Science.gov

Sample records for pulverized oil shale

  1. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  2. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-12-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11-12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides as well as (40)K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides

  3. Oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.

    1981-10-01

    Significant oil shale development activities are taking place in the Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado and the Uinta basin in northeastern Utah. About 377,000 bbl/d of oil production capacity is in the planning or construction phase in the Piceance basin and about 240,000 bbl/d capacity in the Uinta basin. Completion of these projects will depend upon the political, environmental, and technical feasibility. Additional oil shale development of about 80,000 bbl/d is being planned for Brazil and Morocco. 3 figures.

  4. Gas shale/oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Bereskin, S.R.; Bowker, K.A.; Cardott, B.J.; Chidsey, T.C.; Dubiel, R.F.; Enomoto, C.B.; Harrison, W.B.; Jarvie, D.M.; Jenkins, C.L.; LeFever, J.A.; Li, Peng; McCracken, J.N.; Morgan, C.D.; Nordeng, S.H.; Nyahay, R.E.; Schamel, Steven; Sumner, R.L.; Wray, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides information about specific shales across North America and Europe from which gas (biogenic or thermogenic), oil, or natural gas liquids are produced or is actively being explored. The intent is to re?ect the recently expanded mission of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) Gas Shales Committee to serve as a single point of access to technical information on shales regardless of the type of hydrocarbon produced from them. The contents of this report were drawn largely from contributions by numerous members of the EMD Gas Shales Advisory Committee, with much of the data being available from public websites such as state or provincial geological surveys or other public institutions. Shales from which gas or oil is being produced in the United States are listed in alphabetical order by shale name. Information for Canada is presented by province, whereas for Europe, it is presented by country.

  5. Oil shale commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  6. Future of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Aspinall, W.N.

    1982-01-01

    A leader in mining legislation and a long-time promoter of the oil-shale industry, Wayne Aspinall predicts that free enterprise can bring successful commercialization of US shale-oil deposits when such development becomes economically competitive. This is preferable to direct government subsidies. A commitment to research activities, pilot plants, and prototype plans must come before commercialization. (DCK)

  7. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Oil shale perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.

    1983-03-01

    The worldwide oil shale resources are extremely large. As an example, the calculated recoverable oil from just the Green River Formation in the tri-state area of Colorado-Utah-Wyoming is as large as the estimated ultimate total conventional oil production from the entire world. In addition there are significant resources in other parts of the USA and in other countries. Despite the great potential, the peace of western oil shale development took a general downturn in 1982 because of a combination of factors led by an uncertainty concerning short to intermediate term pricing for crude oil, a lesser demand for petroleum products, and increased projected costs for development. An example is Exxon's announcement that the Exxon/TOSCO multi-billion dollar project would be discontinued and most of its support equipment sold. In the eastern part of the country, Paraho decided not to move its project to Kentucky unless additional financial support could be obtained. On the international front, Brazil and Morocco are actively developing oil shales in their countries, and feasibility and background studies are being conducted in other areas of the world. The industry, from a future commercial development standpoint, and the government, following its policy to promote high-risk, long-range, high-return energy projects, should accelerate their efforts in oil shale research and development. A lead time of 3 to 5 years is necessary from the planning stage to the first barrel of shale oil production. Using a 20,000 bbl/day plant as a minimum goal, modular development of several competing processes and technologies should be conducted in the near future.

  9. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  10. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  11. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  12. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  13. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  14. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  15. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  16. Shale oil recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  17. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  18. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  19. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOEpatents

    Rashid Khan, M.

    1988-05-05

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere is described. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis. 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Decaking of coal or oil shale during pyrolysis in the presence of iron oxides

    DOEpatents

    Khan, M. Rashid

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing a fuel from the pyrolysis of coal or oil shale in the presence of iron oxide in an inert gas atmosphere. The method includes the steps of pulverizing feed coal or oil shale, pulverizing iron oxide, mixing the pulverized feed and iron oxide, and heating the mixture in a gas atmosphere which is substantially inert to the mixture so as to form a product fuel, which may be gaseous, liquid and/or solid. The method of the invention reduces the swelling of coals, such as bituminous coal and the like, which are otherwise known to swell during pyrolysis.

  1. FLUORINE IN COLORADO OIL SHALE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.; ,

    1985-01-01

    Oil shale from the lower part of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, averages 0. 13 weight percent fluorine, which is about twice that found in common shales, but is the same as the average amount found in some oil shales from other parts of the world. Some fluorine may reside in fluorapatite; however, limited data suggest that cryolite may be quantitatively more important. To gain a better understanding of the detailed distribution of fluorine in the deeper nahcolite-bearing oil shales, cores were selected for study from two exploratory holes drilled in the northern part of the Piceance Creek Basin where the oil shales reach their maximum thickness and grade.

  2. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  3. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  5. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  6. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  7. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  8. LLNL oil shale project review

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.

    1990-04-01

    Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

  9. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  10. The Colony shale oil project

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, L.D.

    1982-06-01

    The Colony shale oil project will be the first commercial shale oil plant in the US. It is located on the southern rim of the Piceance Creek Basin in Colorado, where half of the resources of the Green River basin lie. The process plant, the mine, the mining cycle, gyratory crushers, six Tosco II retorts, upgrading facilities, are all schematicized. Battlement Mesa, a town for employees, has been built at the base of the valley, where Parachute Creek confluences with the Colorado River. The amenities of Battlement Mesa are described.

  11. USAF shale oil program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    The test and evaluation program on shale derived fuel being conducted by the Air Force is intended to accomplish the minimum amount of testing necessary to assure both the safe use of shale oil derived turbine fuels in operational USAF aircraft and its compatibility with USAF handling systems. This program, which was designed to take advantage of existing R&D testing programs, began in 1981. However, due to a problem in acquiring the necessary fuel, the testing program was suspended until July 1983 when an additional sample of shale derived fuel was received. Tentatively, the Air Force is planning to make three relatively minor revisions to the procurement specifications requirements for the production shale derived fuel. These are: (1) Aromatic Contest (min) - 9% (by volume); (2) Nitrogen (max - 20 ppm by weight); and (3) Antioxidants - 9.1 g/100 gal (U.S.)

  12. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  13. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  14. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  15. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  16. View on oil shale development

    SciTech Connect

    Weichman, B.

    1984-04-01

    An examination of energy statistics shows clearly that the US is on the edge of an impending energy crisis. This appears preposterous in the face of a world oil glut and probable world oil price decreases over the next year or so. However, oil supply, oil demand and US economy statistics support the scenario of a rapidly occurring energy crisis in the US should oil imports be shut off even partially. This is not an unlikely happening under present world tensions. Oil and gas exploration and production statistics support the view that domestic oil reserves will continue to decline even if concentrated oil exploration activity were maintained. The shortest avenue for US energy independence is through the development of synthetic fuels. However, a detailed study shows that, under present technology, synthetic fuels cannot be produced economically regardless of the price of crude oil. One exception to this economic situation is shale oil coproduced with other minerals from the vast Saline Zone oil shale resource of northwest Colorado.

  17. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  18. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  19. Health effects research in oil shale development

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, T.W.; Witschi, H.; Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Holland, J.M.; Epler, J.L.; Fry, R.J.M.; Rao, T.K.; Larimer, F.W.; Dumont, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    This task includes the testing of primary effluents and products of oil shales to determine the risk posed to the shale oil industrial worker as well as consumer. Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay and confirmed in the yeast system. After chemical fractionation of the crude shale oil, it was found that the mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the detectable mutagenic activity and also reduced the cytotoxicity as measured in cellular systems. Refined shale oil, jet fuel, and diesel fuel marine samples were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes and only qualitatively agree with carcinogenic activity. Acute toxicity of Paraho Crude Shale Oil and its upgraded derivatives does not appear to be a problem of immediate concern. The data obtained in the lung adenoma bioassay suggest that Crude Shale Oil has tumorigenic potential. Paraho shale oil is carcinogenic in mouse skin. Hydrotreatment reduces but does not eliminate skin carcinogenicity and appreciable carcinogenic activity remains in the residue material. Kidney injury was noted following chronic dermal exposure to shale and petroleum derived middle distillates.

  20. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  1. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  2. Thermal Effects by Firing Oil Shale Fuel in CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neshumayev, D.; Ots, A.; Parve, T.; Pihu, T.; Plamus, K.; Prikk, A.

    It is well known that during firing of oil shale fuel the amount of heat released during its combustion per kg of fuel is significantly affected by the endothermic and exothermic processes taking place in mineral matter. These thermal effects are calcite and dolomite decomposing, marcasite FeS2 oxidising, CaO sulphation and formation of the new minerals. The given paper deals with the experimental study of the influence of these thermal effects of oil shale fuel having different heating value on total amount of heat released during combustion in calorimetric bomb, circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and pulverized-firing boiler (PFB). The large-scale (250 MWth) experiments were performed in the K11-1 CFB boiler of the Balti Power Plant. During experiments low heating value of a fuel varied within the range 8.5-11 MJ/kg. At the end some conclusions were drawn.

  3. Oil shale retorting - Measuring process yields

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, M.T.; Tyson, S.W.

    1984-04-01

    For more than sixty years the rich oil shale formations of Colorado, Utah and Wyoming have been evaluated as a future source of petroleum. After many false starts, including the recent problems due to the economic conditions, the commercial production of shale oil will commence with the 1984 start-up of the Union Oil project near Parachute, Colorado. Other companies continue their interest and await only better economic conditions to become active again. This paper reviews some of the major elements involved in the production of shale oil with emphasis on means available to express the efficiency of production of pyrolysis liquids from oil shale rock.

  4. International developments in oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Uthus, D.B.

    1985-08-01

    An overview of oil shale research and development outside the US provides a status report on technology approaches under active consideration in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, West Germany, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Soviet Union, Thailand, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. The status report covers the development plans and project costs of industrial projects. The technologies under consideration include the Fushun, Galoter, Kiviter, Lurgi, and Petrosix processes. 10 references.

  5. World oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, C.O.; Russell, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    The article estimates resources in-place and their oil equivalent. The major deposits are described in the U.S., Australia, USSR, Peoples Republic of China, Morocco, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Europe and South America. 2 refs.

  6. Oil shales energy source development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, E.G.

    1983-01-18

    Oil shales represents the United States' second (after coal) most abundant fossil energy source. The Green River deposits in the West and the Devonian deposits in the East/Great Lakes are the principal oil shale deposits. This paper discusses in depth: the technology of recovering shale oil (retorting either above ground or in situ); refining of shale oil by hydrotreating and/or cracking; environmental impacts of retorting oil shales; economic analysis of shale oil refinery; and military applications of middle distillates from shale oils. At present the Parachute Creek, Colorado project of the Union Oil Company is the only active commercial scale shale oil project in operation. Union is building a 10,000 barrel per day plant at a cost of $600 million. The plant will be completed by midyear and be in operation by the end of 1983. The Department of Defense is guaranteeing a price of at least $42.50/barrel for the finished product, JP-4 jet fuel and diesel fuel made to military specifications. The overall conclusion that can be reached is that state-of-the-art, commercially practical refining processes are available to produce high quality fuels from shale oil at a cost which should make this resource a highly important part of our energy supply and therefore of our national security.

  7. Developments in oil shale in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Solti, G.; Qian, J.L.; Ball, F.D.; Hutton, A.C.; Hanna, J.; Russell, P.L.; Piper, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    Oil shale development continued at a slow pace in 1987. The continuing interest in this commodity is demonstrated by the 342 oil shale citations added to the US Department of Energy Energy Database during 1987. The Unocal project in Parachute, Colorado, produced 600,000 bbl of synfuel in 1987. An appreciable amount of 1987's activity was associated with the nonsynfuel uses of oil shale. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  9. Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved system for recovery of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from oil shale is presented. The oil shale pyrolysis system is composed of a retort reactor for receiving a bed of oil shale particules which are heated to pyrolyis temperature by means of a recycled solar heated gas stream. The gas stream is separated from the recovered shale oil and a portion of the gas stream is rapidly heated to pyrolysis temperature by passing it through an efficient solar heater. Steam, oxygen, air or other oxidizing gases can be injected into the recycle gas before or after the recycle gas is heated to pyrolysis temperature and thus raise the temperature before it enters the retort reactor. The use of solar thermal heat to preheat the recycle gas and optionally the steam before introducing it into the bed of shale, increases the yield of shale oil.

  10. Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, I.A. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.

  11. Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-09-26

    Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

  12. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  13. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years there has been a world "revolution" in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of "shale gas", gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also "oil shales" (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil), extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  14. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  15. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may consider...

  16. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  17. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  18. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  19. Apparatus for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  20. Union Oil Company of California's Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Randle, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Union Oil Company is confident that with the completion of its project now under construction, the commercial production of oil from shale will finally become a reality. The retorting technology developed by Union scientists through 35 years of research will be proven on a commercial scale. Not only does Union Oil have confidence in its technology, but already other companies have licensed the Unishale B for their own shale projects. While shale oil will not solve all of the nation's energy problems, it will make a significant contribution to the solution.

  1. Application of hydropyrolysis to the hydroconversion of Eastern oil shale. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, A.Y.; Garey, M.P.; Rosemary, J.K.

    1983-11-01

    The two major objectives of the project were: (1) testing, data reduction, and chemical analysis to determine the performance of Eastern oil shale in a hydropyrolysis reactor; and (2) selection of an operating point suited to high yields of shale oil and performance of a preliminary process analysis and economic assessment of the process. Six tests were conducted in the 1-TPH process development unit (PDU) at 1100 and 1400/sup 0/F, nominal reactor residence times of 75 and 200 ms, and a reactor pressure of 1000 psig. A blend of Cleveland Member of the Ohio shale, pulverized to 70% through 200 mesh, was used as feedstock. Excellent material balances were obtained for the test series, which had an average test duration of 68 min and an average shale throughput of 1688 lb. Total carbon conversions as high as 70.0% and carbon conversions to liquids as high as 55.5% were found. Production of raw shale oil ranged from approximately 13.5 to 19.0 gal/ton of shale fed compared with a Fischer assay of approximately 13 gal/ton. Nitrogen and sulfur concentrations in the untreated whole oil were approximately 2.2 and 1.6 wt. %, respectively, and very low hydrogen consumption in the reactor was observed. Excellent data correlation was obtained as a function of reactor severity, expressed as carbon conversion to methane. Based on a selected operating point, a conceptual design was developed for a commercial-scale plant producing 50,000 bbl/day of partially hydrotreated shale oil, suitable as refinery feedstock. Product oil yield is approximately 21 gal/ton of dry shale. Input to the plant consists of 4150 TPH of dry shale and imported methane. The estimated plant investment is approximately $2 billion in first-quarter 1983 dollars, including a 15% project contingency. The calculated average product selling price is $35.20/bbl.

  2. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2010-09-07

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  3. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2009-03-10

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  4. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology. PMID:22717068

  5. Environmental hazard of oil shale combustion fly ash.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Bityukova, Liidia; Kasemets, Kaja; Ivask, Angela; Käkinen, Aleksandr; Kurvet, Imbi; Bondarenko, Olesja; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Aruoja, Villem; Schvede, Hedi; Kahru, Anne

    2012-08-30

    The combined chemical and ecotoxicological characterization of oil shale combustion fly ash was performed. Ash was sampled from the most distant point of the ash-separation systems of the Balti and Eesti Thermal Power Plants in North-Eastern Estonia. The fly ash proved potentially hazardous for tested aquatic organisms and high alkalinity of the leachates (pH>10) is apparently the key factor determining its toxicity. The leachates were not genotoxic in the Ames assay. Also, the analysis showed that despite long-term intensive oil-shale combustion accompanied by considerable fly ash emissions has not led to significant soil contamination by hazardous trace elements in North-Eastern Estonia. Comparative study of the fly ash originating from the 'new' circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology and the 'old' pulverized-fired (PF) one showed that CFB fly ash was less toxic than PF fly ash. Thus, complete transfer to the 'new' technology will reduce (i) atmospheric emission of hazardous trace elements and (ii) fly ash toxicity to aquatic organisms as compared with the 'old' technology.

  6. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  7. Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

    1987-09-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24

  8. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  9. Detailed description of oil shale organic and mineralogical heterogeneity via fourier transform infrared mircoscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Foster, Michael; Gutierrez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical information on reservoir and source rocks is necessary to assess and produce from petroleum systems. The standard methods in the petroleum industry for obtaining these properties are bulk measurements on homogenized, generally crushed, and pulverized rock samples and can take from hours to days to perform. New methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been developed to more rapidly obtain information on mineralogy and geochemistry. However, these methods are also typically performed on bulk, homogenized samples. We present a new approach to rock sample characterization incorporating multivariate analysis and FTIR microscopy to provide non-destructive, spatially resolved mineralogy and geochemistry on whole rock samples. We are able to predict bulk mineralogy and organic carbon content within the same margin of error as standard characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Validation of the method was performed using two oil shale samples from the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin with differing sedimentary structures. One sample represents laminated Green River oil shales, and the other is representative of oil shale breccia. The FTIR microscopy results on the oil shales agree with XRD and LECO TOC data from the homogenized samples but also give additional detail regarding sample heterogeneity by providing information on the distribution of mineral phases and organic content. While measurements for this study were performed on oil shales, the method could also be applied to other geological samples, such as other mudrocks, complex carbonates, and soils.

  10. Kinetics of oil shale char gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, W.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Hatter, M.A.; Oakes, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of oil shale char gasification have been studied for Colorado oil shale from the Parachute Creek member. Reaction rate expressions similar to those previously reported for coal char were obtained for the H/sub 2/O-char, CO/sub 2/-char, and water gas shift reactions. Evidence is presented to suggest that CaO, a product of mineral decomposition, catalyzes the H/sub 2/O-char reaction and that indigenous iron catalyzes the water gas shift reaction. The latter reaction proceeds rapidly so that the make-gas consists primarily of H/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/. 12 references.

  11. Modifying shale oil to improve flow characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1982-05-01

    Shale oil, which forms a viscous, wax slurry below 25 C, was treated in several different ways to try to improve its flow characteristics as measured in a concentric cylinder viscometer. Removing the wax does not greatly improve the pumpability of the oil. Hydrotreatment of the whole oil to take out nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen can lower the viscosity by a factor of five or more, even though the pour point is not greatly affected. Apparently hydrogenolysis of the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen lowers the molecular weight of the oil without much modification of the paraffinic wax. The pour point of the shale oil can be decreased with various commercial pour improvers. Sometimes an accompanying drop in viscosity is observed, but most of this decrease is not stable to shear in the viscometer.

  12. Chemical composition of shale oil. 1; Dependence on oil shale origin

    SciTech Connect

    Kesavan, S.; Lee, S. ); Polasky, M.E. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on shale oils obtained by nitrogen retorting of North Carolina, Cleveland, Ohio, Colorado, Rundle, Stuart, and Condor oil shales that have been chemically characterized by g.c.-m.s. techniques. After species identification, chemical compositions of the shale oils have been related to the geological origins of the parent shales. Based on the characteristics observed in the chromatograms, eight semi-quantitative parameters have been used to describe the chromatograms. Six of these parameters describe the chromatograms. Six of these parameters describe the relative abundance and distribution of straight chain alkanes and alkenes in the chromatograms. The other two parameters represent the abundance, relative to the total amount of volatiles in the oil, of alkylbenzenes and alkylphenols.

  13. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  14. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more

  15. Energy trump for Morocco: the oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    The mainstays of the economy in Morocco are still agriculture and phosphates; the latter represent 34% of world exports. Energy demand in 1985 will be probably 3 times that in 1975. Most of the oil, which covers 82% of its energy needs, must be imported. Other possible sources are the rich oil shale deposits and nuclear energy. Four nuclear plants with a total of 600 MW are projected, but shale oil still will play an important role. A contract for building a pilot plant has been met recently. The plant is to be located at Timahdit and cost $13 million, for which a loan from the World Bank has been requested. If successful in the pilot plant, the process will be used in full scale plants scheduled to produce 400,000 tons/yr of oil. Tosco also has a contract for a feasibility study.

  16. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  17. Developments in oil shale in 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Solti, G.; Hutton, A.C.; Russell, P.L.; Macanley, G.; Piper, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oil shale project development continued at a slow pace in the USA. The Unocal project in the Piceance Basin, Colorado achieved projection at the 4000 to 5000 bbl/day (639 to 795 m/sup 3//day) rate. Production and project development continued in the USSR, Central, Europe, the Circum - Mediterranean area and in Australia. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Explosive cratering experiments were conducted as a part of the research effort to study the explosively produced fracture of oil shale. They were designed to identify and analyze the major factors involved in the fracturing of oil shale, to provide data for the verification of the computer models, and ultimately to lead to the design of a rubble bed for in situ retorting oil shale. The rubble excavated from eight cratering experiments was separated and the volumes of rubble in each screened size category are presented. Also presented are the data from the detailed investigation of the joint/fracture attitudes (strikes and dips) within a crater interior after excavation. The data were tabulated and plotted to allow future comparisons and analyses pertinent to similar experiments. A brief discussion of the experiment site and the graphical representation of the data are included. Finally, since the homogeneity of the oil shale is an important consideration in the selection of a site for these explosive fracture experiments, cores were taken and analyzed. The identification of the geological parameters and their extent and how they delineate the overall characterization of the experiment site, including the subsurface geology, is given. It is shown how the postshot core analysis will indicate how the blast affected the rock.

  19. Boomtown blues; Oil shale and Exxon's exit

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliford, A. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper chronicles the social and cultural effects of the recent oil shale boom on the Colorado communities of Rifle, Silt, Parachute, and Grand Junction. The paper is based upon research and oral history interviews conducted throughout Colorado and in Houston and Washington, DC.

  20. Parachute Creek shale-oil program. [Brochure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Union Oil Company has a plan for commercial shale-oil production at the Parachute Creek area of Colorado. This brochure describes the property and the company's concept for room and pillar mining and upflow retorting. Environmental precautions will preserve and restore vegetation on disturbed land and will safeguard local streams and underground basinx. Union will assist local communities to provide housing and services. 17 figures. (DCK)

  1. System for utilizing oil shale fines

    DOEpatents

    Harak, Arnold E.

    1982-01-01

    A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

  2. Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the potential U.S. domestic shale gas and shale oil resources, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned INTEK, Inc. to develop an assessment of onshore lower 48 states technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources. This paper briefly describes the scope, methodology, and key results of the report and discusses the key assumptions that underlie the results.

  3. Oil shale development and its environmental considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, R.T.; Johnson, H.; Decora, A.

    1974-01-01

    The petroleum shortage recently experienced by many nations throughout the world has created an intense interest in obtaining new and supplemental energy sources. In the United States, this interest has been centered on oil shale. Any major action by the federal government having significant environmental effects requires compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Since most oil shale is found on federal lands, and since its development involves significant environmental impacts, leasing oil shale lands to private interests must be in compliance with NEPA. For oil shale, program planning began at approximately the same time that NEPA was signed into law. By structuring the program to permit a resource and technological inventory by industry and the federal agencies, the Department of the Interior was able simultaneously to conduct the environmental assessments required by the act. This required: 1. Clearly defined program objections; 2. An organization which could integrate public policy with diverse scientific disciplines and environmental concerns; and 3. Flexible decisionmaking to adjust to policy changes as well as to evolving interpretations on EPA as clarified by court decisions. This paper outlines the program, the organization structure that was created for this specific task, and the environmental concerns which were investigated. The success of the program has been demonstrated by meeting the requirements of NEPA, without court challenge, and by industry's acceptance of a leasing program that included the most stringent environmental protection provisions ever required. The need for energy development has spurred the acceptance of the program. However, by its awareness and willingness to meet the environmental challenges of the future, industry has shown a reasonable understanding of its commitments. The pros and cons of development were publicly considered in hearings and analyzed in the final environmental statement. This

  4. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  5. Enthalpy relations for Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.W.

    1987-11-01

    Relations were developed that allow easy and accurate calculation of enthalpy changes during the heating, retorting, or cooling of raw, spent, or burned Eastern oil shales. The heat capacities of the mineral matter, bound water, kerogen, and char, and the heat of mineral dehydration are given by linear or quadratic functions of temperature. Values are recommended for the heats of kerogen pyrolysis and pyrite decomposition. A relation was developed for estimating the extent of mineral dehydration as a function of temperature. Predictions made using these relations agree with all available Eastern shale data. 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Co-Firing Oil Shale with Coal and Other Fuels for Improved Efficiency and Multi-Pollutant Control

    SciTech Connect

    Robert A. Carrington; William C. Hecker; Reed Clayson

    2008-06-01

    Oil shale is an abundant, undeveloped natural resource which has natural sorbent properties, and its ash has natural cementitious properties. Oil shale may be blended with coal, biomass, municipal wastes, waste tires, or other waste feedstock materials to provide the joint benefit of adding energy content while adsorbing and removing sulfur, halides, and volatile metal pollutants, and while also reducing nitrogen oxide pollutants. Oil shale depolymerization-pyrolysis-devolatilization and sorption scoping studies indicate oil shale particle sorption rates and sorption capacity can be comparable to limestone sorbents for capture of SO2 and SO3. Additionally, kerogen released from the shale was shown to have the potential to reduce NOx emissions through the well established “reburning” chemistry similar to natural gas, fuel oil, and micronized coal. Productive mercury adsorption is also possible by the oil shale particles as a result of residual fixed-carbon and other observed mercury capture sorbent properties. Sorption properties were found to be a function particle heating rate, peak particle temperature, residence time, and gas-phase stoichmetry. High surface area sorbents with high calcium reactivity and with some adsorbent fixed/activated carbon can be produced in the corresponding reaction zones that exist in a standard pulverized-coal or in a fluidized-bed combustor.

  7. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  8. Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, Oil Shale Geodatabase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    This geodatabase is a digital reproduction of three legacy USGS oil shale publications--MF-958 (Pitman and Johnson, 1978), MF-1069 (Pitman, 1979), and OC-132 (Pitman and others, 1990). The database consists of 106 feature classes in three feature datasets organized by publication. Each dataset contains isopach contours, isoresource contours, isoresource polygons, and corehole and drillhole locations with resource values for 12 kerogen-rich (R) and kerogen-lean (L) oil shale zones in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. The uppermost zones, Mahogany and R-6, also contain detailed structure files. The zones in descending order are: Mahogany, R-6, L-5, R-5, L-4, R-4, L-3, R-3, L-2, R-2, L-1, and R-1.

  9. Oil shales of Europe, North Africa, and the Near East

    SciTech Connect

    Troger, U.

    1984-04-01

    Oil shale deposits are known from almost all countries in Europe and range in age from Paleozoic to Eocene. The geology of Europe is well known, and the discovery of new and significant oil shale deposits is not anticipated. A considerably different situation exists in North Africa and the Near East, where sparsely tested areas in the Sahara and desert fringe might contain important oil shale deposits. Most of the oil shale deposits in these areas (1) are of Cretaceous age, (2) occur with phosphate deposits, and (3) owe their origin to sedimentary processes associated with upwelling. Oil shales can be found from Turkey to Morocco along a paleocoastline, and better definition of this feature could result in new discoveries. In contrast to the US, oil shale deposits in Europe are being used as energy sources and will probably serve the same purpose in North Africa and the Near East.

  10. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  11. Stabilizing in situ oil shale retorts with injected grout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-03-01

    A retort grouting process has been developed which would solve certain problems associated with in situ recovery of crude oil by retorting oil shale, such as surface subsidence, disturbance of groundwater flow, and accumulation of spent shale at the surface. Essentially, the process consists of using the spent shale to make a grout that can be injected into the retort after processing is completed. Bench-scale experiments using a high-temperature process show that grout can be prepared with sufficient strength, mobility, and permeability to stabilize processed in situ oil shale retorts. By reducing the need for surface disposal of spent shale and by increasing the quantity of shale that can be retorted in a given area, the grouting method should significantly improve the economics of the oil recovery process while also offering environmental advantages over surface processing of the shale.

  12. Introduction to special section: China shale gas and shale oil plays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shu; Zeng, Hongliu; Zhang, Jinchuan; Fishman, Neil; Bai, Baojun; Xiao, Xianming; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Xinjing; Richards-McClung, Bryony; Cai, Dongsheng; Ma, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Even though China shale gas and shale oil exploration is still in an early stage, limited data are already available. We are pleased to have selected eight high-quality papers from fifteen submitted manuscripts for this timely section on the topic of China shale gas and shale oil plays. These selected papers discuss various subject areas including regional geology, resource potentials, integrated and multidisciplinary characterization of China shale reservoirs (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and petrophysics) China shale property measurement using new techniques, case studies for marine, lacustrine, and transitional shale deposits in China, and hydraulic fracturing. One paper summarizes the regional geology and different tectonic and depositional settings of the major prospective shale oil and gas plays in China. Four papers concentrate on the geology, geochemistry, reservoir characterization, lithologic heterogeneity, and sweet spot identification in the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Sichuan Basin in southwest China, which is currently the primary focus of shale gas exploration in China. One paper discusses the Ordovician Salgan Shale in the Tarim Basin in northwest China, and two papers focus on the reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing of Triassic lacustrine shale in the Ordos Basin in northern China. Each paper discusses a specific area.

  13. High severity pyrolysis of shale and petroleum gas oil mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Leftin, H.P.; Newsome, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    Light gas oil and heavy gas oil from Paraho shale oil and their mixtures with a petroleum light gas oil were pyrolyzed in the presence of steam at 880-900/sup 0/C and contact times between 60 and 90 ms in a nonisothermal bench-scale pyrolysis reactor. Blending of petroleum LGO into the shale oil feeds provided product yields that were the weighted linear combination of the yields of the individual components of the blends. Partial denitrogenation and a pronounced decrease in the rate of coke deposition on the reactor walls were observed when petroleum gas oil was blended with the shale gas oils.

  14. Beneficiation and hydroretorting of low grade oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Tippin, R.B.; Hanna, J.; Janka, J.C.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    A new approach to oil recovery from low grade oil shales has been developed jointly by the Mineral Resources Institute (MRI) of The University of Alabama and the HYCRUDE Corporation. The approach is based on the HYTORT process, which utilized hydrogen gas during the retorting process to enhance oil yields from many types of oil shales. The performance of the HYTORT process is further improved by combining it with MRI's froth flotation process. Taking advantage of differences in the surface properties of the kerogen and the inorganic mineral constituents of the oil shales, the MRI process can reject up to three quarters by weight of relatively kerogen-free inorganic fractions of the oil shale before HYTORT processing. The HYTORT and MRI processes are discussed. Results of tests by each process on oil shales of low to moderate inherent kerogen content are presented. Also discussed are the results of the combined processes on an Indiana New Albany oil shale. By combining the two processes, the raw shale which yielded 12 gallons of oil per ton by Fischer Assay was upgraded by flotation to a product yielding 27 gallons of Fischer Assay oil per ton. HYTORT processing of the beneficiated product recovered 54 gallons of oil per ton, an improvement in oil yield by a factor of 4.5 over the raw shale Fischer Assay.

  15. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  16. Leaching study of oil shale in Kentucky : with a section on Hydrologic reconnaissance of the oil shale outcrop in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Samuel S.; Leist, D.W.; Davis, R.W.; Cordiviola, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Oil shales in Kentucky are rocks of predominantly Devonian age. The most prominant are the Ohio, Chattanooga, and New Albany Shales. A leaching study was done on six fresh oil shale samples and one retorted oil shale sample. Leaching reagents were distilled water, 0.0005 N sulfuric acid, and 0.05 N sulfuric acid. The concentration of constituents in the leachates were highly variable. The concentration of sodium, manganese, and zinc in the retorted shale leachate was several orders of magnitude higher than those of the leachates of fresh shale samples. The major oil shale outcrop covers approximately 1,000 square miles in a horseshoe pattern from Vanceburg, Lewis County , in the east, to Louisville, Jefferson County, in the west. The Kentucky, Red, and Licking Rivers cross the outcrop belt, the Rolling Fork River flows along the strike of the shale in the southwest part of the outcrop, and the Ohio River flows past the outcrop at the ends of the horseshoe. Oil shale does not appear to significantly alter the water quality of these streams. Oil shale is not an aquifer, but seeps and springs found in the shale indicate that water moves through it. Ground water quality is highly variable. (USGS)

  17. BX in situ oil shale project

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, P.M.; Dockter, L.

    1981-01-01

    The BX In Situ Oil Shale Project, jointly sponsored by Equity Oil Company and the U.S. Department of Energy, has been in operation continuously since September 18, 1979. Between that time and February 28, 1981, 625,300 barrels (99,400 m/sup 3/) of water as steam have been injected into eight Project injection wells at an average wellhead temperature of 605 /degree/F. (318 /degree/C.) and an average wellhead pressure of 1,314 psig (9,053 kPa). During the same period, 524,500 barrels (83,400 m/sup 3/) of fluid have been produced from five Project production wells. Steam injection has resulted in heating of the ''leached zone '' of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River formation and this in turn has resulted in the in situ retorting of a portion of the oil shale of the ''leached zone '' and the recovery of a measurable amount of oil resulting from this retorting. 4 refs.

  18. Kinetics of oil shale char gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, W.J.; Gerber, M.A.; Hatter, M.M.; Oakes, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental work on gasification of oil shale char with CO/sub 2/ and steam are presented in this report. All of the gasification experiments were conducted with the same apparatus employed in the earlier oxidation work. As before, powdered shale samples (200 mesh) of previously retorted oil shale from the Parachute Creek member in Colorado were suspended from an electrobalance and placed in a furnace. In this way continuous gravimetric readings were available to monitor the consumption of the char. The off-gases were analyzed on a Carle gas chromatograph equipped with a Carbosieve B column. The retorted raw shale assayed at 50 GPT and was exposed to CO/sub 2/ pressures as high as 100 KPa and H/sub 2/O pressures as high as 75 KP/sub a/. Because there was evidence of the water gas shift reaction during steam gasification, separate experiments were also conducted in order to determine the rate of this reaction as a function of temperature and concentration of the reactant gases. The Livermore results predicted char consumption rates which were much higher than those observed for mixed gasification runs with P/sub CO/sub 2// > 10 KPa. The kinetic results from this work gave reasonable matches to the data at P/sub CO/sub 2// < 15 KPa but also predicted much higher rates at CO/sub 2/ pressures greater than 20 KPa. The data exhibit a much lower char consumption rate than predicted. Also shown in this figure are the predictions assuming that only CO/sub 2/ gasification takes place. The assumption provides a reasonable match to the experimental data and suggests that the presence of CO/sub 2/ is somehow inhibiting steam gasification.

  19. Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Aldis, D.F.

    1991-10-25

    As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

  20. Indirect and direct tensile behavior of Devonian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, K.P.; Chen, J.L.; Dana, G.F.; Weber, J.A.

    1984-03-01

    Ultimate indirect tensile strengths of Devonian oil shales across the bedding planes is a mechanical property parameter important to predicting how oil shale will break. This is particularly important to in-situ fragmentation. The Split Cylinder Test was used to determine the indirect tensile strengths between the bedding planes. Test specimens, cored perpendicular to the bedding planes, representing oil shales of different oil yields taken from Silver Point Quad in DeKalb County, Tennessee and Friendship in Scioto County, Ohio, were subjected to the Split Cylinder Test. Linear regression equations relating ultimate tensile strength across the bedding planes to volume percent of organic matter in the rock were developed from the test data. In addition, direct tensile strengths were obtained between the bedding planes for the Tennessee oil shales. This property is important for the design of horizontal fractures in oil shales. Typical results were presented.

  1. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  2. Short-term microbial testing of shale oil materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay when assayed with the frameshift strain TA98 and incorporating metabolic activation with rat liver homogenates (Aroclor induced S-9). The mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and the neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the mutagenic activity. Results obtained in the yeast assay supported these observations. Refined oil samples from Paraho/Sohio refinery were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes.

  3. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  4. 78 FR 35601 - Oil Shale Management-General

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... 78 FR 18547, is reopended. Send your comments so that they reach the BLM on or before July 15, 2013... March 27, 2013, the BLM published a proposed rule (78 FR 18547) to amend the BLM's commercial oil shale... Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Parts 3900, 3920, and 3930 RIN 1004-AE28 Oil Shale...

  5. Geology and resources of some world oil-shale deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Oil-shale deposits are in many parts of the world. They range in age from Cambrian to Tertiary and were formed in a variety of marine, continental, and lacustrine depositional environments. The largest known deposit is in the Green River Formation in the western United States; it contains an estimated 213 billion tons of in-situ shale oil (about 1.5 trillion U.S. barrels). Total resources of a selected group of oil shale deposits in 33 countries are estimated at 409 billion tons of in-situ shale oil, which is equivalent to 2.8 trillion U.S. barrels of shale oil. These amounts are very conservative because (1) several deposits mentioned herein have not been explored sufficiently to make accurate estimates, and (2) some deposits were not included in this survey.

  6. High risk groups in oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.; Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosia, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns. If future environmental dust exposure is at the 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ alpha-quartz level, safety improvements in the mining sector are of prime importance to reduce the oil shale worker's life-loss expectancy. 11 references, 1 figure, 11 tables.

