosity of pulverized poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), which can be ascribed to the in situ formation of lightly branched PET. Further evidence of branched PET is provided via a dramatic increase in the rate of crystallization of the pulverized samples. These results suggest that SSSP processing can enhance the reuse and recyclability of PET. While SSSP processing has dramatic effects on the structure of polyesters and consequently their properties, a mild effect is observed for polyolefins. This thesis also demonstrates via a combination of methods that the well-exfoliated state can be achieved via SSSP processing of various polymer nanocomposites, using as-received, unmodified fillers. For example, extensive comparisons are made concerning the thermal stability in air or nitrogen atmosphere of polypropylene (PP)/clay, PP/graphite, and PP/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites made by SSSP. These comparisons suggest that the mechanism by which CNTs

  7. Buhne Point Shoreline Erosion Demonstration Project. Volume 1. Appendices A-D.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    the processing to prevent dust inhalation and allergic reactions. The end products were stored in a cold roon at Humboldt State University. Before...tt.:s contract, dryinc and " " | 1 relates dzetytc ttis sre7_-es. Collecting The burs were stripped off the plants while wearinz heavy leather cloves ...dried, the flower stalks were put into a large screen and with a cloved hand, pulverized into small r-eces. The debris was put throuch successively

  8. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

    1996-10-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  9. The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.E.

    1996-02-01

    The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  10. Influence of x-ray diffraction sample preparation on quantitative mineralogy: implications for chromate waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Dermatas, Dimitris; Chrysochoou, Maria; Pardali, Sarra; Grubb, Dennis G

    2007-01-01

    Powders of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) were mineralogically evaluated using quantitative X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) to illustrate the impacts of sample preparation procedures. Chromite ore processing residue is strongly alkaline, reactive, contains minerals of varying hardness and absorption coefficients, and exhibits significant amorphicity. This poses a challenge to produce powders for XRPD analysis that are sufficiently fine and of uniform particle size while avoiding mineral reactions and overgrinding effects. Dry, hand pulverization to different grain sizes, and wet, mechanical pulverization (micromilling) using four milling liquids (cyclohexane, isopropanol, ethanol, and water), and variable milling durations (up to 15 min) were evaluated. Micromilling with a light, nonpolar, highly evaporative liquid such as cyclohexane with a milling time of 5 min mitigated systematic errors such as microabsorption and preferred orientation as it produced finer and more uniform particle size distributions than the hand-pulverized powders, while simultaneously affording the least time for sample preparation. Conversely, the use of water as milling liquid resulted in extensive hydration reactions during sample preparation, causing mischaracterization and significant underestimation of its reactive brownmillerite content, which can complicate the remediation design process for COPR. Hand pulverization emerged as a necessary complement to quantify Cr(VI)-containing, softer minerals destroyed during mechanical milling, the quantification of which has also important implications for COPR treatment design. The findings of this study may be applicable in a variety of geochemically complicated and reactive environmental media (metal-contaminated soils, stabilized/solidified media, inorganic waste), and points to the importance of the sample preparation method to obtain reliable quantitative XRPD results.

  11. Uran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, H.; Bulian, W.; Bungardt, K.; Gürs, K.; Gürs, U.; Helling, W.; Kyri, H.; Laue, H. J.; Mahler, W.; Matting, A.; Meyer, F. R.; Mialki, W.; Ritter, F.; Ruge, J.; Saur, G.; Simon, W.; Strnat, K.; Weber, R.; Weigand, H. H.; Weik, H.; Ziesler, H.; Borchers, Heinz; Schmidt, Ernst

    Bei allen in Tab. 1 angeführten Gewinnungsverfahren [B 23, G 8, W 14] fällt das Uran als Pulver mit einer Teilchengröße von weniger als 0,05 mm an. Die Schmelzflußelektrolyse kann auch zur Nachraffination benutzt werden [A 14]. Hochreines Uran mit besonders niedrigen Gehalten an Eisen, Nickel, Kobalt, Silizium, Bor, Ruthenium, Vanadium, Mangan und Chrom kann durch Zonenschmelzen gewonnen warden [A 11, A 14].

  12. Understanding the Link Between Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Pregnancy-associated breast cancer, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, p53. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER...associated plasma protein A (PAPPA), a protease required for the activation of IGF signaling, is involved. The scope of this research is 1) to monitor...gland tissue was be snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and pulverized into a powder that can then be used either for protein or RNA extraction. The

  13. Toxicity of RDX, HMX, TNB, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT to the Earthworm, Eisenia Fetida, in a Sandy Loam Soil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    ATCLP is a modification of the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure ( TCLP ) (40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 268.41, Hazardous Waste...and BACCTO® potting soil (Michigan Peat Co., Houston, TX, USA). The pH was adjusted to 6.2 + 0.1 by adding calcium carbonate (pulverized lime). The...culture was kept moist at 21 ± 2 °C with continuous light. Earthworm colonies were fed biweekly with dehydrated alfalfa pellets (27% fiber , 17% protein

  14. The Invisible Blockade and the Covert War: U.S. Relations with Chile, 1970-1973

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    Marxist forces in Chile. A DD FornD 1473 ja .... 5/0 -0*14-6601 S9CURIYV GLAUIVICATIOU OF THIS PAGEMWO.N 00#0 IR#*P~ di 2 Approved for public release...CONCLUSIONS- -------------------------------------- 95 V. CONCLUSIONS-------------------------------------------- 100 , ’ DI , ), PHY...that oven pits, where pulverized nitrate ore was processed at 250 0F., were uncovered and scores of workers had fallen into them and died in agony. On

  15. A Comparison of Gravimetric and Photometric Aerosol Samplers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    crushing, pulverizing, blasting, drilling, and grinding. Dusts are also produced in dry material preparations and packaging processes. Dusts can create...and ice crystals. They participate in various chemical cycles, and absorb or scatter solar radiation to influence the Earth’s radiation budget (NASA...surrounding and within the sampling area are critical issues when assessing the sampling characteristics of the device. It is imperative that aerosol

  16. Efficiency of using direct-flow burners and nozzles in implementation of dry-bottom ash removal at the TPP-210A boiler furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, A. M.; Kanunnikov, A. A.; Kirichkov, V. S.; Prokhorov, V. B.; Fomenko, M. V.; Chernov, S. L.

