Science.gov

Sample records for pump water heaters

  1. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  2. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-08-01

    In this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory studied heat pump water heaters, an efficient, cost-effective alternative to traditional electric resistance water heaters that can improve energy efficiency by up to 62%.

  4. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blevins, R. P.

    1982-03-01

    In the period between March 1979 and January 1980, 85 prototype heat pump water heaters were installed in single-family residences. Each system was monitored for a period of one year and total program monitoring was concluded at the end of December 1980. The field demonstration provided a total of 643 unit-months of usable operational data which showed an average OOP of 1.93, or an average 48% operating savings compared to resistance water heating. Average operating conditions were 73 gallons of 140 F water consumed each day with an average inlet water temperature of 71 F. Despite a high initial failure rate for the prototypes, which resulted in a protracted debugging period, consumer reaction to the system was extremely positive. The data suggests that the HPWH would save the average consumer in the test program 2917 kWh per year. Measurable impacts on heating/cooling systems were detected in only 8% of the test homes.

  5. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  6. Diesel-Fired Self-Pumping Water Heater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) 7he object of this project was to study the feasibility of p[umping and heating water by sustained ocillatory vaporization and...TECHNICAL REPORT A_ NATICKITR-94/025 DIESEL-FIRED SELF-PUMPING WATER HEATER <N NO By Joseph Gertsmann Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. Newton, MA...FUNDING NUMBERS Disel.Fired Self.Pumping Water Heater Coitract __AK60-93-C-O035 6. AUTHOR(S) Joseph Gertsmann 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  7. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  8. Improving Heat Pump Water Heater Effeciency by Avoiding Electric Resistance Heater Use

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R.; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Gehl, Anthony C.; Parkison, April E.; Nutaro, James J.

    2014-09-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are a promising technology that can decrease the domestic hot water energy consumption over an electric resistance storage water heater by up to 50%. Heat pump water heaters are really two water heaters in one; they can heat water by using a heat pump or by using electric resistance elements. During large water draw events the HPWHs will use the resistance elements that decrease the overall efficiency of the units. ORNL proposed and tested an advanced control algorithm that anticipates the large water draw events and appropriately sets-up the temperature of the tank water using only the heat pump. With sufficient energy stored in the tank at the elevated temperature, the large water draw is provided for and electric resistance use is avoided. Simulations using a validated heat pump water heater model, and measured water draw data from 25 homes, show average yearly energy savings of 9% for the advanced control algorithm. If the advanced control algorithm perfectly predicts the large water draw events then the savings increase to 19%. This discrepancy could be due to a lack of predictability of water draw patterns in some homes, or the water draw forecasting algorithm could be improved.

  9. Diesel-fired self-pumping water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertsmann, Joseph

    1994-07-01

    The object of this project was to study the feasibility of pumping and heating water by sustained oscillatory vaporization and condensation in a fired heat exchanger. Portable field liquid fueled water heaters would facilitate heating water for sanitation, personal hygiene, food service, laundry, equipment maintenance, and decontamination presently available only from larger, less portable, motorized pumping units. The technical tasks consisted of: development of an analytical model, operation of proof-of-principal prototypes, and determination of the thermal and mechanical relationships to evaluate operating range and control characteristics. Four successive pump models were analyzed and tested. The final analytical model gave reasonable agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the actual pumping effect was an order of magnitude lower than originally anticipated. It was concluded that a thermally-activated self pumping water heater based on the proposed principle is not feasible.

  10. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  11. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  12. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  13. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  14. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  15. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  16. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  17. Energy Factor Analysis for Gas Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    Gas heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) can improve water heating efficiency with zero GWP and zero ODP working fluids. The energy factor (EF) of a gas HPWH is sensitive to several factors. In this work, expressions are derived for EF of gas HPWHs, as a function of heat pump cycle COP, tank heat losses, burner efficiency, electrical draw, and effectiveness of supplemental heat exchangers. The expressions are used to investigate the sensitivity of EF to each parameter. EF is evaluated on a site energy basis (as used by the US DOE for rating water heater EF), and a primary energy-basis energy factor (PEF) is also defined and included. Typical ranges of values for the six parameters are given. For gas HPWHs, using typical ranges for component performance, EF will be 59 80% of the heat pump cycle thermal COP (for example, a COP of 1.60 may result in an EF of 0.94 1.28). Most of the reduction in COP is due to burner efficiency and tank heat losses. Gas-fired HPWHs are theoretically be capable of an EF of up to 1.7 (PEF of 1.6); while an EF of 1.1 1.3 (PEF of 1.0 1.1) is expected from an early market entry.

  18. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  19. Heat pump water heater and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Tomlinson, John J.; Chen, Fang C.

    2001-01-01

    An improved heat pump water heater wherein the condenser assembly of the heat pump is inserted into the water tank through an existing opening in the top of the tank, the assembly comprising a tube-in-a-tube construction with an elongated cylindrical outer body heat exchanger having a closed bottom with the superheated refrigerant that exits the compressor of the heat pump entering the top of the outer body. As the refrigerant condenses along the interior surface of the outer body, the heat from the refrigerant is transferred to the water through the outer body. The refrigerant then enters the bottom of an inner body coaxially disposed within the outer body and exits the top of the inner body into the refrigerant conduit leading into the expansion device of the heat pump. The outer body, in a second embodiment of the invention, acts not only as a heat exchanger but also as the sacrificial anode in the water tank by being constructed of a metal which is more likely to corrode than the metal of the tank.

  20. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  1. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  2. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS... LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information...

  4. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  5. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  6. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  7. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  8. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY...

  9. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  10. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERS, C D; ELBEL, S; PETERSEN, M; HRNJAK, P S

    2011-09-15

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC (180ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  11. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  12. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Carl; Puttagunta, Srikanth; Owens, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  13. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  14. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  15. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Burch, Jay; Merrigan, Tim; Ong, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  16. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  17. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  18. Water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Lindahl, J.R.

    1981-04-28

    To prevent the accumulation of scale and other solid particles in its bottom portion, this water heater incorporates a specially designed agitator assembly that is cheaper and simpler to use than electrostatic, electronic, or chemical devices. A ring-shaped tube positioned at the bottom of the tank close to the side wall is connected to a second tube that extends toward the tank's center. Openings and venturi fittings on the two tubes cause the water to flow into to the tank horizontally and centrally upward, creating a stirring action at the tank bottom.

  19. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  20. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-12-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring, A.O. Smith Voltex, and Stiebel Eltron Accelera 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  1. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - Second Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V. C.; Craddick, William G

    2007-09-01

    Since the 1980s various attempts have been made to apply the efficiency of heat pumps to water heating. The products generated in the 80s and 90s were not successful, due in part to a lack of reliability and difficulties with installation and servicing. At the turn of the century, EnvironMaster International (EMI) produced a heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on a design developed by Arthur D. Little (ADL), with subsequent developmental assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and ADL. This design was a drop-in replacement for conventional electric water heaters. In field and durability testing conducted by ORNL, it proved to be reliable and saved on average more than 50% of the energy used by the best conventional electric water heater. However, the retail price set by EMI was very high, and it failed in the market. ORNL was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. Several cost saving opportunities were found. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. After some experimentation, a prototype unit was built with a double-wall coil inserted into the tank. When tested it achieved an energy factor (EF) of 2.12 to 2.2 using DOE-specified test procedures. A.O. Smith contacted ORNL in May 2006 expressing their interest in the ORNL design. The prototype unit was shipped to A.O. Smith to be tested in their laboratory. After they completed their test, ORNL analyzed the raw test data provided by A.O. Smith and calculated the EF to be approximately 1.92. The electric resistance heating elements of a conventional electric water heater are typically retained in a heat pump water heater to provide auxiliary heating capacity in periods of high

  2. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    M. L. Sweet; Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  3. Development of Environmentally Benign Heat Pump Water Heaters for the US Market

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Wang, Kai; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Roetker, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency in water heating applications is important to the nation's energy strategies. Water heating in residential and commercial buildings accounts for about 10% of U.S. buildings energy consumption. Heat pump water heating (HPWH) technology is a significant breakthrough in energy efficiency, as an alternative to electric resistance water heating. Heat pump technology has shown acceptable payback period with proper incentives and successful market penetration is emerging. However, current HPWH require the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP). Furthermore, current system designs depend greatly on the backup resistance heaters when the ambient temperature is below freezing or when hot water demand increases. Finally, the performance of current HPWH technology degrades greatly as the water set point temperature exceeds 330 K. This paper presents the potential for carbon dioxide, CO2, as a natural, environmentally benign alternative refrigerant for HPWH technology. In this paper, we first describe the system design, implications and opportunities of operating a transcritical cycle. Next, a prototype CO2 HPWH design featuring flexible component evaluation capability is described. The experimental setup and results are then illustrated followed by a brief discussion on the measured system performance. The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations for the development of CO2 heat pump water heating technology suitable for the U.S. market.

  4. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    SciTech Connect

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could sufficiently

  5. Development of a Low Cost Heat Pump Water Heater - First Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V. C.; Tomlinson, J. J.

    2007-09-01

    Until now the heat pump water heater (HPWH) has been a technical success but a market failure because of its high initial cost. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was tasked to examine commercially available HPWH product technology and manufacturing processes for cost saving opportunities. ORNL was also tasked to verify the technical feasibility of the cost saving opportunities where necessary and appropriate. The objective was to retain most of the HPWH s energy saving performance while reducing cost and simple payback period to approximately three years in a residential application. Several cost saving opportunities were found. Immersing the HPWH condenser directly into the tank allowed the water-circulating pump to be eliminated and a standard electric resistance storage water heater to be used. In addition, designs could be based on refrigerator compressors. Standard water heaters and refrigerator compressors are both reliable, mass produced, and low cost. To verify the feasibility of these cost saving measures, ORNL completed a conceptual design for an HPWH based on an immersed condenser coil that could be directly inserted into a standard water heater tank through a sleeve affixed to one of the standard penetrations at the top of the tank. The sleeve contour causes the bayonet-style condenser to helix while being pushed into the tank, enabling a condenser of sufficient heat transfer surface area to be inserted. Based on this design, ORNL fabricated the first laboratory prototype and completed preliminary laboratory tests in accordance with the DOE Simulated Use Test Procedure. Hardening during double-wall condenser fabrication was not overcome, so the prototype is single-walled with a liner. The prototype unit was found to have an energy factor of 2.02, verifying that the low-cost design retains most of the HPWH s energy saving performance. Industry involvement is being sought to resolve the fabrication issue and quantify progress on reducing cost and

  6. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  7. Technology Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  8. Performance of a Heat Pump Water Heater in the Hot-Humid Climate, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Metzger, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Williamson, J.