  7. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  8. Experimental research on No-oil ignition technique of pulverized coal/coal-water-slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Zhijun; Fan Haojie; Tu Jianhua

    1997-07-01

    With new coal-fired boilers going into operation and widespread application of substitute-oil fuel such as Coal-Water-Slurry, many oil-fired boiler may stop firing oil. But the ignition of coal-fired boilers stabilizing combustion under low load also need a large amount of oil. Information show that it will consume 5t for a 50MW unit boiler to start one time and for a 125NM unit, 15t oil will be consumed. It will consume 50t oil for a 200NM unit boiler to start one time and 1000t/year on stabilizing combustion. A 600MW unit, according to information from USA, will consume 300t oil to start one time, and 23300t oil are needed for one year. So, the amount of oil used to ignite coal and stabilize combustion are very considerable. Due to attaching importance to conserving oil, novel ignition and stabilizing techniques (such as pulverized coal pre-combustion chamber technique, blunt body burner, boat-shaped burner, great-velocity-difference combustion stabilizing technique, dense-thin phase combustion stabilizing technique and plasma ignition technique) are come out these ten years, and oil consumption for ignition and stabilizing are decreased greatly. Among them, only plasma ignition technique is a kind of ignition technique without oil. Although the others can conserve a large amount of oil during ignition and low load condition, total oil consumption are still very considerable. And plasma ignition technique is not adapt to coal-water-slurry ignition. Therefore, this paper presents a novel ignition technique: electrical thermal chamber ignition technique adapting pulverized coal (PC) and coal-water-slurry (CWS), which absorbs the advantage of pre-combustion chamber technique and does not consume oil.

  9. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

    1980-04-01

    A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

  11. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  12. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

  13. The effect of mineral species on oil shale char combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalieri, R.P.; Thompson, W.J.

    1983-02-01

    In order to increase the energy efficiency of above-ground oil shale processes, the carbonaceous residue (''char'') remaining on retorted oil shale (''spent'' shale) will either be combusted or gasified. Although there is no great difficulty in combusting the char, it is important that combustion be carried out in a controlled fashion. Failure to do so can result in high temperatures (>900/sup 0/K) and the decomposition of mineral carbonates. These decomposition reactions are not only endothermic but some of the products have the potential to cause environmental disposal problems. Control of oil shale char combustion is more easily managed if there is a knowledge of how the rate of combustion depends on O/sub 2/ concentration and temperature. This motivation led to an earlier study of the combustion kinetics of spent shale from the Parachute Creek Member in western Colorado. That study provided evidence that one or more of the mineral species present in the shale acted as an oxidation catalyst. Consequently it was decided to follow up on that investigation by examining the combustion activity of other oil shales; specifically those with differing elemental and/or mineral compositions. Six oil shale samples were selected for evaluation and comparison: one from the Parachute Creek Member (PCM), one from a deep core sample in the C-a tract (C-a), two from the saline zone in western Colorado (S-A and S-B), one from the Geokinetics site in eastern Utah (GEOK) and one sample of Antrim shale from Michigan (ANT). On the basis of the studies conducted here, it is readily apparent that the presence of minerals can drastically alter the reactivity of the residual char on spent oil shale. More detailed quantitative studies are necessary in order to be able to assess their importance under typical oil shale processing conditions and will be the subject of future manuscripts from this laboratory.

  14. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry's view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  15. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  16. Oil-shale mining in Maoming basin of China

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell-Tapping, H.J.

    1989-03-01

    The Maoming basin in Guangdong Province is one of the major oil-shale mining areas of China and is situated about 300 km southwest of Hong Kong. This Tertiary basin produces oil from shales mined from a 5-km long open-faced pit on the crest of an anticline in the center of an uplifted and tilted graben. The oil shale extends about 30 km in a northwest-southeast line, and the beds dip as much as 10/degree/ toward metamorphic mountains to the northeast. In the surrounding area are numerous oil seeps, especially in ponds, water wells, and at the foundations of buildings. Holes with oil shows, made to test the extent of the oil shale, have been drilled to a depth of 1000 m. At the base of the mine face is a limestone hardground on top of which is a coal seam about 0.5 m thick that can be traced throughout the basin. Atop this Paleocene coal bed are Eocene oil-shale and thin sandstone beds in five repeated sections, each about 15 m thick, called the Youganwou formation. All kinds of freshwater fossils - fish, insects, plants, turtles, and tree trunks - are found in a near-perfect state of preservation in these oil-rich shales and coal sections. The estimated oil content of the rock is about 8% of good-quality oil with plenty of light ends.

  17. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  18. Method of rubblization for in-situ oil shale processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Lien C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method that produces a uniformly rubblized oil shale bed of desirable porosity for underground, in-situ heat extraction of oil. Rubblization is the generation of rubble of various sized fragments. The method uses explosive loadings lying at different levels in adjacent holes and detonation of the explosives at different levels in sequence to achieve the fracturing and the subsequent expansion of the fractured oil shale into excavated rooms both above and below the hole pattern.

  19. Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Fallgren

    2009-02-15

    Methane from oil shale can potentially provide a significant contribution to natural gas industry, and it may be possible to increase and continue methane production by artificially enhancing methanogenic activity through the addition of various substrate and nutrient treatments. Western Research Institute in conjunction with Pick & Shovel Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted microcosm and scaled-up reactor studies to investigate the feasibility and optimization of biogenic methane production from oil shale. The microcosm study involving crushed oil shale showed the highest yield of methane was produced from oil shale pretreated with a basic solution and treated with nutrients. Incubation at 30 C, which is the estimated temperature in the subsurface where the oil shale originated, caused and increase in methane production. The methane production eventually decreased when pH of the system was above 9.00. In the scaled-up reactor study, pretreatment of the oil shale with a basic solution, nutrient enhancements, incubation at 30 C, and maintaining pH at circumneutral levels yielded the highest rate of biogenic methane production. From this study, the annual biogenic methane production rate was determined to be as high as 6042 cu. ft/ton oil shale.

  20. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  1. Multivariate analysis relating oil shale geochemical properties to NMR relaxometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Washburn, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry has been used to provide insight into shale composition by separating relaxation responses from the various hydrogen-bearing phases present in shales in a noninvasive way. Previous low-field NMR work using solid-echo methods provided qualitative information on organic constituents associated with raw and pyrolyzed oil shale samples, but uncertainty in the interpretation of longitudinal-transverse (T1–T2) relaxometry correlation results indicated further study was required. Qualitative confirmation of peaks attributed to kerogen in oil shale was achieved by comparing T1–T2 correlation measurements made on oil shale samples to measurements made on kerogen isolated from those shales. Quantitative relationships between T1–T2 correlation data and organic geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales were determined using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Relaxometry results were also compared to infrared spectra, and the results not only provided further confidence in the organic matter peak interpretations but also confirmed attribution of T1–T2 peaks to clay hydroxyls. In addition, PLSR analysis was applied to correlate relaxometry data to trace element concentrations with good success. The results of this work show that NMR relaxometry measurements using the solid-echo approach produce T1–T2 peak distributions that correlate well with geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales.

  2. Creep behavior of Utah oil shale subject to uniaxial loading

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, K.P.; Dana, G.F.; Chen, J.L.

    1982-06-01

    This paper presents results of a study on the creep behavior of Utah oil shale. A Conbel Model 355 pneumatic driven testing machine is used. The set of duplicate test specimens required for creep testing were cut from a single oil shale layer using a wire saw to avoid any surface damage. A rheological model was developed for creep behavior of oil shale as a function of stress level and organic content. Data from creep testing and Fischer assay analyses were used to demonstrate correlation between various stress levels and organic contents for samples taken from the Mahogany Zone of the Parachute Creek Member in Utah's Cowboy Canyon.

  3. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  4. Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

    1982-08-01

    A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

  5. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

    1991-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. Accomplishments for this period for these tasks are presented.

  6. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  7. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L. )

    1989-01-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed of Greenriver oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust form raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rates for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation; fracture and wear.

  8. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L.

    1989-03-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory scale fluidized bed of Green River oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust from raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes, and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rate for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes, and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation: fracture and wear. Fracture of large particles sometimes produced fragments which were small enough to be blown out of the bed. These fragments were much larger than the individual mineral grains in the shale. The fracture mechanism was dominant in the case of raw shale. Dust in the smaller particle-size range was generated by wear. Wear was the dominant mechanisms in the case of burned shale, whereas, for retorted shale, nearly equal amounts of dust were generated by each mechanism. 13 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. 78 FR 18547 - Oil Shale Management-General

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ..., oil shale is a class of rocks such as marlstone containing not oil, but kerogen. See 73 FR 69414. Oil... published in the Federal Register an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPR) on August 25, 2006 (71 FR... Register a notice reopening and extending the comment period on the ANPR (71 FR 56085). The BLM received...

  10. Processing use, and characterization of shale oil products

    PubMed Central

    Decora, Andrew W.; Kerr, Robert D.

    1979-01-01

    Oil shale is a potential source of oil that will supplement conventional sources for oil as our needs for fossil fuels begin to exceed our supplies. The resource may be mined and processed on the surface or it may be processed in situ. An overview of the potential technologies and environmental issues is presented. PMID:446454

  11. Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    SciTech Connect

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  13. Fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Burow, D.F.; Sharma, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    Results of preliminary experiments are reported in which oil shales were treated with liquid sulfur dioxide to effect comminution. Results for samples of Green River, Antrim, and Moroccan oil shales were obtained in these preliminary experiments. Extensive fracturing, both along and across laminations, was observed with all three shales. Initial experiments were carried out at 170/sup 0/C for 3 to 5 hours; subsequent experiments indicated that the degree of fracturing was almost as extensive when milder conditions (e.g., 25/sup 0/C for 1 h) are used. The results of these experiments suggest that many of the limitations of conventional crushing and fracturing procedures are not encountered here; there are however, other limitations to be dealt with. These observations are, nevertheless, sufficiently promising to warrant further detailed investigation into the utility of comminution with liquid SO/sub 2/ for both surface and in situ processing of oil shales.

  14. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  15. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 3. Causes of death of Scottish oil shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Cowie, H.; Middleton, W.G.; Seaton, A.

    1985-05-01

    The hazards of the Scottish oil shale industry are reported in three volumes. This volume addresses the cause of death for personnel in the oil shale industry. Skin cancer deaths showed a hazard significantly greater than unity. In comparing oil shale workers mortality with that of the population of 2 counties, an increase in death from bronchitis and emphysema was demonstrated. Comparisons of mortality within the study group to determine if any particular jobs in the industry were more hazardous than others showed no significant associations. There appeared to be a slight excess of prostrate cancer among retort workers. In a case-control study, no significant increase in relative hazard of lung cancer was found in association with workers or residents in areas of high shale activity. 21 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs. (DMC)

  16. A photometric method for the estimation of the oil yield of oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cuttitta, Frank

    1951-01-01

    A method is presented for the distillation and photometric estimation of the oil yield of oil-bearing shales. The oil shale is distilled in a closed test tube and the oil extracted with toluene. The optical density of the toluene extract is used in the estimation of oil content and is converted to percentage of oil by reference to a standard curve. This curve is obtained by relating the oil yields determined by the Fischer assay method to the optical density of the toluene extract of the oil evolved by the new procedure. The new method gives results similar to those obtained by the Fischer assay method in a much shorter time. The applicability of the new method to oil-bearing shale and phosphatic shale has been tested.

  17. A Transversely Isotropic Thermo-mechanical Framework for Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semnani, S. J.; White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides a thermo-mechanical framework for modeling the temperature dependent behavior of oil shale. As a result of heating, oil shale undergoes phase transformations, during which organic matter is converted to petroleum products, e.g. light oil, heavy oil, bitumen, and coke. The change in the constituents and microstructure of shale at high temperatures dramatically alters its mechanical behavior e.g. plastic deformations and strength, as demonstrated by triaxial tests conducted at multiple temperatures [1,2]. Accordingly, the present model formulates the effects of changes in the chemical constituents due to thermal loading. It is well known that due to the layered structure of shale its mechanical properties in the direction parallel to the bedding planes is significantly different from its properties in the perpendicular direction. Although isotropic models simplify the modeling process, they fail to accurately describe the mechanical behavior of these rocks. Therefore, many researchers have studied the anisotropic behavior of rocks, including shale [3]. The current study presents a framework to incorporate the effects of transverse isotropy within a thermo-mechanical formulation. The proposed constitutive model can be readily applied to existing finite element codes to predict the behavior of oil shale in applications such as in-situ retorting process and stability assessment in petroleum reservoirs. [1] Masri, M. et al."Experimental Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of the Petroleum Reservoir." SPE Eastern Regional/AAPG Eastern Section Joint Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2008. [2] Xu, B. et al. "Thermal impact on shale deformation/failure behaviors---laboratory studies." 45th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium. American Rock Mechanics Association, 2011. [3] Crook, AJL et al. "Development of an orthotropic 3D elastoplastic material model for shale." SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers

  18. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  19. Particulate oil shale inhalation and pulmonary inflammatory response in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.S.; Holland, L.M.; Halleck, M.S.; Martinez, E.; Saunders, G.

    1983-01-01

    This experiment detrimetal that long-term inhalation of shale dusts by rats elicits a limited inflammatory response in the lung less profound than that observed in animals exposed to equivalent levels of quartz alone. This observation suggests that organic and inorganic constituents of shale may provide a protective effect. The implications for fibrogenic disease are two-fold: (1) inhalation of oil shale dusts appeared to be less detriemtal than the inhalation of quartz along, and (2) there was no apparent synergistic action of quartz and the complex of organic materials present in shale. Animals exposed to shale dusts failed to develop any significant lung lesions, while all of the animals exposed to quartz developed granulomas and some frank fibrosis.

  20. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Spinti, Jennifer; Birgenheier, Lauren; Deo, Milind; Facelli, Julio; Hradisky, Michal; Kelly, Kerry; Miller, Jan; McLennan, John; Ring, Terry; Ruple, John; Uchitel, Kirsten

    2015-09-30

    This report summarizes the significant findings from the Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources program sponsored by the Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory. There were four principle areas of research; Environmental, legal, and policy issues related to development of oil shale and oil sands resources; Economic and environmental assessment of domestic unconventional fuels industry; Basin-scale assessment of conventional and unconventional fuel development impacts; and Liquid fuel production by in situ thermal processing of oil shale Multiple research projects were conducted in each area and the results have been communicated via sponsored conferences, conference presentations, invited talks, interviews with the media, numerous topical reports, journal publications, and a book that summarizes much of the oil shale research relating to Utah’s Uinta Basin. In addition, a repository of materials related to oil shale and oil sands has been created within the University of Utah’s Institutional Repository, including the materials generated during this research program. Below is a listing of all topical and progress reports generated by this project and submitted to the Office of Science and Technical Information (OSTI). A listing of all peer-reviewed publications generated as a result of this project is included at the end of this report; Geomechanical and Fluid Transport Properties 1 (December, 2015); Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis (February, 2015); and Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach (November, 2014); Policy Issues Associated With Using Simulation to Assess Environmental Impacts (November, 2014); Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience (September, 2013); V-UQ of Generation 1 Simulator with AMSO Experimental Data (August, 2013); Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges

  1. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-12-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  2. Enhanced Dissolution of Oil Shale by Bioleaching with Thiobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, W. Craig; Yen, T. F.

    1976-01-01

    Oil shale was subjected to bioleaching by cultures of thiobacilli. From X-ray, electron microprobe, and thin-section petrographic analysis, the shale matrix was found to contain tightly bonded carbonate minerals. When subjected to the bioproduced acids, these carbonate minerals were removed successively from the shale matrix. This process created pits and cavities which were gradually enlarged as indicated by scanning electron micrographs of samples subjected to leaching for varying lengths of time. At the end of 14 days, essentially all available carbonates had been depleted from the solid matrix. The effected increase in porosity and permeability of the oil shale then enhanced the exposure of fuel precursors, thus facilitating their production and conversion. Images PMID:16345177

  3. Slow Radio-Frequency Processing of Large Oil Shale Volumes to Produce Petroleum-Like Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K

    2003-08-20

    A process is proposed to convert oil shale by radio frequency heating over a period of months to years to create a product similar to natural petroleum. Electrodes would be placed in drill holes, either vertical or horizontal, and a radio frequency chosen so that the penetration depth of the radio waves is of the order of tens to hundreds of meters. A combination of excess volume production and overburden compaction drives the oil and gas from the shale into the drill holes, where it is pumped to the surface. Electrical energy for the process could be provided initially by excess regional capacity, especially off-peak power, which would generate {approx}3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day of synthetic crude oil, depending on shale grade. The electricity cost, using conservative efficiency assumptions, is $4.70 to $6.30/bbl, depending on grade and heating rate. At steady state, co-produced gas can generate more than half the electric power needed for the process, with the fraction depending on oil shale grade. This would increase production to 7.3 x 10{sup 5} bbl/day for 104 l/Mg shale and 1.6 x 10{sup 6} bbl/day for 146 l/Mg shale using a combination of off-peak power and power from co-produced gas.

  4. BX in situ oil shale project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, P.M.

    1983-09-01

    The objective of the Project was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using superheated steam as a heat-carrying medium to retort in situ the oil shale in the Green River Formation leached zone and provide a mechanism for the recovery of the retorted shale oil with a minimum impact on the environment. Utilizing primarily the natural porosity in the leached zone, approximately 450 billion Btu's of heat have been injected into injection wells at the project site over a 2-year period in an attempt to heat to retorting temperatures in a shale zone approximately 540 feet thick and covering about one acre. The field Project is located at Equity's BX In Situ site in Rio Blanco County in northwestern Colorado. This final report summarizes the field and laboratory work conducted as the BX In Situ Oil Shale Project, a project jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Equity Oil Company under a Cooperative Agreement entered into on March 1, 1977. The September 15, 1982, and includes a period of two years from September 18, 1979 to September 15, 1982, during which superheated steam and hot water were injected into an array of eight injection wells completed in the leached zone oil shale of the Parachute Creek member of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. (20 figures, 21 tables)

  5. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  6. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S. ); Schultz, C.W. ); Parekh, B.K. ); Misra, M. ); Bonner, W.P. )

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  7. Oil shale programs. Sixteenth quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A. L.

    1980-06-01

    This document is the sixteenth in a continuing series of quarterly reports, and describes the Sandia National Laboratories oil shale activities during the period between October 1, 1979 and December 31, 1979. Sandia's major responsibility to the DOE in situ oil shale program is to provide a quantitative evaluation to DOE of the various field projects being supported by DOE in the development of commercial in situ oil shale processes. This requires the deployment of instrumentation systems and analysis techniques to evaluate key procedures and operations. In order to fulfill this responsibility, it is necessary to develop new and advanced instrumentation systems and associated deployment, recording and analysis techniques that are unique to the field projects. In addition, a rock mechanics program provides material properties, material response models, and computational methods to support the design and evaluation functions. This report describes detailed activities in these project areas over the last quarter.

  8. Review of rare earth element concentrations in oil shales of the Eocene Green River Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of the lanthanide series or rare earth elements and yttrium were determined for lacustrine oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of Colorado and the Uinta Basin of Utah. Unprocessed oil shale, post-pyrolysis (spent) shale, and leached shale samples were examined to determine if oil-shale processing to generate oil or the remediation of retorted shale affects rare earth element concentrations. Results for unprocessed Green River oil shale samples were compared to data published in the literature on reference materials, such as chondritic meteorites, the North American shale composite, marine oil shale samples from two sites in northern Tibet, and mined rare earth element ores from the United States and China. The Green River oil shales had lower rare earth element concentrations (66.3 to 141.3 micrograms per gram, μg g-1) than are typical of material in the upper crust (approximately 170 μg g-1) and were also lower in rare earth elements relative to the North American shale composite (approximately 165 μg g-1). Adjusting for dilution of rare earth elements by organic matter does not account for the total difference between the oil shales and other crustal rocks. Europium anomalies for Green River oil shales from the Piceance Basin were slightly lower than those reported for the North American shale composite and upper crust. When compared to ores currently mined for rare earth elements, the concentrations in Green River oil shales are several orders of magnitude lower. Retorting Green River oil shales led to a slight enrichment of rare earth elements due to removal of organic matter. When concentrations in spent and leached samples were normalized to an original rock basis, concentrations were comparable to those of the raw shale, indicating that rare earth elements are conserved in processed oil shales.

  9. Executive summary. Western oil shale developmet: a technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The objectives are to review shale oil technologies as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  10. Oil shale research and coordination. Progress report, 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1981-01-01

    Purpose is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by an oil shale industry. Emphasis is on the five elements As, Mo, F, Se, and B. Results of four years' research are summarized and the research results over the past year are reported in this document. Reports by the task force are included as appendices, together with individual papers on various aspects of the subject topic. Separate abstracts were prepared for the eleven individual papers. A progress report on the IWG oil shale risk analysis is included at the end of this document. (DLC)

  11. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  12. Comparison of the Acceptability of Various Oil Shale Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; McConaghy, J R

    2006-03-11

    While oil shale has the potential to provide a substantial fraction of our nation's liquid fuels for many decades, cost and environmental acceptability are significant issues to be addressed. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined a variety of oil shale processes between the mid 1960s and the mid 1990s, starting with retorting of rubble chimneys created from nuclear explosions [1] and ending with in-situ retorting of deep, large volumes of oil shale [2]. In between, it examined modified-in-situ combustion retorting of rubble blocks created by conventional mining and blasting [3,4], in-situ retorting by radio-frequency energy [5], aboveground combustion retorting [6], and aboveground processing by hot-solids recycle (HRS) [7,8]. This paper reviews various types of processes in both generic and specific forms and outlines some of the tradeoffs for large-scale development activities. Particular attention is given to hot-recycled-solids processes that maximize yield and minimize oil shale residence time during processing and true in-situ processes that generate oil over several years that is more similar to natural petroleum.

  13. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1992-09-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following active tasks: Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 8. project management and reporting; and Task 9. information required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, is working with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program quarter from June 1, 1992 through August 31, 1992.

  14. Selected trace elements in plants grown on retorted oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkelly, M.K.; Lindsay, W.L.

    1982-07-01

    Western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii Rybd. 'Arriba') and fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) were sampled from oil shale revegetation plots in northwestern Colorado. Plants were growing on two types of retorted shales: TOSCO II, produced by the Tosco Corporation; and USBM, produced by the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Various treatments included leaching and different depths of soil covering over the retorted shales. Plant samples were analyzed for B, Mo, As, Se, and F on a dry-weight basis. Plant samples with elevated Mo concentrations were also analyzed for Cu. Boron in western wheatgrass from the TOSCO retorted shale ranged from 85 to 202 ppm, compared with ranges of 4 to 15 ppm B in plants from the soil control. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences in B content due to site, aspect, type of retorted shale, and amount of soil cover over retorted shale. The concentration of B in western wheatgrass growing on retorted shales, especially TOSCO retorted shale, could affect plant growth. Fourwing saltbush samples, growing on USBM retorted shales, contained levels of Mo averaging 28 ppm, and low-to-moderate Cu content (4.8-6.8 ppm). This combination could make this species unacceptable as forage for ruminants. The concentrations of As (0.03-0.44 ppm), Se (0.02-0.94 ppm); and F (0.5-10.0 ppm) in the plant species investigated in this study were below limits usually set for either plant or animal toxicities and appear to be of little environmental significance.

  15. Organic geochemical characterization of Aleksinac oil shale deposit (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajica, Gordana; Kašanin-Grubin, Milica; Šajnović, Aleksandra; Stojanović, Ksenija; Kostić, Aleksandar; Jovančićević, Branimir

    2016-04-01

    Oil shales represent a good source of energy and industrial raw material. The Aleksinac oil shale deposit is the biggest and most important oil shale deposit in Serbia. It covers an area of over 20 km2, and it has three fields: "Dubrava", "Morava" and "Logorište". The potential reserves of oil shale in the Aleksinac deposit are estimated at about 2.1 billion tons. The genesis of oil shales is associated with the lacustrine depositional environments, which existed from Upper to Lower Miocene. In order to determine the generative potential, type of organic matter (OM) and thermal maturity, Rock-Eval pyrolysis was used. In analyzed oil shale samples the content of total organic carbon (TOC), as a general indicator of petroleum generation potential, range from 1.48 to 29.57%. The content of naturally generated hydrocarbons, expressed as S1 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in most analyzed samples have extremely low values 0.002-0.28, which indicate low maturity level [1]. The pyrolysable hydrocarbons expressed as S2 peak from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis, represent the potential to generate hydrocarbons and with that the potential of oil generation through thermal decomposition of kerogen. S2 ranging 3.93-141.36 mg HC/g rock is higher than 20 mg HC/g rock and indicates excellent source rock potential [1]. In order to accept a formation as a source rock, it should exhibit TOC more than 0.5 % and sufficient maturity, but also OM types should be suitable for the oil and gas generation. The kerogen type is determined by Hydrogen Index (HI) and diagram HI vs. Tmax (temperature, corresponding to S2 peak maximum). HI in range 265-728 mg HC/g TOC, indicates Type I and Type II kerogen or their mixture i.e. oil prone kerogen [1], whereas only one sample appears to be oil/gas prone (Type II/III). Similar results are obtained by plotting the Tmax against HI. Maturation degree depends on the overall thermal history of the evaluated rocks; it is very important parameter for evaluation

  16. Method and apparatus for processing oil shale in a rotary hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, L.S.

    1982-07-27

    Hydrocarbon containing oil shale is processed on the surface of a rabbled rotary hearth by mixing it with a heat exchange medium consisting of heated spent oil shale. Mixing is obtained by feeding the raw shale and the heated spent shale separately, but in proximity to one another, onto the surface of a hearth, and then subjecting both materials to rabbling action. This mixing causes heat from the heated spent shale heat exchange medium to be transferred to the fresh raw shale, which results in the removal of hydrocarbons from the raw shale. In one preferred embodiment, heated spent shale is obtained by removing spent shale from the hearth after processing, mixing it, preferably while it is still hot, with compatible combustible solids, and then introducing oxidizing gases into the mixture. This results in the burning of the combustible solids and any combustible materials remaining in the shale and the heating of the spent shale.

  17. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  18. Flash pyrolysis of oil shale with various gases

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1983-10-01

    The flash pyrolysis of Colorado Oil Shale with methane at a temperature of 800/sup 0/C and pressure of 500 psi appears to give the highest yield of hydrocarbon gas and liquid followed by hydrogen and lowest with helium. In the methane pyrolysis over 54.5% of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to ethylene and benzene. The flash pyrolysis with hydrogen (flash hydropyrolysis) of the oil shale at increasing temperatures showed a rapidly increasing amount of methane formed and a decrease in ethane formation, while the BTX (benzene mainly) yield remained at approximately 10%. At 950/sup 0/C and 500 psi almost all (97.0%) of the carbon in the kerogen is converted to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons. Experiments with a mixture of a New Mexico sub-bituminous coal and oil shale under flash hydropyrolysis and methane pyrolysis conditions indicated higher yields of methane and ethylene and slightly lower yields of benzene than predicted by partial additive calculations. These exploratory experiments appear to be of sufficient interest to warrant a fuller investigation of the interaction of the natural resources, oil shale, coal and natural gas under flash pyrolysis conditions.

  19. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  20. 77 FR 58775 - Oil Shale Management-General

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Parts 3900, 3910, 3920, 3930, and 4100 Oil Shale Management--General CFR Correction In Title 43 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1000 to End, revised as of October 1,...

  1. Beneficiation of U. S. oil shales by froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Farley, E.P.; Murray, R.G.

    1983-04-01

    A bench-scale study of the beneficiation of western and eastern oil shales was conducted using ball mill grinding and froth flotation techniques. The liberation of organic and inorganic particles required reducing the particles to about 10-20 ..mu..m. Ball mill grinding energies were estimated to be about 50 kwh/ton for the western ''Anvil Points'' shale (13.5 wt% organics, 24 GPT) and 30 kwh/ton for the eastern ''Antrim'' shale (8 wt% organics, 7 GPT) for reduction to 20 ..mu..m. Froth flotation can increase the organic content of Anvil Points shale to about 27 wt% (50 GPT) at about 80% recovery. Froth flotation of finely ground Antrim shale produced concentrates containing 21 wt% organics (23 GPT) with 90% recovery. Higher grades of concentrates at lower recoveries can be obtained with additional stages of grinding and froth flotation. The separation efficiencies for the Anvil Points and Antrim shales were found to be 52% and 60% at the optimum conditions.

  2. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  3. Biochemical activities in soil overlying Paraho processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial activity development in soil materials placed over processed oil shale is vital to the plant litter decomposition, cycling of nutrients, and soil organic matter accumulation and maintenance. Samples collected in the summers of 1979, 1980, and 1981 from revegetated soil 30-, 61-, and 91-cm deep overlying spent oil shale in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado were assayed for dehydrogenease activity with glucose and without glucose, for phosphatase activity, and for acetylene reduction activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates and potential denitrification rates were determined in 1981. Zymogenous dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, nitrogenase activity, potential denitrification rates, and direct microscopic counts were lower in surface soil 30 cm deep, and were frequently lower in surface soil 61 cm deep over processed shale than in a surface-disturbed control area soil. Apparently, microbial activities are stressed in these more shallow replaced soils. Soil 61 cm deep over a coarse-rock capillary barrier separating the soil from the spent shale, frequently had improved biochemical activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates were lower in all replaced soils than in the disturbed control soil. Soil core samples taken in 1981 were assayed for dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, viable bacteria, and viable fungal propagules. In general, microbial activity decreased quickly below the surface. At depths greater than 45 cm, microbial activities were similar in buried spent shale and surface-disturbed control soil.

  4. Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales: Volume 2, Expansion of the Moving-Bed Hydroretorting Data Base for Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    An extensive data base was developed for six Eastern oil shales: Alabama Chattanooga, Indiana New Albany, Kentucky Sunbury, Michigan Antrim, Ohio Cleveland, and Tennessee Chattanooga shales. The data base included the hydroretorting characteristics of the six shales, as well as the retorting characteristics in the presence of synthesis gas and ionized gas. Shale gasification was also successfully demonstrated. Shale fines (20%) can produce enough hydrogen for the hydroretorting of the remaining 80% of the shale. The amount of fines tolerable in a moving bed was also determined. 16 refs., 59 figs., 43 tabs.

  5. Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

  6. Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chen-Luh; Miller, Jan

    2011-03-01

    There are important questions concerning the quality and volume of pore space that is created when oil shale is pyrolyzed for the purpose of producing shale oil. In this report, 1.9 cm diameter cores of Mahogany oil shale were pyrolyzed at different temperatures and heating rates. Detailed 3D imaging of core samples was done using multiscale X-ray computed tomography (CT) before and after pyrolysis to establish the pore structure. The pore structure of the unreacted material was not clear. Selected images of a core pyrolyzed at 400oC were obtained at voxel resolutions from 39 microns (Οm) to 60 nanometers (nm). Some of the pore space created during pyrolysis was clearly visible at these resolutions and it was possible to distinguish between the reaction products and the host shale rock. The pore structure deduced from the images was used in Lattice Boltzmann simulations to calculate the permeability in the pore space. The permeabilities of the pyrolyzed samples of the silicate-rich zone were on the order of millidarcies, while the permeabilities of the kerogen-rich zone after pyrolysis were very anisotropic and about four orders of magnitude higher.

  7. Early Carboniferous (Visean) lacustrine oil shale in Canadian Arctic archipelago

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, G.R.; Nassichuk, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Lower Carboniferous (Visean) Emma Fiord Formation in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is an oil shale of lacustrine origin composed of black carbonaceous shale, siltstone, and marlstone with interbedded sandstone, conglomerate, and oolitic and algal limestones. At Kleybolte Peninsula on Ellesmere Island, the Emma Fiord Formation was deposited on the tectonically active northwestern rim of the Sverdrup basin; it is now thermally overmature and well beyond the dry gas zone of organic maturation (vitrinite reflectance approx. = 5.0). In contrast, the Emma Fiord sequence on Grinnell Peninsula, Devon Island, near the southern edge of the Sverdrup basin, is immature to marginally mature (vitrinite reflectance = 0.26-0.44) and is composed predominantly of liptinite-rich oil shale. These kerogen-rich rocks contain a high volume of microcrystalline calcite and compositionally are marlstones. The Emma Fiord oil shales were deposited in lakes formed immediately prior to or possibly synchronous with the initiation of rifting in the Sverdrup basin. Syntectonic red-bed conglomerates derived from uplifted horst blocks directly overlie the Emma Fiord rocks. A few beds of conglomerate and sandstone in the upper part of the Emma Fiord Formation possibly record the onset of faulting. The formation closely resembles contemporaneous sequences in northern Alaska, Yukon Territory, Greenland, and Spitsbergen. Clearly, similar tectonic and paleoclimatic factors influenced sedimentation over this area in the Early Carboniferous, with the Sverdrup basin locations lying within 10/sup 0/-15/sup 0/ of the paleoequator. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Preliminary Stratigraphic Cross Sections of Oil Shale in the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.

    2008-01-01

    Oil shale units in the Eocene Green River Formation are shown on two east-west stratigraphic sections across the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah. Several units have potential value for recovery of shale oil, especially the Mahogany oil shale zone, which is a high grade oil shale that can be traced across most of the Uinta Basin and into the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. Many thin medium to high grade oil shale beds above the Mahogany zone can also be traced for many miles across the basin. Several units below the Mahogany that have slow velocities on sonic logs may be low grade oil shale. These may have value as a source for shale gas.

  9. Laboratory weathering and solubility relationships of fluorine and molybdenum in combusted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Wills, R.A.; Brown, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Proper management of large volumes of spent oil shale requires an understanding of the mineralogy and the disposal environment chemistry. Simulated laboratory weathering is one method to rapidly and inexpensively assess the long-term potential for spent oil shales to degrade the environment. The objectives of this study were to assess the solubility relationships of fluorine (F) and molybdenum (Mo) in Green River Formation spent oil shale, to examine the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of three combusted oil shales in a laboratory weathering environment using the humidity cell technique, and to examine the data from spent oil shale literature. Combusted oil shales from the Green River Formation and New Albany Shale were used in the examination of the leachate chemistry and mineralogy.

  10. Blasting technology for modified in-situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Ricketts, T.E.

    1982-09-01

    Occidental Oil Shale, Inc., an equal partner with Tenneco Shale Oil Company in the Cathedral Bluffs Shale Oil Company, has spent since 1972 developing and demonstrating its modified in situ oil shale process at its Logan Wash mine near Debeque, Colorado. The Occidental modified in situ process consists of first mining out a limited amount of rock from within an underground retort volume to allow the explosive expansion of the surrounding rock into the mined void volumes. The explosive expansion forms a large underground rubble bed contained within a retort chamber which must contain a fairly uniform particle size distribution and void redistribution to provide reasonable oil recovery during subsequent in situ processing operations. The processing involves first igniting the top of the rubble pile and then injecting air into the top of the retort to drive the combustion front downward through the entire rubblized volume. The oil is continuously collected at the bottom of the retort during the processing. Two side-by-side commercial-sized retorts, Retorts 7 and 8, have recently been constructed at the Logan Wash mine using newly developed horizontal free-face blasting technology. Retorts 7 and 8 were blasted in February and April of 1981, respectively, each using nearly 550,000 lbs. of explosives in ANFO equivalent loaded within nearly 550 blastholes for each retort. The resulting rubble beds were about 230-ft high with cross-sections of approximately 27,225 ft/sup 2/. The blasting principles used to construct these commercial-sized retorts and the rubblization results are described in detail in this paper.

  11. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  12. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  13. The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E.; Daniel, J.

    1991-12-31

    The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

  14. The use of Devonian oil shales in the production of portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C.W.; Lamont, W.E. ); Daniel, J. )

    1991-01-01

    The Lafarge Corporation operates a cement plant at Alpena, Michigan in which Antrim shale, a Devonian oil shale, is used as part of the raw material mix. Using this precedent the authors examine the conditions and extent to which spent shale might be utilized in cement production. They conclude that the potential is limited in size and location but could provide substantial benefit to an oil shale operation meeting these criteria.

  15. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C. ); Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E. ); Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R. ); Misra, M. )

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  16. Upgrading of western shale oil by hydropyrolysis and hydrotreating

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Pu, J.