    2017-02-01

    In reconstruction of operating pulverized coal-fired boilers, one of the main factors is the choice of a method for slag removal: dry bottom ash removal (DBAR) or slag-tap removal (STR). In this case, ecological and economic aspects should be taken into account, and also the early ignition of pulverized coal fuel, the reliability of operation of the furnace walls in the mode without slagging, and the stability of slag removal should be provided. In this work, issues of changeover of the pulverized coal-fired boilers of the TPP-210A type from the STR mode to the DBAR mode are considered. As of today, the main problems during the operation of these boilers are the high emissions of nitrogen oxides together with flue gases into the atmosphere and the appropriated payoffs, a small range of loads available, the necessity of stabilization of the pulverizedcoal flame sustainability by using the highly reactive fuel, large mechanical fuel underburning, etc. Results of studying aerodynamics of a furnace with DBAR obtained in the process of physical simulation are given; technical solutions and preliminary design (configuration of burners and nozzles in the boiler furnace, conceptual design of the pulverized coal burner, configuration of TPP-210A boiler with the low heat liberation of furnace cross-section and volumetric heat release) are set forth, which are associated with the optimization of aerodynamics of furnace volume, when the direct-flow burners and nozzles are used, and with organization of the efficient staged combustion of solid fuel. Two versions of possible modernization of a boiler unit are considered. Under conditions of the planned increase in the steam production capacity, the most promising measures are as follows: the DBAR implementation with reducing heat releases of the cross-section and volume of the furnace approximately by half, the installation of the direct-flow burners and nozzles with injection of recirculation gases into the active combustion

  17. The Mg-suite and the highland crust: An unsolved enigma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Stuart Ross; Norman, Marc D.; Esat, Tezer M.

    1993-01-01

    Most of the rocks returned from the highlands are polymict breccias, pulverized by the massive bombardment. However, some monomict breccias with low siderophile element contents are considered to be 'pristine' rocks that represent the original igneous components making up the highland crust. Three principal pristine constituents make up the lunar highland crust: ferroan anorthosites, the Mg-suite, and KREEP. A discussion of these three constituents is presented.

  18. Process for removing sulfur from coal

    DOEpatents

    Aida, Tetsuo; Squires, Thomas G.; Venier, Clifford G.

    1985-02-05

    A process for the removal of divalent organic and inorganic sulfur compounds from coal and other carbonaceous material. A slurry of pulverized carbonaceous material is contacted with an electrophilic oxidant which selectively oxidizes the divalent organic and inorganic compounds to trivalent and tetravalent compounds. The carbonaceous material is then contacted with a molten caustic which dissolves the oxidized sulfur compounds away from the hydrocarbon matrix.

  19. Inactivation of a macronuclear intra-S-phase checkpoint in Tetrahymena thermophila with caffeine affects the integrity of the micronuclear genome.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowski, Andrzej; Kiersnowska, Mauryla

    2011-10-01

    Aphidicolin (APH), an inhibitor of DNA polymerase α, arrested cell divisions in Tetrahymena thermophila. Surprisingly, low concentrations of APH induced an increase of macronuclear DNA content and cell size in non-dividing cells. In spite of the cell size increase, most proliferation of basal bodies, ciliogenesis and development of new oral primordia were prevented by the APH treatment. The division arrest induced by APH was partly overridden by caffeine (CAF) treatment, which caused the fragmentation ("pulverization") of the chromosomes in G2 micronuclei. Somatic progeny of dividers with pulverized micronuclei (APH+CAF strains) contained aneuploid and amicronucleate cells. The amicronucleate cells, after losing their oral structures and most of their cilia, and undergoing progressive disorganization of cortical structures, assumed an irregular shape ("crinkled") and were nonviable. "Crinkled" cells were not formed after APH + CAF treatment of the amicronuclear BI3840 strain, which contains some mic-specific sequences in its macronucleus. Most of the APH +CAF strains had a typical "*"- like conjugation phenotype: they did not produce pronuclei, but received them unilaterally from their mates and retained old macronuclei. However, 4 among 100 APH+CAF clones induced arrest at meiotic metaphase I in their wt mates. It is likely that the origin of such clones was enhanced by chromosome pulverization.

  20. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  1. Plasma-supported coal combustion in boiler furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Askarova, A.S.; Karpenko, E.I.; Lavrishcheva, Y.I.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2007-12-15

    Plasma activation promotes more effective and environmentally friendly low-rank coal combustion. This paper presents Plasma Fuel Systems that increase the burning efficiency of coal. The systems were tested for fuel oil-free start-up of coal-fired boilers and stabilization of a pulverized-coal flame in power-generating boilers equipped with different types of burners, and burning all types of power-generating coal. Also, numerical modeling results of a plasma thermochemical preparation of pulverized coal for ignition and combustion in the furnace of a utility boiler are discussed in this paper. Two kinetic mathematical models were used in the investigation of the processes of air/fuel mixture plasma activation: ignition and combustion. A I-D kinetic code PLASMA-COAL calculates the concentrations of species, temperatures, and velocities of the treated coal/air mixture in a burner incorporating a plasma source. The I-D simulation results are initial data for the 3-D-modeling of power boiler furnaces by the code FLOREAN. A comprehensive image of plasma-activated coal combustion processes in a furnace of a pulverized-coal-fired boiler was obtained. The advantages of the plasma technology are clearly demonstrated.

  2. High Pseudocapacitance in FeOOH/rGO Composites with Superior Performance for High Rate Anode in Li-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hui; Cao, Liyun; Li, Jiayin; Huang, Jianfeng; Xu, Zhanwei; Cheng, Yayi; Kong, Xingang; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi

    2016-12-28

    Capacitive storage has been considered as one type of Li-ion storage with fast faradaic surface redox reactions to offer high power density for electrochemical applications. However, it is often limited by low extent of energy contribution during the charge/discharge process, providing insufficient influences to total capacity of Li-ion storage in electrodes. In this work, we demonstrate a pseudocapacitance predominated storage (contributes 82% of the total capacity) from an in-situ pulverization process of FeOOH rods on rGO (reduced graphene oxide) sheets for the first time. Such high extent of pseudocapacitive storage in the FeOOH/rGO electrode achieves high energy density with superior cycling performance over 200 cycles at different current densities (1135 mAh/g at 1 A/g and 783 mAh/g at 5 A/g). It is further revealed that the in-situ pulverization process is essential for the high pseudocapacitance in this electrode, because it not only produces a porous structure for high exposure of tiny FeOOH crystallites to electrolyte but also maintains stable electrochemical contact during ultrahigh rate charge transfer with high energy density in the battery. The utilization of in-situ pulverization in an Fe-based anode to realize high surface pseudocapacitance with superior performance may inspire future design of electrode structures in Li-ion batteries.