    2013-11-01

    Over recent years, heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have become more readily available and more widely adopted in the marketplace. For a 6-month period, the Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings monitored the performance of a GE Geospring HPWH in Windermere, Florida. The study found that the HPWH performed 144% more efficiently than a traditional electric resistance water heater, saving approximately 64% on water heating annually. The monitoring showed that the domestic hot water draw was a primary factor affecting the system's operating efficiency.

  9. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 1: Transmittal documents; Executive summary; Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described.

  10. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, M. L.; Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  11. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  12. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  13. Nonpowered instant water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyer, Eric C.

    1994-08-01

    The technical feasibility of a nonpowered instantaneous water heater based on the use of a condensing steam ejector pump has been established by test of a commercially available ejector. Using steam at approximately 25 PSIG pressure, it has been demonstrated that water can be simultaneously heated and pumped to pressures up to two times the steam pressure. The overall system concept is that of a lightweight, portable heater package that is fired with a constant-run, manually-controlled burner. The concept can accommodate the operation of a constant-run burner with only intermittent water delivery, as in a kitchen use, by recirculation of heated water back to the supply tank/barrel. With outlet water pressure greater than the inlet steam pressure, the unit can incorporate automatic feed of makeup water to the steam generator. The system concept can be implemented in a range of outputs. At 100,000 Btu/hr burner output and 50% efficiency, system capability would be at about 0.8 GPM continuously with a 100 deg F temperature rise, 1.5 GPM continuously with about a 50 deg rise, or 1.5 GPM intermittently at 100 F rise and 50%/50% on-off delivery duty cycle.

  14. Simulation of an ammonia-water heat pump water heater with combustion products-driven evaporator

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Blanco, Horacio; Gluesenkamp, K.; Ally, Moonis Raza

    2016-12-19

    Here, the objective of this work is to simulate a single effct (SE) ammonia-water heat pump for domestic water heating, with innovative aspects for cycle simulation and eventual implementation. Seasonal temperature variations demand verfication of distillation column viability. For the given application and temperature ranges, it is found that some variables need to be controlled if the same column is to be used all year round. In addition, a number of simplifications are considered in this work: an advanced evaporator requireing minimal gas flow and surface area, subcooling at two crucial spots of the cycle and the viability of some pump designs to assuage cavitation issues.

  15. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 3: Appendix F through I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  16. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  17. Simulation of an ammonia-water heat pump water heater with combustion products-driven evaporator

    DOE PAGES

    Perez-Blanco, Horacio; Gluesenkamp, K.; Ally, Moonis Raza

    2016-12-19

    Here, the objective of this work is to simulate a single effct (SE) ammonia-water heat pump for domestic water heating, with innovative aspects for cycle simulation and eventual implementation. Seasonal temperature variations demand verfication of distillation column viability. For the given application and temperature ranges, it is found that some variables need to be controlled if the same column is to be used all year round. In addition, a number of simplifications are considered in this work: an advanced evaporator requireing minimal gas flow and surface area, subcooling at two crucial spots of the cycle and the viability of somemore » pump designs to assuage cavitation issues.« less

  18. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other benefits. Because it

  19. Nonpowered Instant Water Heater

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-94/028 __ NONPOWERED INSTANT WATER HEATER 00= By Eric C. Guyer Yankee Scientific, Inc. Medfield, MA 02052 August 1994...Instant water Heater Contract _ _._AUTHOR(S)_DAAK60-93-C-0022 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric C. Guyer 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) B. PERFORMING...DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlinited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words ) The

  20. Monitoring of a PV-pumped solar water heater for a campground

    SciTech Connect

    Monesterio, M.; Thayer, D.

    1999-07-01

    A PV pumped, solar domestic hot water system for a shower building installed at a state park is described. The system is drain freeze protected. A system overview, description of the monitoring instruments and results for total domestic hot water use, solar collector efficiency, and performance relative to solar collector area, storage size and type are presented.

  1. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Murphy, Richard W.; Rice, C. Keith; Linkous, Randall Lee

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  2. HOME ENERGY SUPPLY-DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR COMBINED SYSTEM OF SOLAR HEAT COLLECTOR AND HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Takashi; Kataoka, Kazuto; Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko

    In order to evaluate effectiveness of a combined system of solar heat collecctor (SHC) and heat pump water heater (HPWH), optimum operation scheduling moldel of domestic electric appliances using the mixed integer linear programming was enhanced. Applying this model with one house data in Tokyo, it was found that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has the enough energy-saving and CO2 emission reduction potential under the existing electricity late and the operation method of the HPWH. Furthermore, the calculation results under the future system show that the combined system of the SHC and the HPWH has also the reduction effect of reverse power flow from residential photovoltaic system.

  3. Solar Water-Heater Design and Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlamert, P.; Kennard, J.; Ciriunas, J.

    1982-01-01

    Solar/Water heater system works as follows: Solar--heated air is pumped from collectors through rock bin from top to bottom. Air handler circulates heated air through an air-to-water heat exchanger, which transfers heat to incoming well water. In one application, it may reduce oil use by 40 percent.

  4. Water heater control module

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J

    2013-11-26

    An advanced electric water heater control system that interfaces with a high temperature cut-off thermostat and an upper regulating thermostat. The system includes a control module that is electrically connected to the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module includes a switch to open or close the high-temperature cut-off thermostat and the upper regulating thermostat. The control module further includes circuitry configured to control said switch in response to a signal selected from the group of an autonomous signal, a communicated signal, and combinations thereof.

  5. Solar Hot Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  6. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Ally, Moonis Raza; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  7. Solar Water Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    As a Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientist Dr. Eldon Haines studied the solar energy source and solar water heating. He concluded he could build a superior solar water heating system using the geyser pumping principle. He resigned from JPL to develop his system and later form Sage Advance Corporation to market the technology. Haines' Copper Cricket residential system has no moving parts, is immune to freeze damage, needs no roof-mounted tanks, and features low maintenance. It provides 50-90 percent of average hot water requirements. A larger system, the Copper Dragon, has been developed for commercial installations.

  8. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Shen, Bo; Keinath, Christopher M.; Garrabrant, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  9. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  10. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  11. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  12. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  13. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  14. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  15. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  16. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  17. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  18. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  19. Solar Water Heater Installation Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A 48-page report describes water-heating system, installation (covering collector orientation, mounting, plumbing and wiring), operating instructions and maintenance procedures. Commercial solar-powered water heater system consists of a solar collector, solar-heated-water tank, electrically heated water tank and controls. Analysis of possible hazards from pressure, electricity, toxicity, flammability, gas, hot water and steam are also included.

  20. Molded polymer solar water heater

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.

    2004-11-09

    A solar water heater has a rotationally-molded water box and a glazing subassembly disposed over the water box that enhances solar gain and provides an insulating air space between the outside environment and the water box. When used with a pressurized water system, an internal heat exchanger is integrally molded within the water box. Mounting and connection hardware is included to provide a rapid and secure method of installation.

  1. Enhanced electrothermal pumping with thin film resistive heaters.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stuart J

    2013-05-01

    This work demonstrates the use of thin film heaters to enhance electrothermal pumping in microfluidic systems. Thin film heating electrothermal pumping is more efficient than Joule heating alone. Numerical simulations of an asymmetric electrode array are performed to demonstrate the advantages of incorporating thin film heaters. This specific simulation shows that thin film heater electrothermal pumping provides approximately two and one-half times more volumetric flow than Joule heating alone for the same input power to both systems. In addition, external heating allows for electrothermal pumping to be applicable to low conductivity media.

  2. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  3. Solar water heater design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  4. Measured Impact on Space Conditioning Energy Use in a Residence Due to Operating a Heat Pump Water Heater inside the Conditioned Space

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Jeffrey D; Ally, Moonis Raza; Baxter, Van D

    2012-01-01

    The impact on space conditioning energy use due to operating a heat pump water heater (HPWH) inside the conditioned space is analyzed based on 2010-2011 data from a research house with simulated occupancy and hot water use controls. The 2700 ft2 (345 m2) house is located in Oak Ridge, TN (mixed-humid climate) and is equipped with a 50 gallon (189 l) HPWH that provided approximately 55 gallons/d (208 l/d) of hot water at 120 F (46 C) to the house during the test period. The HPWH has been operated every other week from December 2010 through November 2011 in two modes; a heat pump only mode, and a standard mode that utilizes 15355 Btu/hr (4500 W) resistance heating elements. The energy consumption of the air-source heat pump (ASHP) that provides space conditioning for the house is compared for the two HPWH operating modes with weather effects taken into account. Impacts during the heating and cooling seasons are compared.

  5. To Duct or Not to Duct: Evaluating the Space Conditioning Impacts of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Peeks, B.; Sullivan, Greg; Shaffer, Scott

    2014-08-22

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWH) are a promising technology for substantially reducing water heating-related energy use in the residential sector. However, concerns have been raised regarding the impact of HPWHs on space conditioning energy when installed in conditioned space, primarily in northern climates. For example, the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA’s) Northern Climate HPWH Specification, which describes the characteristics a HPWH must have to be incentivized in cold climates in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), requires exhaust ducting for their Tier II-specified products and both supply and exhaust ducting for the Tier III-specified product (NEEA 2013). However, these concerns and installation recommendations are based on modeling and comparative field data are not available to verify modeled performance. This study examines the overall performance and operation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in conditioned space in the matched pair of PNNL Lab Homes with no ducting, exhaust ducting, and full ducting (supply and exhaust) and explores the interactions between the HPWH and the home’s heating/cooling system. The data collected in this field evaluation suggest that previous modeling may not completely characterize the complex interactions of HPWHs, HVAC systems, and ducting. This report discusses the impact on space conditioning and water heater energy use of configuring an HPWH with exhaust only ducting or full ducting, as compared to an unducted HPWH. Additional cost analysis is necessary to assess the cost effectiveness of ducting and to make formal recommendations regarding appropriate installation of HPWHs in more varied scenarios.

  6. Shared savings gets realtor new water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mullin, R.

    1983-08-08

    The Grenadier Realty Co. of New York is financing four energy-efficient water heaters for apartment buildings with a shared savings arrangement. The arrangement allows Grenadier to avoid front-end costs, which were paid by Independent Water Heaters Inc. in exchange for a decreasing share of the savings. Grenadier will own the heaters when the five-year contract expires. By allowing a shutdown of boilers during the summer months, the heaters will further increase energy savings. (DCK)

  7. Space Station solar water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  8. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial heat pump water... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than...

  9. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial heat pump water... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than...

  10. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial heat pump water... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than...

  11. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than commercial heat pump water... PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers... of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot water supply boilers (other than...

  12. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  13. Condensing Hybrid Water Heater Monitoring Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Hancock, C. E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes the Mascot home, an abandoned property that was extensively renovated. Several efficiency upgrades were integrated into this home, of particular interest, a unique water heater (a Navien CR240-A). Field monitoring was performed to determine the in-use efficiency of the hybrid condensing water heater. The results were compared to the unit's rated efficiency. This unit is Energy Star qualified and one of the most efficient gas water heaters currently available on the market.