    1992-07-01

    A proof-of-concept study for a new shale oil upgrading and refining process was undertaken. This project is aimed at reducing upgrading costs, thereby malting shale oil development more feasible for commercialization. Raw shale oil was topped to remove the most volatile components. The topped shale oil was distilled into three narrow boiling cuts, representing of 175--275{degrees}C, 275--365{degrees}C, and 365--455{degrees}C, and a residue portion (>455{degrees}C). The distillate cuts were used to study molecular weight effects, and the residue was used to test the performance of hydropyrolysis. Hydropyrolysis converts the heavy residue into lower boiling point materials which can be more easily hydrotreated. In the experiment to test molecular weight effects, it was found that geometric hindrance accounts for the inhibition effect. Diffusion limitation and inhibition by competitive adsorption are not strong effects. These results imply that there is no process substitute for the requirement of molecular weight reduction. In the experiment to test the performance of hydropyrolysis, average molecular weight is reduced from 495 to 359 at moderate severities. In HDN of the hydropyrolized residue, however, high process severities are still required to remove nitrogen to the level of refinery-acceptable-feed (< 0.15 wt %). Based on experimental data, the product slate is 1.9 wt % gas, 13.1 wt % gasoline, 27.3 wt % kerosene, 55.6 wt % total gas oil, 1.3 wt % vacuum residue, and 0.8 wt % coke with 1376 scf/bbl total hydrogen consumption. The removal of sulfur is 96%, and that of nitrogen is 84%. The concentration of sulfur in the final product is 0.038 wt %, and that of nitrogen in final product is 0.26%. The conversion of heavy residue to atmospheric distillate is 47%. However, the remaining residue is partially upgraded as a refinery feed.

  17. Oil Shale Development from the Perspective of NETL's Unconventional Oil Resource Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.W.; Shadle, L.J.; Hill, D.

    2007-01-01

    The history of oil shale development was examined by gathering relevant research literature for an Unconventional Oil Resource Repository. This repository contains over 17,000 entries from over 1,000 different sources. The development of oil shale has been hindered by a number of factors. These technical, political, and economic factors have brought about R&D boom-bust cycles. It is not surprising that these cycles are strongly correlated to market crude oil prices. However, it may be possible to influence some of the other factors through a sustained, yet measured, approach to R&D in both the public and private sectors.

  18. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Fluidized-bed pyrolysis of oil shale: oil yield, composition, and kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Huss, E B; Ott, L L; Clarkson, J E; Bishop, M O; Taylor, J R; Gregory, L J; Morris, C J

    1982-09-01

    A quartz isothermal fluidized-bed reactor has been used to measure kinetics and oil properties relevant to surface processing of oil shale. The rate of oil formation has been described with two sequential first-order rate equations characterized by two rate constants, k/sub 1/ = 2.18 x 10/sup 10/ exp(-41.6 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/ and k/sub 2/ = 4.4 x 10/sup 6/ exp(-29.7 kcal/RT) s/sup -1/. These rate constants together with an expression for the appropriate weighting coefficients describe approximately 97/sup +/% of the total oil produced. A description is given of the results of different attempts to mathematically describe the data in a manner suitable for modeling applications. Preliminary results are also presented for species-selective kinetics of methane, ethene, ethane and hydrogen, where the latter is clearly distinguished as the product of a distinct intermediate. Oil yields from Western oil shale are approximately 100% Fischer assay. Oil composition is as expected based on previous work and the higher heating rates (temperatures) inherent in fluidized-bed pyrolysis. Neither the oil yield, composition nor the kinetics varied with particle size between 0.2 and 2.0 mm within experimental error. The qualitatively expected change in oil composition due to cracking was observed over the temperature range studied (460 to 540/sup 0/C). Eastern shale exhibited significantly faster kinetics and higher oil yields than did Western shale.

  20. Issues and answers on the Department of Energy Oil Shale RD and D Program Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This document consists of Department of Energy replies to public comments made on the Department's Oil Shale RD and D Program and the RD and D Program Management Plan during an oil shale workshop held in December 1979 in Denver, Colorado, and incorporates responses from a number of Department offices and divisions currently associated with the Oil Shale Program. Workshop participants expressed concern in a number of areas associated with oil shale development impacts. Comments addressed effects on water quality and availability; air quality and solid waste impacts; impacts on terrestrial ecosystems; the pace of oil shale development; health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns; coordination among Federal, State, and local agencies during development of the shale resource; legislative and regulatory issues; financing of oil shale development; continued public education and involvement; and technology considerations (e.g., comments relating to shale oil upgrading, refining, product composition, and stability). Replies made by RD and D Program staff to the comments of workshop participants provide an overview of Department of Energy oil shale activities, both planned and ongoing, in the areas of concern addressed by the workshop. Although the responses focus on Department efforts to resolve these concerns, the research activities and responsibilities of other Federal agencies are also outlined. To supplement the RD and D Program response, recently published sources of information on oil shale development are identified that offer the public a more thorough description of Departmental research programs.

  1. Production of valuable hydrocarbons by flash pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1985-04-01

    A process for the production of gas and liquid hydrocarbons from particulated oil shale by reaction with a pyrolysis gas at a temperature of from about 700/sup 0/C to about 1100/sup 0/C, at a pressure of from about 400 psi to about 600 psi, for a period of about 0.2 second to about 20 seconds. Such a pyrolysis gas includes methane, helium, or hydrogen. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Ignition technique for an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1983-01-01

    A generally flat combustion zone is formed across the entire horizontal cross-section of a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles formed in an in situ oil shale retort. The flat combustion zone is formed by either sequentially igniting regions of the surface of the fragmented permeable mass at successively lower elevations or by igniting the entire surface of the fragmented permeable mass and controlling the rate of advance of various portions of the combustion zone.

  3. Paraho oil shale module. Site development plan, Task 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    A management plan and schedule which covers all requirements for gaining access to the site and for conducting a Paraho Process demonstration program have been prepared. The oil shale available should represent a regional resource of suitable size and quality for commercial development. Discussed in this report are: proof of ownership; requirements for rights-of-way for access to the site; local zoning restrictions; water rights; site availability verification; and other legal requirements. (DMC)

  4. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  5. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  6. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  7. Industrial hygiene concerns associated with oil shale development

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Health protection concerns (including industrial hygiene, safety, and occupational medicine) must be evaluated to insure that development of the oil shale industry proceeds without significant risk to the health of the workers involved. These concerns need to be identified in the early stages of developing this industry. To provide a basis for discussing potential health protection concerns related to oil shale, it is necessary to briefly discuss the magnitude and characteristics of this resource; the alternate proposed technologies; and the unit operations which make up the operating system. This subject has been detailed in many publications, among them reports prepared for the Environmental Protection Agency. This discussion will be limited to providing sufficient background to put industrial hygiene and other health protection concerns in perspective, and will include a brief description of typical technologies under consideration. It will not provide a detailed description of these technologies, or attempt to cover all the alternate technologies which may be applied to the development of oil shale. However, a basis for considering potential health protection problems associated with development of this industry will be established.

  8. Comparative organic geochemistry of some European oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, A.G.; Hall, P.B.; Solli, H.

    1983-02-01

    The distribution, and geology, of oil shales occurring in Western Europe was described in a substantial paper by Bitterli and briefly in a later paper by Schlatter. The interest of the former author was principally the location, depositional environments, mineralogy and organic carbon content of a very large number of bituminous sediments, and he proposed a classification which divided the bituminous rocks into seven categories. Although, in this work, the authors have followed Bitterli to some extent in the locations from which our samples were collected have, for convenience, considered Duncan's classification of three main oil shale lithologies. Although there were two major periods of European oil shale formation, namely deposits of Permo-Carboniferous age which are associated, in part, with coal sequences, and Jurassic deposits often of marine origin, the work undertaken in this laboratory has covered eighty samples from twenty deposits ranging in age from Cambrian to Oligocene. These may be divided, using Duncan's classification into a) those believed to have been deposited in shallow marine basins (Cambrian, Sweden; Permian, England; Lower, middle and upper Jurassic, Scotland/England; Oligocene, France), b) those deposited in large Lacustrine basins (Devonian, Scotland; Carboniferous, Scotland; Permian, France), and c) those deposited in small lagoonal basins, often associated with coal swamp environments (Carboniferous, Scotland; middle Jurassic, Scotland; Tertiary, Germany).

  9. Study of Moroccan oil shale thermal decomposition kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Bekri, O.; Baba-Habib, H.; Cha, C.Y.; Edelman, M.C.

    1983-04-01

    Oil shale samples from the M, X, Y, and T-Zones of the Timhadit reserves in Morocco have been tested with a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) to provide nonisothermal weight loss data. Analysis of this data has provided several of the kinetic values necessary for the understanding and modeling of the thermal decomposition mechanisms of kerogen pyrolysis and inorganic carbonate decomposition in Timahdit oil shale. Several methods of data analysis were developed which utilize both the differential and integral forms of the reaction rate equations. In addition, the relationship between the temperature at which the maximum reaction rate occurs and the heating rate was derived for the first-order reactions. This relationship can be used to determine the activation energy and frequency factor using the weight loss data obtained at constant heating rate. These methods are discussed and the analytical procedures, calculations, and results are presented for the determination of the kinetics of kerogen pyrolysis and inorganic carbonate decomposition in Moroccan oil shale from the Timahdit reserves.

  10. Health and environmental effects document for oil shale: 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.; Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.; Chappell, W.R.

    1984-12-31

    The third reported effort to analyze the potential human health and environmental risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day industry has been completed as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The methodology for prioritizing key research needs using the risk magnitude and associated uncertainty has been established and demonstrated. The analysis focused on the recommendations of the National Academy of Science's review of the 1982 oil shale risk analysis. Human health risk measures included accident and disease occurrences, premature fatalities, and life-loss expectancies. The sulfate surrogate model was replaced by a fine-particle surrogate resulting in reduced public risks. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the occupational sector. Occupational injuries and illnesses have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Silicosis from the dust environment is the worker disease of primary concern, followed by other forms of pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. The current nuisance dust threshold limit value of 5 mg/m/sup 3/ poses a serious occupational health concern for a future oil shale industry. Research recommendations are presented based on the potential for reducing the estimated uncertainties in the risks. 173 refs., 36 tabs.

  11. Integrated Use of Fluidized Bed Technology for Oil Production from Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirde, Andres; Martins, Ants

    The plant unit which consists of a fluidized bed retort and CFB furnace for burning the by-products of retorting (semicoke and semicoke gas) is presented in this paper. The oil shale retort consists of a fast fluidized bed shaft, coarse semicoke bit, semicoke separation chamber and cyclone for the separation of fine semicoke particles. The crashed oil shale and hot ash from the CFB ash separator are fed concurrently into the fast fluidized bed shaft. For fluidizing the mixture of oil shale and hot ash particles, the recycle semicoke gas is used. The pyrolysis of oil shale begins in fluidized bed and is completed in the semicoke separation chamber. The coarse semicoke particles are separated from fluidized bed directly while the medium size particles are separated from the gases in the semicoke separation chamber and the finest semicoke particles in the cyclone. All the fractions of semicoke from the fluidized bed retort and semicoke gas from the oil fractionator are burnt in the CFB furnace. The semicoke ash is separated from flue gases in the CFB ash separator. A part of separated hot ash is fed into the fluidized bed retort as a solid heat carrier material and the rest into the furnace through the ash cooler or separated from the process. The retention of sulphur dioxide formed during the semicoke and semicoke gas combustion, is guaranteed for about 99 % due to the high CaO content in the semicoke ash and convenient temperature (about 850°C) in the CFB furnace. The described plant unit is useful for retorting oil shale and other solid hydrocarbon-containing fuels. The advantages of the present retorting process and system are: improved oil yield, greater throughput, lower retorting time, avoidance of moving parts in the retorting zones, reduced downtime, etc. A new plant unit for oil shale oil production has been elaborated and defended by the Estonian Utility Model EE 200700671 UI.

  12. Central Pacific Minerals and Southern Pacific Petroleum detail oil shale activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    These two affiliated companies have their major assets in Queensland. Brief summaries are given of the activities of the Rundle, Condor, and Yaamba oil shale projects and brief descriptions are given of the resources found in the Stuart, Nagoorin, Nagoorin South, Lowmead, and Duaringa oil shale deposits of Queensland. The companies also have, or are planning, oil shale projects in the US, Luxembourg, France, and the Federal Republic of Germany, and these are briefly described.

  13. In-Place Oil Shale Resources Underlying Federal Lands in the Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Self, Jesse G.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geologic-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated an in-place oil shale resource of 1.07 trillion barrels under Federal mineral rights, or 70 percent of the total oil shale in place, in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. More than 67 percent of the total oil shale in-place resource, or 1.027 trillion barrels, is under Federal surface management.

  14. Pulmonary carcinogenesis in rats given implants of shale oil in beeswax pellets.

    PubMed

    Dagle, G E; Smith, L G; McDonald, K E; McShane, J F; Stevens, D L

    1990-01-01

    Pellets of crude shale oil, neutral, basic, or polynuclear aromatic fractions of shale oil, or crude petroleum were implanted in the lungs of rats through a thoracotomy. The pellets had a beeswax-tricaprylin vehicle that allowed the slow release of material into the surrounding parenchyma. A dose-related incidence of lung cancer was observed with each of the materials studies. A greater risk for lung cancer was not demonstrated for crude shale oil compared to crude petroleum.

  15. Model capabilities for in-situ oil shale recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hommert, P.J.; Tyner, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    The extensive oil shale reserves of the United States are now under development as an energy source. One of the approaches for extracting oil from shale is the so-called modified in-situ retort. The operation of such retorts for maximum yield requires an understanding of oil loss mechanisms so that operating strategies that minimize these losses can be developed. The present modeling capabilities for describing the behavior and yield from a modified in-situ retort are discussed. It is shown how the advances made in describing retort chemistry have greatly increased the predictive capabilities of these models. Two models that have been subject to comparison with laboratory retorts are described. The first is a one-dimensional model that treats the retort as a packed bed reactor, the second is a quasi-two-dimensional examination of block retorting. Both models are capable of predicting retorting rates, off gas composition and oil yield losses to coking and combustion. The block model, for example, describes conditions where local oil yield losses can be as high as 50%. Areas for further model improvement include additional work on describing retort chemistry, such as the steam/char and gas phase combustion reactions. The major need for modeling now is expansion to multi-dimensional simulation. This is necessary if a predictive capability is to be developed for field situations where sweep efficiency losses and gravitational effects become important.

  16. Occupational and environmental health problems of the developing oil shale industry: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Rom, W.N.; Lee, J.S.; Craft, B.F.

    1981-01-01

    The American oil shale industry is on the threshold of commercial industrial development. Potential occupational hazards include shalosis or oil shale pneumoconiosis, dermatoses, cancer of the skin, lung, and possibly other sites, and accidents. Air, water, and solid waste pollution problems are complicated by the aridity of the Green River oil shale formation located in Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The region currently lacks the schools, health facilities, community services, and skilled labor required for large-scale development. The oil shale industry faces an opportunity and a challenge of prudently assessing and controlling exposures and contributing to the social development of the region.

  17. Oil shale in the Piceance Basin: an analysis of land use issues

    SciTech Connect

    Rubenson, D.; Pei, R.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to a framework for establishing policies to promote efficient use of the nation's oil shale resources. A methodology was developed to explain the effects of federal leasing policies on resource recovery, extraction costs, and development times associated with oil shale surface mines. This report investigates the effects of lease size, industrial development patterns, waste disposal policies, and lease boundaries on the potential of Piceance Basin oil shale resource. This approach should aid in understanding the relationship between federal leasing policies and requirements for developing Piceance Basin oil shale. 16 refs., 46 figs. (DMC)

  18. Occupational and environmental health problems of the developing oil shale industry: a review.

    PubMed

    Rom, W N; Lee, J S; Craft, B F

    1981-01-01

    The American oil shale industry is on the threshold of commercial industrial development. Potential occupational hazards include shalosis or oil shale pneumoconiosis, dermatoses, cancer of the skin, lung, and possibly other sites, and accidents. Air, water, and solid waste pollution problems are complicated by the aridity of the Green River oil shale formation located in Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The region currently lacks the schools, health facilities, community services, and skilled labor required for large-scale development. The oil shale industry faces an opportunity and a challenge of prudently assessing and controlling exposures and contributing to the social development of the region.

  19. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, December 1991--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Easter oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. 24 figs., 19 tabs. (AT)

  20. Bats of the Colorado oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.B. Jr.; Caire, W.; Wilhelm, D.E.

    1984-10-31

    New records for Myotis californicus, M. evotis, M. leibii, M. lucifugus, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus cinereus, Plecotus townsendii, and Antrozous pallidus and their habitat occurrence in northwestern Colorado are reported. Mortality of 27 bats of six species trapped in an oil sludge pit is described. 7 references.

  1. Trace element partitioning during the retorting of Condor and Rundle oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Dale, L.S.; Chapman, J.F. )

    1988-05-01

    Composite oil shale samples from the Condor and Rundle deposits in Queensland were retorted under Fischer assay conditions at temperatures ranging from 300 to 545{degree}C. Trace elements mobilized to the shale oil and retort water were determined at each temperature. The results were comparable for both oil shales. Several elements including arsenic, selenium, chlorine, bromine, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc were progressively mobilized as the retort temperature was increased. Most elements partition mainly to the oil and to a lesser extent to the retort water in a similar manner to other oil shales. For Rundle oil shales, trace element abundances in oils, and the proportions of elements mobilized, generally increased with oil shale grade. This was attributed to the reduced effect of adsorption and/or coking of heavier oil fractions during retorting of higher grade samples. Nickel porphyrins, unidentified organometallic compounds, pyrite, and halite are considered to be the sources of mobile trace elements. The results are relatively favorable for oil shale processing and show that arsenic is the most significant element in relation to both shale oil refining and disposal of retort waters.

  2. Kinetics governing Michigan Antrim oil shale. I. Pyrolysis. II. Oxidation of carbonaceous residue

    SciTech Connect

    Rostam-Abadi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The intrinsic reaction rate kinetics for the pyrolysis of Michigan Antrim oil shale and the oxidation of the carbonaceous residue of this shale have been determined. The effect of heating rate, and oil shale minerals, particularly iron pyrite on the pyrolysis reaction was also investigated. As a part of the combustion process, the oxidation reactivity of carbonaceous residue prepared at several final pyrolysis temperatures, and the kinetics of chemisorption of oxygen on carbonaceous residue have been determined. Thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric techniques were employed in this research. The kinetics of the pyrolysis reaction were determined from both isothermal and nonisothermal rate data. No evidence of any reaction among the oil shale mineral constituents was observed at temperatures below 1173/sup 0/K. However, it was found that the presence of pyrite in oil shale reduces the primary devolatization rates of kerogen and increases the amount of residual char in the spent shale.

  3. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  4. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  5. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 2. Shale workers pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    The world's largest and richest reserves of oil shale occur in the United States. It has not proved possible to obtain reliable data on the health risks to the work force that such a development might entail. While the risks of accidents, explosions, and local pollution may reasonably be estimated by analogy with similar industries, potential specific hazards of shale oil production itself, such as pneumoconiosis and lung and skin cancer, can only be assessed by study of an established shale industry. The volume describes the use of the Provident Fund form in identifying ex-shale workers and subsequent studies aimed at determining the prevalence and respiratory effects of pneumoconiosis and the prevalence of skin disease amongst them.

  6. Oil shale derived pollutant control materials and methods and apparatuses for producing and utilizing the same

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2010-05-04

    Pollution control substances may be formed from the combustion of oil shale, which may produce a kerogen-based pyrolysis gas and shale sorbent, each of which may be used to reduce, absorb, or adsorb pollutants in pollution producing combustion processes, pyrolysis processes, or other reaction processes. Pyrolysis gases produced during the combustion or gasification of oil shale may also be used as a combustion gas or may be processed or otherwise refined to produce synthetic gases and fuels.

  7. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  8. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Final report. Volume 2. Shale workers' pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    This report (in 3 volumes) describes the now defunct Scottish oil shale industry and its effects on the health of its workers. This volume investigates the prevalence of skin disease and pneumoconiosis in Scottish ex-oil shale workers. A cross sectional epidemiological survey has been carried base on a population enrolled in the 1950 Scottish Oils Ltd Provident Fund. Investigation of the Fund indicated that it would have included almost all industrial workers employed in the oil shale industry between 1950 and its closure in 1962. It is concluded that workers in the Scottish shale oil industry in its latter years were not at excess risk of skin disease, perhaps because of steps taken within the industry to reduce the known hazards of dermatitis and skin cancer. However, pneumoconiosis was a definite hazard of miners and retort workers and its presence was associated with an impairment of lung function suggestive of fibrosis and possibly emphysema as well. It is suggested that prevention of this hazard might sensibly be based on the strategy used in the coalmining industry and, in the absence of further information on dust and fume exposures of shale workers, standards as applied in coalmining should be appropriate. Radiological surveillance of dust-exposed workers, whether in mines or at retorts or tips, is recommended. 39 refs., 10 figs., 48 tabs.

  9. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 2: technology characterization and production scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A technology characterization of processes that may be used in the oil shale industry is presented. The six processes investigated are TOSCO II, Paraho Direct, Union B, Superior, Occidental MIS, and Lurgi-Ruhrgas. A scanario of shale oil production to the 300,000 BPD level by 1990 is developed. (ACR)

  10. DOE oil shale reference sample bank: Quarterly report, July-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.

    1987-09-01

    The DOE Oil Shale Program was restructured in FY84 to implement a 5-year period of basic and applied research in the study of the phenomena involved in oil shale pyrolysis/retorting. The program calls for the study of two reference shales per year for a period of 5 years. Consequently, the program calls for the identification, acquisition, processing, characterization, storage, disbursement, and record keeping for ten reference shales in a period of 5 years. Two FY86 and one FY87 reference shales have been acquired, processed and stored under inert gas. The Eastern shale, designated E86, was obtained from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale at a quarry near Louisville, Kentucky in the first quarter of FY86. The FY86 Western Shale was obtained from the Exxon Colony Mine, located near Parachute, Colorado, during the first quarter of FY86. The FY87 Western Shale was obtained from the Tipton Member of the Green River Formation near Rock Springs, Wyoming during the fourth quarter of FY87. Partial distributions of the FY86 shale have been made to DOE and non-DOE contractors. Complete descriptions of the FY87 Western reference shale locale, shale processing procedures and analytical characterization are provided in this report. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Generation of oil from coal and carbonaceous shale

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, D.W.; Tsui, T.F.; Stockton, M.L.

    1987-05-01

    Coal and carbonaceous shale contain the remains of higher terrestrial (vascular) plants, remains commonly referred to as Type III kerogen. Given sufficient thermal exposure, such organic matter is commonly considered to generate only natural gas. Coaly sequences, however, are not always strictly gas producers. Many coaly sequences, particularly those of Tertiary age, have generated important volumes of oil. Those oils are usually paraffinic and waxy, or naphthenic; have a pristane-to-phytane ratio of 2-12; contain definitive biomarkers such as tricyclic diterpenoids; and are low in sulfur (much less than 1%). These oils are clearly distinct from those derived predominantly from marine algal remains. The principal source sequences of oils derived from coaly material occur in Tertiary deltas. Such source sequences contain abundant coaly material with favorable generative quality. Evaluation of generative quality is based either on geochemical analysis (e.g., atomic H/C > 0.9) or on petrographic analysis: source potential being proportional to the abundance and hydrogen richness of organic constituents (macerals). In approximate ranking, oil-generating potential of the hydrogen-rich macerals is exudatinite > alginite > resinite > liptodetrinite > cutinite > sporinite > vitrinite-B (fluorescing vitrinite). Examples of basins containing both a major Tertiary deltaic sequence (hundreds of cubic miles) and major volumes of oil (billions of barrels) derived predominantly from higher terrestrial plate remains are: the Ardjuna and Kutei basins, Indonesia; and the Gippsland basin, Australia.

  12. Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.A.

    1998-06-01

    Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

  13. Shale oil from the LLNL pilot retort: Metal ions as markers for water and dust

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, T.T.; Duewer, T.I.; King, K.J.; Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    A metal ion found primarily in one of the three phases (oil, water, or dust) can serve as a marker for that phase. Emulsified water contains most of the magnesium detected in a shale oil. Extraction with saturated salt solution removes most of that Mg. The Mg content of retort water and the percentage of water in the oil (by ASTM D-4006) provides a good estimate of an oil`s Mg content. Mineral matter elements with poorly water soluble carbonates (or oxides) at pH 8 (calcium, for example) serve as markers for dust. When the water is separated from the main and light oil fractions before adding the heavy fraction containing dust, a much drier oil can be obtained. However, when done in this way, a powder containing Ca and Si remains in the oil; it cannot be completely removed even by filtering through a 0.24-{mu} frit. Iron, and certain other transition metal ions, is quite oil soluble. Extraction with dilute nitric acid to remove basic amines reduces the Fe content of shale oil. Unlike carboxylate- complexed metal ions in crude oils, the iron in shale oil does not extract efficiently into an aqueous EDTA solution (pH 5.9). Distillation of shale oil leaves most of the iron and other metals behind in the vacuum residum. Shale oil corrodes the hottest condenser`s steel interior; this is the chief source of iron in the oil.

  14. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    The development of an oil shale industry in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah has been forecast at various times since early this century, but the comparatively easy accessibility of other oil sources has forestalled development. Decreasing fuel supplies, increasing energy costs, and the threat of a crippling oil embargo finally may launch a commercial oil shale industry in this region. Concern for the possible impacts on the human environment has been fostered by experiences of rapid population growth in other western towns that have hosted energy resource development. A large number of studies have attempted to evaluate social and economic impacts of energy development and to determine important factors that affect the severity of these impacts. These studies have suggested that successful management of rapid population growth depends on adequate front-end capital for public facilities, availability of housing, attention to human service needs, long-range land use and fiscal planning. This study examines variables that affect the socioeconomic impacts of oil shale development. The study region is composed of four Colorado counties: Mesa, Moffat, Garfield and Rio Blanco. Most of the estimated population of 111 000 resides in a handful of urban areas that are separated by large distances and rugged terrain. We have projected the six largest cities and towns and one planned company town (Battlement Mesa) to be the probable centers for potential population impacts caused by development of an oil shale industry. Local planners expect Battlement Mesa to lessen impacts on small existing communities and indeed may be necessary to prevent severe regional socioeconomic impacts. Section II describes the study region and focuses on the economic trends and present conditions in the area. The population impacts analyzed in this study are contingent on a scenario of oil shale development from 1980-90 provided by the Department of Energy and discussed in Sec. III. We

  15. Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Thomas F.; Moore, Dennis F.

    1984-01-01

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  16. Correlation between electron spin resonance spectra and oil yield in eastern oil shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choudhury, M.; Rheams, K.F.; Harrell, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Organic free radical spin concentrations were measured in 60 raw oil shale samples from north Alabama and south Tennessee and compared with Fischer assays and uranium concentrations. No correlation was found between spin concentration and oil yield for the complete set of samples. However, for a 13 sample set taken from a single core hole, a linear correlation was obtained. No correlation between spin concentration and uranium concentration was found. ?? 1986.

  17. Characterization of raw and burnt oil shale from Dotternhausen: Petrographical and mineralogical evolution with temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Thiéry, Vincent; Bourdot, Alexandra; Bulteel, David

    2015-08-15

    The Toarcian Posidonia shale from Dotternhausen, Germany, is quarried and burnt in a fluidized bed reactor to produce electricity. The combustion residue, namely burnt oil shale (BOS), is used in the adjacent cement work as an additive in blended cements. The starting material is a typical laminated oil shale with an organic matter content ranging from 6 to 18%. Mineral matter consists principally of quartz, feldspar, pyrite and clays. After calcination in the range, the resulting product, burnt oil shale, keeps the macroscopic layered texture however with different mineralogy (anhydrite, lime, iron oxides) and the formation of an amorphous phase. This one, studied under STEM, reveals a typical texture of incipient partial melting due to a long retention time (ca. 30 min) and quenching. An in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) allowed studying precisely the mineralogical changes associated with the temperature increase. - Highlights: • We present oil shale/burnt oil shale characterization. • The Posidonia Shale is burnt in a fluidized bed. • Mineralogical evolution with temperature is complex. • The burnt oil shale is used in composite cements.

  18. Experience and prospects of oil shale utilization for power production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potapov, O. P.

    2016-09-01

    Due to termination of work at the Leningrad Shale Deposit, the Russian shale industry has been liquidated, including not only shale mining and processing but also research and engineering (including design) activities, because this deposit was the only commercially operated complex in Russia. UTT-3000 plants with solid heat carrier, created mainly by the Russian specialists under scientific guidance of members of Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute, passed under the control of Estonian engineers, who, alongside with their operation in Narva, construct similar plants in Kohtla-Jarve, having renamed the Galoter Process into the Enifit or Petroter. The main idea of this article is to substantiate the expediency of revival of the oil shale industry in Russia. Data on the UTT-3000 plants' advantages, shale oils, and gas properties is provided. Information on investments in an UTT-3000 plant and estimated cost of Leningrad oil shale mining at the Mezhdurechensk Strip Mine is given. For more detailed technical and economic assessment of construction of a complex for oil shale extraction and processing, it is necessary to develop a feasibility study, which should be the first stage of this work. Creation of such a complex will make it possible to produce liquid and gaseous power fuel from oil shale of Leningrad Deposit and provide the opportunity to direct for export the released volumes of oil and gas for the purposes of Russian budget currency replenishment.

  19. Assessment of industry needs for oil shale research and development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hackworth, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Thirty-one industry people were contacted to provide input on oil shale in three subject areas. The first area of discussion dealt with industry`s view of the shape of the future oil shale industry; the technology, the costs, the participants, the resources used, etc. It assessed the types and scale of the technologies that will form the industry, and how the US resource will be used. The second subject examined oil shale R&D needs and priorities and potential new areas of research. The third area of discussion sought industry comments on what they felt should be the role of the DOE (and in a larger sense the US government) in fostering activities that will lead to a future commercial US oil shale shale industry.

  20. Selling 'Fracking': Legitimation of High Speed Oil and Gas Extraction in the Marcellus Shale Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matz, Jacob R.

    The advent of horizontal hydraulic fracture drilling, or 'fracking,' a technology used to access oil and natural gas deposits, has allowed for the extraction of deep, unconventional shale gas and oil deposits in various shale seams throughout the United States and world. One such shale seam, the Marcellus shale, extends from New York State, across Pennsylvania, and throughout West Virginia, where shale gas development has significantly increased within the last decade. This boom has created a massive amount of economic activity surrounding the energy industry, creating jobs for workers, income from leases and royalties for landowners, and profits for energy conglomerates. However, this bounty comes with risks to environmental and public health, and has led to divisive community polarization over the issue in the Marcellus shale region. In the face of potential environmental and social disruption, and a great deal of controversy surrounding 'fracking,' the oil and gas industry has had to undertake a myriad of public relations campaigns and initiatives to legitimize their extraction efforts in the Marcellus shale region, and to project the oil and gas industry in a positive light to residents, policy makers, and landowners. This thesis describes one such public relations initiative, the Energy in Depth Northeast Marcellus Initiative. Through qualitative content analysis of Energy in Depth's online web material, this thesis examines the ways in which the oil and gas industry narrates the shale gas boom in the Marcellus shale region, and the ways in which the industry frames the discourse surrounding natural gas development. Through the use of environmental imagery, appeals to scientific reason, and appeals to patriotism, the oil and gas industry uses Energy in Depth to frame the shale gas extraction process in a positive way, all the while framing those who question or oppose the processes of shale gas extraction as irrational obstructionists.

  1. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  2. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  3. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  4. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1979-12-07

    A process is described for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  5. Reclamation studies on oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.W.; Redente, E.F.

    1980-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Some of the more significant results are: (1) a soil cover of at least 61 cm in conjunction with a capiallary barrier provided the best combination of treatments for the establishment of vegetation and a functional microbial community, (2) aboveground production values for native and introduced species mixtures are comparable after three growing seasons, (3) cover values for native species mixtures are generally greater than for introduced species, (4) native seed mixtures, in general, allow greater invasion to occur, (5) sewage sludge at relatively low rates appears to provide the most beneficial overall effect on plant growth, (6) cultural practices, such as irrigated and mulching have significant effects on both above- and belowground ecosystem development, (7) topsoil storage after 1.5 years does not appear to significantly affect general microbial activities but does reduce the mycorrhizal infection potential of the soil at shallow depths, (8) populations of mycorrhizal fungi are decreased on severely disturbed soils if a cover of vegetation is not established, (9) significant biological differences among ecotypes of important shrub species have been identified, (10) a vegetation model is outlined which upon completion will enable the reclamation specialist to predict the plant species combinations best adapted to specific reclamation sites, and (11) synthetic strains of two important grass species are close to development which will provide superior plant materials for reclamation in the West.

  6. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  7. Isothermal fluidised-bed pyrolysis of Australian oil shales in superheated steam

    SciTech Connect

    Wall, G.C.

    1984-04-01

    Samples of three Australian oil shales (Condor, Nagoorin, Rundle) were pyrolysed in steam at 450, 500 and 550/sup 0/C in a bench-scale fluidised-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure; the yields and compositions of the oils and gases produced were compared with corresponding results from Fischer assays. The maximum yield of oil occurred at 500/sup 0/C for all three shales. The yields (expressed as percentages of the Fischer assay yield at 500/sup 0/C max.) were: Rundle 110%; Condor 128%; Nagoorin 134%. The yields of oil from the Rundle and Condor shales were almost identical with those obtained by fluidised-bed pyrolysis in steam at a heating rate of 12/sup 0/C min/sup -1/. This suggests that flash heating has no effect on the oil yields from these shales and that the yield enhancement is due entirely to the effect of the sweep gas. Reduced coking was identified as the primary reason for the increased oil yields but reduced cracking also appeared to be significant for the Nagoorin oil shale. At 550/sup 0/C, the three shales yielded less oil than at 500/sup 0/C but the yield of pyrolysis gas increased considerably, suggesting that at this temperature oil cracking was significant.

  8. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  9. Effect of oil shale type and retorting atmosphere on the products from retorting various oil shales by the controlled-state retort

    SciTech Connect

    Duvall, J.J.; Mason, K.K.

    1980-02-01

    Six oil shales from different locations (the Green River formation of Colorado and Utah, the Antrim Basin of Michigan, and Morocco) having different Fischer Assay oil yields were retorted using three retorting atmospheres (N/sub 2/, N/sub 2//steam, and N/sub 2//steam/O/sub 2/) under the same retorting conditions. The products (oils, gases, waters, and shales) were analyzed and the data are reported. Changing retorting atmospheres had little observable effect on the product oils; however, there was a great deal of change in the composition and amount of gas produced. Steam in the retorting atmosphere increased the amount of carbon dioxide produced and decreased the amount of carbonate and organic carbon in the retorted shale. Addition of oxygen to N/sub 2//steam and increasing the maximum temperature compounded the above effect. 3 figures, 20 tables.

  10. Tri- and tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in the Messel oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, B. J.; Maxwell, J. R.; Philp, R. P.; Eglinton, G.; Albrecht, P.; Ensminger, A.; Arpino, P.; Ourisson, G.

    1974-01-01

    The high-molecular-weight constituents of the branched and cyclic hydrocarbon fraction of the Messel oil shale (Eocene) have been examined by high-resolution gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The following compounds are present: perhydrolycopene, together with one or more unsaturated analogs with the same skeleton; a series of 4-methylsteranes in higher abundance than their 4-desmethyl analogs; two series of pentacyclic triterpanes, one series based on the hopane structure, and the other based on the 17 alpha-H hopane structure; and an intact triterpene hop-17(21)-ene. Only two additional triterpanes were detected in minor concentrations - namely, 30-normoretane and a C31 triterpane based on the hopane/lupane-type skeleton. The presence of these compounds suggests a significant microbial contribution to the forming sediment.

  11. Thermodynamically consistent model of brittle oil shales under overpressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izvekov, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    The concept of dual porosity is a common way for simulation of oil shale production. In the frame of this concept the porous fractured media is considered as superposition of two permeable continua with mass exchange. As a rule the concept doesn't take into account such as the well-known phenomenon as slip along natural fractures, overpressure in low permeability matrix and so on. Overpressure can lead to development of secondary fractures in low permeability matrix in the process of drilling and pressure reduction during production. In this work a new thermodynamically consistent model which generalizes the model of dual porosity is proposed. Particularities of the model are as follows. The set of natural fractures is considered as permeable continuum. Damage mechanics is applied to simulation of secondary fractures development in low permeability matrix. Slip along natural fractures is simulated in the frame of plasticity theory with Drucker-Prager criterion.

  12. High risk groups in an oil shale workforce

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.; Marine, W.M.; Perry, B.W.; Savitz, D.A.

    1984-04-01

    The workforce risks of a hypothetical one million barrels-per-day oil shale industry were estimated. The risks for the different workforce segments were compared and high risk groups were identified. Accidents and injuries were statistically described by rates for fatalities, for accidents with days lost from work, and for accidents with no days lost from work. Workforce diseases analyzed were cancers, silicosis, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and high frequency hearing loss. A comparison of the workforce groups under different risk measures (occurrence, fatality, and life-loss expectancy) was performed. The miners represented the group with the largest fatality and the most serious accident rate, although the estimated rates were below the average industry-wide underground mining experience. Lung disease from inhalation exposure of about the nuisance dust threshold limit value presents a significant risk for future concerns.

  13. Quenched nonisothermal decomposition studies of Department of Energy western reference oil shales: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, B.E.