  3. Amniotic Membrane Extract Preparation: What is the Best Method?

    PubMed Central

    Mahbod, Mirgholamreza; Shahhoseini, Saied; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Beheshtnejad, Amir-Houshang; Bakhshandeh, Haleh; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Hashemi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare different preparation methods for a suitable amniotic membrane (AM) extract containing a given amount of growth factors. Methods: In this interventional case series, we dissected the AM from eight placentas within 24 hours after delivery, under clean conditions. After washing and mixing, AM extracts (AMEs) were prepared using pulverization and homogenization methods, and different processing and storing conditions. Main outcome measures were the amount of added protease inhibitor (PI), the relative centrifugal force (g), in-process temperature, repeated extraction times, drying percentage, repeated pulverization times, and the effect of filtering with 0.2 μm filters. Extract samples were preserved at different temperature and time parameters, and analyzed for hepatic growth factor (HGF) and total protein using ELISA and calorimetric methods, respectively. Results: The extracted HGF was 20% higher with pulverization as compared to homogenization, and increased by increasing the PI to 5.0 μl/g of dried AM. Repeating centrifugation up to 3 times almost doubled the extracted HGF and protein. Storing the AME at −170° for 6 months caused a 50% drop in the level of HGF and protein. Other studied parameters showed no significant effect on the extracted amount of HGF or total protein. Conclusion: Appropriate extraction methods with an adequate amount of PI increases the level of extractable components from harvested AMs. To achieve the maximal therapeutic effects of AMEs, it is necessary to consider the half-life of its bioactive components. PMID:25667731

  4. Strengthen flame stability during the furnace`s load decrease

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhiguo; Sun Xuexin; Li Fujin; Qiu Jihua; Chen Gang

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the result of the study of the coal combustion characteristic and flame stability during the load decrease of PCFF (corner burner arrangement). Considering the relation between flame stability and furnace load during the furnace load change, some method must be used to strengthen the pulverized coal ignition and combustion for the furnace to maintain the flame stability especially for the furnace which fires low rank anthracite. Experimental results show that when the furnace load decreased, the temperature distribution in furnace decreased and the flame stability in furnace had changed because of the load changing. This paper also introduces a new pulverized coal burner: Bluff-body with cavity burner. According to the result of application of this burner, this kind of pulverized coal burner can improve the coal ignition and combustion efficiency. Especially for low load operation of furnace the bluff-body with cavity burner has demonstrated its ability in strengthening coal ignition and improving the flame stability for furnace operation. Experimental results show that using bluff-body with cavity burner, the lowest load for furnace fired bituminous is 40% MCR and 50% MCr for low rank anthracite (V{sup r} < 12%, A{sup f} > 45%). This burner has simple structure and is very easy to set up for furnace.

  5. Comparison of six extraction techniques for isolation of DNA from filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    van Burik, J A; Schreckhise, R W; White, T C; Bowden, R A; Myerson, D

    1998-10-01

    Filamentous fungi have a sturdy cell wall which is resistant to the usual DNA extraction procedures. We determined the DNA extraction procedure with the greatest yield of high quality fungal DNA and the least predilection for cross-contamination of equipment between specimens. Each of six extraction methods was performed using Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae. The six methods were: (1) glass bead pulverization with vortexing; (2) grinding with mortar and pestle followed by glass bead pulverization; (3) glass bead pulverization using 1% hydroxyacetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer in a water bath sonicator; (4) water bath sonication in CTAB buffer; (5) grinding followed by incubation with CTAB; and (6) lyticase enzymatic cell lysis. Genomic DNA yields were measured by spectrophotometry and by visual reading of 2% agarose gels, with shearing assessed by the migration of the DNA on the gel. Genomic fungal DNA yields were highest for Method 1, followed by Methods 5 approximately = to 2 >3 approximately = to 4 approximately = to 6. Methods 2 and 5, both of which involved grinding with mortar and pestle, led to shearing of the genomic DNA in one of two trials each. We conclude that the use of glass beads with extended vortexing is optimal for extraction of microgramme amounts of DNA from filamentous fungal cultures.

  6. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Particles for Ocean and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Golomb; Eugene Barry; David Ryan

    2006-07-08

    This semi-annual progress report includes our latest research on deep ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2}-in-Water (C/W) emulsions stabilized by pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}). We describe a practical system that could be employed for the release of a dense C/W emulsion. The heart of the system is a Kenics-type static mixer. The testing and evaluation of a static mixer in the NETL High-Pressure Water Tunnel Facility was described in the previous semi-annual report. The release system could be deployed from a floating platform over the open ocean, or at the end of an off-shore pipe laying on the continental slope. Because the emulsion is much denser than ambient seawater, modeling shows that upon release the plume will sink much deeper from the injection point, increasing the sequestration time for CO{sub 2}. When released in the open ocean, a plume containing the output of a 500 MW{sub el} coal-fired power plant will typically sink hundreds of meters below the injection point. When released from a pipe on the continental shelf, the plume will sink about twice as much because of the limited entrainment of ambient seawater when the plume flows along the sloping seabed. Furthermore, the plume is slightly alkaline, not acidic. The disadvantage is that the creation of the emulsion requires significant amounts of pulverized limestone, on the order of 0.5-0.75 weight ratio of limestone to CO{sub 2}. While pulverized limestone with particle size appropriate for creating C/W emulsions can be purchased for $38 per ton, it is shown in this report that it may be more economic to purchase raw limestone from quarries and pulverize it in situ using grinding mills. In this case the major cost elements are the capital and operating costs of the grinding mills, resulting in a total cost of about $11 per ton of pulverized limestone, including the cost of raw material and shipping. Because we need approximately 0.75 ton of pulverized limestone per ton of liquid CO2 to create a stable

  7. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS IN SUPPORT OF CARBON DIOXIDE-LIMESTONE SEQUESTRATION IN THE OCEAN

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Golomb; Eugene Barry; David Ryan; Carl Lawton; Peter Swett; Huishan Duan; Matthew Woodcock