  14. The LBNL Water Heater Retail Price Database

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Glover, Julie; Lutz, Jim

    2000-10-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed the LBNL Water Heater Price Database to compile and organize information used in the revision of U.S. energy efficiency standards for water heaters. The Database contains all major components that contribute to the consumer cost of water heaters, including basic retail prices, sales taxes, installation costs, and any associated fees. In addition, the Database provides manufacturing data on the features and design characteristics of more than 1100 different water heater models. Data contained in the Database was collected over a two-year period from 1997 to 1999.

  15. Extended range tankless water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  16. Load Frequency Control by use of a Number of Both Heat Pump Water Heaters and Electric Vehicles in Power System with a Large Integration of Renewable Energy Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Shimizu, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    In Japan, from the viewpoints of global warming countermeasures and energy security, it is expected to establish a smart grid as a power system into which a large amount of generation from renewable energy sources such as wind power generation and photovoltaic generation can be installed. Measures for the power system stability and reliability are necessary because a large integration of these renewable energy sources causes some problems in power systems, e.g. frequency fluctuation and distribution voltage rise, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) is one of effective solutions to these problems. Due to a high cost of the BESS, our research group has studied an application of controllable loads such as Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH) and Electric Vehicle (EV) to the power system control for reduction of the required capacity of BESS. This paper proposes a new coordinated Load Frequency Control (LFC) method for the conventional power plants, the BESS, the HPWHs, and the EVs. The performance of the proposed LFC method is evaluated by the numerical simulations conducted on a power system model with a large integration of wind power generation and photovoltaic generation.

  17. Electrothermal pumping with interdigitated electrodes and resistive heaters.

    PubMed

    Williams, Stuart J; Green, Nicolas G

    2015-08-01

    Interdigitated electrodes are used in electrokinetic lab-on-a-chip devices for dielectrophoretic trapping and characterization of suspended particles, as well as the production of field-induced fluid flow via AC electroosomosis and electrothermal mechanisms. However, the optimum design for dielectrophoresis, that if symmetrical electrodes, cannot induce bulk electrohydrodynamic pumping. In addition, the mechanism of intrinsic electrothermal pumping is affected by the properties of the fluid, with thermal fields being generated by Joule Heating. This work demonstrates the incorporation of an underlying thin film heater, electrically isolated from the interdigitated electrodes by an insulator layer, to enhance bulk electrothermal pumping. The use of integrated heaters allows the thermal field generation to be controlled independently of the electric field. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the importance of geometrical arrangement of the heater with respect to the interdigitated electrodes, as well as electrode size, spacing, and arrangement. The optimization of such a system is a careful balance between electrokinetics, heat transfer, and fluid dynamics. The heater location and electrode spacing influence the rate of electrothermal pumping significantly more than electrode width and insulator layer thickness. This demonstration will aid in the development of microfluidic electrokinetic systems that want to utilize the advantages associated with electrothermal pumping while simultaneously applying other lab-on-a-chip electrokinetics like dielectrophoresis.

  18. Energy Efficiency Design Options for Residential Water Heaters: Economic Impacts on Consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve; Thompson, Lisa; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-11-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently completed a rulemaking process in which it amended the existing energy efficiency standards for residential water heaters. A key factor in DOE?s consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers. Determining such impacts requires a comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. This paper describes the method used to conduct the life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period analysis for gas and electric storage water heaters. It presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment, including heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters, for a representative sample of U.S. homes. The study included a detailed accounting of installation costs for the considered design options, with a focus on approaches for accommodating the larger dimensions of more efficient water heaters. For heat pump water heaters, the study also considered airflow requirements, venting issues, and the impact of these products on the indoor environment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design reduces the LCC in the majority of homes for both gas and electric storage water heaters, and heat pump electric water heaters and condensing gas water heaters provide a lower LCC for homes with large rated volume water heaters.

  19. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  20. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; German, A.; Staller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  1. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  2. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  3. Water heaters subject to new regulations.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Alan

    2014-06-01

    On 26 September 2015 the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives for water heaters (Lot 2) come into force, meaning that water-heating products sold in the UK and other countries in the European Economic Area will need to meet minimum energy performance criteria in order to be legally placed on the market, and will require an energy label. Here Alan Clarke, technical support manager at Heatrae Sadia, explains more.

  4. EPRI studies Legionella in electric water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Home electric water heaters were found not to be a major risk factor for Legionnaires` disease in a 2-year study conducted recently in Ohio. EPRI has published the final report of the project, and a scientific paper on the study will soon appear in a major medical journal. The research was sponsored by EPRI`s Environmental and Health Sciences business Unit and the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with cofunding from the Canadian Electrical Association.

  5. Low power, frost resistant, inexpensive solar hot water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Loth, J.L.

    1980-09-01

    The object of the work reported was to maximize the thermal capacity of a solar collector and to use city water pressure to force the hot water from the collector to the inlet of the regular domestic hot water heater when water was being used in the house. The frost resistance feature was to be obtained by using an air-filled plastic tube inside the collector water passages so that when freezing the ice expansion would collapse the plastic tube rather than bursting the copper lines. The frost resistance feature was extensively tested during the winter of 1979-1980. Repeated thawing and freezing and thawing showed that the presence of the air-filled plastic tube delayed but did not prevent bursting. Thermal storage is effected by a mixture of cement and anthracite surrounding the copper water pipe. This proved too heavy and the performance was too dependent upon hot water use. A preheater and circulating pump were added. (LEW)

  6. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  7. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  8. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  9. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  10. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Water Heaters... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  11. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... process to develop a uniform efficiency descriptor and accompanying test method for residential water heaters and commercial water heaters. This test procedure rulemaking is intended to fulfill...

  12. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  13. 10 CFR 429.17 - Residential water heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Residential water heaters. 429.17 Section 429.17 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.17 Residential water heaters. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to residential water...

  14. Water pumps.

    PubMed

    Loo, Donald D F; Wright, Ernest M; Zeuthen, Thomas

    2002-07-01

    The transport of water across epithelia has remained an enigma ever since it was discovered over 100 years ago that water was transported across the isolated small intestine in the absence of osmotic and hydrostatic pressure gradients. While it is accepted that water transport is linked to solute transport, the actual mechanisms are not well understood. Current dogma holds that active ion transport sets up local osmotic gradients in the spaces between epithelial cells, the lateral intercellular spaces, and this in turn drives water transport by local osmosis. In the case of the small intestine, which in humans absorbs about 8 l of water a day, there is no direct evidence for either local osmosis or aquaporin gene expression in enterocytes. Intestinal water absorption is greatly enhanced by glucose, and this is the basis for oral rehydration therapy in patients with secretory diarrhoea. In our studies of the intestinal brush border Na+-glucose cotransporter we have obtained evidence that there is a direct link between the transport of Na+, glucose and water transport, i.e. there is cotransport of water along with Na+ and sugar, that will account for about 50 % of the total water transport across the human intestinal brush border membrane. In this short review we summarize the evidence for water cotransport and propose how this occurs during the enzymatic turnover of the transporter. This is a general property of cotransporters and so we expect that this may have wider implications in the transport of water and other small polar molecules across cell membranes in animals and plants.

  15. Preheating Water In The Covers Of Solar Water Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhandari, Pradeep

    1995-01-01

    Solar water heaters that include glass covers over absorber plates redesigned to increase efficiencies according to proposal. Redesign includes modification of single-layer glass cover into double-layer glass cover and addition of plumbing so cool water to be heated made to flow between layers of cover before entering absorber plate.

  16. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; BushPE, John D

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  17. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  18. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... attached. Thermal efficiency for an instantaneous water heater, a storage water heater or a hot water... the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot...

  19. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    SciTech Connect

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Pumps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on pumps provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: types of pumps in plant and distribution systems, pump…

  1. Performance and economics of using heat pump desuperheaters for residential water heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbatiello, L. A.; Nephew, E. A.; Ballou, M. L.

    1980-06-01

    The homeowner using a desuperheater water heater system should expect effective annual water heating COPs which range from 1.3 for northern cities to 2.9 in southern cities. The average consumer could expect to save between 800 and 2500 kWh/year if he is presently heating water with a conventional electric water heater. Should the homeowner elect to install a heat pump water heater within the thermal envelope of his air-to-air heat pumped home, he could expect similar savings. The major economic conclusions of this study are: the desuperheater water heater can save a significant amount of energy at attractive life cycle costs and acceptable first costs if the owner is choosing between electrically powered alternatives; heat pump water heaters offer savings which are comparable to those of the desuperheater system in all regions of the country; water heating with natural gas still offers the lowest first and life cycle costs of all alternatives.

  2. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  3. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  4. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....4 Energy Factor means a measure of water heater overall efficiency. 1.5 First-Hour Rating means an... Efficiency means the ratio of energy delivered to the water to the energy content of the fuel consumed by the... (including the compressor and all auxiliary equipment such as fans, pumps, controls, and, if on the...

  5. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters (Standby Mode and Off Mode) AGENCY... water heaters, direct heating equipment (DHE), and pool heaters to include provisions for measuring... 2007 (EISA 2007). DOE has concluded that such amendments are necessary for direct heating equipment...

  6. Air-to-water heat pumps for the home

    SciTech Connect

    Bodzin, S.

    1997-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters may be on the rise again. Retrofitters have shied away from this form of water heating due to concerns about cost, moise, efficiency, and maintaenance. Recent advances have overcome some of these problems and are helping the technology find a niche in both hot and cold climates. The topics covered in this article include the following: how heat pump water heaters work; air source from where to where, including air conditioning, heat recovery ventilation, hybrid systems; nuisances; maintenance; costs; to install or not to install; performance: a trick to quantify. 2 figs.

  7. NORTH PORTAL - WATER HEATER CALCULATION - CHANGE HOUSE FACILITY #5008

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. Blackstone

    1996-01-25

    The purpose of this design analysis and calculation is to determine the demand for hot water in the Change House Facility and the selection of a water heater of appropriate size in accordance with the Uniform Plumbing Code (Section 4.4.1) and U.S. Department of Energy Order 6430.1A-1540 (Section 4.4.2).

  8. Performance Evaluation of Point-of-Use Water Heaters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-15

    AD-AG91 843 , JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORP DENVER CO RESEARCH AND OEV--ETC F/6 13/1 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF POINT-OF-USE WATER HEATERS.(U) OCT AG P B...POINT-OF-USE WATER HEATERS P. B. SHEPHERD JOHNS - MANVILLE SALES CORPORATION RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT CENTER KEN-CARYL RANCH, DENVER, COLORADO 80217 15...literature survey was conducted by Ms. Suzanne D.A. Graham who is on the Corporate Information Center staff of the Johns - Manville Research & Development

  9. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... amendments to DOE's test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters... heating equipment test procedures as applied to vented hearth heaters, and coverage of electric...