    1989-12-01

    Quenched nonisothermal pyrolysis studies have been conducted on a Tipton Member, Green River Formation oil shale from Wyoming and a Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation oil shale from Colorado. These shales have been designated as western reference oil shales by the US Department of Energy. The conversion of kerogen to bitumen and volatiles (oil + gas) was obtained for heating rates of 2 and 10 K/min in the temperature range of 573 to 773 K using a modified thermogravimetric analyzer. Particular attention was paid to the formation of the intermediate bitumen during decomposition of the shale. The maximum amount of extractable bitumen increases with temperature and heating rate. This observation is consistent with an oil shale decomposition model in which the activation energy for kerogen decomposition is greater than the activation energy of bitumen decomposition. This is also consistent with previous isothermal decomposition studies on the same oil shales. A nonlinear least-squares program was used to fit the quenched nonisothermal data to a simple model that incorporates bitumen formation, bitumen decomposition, and volatiles evolution. Although seemingly good fits were obtained the parameter statistics were poor and showed a high degree of linear dependency. 18 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Assessment of combustion of oil shale refinery by-products in a TP-101 boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorkin, V. T.; Tugov, A. N.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Mel'nikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The most cost-efficient method for utilization of the oil shale refinery by-products, viz., the retort gas and the shale gasoline, for power generation is combustion of these products in power-generating oil shale-fired boilers. Calculation studies carried out at the Estonian electric power plant in Narva, an enterprise of EESTI ENERGIA, have shown that recycling of the flue gases in the furnace of a TP-101 boiler enables an increase in the portion of the oil shale refinery by-products burned in the boiler from the current 7% to 40%. Recycling of the flue gases is aimed at maintaining the temperatures in the furnace at a level characteristic of combustion of oil shale and reducing the nitric oxide concentration in the retort gas burners' flame. The degree of the flue gas recycling depends on the percentage of the burnt oil shale refinery by-products in the total heat generation and increases with the increasing percentage. For the threshold value of 40% under the rated conditions, the flue gas recycling accounts for 10%. A complete changeover of the boiler to combustion of only the retort gas in place of the oil shale does not seem to be possible, since this will necessitate major modification to the TP-101 boiler heating surfaces. Considering the obtained results, as a pilot project, one boiler furnace was modified by installing six retort gas burners and a flue gas recycling system.

  15. Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

    1979-06-01

    Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products. PMID:446447

  16. Carcinogenicity of oil shale tars, some of their components, and commercial products.

    PubMed

    Bogovski, P A; Vinkmann, F

    1979-06-01

    Bioassays for carcinogenicity of various primary processing products (crude oils or tars) and commercial products obtained from Estorian oil shale have been carried out since 1951. The products (undiluted or diluted) were painted twice weekly 50 times on the interscapular area of the skin of random-bred or CC57Br mice. The products processed at high temperatures have a higher carcinogenic activity. Blends of products containing over 10% of high temperature crude oil (chamber furnace oil) have about the same carcinogenic activity as the latter. There is no strict correlation between the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale products and their carcinogenic activity. Determination of BP in such products can serve as an approximate estimate of carcinogenic properties. The results of animal experiments with chromatographic fractions of the high temperature shale oil demonstrated the presence of compounds which lengthen the latency period of the carcinogenic effect of BP in the aromatic fraction of this oil as well as other carcinogens and compounds enhancing the activity of carcinogenic compounds. Under industrial conditions, contact of workers with carcinogenic shale oils can be reduced by means of coking the carcinogenic oils, which results in production of solid coke and of distillate which is recycled. Medical vaseline potentiates the carcinogenic action of BP and similar compounds. Dilution of shale oils with oils containing aliphatic hydrocarbons cannot be considered as diminution of the carcinogenic potency of these products.

  17. Studying the possibility of separate and joint combustion of Estonian shales and oil shale retort gas at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Attikas, Raivo; Zaichenko, M. N.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Results from investigations of joint and separate combustion of shale with a low heating value and oil shale retort gas (OSRG) are presented. The question about the possibility of further using shale as basic fuel is presently placed on the agenda. This matter is connected with the fact that the environmental regulations are imposing increasingly more stringent limits on emissions of harmful substances and that a decrease in the shale heating value is predicted. An adequate mathematical model of one of the TP-101 boilers installed at the Estonian power plant was developed and verified for carrying out investigations. Criteria for determining the reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety of equipment operation were formulated based on the operating chart, regulatory documents, and environmental requirements. Assessment of the possibility of boiler operation and the boiler unit as a whole in firing shale with a low calorific value has shown that despite fulfilling the required superheated steam parameters, quite a number of limitations relating to reliable operation of the boiler are not complied with. In addition, normal operation of forced-draft equipment and mills is possible only at low loads. For operation with joint combustion of shale and OSRG, the fractions of degraded-quality shale and OSRG (by heat) at which reliable and efficient operation of the boiler and boiler unit is ensured in the entire working range of loads with fulfilling the environmental standards are determined. Proposals on modifying the equipment for joint combustion of shale and OSRG are formulated. Boiler operation with firing OSRG as main fuel was modeled for three versions of furnace waterwall thermal efficiency with a view to estimate possible changes of boiler operation in carrying out waterwall cleaning operations. Calculation results have shown that operation of the boiler and boiler unit meeting the elaborated criteria is possible in the entire working range of loads with

  18. A nuclear wind/solar oil-shale system for variable electricity and liquid fuels production

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.

    2012-07-01

    The recoverable reserves of oil shale in the United States exceed the total quantity of oil produced to date worldwide. Oil shale contains no oil, rather it contains kerogen which when heated decomposes into oil, gases, and a carbon char. The energy required to heat the kerogen-containing rock to produce the oil is about a quarter of the energy value of the recovered products. If fossil fuels are burned to supply this energy, the greenhouse gas releases are large relative to producing gasoline and diesel from crude oil. The oil shale can be heated underground with steam from nuclear reactors leaving the carbon char underground - a form of carbon sequestration. Because the thermal conductivity of the oil shale is low, the heating process takes months to years. This process characteristic in a system where the reactor dominates the capital costs creates the option to operate the nuclear reactor at base load while providing variable electricity to meet peak electricity demand and heat for the shale oil at times of low electricity demand. This, in turn, may enable the large scale use of renewables such as wind and solar for electricity production because the base-load nuclear plants can provide lower-cost variable backup electricity. Nuclear shale oil may reduce the greenhouse gas releases from using gasoline and diesel in half relative to gasoline and diesel produced from conventional oil. The variable electricity replaces electricity that would have been produced by fossil plants. The carbon credits from replacing fossil fuels for variable electricity production, if assigned to shale oil production, results in a carbon footprint from burning gasoline or diesel from shale oil that may half that of conventional crude oil. The U.S. imports about 10 million barrels of oil per day at a cost of a billion dollars per day. It would require about 200 GW of high-temperature nuclear heat to recover this quantity of shale oil - about two-thirds the thermal output of existing

  19. Oil shale development in Morocco: A technological analysis using the Occidental process

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, R.D.; Studebaker, I.G.

    1980-12-01

    Occidental Petroleum is concluding a two year evaluation of the application of its modified in situ oil shale process to the Timahdit oil shale of the Kingdom of Morocco. This work included evaluation of the geology, reserves, and hydrology of the deposit based on about 40 coreholes, most of which had been drilled by the government agency, BRPM, previously. In addition, mining tests were conducted under this contract to define rock strength, mine stability, mine safety and rubblization aspects. Oil shale from Timahdit was processed in a small pilot plant to obtain processing criteria. The results of these tests were utilized in the design of a facility to produce 50,000 B/D of raw shale oil and 650 megawatts of export power.

  20. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  1. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    DOEpatents

    Burton, III, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Progress report, September--November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.

    1991-12-01

    The overall objective of this project is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following tasks: Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Beneficiation Research; Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; and Project Management and Reporting. Accomplishments for this period for these tasks are presented.

  3. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hakala, J. Alexandra; Stanchina, William; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200° C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (ε') and imaginary permittivity (ε'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ε' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ε'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200º C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ε'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ε' and ε'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  4. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  5. Effects of complexometric compounds found in liquid and solid oil shale waste products on release of chemical elements from retorted shale

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, E.; Carroll, R.B.; Jackson, L.P.

    1985-05-01

    Complexometric compounds found in oil shale wastes may have the ability to increase the release of trace elements from retorted oil shale when the solid and liquid wastes are codisposed. A laboratory investigation was conducted on the effects of various complexing agents found in liquid and solid oil shale wastes on the leachability of retorted shales. In batch experiments retorted shale samples were contacted with deionized-distilled water (DDW) and 10 different aqueous solutions of complexing agents. These agents included sodium-oxalate, ammonium-carbonate, sodium-thiosulfate, 2-pyridone, 2-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine, potassium-thiocyanate, acetonitrile, sodium-acetate, acetamide, and nicotinic acid. DDW leachate results were used as a baseline to compare with the results for aqueous complexometric leachates. Some of these agents aided in higher release of arsenic, boron, selenium, lead, and vanadium from the solids. The same complexing agents had different effects on different retorted shales, indicating that the results for one retorted shale may or may not be representative of other retorted shales. This is due to differences in mineralogical residence of elements in various retorted shales and differences in leachate chemical systems of various retorted shales. Concentration of cadium and cobalt did not exceed the quantitation limits of these elements in any of the leachates in this study. 10 refs., 15 tabs.

  6. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Establishment of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L. ) on spent oil shale from the Paraho process

    SciTech Connect

    George, M.R.; McKell, C.M.; Richardson, S.G.

    1981-04-01

    Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with the following obtectives: (i) to study the emergence and seedling growth of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) in soil and in Paraho spent oil shale that was either leached, treated with sulfuric acid, covered with soil, or mixed with soil, and (ii) to study emergence and seedling growth of cheatgrass on spent shale that was fertilized with ammonium nitrate and triple superphosphate. The Ec/sub e/ of the spent shale was 14 mmhos/cm, the pH was 9 and the shale was low in plant available N and P. The soil from Federal oil shale lease tract U-a near Bonanza, Utah was a coarse textured alluvium with low moisture retention. Cheatgrass planted on soil alone and shale covered with soil had the highest emergence rates (75 to 86%) and produced the greatest total biomass (8.55 to 13.4 g). Seedling emergence rates on leached and unleached spent shale were 44% and 36%, respectively, and total biomass was < 1 g on either treatment. Seedlings failed to emerge on sulfuric acid-treated spent shale. The addition of sulfuric acid to spent shale increased the EC/sub e/ of the shale to over 21 mmhos/cm. Leached and unleached spent shale was fertilized with N at rates of 0, 28, and 56 kg/ha and P at rates of 0, 24.4, and 48.8 kg/ha. The total biomass for any fertilizer treatment was < 1 g. We conclude that covering shale disposal piles with topsoil may improve the site for successful invasion by a colonizing species such as cheatgrass.

  8. Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Caineng; Jin, Xu; Zhu, Rukai; Gong, Guangming; Sun, Liang; Dai, Jinxing; Meng, Depeng; Wang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianming; Wu, Songtao; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries.

  9. Do Shale Pore Throats Have a Threshold Diameter for Oil Storage?

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Caineng; Jin, Xu; Zhu, Rukai; Gong, Guangming; Sun, Liang; Dai, Jinxing; Meng, Depeng; Wang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jianming; Wu, Songtao; Liu, Xiaodan; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a nanoporous template with a controllable channel diameter was used to simulate the oil storage ability of shale pore throats. On the basis of the wetting behaviours at the nanoscale solid-liquid interfaces, the seepage of oil in nano-channels of different diameters was examined to accurately and systematically determine the effect of the pore diameter on the oil storage capacity. The results indicated that the lower threshold for oil storage was a pore throat of 20 nm, under certain conditions. This proposed pore size threshold provides novel, evidence-based criteria for estimating the geological reserves, recoverable reserves and economically recoverable reserves of shale oil. This new understanding of shale oil processes could revolutionize the related industries. PMID:26314637

  10. Pore-Scale X-ray Micro-CT Imaging and Analysis of Oil Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, T.

    2015-12-01

    The pore structure and the connectivity of the pore space during the pyrolysis of oil shales are important characteristics which determine hydrocarbon flow behaviour and ultimate recovery. We study the effect of temperature on the evolution of pore space and subsequent permeability on five oil shale samples: (1) Vernal Utah United States, (2) El Lajjun Al Karak Jordan, (3) Gladstone Queensland Australia (4) Fushun China and (5) Kimmerdige United Kingdom. Oil Shale cores of 5mm in diameter were pyrolized at 300, 400 and 500 °C. 3D imaging of 5mm diameter core samples was performed at 1μm voxel resolution using X-ray micro computed tomography (CT) and the evolution of the pore structures were characterized. The experimental results indicate that the thermal decomposition of kerogen at high temperatures is a major factor causing micro-scale changes in the internal structure of oil shales. At the early stage of pyrolysis, micron-scale heterogeneous pores were formed and with a further increase in temperature, the pores expanded and became interconnected by fractures. Permeability for each oil shale sample at each temperature was computed by simulation directly on the image voxels and by pore network extraction and simulation. Future work will investigate different samples and pursue insitu micro-CT imaging of oil shale pyrolysis to characterize the time evolution of the pore space.

  11. Chemical equilibria model analysis of Hope Creek eastern oil shale lysimeter leachate data

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.

    1989-09-01

    Leachates from field lysimeters containing an eastern oil shale, a retorted eastern oil shale, and an oil shale fines/retorted oil shale mixture were subjected to chemical equilibria analysis by the GEOCHEM model. Results of the chemical equilibria model analysis provided a more detailed characterization of the chemistry of oil shale materials. The aqueous chemistry of the lysimeter leachates is dominated by free ionic metal species and metal sulfate ion pairs. Activity diagrams shows that free metal ion activities (with the exception of Ca{sup 2+}) are directly related to SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} activities. This suggests that the aqueous activities of the metals examined are not supported by metal sulfate solid phases. However, an examination of metal sulfate ion activity products (IAPs) as a function of time shows that the IAPs approach constant values after approximately 800 days of the field study. For the great majority of the metals examined, the IAP values suggest leachate undersaturation with respect to even the most stable metal sulfate phases. Leachates from all three materials are predicted by GEOCHEM to approach equilibrium with respect to gypsum and goethite. In addition, leachates from the oil shale lysimeter are predicted by GEOCHEM to approach equilibrium with respect to melanterite, Fe-jurbanite, franklinite, molybdite, and molybdic acid. Aluminum activities in all three lysimeter leachates fall within the stability region of several basic aluminum sulfates. However, Al{sup 3+} activities in the lysimeter leachates are not supported by sulfate phases. 34 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. The future impact of oil shale and tar sands on world oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Griskey, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The current world glut of oil has, for the time being, alleviated the crisis situation of the early 1970's. However, in today's dynamic and rapidly changing world the picture could change at any time so that today's surplus could become tomorrow's shortage. One of the important factors in any future energy reckoning is the potential impact of the large domestic deposits of oil shale and tar sands. These North American resources will play a significant role in the energy patterns of the future. This paper considers scenarios involving these resources.

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-09-29

    The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

  14. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. PMID:26802271

  15. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  16. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  17. Development of measures to improve technologies of energy recovery from gaseous wastes of oil shale processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugov, A. N.; Ots, A.; Siirde, A.; Sidorkin, V. T.; Ryabov, G. A.

    2016-06-01

    Prospects of the use of oil shale are associated with its thermal processing for the production of liquid fuel, shale oil. Gaseous by-products, such as low-calorie generator gas with a calorific value up to 4.3MJ/m3 or semicoke gas with a calorific value up to 56.57 MJ/m3, are generated depending on the oil shale processing method. The main methods of energy recovery from these gases are either their cofiring with oil shale in power boilers or firing only under gaseous conditions in reconstructed or specially designed for this fuel boilers. The possible use of gaseous products of oil shale processing in gas-turbine or gas-piston units is also considered. Experiments on the cofiring of oil shale gas and its gaseous processing products have been carried out on boilers BKZ-75-39FSl in Kohtla-Järve and on the boiler TP-101 of the Estonian power plant. The test results have shown that, in the case of cofiring, the concentration of sulfur oxides in exhaust gases does not exceed the level of existing values in the case of oil shale firing. The low-temperature corrosion rate does not change as compared to the firing of only oil shale, and, therefore, operation conditions of boiler back-end surfaces do not worsen. When implementing measures to reduce the generation of NO x , especially of flue gas recirculation, it has been possible to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides in the whole boiler. The operation experience of the reconstructed boilers BKZ-75-39FSl after their transfer to the firing of only gaseous products of oil shale processing is summarized. Concentrations of nitrogen and sulfur oxides in the combustion products of semicoke and generator gases are measured. Technical solutions that made it possible to minimize the damage to air heater pipes associated with the low-temperature sulfur corrosion are proposed and implemented. The technological measures for burners of new boilers that made it possible to burn gaseous products of oil shale processing with low

  18. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses

  19. In-place oil shale resources underlying Federal lands in the Green River and Washakie Basins, southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geologic-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated an in-place oil shale resource of 906 billion barrels under Federal mineral rights, or 62 percent of the total oil shale in place, in the Green River and Washakie Basins, Wyoming. More than 67 percent of the total oil shale in-place resource, or 969 billion barrels, is under Federal surface management.

  20. Method of chemical analysis for oil shale wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, J.R.; Alden, L.; Bonomo, F.S.; Nichols, J.; Sexton, E.

    1984-06-01

    Several methods of chemical analysis are described for oil shale wastewaters and retort gases. These methods are designed to support the field testing of various pollution control systems. As such, emphasis has been placed on methods which are rapid and sufficiently rugged to perform well under field conditions. Ion chromatograph has been developed as a technique for the minor non-carbonate inorganic anions in retort water, including SO4, NO3, S2O3, SCN(-1), and total S. The method recommended for sulfide is a potiometric titration with Pb(II). The freezing point depression was used to determine the total solute content in retort waters, a test which can be considered analogous to the standard residue test. Three methods are described for the determination of total ammoniacal nitrogen in retort wastewaters: (1) a modified ion selective electrode technique, (2) an optical absorption technique, and (3) an ion chromatographic technique. Total sulfur in retort gas is determined by combusting the gas in a continuously flowing system, whereupon the resulting sulfur dioxide is determined by SO2 monitor. Individual sulfur species in retort gas including H2S, COS, SO2, and CH3CH2SH are determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Quality control, pH, conductivity, total inorganic carbon, and total organic carbon measurements are discussed briefly.

  1. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  2. Characterization of Devonian oil shales by hydrogen pulse NMR. Project report for 1983-84

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, J.W. Jr.

    1984-09-01

    NMR and ESR measurements have been used to characterize eastern and western United States oil shales. T/sub 1/ measurements which were made at 90 MHz as a function of temperature, together with previously reported 36 MHz results, suggest that paramagnetic centers contribute strongly to the relaxation in some of the shales. A careful study of the ESR spectrum at both X-band and K-band frequencies suggests that a part of the spectrum may be due to naturally irradiated silicates in the shales. Laboratory irradiation experiments suggest a method for determining the age of the oil shale deposits. A new technique has been developed for measuring second moments of the NMR power spectrum. Measurements made on a Colorado shale show a rapid decrease with increasing temperature in the vicinity of a previously reported T/sub 1r/ minimum. Unpaired electron spin concentrations and room temperature T/sub 1/ values were measured in 60 oil shale samples from north Alabama and south Tennessee. No correlation between spin concentration and oil Fischer assay was observed except for samples from a 100 ft bore hole in Etowah Co., AL, where a linear correlation was observed. Room temperature T/sub 1/'s were found to approximately increase with increasing spin concentration, supporting the contention that relaxation due to interactions with paramagnetic centers is important. 11 references, 14 figures.

  3. An assessment of using oil shale for power production in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Holcomb, R.S.; Petrich, C.H.; Roop, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    This report addresses the oil shale-for-power-production option in Jordan. Under consideration are 20- and 50-MW demonstration units and a 400-MW, commercial-scale plant with, at the 400-MW scale, a mining operation capable of supplying 7.8 million tonnes per year of shale fuel and also capable of disposal of up to 6.1 million tonnes per year of wetted ash. The plant would be a direct combustion facility, burning crushed oil shale through use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. The report emphasizes four areas: (1) the need for power in Jordan, (2) environmental aspects of the proposed oil shale-for-power plant(s), (3) the engineering feasibility of using Jordan's oil shale in circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler, and (4) the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s). A sensitivity study was conducted to determine the economic feasibility of the proposed plant(s) under different cost assumptions and revenue flows over the plant's lifetime. The sensitivity results are extended to include the major extra-firm benefits of the shale-for-power option: (1) foreign exchange savings from using domestic energy resources, (2) aggregate income effects of using Jordan's indigenous labor force, and (3) a higher level of energy security. 14 figs., 47 tabs.

  4. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center_dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  5. A preliminary investigation of acid-catalyzed polymerization reactions of shale oil distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.

    1991-04-01

    Sinor (1989) reported that a major specialty market may exist for shale oil as an asphalt blending material. Shale oil can be converted to an asphalt blending material by acid catalyzed condensation and polymerization reactions of the many molecular species comprising the composition of shale oil. To simplify the investigation, crude shale oil was separated by distillation into three distillates of different hydrocarbon and heteroaromatic compositions. These distillates were then treated with two different types of acids to determine the effect of acid type on the end products. Three western shale oil distillates, a naphtha, a middle distillate, and an atmospheric gas oil, were reacted with anhydrous AlCl{sub 3} and 85% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under low-severity conditions. At relatively low temperatures, little change in the hydrocarbon composition was noted for the AlCl{sub 3} reactions. AlCl{sub 3}{center dot} (a polymerized product and/or complex) was formed. However, it is assumed that the sludge was mainly the result of heteroaromatic-AlCl{sub 3} reactions.

  6. Kukersite--An oil shale of Ordovician age: Origin, occurrence, and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bauert, H. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Kukersite is the name originally given to Ordovician oil shale in the Baltic oil shale basin of Estonia. This basin covers about 50,000 sq km and extends eastward to the Leningrad district of Russia. The main oil shale sequence contains up to 50 kukersite beds alternating with argillaceous limestone. They accumulated in Llandeilo-early Caradoc (early Middle Ordovician) during a prominent regression of the Baltoscandian epicontinental sea. This oil shale contains up to 50--60% of total organic carbon. Kukersite consists mostly of accumulations of the microfossil Gloeocapsomorpha prisca, which was apparently an intertidal to very shallow subtidal, marine, mat-forming, benthonic cyanobacterium. Morphological and biogeochemical characteristics show strong similarities with modern mat-forming cyanobacterium Entophysalis major, which can be regarded as a modern analogue for G. prisca. Beside Estonia, the kukersite-type oil shales are known from several sedimentary basins in North America (in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, North Dakota, Oklahoma) and in Australia (Amadeus and Canning basins), and all of these are exclusively of Ordovician age. G. prisca-dominated oil shales have a high hydrocarbon yield and are considered the main source for Ordovician oils in the USA. Hydrocarbons generated from kukersites have certain distinctive geochemical characteristics. These oils have the characteristic predominance of odd carbon number (C[sub 13]-C[sub 19]) n-alkanes with virtual absence of pristane and phytane. The worldwide distribution of kukersites and the related oils points to the fact that shallow-water widespread Ordovician cratonic seas were a favorable environment for C. prisca.

  7. Assessment of gas and dust explosion hazards in oil shale mining using ANFO

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.S.; Sapko, M.J.; Bazala, E.M. . Pittsburgh Research Center)

    1989-01-01

    Experimental mine testing has shown that hot combustion products generated from a detonating explosive can result in a secondary dust or gas explosion. The common blasting agent ANFO (ammonium nitrate--6 pct fuel oil) has been shown in the Bruceton experimental mine (BEM) tests to readily ignite pre-existing explosive concentrations of oil shale dust and/or methane gas when detonated unstemmed. Tests also show that these ignitions can be curtailed with the use of an inert stemming material. Current data on background methane emission studies at two western U.S. oil shale mines are also presented.

  8. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil-shale-retorting process. Fourth annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is a cooperative venture between Geokinetics Inc. and the US Department of Energy. The objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. This Fourth Annual Report covers work completed during the calendar year 1980. During 1980 one full-size retort was blasted. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned. A total of 4891 barrels of oil was produced during the year.

  9. Summary of the oil shale fragmentation program at Anvil Points Mine, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Young, C.; Fourney, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The test program included single-deck, single-borehole tests to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-borehole, multiple-deck explosive tests to evaluate practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation techniques to diagnose the blasting event. This paper will present an outline of the field program, the type of instrumentation used, some typical results from the instrumentation, and a discussion of explosive engineering problems encountered over the course of the program. 4 references, 21 figures, 1 table.

  10. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 7: an ecosystem simulation of perturbations applied to shale oil development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Progress is outlined on activities leading toward evaluation of ecological and agricultural impacts of shale oil development in the Piceance Creek Basin region of northwestern Colorado. After preliminary review of the problem, it was decided to use a model-based calculation approach in the evaluation. The general rationale and objectives of this approach are discussed. Previous studies were examined to characterize climate, soils, vegetation, animals, and ecosystem response units. System function was methodically defined by developing a master list of variables and flows, structuring a generalized system flow diagram, constructing a flow-effects matrix, and conceptualizing interactive spatial units through spatial matrices. The process of developing individual mathematical functions representing the flow of matter and energy through the various system variables in different submodels is discussed. The system model diagram identified 10 subsystems which separately account for flow of soil temperatures, soil water, herbaceous plant biomass, shrubby plant biomass, tree cover, litter biomass, shrub numbers, animal biomass, animal numbers, and land area. Among these coupled subsystems there are 45 unique kinds of state variables and 150 intra-subsystem flows. The model is generalizeable and canonical so that it can be expanded, if required, by disaggregating some of the system state variables and allowing for multiple ecological response units. It integrates information on climate, surface water, ecology, land reclamation, air quality, and solid waste as it is being developed by several other task groups.

  11. Dynamic imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, Tarik; Lin, Qingyang; Singh, Kamaljit; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2016-07-01

    The structure and connectivity of the pore space during the pyrolysis of oil shales determines hydrocarbon flow behavior and ultimate recovery. We image the time evolution of the pore and microfracture networks during oil shale pyrolysis using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Immature Green River (Mahogany Zone) shale samples were thermally matured under vacuum conditions at temperatures up to 500°C while being periodically imaged with a 2 µm voxel size. The structural transformation of both organic-rich and organic-lean layers within the shale was quantified. The images reveal a dramatic change in porosity accompanying pyrolysis between 390 and 400°C with the formation of micron-scale heterogeneous pores. With a further increase in temperature, the pores steadily expand resulting in connected microfracture networks that predominantly develop along the kerogen-rich laminations.

  12. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  13. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

  14. Oxidation/gasification of carbon residue on retorted oil shale. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, W. J.

    1984-01-16

    Studies of the oxidation and gasification of oil shale char were extended to an investigation of the effects of mineral catalysis. Six shales with differing mineral compositions were studied, including samples from the saline zone in the Western Colorado and from the Antrim shales of Michigan. Oxidation kinetics data, corrected for mass transfer effects, were compared for all six samples. A high assay shale from Utah and a sample from the saline zone were found to have the highest oxidation rates. By examining the data for shales which were water leached and thermally pretreated, it was concluded that both NaO and CaO act as oxidation catalysts. However, as a result of mineral decomposition experiments conducted with a sample from the C-a lease tract, it appears as though the ankeritic dolomite fraction will not decompose as long as there is a minimal CO/sub 2/ over pressure. Rather, low temperature silication reactions appear to take place once the temperature exceeds 925/sup 0/K. An extensive evaluation was also completed for the gasification of an Antrim shale from Michigan. Both the rates of CO/sub 2/ and steam gasification of the char were found to be markedly lower than that observed for a shale sample from the Parachute Creek member in Colorado. However, unlike the Colorado shale, the make gas resulting from the steam gasification of the Antrim shale produced nearly equal quantities of CO and CO/sub 2/. Thus, despite the high concentration of iron in the Antrim shale, the water gas shift reaction is not catalyzed nearly to the same extent as in western shales.

  15. Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    Six bulk samples of eastern oil shale were taken from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale in northwestern Kentucky, the Chattanooga Shale in northern Alabama, the Gassaway Member of the Chattanooga Shale in central Tennessee, the Antrim Shale in northeastern Michigan, the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale in central Ohio, and the Sunbury Shale in eastern Kentucky. A seventh sample of Clegg Creek from southern Indiana had been sampled earlier. The stratigraphic position of all bulk samples was documented using both outcrops and subsurface control; at five sites stratigraphic test holes were cored and logged. Surface gamma was run on the cores before slabbing. The representative character of the Tennessee sample was assured by recovering the required weight in four cores. Obtaining representative bulk samples at other sites often required adapting channel sampling techniques to earth moving equipment, reducing an initial sample by hand methods, and minimizing contamination throughout the sampling operation. Cores were assayed for carbon and Fischer Assay oil yield both on a selected per foot basis as composites. 29 refs., 25 figs., 7 tabs.

  16. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  17. New method for gas and oil shale reservoirs characterisation using magnetic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Telman, Meruert; Makarova, Maria; Zhaksylyk, Zhanaim; Abirov, Rustem; Makhatova, Meruyert

    2015-04-01

    This research describes proposed method for determination of total organic content (TOC), clay typing and relative degree of maturation in shale unconventional reservoirs based on analysis of magnetic properties of shales. Experimental measurements were undertaken in shales from United Kingdom (Edinburgh shales) and Kazakhstan for comparison of their magnetic properties, including low field and high field magnetic susceptibilities, together with SEM and XRD analysis. The results showed that studied shales comprised of various clay types had different capacity in accumulation of organic matter, thus, affecting the total organic content and magnetic properties. Based on the results we proposed magnetic indicators (MI) of productive gas and oil shale intervals in order to determine relative TOC, clay typing and a degree of maturation. The set of magnetic measurements, used as a logging tool or core scanning procedure, can potentially provide data about selecting the best shale productive reservoir horizons. This can be a non-destructive and rapid method for shale reservoir characterization, being used routinely in both laboratory and field conditions.

  18. Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern Oil Shales. Progress report, July--September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M.

    1989-12-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, initiated in October 1987 is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with seven other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, the University of Nevada, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the eighth program quarter from July 1 through September 30, 1989.

  19. Risk of dust-induced lung disease in oil shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, W.M.; Savitz, D.A.; Gratt, L.B.; Perry, B.W.

    1984-04-01

    Risks of non-neoplastic lung diseases for future US oil shale worker dust exposures were estimated. In the absence of an active industry, health effects rates from surrogate industries were utilized. The risk of chronic bronchitis, chronic airway obstruction, and pneumoconiosis was quantified from British coal worker data. The risk of occupational silicosis in oil shale miners was estimated using Peruvian metal mines and Vermont granite worker data. Ten percent SiO/sub 2/ composition of the dust in the respirable range from oil shale mining and crushing was used. Risk estimates were calculated at the nuisance dust threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m/sup 3/ and at the current SiO/sub 2/ TLV of 100 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Silicosis was the dominant pulmonary health effect, but at the 5 mg/m/sup 3/ dust level, pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, and chronic airway obstruction are also important risks. Designing oil shale facilities to meet the nuisance dust TLV may not provide adequate protection to the future generations of workers involved in oil shale extraction and processing. 32 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  20. Hydration and strength development of binder based on high-calcium oil shale fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Freidin, C.

    1998-06-01

    The properties of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, which are produced in Israeli power stations, were investigated. High-calcium oil shale fly ash was found to contain a great amount of CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} in the form of lime and anhydrite. Mixtures of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash, termed fly ash binder, were shown to cure and have improved strength. The influence of the composition and curing conditions on the compressive strength of fly ash binders was examined. The microstructure and the composition of fly ash binder after curing and long-term exposure in moist air, water and open air conditions were studied. It was determined that ettringite is the main variable in the strength and durability of cured systems. The positive effect of calcium silicate hydrates, CSH, which are formed by interaction of high-calcium oil shale fly ash and low-calcium coal fly ash components, on the carbonation and dehydration resistance of fly ash binder in open air is pronounced. It was concluded that high-calcium oil shale fly ash with high CaO{sub free} and SO{sub 3} content can be used as a binder for building products.

  1. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Tsai, J.C.H.; Cogswell, D.E.; Mihamou, H.; Wright, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products from shale oil. Phase I objectives are to identify desirable components in shale oil, develop separations techniques for those components, identify market needs and to identify plausible products manufacturable from raw shale oil to meet those needs. The quarter`s efforts were concentrated on (a) compound type analysis of shale oil and its extraction products, (b) thermal hydrodealkylation of the >290{degrees}C polar fraction, (c) reaction of pyridinic type compounds to form secondary products, (d) updating SPX economic analysis, and (e) preparation of a business plan for presentation before the Dawnbreaker Commercial Assistance Program. The subcontract on the thermal hydrodealkylation work at the University of Utah ended at May 3 1, 1996. We have obtained valuable information from the batch experiments. The progress on the flow reactor proved somewhat limited because of the restriction of the existing reactor configuration. The liaison with potential industrial partners is continuing. An additional company has reached agreement to proceed with a geochemical testing of shale oil derived products.

  2. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, July--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Punwani, D.V.; Lau, F.S.; Knowlton, T.M.; Akin, C.; Roberts, M.J.; Findlay, J.G.; Mensinger, M.C.; Chang, I.H.; Xiong, T.Y.

    1988-12-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the 3-year program, is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following eight tasks: Task 1, PFH Scoping Studies; Task 2, PFH Optimization Tests; Task 3, Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4, Beneficiation Research; Task 5, Operation of PFH on Beneficiated Shale; Task 6, Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; Task 7, Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization; Task 8, Project Management and Reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology, the prime contractor, is working with six other institutions; the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute, Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Michigan, Ohio State University, Tennessee Technological University and the University of Pittsburgh. This report presents the work performed during the fourth program quarter from July 1 through September 30, 1988.

  3. The enrichment of natural radionuclides in oil shale-fired power plants in Estonia--the impact of new circulating fluidized bed technology.

    PubMed

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-03-01

    Burning oil shale to produce electricity has a dominant position in Estonia's energy sector. Around 90% of the overall electric energy production originates from the Narva Power Plants. The technology in use has been significantly renovated - two older types of pulverized fuel burning (PF) energy production units were replaced with new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology. Additional filter systems have been added to PF boilers to reduce emissions. Oil shale contains various amounts of natural radionuclides. These radionuclides concentrate and become enriched in different boiler ash fractions. More volatile isotopes will be partially emitted to the atmosphere via flue gases and fly ash. To our knowledge, there has been no previous study for CFB boiler systems on natural radionuclide enrichment and their atmospheric emissions. Ash samples were collected from Eesti Power Plant's CFB boiler. These samples were processed and analyzed with gamma spectrometry. Activity concentrations (Bq/kg) and enrichment factors were calculated for the (238)U ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb) and (232)Th ((232)Th, (228)Ra) family radionuclides and for (40)K in different CFB boiler ash fractions. Results from the CFB boiler ash sample analysis showed an increase in the activity concentrations and enrichment factors (up to 4.5) from the furnace toward the electrostatic precipitator block. The volatile radionuclide ((210)Pb and (40)K) activity concentrations in CFB boilers were evenly distributed in finer ash fractions. Activity balance calculations showed discrepancies between input (via oil shale) and output (via ash fractions) activities for some radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (210)Pb). This refers to a situation where the missing part of the activity (around 20% for these radionuclides) is emitted to the atmosphere. Also different behavior patterns were detected for the two Ra isotopes, (226)Ra and (228)Ra. A part of (226)Ra input activity, unlike (228)Ra, was undetectable in the

  4. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  5. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

  6. Model studies of ignition and return retort strategies for true in-situ retorting of Antrim oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Crowl, D.A.; Piccirelli, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Sandia code describing the retorting of western oil shale through a horizontal crack was modified to describe the retorting of Michigan oil shale through a vertical crack. The resulting Wayne State University (WSU) modified Sandia code was subsequently utilized to examine the operation of a Michigan true in situ retort in the Antrim shale. The results demonstrated that this shale was able to support its own crack retort processes by partial gas phase combustion of the gas and oil products. Char combustion was found to be insignificant for all normal code runs. The WSU modified Sandia code was utilized to examine possible ignition and extraction strategies. 11 references.

  7. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Annual report, June 1991--May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.; Schultz, C.W.; Parekh, B.K.; Misra, M.; Bonner, W.P.

    1992-11-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The results of the original 3-year program, which was concluded in May 1991, have been summarized in a four-volume final report published by IGT. DOE subsequently approved a 1-year extension to the program to further develop the PFH process specifically for application to beneficiated shale as feedstock. Studies have shown that beneficiated shale is the preferred feedstock for pressurized hydroretorting. The program extension is divided into the following active tasks. Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 5. operation of PFH on beneficiated shale; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 7. sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; and Task 8. project management and reporting. In order to accomplish all the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: the University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), the University of Nevada (UN) at Reno, and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program extension from June 1, 1991 through May 31, 1992.