    2005-04-01

    This semi-annual progress reports includes further findings on CO{sub 2}-in-Water (C/W) emulsions stabilized by fine particles. In previous reports we described C/W emulsions using pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), flyash, and a pulverized magnesium silicate mineral, lizardite, Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}, which has a similar composition as the more abundant mineral, serpentine. All these materials formed stable emulsions consisting of droplets of liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2} coated with a sheath of particles dispersed in water. During this semi-annual period we experimented with pulverized beach sand (10-20 {micro}m particle diameter). Pulverized sand produced an emulsion similar to the previously used materials. The globules are heavier than water, thus they accumulate at the bottom of the water column. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that the sand particles consisted mainly of SiO{sub 2}. Sand is one of the most abundant materials on earth, so the economic and energy penalties of using it for ocean sequestration consist mainly of the cost of transporting the sand to the user, the capital and operating costs of the pulverizer, and the energy expenditure for mining, shipping and grinding the sand. Most likely, sand powder would be innocuous to marine organisms if released together with CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean. We examined the effects of methanol (MeOH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) on emulsion formation. These solvents are currently used for pre- and post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2}. A fraction of the solvents may be captured together with CO{sub 2}. A volume fraction of 5% of these solvents in a mix of CO{sub 2}/CaCO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O had no apparent effect on emulsion formation. Previously we have shown that a 3.5% by weight of common salt (NaCl) in water, simulating seawater, also had no appreciable effect on emulsion formation. We investigated the formation of inverted emulsions, where water droplets coated with pulverized

  8. Economic Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer; Archie Robertson

    2006-09-01

    This report determines the capital and operating costs of two different oxygen-based, pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants and compares their economics to that of a comparable, air-based PC plant. Rather than combust their coal with air, the oxygen-based plants use oxygen to facilitate capture/removal of the plant CO{sub 2} for transport by pipeline to a sequestering site. To provide a consistent comparison of technologies, all three plants analyzed herein operate with the same coal (Illinois No 6), the same site conditions, and the same supercritical pressure steam turbine (459 MWe). In the first oxygen-based plant, the pulverized coal-fired boiler operates with oxygen supplied by a conventional, cryogenic air separation unit, whereas, in the second oxygen-based plant, the oxygen is supplied by an oxygen ion transport membrane. In both oxygen-based plants a portion of the boiler exhaust gas, which is primarily CO{sub 2}, is recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature, and the balance of the flue gas undergoes drying and compression to pipeline pressure; for consistency, both plants operate with similar combustion temperatures and utilize the same CO{sub 2} processing technologies. The capital and operating costs of the pulverized coal-fired boilers required by the three different plants were estimated by Foster Wheeler and the balance of plant costs were budget priced using published data together with vendor supplied quotations. The cost of electricity produced by each of the plants was determined and oxygen-based plant CO{sub 2} mitigation costs were calculated and compared to each other as well as to values published for some alternative CO{sub 2} capture technologies.

  9. Diets of differentially processed wheat alter ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, C Y; Liu, X M; Wan, F C

    2015-11-01

    The influences of differently processed wheat products on rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and serum biochemistry profiles in beef cattle were studied. Four ruminally cannulated Limousin × Luxi beef cattle (400 ± 10 kg) were used in the experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained (on a DM basis) 60% corn silage as a forage source and 40% concentrate with 4 differently processed wheat products (extruded, pulverized, crushed, and rolled wheat). Concentrations of ruminal NH-N and microbial protein (MCP) in cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat were greater ( < 0.05) than the corresponding values in cattle fed pulverized and extruded wheat. Ruminal concentrations of total VFA and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased ( < 0.05) with increased geometric mean particle size (geometric mean diameter) of processed wheat, except for extruded wheat; cattle fed extruded wheat had the lowest concentrations of total VFA and acetate among all treatments. The relative abundance of , , ciliated protozoa, and was lower in cattle fed the pulverized wheat diet than in the other 3 diets ( < 0.05), whereas the relative abundance of was decreased in cattle fed extruded wheat compared with cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat ( < 0.05). No treatment effect was obtained for serum enzyme activity and protein concentration ( > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the method of wheat processing could have a significant effect on ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle and that crushed and rolled processing is better in terms of ruminal NH-N and MCP content, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and relative abundance of rumen microorganisms.

  10. Development of deep-seated gravitational slope deformation on a shale dip-slope: observations from high-quality drillcores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Hariyama, Takehiro; Yamasaki, Shintaro

    2013-04-01

    The internal structures within a gravitationally deformed slope were observed using high-quality drillcores obtained from a dip slope of a series of shale-dominated sediments. This slope has dimple-like depressions and an overall gentle slope angle, but has no well-defined landslide scarp, suggesting that this area underwent gravitationally deformation but with no separation of the deformed portion from the surrounding area. Three drillcores, to a maximum depth of 96 m, were used during this study, with detailed observations of cut paraffin-impregnated core surfaces used to characterize gravitational deformation in the study area. This logging identified shear zones that consist of disintegrated (brecciated) and pulverized zones that were up to 88 and 19 cm thick, respectively. Disintegrated zone breccias have local jigsaw-fit textures, but other areas contain compositional trails formed by cataclastic flow, and rounded outlines formed by attrition. Pulverized zones underwent increased amounts of shearing, leading to the formation of more rounded fragments and increasing amounts of clayey matrix material, but still containing more than 30% of visible rock fragments. As such, these zones are still classified as breccias in terms of fault rock classification. Planar structures, such as R and Y shears, and P foliations, are not developed in the study area. Shear zones are intermittently located across the slope and have not formed a through-going master sliding zone. Incipient shear zones are present within the slope, including a pair of shear surfaces with a pull apart-like opening, and thin disintegrated or pulverized zones in intact rocks at 3-10 m below the base of the main area of gravitational deformation, suggesting that these shear zones propagate downward in a step-wise manner. This propagation may be related to the redistribution of stress induced by river incision.