  10. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 73... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...), gas-fired direct heating equipment, and gas-fired pool heaters. It has determined that the...

  11. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC design

  12. 10 CFR 431.107 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters. 431.107 Section 431.107 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial heat pump water heaters....

  13. 12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Water treatment plant interior view of pipes and pump in heater room. View to W - Fort Benton Water Treatment Plant, Filtration Plant, Lots 9-13 of Block 7, Fort Benton Original Townsite at Missouri River, Fort Benton, Chouteau County, MT

  14. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Factor means a measure of water heater overall efficiency. 1.5First-Hour Rating means an estimate of the...), as specified by the manufacturer. 1.10Recovery Efficiency means the ratio of energy delivered to the... auxiliary equipment such as fans, pumps, controls, and, if on the same circuit, any resistive elements)...

  15. Marketing and promoting solar water heaters to home builders

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.; Ghent, P.

    1999-12-06

    This is the final report of a four-task project to develop a marketing plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry. This report outlines suggested marketing communication materials and other promotional tools focused on selling products to the new home builder. Information relevant to promoting products to the new home buyer is also included.

  16. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Steven A.; Pratt, Richard M.; Chassin, Forrest S.

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  17. In Situ Tuff Water Migration/Heater Experiment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, J.K.; Hadley, G.R.; Waymire, D.R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the In Situ Tuff Water Migration/Heater Experiment operated in the welded portion of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff in U12g-tunnel (G-Tunnel) on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The experiment was located approximately 400 m below the surface and 200 m above the water table in nearly saturated rock. The experiment was designed to provide an initial assessment of the thermally induced behavior of the potentially large volumes of water ({similar_to}25 vol % in this case) available in saturated or nearly saturated tuffaceous rocks. Instruments in the water collection cavities, including water depth gages, pH probes, humidity gages, and pressure transducers measured some properties of the collected water. Other holes in the array were instrumented to measure temperature profiles, thermally induced stress, and one provided a test bed for a continuously operating laser interferometer for measuring thermally induced rock displacements. Initial analysis of the water generation rate data in the heater hole, assuming a one-dimensional evaporation front/vapor diffusion model, provided good qualitative agreement. The results of chemical analyses of water samples supports the notion of mass transport by vapor diffusion in the heater hole but not in the water migration holes. Rock temperatures in the heater hole exceeded 240{sup 0}C. The stress meters measured maximum radial and circumferential thermal stresses of 8.62 and 4.83 MPa respectively - approximately 40% of the pretest predicted values. The experiment with the laser interferometer was a failure. The results of the water migration experiment indicate that the pore water in these rocks was highly mobile, probably by a vapor diffusion/condensation process.

  18. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, William P.; Buescher, Tom

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  19. Thermal injuries caused by ignition of volatile substances by gas water heaters.

    PubMed

    Rutan, R L; Desai, M H; Herndon, D N

    1993-01-01

    Based on the cumulative data of this tertiary care facility over the past 25 years, one out of every 70 pediatric patients admitted to our institution sustained their injuries during an explosive event instigated by the ignition of volatile substances from gas water heaters. The majority of injuries related to gas water heaters can be prevented by decreasing the temperature setpoint of the heater, by protecting the heater element itself, and by elevating the water heater to 18 inches above the floor. The first two issues have been adequately addressed; however, gas-fueled water heaters continue to be installed at floor level. Current national guidelines are too rigid and do not adequately address water-heater installation in private residences. Although general prevention campaigns target appropriate storage of volatile substances, they rarely address the explosive potential of gas water heaters in combination with combustible fumes.

  20. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. Link...

  1. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks....

  2. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks....

  3. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks....

  4. Multipurpose water heater. Final technical report, October 1995--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Guyer, E.C.; Coumou, K.G.

    1999-03-01

    This final report describes SBIR Phase 2 project for the development of a multi-purpose water heater for use in Army Food sanitation centers. The objective of the project was to develop a water heater--powered only by an M2 burner and requiring no external supply of electricity--capable of supplying a continuous flow of pressurized hot water to a faucet at the sanitation sink. In the course of the research, two developments took place that have had an impact on the final design. First, the Multifuel Burner Unit (MBU) became available as a potential replacement for the M2. The MBU runs on JP-8 or diesel fuel and requires an external 24-volt VDC power supply. Thus, in anticipation of eventual conversion from M2 to MBU, a DC-Powered Water Heater was also delivered. Second, a new method for heating water in the sanitation sinks was developed allowing three sinks to be heated by a single M2 or MBU.

  5. Should Fermi Have Secured his Water Heater Against Earthquakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, E. M.; Diggory, M.; Gomez, E.; Salaree, A.; Schmid, M.; Saloor, N.; Stein, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    A common student response to quantitative questions in science with no obvious answer is "I have no idea." Often these questions can be addressed by Fermi estimation, in which an apparently difficult-to-estimate quantity for which one has little intuitive sense can be sensibly estimated by combining order of magnitude estimates of easier-to-estimate quantities. Although this approach is most commonly used for numerical estimates, it can also be applied to issues combining both science and policy. Either application involves dividing an issue into tractable components and addressing them separately. To learn this method, our natural hazard policy seminar considered a statement by the Illinois Emergency Management Agency that homeowners should secure water heaters to prevent them from being damaged by earthquakes. We divided this question into subtopics, researched each, and discussed them weekly to reach a synthesis. We used a simple model to estimate the net benefit, the difference between the expected value of damage and the cost of securing a water heater. This benefit is positive, indicating that securing is worthwhile, only if the probability of damage during the heater's life is relatively large, approximately 1 - 10%. To assess whether the actual probability is likely to be this high, we assume that major water heater damage is likely only for shaking with MMI intensity VIII ("heavy furniture overturned") or greater. Intensity data for the past 200 years of Illinois earthquakes show that this level was reached only in the very southernmost part of the state for the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. As expected, the highest known shaking generally decreases northward toward Chicago. This history is consistent with the fact that we find no known cases of earthquake-toppled water heaters in Illinois. We compared the rate of return on securing a water heater in Chicago to buying a lottery ticket when the jackpot is large, and found that the latter would be a

  6. Dehumidifying water heater. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-18

    Drawings and specifications are included for the system to heat water for the swimming pool and dehumidify the building of the Glen Cove YMCA. An overview is presented of the Nautica product used in this system. (MHR)

  7. The solar vacuum water pump

    SciTech Connect

    Ryduchowski, K.W.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper the conception of the solar vacuum water pump is presented. The working medium of the pump consists of the water vapour with temperature about 100/sup 0/C, which is produced by solar energy Fresnel-lens collector. The pressure difference between the condensing chamber /3/ and ambient atmosphere caused by the direct condensation of the water vapour at the surface of the pumped water, creates the necessary pumping force.

  8. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  9. In situ Tuff water migration/heater experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, J. K.; Hadley, G. R.; Waymire, D. R.

    1985-03-01

    The results of the In Situ Tuff Water Migration/Heater Experiment operated in the welded portion of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff in U12g-tunnel (G-Tunnel) on the Nevada Test Site are summarized. The experiment was located approximately 400 m below the surface and 200 m above the water table in nearly saturated rock. The experiment was designed to provide an initial assessment of the thermally induced behavior of the potentially large volumes of water (approx. 25 vol % in this case) available in saturated or nearly saturated tuffaceous rocks. Instruments in the water collection cavities, including water depth gages, pH probes, humidity gages, and pressure transducers measured some properties of the collected water. Other holes in the array were instrumented to measure temperature profiles, thermally induced stress, and one provided a test bed for a continuously operating laser interferometer for measuring thermally induced rock displacements. Initial analysis of the water generation rate data in the heater hole, assuming a one-dimensional evaporation front/vapor diffusion model, provided good qualitative agreement.

  10. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  11. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOEpatents

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  12. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  13. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  14. An Evaluation of the Water Heater Load Potential for Providing Regulation Service

    SciTech Connect

    Kondoh, Junji; Lu, Ning; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2011-08-31

    This paper investigates the possibility of providing aggregated regulation services with small loads, such as water heaters or air conditioners. A direct-load control algorithm is presented to aggregate the water heater load for the purpose of regulation. A dual-element electric water heater model is developed, which accounts for both thermal dynamics and users’ water consumptions. A realistic regulation signal was used to evaluate the number of water heaters needed and the operational characteristics of a water heater when providing 2-MW regulation service. Modeling results suggest that approximately 33,333 water heaters are needed to provide a 2-MW regulation service 24 hours a day. However, if water heaters only provide regulation from 6:00 to 24:00, approximately 20,000 will be needed. Because the control algorithm has considered the thermal setting of the water heater, the customer comfort is obstructed little. Therefore, the aggregated regulation service provided by water heater loads can become a major source of revenue for load-service entities when the smart grid enables the direct load control.

  15. Extended range tankless water heater. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.A.

    1993-04-18

    In this research program, a laboratory test facility was built for the purpose of testing a gas-fired water heating appliance. This test facility can be used to examine the important performance characteristics of efficiency, dynamic response, and quality of combustion. An innovative design for a tankless water heater was built and then tested to determine its performance characteristics. This unit was tested over a 5:1 range in input (20,000 to 100,000 btuh heat input). The unit was then configured as a circulating hot water boiler, and a specially designed heat exchanger was used with it to generate domestic hot water. This unit was also tested, and was found to offer performance advantages with regard to low flow and temperature stability.

  16. Heat transfer augmentation in the flueway of a water heater

    SciTech Connect

    Beckermann, C.; Goldschmidt, V.W.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a twisted baffle tape on the heat transfer in the center flue tube of a gas-fired water heater are investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The combustion products enter the flue tube at a temperature of about 2300 F (1260/sup 0/C) and transfer heat by the combined modes of radiation and convection to the cross tape and the water-backed tube wall. The twisted tape causes an augmentation of the convective heat transfer from the flue gases to the wall surfaces. In addition, radiative heat transfer from the relatively hot cross tape plays an important role in the heat transfer to the tube wall, which has usually been neglected in the past. A theoretical study is performed under conditions of radiating gas flow and varying temperatures of the tube wall and cross tape along the flow direction. The results are compared to experimental measurements taken on one particular flue tube of a gas-fired water heater and are found to be in good agreement.

  17. American Water Heater Company: Compressed Air System Optimization Project Saves Energy and Improves Production at Water Heater Plant

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, American Water Heater Company implemented a system-level improvement project on the compressed air system that serves its manufacturing plant in Johnson City, Tennessee. The plant now operates with less compressor capacity, which has reduced its energy consumption and maintenance needs. The project's total cost was $228,000. The annual compressed air energy savings (2,345,000 kWh) and maintenance savings total $160,000, yielding a simple payback of 17 months. Furthermore, the system now supports the plant's production processes more effectively, which has improved product quality and increased production.