  8. Effects of processed oil shale on the element content of Atriplex cancescens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Samples of four-wing saltbush were collected from the Colorado State University Intensive Oil Shale Revegetation Study Site test plots in the Piceance basin, Colorado. The test plots were constructed to evaluate the effects of processed oil shale geochemistry on plant growth using various thicknesses of soil cover over the processed shale and/or over a gravel barrier between the shale and soil. Generally, the thicker the soil cover, the less the influence of the shale geochemistry on the element concentrations in the plants. Concentrations of 20 elements were larger in the ash of four-wing saltbush growing on the plot with the gravel barrier (between the soil and processed shale) when compared to the sample from the control plot. A greater water content in the soil in this plot has been reported, and the interaction between the increased, percolating water and shale may have increased the availability of these elements for plant uptake. Concentrations of boron, copper, fluorine, lithium, molybdenum, selenium, silicon, and zinc were larger in the samples grown over processed shale, compared to those from the control plot, and concentrations for barium, calcium, lanthanum, niobium, phosphorus, and strontium were smaller. Concentrations for arsenic, boron, fluorine, molybdenum, and selenium-- considered to be potential toxic contaminants--were similar to results reported in the literature for vegetation from the test plots. The copper-to-molybdenum ratios in three of the four samples of four-wing saltbush growing over the processed shale were below the ratio of 2:1, which is judged detrimental to ruminants, particularly cattle. Boron concentrations averaged 140 ppm, well above the phytotoxicity level for most plant species. Arsenic, fluorine, and selenium concentrations were below toxic levels, and thus should not present any problem for revegetation or forage use at this time.

  9. The U.S. Shale Oil and Gas Resource - a Multi-Scale Analysis of Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'sullivan, F.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past decade, the large-scale production of natural gas, and more recently oil, from U.S. shale formations has had a transformative impact on the energy industry. The emergence of shale oil and gas as recoverable resources has altered perceptions regarding both the future abundance and cost of hydrocarbons, and has shifted the balance of global energy geopolitics. However, despite the excitement, shale is a resource in its nascency, and many challenges surrounding its exploitation remain. One of the most significant of these is the dramatic variation in resource productivity across multiple length scales, which is a feature of all of today's shale plays. This paper will describe the results of work that has looked to characterize the spatial and temporal variations in the productivity of the contemporary shale resource. Analysis will be presented that shows there is a strong stochastic element to observed shale well productivity in all the major plays. It will be shown that the nature of this stochasticity is consistent regardless of specific play being considered. A characterization of this stochasticity will be proposed. As a parallel to the discussion of productivity, the paper will also address the issue of "learning" in shale development. It will be shown that "creaming" trends are observable and that although "absolute" well productivity levels have increased, "specific" productivity levels (i.e. considering well and stimulation size) have actually falling markedly in many plays. The paper will also show that among individual operators' well ensembles, normalized well-to-well performance distributions are almost identical, and have remained consistent year-to-year. This result suggests little if any systematic learning regarding the effective management of well-to-well performance variability has taken place. The paper will conclude with an articulation of how the productivity characteristics of the shale resource are impacting on the resources

  10. Shale worker's pneumoconiosis, associated respiratory ailments and skin tumors - plus ancillary documentation of mining and retorting processes and oil shale characterization (ex-shale workers in Scotland). Mid-project progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Seaton, A.

    1983-11-01

    Progress is reported on a study of survivors of Scottish oil shale mines, retorts, and refineries. The prevalence of pneumoconiosis and skin tumors is being determined by occupational histories, dermatology and smoking questionnaires, and x-ray surveys. A control study of workers of a colliery population in northeast England and mineralogical characterization of Scottish and Colorado shales are also being conducted. (ACR)

  11. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  12. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 1. Main report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    The general goal of this study is to present the prospects of shale oil within the context of (1) environmental constraints, (2) available natural and economic resources, and (3) the characteristics of existing and emerging technology. The objectives are: to review shale oil technologies objectively as a means of supplying domestically produced fuels within environmental, social, economic, and legal/institutional constraints; using available data, analyses, and experienced judgment, to examine the major points of uncertainty regarding potential impacts of oil shale development; to resolve issues where data and analyses are compelling or where conclusions can be reached on judgmental grounds; to specify issues which cannot be resolved on the bases of the data, analyses, and experienced judgment currently available; and when appropriate and feasible, to suggest ways for the removal of existing uncertainties that stand in the way of resolving outstanding issues.

  13. Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C. III

    1992-12-31

    From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

  14. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  15. Modelling of underground geomechanical characteristics for electrophysical conversion of oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharkin, A. A.; Koryashov, I. A.; Martemyanov, S. M.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Oil shale energy extraction is an urgent issue for modern science and technique. With the help of electrical discharge phenomena it is possible to create a new efficient technology for underground conversion of oil shale to shale gas and oil. This method is based on Joule heat in the rock volume. During the laboratory experiments the problem has arisen, when the significant part of a shale fragment is being heated, but the further heating is impossible due to specimen cracking. It leads to disruption in current flow and heat exchange. Evidently, in the underground conditions these failure processes will not proceed. Cement, clay and glass fiber/epoxy resin armature have been used for modelling of geomechanical underground conditions. Experiments have shown that the use of a reinforcing jacket makes it possible to convert a full rock fragment. Also, a thermal field extends radially from the centre of a tree-type structure, and it has an elliptic cross section shape. It is explained by the oil shale anisotropy connected with a rock laminar structure. Therefore, heat propagation is faster along the layers than across ones.

  16. Morbidity study of oil shale workers employed at anvil points, colorado, during 1948-1969

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.; Attfield, M.; Burkart, J.A.; Turner, E.R.; Krueger, G.G.

    1981-01-05

    With the advent of oil shortages caused by the oil cartel in the Middle East, the possibility of using synthetic fuels became of interest. Because of the vast reserves of shale oil on the Colorado Plateau, research on this fuel began to increase. The present morbidity study, an outgrowth and continuation of an earlier Birmingham study, was one of the results of increased interest in synthetic fuels.

  17. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  18. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  19. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  20. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  1. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  2. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, January to March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This is the first Los Alamos Oil Shale progress report in a new format, designed to continue the publication of technical papers each quarter and to report the progress made each quarter in oil shale research. This first report describes the history of the project to put the present status in perspective and outlines the program and its objectives. In subsequent reports, program achievements will be reported along with the usual technical papers. Section I covers program management, explosive characterization, dynamic rock mechanics, field verification tests, and stress wave, fluid flow, and retort stabiliy modeling. Program history, recent accomplishments, and future plans are discussed for each program element. Details are also given on how the program dovetails with that of industry, particularly with the Oil Shale Consortium. Finally, the unique operational principles and field applications of the CORRTEX system to oil shale field experiments are explained. Section II presents several technical papers. An overview of the rock fragmentation effort to enhance the permeability of oil shale using explosives summarizes the project, its rationale, and objectives. Results of explosive characterization tests show that the maximum pressure and gas drive of ANFO are greatly enhanced by the addition of aluminum. In fracture modeling, spallation is studied in terms of crack growth, and the effect of anisotropy in explosive fragmentation is calculated and compared with radiograph data from field tests. Our TRACER model is explained and fluid flow calculations for heat and mass transfer in the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. MR-3 retort are shown to compare well with field data. Also, the status of the two-dimensional retorting model, which fully couples retort chemistry with fluid dynamics, is given.

  3. DOE oil shale reference sample bank: Quarterly report, January-March 1987. [Samples from Kentucky and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.

    1987-03-01

    The DOE Oil Shale Program was restructured in FY84 to implement a 5-year period of basic and applied research in the study of the phenomena involved in oil shale pyrolysis/retorting. The program calls for the study of two reference shales per year for a period of 5 years. Consequently, the program calls for the identification, acquisition, processing, characterization, storage, disbursement, and record keeping for ten reference shales in a period of 5 years. Terra Tek, Inc. received the DOE Reference Shale Sample Bank contract in October, 1985. Two FY86 reference shales have been acquired, processed and stored under inert gas. The Eastern shale, designated E86, was obtained from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale at a quarry near Louisville, Kentucky in the first quarter of FY86. The Western shale was obtained from the Exxon Colony Mine, located near Parachute, Colorado, during the first quarter of FY86. Partial distributions of both shales have been made to DOE contractors. Complete descriptions of the reference shale locales, shale processing procedures and analytical characterization are provided in this report. 7 refs., 40 figs.

  4. Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Three pristine Utah Green River oil shale samples were obtained and used for analysis by the combined research groups at the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Oil shale samples were first demineralized and the separated kerogen and extracted bitumen samples were then studied by a host of techniques including high resolution liquid-state carbon-13 NMR, solid-state magic angle sample spinning 13C NMR, GC/MS, FTIR, and pyrolysis. Bitumen was extracted from the shale using methanol/dichloromethane and analyzed using high resolution 13C NMR liquid state spectroscopy, showing carbon aromaticities of 7 to 11%. The three parent shales and the demineralized kerogens were each analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbon aromaticity of the kerogen was 23-24%, with 10-12 aromatic carbons per cluster. Crushed samples of Green River oil shale and its kerogen extract were pyrolyzed at heating rates from 1 to 10 K/min at pressures of 1 and 40 bar and temperatures up to 1000°C. The transient pyrolysis data were fit with a first-order model and a Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The demineralized kerogen was pyrolyzed at 10 K/min in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure at temperatures up to 525°C, and the pyrolysis products (light gas, tar, and char) were analyzed using 13C NMR, GC/MS, and FTIR. Details of the kerogen pyrolysis have been modeled by a modified version of the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model that has been widely used to model coal combustion/pyrolysis. This refined CPD model has been successful in predicting the char, tar, and gas yields of the three shale samples during pyrolysis. This set of experiments and associated modeling represents the most sophisticated and complete analysis available for a given set of oil shale samples.

  5. Discrimination of moist oil shale and limestone using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, P.; Piip, K.; Lepp, A.; Lissovski, A.; Aints, M.; Laan, M.

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced plasma emission spectra of Estonian oil shale and associated limestone with varying moisture content were studied. Time gated spectra excited by 1064 nm laser radiation were recorded. Spectral lines for determination of plasma parameters were selected. Moisture causes the reduction of the intensity of the total emission, and increases the intensity of the Hα line. It was found that the effect of the moisture content on the plasma temperature and electron concentration was inconsiderable. Using the ratio of intensities of Hα and Mg spectral lines, it was possible to distinguish reliably between limestone and oil shale independently of their moisture content.

  6. GIS-and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle; Mattson, Earl

    2012-09-30

    The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) was awarded a grant by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct a research project en- titled GIS- and Web-based Water Resource Geospatial Infrastructure for Oil Shale Development in October of 2008. The ultimate goal of this research project is to develop a water resource geo-spatial infrastructure that serves as “baseline data” for creating solutions on water resource management and for supporting decisions making on oil shale resource development. The project came to the end on September 30, 2012. This final project report will report the key findings from the project activity, major accomplishments, and expected impacts of the research. At meantime, the gamma version (also known as Version 4.0) of the geodatabase as well as other various deliverables stored on digital storage media will be send to the program manager at NETL, DOE via express mail. The key findings from the project activity include the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of the water resource throughout the Piceance Basin, water consumption with respect to oil shale production, and data gaps identified. Major accomplishments of this project include the creation of a relational geodatabase, automated data processing scripts (Matlab) for database link with surface water and geological model, ArcGIS Model for hydrogeologic data processing for groundwater model input, a 3D geological model, surface water/groundwater models, energy resource development systems model, as well as a web-based geo-spatial infrastructure for data exploration, visualization and dissemination. This research will have broad impacts of the devel- opment of the oil shale resources in the US. The geodatabase provides a “baseline” data for fur- ther study of the oil shale development and identification of further data collection needs. The 3D geological model provides better understanding through data interpolation and

  7. Formation resistivity as an indicator of the onset of oil generation in the Woodford Shale, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmoker, James W.; Hester, Timothy C.

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian Woodford Shale is a black, organic-rich shale that is a major hydrocarbon source rock in the Anadarko basin. With the onset of oil generation, nonconductive hydrocarbons begin to replace conductive pore water in the Woodford, and formation resistivity increases. Crossplots of formation resistivity versus either vitrinite reflectance (RO) or Lopatin's time-temperature index of thermal maturity (TTI) define two data populations that represent immature shales and shales that have generated oil. The midpoint of the resistivity zone marking the transition between immature and mature shales is -35 ohm-m. The onset of appreciable oil generation in the Woodford Shale of the study area occurs at maturity levels of RO near 0.57% and of TTI between 33 and 48.

  8. Geochemical modeling research related to the surface disposal of processed oil shale solid waste. [Elements and compounds in oil shale wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K. J.; Drever, J. I.

    1987-10-01

    Several geochemical codes are available in the literature to model chemical processes such as oxidation-reduction, precipitation-dissolution, formation of solution complex, adsorption, and ion exchange. However, these models differ in the environments to which they apply. The objective of this research was to evaluate the applicability of existing geochemical codes to predict water quality from an oil shale solid waste environment. We selected EQ3/EQ6, GEOCHEM, MINTEQ, PHREEQE, SOLMNEQ, and WATEQFC geochemical models for further evaluation. We concluded that all these models lack thermodynamic data for minerals and solution complexes which are important for oil shale solid waste studies. Selection of any one of the models would require development of a more reliable thermodynamic database, and this report describes the initiation of that work. So far, critical evaluation of thermodynamic data has been completed for Sr, F, Mo, and Se. 64 refs., 15 tabs.

  9. Effect of retorted-oil shale leachate on a blue-green alga (Anabaena flos-aquae)

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, D.M.; Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Stiles, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Oil shale reserves in Piceance Creek and the White River, Colorado, contain retorted-shale piles which may pollute th eground water through leaching. Bioassay experiments were carried out to determine the effects of leachates on algae, particularly ANABAENA FLOSAQUAE and SCENEDESMUS. Tests were done to establish inhibitionary concentrations of the leachates from various sources of spent shale. Retorted-shale leachates had major effects on the algae papulations at a 40% concentration, minor effects at 8%, and no effects at 0.4%. Discrepancies between experimental results and actual retorted-shale piles are dixcussed. (JMT)

  10. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales. Progress report, June--August, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1992-09-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in October 1987 by the US Department of Energy is to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program is divided into the following active tasks: Task 3. testing of process improvement concepts; Task 4. beneficiation research; Task 6. environmental data and mitigation analyses; Task 8. project management and reporting; and Task 9. information required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the prime contractor, is working with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed during the program quarter from June 1, 1992 through August 31, 1992.

  11. Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Final report, June 1992--January 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Erekson, E.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.; Schultz, C.W.; Hatcher, W.E.; Parekh, B.K.; Bonner, W.P.

    1993-03-01

    The Devonian oil shales of the Eastern United States are a significant domestic energy resource. The overall objective of the multi-year program, initiated in September 1987 by the US Department of Energy was to perform the research necessary to develop the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for producing oil from Eastern oil shales. The program also incorporates research on technologies in areas such as raw shale preparation, beneficiation, product separation and upgrading, and waste disposal that have the potential of improving the economics and/or environmental acceptability of recovering oil from oil shales using the PFH process. The program was divided into the following active tasks: Task 3 -- Testing of Process Improvement Concepts; Task 4 -- Beneficiation Research; Task 6 -- Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses; and Task 9 -- Information Required for the National Environmental Policy Act. In order to accomplish all of the program objectives, tho Institute of Gas Technology (ICT), the prime contractor, worked with four other institutions: The University of Alabama/Mineral Resources Institute (MRI), the University of Alabama College of Engineering (UA), University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and Tennessee Technological University (TTU). This report presents the work performed by IGT from June 1, 1992 through January 31, 1993.

  12. Investigation of sorption interactions between organic and mineral phases of processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Blanche, M. S.; Bowen, J. M.

    1987-11-01

    Minerals and organic compounds representative of oil shale processing wastes were analyzed for potential sorption interactions. The analysis consisted of Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry, and laser Raman spectroscopy. Montmorillonite clay was used as a representative of the smectites found in raw and spent shales, and hematite was used as a representative of iron oxide found in spent shales. Benzene, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, benzoic acid, sodium benzoate, and pyridine were used as representatives of oil shale process organic wastes. In addition, isopropylamine and dimethyl methylphosphonate, a pesticide model, were studied. A preparation methods comparison study was performed and established the validity of the solid state KBr sample preparation technique upon FTIR spectral quality. The results of this study illustrate the utility of fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis to establish and describe the potential for sorption interactions between inorganic and organic phases of oil shale processing wastes. Experimentation with the laser remain system shows promise for significant contributions in this field of research. 43 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Mechanical properties of heavy oil-sand and shale as a function of pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S.C.; Sweeney, J.J.; Ralph, W.R.; Ruddle, D.G.

    1987-07-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of oil-sand and shale samples from the Faja region of Venezuela at elevated temperature and pressure. Results describe pressure-volume (PV) behavior at temperatures of 23 and 125/sup 0/C; the effect of mechanical disturbance on PV behavior; equation-of-state (EOS) at temperatures of 23, 125, and 250/sup 0/C and effective pressures to 150 MPa; and creep/compaction behavior at temperatures of 23 and 125/sup 0/C. Data from PV tests on oil-sand show that increasing temperature from 23 to 125/sup 0/C had very little effect on this material. Mechanical disturbance of oil-sand prior to PV testing lowered values of K. The compressive strength of oil-sand increased as effective (P/sub E/) was raised and at both temperatures, samples tested at equivalent P/sub E/ had similar strengths. Compressive strength of oil-sand seems to be controlled by the drainage of pore fluid during axial deformation. Nearly all oil-sand samples exhibited strain-hardening. PV tests conducted on shale show that increasing temperature from 23 to 125/sup 0/C reduced values of K one third. Mechanical disturbance significantly affected the PV response of shale samples due to the friable nature of the material. Data for shale samples tested in triaxial compression show that ultimate stress increases with increasing pressure and increasing temperature. Results of long-term creep compaction tests show a linear change in sample volume as a function of the log of time and that the rate of volume change with time was larger at 125/sup 0/C than at 23/sup 0/C for both oil-sand and shale. 4 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Laboratory modeling of in-situ retorting of oil shale by superheated-steam injection. BX in-situ oil shale project

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, P.M.

    1981-08-03

    The laboratory study has shown that retorting of oil shale by a superheated steam is practical; yield of evolved product is given by 1-X = 1-e/sup Kt/, where K = -4.83 x 10/sup 14/e/sup -//sup 22,900/T/. Evolved oil has a high pour point 70 to 82/sup 0/F low API gravity approx. 21, but it is cracked in steam above 525/sup 0/F, resulting in in-situ recovered oil with low pour point below 30/sup 0/F. The Parachute Creek formation contains carbonates and bicarbonates which accounts for nearly all the CO/sub 2/ in the off-gases; thus no water-shift or water-gas reaction probably is taking place. The oils have lower molecular weight and larger fractions of naptha, light distillate and light gas oil than ordinary shale oils. The nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen are lowered. The steam cracking leads to a less polar product. 48 figures. (DLC)

  15. The sorptive behavior of organic compounds on retorted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Godrej, A.N.

    1989-01-01

    Single- and multisolute batch sorption isotherm experiments performed on Antrim spent shale from Michigan indicated a consistent behavior by the shale with respect to the four sorbates used-Phenol, 2-Hydroxynaphthalen (HN), 2,3,5-Trimethylphenol (TP) and 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline (THQ). The sorptive capacity of the shale was least for Phenol and greatest for THQ, with order being Phenol < TP < HN < THQ. Single-solute continuous-flow column experiments on shale could not be better analyzed because of a lack of kinetic data. The order in which the compounds would reach a 50% breakthrough, and the sorptive amount order in batch multicomponent experiments, could be predicted from the single-solute batch data. The order at 10% breakthrough in the column experiments could not be predicted clearly. Averages of the ratios of the amount sorbed of any one component to the total sorbed amount of all components in multisolute systems were calculated and indicated the partitioning of the components as 11% Phenol, 32% HN, 37% THQ, and 20% TP in a tetrasolute system. Average ratios for bi- and trisolute systems computed from the tetrasolute system agreed to <11% for those compounds that srobed to larger extents (HN, THQ) and to <19% for those that sorbed to a smaller degree (Phenol, TP). A comparison with single-component batch isotherm experiments performed on Filtrasorb 300 granular activated carbon (GAC) showed that the shale had a sorptive capacity of about two orders of magnitude less than that of the GAC. The multicomponent shale data could not be adequately modelled with any one of three models - multicomponent Freundlich type and Langmuir models, and the simplified ideal adsorbed solution theory model.

  16. Characterization of porous media properties and leaching capacity of spent oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.; Morelli, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    Porous media properties of spent oil shales have been determined in order to provide fundamental data needed to identify and predict the transport of leachates through surface piles or abandoned modified insitu retorts. Using high pressure mercury porosimetry, pore size distributions were measured. Specific surface areas were measured using both the mercury intrusion technique as well as BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) nitrogen adsorption. Visual and chemical analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Leaching capacities of the various spent shale samples were measured using equilibrium leaching studies to determine Equilibrium Exchange Isotherms. Based on these characterization studies, fundamental modeling concepts have benn established for the transport of leachates through spent oil shales. 13 refs.

  17. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Project Monitoring Review Committee meeting report, August 9, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of the four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. The third annual meeting of the Monitoring Review Committee for the project included discussions of air, water and biological monitoring programs; spent shale pile inspecting; industrial hygiene monitoring; and medical assessments. Results of sampling 18 supplemental locations found no areas of significant environmental concern.

  18. Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

  19. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  20. Shale Gas and Tight Oil: A Panacea for the Energy Woes of America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Shale gas has been heralded as a "game changer" in the struggle to meet America's demand for energy. The "Pickens Plan" of Texas oil and gas pioneer T.Boone Pickens suggests that gas can replace coal for much of U.S. electricity generation, and oil for, at least, truck transportation1. Industry lobby groups such as ANGA declare "that the dream of clean, abundant, home grown energy is now reality"2. In Canada, politicians in British Columbia are racing to export the virtual bounty of shale gas via LNG to Asia (despite the fact that Canadian gas production is down 16 percent from its 2001 peak). And the EIA has forecast that the U.S. will become a net exporter of gas by 20213. Similarly, recent reports from Citigroup and Harvard suggest that an oil glut is on the horizon thanks in part to the application of fracking technology to formerly inaccessible low permeability tight oil plays. The fundamentals of well costs and declines belie this optimism. Shale gas is expensive gas. In the early days it was declared that "continuous plays" like shale gas were "manufacturing operations", and that geology didn't matter. One could drill a well anywhere, it was suggested, and expect consistent production. Unfortunately, Mother Nature always has the last word, and inevitably the vast expanses of purported potential shale gas resources contracted to "core" areas, where geological conditions were optimal. The cost to produce shale gas ranges from 4.00 per thousand cubic feet (mcf) to 10.00, depending on the play. Natural gas production is a story about declines which now amount to 32% per year in the U.S. So 22 billion cubic feet per day of production now has to be replaced each year to keep overall production flat. At current prices of 2.50/mcf, industry is short about 50 billion per year in cash flow to make this happen4. As a result I expect falling production and rising prices in the near to medium term. Similarly, tight oil plays in North Dakota and Texas have been heralded

  1. Reaction rate kinetics for in situ combustion retorting of Michigan Antrim oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Mickelson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The intrinsic reaction rate kinetics for the pyrolysis of Michigan Antrim oil shale and the oxidation of the carbonaceous residue of this shale have been determined using a thermogravimetric analysis method. The kinetics of the pyrolysis reaction were evaluated from both isothermal and nonisothermal rate data. The reaction was found to be second-order with an activation energy of 252.2 kJ/mole, and with a frequency factor of 9.25 ?? 1015 sec-1. Pyrolysis kinetics were not affected by heating rates between 0.01 to 0.67??K/s. No evidence of any reactions among the oil shale mineral constituents was observed at temperatures below 1173??K. However, it was found that the presence of pyrite in oil shale reduces the primary devolatilization rate of kerogen and increases the amount of residual char in the spent shale. Carbonaceous residues which were prepared by heating the oil shale at a rate of 0.166??K/s to temperatures between 923??K and 1073??K, had the highest reactivities when oxidized at 0.166??K/s in a gas having 21 volume percent oxygen. Oxygen chemisorption was found to be the initial precursor to the oxidation process. The kinetics governing oxygen chemisorption is (Equation Presented) where X is the fractional coverage. The oxidation of the carbonaceous residue was found also to be second-order. The activation energy and the frequency factor determined from isothermal experiments were 147 kJ/mole and 9.18??107 sec-1 respectively, while the values of these parameters obtained from a nonisothermal experiment were 212 kJ/mole and 1.5??1013 sec-1. The variation in the rate constants is attributed to the fact that isothermal and nonisothermal analyses represent two different aspects of the combustion process.

  2. Low-Temperature Extraction of Oil From Shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    Technique increases recovery and energy efficiency. Advantages of method greater product yield and, because of the relatively low temperatures, minimal gas formation, smaller amounts of char byproduct, and less carbonate-rock decomposition. Up to 94 percent by weight of organic material in shale extracted.

  3. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Sinoradzki, H.M.

    1981-07-01

    A major technological limit on the in situ retorting of oil shale is the effective rubbling of the rock. Consequently, efficient and economical recovery of oil from shale is dependent directly on developing a more sophisticated blasting technology. Crucial to this technology is understanding the behavior of the explosive. Calculations of pressures and shock-front positions are developed and compared graphically to the aquarium-test experimental data for two different diameter explosive configurations for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). Once the explosive reaction is understood, analytical and computational methods can be developed to simulate the blasting of the rock. Such computer modeling will allow the phenomenology of blasting to be studied and will eliminate the need for many expensive field tests. The basis for using predictive modeling and its application to predict rock fracturing is explained, and comparisons of calculations to field experimental data are presented. Also discussed is the theory of effective-elastic-moduli reduction in a transversely isotropic material containing penny-shaped cracks. It is applied to the bedded crack model in which all cracks are in the horizontal (bedding) plane of the material, as they are in oil shale. The technique equates the total body strain to the sum of the straining of the material matrix and the additional strain caused by the opening and shearing of cracks. Finally, the permeability of explosively fractured oil shale is related to the statistical distribution of cracks in the rock and their instability as stress levels increase. An expression for the specific permeability of oil shale under high stresses is derived. 22 figures.

  4. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pantea, Michael P.; Self, Jesse G.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a reassessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of richness, in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. A considerable amount of oil-yield data has been collected after previous in-place assessments were published, and these data were incorporated into this new assessment. About twice as many oil-yield data points were used, and several additional oil shale intervals were included that were not assessed previously for lack of data. Oil yields are measured using the Fischer assay method. The Fischer assay method is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale that has been almost universally used to determine oil yields for Green River Formation oil shales. Fischer assay does not necessarily measure the maximum amount of oil that an oil shale can produce, and there are retorting methods that yield more than the Fischer assay yield. However, the oil yields achieved by other technologies are typically reported as a percentage of the Fischer assay oil yield, and thus Fischer assay is still considered the standard by which other methods are compared.

  5. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite.

  6. Tiger Team Assessment of the Navel Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number I and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environment, safety, and health (ES&H) and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal NPOSR-CUW requirements was assessed. The NPOSR-CUW Tiger Team Assessment is part of a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES&H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES&H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES&H compliance trends and root causes.

  7. Tiger Team Assessment of the Navel Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report documents the Tiger Team Assessment of the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW). NPOSR-CUW consists of Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 located near Casper, Wyoming; Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number I and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 3 located near Rifle, Colorado; and Naval Oil Shale Reserve Number 2 located near Vernal, Utah, which was not examined as part of this assessment. The assessment was comprehensive, encompassing environment, safety, and health (ES H) and quality assurance (QA) disciplines; site remediation; facilities management; and waste management operations. Compliance with applicable Federal, state, and local regulations; applicable DOE Orders; best management practices; and internal NPOSR-CUW requirements was assessed. The NPOSR-CUW Tiger Team Assessment is part of a larger, comprehensive DOE Tiger Team Independent Assessment Program planned for DOE facilities. The objective of the initiative is to provide the Secretary with information on the compliance status of DOE facilities with regard to ES H requirements, root causes for noncompliance, adequacy of DOE and contractor ES H management programs, response actions to address the identified problem areas, and DOE-wide ES H compliance trends and root causes.

  8. The geology, geochemistry, and pyrolysis kinetics of several key world oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, H.E.; Guo, T.M.; Schrader, S.; Thakur, D.S.

    1983-02-01

    This study addresses the measurement, analysis, and comparison of pyrolysis kinetics and other characteristic parameters for several key international oil shales. Geologic and chemical information about each of the oil shale samples is presented to illustrate the widely varying nature of oil shale. A summary of the kinetic models and data analysis methods is presented below along with the more significant kinetic results. I. The weight loss data were first treated using the two parameter models (Coats-Redfern and Nuttall-Chen). The calculated activation energies were physically very low, thus leading to the evaluation of more sophisticated treatment methods and kinetic models. II. Next, the TGA data were treated using the models mentioned in 'I', but the temperature range was divided into two regions (i.e., a region above and below 375/sup 0/). This approach gave a better fit to the single heating rate data, but was not satisfactory for correlating the full multiple heating rate data. III. The three parameter model, by Anthony and Howard, was best for correlating the full range of nonisothermal data. This is the first time that the Anthony-Howard model has been used to treat nonisothermal oil shale pyrolysis data. The calculated activation energies were physically more reasonable and the overall fit to the data was improved as compared to the two parameter models.

  9. Estimates of in-place oil shale of various grades in federal lands, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The entire oil shale interval in the Piceance Basin is subdivided into seventeen “rich” and “lean” zones that were assessed separately. These zones are roughly time-stratigraphic units consisting of distinctive, laterally continuous sequences of oil shale beds that can be traced throughout much of the Piceance Basin. Several subtotals of the 1.5 trillion barrels total were calculated: (1) about 920 billion barrels (60 percent) exceed 15 gallons per ton (GPT); (2) about 352 billion barrels (23 percent) exceed 25 GPT; (3) more than one trillion barrels (70 percent) underlie Federally-managed lands; and (4) about 689 billion barrels (75 percent) of the 15 GPT total and about 284 billion barrels (19 percent) of the 25 GPT total are under Federal mineral (subsurface) ownership. These 15 and 25 GPT estimates include only those areas where the weighted average of an entire zone exceeds those minimum cutoffs. In areas where the entire zone does not meet the minimum criteria, some oil shale intervals of significant thicknesses could exist within the zone that exceed these minimum cutoffs. For example, a 30-ft interval within an oil shale zone might exceed 25 GPT but if the entire zone averages less than 25 GPT, these resources are not included in the 15 and 25 GPT subtotals, although they might be exploited in the future.

  10. Characterization of retorted oil shale and application to a model of leachate generation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.; Feerer, J.L.; Morelli, P.J.; Peterson, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    A characterization of the porous media properties of spent oil shale is presented. Mercury porosimetry, BET nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was performed on unconsolidated powders, consolidated chunks, and compacted powder pellets of oil shale retorted in the TOSCO, Paraho, and Lawrence Livermore experimental retorts. All results indicated that retorted oil shale has a unimodal pore size distribution. Mean pore sizes ranged from 5.0 microns for powders to 1.0 micron for compacted powder pellets to 0.5 microns for consolidated chunks. Surface area porosity, and permeability data are also presented. Dispersion and capacitance of leachate flowing through retorted TOSCO oil shale were measured using a sucrose tracer and a specially designed leaching column. Tracer breakout curves were best simulated using a three-parameter capacitance model which assumes leachate flow characterized by flowing fraction, dead space volume, and mass transfer between main channel flow and dead space volume. Two types of generation models were investigated in a mathematical simulation of the leaching experiment. These were an equilibrium model based on the Langmuir approach and a general power-law model based on surface concentration of a given leachate species. Equilibrium isotherms were generated using shaker experiments. Rate coefficients were approximated by a small differential column which was run at shorter residence times. Leachate concentrations were best simulated by the power-law model.

  11. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  12. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  13. Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)

  14. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  15. Synthesis and analysis of jet fuel from shale oil and coal syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, J. P.; Collins, T. A.; Nelson, T. J.; Pedersen, M. J.; Robison, M. G.; Wisinski, L. J.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-two jet fuel samples of varying properties were produced from shale oil and coal syncrudes, and analyzed to assess their suitability for use. TOSCO II shale oil and H-COAL and COED syncrudes were used as starting materials. The processes used were among those commonly in use in petroleum processing-distillation, hydrogenation and catalytic hydrocracking. The processing conditions required to meet two levels of specifications regarding aromatic, hydrogen, sulfur and nitrogen contents at two yield levels were determined and found to be more demanding than normally required in petroleum processing. Analysis of the samples produced indicated that if the more stringent specifications of 13.5% hydrogen (min.) and 0.02% nitrogen (max.) were met, products similar in properties to conventional jet fuels were obtained. In general, shale oil was easier to process (catalyst deactivation was seen when processing coal syncrudes), consumed less hydrogen and yielded superior products. Based on these considerations, shale oil appears to be preferred to coal as a petroleum substitute for jet fuel production.

  16. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite. PMID:23528998

  17. Geochemical Characteristics and its Geological Significance of Oil Shale from the Youganwo Formation, Maoming Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Nansheng

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical elements of oil shale in the Maoming Basin were analyzed to discuss provenance attribute and depositional environment of the Youganwo formation. Experimental date of the major elements, trace elements and rare earth elements of 24 samples from the Maoye 1 well were examined.The analyzed oil shale samples were characterized by enrichment of Th, U, Pb and LREE, depleted of Zr, Cr and Hf,negative Eu and Ce anomalies, indicating that these samples were originated from continental crust. The chemical index of alteration (CIA) values and the Zr/Sc-Th/Sc diagrams indicate that source rocks had undergone intense chemical weathering and deposition recirculation. Based on the La/Th-Hf and La/Yb-∑REE diagrams and the negative anomaly of Eu element, the oil shale in the Maoming Basin has diverse sources, which mainly came from felsic source region of the upper crust or the mixture of felsic volcanic rocks, granite and sedimentary rocks. Ratios of the Sr/Cu, MgO/CaO suggest that oil shale was formed in fresh water under warm and humid climate, shallow water column became deeper during the middle and late sedimentary period. The depositional environment is interpreted to be limnetic with weak reduction at the early stage and gradually turned into semi-deep to deep lacustrine.

  18. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  19. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Annual report of operations, Fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    During fiscal year 1993, the reserves generated $440 million in revenues, a $33 million decrease from the fiscal year 1992 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $207 million, resulting in net cash flow of $233 million, compared with $273 million in fiscal year 1992. From 1976 through fiscal year 1993, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated $15.7 billion in revenues for the US Treasury, with expenses of $2.9 billion. The net revenues of $12.8 billion represent a return on costs of 441 percent. See figures 2, 3, and 4. In fiscal year 1993, production at the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 25 million barrels of crude oil, 123 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 158 million gallons of natural gas liquids. The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves has embarked on an effort to identify additional hydrocarbon resources on the reserves for future production. In 1993, in cooperation with the US Geological Survey, the Department initiated a project to assess the oil and gas potential of the program`s oil shale reserves, which remain largely unexplored. These reserves, which total a land area of more than 145,000 acres and are located in Colorado and Utah, are favorably situated in oil and gas producing regions and are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon deposits. Alternatively the producing assets may be sold or leased if that will produce the most value. This task will continue through the first quarter of fiscal year 1994.

  20. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  1. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  2. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  3. GIS-based geospatial infrastructure of water resource assessment for supporting oil shale development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D.; Mattson, Earl D.; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  4. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D; Mattson, Earl D; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  5. Characteristics of some oil shale, East-Central Uinta basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Keighin, C.W.

    1981-05-01

    Oil-yield, lithologic, and mineral-distribution data were determined for cores taken from a 152-m drill hole in the upper part of the Parachute Creek member of the Eocene Green River formation. The drill hole, in section 3, T12S, R24E, started just below the contact between the Unita formation and the underlying Green River formation, and ended 10 m below the Mahogany oil shale bed (the richest oil shale bed in the interval examined) in the lower part of the Mahogany zone. Most of the interval studied is composed of kerogen- and carbonate-rich, very fine-grained sediments. Two oil-saturated tuff beds occur approximately 21 m thick at the drill site; the lowermost few feet were not penetrated. The Mahogany zone is covered by 132.6 m of overburden. Fischer assays indicate that 12.9 m of oil shale within the Mahogany zone could yield at least 25 gallon of oil/ton (104.3 l/metric ton) from beds at least 3 m thick.