  11. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The configuration of the subscale combustor has evolved during the six years of this program from a system using only an impact separator to remove particulates to a system which also included a slagging cyclone separator before the lean-quench combustor. The system also now includes active slag tapping after the impact separator rather than a bucket to collect the slag. The subscale 12 MM Btu/hr (higher heating value, HHV) slagging combustor has demonstrated excellent coal-fired operation at 6 atm. The combustor has fired both coal-water mixtures (CWM) and pulverized coal (PC). Three Wyoming subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals have been successfully fired in the TVC. As a result of this active testing, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) it was possible to achieve the full design thermal capacity of 12 MM Btu/hr with the subscale slagging combustor, while burning 100% pulverized coal and operating at the design pressure of 6 atm; (2) because of the separate-chamber, rich-lean design of the subscale slagging combustor, NO{sub x} emissions that easily meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) limits were achieved; (3) carbon burnout efficiency was in excess of 99% when 100% coal-fired; (4) ninety percent of the ash can be separated as slag in the impact separator, and a total 98 to 99% removed with the addition of the slagging cyclone separator; (5) Objectives for third-stage exit temperature (1850{degrees}F), and exit temperature pattern factor (14%) were readily achieved; (6) overall pressure loss is currently an acceptable 5 to 6% without cyclone separator and 7 to 9% with the cyclone; and (7) feeding pulverized coal or sorbent into the combustor against 6 atm pressure is achievable.

  12. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Determination of opiates in human fingernail--comparison to hair.

    PubMed

    Shen, Min; Chen, Hang; Xiang, Ping

    2014-09-15

    6-Monoacetylmorphine in keratinized matrices can be used to discriminate between heroin users and individuals exposed to other sources of morphine alkaloids. Frozen pulverization is effective in preventing 6-monoacetylmorphine hydrolysis. The main aim of this study was to develop an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of five opiates in human fingernails using a frozen pulverization preparation method and to investigate the correlation between the concentration of opiates in nail and hair samples from subjects whose urine specimens were positive for morphine. Borate buffer (500 μL; pH 9.2) was added to 20mg of pulverized fingernail, followed by ultrasonication and liquid-liquid extraction. Analytes were analyzed on an Allure PFP propyl column by gradient elution. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive electrospray ionization mode and multiple reactions monitoring mode. A total of 12 of 18 fingernail samples contained detectable 6-monoacetylmorphine (mean=0.43 ng/mg, range=0.10-1.37 ng/mg), morphine (mean=1.74 ng/mg, range=0.58-3.16 ng/mg) and codeine (range from

  14. High strain rate deformation of porous sandstone and the asymmetry of earthquake damage in shallow fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aben, F. M.; Doan, M.-L.; Gratier, J.-P.; Renard, F.

    2017-04-01

    In contrast to coseismic pulverization of crystalline rocks, observations of coseismic pulverization in porous sedimentary rocks in fault damage zones are scarce. Also, juxtaposition of stiff crystalline rocks and compliant porous rocks across a fault often yields an asymmetric damage zone geometry, with less damage in the more compliant side. In this study, we argue that such asymmetry near the sub-surface may occur because of a different response of lithology to similar transient loading conditions. Uniaxial unconfined high strain rate loadings with a split Hopkinson pressure bar were performed on dry and water saturated Rothbach sandstone core samples. Bedding anisotropy was taken into account by coring the samples parallel and perpendicular to the bedding. The results show that pervasive pulverization below the grain scale, such as observed in crystalline rock, does not occur in the sandstone samples for the explored strain rate range (60-150 s-1). Damage is mainly restricted to the scale of the grains, with intragranular deformation occurring only in weaker regions where compaction bands are formed. The presence of water and the bedding anisotropy mitigates the formation of compaction bands and motivates intergranular dilatation. The competition between inter- and intragranular damage during dynamic loading is explained with the geometric parameters of the rock in combination with two classic micromechanical models: the Hertzian contact model and the pore-emanated crack model. In conclusion, the observed microstructures can form in both quasi-static and dynamic loading regimes. Therefore caution is advised when interpreting the mechanism responsible for near-fault damage in sedimentary rock near the surface. Moreover, the results suggest that different responses of lithology to transient loading are responsible for sub-surface damage zone asymmetry.

  15. Modeling of pulverulent ceramic jets with CALE: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winer, K.; Maxwell, D.

    1992-12-31

    The intent of this work is to provide an accurate, predictive description of the formation and evolution of pulverulent (consisting of finely divided grains) ceramic jets. The present phase of this effort is devoted to validation and optimization of the intact and powder ceramic material models by comparison of calculated model performance with experimental data. Physically reasonable parameters were chosen for the model which was optimized by comparison of the calculated results with experimental flash X-ray density data. Optimization parameters included jet tip velocity, jet density distributions, jet radius, and penetration depth. The optimized jets were tested in configurations similar to those of experiment and reproduced the data adequately. Jet formation from intact ceramic liners is a complicated physical process which is not yet completely understood. Models have been developed to describe this process at the level of current understanding. The models account for such processes as fracture of the solid ceramic by the high explosive detonation shock front, loss of yield strength as the resulting pulverized ceramic is decompressed and flows into the jet, dilatation and expansion of the pulverized ceramic as jet formation proceeds, and entrainment of air into the voids between the grains of the pulverized ceramic as the jet stretches and expands. The description of the behavior of ceramics under shock loading consists of four models (equation of state model, dilatancy model, air diffusion model, and strength model) which are incorporated into a special version of LLNL`s CALE, a C-language-based, two-dimensional Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian hydrocode that is portable to Unix systems. Despite the interdependence of the model components, it is possible to determine reasonable values for the model parameters which allow quantitative agreement with the existing experimental data. These are briefly described and compared to the results of CALE simulations.

  16. Further biogeochemical characterization of a trichloroethene-contaminated fractured dolomite aquifer: Electron source and microbial communities involved in reductive dechlorination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hohnstock-Ashe, A. M.; Plummer, S.M.; Yager, R.M.; Baveye, P.; Madsen, E.L.