  18. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...) Pt. 305, App. D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305—Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas Range Information...

  19. Evaluation of Tube Wall Thickness of Feed Water Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikura, Takahisa; Morisaki, Koichi; Hamada, Seiichi

    With regard to the high pressure (HP) feed water heater of thermal power plant at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) sites, inspection of feed water (FW) tubes wall thickness are conducted whenever required such that frequent tube leak occurs. As a standard inspection methodology, FW heater is disassembled during planned outage, tube wall thickness is measured by the ultrasonic pulse techique (UT), then plugs are installed at the both ends of FW tube if its measured wall thickness is found below calculated threshold. However, the root causes of wall thinning of FW tube are various such as erosion and corrosion, based on wall thinning condition, the above threshold is not applied but utilizing the other technically well-grounded evaluation method is sometimes more rational. Therefore, TEPCO classified wall-thinning condition based on inspection data and established technically well-grounded and rational evaluation methodologies of FW tube wall thickness to suite each wall thinning condition. Moreover, with recent improvement of inspection technique, technology enabled faster, larger amount, and more accurate data acquisition, TEPCO has developed the systematized evaluation methodology that can transact data acquisition and evaluation simultaneously. This article introduces the logic of evaluation methods and examined algorithms to make them systematized.

  20. Analysis of thermal stresses in horizontal delivery water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilan, A. V.; Plotnikov, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of thermal stresses in tubes and a compensator, taking into account water heating in each heater bunch and temperature at which its mounting is implemented, and of stresses on pressure is presented. The 3D-model of the horizontal delivery water heater of PSG-4900-0.3-1.14 type is used. The tube plate is represented as the 3D-body with 6863 holes with offset center of the perforated area, the steam space shell is represented as a cylindrical casing, the bottoms of water chambers are considered as elliptical casings, the four-lens compensator is represented in the form of toroidal casings, and the tubes are considered as beams operating in tensile-compression and bending in two planes. Calculations were carried out for different temperatures of superheated steam and a steam space shell, respectively, as well as designs with compensator and without it. Various temperature values of the tubes on the passes were calculated and set. The studies were carried out taking into account nonaxis-symmetrical spacing the tube plate and compensator deformation. The calculation results of tensile-compression stresses in the tubes are presented. Furthermore, the central tubes experience compressive stresses, whose maximal values take place on the border between the tubes of the fourth and of the first passes. For its decrease, it is recommended to increase the distance between the tubes of these passes. The tension stresses in the peripheral tubes are the maximal stresses. To reduce the stresses and, therefore, increase service life of the delivery water heater at using wet or superheated (not more than by 30-50°C) steam in it (the larger value refers to the brass tubes and the water pressure of 1.6-2.5 MPa), it is necessary to recommend the noncompensatory design at using the steam superheated by more than 30-50°C (at Ural Turbine Works, it is the turbines of T-250/300-23.5 and T-113/145-12.4 types with intermediate superheating) and to recommend the installation of the

  1. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers* Thermal Efficiency ANSI Z21.10.3-1998, § 2.9** A. For... Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers* Thermal Efficiency ANSI Z21.10.3-1998, § 2.9** (2) Oil...) Assume that the thermal efficiency (Et) of electric water heaters with immersed heating elements is...

  2. A Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. This paper proposes a more realistic ratings draw that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. Presented at the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum; Denver, Colorado; May 13-17, 2012.

  3. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Water Heaters E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters 1. Definitions 1.1Cut-in means the time when or water temperature at which a water heater...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Water Heaters E Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Appendix E to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters 1. Definitions 1.1Cut-in means the time when or water temperature at which a water heater...

  5. Non-magnetic flexible heaters for spin-exchange optical pumping of 3He and other applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ino, T.; Hayashida, H.; Kira, H.; Oku, T.; Sakai, K.

    2016-11-01

    Spin polarized 3He gas is currently widely used in various scientific fields and in medical diagnosis applications. The spin polarization of 3He nuclei can be achieved by spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP). In SEOP, the 3He gas is enclosed in a glass cell together with alkali metals and is then heated to maintain the alkali metal vapor pressures at the appropriate levels. However, polarized 3He gas is highly sensitive to any inhomogeneity in its magnetic field, and any small field gradients caused by the heaters may cause degradation of the 3He polarization. To overcome this conflict between the heating process and the magnetic field, we have developed electrical heaters that essentially cause no magnetic fields. These heaters are thin and are flexible enough to be bent to within a radius of a few centimeters. These carefully designed heater elements and a double layer structure effectively eliminate magnetic field generation. The heaters were originally developed for SEOP applications, but can also be applied to other processes that need to avoid unwanted magnetic fields.

  6. Development of an advanced solar augmented water heater (for single family home applications)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunes, H.; Morrison, D.; Dewinter, F.

    1982-06-01

    A program was undertaken to design, construct and test two advanced prototype solar augmented gas water heaters. Computer analyses and experimental work were used to optimize components and characterize performance. The resulting design includes a solar preheat tank, a gas-fired backup tank, the collector loop pump and all operating controls contained in a single cylindrical package. The backup tank is positioned above the solar preheat tank. The connection between the solar and backup tanks is effectively a thermal diode which restricts heat transfer from the backup to the solar tank but allows the backup tank to become an integral part of solar storage whenever the solar tank temperature surpasses the backup tank set point temperature. Solar heat is supplied through a jacketed tank drainback system.

  7. Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    1983-02-01

    The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

  8. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning...

  9. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... current test procedures for water heaters already fully account for and incorporate measurement of standby... residential direct heating equipment and pool heaters to provide for measurement of standby mode and off mode..., ``Household electrical appliances-- Measurement of standby power'' (First Edition 2005-06), as well...

  10. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost, operating cost, performance

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  12. Realistic Hot Water Draw Specification for Rating Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are simulated, using TMY weather and specified water draw. A more-realistic ratings draw is proposed that eliminates most bias by improving mains inlet temperature and by specifying realistic hot water use. This paper outlines the current and the proposed draws and estimates typical ratings changes from draw specification changes for typical systems in four cities.

  13. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, John W.

    1983-06-28

    A water heater or system which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  14. Hot water tank for use with a combination of solar energy and heat-pump desuperheating

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, J.W.

    1980-06-25

    A water heater or system is described which includes a hot water tank having disposed therein a movable baffle to function as a barrier between the incoming volume of cold water entering the tank and the volume of heated water entering the tank which is heated by the circulation of the cold water through a solar collector and/or a desuperheater of a heat pump so as to optimize the manner in which heat is imparted to the water in accordance to the demand on the water heater or system. A supplemental heater is also provided and it is connected so as to supplement the heating of the water in the event that the solar collector and/or desuperheater cannot impart all of the desired heat input into the water.

  15. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  16. Method and apparatus for enhanced heat recovery from steam generators and water heaters

    DOEpatents

    Knight, Richard A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Wang, Dexin

    2006-06-27

    A heating system having a steam generator or water heater, at least one economizer, at least one condenser and at least one oxidant heater arranged in a manner so as to reduce the temperature and humidity of the exhaust gas (flue gas) stream and recover a major portion of the associated sensible and latent heat. The recovered heat is returned to the steam generator or water heater so as to increase the quantity of steam generated or water heated per quantity of fuel consumed. In addition, a portion of the water vapor produced by combustion of fuel is reclaimed for use as feed water, thereby reducing the make-up water requirement for the system.

  17. In-Situ Tuff Water Migration/Heater Experiment: posttest thermal analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, R.R.; Johnstone, J.K.; Nunziato, J.W.; Korbin, C.M.

    1983-10-01

    This report describes posttest laboratory experiments and thermal computations for the In-Situ Tuff Water Migration/Heater Experiment that was conducted in Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in G-Tunnel, Nevada Test Site. Posttest laboratory experiments were designed to determine the accuracy of the temperatures measured by the rockwall thermocouples during the in-situ test. The posttest laboratory experiments showed that the measured in-situ rockwall temperatures were 10 to 20{sup 0}C higher than the true rockwall temperatures. The posttest computational results, obtained with the thermal conduction code COYOTE, were compared with the experimentally obtained data and with calculated pretest results. Daily heater output power fluctuations (+-4%) caused by input power line variations and the sensitivity of temperature to heater output power required care in selecting the average heater output power values used in the code. The posttest calculated results compare reasonably well with the experimental data. 10 references, 14 figures, 5 tables.

  18. Investigation of solar water heater by using flat plate collector and evacuated tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakanth, J. J.; Ramasubramanian, S.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Manavalan, S.

    2017-03-01

    Collection, storage and utilization of solar energy by solar water heating by flat plate collector and evacuated tube is cheapest and effective renewable energy technologies. This solar water heater design uses a nonconventional source of energy which can be used for house hold applications. The cost of production will be comparatively low in cost and high in capacity. The G.I. sheet collector boxes are replaced by copper tube, stainless steel water tank, thick costly PUF insulations and toughened glass etc. Pebbles are used as a medium of heat storage this increases the capacity of solar water heater by using this method natural source of energy can be used instead of depending on electric water heaters.

  19. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A heat pump system is currently under development to produce hot water for crew hygiene on future manned space missions. The heat pump uses waste heat sources and a nonazeotropic working fluid in a highly efficient cycle. The potential benefits include a reduction in peak power draw from 2 to 5 kW for electric cartridge heaters to just more than 100 W for the heat pump. As part of the heat pump development project, a unique high efficiency compressor was developed to maintain lubrication in a zero-gravity environment.

  20. X-mode HF Pump-induced Phenomena at High Heater Frequencies in the High Latitude Ionosphere F-region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kalishin, A. S.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental results concentrating on X-mode HF-induced phenomena in the high latitude ionosphere F region are discussed. Experiments have been carried out at the HF Heating facility at Tromsø with an effective radiated power of 450 - 650 MW at high heater frequencies of 6.2 - 8.0 MHz. Multi-instriment diagnostics included the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar at 931 MHz at Tromsø, the Finland CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System) radar, the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) equipment at Tromsø, and the HF receiver near St. Petersburg for the observations of narrow band SEE features. The key parameter considered is the ratio between the heater frequency and critical frequency of the F2 layer (fH/foF2). We have analyzed the behaviors of small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and HF-enhanced plasma and ion lines (HFPLs and HFILs) depending on the pump proximity to the critical frequency. It was shown that the HFPLs and HFILs coexisted with FAIs throughout the whole heater pulse when fH/foF2 > 1 as well as fH/foF2 ≤ 1. It is indicative that parametric decay instability was not quenched by fully developed FAIs. The comparison between contrasting O/X mode HF-induced phenomena, when the heater frequency is below or near the critical frequency of F2 layer, is made. It was found that an X-mode HF pumping is able to excite different narrow band spectral components in the SEE spectra (within 1 kHz of pump frequency), such as ion acoustic, electrostatic ion cyclotron, and electrostatic ion cyclotron harmonic waves (otherwise known as neutralized ion Bernstein waves) observed at a long distance from the HF Heating facility. It was suggested that these spectral component can be attributed to the stimulated Brillion scatter (SBS) process. The results obtained show that an X-polarized electromagnetic wave scattered by SBS can propagate more than one thousand km without significant attenuation.