  6. High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  7. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Activities during this quarter focused on integrating the various tasks and elements. During Phase-1, substantial effort was placed on designing and automating the identification of molecular types present in shale oil. The ability to know the molecular composition and to track a given ``target`` species through the initial concentration steps was deemed critically important to the ultimate success of the three-phase project. It has been this molecular tracking ability that clearly distinguishes the JWBA work from prior shale oil research. The major software and hardware tasks are not in place to rapidly perform these analytical efforts. Software improvements are expected as new questions arise. The existence of the major nitrogen and oxygen types in shale oil has been confirmed. Most importantly, the ability to convert higher molecular weight types to lower molecular weight types was preliminarily confirmed in the present quarter. This is significant because it confirms earlier hypothesis that values are found though out the boiling range. Potential yields of extremely high value chemicals, e.g., $1000/bbl of up to 10% by weight of the barrel remain a feasible objective. Market and economic assessment continue to show encouraging results. Markets for specialty and fine chemicals containing a nitrogen atom are expanding both in type and application. Initial discussions with pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries show a strong interest in nitrogen-based compounds. Major progress was made during this quarter in completing agreements with industry for testing of shale oil components for biological activity. Positive results of such testing will add to the previously known applications of shale oil components as pure compounds and concentrates. During this quarter, we will formulate the pilot plant strategy for Phase-11(a).

  8. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure.

  9. Modeling of oil mist and oil vapor concentration in the shale shaker area on offshore drilling installations.

    PubMed

    Bråtveit, Magne; Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Lie, Stein Atle; Moen, Bente E

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to develop regression models to predict concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor in the workplace atmosphere in the shale shaker area of offshore drilling installations. Collection of monitoring reports of oil mist and oil vapor in the mud handling areas of offshore drilling installations was done during visits to eight oil companies and five drilling contractors. A questionnaire was sent to the rig owners requesting information about technical design of the shaker area. Linear mixed-effects models were developed using concentration of oil mist or oil vapor measured by stationary sampling as dependent variables, drilling installation as random effect, and potential determinants related to process technical parameters and technical design of the shale shaker area as fixed effects. The dataset comprised stationary measurements of oil mist (n = 464) and oil vapor (n = 462) from the period 1998 to 2004. The arithmetic mean concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor were 3.89 mg/m(3) and 39.7 mg/m(3), respectively. The air concentration models including significant determinants such as viscosity of base oil, mud temperature, well section, type of rig, localization of shaker, mechanical air supply, air grids in outer wall, air curtain in front of shakers, and season explained 35% and 17% of the total variance in oil vapor and oil mist, respectively. The developed models could be used to indicate what impact differences in technical design and changes in process parameters have on air concentrations of oil mist and oil vapor. Thus, the models will be helpful in planning control measures to reduce the potential for occupational exposure. PMID:19750406

  10. Unsaturated flow modeling of a retorted oil shale pile.

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, F.W.; Freshley, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-10-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of the UNSAT1D model for assessing this potential threat to the environment by understanding water movement through spent shale piles. Infiltration, redistribution, and drainage of water in a spent shale pile were simulated with the UNSAT1D model for two test cases: (1) an existing 35 m pile; and (2) a transient pile growing at a rate of 10 m/year for 5 years. The first test case simulated three different layering scenarios with each one being run for 1 year. The second test case simulated two different initial moisture contents in the pile with each simulation being run for 30 years. Grand Junction and Rifle, Colorado climatological data were used to provide precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for a wet (1979) and dry (1976) year, respectively. Hydraulic properties obtained from the literature on Paraho process spent shale soil, and clay were used as model input parameters to describe water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics. Plant water uptake was not simulated in either test case. The two test cases only consider the evaporation component of evapotranspiration, thereby maximizing the amount of water infiltrating into the pile. The results of the two test cases demonstrated that the UNSAT1D model can adequately simulate flow in a spent shale pile for a variety of initial and boundary conditions, hydraulic properties, and pile configurations. The test cases provided a preliminary sensitivity analysis in which it was shown that the material hydraulic properties, material layering, and initial moisture content are the principal parameters influencing drainage from the base of a pile. 34 figures, 4 tables.

  11. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods using FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, J.M.; Kim, S.; Birdwell, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR-MS) was applied in the analysis of shale oils generated using two different pyrolysis systems under laboratory conditions meant to simulate surface and in situ oil shale retorting. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules. Comparison of FT ICR-MS results to standard oil characterization methods (API gravity, SARA fractionation, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) indicated correspondence between the average Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) and asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the average DBE values and DBE distributions of the shale oils examined, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions and in the presence of water.

  12. Fischer assay analyses of the Antrim Oil Shale of the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Leffert, C.B.; Schroeder, R.R.

    1980-08-01

    Modified Fischer Assays were run and are reported on 841 samples of Antrim Oil Shale. These samples were taken from 31 wells and 9 outcrop locations throughout the Michigan Basin. Yields in both weight percent of oil, water, spent shale, gas plus loss and in gal/ton of oil and water and oil specific gravity are tabulated. Procedures, apparatus and instrumentation adapted for this work were shown by comparison tests and by repetitive assays to be accurate and precise. Data recording, calculations, data storage and plotting were all done using computer programs, files and tapes. The oil yield in gal/ton of shale is plotted versus drillers depth in feet for each of the 31 wells and for three cross sections across the Michigan Basin. The average oil yields for these three cross sections were: Northern, 4.78 gal/ton; Central, 4.49 gal/ton; and Southern, 4.64 gal/ton. The average oil yield was 4.67 gal/ton. Probability density curves resembled a Gaussian-type distribution with an added spike of near-zero yield material which was attributed to a small amount of sampling above and below the Antrim formation and the intrusion of some noncarbonaceous material into the Antrim in some locations. The density function for the entire formation showed fractional yields of oil of only 20% > 7.0 gal/ton, 15% > 8.0 gal/ton and 5.0% > 11 gal/ton. The average oil yield represents for an estimated 44,500 square miles of the Michigan Basin the potential of 2.8 trillion barrels of Fischer Assay extractable oil.

  13. Development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems for Flexible Electricity and Reduced Fossil Fuel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Curtis; Charles Forsberg; Humberto Garcia

    2015-05-01

    We propose the development of Nuclear Renewable Oil Shale Systems (NROSS) in northern Europe, China, and the western United States to provide large supplies of flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity and fossil fuel production with reduced CO2 emissions. NROSS are a class of large hybrid energy systems in which base-load nuclear reactors provide the primary energy used to produce shale oil from kerogen deposits and simultaneously provide flexible, dispatchable, very-low-carbon electricity to the grid. Kerogen is solid organic matter trapped in sedimentary shale, and large reserves of this resource, called oil shale, are found in northern Europe, China, and the western United States. NROSS couples electricity generation and transportation fuel production in a single operation, reduces lifecycle carbon emissions from the fuel produced, improves revenue for the nuclear plant, and enables a major shift toward a very-low-carbon electricity grid. NROSS will require a significant development effort in the United States, where kerogen resources have never been developed on a large scale. In Europe, however, nuclear plants have been used for process heat delivery (district heating), and kerogen use is familiar in certain countries. Europe, China, and the United States all have the opportunity to use large scale NROSS development to enable major growth in renewable generation and either substantially reduce or eliminate their dependence on foreign fossil fuel supplies, accelerating their transitions to cleaner, more efficient, and more reliable energy systems.

  14. A dual-porosity model for simulating solute transport in oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    A model is described for simulating three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport in oil shale and associated geohydrologic units. The model treats oil shale as a dual-porosity medium by simulating flow and transport within fractures using the finite-element method. Diffusion of solute between fractures and the essentially static water of the shale matrix is simulated by including an analytical solution that acts as a source-sink term to the differential equation of solute transport. While knowledge of fracture orientation and spacing is needed to effectively use the model, it is not necessary to map the locations of individual fractures. The computer program listed in the report incorporates many of the features of previous dual-porosity models while retaining a practical approach to solving field problems. As a result the theory of solute transport is not extended in any appreciable way. The emphasis is on bringing together various aspects of solute transport theory in a manner that is particularly suited to the unusual groundwater flow and solute transport characteristics of oil shale systems. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Hydrologic-information needs for oil-shale development, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, O.J.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrologic information is not adequate for proper development of the large oil-shale reserves of Piceance basin in northwestern Colorado. Exploratory drilling and aquifer testing are needed to define the hydrologic system, to provide wells for aquifer testing, to design mine-drainage techniques, and to explore for additional water supplies. Sampling networks are needed to supply hydrologic data on the quantity and quality of surface water, ground water, and springs. A detailed sampling network is proposed for the White River basin because of expected impacts related to water supplies and waste disposal. Emissions from oil-shale retorts to the atmosphere need additional study because of possible resulting corrosion problems and the destruction of fisheries. Studies of the leachate materials and the stability of disposed retorted shale piles are needed to insure that these materials will not cause problems. Hazards related to in-situ retorts, and the wastes related to oil-shale development in general also need further investigation. (USGS)

  16. Correlations describing the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversions of six Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.M.

    1991-12-31

    A set of correlations has been developed to describe the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversion of six Eastern oil shales. Laboratory scale fluidized bed and thermogravimetric data were used to relate hydroretorting conditions and organic carbon conversions to oil, gas, and residue. Conversions have been found to depend on temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time over the ranges studied of 750 to 865 K, 0 to 7 MPa H{sub 2}, and 0 to 30 minutes, respectively. Gas yield increases with increasing temperature but is independent of changes in hydrogen pressure. Oil yield increases with increasing hydrogen pressure and has different relationships to temperature for the various shales. A single mechanism has been used to describe the carbon conversions of Alabama and Tennessee Chattanooga, Indiana and Kentucky, New Albany, Michigan Antrim, and Ohio Cleveland shales under PFH conditions. The mechanism includes the simultaneous conversion of carbon to gas, oil, and an active carbon species which can form oil or remain as residue carbon. Yields are predicted over the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time ranges used to PFH processing.

  17. Correlations describing the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversions of six Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    A set of correlations has been developed to describe the pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting carbon conversion of six Eastern oil shales. Laboratory scale fluidized bed and thermogravimetric data were used to relate hydroretorting conditions and organic carbon conversions to oil, gas, and residue. Conversions have been found to depend on temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time over the ranges studied of 750 to 865 K, 0 to 7 MPa H{sub 2}, and 0 to 30 minutes, respectively. Gas yield increases with increasing temperature but is independent of changes in hydrogen pressure. Oil yield increases with increasing hydrogen pressure and has different relationships to temperature for the various shales. A single mechanism has been used to describe the carbon conversions of Alabama and Tennessee Chattanooga, Indiana and Kentucky, New Albany, Michigan Antrim, and Ohio Cleveland shales under PFH conditions. The mechanism includes the simultaneous conversion of carbon to gas, oil, and an active carbon species which can form oil or remain as residue carbon. Yields are predicted over the temperature, hydrogen pressure, and residence time ranges used to PFH processing.

  18. Eastern gas shales bibliography selected annotations: gas, oil, uranium, etc. Citations in bituminous shales worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, V.S.

    1980-06-01

    This bibliography contains 2702 citations, most of which are annotated. They are arranged by author in numerical order with a geographical index following the listing. The work is international in scope and covers the early geological literature, continuing through 1979 with a few 1980 citations in Addendum II. Addendum I contains a listing of the reports, well logs and symposiums of the Unconventional Gas Recovery Program (UGR) through August 1979. There is an author-subject index for these publications following the listing. The second part of Addendum I is a listing of the UGR maps which also has a subject-author index following the map listing. Addendum II includes several important new titles on the Devonian shale as well as a few older citations which were not found until after the bibliography had been numbered and essentially completed. A geographic index for these citations follows this listing.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERING ON A 50-YEAR OLD RETORTED OIL-SHALE WASTE PILE, RULISON EXPERIMENTAL RETORT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Dean, Walter E.; Ackerman, Daniel J.; ,

    1985-01-01

    An oil-shale mine and experimental retort were operated near Rulison, Colorado by the U. S. Bureau of Mines from 1926 to 1929. Samples from seven drill cores from a retorted oil-shale waste pile were analyzed to determine 1) the chemical and mineral composition of the retorted oil shale and 2) variations in the composition that could be attributed to weathering. Unweathered, freshly-mined samples of oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation and slope wash collected away from the waste pile were also analyzed for comparison. The waste pile is composed of oil shale retorted under either low-temperature (400-500 degree C) or high-temperature (750 degree C) conditions. The results of the analyses show that the spent shale within the waste pile contains higher concentrations of most elements relative to unretorted oil shale.

  20. Partitioning of major, minor, and trace elements during simulated in-situ oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.P.

    1980-05-01

    The fate of inorganic constituents in Green River, Antrim, and Moroccan oil shales during in-situ retorting has been investigated. The partitioning or distribution of 50 elements to the spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and gases was studied by completing mass balances for several runs of three simulated in-situ retorts. Byproducts and products from 24 simulated in-situ retort runs were analyzed. The effect of shale origin and retort operating conditions, including temperature, particle size, atmosphere, and gas flow rate, on partitioning patterns was investigated, and the resulting data were used to develop a conceptual model of elemental partitioning during simulated in-situ retorting. Most of the 50 elements studied are not significantly mobilized during in-situ retorting. The only elements that are distributed in large quantities to the by-products are C, H, N, S, Cd, and Hg. Lesser but environmentally significant quatities of Se, As, Ni, and Co are distributed to the oils and waters, and at retorting temperatures in excess of about 900/sup 0/C, Se is mobilized to the gas phase. Mercury and Cd were the most mobile trace metals studied. About 70% of the Hg and 30% of the Cd were distributed to the gas phase. Mercury was released as a series of pulses in the last third of a retort run. Thermodynamic calculations indicated that elemental Hg is the major stable gas-phase species in all zones of an in-situ retort. The work demonstrated that elemental partitioning is controlled by the mineral residence of an element and the retort operating conditions employed. Significant differences were observed in the mobility and partitioning patterns of Green River, Antrim, and Moroccan oil shales. The only retorting conditions that had a statistically significant effect on partitioning patterns were temperature, input gas, particularly steam, and retort design and operation.

  1. Heat and mass transfer processes during the pyrolysis of antrim oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccirelli, R. A.

    1980-07-01

    A model of simultaneous heat and mass transfer processes during the pyrolysis of slabs of consolidated Michigan oil shale is presented. The manner in which the transport processes control the yield of pyrolysis product is emphasized; the model parameters are selected to reflect the conditions expected during in situ retorting. A single reaction describes the generation of gaseous pyrolysis product; numerical solution of the model mass transport equations indicates that the pressure and velocity profiles within the shale due to generation of gaseous reaction products can be assumed to be in a quasi-steady state. It is concluded that while the bulk convective transport is not essential to the energy equation, it is important for product yield calculations; the solution also suggests that the heat transfer through the surface convective layer and into the shale slab is the rate limiting process.

  2. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  3. NMR measurement of oil shale magnetic relaxation at high magnetic field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seymour, Joseph D.; Washburn, Kathryn E.; Kirkland, Catherine M.; Vogt, Sarah J.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Codd, Sarah L.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at low field is used extensively to provide porosity and pore-size distributions in reservoir rocks. For unconventional resources, due to low porosity and permeability of the samples, much of the signal exists at very short T2 relaxation times. In addition, the organic content of many shales will also produce signal at short relaxation times. Despite recent improvements in low-field technology, limitations still exist that make it difficult to account for all hydrogen-rich constituents in very tight rocks, such as shales. The short pulses and dead times along with stronger gradients available when using high-field NMR equipment provides a more complete measurement of hydrogen-bearing phases due to the ability to probe shorter T2 relaxation times (-5 sec) than can be examined using low-field equipment. Access to these shorter T2 times allows for confirmation of partially resolved peaks observed in low-field NMR data that have been attributed to solid organic phases in oil shales. High-field (300 MHz or 7 T) NMR measurements of spin-spin T2 and spin-lattice T1 magnetic relaxation of raw and artificially matured oil shales have potential to provide data complementary to low field (2 MHz or 0.05T) measurements. Measurements of high-field T2 and T1-T2 correlations are presented. These data can be interpreted in terms of organic matter phases and mineral-bound water known to be present in the shale samples, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and show distributions of hydrogen-bearing phases present in the shales that are similar to those observed in low field measurements.

  4. Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Schwietering, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

  5. Environmental research on a modified in situ oil shale task process. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the US Department of Energy's Oil Shale Task Force in its research program at the Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. facility at Logan Wash, Colorado. More specifically, the Task Force obtained samples from Retort 3E and Retort 6 and submitted these samples to a variety of analyses. The samples collected included: crude oil (Retort 6); light oil (Retort 6); product water (Retort 6); boiler blowdown (Retort 6); makeup water (Retort 6); mine sump water; groundwater; water from Retorts 1 through 5; retort gas (Retort 6); mine air; mine dust; and spent shale core (Retort 3E). The locations of the sampling points and methods used for collection and storage are discussed in Chapter 2 (Characterization). These samples were then distributed to the various laboratories and universities participating in the Task Force. For convenience in organizing the data, it is useful to group the work into three categories: Characterization, Leaching, and Health Effects. While many samples still have not been analyzed and much of the data remains to be interpreted, there are some preliminary conclusions the Task Force feels will be helpful in defining future needs and establishing priorities. It is important to note that drilling agents other than water were used in the recovery of the core from Retort 3E. These agents have been analyzed (see Table 12 in Chapter 2) for several constituents of interest. As a result some of the analyses of this core sample and leachates must be considered tentative.

  6. Paleoenvironmental signals and paleoclimatic condition of the Early Maastrichtian oil shales from Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, Douaa; Wagreich, Michael; Zaki, Rafat; Mohamed, Ramadan S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Early Maastrichtian oil shales are hosted in the Duwi Formation of the Central Eastern Desert, Egypt. The examined member represents up to 20% of the total Duwi Formation. This interval is mainly composed of siliciclastic facies, phosphorites facies and carbonate facies. Oil shales microfacies is mainly composed of smectite, kaolinite, calcite, fluorapatite, quartz and pyrite. They are enriched in a number of major elements and trace metals in particular Ca, P, V, Ni, Cr, Sr, Zn, Mo, Nb, U and Y compared to the post-Archaean Australian shale (PAAS). Chondrite-normalized REEs patterns of oil shales for the studied area display light rare earth elements enrichment relatively to heavy rare earth elements with negative Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* anomalies. The most remarkable indicators for redox conditions are enrichments of V, Mo, Ni, Cr, U content and depletion of Mn content. Besides, V/V+Ni, V/Ni, U/Th, Ni/Co, authigentic uranium ratios with presence of framboidal shape of pyrite and its size are reflecting the deposition of these shales under marine anoxic to euxinic environmental conditions. Additionally, the ratio of Strontium (Sr) to Barium (Ba) Sr/Ba reflected highly saline water during deposition. Elemental ratios critical to paleoclimate and paleoweathering (Rb /Sr, Al2O3/TiO2), CIA values, binary diagram between (Al2O3+K2O+Na2O) and SiO2 and types of clay minerals dominated reflect warm to humid climate conditions prevailing during the accumulation of these organic-rich petroleum source rocks.

  7. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E. ); Macko, S. ) Engel, M. )

    1996-01-01

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R'Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  8. Silurian shale origin for light oil, condensate, and gas in Algeria and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Zumberge, J.E.; Macko, S. Engel, M.

    1996-12-31

    Two of the largest gas fields in the world, Hasi R`Mel, Algeria and North Dome, Qatar, also contain substantial condensate and light oil reserves. Gas to source rock geochemical correlation is difficult due to the paucity of molecular parameters in the former although stable isotope composition is invaluable. However, by correlating source rocks with light oils and condensates associated with gas production using traditional geochemical parameters such as biomarkers and isotopes, a better understanding of the origin of the gas is achieved. Much of the crude oil in the Ghadames/Illizi Basins of Algeria has long been thought to have been generated from Silurian shales. New light oil discoveries in Saudi Arabia have also been shown to originate in basal euxinic Silurian shales. Key sterane and terpane biomarkers as well as the stable carbon isotopic compositions of the C15+ saturate and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions allow for the typing of Silurian-sourced, thermally mature light oils in Algeria and the Middle East. Even though biomarkers are often absent due to advanced thermal maturity, condensates can be correlated to the light oils using (1) carbon isotopes of the residual heavy hydrocarbon fractions, (2) light hydrocarbon distributions (e.g., C7 composition), and (3) compound specific carbon isotopic composition of the light hydrocarbons. The carbon isotopes of the C2-C4 gas components ran then be compared to the associated condensate and light oil isotopic composition.

  9. Oil-shale data, cores, and samples collected by the U.S. geological survey through 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.; Gay, Frances; Michalski, Thomas C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has acquired a large collection of geotechnical data, drill cores, and crushed samples of oil shale from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. The data include about 250,000 shale-oil analyses from about 600 core holes. Most of the data is from Colorado where the thickest and highest-grade oil shales of the Green River Formation are found in the Piceance Creek basin. Other data on file but not yet in the computer database include hundreds of lithologic core descriptions, geophysical well logs, and mineralogical and geochemical analyses. The shale-oil analyses are being prepared for release on floppy disks for use on microcomputers. About 173,000 lineal feet of drill core of oil shale and associated rocks, as well as 100,000 crushed samples of oil shale, are stored at the Core Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Lakewood, Colo. These materials are available to the public for research.

  10. Mixing layer growth and background air-quality measurements over the Colorado oil-shale area

    SciTech Connect

    Laulainen, N.S.; Whiteman, C.D.; Davis, W.E.; Thorp, J.M.

    1981-06-01

    The daily growth of convective boundary layers over the complex terrain of the oil shale areas of Colorado is a prominent feature of the meteorology of the region. The development of these layers was investigated using airsondes, rawinsondes, and aircraft. The deep growth of the layers in August, to heights in excess of 5500-m MSL on clear or partly cloudy days, is expected to have important implications for the dispersal of pollutants released in the region as the oil shale resource undergoes future development. Aircraft observations show that the present background air quality is good over the region and that pollutants, when present, become well mixed throughout the depth of the convective boundary layer. The layer therefore represents an important natural means of dilution for pollutants introduced into the atmosphere. Work is proceeding to incorporate the time-dependent convective boundary layer growth into air pollution models for the region.

  11. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  12. Method and apparatus for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Robert S.; Rundberg, Sten I.; Vaughn, James V.; Williams, Thomas P.; Benson, Gregory C.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is provided for igniting an in situ oil shale retort having an open void space over the top of a fragmented mass of particles in the retort. A conduit is extended into the void space through a hole in overlying unfragmented formation and has an open end above the top surface of the fragmented mass. A primary air pipe having an open end above the open end of the conduit and a liquid atomizing fuel nozzle in the primary air pipe above the open end of the primary air pipe are centered in the conduit. Fuel is introduced through the nozzle, primary air through the pipe, and secondary air is introduced through the conduit for vortical flow past the open end of the primary air pipe. The resultant fuel and air mixture is ignited for combustion within the conduit and the resultant heated ignition gas impinges on the fragmented mass for heating oil shale to an ignition temperature.

  13. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  14. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting and fluid-flow technologies required to prepare a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. The first section of this report summarizes the rock fragmentation program completed with the cooperation of the Oil Shale Consortium and Science Applications, Inc.; it also details the plans for a joint DOE/Sandia National Laboratories/Los Alamos program based on the results of the Consortium program. In addition, Sec. I describes the explosive engineering tests conducted to evaluate dead-pressing characteristics and to verify the reversal-plane fracture capabilities of the ANFO slurry explosive used in the Consortium program. The second section presents a paper on computer modeling and theory that relates the permeability of fractured rock to percolation theory and statistical crack mechanics.

  15. Chemiluminescence vs. Kjeldahl determination of nitrogen in oil shale retort waters and organonitrogen compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.M.; Daughton, C.G.

    1985-10-01

    The applicability of combustion/chemiluminescent nitrogen analysis to quantifying nitrogen in oil shale wastewaters and various representative chemical classes was demonstrated. Only azoxy compounds and those containing the pyrazole nucleus were not amenable to analysis. The majority of 56 compounds tested yielded from 90% to 110% of their theoretical nitrogen contents: enhanced recovery was found for nitrogen oxide salts. For 12 oil shale wastewaters, combustion/chemiluminescence gave total nitrogen values (1100-28800 mg/L) that did not differ statistically (P > 0.10) from those obtained by the time-consuming wet-chemical Kjeldahl method. The relative standard deviations for ten matrix or solvent effects were found. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. Thermal stability of some aircraft turbine fuels derived from oil shale and coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal stability breakpoint temperatures are shown for 32 jet fuels prepared from oil shale and coal syncrudes by various degrees of hydrogenation. Low severity hydrotreated shale oils, with nitrogen contents of 0.1 to 0.24 weight percent, had breakpoint temperatures in the 477 to 505 K (400 to 450 F) range. Higher severity treatment, lowering nitrogen levels to 0.008 to 0.017 weight percent, resulted in breakpoint temperatures in the 505 to 533 K (450 to 500 F) range. Coal derived fuels showed generally increasing breakpoint temperatures with increasing weight percent hydrogen, fuels below 13 weight percent hydrogen having breakpoints below 533 K (500 F). Comparisons are shown with similar literature data.

  17. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  18. Apparatus and method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, Carlon C.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting such method are disclosed for igniting a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort. The method is conducted by forming a hole through unfragmented formation to the fragmented mass. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the hole. A fuel is introduced into a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The fuel and oxygen-containing gas mix forming a combustible mixture which is ignited for establishing a combustion zone in a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The hot gas generated in the combustion zone is conducted from the hole into the fragmented mass for heating a portion of the fragmented mass above an ignition temperature of oil shale.

  19. Current environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale: draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    This document was prepared for DOE Resource Applications. It provides a compilation of information on current environmental, health, safety and socioeconomic research activities related to oil shale. The information is the most recent available through August 29, 1980. Included are the following: (1) project title; (2) adminstering agency; (3) contractor; (4) project status; (5) funding level; (6) project schedule; (7) deliverable; and (8) key personnel. The data contained in these reports can be used in environmental impact analyses relating oil shale to various incentives given in the Alternative Fuels Bill. The information provided was obtained from computer search printouts, review of respective agency documents and communication with agency personnel. A complete list of references is provided. The sponsoring organizations include the Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Agriculture, and the Department of Interior.

  20. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental monitoring plan, Annual report, October 1, 1987-September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale 'B' process. The compliance monitoring data and implementation of supplemental sampling for source monitoring and industrial hygiene monitoring are described.

  1. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. . Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  2. Wildlife distribution and abundance on the Utah oil shale tracts 1975-1984

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, C.V.

    1986-07-01

    Distribution and abundance of 215 amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals were monitored for 10 years on Utah's Oil Shale Tracts using line transects, mist netting, and live trapping. Wildlife monitoring was conducted in four major vegetation types and during all seasons to establish a quantitative baseline for use in impact identification during oil shale mining. Habitat preferences were established for many species in cold desert vegetation of two types of desert shrub, and juniper and riparian woodlands. Seasonal, annual, and habitat distribution of each class demonstrated a variety of adaptive responses to environmental variables. The most important environmental variables, that is, those factors resulting in a predictable change in wildlife populations, were, in descending order: weather, food resource, shelter, and competition. 31 references, 14 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Impact of oxidation and reduction on the leaching potential of trace metals from spent oil shale. [Reducing and oxidizing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Carroll, R.B.

    1985-12-01

    The long-term quality of water produced at spent oil shale disposal facilities is a critical concern. Understanding the release and mobility of trace elements as natural weathering of the disposal pile occurs is particularly important. Because spent oil shale leachates are highly alkaline, weathering reactions that increase leachate acidity, thus trace element release and mobility, must be characterized. In order to simulate weathering environments that would occur in a waste disposal pile (i.e., saturated and unsaturated groundwater environments), spent oil shale has been leached under saturated and unsaturated conditions. Unsaturated conditions (an oxidizing environment) allow the oxidation of iron sulfides and adsorption of carbon dioxide. Saturated leaching conditions (a reducing environment) should not allow the acid generation by oxidation or carbon dioxide adsorption. Both of these conditions generate hydrogen ions and should reduce pH in spent oil shale leachate. Spent oil shale was leached for six weeks and the leachate analyzed for pH, sulfates, arsenic, boron, cadimum, calcium, copper, lithium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, strontium, and zinc. The leaching studies indicate that the oxidizing simulation did not significantly decrease the leachate pH, and under reducing conditions the greatest concentration of trace elements were leached from the shale. The trace elements extracted from the spent oil shale in the greatest concentrations are all soluble in high pH solutions. These results indicate that spent oil shale disposal piles in arid to semiarid environments may maintain an alkaline pH because of an extremely high alkaline buffering capacity. These data also indicate that research on carbon dioxide absorption is needed to assess the long-term contribution of acidity to modify solution pH and trace element mobility. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Empirical characterization of oil-shale cratering experiments. [RDX, ANFO, PETN, TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.L.; Craig, J.L.; Lombardo, K.

    1983-01-01

    Numerous small- and intermediate-size cratering experiments have been conducted in Piceance Creek Basin oil shale at the Colony and Anvil Points oil shale mines near Rifle, Colorado. The purpose of these experiments was to evaluate scaling as a tool to infer the behavior of large-scale tests from small-scale experiments, to calibrate the hydrodynamic computer codes used to model explosive fragmentation of oil shale, and to investigate the influence of bedding plane orientation, natural joints, fractures, and the grade of oil shale on rock fragmentation. The small tests were made using PETN and RDX explosive with charge sizes of a few grams. The intermediate-sized tests used ANFO or TNT explosives with charge sizes of 5 to 100 kg. Crater dimensions were measured on all experiments. Crater volumes were calculated from screened rubble volumes on the intermediate-scale experiments and measured directly on the small-scale experiments. Fragment size distributions were measured on most of the intermediate-sized tests and on several of the small-scale experiments. The analyses of these cratering data show: (1) small-scale cratering tests can be used to qualitatively predict the kinds of geologic interactions that will influence a larger-scale experiment; (2) the site specific geology plays a dominant role in the formation of the crater; (3) small flaws and fractures influence crater development and particle size distributions in small-scale craters in the same manner that joint and fracture systems influence intermediate-scale experiments; (4) complex site geology causes increases in the critical and optimum depths of burial and changes the symmetry of the crater; and (5) small- and intermediate-scale cratering experiments can be used to calibrate hydrodynamic computer codes if great care is used to identify the effect of site specific geology. 15 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Studebaker, Irving G.; Hefelfinger, Richard

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  6. Multivariate analysis of ATR-FTIR spectra for assessment of oil shale organic geochemical properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was coupled with partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis to relate spectral data to parameters from total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and programmed pyrolysis to assess the feasibility of developing predictive models to estimate important organic geochemical parameters. The advantage of ATR-FTIR over traditional analytical methods is that source rocks can be analyzed in the laboratory or field in seconds, facilitating more rapid and thorough screening than would be possible using other tools. ATR-FTIR spectra, TOC concentrations and Rock–Eval parameters were measured for a set of oil shales from deposits around the world and several pyrolyzed oil shale samples. PLSR models were developed to predict the measured geochemical parameters from infrared spectra. Application of the resulting models to a set of test spectra excluded from the training set generated accurate predictions of TOC and most Rock–Eval parameters. The critical region of the infrared spectrum for assessing S1, S2, Hydrogen Index and TOC consisted of aliphatic organic moieties (2800–3000 cm−1) and the models generated a better correlation with measured values of TOC and S2 than did integrated aliphatic peak areas. The results suggest that combining ATR-FTIR with PLSR is a reliable approach for estimating useful geochemical parameters of oil shales that is faster and requires less sample preparation than current screening methods.

  7. Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Martin M.

    1982-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

  8. Determination of sulfur anions in spent oil shale leachates by ion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Niss, N.D.

    1989-07-01

    The leaching and transport of chemical constituents from spent oil shale disposal areas is an area of environmental concern at the present time. Sulfur-containing compounds are prevalent in spent oil shales and have the potential to leach into aqueous systems surrounding disposal sites. Computer modeling has been used in recent years to predict the transport of species in an aqueous environment. The quality of model predictions, however, depends on the validation steps taken in comparing model predictions with laboratory data on ion speciation. Further, the quality of the validation step depends on the reliability of laboratory methods in generating ion speciation data. The purpose of this study was to develop methods to separate and quantify sulfur-containing anions in spent oil shale leachates by suppressed ion chromatography. The anions studied were S{sup 2{minus}} (sulfide), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (sulfite), SO{sup 2{minus}}{sub 4} (sulfate), SCN{sup {minus}} (thiocyanate), S{sub 2}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 3} (thiosulfate), and S{sub 4}O{sup 2{minus}}{sub 6} (tetrathionate). After the separations were developed, a series of method-challenging experiments were performed to test the reliability of the methods and assure the development of an analytically sound product. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Palaeoclimatic evolution during Eocene and its influence on oil shale mineralisation, Fushun basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingtao; Liu, Zhaojun; Bruch, Angela A.; Liu, Rong; Hu, Fei

    2012-02-01

    The Fushun basin is a small, explored, coal and oil shale-bearing, Cenozoic fault basin in the Liaoning Province, northeast China. The basin mainly consists of Eocene swamp to lacustrine deposits of the Guchengzi to Xilutian Formation, and contains the biggest opencast oil shale mine in Asia. This mine has provided an ideal opportunity to undertake palaeoclimate reconstruction in this basin based on a single geological profile and the analyses of 93 samples, using various approaches, namely field geological observation, clay mineralogical and geochemical (Sr/Ba, Sr/Cu, stable C and O isotope) analyses, all of which were compared with palaeobotanical data. The Eocene climate of Fushun basin evolved from warm temperate to north subtropical, and generally changed from warm humid to subhumid-semiarid. Paleoclimatic and geochemical parameters shows that the very warm and humid climate during Jijuntun Formation increased the initial productivity of lake water, and caused a steady stratification of the lake water, then caused oxygen lack in the bottom of water. Productivity of the lake provides the mean origin of organic matters for oil shale formation, and steady anoxic environment is beneficial for the conservation of organic matters.

  10. Methodology and concepts for the design of surface storage fills at the Anvil Points Oil Shale Retort Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Strohm, W.E. Jr.; Krinitzsky, E.L.

    1983-12-01

    Primary obtectives in design of surface disposal fills for processed and raw oil shales are: (a) to insure long-term physical stability, and (b) to prevent surface runoff, surface erosion, and possible subsurface seepage from degrading the water quality of streams and ground water, it was concluded that the analysis and design of spent shale disposal fills should be based on sound geotechnical engineeering principles, considerable experience, and good judgment. An understanding of the source of variability of spent shale materials and its effect on engineering properties is a first step in developing fill design. A second important step is the assessment of long-term changes in the properties of spent shale within a disposal fill. This assessment requires consideration of possible thermal, hydrochemical, and physical interactions within the fill and between the fill and site environment. The site environment is site-specific and depends on the geological, surface and subsurface hydrological, and geotechnical characteristics of the site. The variability of spent shale materials is a direct function of variations in mineral and chemical composition of the raw shale and of the processes applied. Current technology for the design and construction of spent shale disposal fills has not been proven by experience. A major problem is the large quantities of spent shale generated for surface disposal and the lack of available sites other than large gulches in the oil shale country of the western United States. Conceptual research fill designs developed in this study should be refined and constructed to provide needed information on in situ properties and long-term performance. Research fills planned by others should be augmented to obtain needed information, especially for codisposal of spent shales with treated waste water, raw shale fines, and process dust.

  11. BX in situ oil shale project. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1-November 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dougan, P.M.

    1981-12-20

    September 1, 1981-November 30, 1981, was the fourth consecutive quarter of superheated steam injection at the BX In Situ Oil Shale Project. During the quarter, 117,520 barrels of water as steam were injected into project injection wells at an average wellhead temperature of 715/sup 0/F and an average wellhead pressure of 1378 PSIG. During the same period, 148,516 barrels of fluid were produced from the project production wells for a produced-to-injected fluid ratio of 1.26 to 1.0. Net oil production for the quarter was 169 barrels.

  12. Implications from a study of the timing of oil entrapment in Monterey siliceous shales, Lost Hills, San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Julander, D.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The oil and gas-rich upper Miocene siliceous shales of the Monterey Group are the primary development target in the Lost Hills Oil Field, San Joaquin Valley, California. As a result of diagenesis, the siliceous shales can be subdivided by opal phase into three sections (from shallow to deep): the Opal-A diatomites which are rich in oil saturation; the Opal-CT porcellanites which are predominantly wet but include pockets of moderate oil saturation; and the Quartz cherts and porcellanites which in some places are highly oil saturated immediately below the Opal CT section. Productivity trends in each of the three sections have been established through drilling and production testing, but a predictive model was not available until a study of the timing of oil entrapment at Lost Hills was recently completed. The study included an analysis of the depositional history of the siliceous shales and timing of: (1) structural growth of the Lost Hills fold, (2) source-rock maturation, and (3) development of the opal-phase segregation of the Monterey shales. The study led to enhanced understanding of the known oil saturation and production trends in the three opal-phase sections and yielded a predictive model that is being used to identify areas in the field with remedial or delineation potential. The study also produced evidence of fold axis rotation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene that helps explain differences in fracture orientations within the Monterey shales.

  13. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

  14. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar

  15. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brittingham, Margaret C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  16. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats.