    2001-01-01

    A recent article presented geochemical and microbial evidence establishing metabolic adaptation to and in-situ reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in a fractured dolomite aquifer. This study was designed to further explore site conditions and microbial populations and to explain previously reported enhancement of reductive dechlorination by the addition of pulverized dolomite to laboratory microcosms. A survey of groundwater geochemical parameters (chlorinated ethenes, ethene, H2, CH4, DIC, DOC, and ??13C values for CH4, DIC, and DOC) indicated that in situ reductive dechlorination was ongoing and that an unidentified pool of organic carbon was contributing, likely via microbial respiration, to the large and relatively light onsite DIC pool. Petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the dolomite rock were analyzed by GC/MS and featured a characteristically low ??13C value. Straight chain hydrocarbons were extracted from the dolomite previously found to stimulate reductive dechlorination; these were particularly depleted in hexadecane (HD). Thus, we hypothesized that HD and related hydrocarbons might be anaerobically respired and serve both as the source of onsite DIC and support reductive dechlorination of TCE. Microcosms amended with pulverized dolomite demonstrated reductive dechlorination, whereas a combusted dolomite amendment did not. HD-amended microcosms were also inactive. Therefore, the stimulatory factor in the pulverized dolomite was heat labile, but that component was not HD. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) of the microbial populations in well waters indicated that a relatively low diversity, sulfur-transforming community outside the plume was shifted toward a high diversity community including Dehalococcoides ethenogenes-type microorganisms inside the zone of contamination. These observations illustrate biogeochemical intricacies of in situ reductive dechlorination reactions.

  17. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are associated with severe lead poisoning. Leaded gasoline and lead in food, but not lead-based paint, are strongly associated with population blood lead levels in both young children and adults. Soil lead and house dust, but not lead-based paint, are associated with population blood lead levels in children. Most soil lead and house dust are associated with leaded gasoline. Lead-based paint dust is associated with cases of renovation of either exterior or interior environments in which the paint was pulverized. Based upon the limited data to date, abatement of soil lead is more effective than abatement of lead-based paint in reducing blood lead levels of young children. About equal numbers of children under 7 years of age are exposed to soil lead and lead-based paint. Seasonality studies point to soil lead as the main source of population blood lead levels. Soil lead is a greater risk factor than lead-based paint to children engaged in hand-to-mouth and pica behavior. In summary, soil lead is important for addressing the population of children at risk of lead poisoning. When soil lead is acknowledged by regulators and the public health community as an important pathway of human lead exposure, then more effective opportunities for improving primary lead prevention can become a reality. Images Figure 1 PMID:9539015

  18. Laboratory investigations in support of carbon dioxide-limestone sequestration in the ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Golomb, Dan; Barry, Eugene; Ryan, David; Lawton, Carl; Swett, Peter; Hannon, John

    2004-03-01

    In the first half of the second contractual year the High Pressure Flow Reactor (HPFR) was fully designed. Most components have been ordered, and assembly of the flow reactor has been started. Also, the High Pressure Batch Reactor (HPBR) was redesigned for more efficient operation and observation of the emulsion of liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2} dispersed in water stabilized by pulverized limestone and other particles. In this period we firmly established that when about equal volumes of liquid CO{sub 2} and a slurry of pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) in de-ionized or artificial seawater (3.5% NaCl solution in de-ionized water) are thoroughly mixed, a macro-emulsion ensues consisting of liquid CO{sub 2} droplets coated with a sheath of CaCO{sub 3} particles dispersed in water. We call the coated CO{sub 2} droplets globules, and the macro-emulsion a globulsion. Depending on the degree of mixing (rotational speed of the magnetic stir bar) and the size of the CaCO{sub 3} particles, the globules float on top of the water column, are suspended in it, or sink to the bottom of the water column. With CO{sub 2} droplet diameter in the 100-200 {micro}m range, and CaCO{sub 3} particles in the 6-20 {micro}m range, most of the globules sink to the bottom. The formation of sinking globules is desirable for ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2}. The properties and stability of the globules will be further investigated in the HPFR in the second contractual year. It has also been demonstrated that flyash can be substituted for pulverized limestone to obtain a stable globulsion of CO{sub 2}-in-water.

  19. Combustion characteristics of fine-ground coal. Project 61052 quarterly technical report, June 1-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    This program consists of a research study to investigate the effect of coal particle size on the flame characteristics of pulverized coal. The purpose is to determine if fine grinding will allow replacement of oil by coal in some industrial applications. The Plant Engineering Development Department of General Motors Corporation (GM) and the Research and Development Staff of York-Shipley, Inc. (Y-S), a major boiler manufacturer, are assisting IGT in this effort. These companies have offered to donate time to the program as industrial consultants. Pulverized coal will be fired at about 2 million Btu/h (approximately 160 lb/h) in a special experimental furnace designed to collect data on the combustion and heat-transfer characteristics of flames. Combustion trials with No. 6 oil are also planned to allow for direct correlation with the coal combustion data. Some of the information to be obtained from this study will be a determination of how the flame heat release density, mass burning rate, flame temperatures, and heat-transfer characteristics change with fuel particle size (fineness of coal grinding). It will also be possible to directly compare these parameters from the various coal flames with comparable oil flames to determine the feasibility of substituting fine-ground pulverized coal flames for heavy-oil flames. Data will also be collected to allow for the correlation of the flue-gas pollutant emissions with the fuel characteristics. Progress included purchasing the major equipment for the coal milling system, coal selection, and preparation of the combustion facility.

  20. Further biogeochemical characterization of a trichloroethene-contaminated fractured dolomite aquifer: electron source and microbial communities involved in reductive dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Hohnstock-Ashe, A M; Plummer, S M; Yager, R M; Baveye, P; Madsen, E L

    2001-11-15

    A recent article presented geochemical and microbial evidence establishing metabolic adaptation to and in-situ reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE) in a fractured dolomite aquifer. This study was designed to further explore site conditions and microbial populations and to explain previously reported enhancement of reductive dechlorination by the addition of pulverized dolomite to laboratory microcosms. A survey of groundwater geochemical parameters (chlorinated ethenes, ethene, H2, CH4, DIC, DOC, and delta13C values for CH4, DIC, and DOC) indicated that in situ reductive dechlorination was ongoing and that an unidentified pool of organic carbon was contributing, likely via microbial respiration, to the large and relatively light on-site DIC pool. Petroleum hydrocarbons associated with the dolomite rock were analyzed by GC/MS and featured a characteristically low delta13C value. Straight chain hydrocarbons were extracted from the dolomite previously found to stimulate reductive dechlorination; these were particularly depleted in hexadecane (HD). Thus, we hypothesized that HD and related hydrocarbons might be anaerobically respired and serve both as the source of on-site DIC and support reductive dechlorination of TCE. Microcosms amended with pulverized dolomite demonstrated reductive dechlorination, whereas a combusted dolomite amendment did not. HD-amended microcosms were also inactive. Therefore, the stimulatory factor in the pulverized dolomite was heat labile, but that component was not HD. Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) of the microbial populations in well waters indicated that a relatively low diversity, sulfur-transforming community outside the plume was shifted toward a high diversity community including Dehalococcoides ethenogenes-type microorganisms inside the zone of contamination. These observations illustrate biogeochemical intricacies of in situ reductive dechlorination reactions.