  1. 16 CFR Appendix D3 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Oil D3 Appendix D3 to Part 305... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Water Heaters—Oil Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  2. 16 CFR Appendix D3 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Oil D3 Appendix D3 to Part 305... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Water Heaters—Oil Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix D1 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Gas D1 Appendix D1 to Part 305... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Water Heaters—Gas Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  5. 16 CFR Appendix D1 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Gas D1 Appendix D1 to Part 305... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Water Heaters—Gas Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  6. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER... Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  7. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES...) Pt. 305, App. D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Instantaneous—Gas Range Information...

  8. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam...

  9. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam...

  10. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam...

  11. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam...

  12. 46 CFR 108.471 - Water pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water pump. 108.471 Section 108.471 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.471 Water pump. Each water pump in a foam...

  13. Heat Pump Water Heater Modeling in EnergyPlus (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.; Christensen, C.

    2012-03-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL's development of a HPWH model for use in hourly building energy simulation programs, such as BEopt; this presentation was given at the Building America Stakeholder meeting on March 1, 2012, in Austin, Texas.

  14. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  15. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas D4 Appendix D4 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE...

  16. 16 CFR Appendix D1 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Gas D1 Appendix D1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY...

  17. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  18. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS... LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information...

  19. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range...

  20. 16 CFR Appendix D3 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Water Heaters-Oil D3 Appendix D3 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Water Heaters—Oil Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  1. 16 CFR Appendix D3 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Oil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Water Heaters-Oil D3 Appendix D3 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Water Heaters—Oil Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  2. To investigate the surface properties for increasing efficiency of solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, A.; Qurat-ul-Ain

    2013-06-01

    Energy crisis is becoming a major problem in Pakistan. Renewable energy sources are used to overcome this crisis. This research is about to increase the efficiency of fin type solar water heater by modification of its surface properties. During this research work, solar water heater module is fabricated and the modification of surfaces by using bare surface, external surface coated with high conductivity paint and lead electroplating is studied and the efficiency of solar heater is observed. The temperature profile and the heat transferred is studied and it was found that paint coated surface is more efficient than bare surface, further surface electroplated with lead is more efficient than painted surface for the same ambient conditions. The average increase in the heat absorption for lead plated and paint coated surface was observed 28.57% and 10.79 % respectively.

  3. Development of a cogenerating thermophotovoltaic powered combination hot water heater/hydronic boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Kushch, A.S.; Skinner, S.M.; Brennan, R.; Sarmiento, P.A.

    1997-03-01

    A cogenerating thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device for hot water, hydronic space heating, and electric power generation was developed, designed, fabricated, and tested under a Department of Energy contracted program. The device utilizes a cylindrical ytterbia superemissive ceramic fiber burner (SCFB) and is designed for a nominal capacity of 80 kBtu/hr. The burner is fired with premixed natural gas and air. Narrow band emission from the SCFB is converted to electricity by single crystal silicon (Si) photovoltaic (PV) arrays arranged concentrically around the burner. A three-way mixing valve is used to direct heated water to either the portable water storage tank, radiant baseboard heaters, or both. As part of this program, QGI developed a microprocessor-based control system to address the safety issues, as well as photovoltaic power management. Flame sensing is accomplished via the photovoltaics, a technology borrowed from QGI{close_quote}s Quantum Control{trademark} safety shut-off system. Device testing demonstrated a nominal photovoltaic power output of 200 W. Power consumed during steady state operation was 33 W, with power drawn from the combustion air blower, hydronic system pump, three-way switching valve, and the control system, resulting in a net power surplus of 142 W. Power drawn during the ignition sequence was 55 W, and a battery recharge time of 1 minute 30 seconds was recorded. System efficiency was measured and found to be more than 83{percent}. Pollutant emissions at determined operating conditions were below the South Coast Air Quality Management District{close_quote}s (California) limit of 40 ng/J for NOx, and carbon monoxide emissions were measured at less than 50 dppm. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  5. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  6. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  7. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  8. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lekov, Alex; Franco, Victor; Meyers, Steve

    2010-05-14

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certification. Consumers, installers, and builders who make decisions about installing space and water heating equipment generally do not perform an analysis to assess the economic impacts of different combinations and efficiencies of space and water heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential life-cycle economic and energy savings of installing space and water heating equipment combinations. Drawing on previous and current analysis conducted for the United States Department of Energy rulemaking on amended standards for furnaces and water heaters, this paper evaluates the extent to which condensing equipment can provide life-cycle cost-effectiveness in a representative sample of single family American homes. The economic analyses indicate that significant energy savings and consumer benefits may result from large-scale introduction of condensing water heaters combined with condensing furnaces in U.S. residential single-family housing, particularly in the Northern region. The analyses also shows that important benefits may be overlooked when policy analysts evaluate the impact of space and water heating equipment separately.

  9. Aqueous propylene-glycol concentrations for the freeze protection of thermosyphon solar energy water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, B. ); Edmonds, J.E.J. )

    1991-01-01

    Using a validated dynamic simulation model, the thermal performance of an indirect thermosyphon solar energy water heater was examined. The heat transfer fluids employed were aqueous solutions of propylene glycol. The effect of varying the glycol concentration on the hot water output and efficacy of freeze protection was determined for a specific pattern of hot water withdrawal and weather for the temperature maritime climate of London, England. The heat output is compared with that of a drain-down direct system.

  10. Pump controller testing on wind turbines used in water pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N.

    1995-12-31

    Pump controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems were tested on several different size wind turbines at the USDA - Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, Texas. All the wind turbines tested used permanent magnet alternators which generated 3-phase, AC electricity. The wind turbines tested varied in rated power from 1 kW to 10 kW at a wind speed of about 12 m/s. The 3-phase submersible motors tested were all rated at 230 V and the rated power varied from 0.38 kW to 5.6 kW. The pump controllers tested ranged from simple (on/off at certain frequency) to moderately sophisticated (low/high cut-in/cut-out frequency selection with thermal protection for submersible motors). No inverters were used on any of the pumping systems in order to reduce the cost and increase the efficiency of the pumping systems. An inverter isn`t necessary for off-the-shelf AC motors and pumps if the voltage to frequency ratio is maintained between 3 and 4. A voltage to frequency ratio of 3 to 4 was obtained on all the pump controllers tested from the cut-in wind speed to a 13 m/s wind speed by adding the proper capacitance on all three phases. Capacitance was varied on all of the pump controllers tested and it was discovered that optimal capacitance for maximum water pumping performance varied with windspeed. Problems which occurred during the testing which could have been prevented with a modification of the controller were: no water pumping when sufficient winds were available, inability to stop the wind turbine in high winds, blade failures, burned up motors.

  11. PV water pumping: NEOS Corporation recent PV water pumping activities

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.

    1995-11-01

    NEOS Corporation has been very active in PV-powered water pumping, particularly with respect to electric utilities. Most of the recent activity has been through the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN). The PSN is an independent, not-for-profit organization comprised of all types of electric utilities: rural electric coops, public power districts, investor-owned utilities, and power marketing agencies. The PSN`s mission is to work pro-actively to promote utility involvement in PV through education and training. PV information is distributed by the PSN in three primary forms: (1) consultation with PSN technical service representatives: (2) literature generated by the PSN; and (3) literature published by other organizations. The PSN can also provide assistance to members in developing PV customer service programs. The PSN`s product support activities include consolidation of information on existing packaged PV systems and facilitation of the development of new PV product packages that meet utility-defined specifications for cost performance, and reliability. The PSN`s initial product support efforts will be focused on commercially available packaged PV systems for a variety of off-grid applications. In parallel with this effort, if no products exist that meet the PSN`s functional specifications, the PSN will initiate the second phase of product development support process by encouraging the development of new packaged systems. Through these services and product support activities, the PSN anticipates engaging all segments for the PV industry, thus providing benefits to PV systems suppliers as well as local PV service contractors.This paper describes field testing of pv power systems for water pumping.

  12. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  13. Nashville Solar-Water-Heater Demonstration Project. Monitoring-data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    Field monitoring data which were collected for the Nashville Solar Water Heater Demonstration Project from September through November of 1981 are presented. Twenty-six solar domestic water heaters were monitored during September, 35 during October, and 37 during November. Homeowners were audited to assure adequate solar access, and each selected a solar water heating system from an approved list. Two tank and one tank systems are included. The monitoring sample technique and monitoring system are described. Data are analyzed by computer to produce daily and monthly total summaries for each site. The performance of each site was assessed to compare total energy saved by the solar system, solar system savings percentage, and the energy multiplier.

  14. Distribution System Water Quality Affects Responses of Opportunistic Pathogen Gene Markers in Household Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Masters, Sheldon; Falkinham, Joseph O; Edwards, Marc A; Pruden, Amy

    2015-07-21

    Illustrative distribution system operation and management practices shaped the occurrence and persistence of Legionella spp., nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and two amoebae host (Acanthamoeba spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis) gene markers in the effluent of standardized simulated household water heaters (SWHs). The interplay between disinfectant type (chlorine or chloramine), water age (2.3-5.7 days) and materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), cement or iron) in upstream simulated distribution systems (SDSs) profoundly influenced levels of pathogen gene markers in corresponding SWH bulk waters. For example, Legionella spp. were 3-4 log higher in SWHs receiving water from chloraminated vs chlorinated SDSs, because of disinfectant decay from nitrification. By contrast, SWHs fed with chlorinated PVC SDS water not only harbored the lowest levels of all pathogen markers, but effluent from the chlorinated SWHs were even lower than influent levels in several instances (e.g., 2 log less Legionella spp. and NTM for PVC and 3-5 log less P. aeruginosa for cement). However, pathogen gene marker influent levels correlated positively to effluent levels in the SWHs (P < 0.05). Likewise, microbial community structures were similar between SWHs and the corresponding SDS feed waters. This study highlights the importance and challenges of distribution system management/operation to help control opportunistic pathogens.