    PubMed

    Brittingham, Margaret C; Maloney, Kelly O; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Bowen, Zachary H

    2014-10-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  17. Ecological risks of shale oil and gas development to wildlife, aquatic resources and their habitats.

    PubMed

    Brittingham, Margaret C; Maloney, Kelly O; Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Bowen, Zachary H

    2014-10-01

    Technological advances in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have led to the exploration and exploitation of shale oil and gas both nationally and internationally. Extensive development of shale resources has occurred within the United States over the past decade, yet full build out is not expected to occur for years. Moreover, countries across the globe have large shale resources and are beginning to explore extraction of these resources. Extraction of shale resources is a multistep process that includes site identification, well pad and infrastructure development, well drilling, high-volume hydraulic fracturing and production; each with its own propensity to affect associated ecosystems. Some potential effects, for example from well pad, road and pipeline development, will likely be similar to other anthropogenic activities like conventional gas drilling, land clearing, exurban and agricultural development and surface mining (e.g., habitat fragmentation and sedimentation). Therefore, we can use the large body of literature available on the ecological effects of these activities to estimate potential effects from shale development on nearby ecosystems. However, other effects, such as accidental release of wastewaters, are novel to the shale gas extraction process making it harder to predict potential outcomes. Here, we review current knowledge of the effects of high-volume hydraulic fracturing coupled with horizontal drilling on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the contiguous United States, an area that includes 20 shale plays many of which have experienced extensive development over the past decade. We conclude that species and habitats most at risk are ones where there is an extensive overlap between a species range or habitat type and one of the shale plays (leading to high vulnerability) coupled with intrinsic characteristics such as limited range, small population size, specialized habitat requirements, and high sensitivity to disturbance

  18. Evaluation of the Resource Potential of Shale Hydrocarbons on the Territory Tatarstan Republic (Volga-Ural oil and gas province)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslimov, Renat; Plotnikova, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Volga-Ural provinces of Eastern European platform are referred to industrial developed areas of oil production with the deteriorating structure of residual hydrocarbon reserves, forcing to search for new reserves of raw materials growth, including unconventional sources of hydrocarbons - shale strata. The top priority for the study and evaluation of this territory are complexes of Domanic and Domanician shale deposits (Upper Devonian carbonate-siliceous-clays horizons that contain a significant amount of ТОС). In the present report the prospects of the development of shale oil facilities design methods in Tatarstan are considered. A program for evaluation of oil and gas deposits prospects is worked out. The stages of its realization are described. A preliminary estimate of the cost of the program is made. Research on the evaluation criteria of shale oil and gas is conducted to accurately assess the resource potential of shale oil. Statistic analysis of the geochemical index of hydrocarbon source rocks in some areas of the Tatarstan (such as Melekessky basin, South-Tatar arch, North-Tatar arch and other) based on the characteristic of triple-division between the oil content and TOC of source rock, suggests that shale oil can be categorized into different levels of resource enrichment. The report contains results of analysis of organic matter porosity and permeability distribution in domanik type rocks on the Tatarstan area. First estimation of resource potential of shale hydrocarbons in the territory of the Republic of Tatarstan were carried out. Resource assessment carried out for domanik rocks of the Ust-Cheremshansk deflection in the Melekess depression. Method of evaluation provided an opportunity to evaluate amount of mobile hydrocarbons in dense shale rock. Still the question of the degree of maturity of the organic substance remains open. A detailed analysis of the pyrolysis was performed. The study of lithology and geochemistry allowed to develop shale

  19. Oil shale potential of the Heath and Tyler formations, Central Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, W.E.; Cole, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    The units in the middle of the Heath formation below the gypsum beds were found to have the highest oil yields. That interval was generally 25 to 50 ft (7.6 to 15.2 m) thick. The upper portion of the Heath formation yielded as much as 9.8 gal/ton in section 9, and 14.9 gal/ton in section 10. The Tyler formation was determined to have very low oil potential, with the maximum yield being 2.2 gal/ton. The instability of some of the Heath slopes could present problems in the mining of oil shale. Specific stratigraphic horizons in which zones of high and low oil and metal contents occur would be extremely difficult to map in areas where the units have been displaced by landslide movement.

  20. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  1. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer Assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  2. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels.

  3. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Perri, Pasquale R.; Cooney, John; Fong, Bill; Julander, Dale; Marasigan, Aleks; Morea, Mike; Piceno, Deborah; Stone, Bill; Emanuele, Mark; Sheffield, Jon; Wells, Jeff; Westbrook, Bill; Karnes, Karl; Pearson, Matt; Heisler, Stuart

    2000-04-24

    The primary objective of this project was to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale of the Bureau Vista Hills Field. Work was subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project focused on a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work would then be used to evaluate how the reservoir would respond to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) processes such as of CO2 flooding. The second phase of the project would be to implement and evaluate a CO2 in the Buena Vista Hills Field. A successful project would demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley.

  4. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. [Estimation of the cost of beneficiating Alabama shale

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the work performed during the program quarter from September 1, 1992 though November 30, 1992. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is the prime contractor for the program extension to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting II system technology. Four institutions are working with IGT as subcontractors. Task achievements are discussed for the following active tasks of the program: Subtask 3.7 innovative reactor concept testing; Subtask 3.9 catalytic hydroretorting; Subtask 3.10 autocatalysis in hydroretorting; Subtask 3.11 shale oil upgrading and evaluation; Subtask 4.1.3 stirred ball mill grinding; Subtask 4.1.5 alternative technology evaluation; Subtask 4.1.6 ultrafine size separation; Subtask 4.2.1 column flotation tests; Subtask 4.4 integrated grinding and flotation; Subtask 4.7 economic analysis; Subtask 6.2.2 wastewater treatability; Subtask 6.2.3 waste management facility conceptual design; and Subtask 8 project management and reporting.

  5. Parachute creek shale oil program monitoring review committee meeting report, October 10, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-10

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. This Report includes discussions of 1990 and 1991 Compliance Monitoring results, a Shale Disposal Area Progress report, and Supplemental Monitoring and its implementation, with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, as well as Treasury.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Ordovician Utica Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Ryder, Robert T.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Whidden, Katherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey assessed unconventional oil and gas resources of the Upper Ordovician Utica Shale and adjacent units in the Appalachian Basin Province. The assessment covers parts of Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. The geologic concept is that black shale of the Utica Shale and adjacent units generated hydrocarbons from Type II organic material in areas that are thermally mature for oil and gas. The source rocks generated petroleum that migrated into adjacent units, but also retained significant hydrocarbons within the matrix and adsorbed to organic matter of the shale. These are potentially technically recoverable resources that can be exploited by using horizontal drilling combined with hydraulic fracturing techniques.

  7. Assessment of transport processes using a combined pyrolysis-combustion model for the retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Crowl, D.A.; Piccirelli, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    A mathematical model is developed to represent the coupled mass and energy transport effects of simultaneous pyrolysis and combustion processes occurring within a single piece of consolidated oil shale. Major emphasis is placed on assessing the relative importance of the coupled transport processes. Numerical solution of the resulting equations using Antrim oil shale parameters show a number of important effects. First, it is possible for the combustion oxygen to diffuse against the outgoing stream of pyrolysis products. Thus, simultaneous pyrolysis and combustion fronts can occur within the same localized region of shale. Second, the heat generated at the combustion front can conduct through the solid shale to the pyrolysis zone. This leads to a substantial increase in pyrolysis activity.

  8. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Self, Jesse G.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a total of 1.32 trillion barrels of oil in place in 18 oil shale zones in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado.

  9. Hydrocarbon biomarkers, thermal maturity, and depositional setting of tasmanite oil shales from Tasmania, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revill, A. T.; Volkman, J. K.; O'Leary, T.; Summons, R. E.; Boreham, C. J.; Banks, M. R.; Denwer, K.

    1994-09-01

    This study represents the first geological and organic geochemical investigation of samples of tasmanite oil shale representing different thermal maturities from three separate locations in Tasmania, Australia. The most abundant aliphatic hydrocarbon in the immature oil shale from Latrobe is a C 19 tricyclic alkane, whereas in the more mature samples from Oonah and Douglas River low molecular weight n- alkanes dominate the extractable hydrocarbon distribution. The aromatic hydrocarbons are predominantly derivatives of tricyclic compounds, with 1,2,8-trimethylphenanthrene increasing in relative abundance with increasing maturity. Geological and geochemical evidence suggests that the sediments were deposited in a marine environment of high latitude with associated cold waters and seasonal seaice. It is proposed that the organism contributing the bulk of the kerogen, Tasmanites, occupied an environmental niche similar to that of modern sea-ice diatoms and that bloom conditions coupled with physical isolation from atmospheric CO 2 led to the distinctive "isotopically heavy" δ 13C values (-13.5‰ to -11.7‰) for the kerogen. δ 13C data from modern sea-ice diatoms (-7‰) supports this hypothesis. Isotopic analysis of n- alkanes in the bitumen (-13.5 to -31‰) suggest a multiple source from bacteria and algae. On the other hand, the n- alkanes generated from closed-system pyrolysis of the kerogen (-15‰) are mainly derived from the preserved Tasmanites biopolymer algaenan. The tricyclic compounds (mean -8‰) both in the bitumen and pyrolysate, have a common precursor. They are consistently enriched in 13C compared with the kerogen and probably have a different source from the n- alkanes. The identification of a location where the maturity of the tasmanite oil shale approaches the "oil window" raises the possibility that it may be a viable petroleum source rock.

  10. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, Jennifer L.; Rodgers, Larry W.; Koslosy, John V.; LaRue, Albert D.; Kaufman, Keith C.; Sarv, Hamid

    1998-01-01

    A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

  11. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  12. The relative importance of ground-water and surface-water supplies to oil-shale development, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis was perfomed of the required active storage capacity (VMAX) of a hypothetical reservoir on the White River to different assumptions about water demands for oil-shale development and the contributions from various sources of water. Estimates of VMAX were found to be sensitive to estimates of the supply of water available from the oil-shale aquifers. For example, the current estimate of average natural recharge to the oil-shale aquifers is approximately equal to the amount of water required by an oil-shale industry producing 250,000 barrels of oil per day and requiring 3 barrels of water per barrel of shale-oil produced. Estimates of VMAX were also sensitive to estimates of the supply of water available from the Colorado River and the requirements for downstream releases on the White River. The sensitivity of VMAX to use of water from the four main streams in the Piceance basin (Parachute, Roan, Piceance, and Yellow Creeks) was less than its sensitivity to these factors. Compared to the uncertainty in other factors, water-supply estimates are shown to be insensitive to uncertainty in evaporation estimates. A transient analysis was performed using a synthetic streamflow model to generate 500 equally likely periods of monthly inflows to the hypothetical reservoir. An oil-shale industry was assumed to expand from 0 to 1 million barrels of oil per day over a 30-year time period, and mine water was assumed to be available at an increasing rate that averaged one-half the current estimated natural recharge rate to the Piceance basin. Use of this mine water to supply part of the water demand resulted in reductions in surface-storage requirements (VMAX) on the order of 15-20 thousand acre-ft over many of the 500 streamflow sequences. (USGS)

  13. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Morea

    1998-04-23

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  14. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Morea

    1997-04-25

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the West Dome of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  15. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Morea, Michael F.

    1999-11-08

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  16. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Morea, Michael F.

    1999-11-01

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: (1) Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; (2) Fracture characterization; (3) reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and (4) CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  17. Advanced Reservoir Characterization in the Antelope Shale to Establish the Viability of C02 Enhanced Oil Recovery in California's Monterey Formation Siliceous Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Morea

    1997-10-24

    The primary objective of this research is to conduct advanced reservoir characterization and modeling studies in the Antelope Shale reservoir. Characterization studies will be used to determine the technical feasibility of implementing a CO2 enhanced oil recovery project in the Antelope Shale in Buena Vista Hills Field. The Buena Vista Hills pilot CO2 project will demonstrate the economic viability and widespread applicability of CO2 flooding in fractured siliceous shale reservoirs of the San Joaquin Valley. The research consists of four primary work processes: Reservoir Matrix and Fluid Characterization; Fracture Characterization; Reservoir Modeling and Simulation; and CO2 Pilot Flood and Evaluation. Work done in these areas is subdivided into two phases or budget periods. The first phase of the project will focus on the application of a variety of advanced reservoir characterization techniques to determine the production characteristics of the Antelope Shale reservoir. Reservoir models based on the results of the characterization work will be used to evaluate how the reservoir will respond to secondary recovery and EOR processes. The second phase of the project will include the implementation and evaluation of an advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) pilot in the United Anticline (West Dome) of the Buena Vista Hills Field.

  18. Influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments at the Colony Mine, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Harper, M.D.; Craig, J.L.; Edwards, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory executed 19 intermediate scale cratering experiments in oil shale at the Colony Mine in Garfield County, Colorado. These experiments have led to a better understanding of fracture characteristics and fragmentation of in situ oil shale by use of a conventional high explosive. Geologic site characterization included detailed mapping, coring, and sample analyses. Site-specific geology was observed to be a major influence on the resulting crater geometry. The joint patterns at the experimental site frequently defined the final crater symmetry. Secondary influences included vugs, lithology changes, and grade fluctuations in the local stratigraphy. Most experiments, in both the rib and floor, were conducted to obtain data to investigate the fragmentation results within the craters. The rubble was screened for fragment-size distributions. Geologic features in proximity to the explosive charge had minimal effect on the rubble due to the overpowering effect of the detonation. However, these same features became more influential on the fracture and rubble characteristics with greater distances from the shothole. Postshot cores revealed a direct relationship between the grade of the oil shale and its susceptibility to fracturing. The Colony Mine experiments have demonstrated the significant role of geology in high explosive/oil shale interaction. It is probable that this role will have to be considered for larger applications to blast patterns and potential problems in retort stability in the future of oil shale development.

  19. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  20. Comparison between continuous stirred tank reactor extractor and soxhlet extractor for extraction of El-Lajjun oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Anabtawi, M.Z.

    1996-02-01

    Extraction on El-Lajjun oil shale in a continuous stirred tank reactor extractor (CSTRE) and a Soxhlet extractor was carried out using toluene and chloroform as solvents. Solvents were recovered using two distillation stages, a simple distillation followed by a fractional distillation. Gas chromotography was used to test for the existence of trapped solvent in the yield. It was found that extraction using a CSTRE gave a 12% increase in yield on average compared with the Soxhlet extractor, and an optimum shale size of 1.0mm offered a better yield and solvent recovery for both techniques. It was also found that an optimum ratio of solvent to oil shale of 2:1 gave the best oil yield. The Soxhlet extractor was found to offer an extraction rate of 1 hour to complete extraction compared with 4 hours in a CSTRE. The yield in a CSTRE was found to increase on increase of stirring. When extraction was carried out at the boiling point of the solvents in a CSTRE, the yield was found to increase by 30% on average compared to that of extraction when the solvent was at room temperature. When toluene was used for extraction, the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.032 g/g of oil shale and 76.4% of the solvent recovered, compared with 0.037 g/g of oil shale and 84.1% of the solvent recovered using a Soxhlet extractor.

  1. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  2. The environmental consequences of the oil shale utilization in Jordan: The effect of combustion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hasan, Tayel

    2015-04-01

    The geochemical analysis of the upper Cretaceous organic rich oil shale of El-Lajjoun revealed that it contains considerable concentrations of trace element when compared to the average world shale. The aim of this study was to deduce the effect of various combustion processes on the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the produced ashes.The oil shale powder samples were burned under Aerobic Combustion Process (ACP) at 700˚C, 850˚C and 1000˚C respectively, beside the anaerobic (pyrolysis) combustion process (PCP) at 600, 650, 700, 750 and 800˚C respectively.The ashes produced from the (ACP) caused almost all major oxides contents to increase with increasing burning temperature, particularly SiO2 and CaO were nearly doubled at temperature 1000 ˚C. Moreover, trace elements showed the same trend where ashes at higher temperatures (i.e. 1000 ˚C) have doubled its contents of trace elements such as Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and U. This was reflected through enrichment of calcite and quartz beside the anhydrite as the main mineral phases in the ACP ashes. As for the PCP ash show similar trend but relatively with lower concentrations as evident from its lowerEnrichment Factor (EF) values. This might be due to the higher organic matter remained in the PCP ashes compared with ACP ashes. However, PCP is more likely associated with toxic Cd and Asgasses as evident from their lowerconcentrations in the ashes.Moreover, recent results using the synchrotron-based XANES technique confirm that toxic elements are found in higher oxidation state due to ACP. The investigation was concerned on As and Cr. Thechromium in the original shales was in the form of Cr (III) and then it was converted to Cr(VI) in the ashes due of the ACP. Similarly, As (III) the XANES results showed that it was converted into As(V) too. These findingsare alarming and should be taken seriously. Because elements with higher oxidation states became more mobile, thus they can easily leached from the ash

  3. Organic geochemistry of black shale and associated oils of the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Group, Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, J.L. ); Jianyu, Chen )

    1993-08-01

    According to recent estimates, the Paradox basin may contain more than 700 million bbl and 1.3 tcf of producible oil and gas, respectively. Newly developed horizontal drilling methods may increase the potential for oil produced from fractured, organic-rich shale in the Paradox Formation of the Hermosa Group. The purpose of this study was to characterize the organic matter contained in the black shale, interbedded lithologies, and oils produced from associated reservoir rocks. Total organic carbon (TOC) content of the rocks is from less than 0.2 wt.% in evaporites to as much as about 25 wt% in some of the black shales. TOC content generally increases in the order of evaporites < siltstones < carbonates < black shale. Only the carbonate rock and black shale contain sufficient TOC to have generated and expelled petroleum. Varying proportions of organic matter types I, II, and III are present in the organic-rich black shales according to Rock-Eval pyrolysis (hydrogen indexes from [sup [minus

  4. Economic and social impacts of rapid shale oil development in western North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, Wannakuwatte Mitiwaduge Felix Nirmal

    This dissertation comprises of five qualitative and exploratory studies. The studies focus on the social and economic impacts of rapid shale oil development, which is colloquially referred to as an "oil boom" on the communities and its members in western North Dakota. The dissertation presents a detailed exploration of the impacts and implications of the boom on community values and attitudes, quality of life, and community development. Impact of the boom on each topic is presented as an independent article or chapter. The data for the dissertation was collected through open-ended, face-to-face interviews. The findings highlight the opportunities created by the boom, barriers inhibiting community development, and the solutions necessary to achieve the community development potential created by the economic activity of the oil boom.

  5. Alternative fuels: Parachute Creek shale oil project's economic and operational outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy awarded the Union Oil Company $400 million in price guarantees for synthetic crude oil produced by Parachute Creek shale oil project in Colorado. In 1985, Synthetic Fuels Corporation awarded an additional $500 million in price and loan guarantees to Union to modify the project's technology with a fluidized bed combustor. In December 1985, the Congress abolished SFC and transferred responsibility for the guarantees to the Treasury. GAO believes that because of the uncertainty of the project's economic and technical viability, it would not be in the government's best interest to expand an additional $500 million in financial assistance to install the combustor. If Union elects to proceed with the combustor, GAO recommends that Treasury use the analysis in this report to critically evaluate Union's proposal and explore the government's options for minimizing additional outlays on the project.

  6. Airborne Trace Gas and Aerosol Measurements in Several Shale Gas Basins during the SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) Campaign 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas from tight sand and shale formations has increased strongly over the last decade. This increased production has been associated with emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and other trace gases to the atmosphere, which are concerns for air quality, climate and air toxics. The NOAA Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) aircraft campaign took place in 2015, when the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between March 19 and April 27, 2015 in the following shale gas regions: Denver-Julesberg, Uintah, Upper Green River, San Juan, Bakken, Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Woodford, and Permian. The NOAA P3 was equipped with an extensive set of gas phase measurements, including instruments for methane, ethane, CO, CO2, a new H3O+CIMS, canister and cartridge samples for VOCs, HCHO, glyoxal, HNO3, NH3, NOx, NOy, PANs, ozone, and SO2. Aerosol number and size distributions were also measured. This presentation will focus on an overview of all the measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and discuss the differences between the shale gas regions. Due to a drop in oil prices, drilling for oil decreased in the months prior to the mission, but nevertheless the production of oil and natural gas were near the all-time high. Many of the shale gas basins investigated during SONGNEX have quite different characteristics. For example, the Permian Basin is a well-established field, whereas the Eagle Ford and the Bakken saw an almost exponential increase in production over the last few years. The basins differ by the relative amounts of natural gas versus oil that is being produced. Previous work had shown a large variability in methane emissions relative to the production (leak rate) between different basins. By including more and qualitatively different basins during SONGNEX, the study has provided an extensive data set to address how emissions depend on raw gas composition, extraction techniques and regulation. The influence of these

  7. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  8. Balanced-line rf electrode system for use in rf ground heating to recover oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Edelstein, W.A.; Vinegar, H.J.; Chiafu Hsu; Mueller, O.M.

    1993-08-17

    A system is described for extracting oil in-situ from a hydrocarbon bearing layer below a surface layer comprising: (a) a master oscillator for producing a fundamental frequency; (b) a plurality of heating sources, each comprising: radiofrequency (RF) producing means for providing a radiofrequency excitation signal based upon the fundamental frequency, a coaxial line coupled to the RF producing means for passing the radiofrequency signal through said surface layer without substantial loss of power; a conductive electrode located in the hydrocarbon bearing layer having a length related to the radiofrequency signal and adapted for radiating energy into said hydrocarbon bearing layer for causing shade oil to be extracted; a plurality of matching elements, each matching element coupled, respectively, between each respective electrode and a respective coaxial line for maximizing radiation emitted by the electrodes when they receive the radiofrequency signal; and (c) a plurality of producer wells adapted for collecting the extracted shale oil.

  9. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, June 1 - August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Devineni, P.A.V.; Cogswell, D.E.; Wiser, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    All tasks are on schedule, or ahead of schedule. Particular progress has been made in identifying industrial entities, commodities and specialty products of target interest for shale oil-derived products. There is clearly a major emphasis worldwide on new chemicals and shale oil-derived structures are similar to many of these chemicals of interest. Details of the mathematical modeling, programming and algorithm development have progressed with excellent results. Considerable effort will be required to interface these with the output of the gc/ms but we are receiving excellent support from Hewlett Packard in this regard. The ability to concentrate particularly valuable compounds with reasonable projected cost processes continues to show promise. In one system, a single-stage extraction recovered 87% of the total nitrogen in an extract representing only 33% of the fraction. Special attention is being paid to both nitrogen types and oxygen types. The raffinates from the polar solvent extractions will be evaluated for their oil and wax contents. All of the start-up infrastructure is now in place. Subcontracts have been initiated and equipment and supplies have been procured. We are now planning a major push to reach some general findings by early in 1994. From these findings, we will be prepared to focus on experimental verification of process design needed for the second program phase.

  10. Tectonic controls on Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales in the Junggar basin, NW China

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Collision of the Tarim craton with the southern margin of Asia during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian resulted in uplift of an ancestral Tian Shan range and geographic isolation of the previously marine Junggar basin. Dramatic shifts from marine to nonmarine sedimentation took place in both the southern Junggar and northern Tarim basins during the Permina. Paleocurrent analysis indicate that by the Late Permian, coarse-grained sediments in both basins were being supplied predominantly from the area of the Tian Shan. During the Late Permian, the southern Junggar received in excess of 5,000 m of nonmarine sediments, including approximately 1,000 m of laminated, highly organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales). These deposits commonly have TOCs of 20-30%, and Rock-Eval pyrolitic yields reaching 2,000 mg/g, ranking them among the most prolific petroleum source rocks in the world. Based on a comparison of the distribution of steranes and extended tricyclic terpanes, these Upper Permian oil shales appear to be the primary source of oils in the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Ancestral uplift of the Tian Shan thus produced a complex tectono-hydrologic partitioning of the Late Permina Junggar basin, which exerted a strong influence on the character of petroleum source rocks deposited within the basin.

  11. A Study of the Dielectric Properties of Dry and Saturated Green River Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J; Roberts, J; Harben, P

    2007-02-07

    We measured dielectric permittivity of dry and fluid-saturated Green River oil shale samples over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Dry sample measurements were carried out between room temperature and 146 C, saturated sample measurements were carried out at room temperature. Samples obtained from the Green River formation of Wyoming and from the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado were cored both parallel and perpendicular to layering. The samples, which all had organic richness in the range of 10-45 gal/ton, showed small variations between samples and a relatively small level of anisotropy of the dielectric properties when dry. The real and imaginary part of the relative dielectric permittivity of dry rock was nearly constant over the frequency range observed, with low values for the imaginary part (loss factor). Saturation with de-ionized water and brine greatly increased the values of the real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity, especially at the lower frequencies. Temperature effects were relatively small, with initial increases in permittivity to about 60 C, followed by slight decreases in permittivity that diminished as temperature increased. Implications of these observations for the in situ electromagnetic, or radio frequency (RF) heating of oil shale to produce oil and gas are discussed.

  12. Leachate migration from an in situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Geohydrologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in situ oil shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated by developing models of groundwater flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed 1/2 mi downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-ft sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Groundwater flow in the study area is complexly 3-D and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where groundwater discharges to the land surface. Leachates with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 mg/L or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--were estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. Advantages as well as the problems of site specific studies are described. Data such as the distribution of thin permeable beds or fractures may introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily in site specific models. Solute migration in the study area primarily occurs in thin permeable beds rather than in oil shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity will be estimated poorly. (Author 's abstract)

  13. Leachate migration from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated through models of ground-water flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed ? mile downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-foot sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Ground-water flow in the study area is complexly three dimensional and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute-transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where ground water discharges to the land surface. Leachate with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 milligrams per liter or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--was estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. This report describes many of th3 advantages, as well as the problems, of site-specific studies. Data such as the distribution of thin, permeable beds or fractures might introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily into site-specific models. Solute migration in the study area occurs primarily in thin, permeable beds rather than in oil-shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site-specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site-specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and ground-water velocity will be poorly estimated.

  14. Adsorption of aniline and toluidines on montmorillonite: Implications for the disposal of shale oil production wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Bowen, J.M.; Wills, R.A.; Hart, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Bentonite clay liners are commonly employed to mitigate the movement of contaminants from waste disposal sites. Solid and liquid waste materials that arise from the production of shale oil contain a vast array of organic compounds. Common among these compounds are the aromatic amines. in order to assess the ability of clay liner material to restrict organic compound mobility, the adsorption of aniline and o-, m-, and p-toluidine on Ca[sup 2+] - and K[sup +]-saturated Wyoming bentonite was investigated. Adsorption experiments were performed under conditions of varied pH, ionic strength, and dominate electrolyte cation and anion. organic adsorption on Ca[sup 2+] - and K[sup +]-saturated montmorillonite is pH dependent. For any given organic compound, maximum adsorption increases with decreasing ionic strength. organic compound adsorption is inhibited in the presence of sulfate and is greater in the Ca[sup 2+] systems than in the K[sup +] systems at any given ionic strength. High salt content and K[sup +] collapse the bentonite layers and limit access to and compete for adsorption sites. The K[sup +] ion is also more difficult to displace than Ca[sup 2+] from interlayer positions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data show that the aniline compounds are adsorbed on bentonite through the hydrogen bonding of an amine hydrogen to a surface silica oxygen. Sulfate reduces amine adsorption by removing positively charged anilinium species from solution to form negatively charge sulfate complexes. Although adsorption of the substituted amines on bentonite is observed, aniline and toluidine adsorption is minimal in saline systems and not detected in alkaline systems. Thus, in shale oil process waste disposal sites, the mobility of the anilines through bentonite liners will not be mitigated by sorption processes, as spent oil shale leachates are both highly alkaline and saline.

  15. Adsorption of aniline and toluidines on montmorillonite: Implications for the disposal of shale oil production wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Bowen, J.M.; Wills, R.A.; Hart, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    Bentonite clay liners are commonly employed to mitigate the movement of contaminants from waste disposal sites. Solid and liquid waste materials that arise from the production of shale oil contain a vast array of organic compounds. Common among these compounds are the aromatic amines. in order to assess the ability of clay liner material to restrict organic compound mobility, the adsorption of aniline and o-, m-, and p-toluidine on Ca{sup 2+} - and K{sup +}-saturated Wyoming bentonite was investigated. Adsorption experiments were performed under conditions of varied pH, ionic strength, and dominate electrolyte cation and anion. organic adsorption on Ca{sup 2+} - and K{sup +}-saturated montmorillonite is pH dependent. For any given organic compound, maximum adsorption increases with decreasing ionic strength. organic compound adsorption is inhibited in the presence of sulfate and is greater in the Ca{sup 2+} systems than in the K{sup +} systems at any given ionic strength. High salt content and K{sup +} collapse the bentonite layers and limit access to and compete for adsorption sites. The K{sup +} ion is also more difficult to displace than Ca{sup 2+} from interlayer positions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data show that the aniline compounds are adsorbed on bentonite through the hydrogen bonding of an amine hydrogen to a surface silica oxygen. Sulfate reduces amine adsorption by removing positively charged anilinium species from solution to form negatively charge sulfate complexes. Although adsorption of the substituted amines on bentonite is observed, aniline and toluidine adsorption is minimal in saline systems and not detected in alkaline systems. Thus, in shale oil process waste disposal sites, the mobility of the anilines through bentonite liners will not be mitigated by sorption processes, as spent oil shale leachates are both highly alkaline and saline.

  16. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.C.; Mercier, T.J.; Brownfield, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

  17. Environmental monitoring and analysis in support of Antrim oil shale research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.S.; Tanis, F.J.; Doak, E.; Laurin, R.

    1980-04-01

    A program to assess environmental impacts of in situ Antrim oil shale processing experiments was carried out. This report covers the third year of an expected four year program. Activities included: monitoring of surface elevations for possible subsidence; monitoring for soil contamination from brines; monitoring surface and subsurface water quality; and monitoring ambient air quality. Assessment was also made of on- and off-site vegetation, some site soils, surface disruption caused by drilling activities, and impacts on neighboring residents. Much of this year's effort was directed to monitoring baseline conditions. Consequently, assessment of potential impacts from in situ operations is not yet possible.

  18. Pneumoconiosis in rats exposed chronically to oil shale dust and diesel exhaust, alone and in combination

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, J.L.; Barr, E.B.; Eidson, A.F.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Pickrell, J.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were exposed by chronic inhalation to diesel exhaust or oil shale dust, alone and in combination to examine pathophysiologic interactions between the dusts. The three agents all accumulated progressively in lungs and caused similar pneumoconiotic responses. The effects of combined exposures tended to be greater than additive. The magnitude of effects was more closely correlated to particle lung burden than to exposure concentration. This suggests that effects of prolonged human exposures to combined dust atmospheres may be estimated better on the basis of predicted lung burden than exposure concentration. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Hydrologic data from Naval Oil Shale Reserves, Parachute Creek basin, northwestern Colorado, 1980-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galyean, K.C.; Adams, D.B.; Collins, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two years (water yr 1980 and 1981) of data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy, Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, in the Parachute Creek drainage basin of northwestern Colorado are tabulated. Data were obtained from five surface water gages, two automatic sediment samplers, and two water quality monitors. Climate data include maximum, minimum, and average temperature and relative humidity, average wind speed and wind direction, and total daily solar radiation. Daily total precipitation is reported for three stations, and snow-course data reported for one site. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Treatment of multivariate environmental and health problems associated with oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kland, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    A statistical matrix approach for solving complex environmental problems involving oil shale mining and processing is presented. Four methods are described: quantitative structure-activity and molecular connectivity relationships (QSAR,MC); factor analysis (FA); and pattern recognition (PR). QSAR and MC are useful in the prediction of toxic behavior for individual members of a class of compounds for which SAR data are already available. The methods of FA and PR have both been applied to data derived from structure-activity relationships (SAR), and PR techniques have also been used with connectivity functions. Each method is evaluated and the scope of their application is defined. (DMC)

  1. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. ); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. ); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. )

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  2. Effect of fuel properties on performance of a single aircraft turbojet combustor. [from coal and oil-shale derived syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.; Ehlers, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of a single-can JT8D combustor was investigated with a number of fuels exhibiting wide variations in chemical composition and volatility. Performance parameters investigated were combustion efficiency, emissions of CO, unburned hydrocarbons and NOx, as well as liner temperatures and smoke. At the simulated idle condition no significant differences in performance were observed. At cruise, liner temperatures and smoke increased sharply with decreasing hydrogen content of the fuel. No significant differences were observed in the performance of an oil-shale derived JP-5 and a petroleum-based Jet A fuel except for emissions of NOx which were higher with the oil-shale JP-5. The difference is attributed to the higher concentration of fuel-bound nitrogen in the oil-shale JP-5.

  3. A novel energy-efficient pyrolysis process: self-pyrolysis of oil shale triggered by topochemical heat in a horizontal fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-06

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  4. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    PubMed Central

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  5. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  6. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves combined financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) produces crude oil and associated hydrocarbons from the Naval Petroleum Reserves (NPR) numbered 1, 2, and 3, and the Naval Oil Shale Reserves (NOSR) numbered 1, 2, and 3 in a manner to achieve the greatest value and benefits to the US taxpayer. NPOSR consists of the Naval Petroleum Reserve in California (NPRC or Elk Hills), which is responsible for operations of NPR-1 and NPR-2; the Naval Petroleum Oil Shale Reserve in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming (NPOSR-CUW), which is responsible for operations of NPR-3, NOSR-1, 2, and 3 and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC); and NPOSR Headquarters in Washington, DC, which is responsible for overall program direction. Each participant shares in the unit costs and production of hydrocarbons in proportion to the weighted acre-feet of commercially productive oil and gas formations (zones) underlying the respective surface lands as of 1942. The participating shares of NPR-1 as of September 30, 1996 for the US Government and Chevron USA, Inc., are listed. This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s (Department) Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves (NPOSR) financial statements as of September 30, 1996.

  8. Fischer Assays of Oil Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Piceance Basin, Colorado - 2009 Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Self, Jesse G.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM includes updated files containing Fischer assays of samples of core holes and cuttings from exploration drill holes drilled in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. A database was compiled that includes more than 321,380 Fischer assays from 782 boreholes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 1,042 core and rotary holes, oil and gas tests, as well as a few surface sections are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. These assays are part of a larger collection of subsurface information held by the U.S. Geological Survey, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, and chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses having to do with the Green River oil shale deposits in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM disc containing updated Fischer assay data for the Piceance Basin oil shale deposits in northwestern Colorado is being released to the public.

  9. Tectonic and climate control of oil shale deposition in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (Songliao Basin, NE China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianliang; Liu, Zhaojun; Bechtel, Achim; Strobl, Susanne A. I.; Sun, Pingchang

    2013-09-01

    Oil shales were deposited in the Songliao Basin (NE China) during the Upper Cretaceous period, representing excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. High organic matter (OM) contents, a predominance of type-I kerogen, and a low maturity of OM in the oil shales are indicated by bulk geochemical parameters and biomarker data. A major contribution of aquatic organisms and minor inputs from terrigenous land plants to OM input are indicated by n-alkane distribution patterns, composition of steroids, and organic macerals. Strongly reducing bottom water conditions during the deposition of the oil shale sequences are indicated by low pristane/phytane ratios, high C14-aryl-isoprenoid contents, homohopane distribution patterns, and high V/Ni ratios. Enhanced salinity stratification with mesosaline and alkaline bottom waters during deposition of the oil shales are indicated by high gammacerane index values, low MTTC ratios, high β-carotene contents, low TOC/S ratios, and high Sr/Ba ratios. The stratified water column with anoxic conditions in the bottom water enhanced preservation of OM. Moderate input of detrital minerals during the deposition of the oil shale sequences is reflected by titanium concentrations. In this study, environmental conditions in the paleo-lake leading to OM accumulation in the sediments are related to sequence stratigraphy governed by climate and tectonics. The first Member of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) in the Songliao Basin, containing the oil shale sequence, encompasses a third-order sequence that can be divided into three system tracts (transgressive system tract—TST, highstand system tract—HST, and regressive system tract—RST). Enrichment of OM changed from low values during TST-I to high-moderate values during TST-II/III and HST-I/II. Low OM enrichment occurs during RST-I and RST-II. Therefore, the highest enrichment of OM in the sediments is related to stages of mid-late TST and early HST.

  10. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 4. Solid waste from mining and surface retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The overall objectives of this study were to: review and evaluate published information on the disposal, composition, and leachability of solid wastes produced by aboveground shale oil extraction processes; examine the relationship of development to surface and groundwater quality in the Piceance Creek basin of northwestern Colorado; and identify key areas of research necessary to quantitative assessment of impact. Information is presented under the following section headings: proposed surface retorting developments; surface retorting processes; environmental concerns; chemical/mineralogical composition of raw and retorted oil shale; disposal procedures; water quality; and research needs.

  11. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  12. Characterization of interim reference shales

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F.P.; Sullivan, S.; Mason, G.