  1. Process for removing ash from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Ogino, E.; Yoshida, N.

    1983-06-21

    A process for removing ash from coal comprising the steps of pulverizing the coal to fine particles, admixing water with the finely divided coal to prepare an ash-containing slurry of finely divided coal, mixing with the slurry an oil and seeds in the form of oleophilic solid grains and serving as granulating nuclei to granulate the finely divided coal, separating the resulting granules from the mixture and washing the granules with water to remove the ash, and disintegrating the washed granules to obtain a deashed coal and recover the seeds for reuse.

  2. Characterization of solid waste conversion and cogeneration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Three basic technologies for recovering energy from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) were considered: direct combustion using a waterwall incinerator in which the heat from burning refuse is converted to steam by circulating water in steel tubes jacketing the interior of the incinerator; manufacture of a relatively uniform shredded, pulverized or pelleted refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for supplemental firing in a utility boiler; and pyrolysis or destructive distillation of MSW to extract a low-Btu fuel gas. While resource recovery and energy recovery systems can be installed independently, the processes described include both energy and resource recovery systems as well as necessary pollution control equipment for gaseous emissions.

  3. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium

    DOEpatents

    Vermeulen, Theodore; Grens, II, Edward A.; Holten, Ronald R.

    1982-01-01

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl.sub.2 catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl.sub.2 and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon, selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  4. Coal liquefaction in an inorganic-organic medium. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Vermeulen, T.; Grens, E.A. II; Holten, R.R.

    Improved process for liquefaction of coal by contacting pulverized coal in an inorganic-organic medium solvent system containing a ZnCl/sub 2/ catalyst, a polar solvent with the structure RX where X is one of the elements O, N, S, or P, and R is hydrogen or a lower hydrocarbon radical; the solvent system can contain a hydrogen donor solvent (and must when RX is water) which is immiscible in the ZnCl/sub 2/ and is a hydroaromatic hydrocarbon selected from tetralin, dihydrophenanthrene, dihydroanthracene or a hydrogenated coal derived hydroaromatic hydrocarbon distillate fraction.

  5. Summary of NOx Emissions Reduction from Biomass Cofiring

    SciTech Connect

    Dayton, D.

    2002-05-01

    NOx emissions from commercial- and pilot-scale biomass/coal cofiring demonstrations are reduced as the percentage of energy supplied to the boiler by the biomass fuel is increased. This report attempts to provide a summary of the NO{sub x} emissions measured during recent biomass/coal cofiring demonstrations. These demonstrations were carried out at the commercial and pilot-scales. Commercial-scale tests were conducted in a variety of pulverized fuel boiler types including wall-fired, T-fired, and cyclone furnaces. Biomass input ranged up to 20% on a mass basis and 10% on an energy basis.

  6. Big Bend sees big environmental push

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-10-15

    The 1800 MW Big Bend Power Station is a coal-fired facility in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA owned by Tampa Electric. It has four pulverized coal- fired steam units equipped with FGD scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Currently the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems is under consideration. The Unit 4 SCR retrofit was completed in June 2007; the remaining three systems are scheduled for completion by 2010. Boiler draft systems will be modified to a balance draft design to accommodate the increased pressure drop of the new systems. 3-D computer models were developed to determine constructability due to the tight clearance at the site. 1 photo.

  7. Computational prediction of tube erosion in coal fired power utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.E.; Fletcher, C.A.J.; Behnia, M.

    1999-10-01

    Erosion of boiler tubes causes serious operational problems in many pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. A new erosion model has been developed in the present study for the prediction of boiler tube erosion. The Lagrangian approach is employed to predict the behavior of the particulate phase. The results of computational prediction of boiler tube erosion and the various parameters causing erosion are discussed in this paper. Comparison of the numerical predictions for a single tube erosion with experimental data shows very good agreement.

  8. High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Technical progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This is the fifth quarterly report on a three year grant regarding {open_quotes}High Performance Materials in Coal Conversion Utilization.{close_quotes} The grant is for a joint university/industry effort under the US Department of Energy (DOE) University Coal Research Program. The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is the prime contractor and The University of Pennsylvania and Lanxide Corporation are subcontractors. UTSI has completed the planned laboratory exposure tests involving pulverized coal slag on the production Lanxide DIMOX{trademark} ceramic composite material. In addition, the strength testing (at temperature) of C-ring sections of the production composite is complete.

  9. Utility reduces fuel cost with heat recovery, industrial byproduct fuel, cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    A 50-MW North Dakota power plant is refurbished to recover major waste-heat sources. Use of agricultural byproduct fuel and cogeneration also helps to cut future costs. The plant is saving on fuel costs by burning 150-200 tons/day of sunflower seed hulls from a local processing plant. The hulls are pulverized and mixed with the primary fuel, North Dakota lignite. At the same time, the processing plant that supplies the sunflower hulls buys steam from the power plant, thus giving the utility some of the economic benefits of cogeneration.

  10. Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

    2009-04-01

    Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

  11. Entomopathogenic effect of Aspergillus giganteus and Penicillium corylophilum on two triatomine vectors of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Gisela Lara; de Moraes, Aurea Maria Lage; Galvão, Cleber

    2003-01-01

    Two strains, Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus giganteus, of the most frequent species found in a survey of triatomines, were used for bioassays in the second and fourth nymphs stage of Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus. Two procedures, bite and pulverization, were used and compared. A. giganteus was most effective, causing mortality in at least 50% of the nymphs of the two species tested with exception of the nymphs of the fourth stage of P. megistus. Variation in entomopathogenic capacity of the fungal species were observed in the experiments. The two procedures used proved effective.

  12. Plasma-cyclone technology for firing solid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Karpenko, E. I.; Basargin, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    A new coal combustion technology is described, which involves preparation of fuel for combustion by subjecting it to electrothermochemical treatment followed by vortex firing of pulverized-coal fuel in a cyclone chamber with removing the molten mineral part of the fuel. A procedure for stepped calculation of the plasma-cyclone process is presented, which includes stage-wise determination of gas flow state parameters, mineral part of fuel, and geometrical characteristics of the chamber. The results of experimental investigations confirming the main theoretical statements are given. The solid fuel plasma-cyclone combustion technology application field including power-generating and power-processing areas is defined.