  15. Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

    2011-12-31

    In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

  16. Solar Water Heater Systems for Building Trades Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Milton; And Others

    This teaching unit serves as a guide for the installation of active solar water heating systems. It contains a project designed for use with secondary level students of a building trades class. Students typically would meet 2 to 3 hours per day and would be able to complete the activity within a 1-week time period. Objectives of this unit include:…

  17. Study Design And Realization Of Solar Water Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounis, M.; Boudjemaa, F.; Akil, S. Kouider

    2011-01-01

    Solar is one of the most easily exploitable energy, it is moreover inexhaustible. His applications are many and are varied. The heating of the domestic water is one of the most immediate, simplest and also of most widespread exploitation of the solar energy. Algeria, from its geographical situation, it deposits one of the largest high sun surface expositions in the world. The exposition duration of the almost territory exceeds 2000 hours annually and can reach the 3900 hours (high plateaus and Sahara). By knowing the daily energy received by 1 m2 of a horizontal surface of the solar thermal panel is nearly around 1700 KWh/m2 a year in the north and 2263 KWh/m2 a year in the south of the country, we release the most important and strategic place of the solar technologies in the present and in the future for Algeria. This work consists to study, conceive and manufacture solar water heating with the available local materials so, this type of the energy will be profitable for all, particularly the poor countries. If we consider the illumination duration of the panel around 6 hours a day, the water heat panel manufactured in our laboratory produce an equivalent energy of 11.615 KWh a day so, 4239 KWh a year. These values of energy can be easily increased with performing the panel manufacture.

  18. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  19. Manned Evaluation of a Diver Heater for SDV Applications Using Hydrogen Catalytic Reactions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    DIVER HEATER FOR SDV APPLICATIONS USING HYDROGEN CATALYTIC REACTIONS GAS CIRCUIT The basic heater design uses a gas ejector pump to recirculate the gas...entrance of the gas ejector pump. In this manner the hydrogen is mixed inside the pressure vessel with the recirculated gas and the fresh incoming air to...recirculatory flow then passes through a gas-to-water heat exchanger where the heat is removed and some of the water vapor condenses . The recirculatory flow then

  20. Revisions to the SRCC Rating Process for Solar Water Heaters: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.; Huggins, J.; Long, S.; Thornton, J.

    2012-06-01

    In the United States, annual performance ratings for solar water heaters are computed with component-based simulation models driven by typical meteorological year weather and specified water draw. Changes in the process are being implemented to enhance credibility through increased transparency and accuracy. Changes to the process include using a graphical rather than text-based model-building tool, performing analytical tests on all components and systems, checking energy balances on every component, loop, and system at every time step, comparing the results to detect outliers and potential errors, and documenting the modeling process in detail. Examples of changes in ratings are shown, along with analytical and comparative testing results.

  1. Pump station for radioactive waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Whitton, John P.; Klos, Dean M.; Carrara, Danny T.; Minno, John J.

    2003-11-18

    A pump station for transferring radioactive particle containing waste water, includes: (a.) an enclosed sump having a vertically elongated right frusto conical wall surface and a bottom surface and (b.) a submersible volute centrifugal pump having a horizontally rotating impeller and a volute exterior surface. The sump interior surface, the bottom surface and the volute exterior surface are made of stainless steel having a 30 Ra or finer surface finish. A 15 Ra finish has been found to be most cost effective. The pump station is used for transferring waste water, without accumulation of radioactive fines.

  2. Development of a nonazeotropic heat pump for crew hygiene water heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, David H.; Deming, Glenn I.

    1991-01-01

    A Phase 2 SBIR Program funded by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to develop a Nonazeotropic Heat Pump is described. The heat pump system which was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Foster-Miller laboratory, is capable of providing crew hygiene water heating for future manned missions. The heat pump utilizes a nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture which, in this application, provides a significant Coefficient of Performance improvement over a single-constituent working fluid. In order to take full advantage of the refrigerant mixture, compact tube-in-tube heat exchangers were designed. A high efficiency scroll compressor with a proprietary lubrication system was developed to meet the requirements of operation in zero-gravity. The prototype heat pump system consumes less than 200W of power compared to the alternative of electric cartridge heaters which would require 2 to 5 kW.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    SciTech Connect

    Kingston, T.; Scott, S.

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads with the following key findings: 1) The tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system. 2) The tankless combo system consistently achieved better daily efficiencies (i.e. 84%-93%) than the storage combo system (i.e. 81%- 91%) when the air handler was sized adequately and adjusted properly to achieve significant condensing operation. When condensing operation was not achieved, both systems performed with lower (i.e. 75%-88%), but similar efficiencies. 3) Air handlers currently packaged with combo systems are not designed to optimize condensing operation. More research is needed to develop air handlers specifically designed for condensing water heaters. 4) System efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved only on days where continual and steady space heating loads were required with significant condensing operation. For days where heating was more intermittent, the system efficiencies fell below 90%.

  4. A current-driven nanometer water pump.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiaye; Yang, Keda

    2016-03-04

    The design of a water pump, which has huge potential for applications in nanotechnology and daily life, is the dream of many scientists. In this paper, we successfully design a nanometer water pump by using molecular dynamics simulations. Ions of either sodium or chlorine in a narrow channel will generate electric current under electric fields, which then drives the water through a wider channel, similar to recent experimental setups. Considerable water flux is achieved within small field strengths that are accessible by experimentation. Of particular interest, is that for sodium the water flux increases almost linearly with field strengths; while for chlorine there exists a critical field strength, the water flux exhibits a plateau before the critical value and increases linearly after it. This result follows the behavior of ion velocity, which is related to friction behavior. We also estimate the power and energy consumption for such a pump, and compare it to the macroscopic mechanical pumps. A further comparison suggests that different ions will have different pumping abilities. This study not only provides new, significant results with possible connection to existing research, but has tremendous potential application in the design of nanofluidic devices.

  5. A current-driven nanometer water pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jiaye; Yang, Keda

    2016-03-01

    The design of a water pump, which has huge potential for applications in nanotechnology and daily life, is the dream of many scientists. In this paper, we successfully design a nanometer water pump by using molecular dynamics simulations. Ions of either sodium or chlorine in a narrow channel will generate electric current under electric fields, which then drives the water through a wider channel, similar to recent experimental setups. Considerable water flux is achieved within small field strengths that are accessible by experimentation. Of particular interest, is that for sodium the water flux increases almost linearly with field strengths; while for chlorine there exists a critical field strength, the water flux exhibits a plateau before the critical value and increases linearly after it. This result follows the behavior of ion velocity, which is related to friction behavior. We also estimate the power and energy consumption for such a pump, and compare it to the macroscopic mechanical pumps. A further comparison suggests that different ions will have different pumping abilities. This study not only provides new, significant results with possible connection to existing research, but has tremendous potential application in the design of nanofluidic devices.

  6. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 71. Detail view of water pump at base of water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    71. Detail view of water pump at base of water tank with wall of blowing engine house in background. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Analysis of field-test data from domestic solar-water heaters in the southern United States, period through May 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, W. M.; Jacobs, R. A.

    1982-08-01

    Monitored performance data gathered from 103 solar water heaters are presented. All except 25 of the water heaters are located in Florida. The locations and system types of the solar water heaters are tabulated. The annual energy saved, solar savings fraction, return on investment, and gallons per purchased energy are given for the systems. Analysis of the thermal performance data is discussed. The solar water heater sites are ranked according to various thermal performance values, and thermal performance data are plotted. Presented with the plots are the mean and standard error of the particular groupings of monitored data. Operational statuses causing performance interruptions are tabulated.

  9. Modeling of Electric Water Heaters for Demand Response: A Baseline PDE Model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhijie; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Shuai; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Yu

    2014-09-05

    Demand response (DR)control can effectively relieve balancing and frequency regulation burdens on conventional generators, facilitate integrating more renewable energy, and reduce generation and transmission investments needed to meet peak demands. Electric water heaters (EWHs) have a great potential in implementing DR control strategies because: (a) the EWH power consumption has a high correlation with daily load patterns; (b) they constitute a significant percentage of domestic electrical load; (c) the heating element is a resistor, without reactive power consumption; and (d) they can be used as energy storage devices when needed. Accurately modeling the dynamic behavior of EWHs is essential for designing DR controls. Various water heater models, simplified to different extents, were published in the literature; however, few of them were validated against field measurements, which may result in inaccuracy when implementing DR controls. In this paper, a partial differential equation physics-based model, developed to capture detailed temperature profiles at different tank locations, is validated against field test data for more than 10 days. The developed model shows very good performance in capturing water thermal dynamics for benchmark testing purposes

  10. Wind powered direct drive water pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhu, D.

    1983-12-01

    Wind turbine of comparatively large capacities are used exclusively for electricity generation, and so far small multiblade horizontal axis turbines are extensively employed for water pumping with reciprocating piston pumps. However, the advent of wind turbines for irrigation, characterised with large discharge volume pumps, require application of large capacity and efficient ones to make the operation viable. An analysis is made in this paper to find matching pump coupled directly with wind turbine for optimum system operation in variable speed. There exist various type of wind turbines, operating on different principles having characteristics different, dependent not only on the types but also on the design criteria of the individuals. Water pumps are also of various types whose operation characteristics vary with the type, mode of operation and design parameters. A nondimensional analysis is carried out to match the two, to operate at optimum, by superimposing the operating characteristics of the one over the other. The transmission method is also taken in account on the investment analysis of the whole system. Positive displacement pumps are best suited for high starting torque turbines e.g. Savonius or Filippini or multiblade horizontal axis rotors, and consequently are less efficient, though is advantageous for high water lift operation.

  11. A charge-driven molecular water pump.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jingyuan; Lu, Hangjun; Wan, Rongzheng; Li, Jichen; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping

    2007-11-01

    Understanding and controlling the transport of water across nanochannels is of great importance for designing novel molecular devices, machines and sensors and has wide applications, including the desalination of seawater. Nanopumps driven by electric or magnetic fields can transport ions and magnetic quanta, but water is charge-neutral and has no magnetic moment. On the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a design for a molecular water pump. The design uses a combination of charges positioned adjacent to a nanopore and is inspired by the structure of channels in the cellular membrane that conduct water in and out of the cell (aquaporins). The remarkable pumping ability is attributed to the charge dipole-induced ordering of water confined in the nanochannels, where water can be easily driven by external fields in a concerted fashion. These findings may provide possibilities for developing water transport devices that function without osmotic pressure or a hydrostatic pressure gradient.

  12. A charge-driven molecular water pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaojing; Li, Jingyuan; Lu, Hangjun; Wan, Rongzheng; Li, Jichen; Hu, Jun; Fang, Haiping

    2007-11-01

    Understanding and controlling the transport of water across nanochannels is of great importance for designing novel molecular devices, machines and sensors and has wide applications, including the desalination of seawater. Nanopumps driven by electric or magnetic fields can transport ions and magnetic quanta, but water is charge-neutral and has no magnetic moment. On the basis of molecular dynamics simulations, we propose a design for a molecular water pump. The design uses a combination of charges positioned adjacent to a nanopore and is inspired by the structure of channels in the cellular membrane that conduct water in and out of the cell (aquaporins). The remarkable pumping ability is attributed to the charge dipole-induced ordering of water confined in the nanochannels, where water can be easily driven by external fields in a concerted fashion. These findings may provide possibilities for developing water transport devices that function without osmotic pressure or a hydrostatic pressure gradient.