    1986-03-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as interim reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Anvil Points mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, kerogen concentrates, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. The measured properties of the interim reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western interim reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern interim reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the interim reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. The experimental determination of many of the shale oil properties was beyond the scope of this study. Therefore, direct comparison between calculated and measured values of many properties could not be made. However, molecular weights of the shale oils were measured. In this case, there was poor agreement between measured molecular weights and those calculated from API and other published correlations. 23 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. Application of Phased-array Vibrator System in shallow oil shale exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, T.; Lin, J.; Xu, X.

    2011-12-01

    Due to the huge oil and gas demands in China, exploration of unconventional oil shale at shallow depths becomes more critical. 52.83% of the identified reserves in China are from Jilin province and Nong'an is one of the main areas of oil shale in Jilin. The average buried depth of oil shale in Nong'an is between 300m and 800m. Since explosive sources are not allowed to operate in civil area and the inconvenience of vibroseis, Phased-array Vibrator System (PAVS) is applied in the exploration of oil shale in Nong'an. We have developed a series electromagnetic Portable High-frequency Vibrator System (PHVS), including single, combination, and phased-array modes. Single mode is the simplest mode, with output force less than 500N, and thus is only suitable for engineering seismic prospecting. Combination mode is a source array, which uses a controller to synchronize all vibrator units and let them work consistently with each other. Thus, it can increase output force than single case. The field test indicates that it can improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of reflected waves in deep layer significantly. However, it contributes little for signals from shallow layers and sometimes it can even deteriorate shallow reflected signals than single source. This is because for signals reflected from shallow depths, the assumption in combination mode that seismic waves propagate along vertical rays is no longer valid. Therefore, they are not stacked constructively. Phased-array mode belongs to a new source array, whose key part is so-called delay/phase controller. By coordinating the signal of each unit using the controller, the seismic waves can be beamed into any interested direction, based on the underground structure and the depth of interested reflected layer. In this case, SNR of the concerned reflected wave can be improved apparently. PHVS in phased-array mode is called PAVS. We made two field tests to evaluate the performance of PAVS. In the first test, we compare PAVS with

  14. Isopach and isoresource maps for oil shale deposits in the Eocene Green River Formation for the combined Uinta and Piceance Basins, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    The in-place oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and the Uinta Basin of western Colorado and eastern Utah are estimated at 1.53 trillion barrels and 1.32 trillion barrels, respectively. The oil shale strata were deposited in a single large saline lake, Lake Uinta, that covered both basins and the intervening Douglas Creek arch, an area of comparatively low rates of subsidence throughout the history of Lake Uinta. Although the Green River Formation is largely eroded for about a 20-mile area along the crest of the arch, the oil shale interval is similar in both basins, and 17 out of 18 of the assessed oil shale zones are common to both basins. Assessment maps for these 17 zones are combined so that the overall distribution of oil shale over the entire extent of Lake Uinta can be studied. The combined maps show that throughout most of the history of Lake Uinta, the richest oil shale was deposited in the depocenter in the north-central part of the Piceance Basin and in the northeast corner of the Uinta Basin where it is closest to the Piceance Basin, which is the only area of the Uinta Basin where all of the rich and lean oil shale zones, originally defined in the Piceance Basin, can be identified. Both the oil shale and saline mineral depocenter in the Piceance Basin and the richest oil shale area in the Uinta Basin were in areas with comparatively low rates of subsidence during Lake Uinta time, but both areas had low rates of clastic influx. Limiting clastic influx rather than maximizing subsidence appears to have been the most important factor in producing rich oil shale.

  15. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, W.A.

    1981-02-01

    A Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation of state for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil mixture (ANFO) and aluminized ANFO, somewhat different from the Becker-Kistiakowsky-Wilson (BKW) equation of state described in previous reports, is discussed. Included also are our present understanding of a steady, cylindrical detonation, a proposed computer model of a real detonation, the requirements for an equivalent equation of state to be used with the model, and the values for the equation-of-state parameters. An alternative explosive burn package has been implemented in the computer code YAQUI together with a slip-line capability at the explosive/oil shale interface. The code has been used for prediction of cratering and fragmentation experiment results on a field scale.

  16. The photoluminescence properties of tri-colour silicoaluminate phosphors prepared from oil shale ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Song, Yanhua; Sheng, Ye; Zheng, Keyan; Ding, Shizhou; Yuan, Bo; Xu, Xuechun; Zou, Haifeng

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, high value-added tri-colour phosphors Ba0.96Mg1.88Si2O7:0.02Eu2+, 0.02Dy3+, 0.12Mn2+; CaSr0.995SiO4:0.005Eu2+ and Ba0.91MgAl10O17:0.09Eu2+ were prepared using the white carbon black (hereinafter referred to as WCB) and alumina extracted from oil shale ash as raw materials. The structure and luminescence properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoluminescent spectra. The results show that the red and green phosphors synthesized by WCB exhibited much weaker emission than the phosphors synthesized by pure chemical reagent silica, which is mainly due to the high content of iron in the WCB. After purifying the WCB under laboratory conditions, the luminescence properties were improved and close to that of pure chemical reagent. By comparing with the emission of the samples synthesized with chemical reagents, the results show that the products extracted from oil shale ash can be applied to synthesize luminescent materials which have potential applications in white-light ultraviolet (UV)-LED field.

  17. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  18. Synthesis of nucleated glass-ceramics using oil shale fly ash.

    PubMed

    Luan, Jingde; Li, Aimin; Su, Tong; Cui, Xiaobo

    2010-01-15

    Nucleated glass-ceramics materials were produced from oil shale fly ash obtained from Huadian thermal power plant in China with the addition of analytic reagent CaO. On basis of differential thermal analysis (DTA) results, the nucleation and crystallization temperature of two parent glass samples with different alkalinity (Ak=m(CaO)/m(SiO(2)) were identified as Tn(1)=810 degrees C, Tc(1)=956 degrees C and Tn(2)=824 degrees C, Tc(2)=966 degrees C, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the produced nucleated glass-ceramics materials revealed that there was a coexistence phenomenon of multi-crystalline phase and the main crystalline phase was anorthite ([Ca,Na][AI,Si](2)Si(2)O(8)). The microstructure of the glass-ceramics materials was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM observation indicated that there was an increase in the quantity of sphere-shaped crystals when crystallization time increased. Furthermore, the increase of alkalinity caused more amorphous phase occurring in glass-ceramics materials. Through the tests of physical and mechanical properties, the glass-ceramics materials with more crystalline phase and fine microstructure had high density, fine performance of resisting compression (328.92 MPa) and negligible water absorption. Through chemical resistance tests, the glass-ceramics samples showed strong corrosion resistance. Overall results indicated that it was a feasible attempt to produce nucleated glass-ceramics materials for building and decorative materials from oil shale fly ash.

  19. Synthesis and analysis of jet fuels from shale oil and coal syncrudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, A. C.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The technical problems involved in converting a significant portion of a barrel of either a shale oil or coal syncrude into a suitable aviation turbine fuel were studied. TOSCO shale oil, H-Coal and COED coal syncrudes were the starting materials. They were processed by distillation and hydrocracking to produce two levels of yield (20 and 40 weight percent) of material having a distillation range of approximately 422 to 561 K (300 F to 550 F). The full distillation range 311 to 616 K (100 F to 650 F) materials were hydrotreated to meet two sets of specifications (20 and 40 volume percent aromatics, 13.5 and 12.75 weight percent H, 0.2 and 0.5 weight percent S, and 0.1 and 0.2 weight percent N). The hydrotreated materials were distilled to meet given end point and volatility requirements. The syntheses were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant equipment scaled to produce thirty-two 0.0757 cu m (2-gal)samples of jet fuel of varying defined specifications. Detailed analyses for physical and chemical properties were made on the crude starting materials and on the products.

  20. Study of reverse osmosis for treating oil-shale in-situ wastewaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.E.; Liang, L.

    1981-01-31

    The results of a study to determine the feasibility of using reverse osmosis for the treatment of the three major wastewater streams evolved during modified in-situ oil shale processing: gas condensate, retort water and excess mine drainage water, are presented in this report. Data was obtained from laboratory tests on real wastewaters treated with composite reverse osmosis membranes. It was found that reverse osmosis can be used to treat retort waters to a quality suitable for reuse within the plant while it can be used to treat excess mine drainage waters for discharge to a receiving stream. Furthermore, although reverse osmosis is also a feasible process for the treatment of gas condensate, a better treatment appears to be steam stripping which alone can produce a water of a quality suitable for plant reuse. The annual operating costs of treating mine drainage waters range from $2.00 to $2.30 per 1000 gallons of permeate while the costs of treating retort waters range from $2.70 to $2.90 per 1000 gallons of permeate, exclusive of the costs of concentrate disposal. The major uncertainty in the use of reverse osmosis for treating oil shale wastewaters is membrane lifetime. Recommendations are made for a field test program to determine the long term susceptibility of composite membranes to fouling and/or degradation.

  1. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Hutchins, Ned M.

    1984-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  2. Genotoxicity induced by a shale oil byproduct in Chinese hamster cells following metabolic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Okinaka, R.T.; Nickols, J.W.; Chen, D.J.; Strniste, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A process water obtained from a holding tank during the surface retorting of oil shale has been shown to induce a linear dose response of 100 histidine revertants/sub ..mu../1 in the Ames/Salmonella test. The complex mixture has also previously been shown to induce genotoxicity in mammalian cells following activation by near ultraviolet light and natural sunlight. This report focuses on the effects of a particular oil shale retort process water on cultured Chinese hamster cells following metabolic activation by either rat liver homogenate or lethally irradiated but metabolically competent Syrian hamster embryonic cells. Cytotoxic and mutagenic responses induced by the process water and a fractionated sample from it containing the majority of the mutagenic activity (as assessed by the Salmonella test) were measured under conditions designed to optimally measure the mutagenic potency of the promutagen, benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest a possible discrepancy in the genotoxic potential of this complex mixture when various methods are utilized to measure its potential.

  3. Combustion of municipal solid wastes with oil shale in a circulating fluidized bed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-30

    The problem addressed by our invention is that of municipal solid waste utilization. The dimensions of the problem can be visualized by the common comparison that the average individual in America creates in five years time an amount of solid waste equivalent in weight to the Statue of Liberty. The combustible portion of the more than 11 billion tons of solid waste (including municipal solid waste) produced in the United States each year, if converted into useful energy, could provide 32 quads per year of badly needed domestic energy, or more than one-third of our annual energy consumption. Conversion efficiency and many other factors make such a production level unrealistic, but it is clear that we are dealing with a very significant potential resource. This report describes research pertaining to the co-combustion of oil shale with solid municipal wastes in a circulating fluidized bed. The oil shale adds significant fuel content and also constituents that can possible produce a useful cementitious ash.

  4. An analytical scheme for determining forms of sulphur in oil shales and associated rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Williamson, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical scheme for determining various forms of sulphur in oil shales and associated rocks is presented. Acid-soluble sulphate, sulphur contained in monosulphide and in disulphide minerals, and organically-bound sulphur are all quantitatively recovered as separate fractions. Finely-ground oil-shale samples are treated in an inert atmosphere with 6M hydrochloric acid to dissolve the acid-soluble sulphate minerals and form H2S from the decomposition of monosulphide minerals. The acid-soluble sulphate is precipitated as barium sulphate and the H2S is collected and weighed as silver sulphide. Disulphide minerals in the solid residue from the acid treatment are reduced by an acidified Cr(II) solution in an inert atmosphere, releasing the sulphide as H2S. The H2S is collected as silver sulphide. An Eschka fusion oxidizes and solubilizes all sulphur remaining within the Cr(II)-treated residue. This sulphate represents organically-bound sulphur and is collected as barium sulphate. The analytical procedures have been verified by using 57Fe Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. Good agreement between the chemical and Mo??ssbauer data substantiated the sequential removal of the forms of sulphur and also demonstrated the ability of Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy to determine the absolute quantities of iron present in specific minerals. ?? 1986.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, James L.; Milici, Robert C.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Kirshbaum, Mark; Klett, Timothy R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimated a mean undiscovered natural gas resource of 84,198 billion cubic feet and a mean undiscovered natural gas liquids resource of 3,379 million barrels in the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province. All this resource occurs in continuous accumulations. In 2011, the USGS completed an assessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Devonian Marcellus Shale within the Appalachian Basin Province of the eastern United States. The Appalachian Basin Province includes parts of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The assessment of the Marcellus Shale is based on the geologic elements of this formation's total petroleum system (TPS) as recognized in the characteristics of the TPS as a petroleum source rock (source rock richness, thermal maturation, petroleum generation, and migration) as well as a reservoir rock (stratigraphic position and content and petrophysical properties). Together, these components confirm the Marcellus Shale as a continuous petroleum accumulation. Using the geologic framework, the USGS defined one TPS and three assessment units (AUs) within this TPS and quantitatively estimated the undiscovered oil and gas resources within the three AUs. For the purposes of this assessment, the Marcellus Shale is considered to be that Middle Devonian interval that consists primarily of shale and lesser amounts of bentonite, limestone, and siltstone occurring between the underlying Middle Devonian Onondaga Limestone (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the Needmore Shale and Huntersville Chert) and the overlying Middle Devonian Mahantango Formation (or its stratigraphic equivalents, the upper Millboro Shale and middle Hamilton Group).

  6. Design, fabrication, operation and Aspen simulation of oil shale pyrolysis and biomass gasification process using a moving bed downdraft reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golpour, Hassan

    Energy is the major facilitator of the modern life. Every developed and developing economy requires access to advanced sources of energy to support its growth and prosperity. Declining worldwide crude oil reserves and increasing energy needs has focused attention on developing existing unconventional fossil fuels like oil shale and renewable resources such as biomass. Sustainable, renewable and reliable resources of domestically produced biomass comparing to wind and solar energy is a sensible motivation to establish a small-scale power plant using biomass as feed to supply electricity demand and heat for rural development. The work in Paper I focuses on the possibility of water pollution from spent oil shale which should be studied before any significant commercial production is attempted. In Paper II, the proposed Aspen models for oil shale pyrolysis is to identify the key process parameters for the reactor and optimize the rate of production of syncrude from oil shale. The work in Paper III focuses on (1) Design and operation of a vertical downdraft reactor, (2) Establishing an optimum operating methodology and parameters to maximize syngas production through process testing. Finally in Paper IV, a proposed Aspen model for biomass gasification simulates a real biomass gasification system discussed in Paper III.

  7. Black shale source rocks and oil generation in the Cambrian and Ordovician of the central Appalachian Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, R.T.; Burruss, R.C.; Hatch, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly 600 million bbl of oil (MMBO) and 1 to 1.5 trillion ft3 (tcf) of gas have been produced from Cambrian and Ordovician reservoirs (carbonate and sandstone) in the Ohio part of the Appalachian basin and on adjoining arches in Ohio, Indiana, and Ontario, Canada. Most of the oil and gas is concentrated in the giant Lima-Indiana field on the Findlay and Kankakee arches and in small fields distributed along the Knox unconformity. Based on new geochemical analyses of oils, potential source rocks, bitumen extracts, and previously published geochemical data, we conclude that the oils in both groups of fields originated from Middle and Upper Ordovician blcak shale (Utica and Antes shales) in the Appalachian basin. Moroever, we suggest that approximately 300 MMBO and many trillions of cubic feet of gas in the Lower Silurian Clinton sands of eastern Ohio originated in the same source rocks. Oils from the Cambrian and Ordovician reservoirs have similar saturated hydrocarbon compositions, biomarker distributions, and carbon isotope signatures. Regional variations in the oils are attributed to differences in thermal maturation rather than to differences in source. Total organic carbon content, genetic potential, regional extent, and bitument extract geochemistry identify the balck shale of the Utica and Antes shales as the most plausible source of the oils. Other Cambrian and Ordovician shale and carbonate units, such as the Wells Creek formation, which rests on the Knox unconformity, and the Rome Formation and Conasauga Group in the Rome trough, are considered to be only local petroleum sources. Tmax, CAI, and pyrolysis yields from drill-hole cuttings and core indicate that the Utica Shale in eastern and central Ohio is mature with respect to oil generation. Burial, thermal, and hydrocarbon-generation history models suggest that much of the oil was generated from the Utica-Antes source in the late Paleozoic during the Alleghanian orogeny. A pervasive fracture network

  8. Development of CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In-Situ Thermal Processing of Oil Shale/Sands

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-02-01

    In our research, we are taking the novel approach of developing and applying high performance computing, computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-based simulation tools to a modified in-situ process for production of oil from oil shale. The simulation tools being developed capture the relevant physical processes and data from a large-scale system. The modified in-situ application is a pilot-scale heat transfer process inside Red Leaf Resources EcoShale capsule. We demonstrate the need to understand fluid flow behavior in the convective channels of the rubblized shale bed as convective heating greatly decreases the time required to heat the oil shale to the production temperature when compared with conductive heating alone. We have developed and implemented a geometry creation strategy for a representative section of the EcoShale capsule, developed a meshing approach to deal with the complicated geometry and produce a well-behaved mesh, analyzed the effects of boundary conditions on the simulation results, and devised a new operator splitting solution algorithm that reduces computational costs by taking advantage of the differing convective and conductive time scales occurring in the simulation. These simulation tools can be applied to a wide range of processes involving convective fluid flow heating in rubblized beds.

  9. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  10. Paleozoic oil/gas shale reservoirs in southern Tunisia: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soua, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    During these last years, considerable attention has been given to unconventional oil and gas shale in northern Africa where the most productive Paleozoic basins are located (e.g. Berkine, Illizi, Kufra, Murzuk, Tindouf, Ahnet, Oued Mya, Mouydir, etc.). In most petroleum systems, which characterize these basins, the Silurian played the main role in hydrocarbon generation with two main 'hot' shale levels distributed in different locations (basins) and their deposition was restricted to the Rhuddanian (Lllandovery: early Silurian) and the Ludlow-Pridoli (late Silurian). A third major hot shale level had been identified in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian). Southern Tunisia is characterized by three main Paleozoic sedimentary basins, which are from North to South, the southern Chotts, Jeffara and Berkine Basin. They are separated by a major roughly E-W trending lower Paleozoic structural high, which encompass the Mehrez-Oued Hamous uplift to the West (Algeria) and the Nefusa uplift to the East (Libya), passing by the Touggourt-Talemzane-PGA-Bou Namcha (TTPB) structure close to southern Tunisia. The forementioned major source rocks in southern Tunisia are defined by hot shales with elevated Gamma ray values often exceeding 1400 API (in Hayatt-1 well), deposited in deep water environments during short lived (c. 2 Ma) periods of anoxia. In the course of this review, thickness, distribution and maturity maps have been established for each hot shale level using data for more than 70 wells located in both Tunisia and Algeria. Mineralogical modeling was achieved using Spectral Gamma Ray data (U, Th, K), SopectroLith logs (to acquire data for Fe, Si and Ti) and Elemental Capture Spectroscopy (ECS). The latter technique provided data for quartz, pyrite, carbonate, clay and Sulfur. In addition to this, the Gamma Ray (GR), Neutron Porosity (ΦN), deep Resistivity (Rt) and Bulk Density (ρb) logs were used to model bulk mineralogy and lithology. Biostratigraphic and complete

  11. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program environmental monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1989-September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. A summary of compliance and supplemental activities is included in the report. Health monitoring results, safety summaries and a status report of the retorted shale laydown area, with photos, are also given.

  12. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47

  13. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

  14. Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

  15. Experimental study on ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high-temperature oxygen condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, G. W.; Liu, Y. H.; Dong, P.

    2016-08-01

    The high-temperature oxygen ignition technology of pulverized coal, which can replace the oil gun and achieve oil-free pulverized coal ignition by mixing the high- temperature oxygen and the pulverized coal stream directly, was proposed and a relevant ignition experimental system was built. The ignition characteristics of pulverized coal under high-temperature oxygen condition were investigated: the ignition process was described and analyzed, the influence of relevant parameters on the pulverized coal stream ignition were obtained and analyzed. The results showed: when the oxygen heating temperature is over 750 °C, the pulverized coal stream could be ignited successfully by high-temperature oxygen; increasing the pulverized coal concentration, primary air temperature and oxygen volume flow rate or decreasing the primary air velocity is helpful for the ignition and combustion of the pulverized coal stream.

  16. Sublethal effects of an in situ oil shale retort water on rainbow trout. [Salmo gairdneri

    SciTech Connect

    Lebsack, M.E.; Anderson, A.D.; Nelson, K.F.; Farrier, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale process water (Omega-9 water) was used in sublethal concentrations in flow-through bioassay with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Exposure for 96 hr to 0.3% of Omega-9 water (approximately 70% of the LC50) decreased blood packed cell volume (PCV) and HB concentration. This concentration of Omega-9 water also decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and protein concentration and caused 3-fold increases in plasma NH/sub 3/ levels. Exposure to sublethal concentration of a solution of the 13 major inorganic constituents of Omega-9 water also decreased pcv and plasma AP activity and increased plasma NH/sub 3/ levels. No sublethal effects on blood HB, protein, and alkaline phosphatase occurred at a toxic level <1/5 of the level of the LC50.

  17. Assessment of an Antrim Oil Shale fracture zone by vertical seismic profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoez, M.N.; Turpening, R.M.; Stewart, R.R.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents the results of a vertical seismic profiling (VSP) experiment performed in the upper 2500 feet (770 m) of the Michigan Basin. Both P and SH waves were used. The experiment was divided into two parts: a before survey run on the virgin rock, then an after survey across an explosively fractured volume of Antrim Oil Shale, centered at 1300 ft (400 m). From the before VSP survey, a velocity structure of the basin was calculated. Comparison of the after observations to the before elucidated the fracture volume and elastic parameters. Travel time delays, amplitude attenuation, converted and diffracted waves provided consistent information on the depth (1300 ft), shape (ellipsoid) and size (10 m x 20 m x 30 m) of the fractured volume.

  18. Method oil shale pollutant sorption/NO.sub.x reburning multi-pollutant control

    DOEpatents

    Boardman, Richard D.; Carrington, Robert A.

    2008-06-10

    A method of decreasing pollutants produced in a combustion process. The method comprises combusting coal in a combustion chamber to produce at least one pollutant selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing pollutant, sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, chlorine, hydroiodic acid, iodine, hydrofluoric acid, fluorine, hydrobromic acid, bromine, phosphoric acid, phosphorous pentaoxide, elemental mercury, and mercuric chloride. Oil shale particles are introduced into the combustion chamber and are combusted to produce sorbent particulates and a reductant. The at least one pollutant is contacted with at least one of the sorbent particulates and the reductant to decrease an amount of the at least one pollutant in the combustion chamber. The reductant may chemically reduce the at least one pollutant to a benign species. The sorbent particulates may adsorb or absorb the at least one pollutant. A combustion chamber that produces decreased pollutants in a combustion process is also disclosed.

  19. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  20. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  1. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves annual report of operations for fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    During fiscal year 1996, the Department of Energy continued to operate Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 in California and Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 in Wyoming through its contractors. In addition, natural gas operations were conducted at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3. All productive acreage owned by the Government at Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 in California was produced under lease to private companies. The locations of all six Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves are shown in a figure. Under the Naval Petroleum Reserves Production Act of 1976, production was originally authorized for six years, and based on findings of national interest, the President was authorized to extend production in three-year increments. President Reagan exercised this authority three times (in 1981, 1984, and 1987) and President Bush authorized extended production once (in 1990). President Clinton exercised this authority in 1993 and again in October 1996; production is presently authorized through April 5, 2000. 4 figs. 30 tabs.

  2. Hydrologic data from Naval Oil Shale Reserves, Parachute Creek basin, northwestern Colorado, 1975-79

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patt, Ralph O.; Adams, D. Briane; Collins, Dannie L.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy, Naval Petroleum, and Oil Shale Reserves in the Parachute Creek drainage basin of western Colorado. It includes data from five surface-water gages, two automatic sediment samplers and two water-quality monitors. Instantaneous streamflow measurements were made at 63 sites on Parachute Creek tributaries to determine gain or loss of flow. Thirteen springs and nine surface-water sites were sampled and chemical analyses of these sites are included. From 1975 to 1979, 88 spring sites were inventoried; conductivity, temperature, pH, and discharge were measured. Climate data include maximum, minimum, and total daily solar radiation. Daily total precipitation is reported for three stations and snow-course data is reported for one site.

  3. KECL finds that 18-8 alloys are needed for oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Kentucky Energy Cabinet Laboratory (KECL) has, over a period of several years, investigated the corrosion and wear of materials of construction in oil shale retorting. The objective of the program was to develop an alloy performance database so that cost-effective materials of construction can be selected for plant designs. The KECL researchers conclude that 18-8 type alloys are needed for components exposed to gas and mist. For components exposed to interaction of erosion or abrasion with corrosion, wastage rates can be 10-20 times those under corrosion alone. These areas should probably be refractory or ceramic lined. Any metallic components (thermowells, etc.) will need to be protected by hard coatings or overlays. In condensate systems, the low alloys suffered extensive corrosive damage. Ferritic and stabilized austinitic stainless steels can be used to prevent stress corrosion cracking in these systems. 4 tables.

  4. Modeling moisture movement in revegetating waste heaps 2. Application to oil shale wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, L.D.; Bell. P.R. ); Haverkamp, R. )

    1993-05-01

    The prediction of water movement is an important part of estimating leachate formation in waste dumps. This paper presents the application of a model developed for moisture movement in waste dumps that could be associated with an oil shale-mining operation. As part of this application, moisture movement for a bare surface waste dump involving one material is considered in some detail, where a series of sensitivity analyses are used to investigate the importance of a number of processes. The bare surface model is then used to simulate moisture movement over a period of 2 months, and these predictions are compared with field observations. As a result of these analyses, a multilayer, revegetating, waste dump model is derived, and a prediction for the long-term flow within a hypothetical dump presented.

  5. Determination of direct-acting mutagens and clastogens in oil shale retort process water

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.; Strniste, G.F.; Meyne, J.

    1982-01-01

    Shale oil products contain various metabolically active and photoactive genotoxic components. In addition, preliminary observations indicated that retort process water contain direct-acting mutagens which cause significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistance (6TG/sup R/) mutants in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. However, we have been unable to demonstrate the occurrence of direct-acting mutagens in these process waters when tested in the standard Ames/Salmonella assay. In this report results are presented concerning the dose response of direct-acting mutagenicity in an above ground retort process (ARP) water and various fractions from it. Since many mutagenic agents are also clastogrenic, the cytogenetic and mutagenic effects of this process water under the same experimental conditions are compared.

  6. UNOCAL Parachute Creek Shale Oil Project. Monitoring review committee meeting report. Annual meeting, 1987-1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-25

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating existing compliance monitoring and twenty-two supplemental monitoring points for water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. A Monitoring Review Committee (MRC) comprised of representatives from the Project, U.S. Department of Treasury, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the state convene each year to discuss monitoring information and trends in environmental and health surveillance. This report documents the first annual MRC meeting, held at the Project.

  7. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Project. Monitoring Review Committee meeting report, August 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. Results of supplemental monitoring at 18 sites, including particulates, gases, liquids and solids, are discussed by representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Colorado Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Department of Treasury.

  8. Identification of the mineral phases responsible for cementation of Lurgi spent oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Huntington, G.; Brown, T.

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the mineralogical character of the cements that are responsible for the increased strength of the spent oil shale. Several techniques to identify the nature of the cementing agents have been used in this study. X-ray diffraction was used to identify mineral dissolution and formation; scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the cementing agents; energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) was used to provide information on the elemental composition of both the bulk material and the cementing agents; and differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses were used to document the presence of suspected minerals that may be involved in formation of the cementing material.

  9. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  10. Assessing impacts of oil-shale development on the Piceance Basin mule deer herd

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Garrott, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Development of energy resources on big game ranges generally negatively impacts these important wildlife resources. Although habitat disturbance is generally important, this impact is overshadowed by the negative impacts due to an increasing human population in the area. Increased human activities particularly stress animals during winter periods when inadequate nutrition levels may have already severely impacted the population. Increased road traffic and poaching causes additional deaths, which a decline in survival rates expected, or at least changes in the cause of mortality. This paper describes the experimental design to monitor and mitigate the impact of oil shale development in northwestern Colorado on the Piceance Basin mule deer herd. Biotelemetry techniques are used to measure changes through time in movements, habitat utilization, and survival rates between control and treatment areas. 2 figures.

  11. Artificial maturation of oil shale: The Irati Formation from the Parana Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayer, James L.

    Oil shale samples from the Irati Formation in Brazil were evaluated from an outcrop block, denoted Block 003. The goals of this thesis include: 1) Characterizing the Irati Formation, 2) Comparing the effects of two different types of pyrolysis, anhydrous and hydrous, and 3) Utilizing a variety of geophysical experiments to determine the changes associated with each type of pyrolysis. Primary work included determining total organic carbon, source rock analysis, mineralogy, computer tomography x-ray scans, and scanning electron microscope images before and after pyrolysis, as well as acoustic properties of the samples during pyrolysis. Two types of pyrolysis (hydrous and anhydrous) were performed on samples cored at three different orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°) with respect to the axis of symmetry, requiring six total experiments. During pyrolysis, the overall effective pressure was maintained at 800 psi, and the holding temperature was 365°C. The changes and deformation in the hydrous pyrolysis samples were greater compared to the anhydrous pyrolysis. The velocities gave the best indication of changes occurring during pyrolysis, but it was difficult to maintain the same amplitude and quality of waveforms at higher temperatures. The velocity changes were due to a combination of factors, including thermal deformation of the samples, fracture porosity development, and the release of adsorbed water and bitumen from the sample. Anhydrous pyrolysis in this study did not reduce TOC, while TOC was reduced due to hydrous pyrolysis by 5%, and velocities in the hydrous pyrolysis decreased by up to 30% at 365°C compared to room temperature. Data from this study and future data that can be acquired with the improved high-temperature, high-pressure experiment will assist in future economic production from oil shale at lower temperatures under hydrous pyrolysis conditions.

  12. Water Use and Management in the Bakken Shale Oil Play in North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Horner, R M; Harto, C B; Jackson, R B; Lowry, E R; Brandt, A R; Yeskoo, T W; Murphy, D J; Clark, C E

    2016-03-15

    Oil and natural gas development in the Bakken shale play of North Dakota has grown substantially since 2008. This study provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of water quantity and management impacts from this development by (1) estimating water demand for hydraulic fracturing in the Bakken from 2008 to 2012; (2) compiling volume estimates for maintenance water, or brine dilution water; (3) calculating water intensities normalized by the amount of oil produced, or estimated ultimate recovery (EUR); (4) estimating domestic water demand associated with the large oil services population; (5) analyzing the change in wastewater volumes from 2005 to 2012; and (6) examining existing water sources used to meet demand. Water use for hydraulic fracturing in the North Dakota Bakken grew 5-fold from 770 million gallons in 2008 to 4.3 billion gallons in 2012. First-year wastewater volumes grew in parallel, from an annual average of 1,135,000 gallons per well in 2008 to 2,905,000 gallons in 2012, exceeding the mean volume of water used in hydraulic fracturing and surpassing typical 4-year wastewater totals for the Barnett, Denver, and Marcellus basins. Surprisingly, domestic water demand from the temporary oilfield services population in the region may be comparable to the regional water demand from hydraulic fracturing activities. Existing groundwater resources are inadequate to meet the demand for hydraulic fracturing, but there appear to be adequate surface water resources, provided that access is available. PMID:26866674

  13. Pollution control technical manual for Unishale B and Unishale C oil-shale retorting. Final report, October 1985-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, K.H.

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Unishale B and C oil shale plants, characterizes the waste streams produced in each medium, and generally discusses the commercially available controls that can be applied to the plant waste streams. Several controls are examined in more detail for each medium to illustrate typical control technology operation. Control technology cost and performance estimates are presented, together with descriptions of the discharge streams, secondary waste streams, and energy requirements. Unishale B and C are two retorting technologies developed by UNOCAL (Union Oil Company of California). The engineering design, stream compositions, and pollution control alternatives presented do not represent or reproduce exactly those proposed or employed by UNOCAL at its Parachute facility or any other such facility. The design presented here represents one of many possible configurations for an oil shale facility based on Union's technology. Unishale B or C plants of the future can be expected to be similar to that described here.

  14. Fractured shale reservoirs: Towards a realistic model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton-Smith, T.

    1996-09-01

    Fractured shale reservoirs are fundamentally unconventional, which is to say that their behavior is qualitatively different from reservoirs characterized by intergranular pore space. Attempts to analyze fractured shale reservoirs are essentially misleading. Reliance on such models can have only negative results for fractured shale oil and gas exploration and development. A realistic model of fractured shale reservoirs begins with the history of the shale as a hydrocarbon source rock. Minimum levels of both kerogen concentration and thermal maturity are required for effective hydrocarbon generation. Hydrocarbon generation results in overpressuring of the shale. At some critical level of repressuring, the shale fractures in the ambient stress field. This primary natural fracture system is fundamental to the future behavior of the fractured shale gas reservoir. The fractures facilitate primary migration of oil and gas out of the shale and into the basin. In this process, all connate water is expelled, leaving the fractured shale oil-wet and saturated with oil and gas. What fluids are eventually produced from the fractured shale depends on the consequent structural and geochemical history. As long as the shale remains hot, oil production may be obtained. (e.g. Bakken Shale, Green River Shale). If the shale is significantly cooled, mainly gas will be produced (e.g. Antrim Shale, Ohio Shale, New Albany Shale). Where secondary natural fracture systems are developed and connect the shale to aquifers or to surface recharge, the fractured shale will also produce water (e.g. Antrim Shale, Indiana New Albany Shale).

  15. COMPARISON OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS AND ELEMENTAL PARTITIONING FROM THE COMBUSTION OF PULVERIZED COAL AND RESIDUAL FUEL OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particloe size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction, electr...

  16. Characterization of nitrogen compound types in shale oils using /sup 1/H NMR and high resolution mass spectral analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.F.; Netzel, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    The /sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were obtained for nitrogen compound-type fractions from a Geokinetics shale oil distillate and a Caribou intermediately refined oil obtained during catalytic hydroprocessing of the Geokinetics distillate. These fractions were generated using alumina and silica chromatography. The NMR spectra of the fractions were analyzed for hydrogen types and for individual compounds and the results compared with mass spectral data. The observed differences in resonance intensities in the /sup 1/H NMR spectra of the nitrogen fractions from the distillate and intermediately refined oil are also discussed in relationship to hydroprocessing. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  18. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Beneficiation. Topical report for Task 4, Beneficiation research

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Lau, F.S.; Mensinger, M.C.; Schultz, C.W.; Mehta, R.K.; Lamont, W.E.; Chiang, S.H.; Venkatadri, R.; Misra, M.

    1992-05-01

    The Mineral Resources Institute at the University of Alabama, along with investigators from the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Nevada-Reno, have conducted a research program on the beneficiation, of Eastern oil shales. The objective of the research program was to evaluate and adapt those new and emerging technologies that have the potential to improve the economics of recovering oil from Eastern oil shales. The technologies evaluated in this program can be grouped into three areas: fine grinding kerogen/mineral matter separation, and waste treatment and disposal. Four subtasks were defined in the area of fine grinding. They were as follows: Ultrasonic Grinding, Pressure Cycle Comminution, Stirred Ball Mill Grinding, and Grinding Circuit Optimization. The planned Ultrasonic grinding research was terminated when the company that had contracted to do the research failed. Three technologies for effecting a separation of kerogen from its associated mineral matter were evaluated: column flotation, the air-sparged hydrocyclone, and the LICADO process. Column flotation proved to be the most effective means of making the kerogen/mineral matter separation. No problems are expected in the disposal of oil shale tailings. It is assumed that the tailings will be placed in a sealed pond and the water recycled to the plant as is the normal practice. It may be advantageous, however, to conduct further research on the recovery of metals as by-products and to assess the market for tailings as an ingredient in cement making.

  19. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

  20. Shale oil value enhancement research. Quarterly report, June 1 - August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bunter, J.W.; Russell, C.P.; Tsai, J.C.H.; Cogswell, D.E.; Mihamou, H.; Wright, A.D.

    1996-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products from shale oil. The quarter`s efforts were concentrated on (a) THDA and reaction of alkylpyridines at elevated conditions, (b) compound type analysis of kerogen oil and its derived products, (b) thermal hydrodealkylation of the > 290{degrees}C polar fraction, (c) secondary reactions of pyridinic type compounds to form marketable products, and (d) preparation of presentation to the Dawnbreaker Commercial Assistance Program. Excellent progress is being made in all cases. Our market analysis and industrial feedback indicate that the low molecular weight pyridines are the main market driving force. We are concentrating our effort toward increasing the yield of ``light`` pyridines before the end of Phase II(a). Our current laboratory set-up can only produce analytical quantity of samples, which is not sufficient for marketing purpose. However, the completion of a secondary flow THDA unit for a pilot-scale production depends on the availability of the Phase-II(b) and Phase-III funding.