  13. The Release of Chromium in Aquifers Underlying the Western Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikian, C. S.; Plotkin, C.; Monterrosa, A.; Ramirez, P.

    2004-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that chromium (Cr) in aquifers underlying the western part of the Mojave Desert may be naturally occurring, resulting from the release of this element from aquifer materials in oxic ground water with pH > 8.0. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the kinetic release of Cr from aquifer material collected from the Sheep Creek fan near Victorville, CA. Pulverized and untreated aquifer material were incubated in 15mL Falcon tubes with water at three different pH values (2, 7, and 9) for 227 days. Duplicate samples were incubated in a heating bath at temperatures 20oC above ambient, in order to accelerate the kinetics of Cr release. Samples from each tube were collected, filtered through a 0.22 μ m filter, and analyzed using a graphite furnace atomic absorption photospectrometer using EPA Method 7199. Due to the heterogeneity of the aquifer material an accurate measure of Cr release kinetics was not possible; results presented here represent equilibrium values at the end of the incubation period. For untreated aquifer material incubated at ambient temperatures, Cr was found at concentrations of 26.0 ± 8.0 ppb at pH = 2, 5.2 ± 0.6 ppb at pH=7, and 9.1 ± 0.9 ppb at pH=9. As expected, the highest value of Cr was found for the samples incubated at pH=2. Pulverization of the samples resulted in an increase in Cr release by a factor of 1.5, 2.4, and 1.6 at pH values of 2, 7, and 9, respectively. Heating the pulverized samples at pH 7 and 9 resulted in an increase in the concentration of Cr released (by 25% and 9% respectively). However, heating the pulverized sample at pH=2 resulted in an almost 95% decrease in the concentration of released Cr (from 37.8 ppb to 2.2 ppb). The reason for this decrease is not known at this point. Our results indicate that significant concentrations of Cr are released naturally in Western Mojave Desert aquifers under various geochemical conditions. Additional studies are underway to study the kinetic release of

  14. Fundamental study of ash formation and deposition: Effect of reducing stoichiometry. Final report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bool, L.E. III; Helble, J.J.; Shah, N.

    1995-09-01

    The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To identify the partitioning of inorganic coal constituents among vapor, submicron fume, and fly ash products generated during the combustion of pulverized coal under a variety of combustion conditions. Fuel lean and fuel rich combustion conditions are considered. (2) To identify and quantify the fundamental processes by which the transformations of minerals and organically-associated inorganic species occur. Emphasis is placed on identifying any changes that occur as a result of combustion under sub-stoichiometric combustion conditions. (3) To incorporate the effects of combustion stoichiometry into an Engineering Model for Ash Formation.

  15. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. ); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M. ); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. ); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexingt

    1992-11-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mechanisms governing the ash aerosol size segregated composition resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal in a laboratory scale down-flow combustor are described. The results of modeling activities used to interpret the results of the experiments conducted under his subtask are also described in this section. Although results from the entire program are included, Phase II studies which emphasized: (1) alkali behavior, including a study of the interrelationship between potassium vaporization and sodium vaporization; and (2) iron behavior, including an examination of the extent of iron-aluminosilicate interactions, are highlighted. Idealized combustion determination of ash particle formation and surface stickiness are also described.

  16. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 2, Sections 6 and 7: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mechanisms governing the ash aerosol size segregated composition resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal in a laboratory scale down-flow combustor are described. The results of modeling activities used to interpret the results of the experiments conducted under his subtask are also described in this section. Although results from the entire program are included, Phase II studies which emphasized: (1) alkali behavior, including a study of the interrelationship between potassium vaporization and sodium vaporization; and (2) iron behavior, including an examination of the extent of iron-aluminosilicate interactions, are highlighted. Idealized combustion determination of ash particle formation and surface stickiness are also described.

  17. Alkane Soluble Transition Metal Complexes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    A.l. Shilov and A.A. Uhtelrman, Cooed. Chim. ev., 1977, 54 , 97. 4. O.W. Parshall, "Catalysis", Vol 1. Chemical Society Spec. Per. Report (3d C. Kemball...freshly pulverized, fused wete prepared by standard procedures. The method of potassium hydrogusmiphbsa at 16 *C for 8 h or until the de- Clark wasn... method as *Hsaism*UaeLtAl 6 CRW MW OIOIflWY VOL IL NO.61 IM M 0. MAML. & FRAN= AND P. it. mAyn1zy described pesavituly.1 The oxides (P-XC.M.)sP-O

  18. Ammonia-Free NOx Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Song Wu; Zhen Fan; Andrew H. Seltzer; Richard G. Herman

    2005-03-31

    Research is being conducted under United States Department of Energy (DOE) Contract DE-FC26-03NT41865 to develop a new technology to achieve very low levels of NOx emissions from pulverized coal fired boiler systems by employing a novel system level integration between the PC combustion process and the catalytic NOx reduction with CO present in the combustion flue gas. The combustor design and operating conditions will be optimized to achieve atypical flue gas conditions. This approach will not only suppress NOx generation during combustion but also further reduce NOx over a downstream catalytic reactor that does not require addition of an external reductant, such as ammonia.

  19. Utilization of low grade coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.E.

    1981-12-01

    Purpose was to construct and use a pilot furnace that could utilize low-grade coal (steam coal and coal fines) in place of oil or natural gas. This pilot furnace was tested on a 66-inch Raymond H.S. Roller Mill at the No. 1 plant of the James River Limestone Co. Results indicate that the commercial use is feasible; drying costs average $0.36 per ton with coal vs $0.80 per ton on annual basis when oil fired. Results are applicable to limestone manufacturers producing dry pulverized products. (DLC)

  20. Suppression of BRCA2 by Mutant Mitochondrial DNA in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Nonidet P - 40 , 2 mmol/L phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, 10 g/mL aprotinin, 10 g/mL leupeptin, 10 mmol/L sodium fluoride, 1 mmol/L sodium orthovanadate, and...specimens were pulverized and homogenized in lysis buffer containing 0.1% SDS, 1% Non- idet P - 40 , 50 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), 150 mmol/L NaCl, 200...Analyze the correlation between type/number of mtDNA mutations and clinical stage (Months 10-11) We extracted total DNA from 6 BPH and 40 PCA frozen