  13. Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

  14. Relationship between Organic Carbon and Opportunistic Pathogens in Simulated Glass Water Heaters

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Krista; Pruden, Amy; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Controlling organic carbon levels in municipal water has been hypothesized to limit downstream growth of bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs). Here, the relationships between influent organic carbon (0–15,000 µg ozonated fulvic acid /L) and the number of total bacteria [16S rRNA genes and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs)] and a wide range of OPPPs (gene copy numbers of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Vermamoeba vermiformis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycobacterium avium) were examined in the bulk water of 120-mL simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs). The SGWHs were operated at 32–37 °C, which is representative of conditions encountered at the bottom of electric water heaters, with water changes of 80% three times per week to simulate low use. This design presented advantages of controlled and replicated (triplicate) conditions and avoided other potential limitations to OPPP growth in order to isolate the variable of organic carbon. Over seventeen months, strong correlations were observed between total organic carbon (TOC) and both 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and HPC counts (avg. R2 > 0.89). Although M. avium gene copies were occasionally correlated with TOC (avg. R2 = 0.82 to 0.97, for 2 out of 4 time points) and over a limited TOC range (0–1000 µg/L), no other correlations were identified between other OPPPs and added TOC. These results suggest that reducing organic carbon in distributed water is not adequate as a sole strategy for controlling OPPPs, although it may have promise in conjunction with other approaches. PMID:26066310

  15. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  16. Movement and evaporation of water droplets under conditions typical for heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, R. S.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-09-01

    The macroscopic regularities and integrated characteristics of the motion and evaporation of sprayed water droplets in the field of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion products under the conditions typical for water heaters of contact type (economizers) were studied using a cross-correlation complex working on the basis of panoramic optical methods (particle image velocimetry, particle tracking velocimetry, shadow photography) and high-speed (105 fps) Phantom video cameras. High-speed video recording devices with specialized software were used for continuously monitoring the motion and evaporation of droplets. Titanium dioxide nanopowder tracer particles were introduced to determine the rate of high-temperature gases. The characteristic distances covered by water droplets before their full retardation in the counter-flow of high-temperature combustion products were determined. The integrated dependences were obtained, and the main characteristics of evaporation were determined, which allow one to predict the intensity of the phase transformations of droplets (with sizes of 0.05-0.5 mm) and the distances covered by them before they completely turn in the opposite direction under the conditions corresponding to the heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters: the vapor-droplet rate 1-5 m/s, gas flow rate 0.5-2 m/s, and gas temperature ~1100 K. Approximating expressions were derived to predict the characteristics of the processes. The performance of the economizers under study can be significantly increased by using the obtained experimental dependences, the corresponding approximating expressions, and the resulting conclusions. Conditions were determined under which the influence of phase transformations on retardation exceeds the contribution of the counter-motion and active retardation and evaporation of water droplets occur in the heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters of typical sizes.

  17. Water transport with a carbon nanotube pump.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wen Hui; Wang, Quan

    2010-04-27

    Transportation of water molecules in a carbon nanotube based on an energy pump concept is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. A small portion of the initially twisted wall of a carbon nanotube is employed to function as an energy pump for possible smooth transportation of water molecules. The momentum and resultant force on a water molecule and the corresponding displacement and velocity of the molecule are particularly studied to disclose the transportation process. The efficiency of the transportation is found to be dependent on the size of the energy pump. Once the process for the transportation of one molecule is elucidated, transportations of 20 water molecules are simulated to investigate the effect of the environmental temperature and fluctuations in the nanotube channel on the transportation. It is revealed that the accelerated period of multiple water molecules is longer than that in the transportation of a single water molecule. In addition, the fluctuations in the nanotube wall due to the buckling propagation and a higher environmental temperature will all lead to obvious decreases in the water velocity and hence retard the transportation process.

  18. National Solar Water Heater Workshop Present at DOE Region V meeting for managers of State Energy Extension Service and State Energy Conservation Plan, March 18-19, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Mumma, S.A.; Marinello, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    After a brief description of the National Solar Water Heater Workshop and some comments by users of the solar water heater, the hardware supplier handbook is presented. The performance expected of a hardware supplier is described, solar system components and their specifications are listed, and information is provided to assist the hardware supplier in obtaining necessary materials. (LEW)

  19. Water pathways in the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Fischer, Stefan; Smith, Jeremy C

    2011-01-01

    Internal water molecules play key roles in the functioning of the light-driven bacteriorhodopsin proton pump. Of particular importance is whether during the proton-pumping cycle the critical water molecule w402 can relocate from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side of the retinal Schiff base. Here, classical mechanical and combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical reaction path computations are performed to investigate pathways and energetic factors influencing w402 relocation. Hydrogen bonding between w402 and the negatively charged Asp85 and Asp212 largely opposes repositioning of the water molecule. In contrast, favorable contributions from hydrogen bonding of w402 with the Schiff base and Thr89 and from the untwisting of the retinal polyene chain lower the energetic cost for water relocation. The delicate balance between the competing contributions underlies the need for highly accurate calculations and structural information.

  20. Accuracy of the European solar water heater test procedure. Part 1: Measurement errors and parameter estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Rabl, A.; Leide, B. ); Carvalho, M.J.; Collares-Pereira, M. ); Bourges, B.

    1991-01-01

    The Collector and System Testing Group (CSTG) of the European Community has developed a procedure for testing the performance of solar water heaters. This procedure treats a solar water heater as a black box with input-output parameters that are determined by all-day tests. In the present study the authors carry out a systematic analysis of the accuracy of this procedure, in order to answer the question: what tolerances should one impose for the measurements and how many days of testing should one demand under what meteorological conditions, in order to be able to quarantee a specified maximum error for the long term performance The methodology is applicable to other test procedures as well. The present paper (Part 1) examines the measurement tolerances of the current version of the procedure and derives a priori estimates of the errors of the parameters; these errors are then compared with the regression results of the Round Robin test series. The companion paper (Part 2) evaluates the consequences for the accuracy of the long term performance prediction. The authors conclude that the CSTG test procedure makes it possible to predict the long term performance with standard errors around 5% for sunny climates (10% for cloudy climates). The apparent precision of individual test sequences is deceptive because of large systematic discrepancies between different sequences. Better results could be obtained by imposing tighter control on the constancy of the cold water supply temperature and on the environment of the test, the latter by enforcing the recommendation for the ventilation of the collector.

  1. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

  2. An experimental investigation with artificial sunlight of a solar hot-water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal performance measurements were made of a commercial solar hot water heater in a solar simulator to determine basic performance characteristics of a traditional type of flat plate collector, with and without side reflectors (to increase the solar flux). Information on each of the following was obtained; (1) the effect of flow and incidence angle on the efficiency of a flat plate collector (but only without side reflectors); (2) transient performance under flow and nonflow conditions; (3) the effectiveness of reflectors to increase collector efficiency for a zero radiation angle at fluid temperatures required for solar air conditioning; and (4) the limits of applicability of a collector efficiency correlation based on the Hottel Whillier equation.

  3. An experimental investigation with artificial sunlight of a solar hot-water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal performance measurements were made of a commercial solar hot-water heater in a solar simulator. The objective of the test was to determine basic performance characteristics of a traditional type of flat-plate collector, with and without side reflectors (to increase the solar flux). Due to the fact that collector testing in the solar simulator permits control of the variables that affect collector performance, it was possible to obtain information on each of the following: (1) the effect of flow and incidence angle on the efficiency of a flat-plate collector (but only without side reflectors), (2) transient performance under flow and nonflow conditions, (3) the effectiveness of reflectors in increasing collector efficiency for a zero radiation angle at fluid temperatures required for solar air conditioning, and (4) the limits of applicability of a collector efficiency correlation based on the Hottel-Whillier equation (1958).

  4. Wave energy driven resonant sea water pump

    SciTech Connect

    Czitrom, S.P.R.

    1996-12-31

    A wave driven sea-water pump which operates by resonance is described. Oscillations in the resonant and exhaust ducts perform similar to two mass-spring systems coupled by a third spring acting for the compression chamber. Performance of the pump is optimized by means of a variable volume air compression chamber (patents pending) which tunes the system to the incoming wave frequency. Wave tank experiments with an instrumented, 1:20 scale model of the pump are described. Performance was studied under various wave and tuning conditions and compared to a numerical model which was found to describe the system accurately. Successful sea trials at an energetic coastline provide evidence of the system`s viability under demanding conditions.

  5. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  6. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  7. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  8. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically controlled pump shall be provided to supply...

  9. Determining the optimum solar water pumping system for domestic use, livestock water, or irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several years we have field tested many different types of solar powered water pumping systems. In this paper, several steps are given to select a solar-PV water pumping system. The steps for selection of stand-alone water pumping system were: deciding whether a wind or solar water pumping sys...

  10. 38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. DETAIL OF COOLING WATER BOOSTER PUMP FOR OXYGEN FURNACES, LANCES, AND FUME HOODS IN THE GAS WASHER PUMP HOUSE LOOKING EAST. - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF FIRE PUMP HOUSE, WATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF SOUTH SIDE OF FIRE PUMP HOUSE, WATER TREATMENT PLANT IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS NORTHEAST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Fire Pump House, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  12. 77 FR 2957 - Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ..., aluminum castings, parts of pumps, valves, mechanical seals, electric motors, transformers, capacitors... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Application for Manufacturing Authority, Liberty Pumps, Inc. (Submersible and Water Pumps), Bergen, NY An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the...

  13. Development of a long-life, stand-alone residential gas water heater. Final report, March 1985-August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Topping, R.F.

    1988-10-01

    The objective of the project was to develop a residential gas water heater that offers improved features and utility, including higher overall efficiency, long-life and stand-alone control, i.e., an ignition and control system requiring no electrical connection for operation. A prototype water heater was developed and tested in the laboratory. Recovery efficiency, standby loss and the resulting service efficiency were close to targets. A 15 year tank life and low voltage, soft-wired control with intermittent ignition were also shown to be feasible. However, commercialization was not achieved for several reasons, including high projected price, unverified life and reliability of the TPTS heat exchanger production design and the withdrawal from the project by the manufacturing partner.

  14. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619. VIEW OF PUMP HOUSE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. VIEW OF PUMP HOUSE UNDER CONSTRUCTION. CAMERA IS ON WATER TOWER AND FACES NORTHWEST. TWO RESERVOIR TANKS ALREADY ARE COMPLETED. NOTE EXCAVATIONS FOR PIPE LINES EXITING FROM BELOW GROUND ON SOUTH SIDE OF PUMP HOUSE. BUILDING AT LOWER RIGHT IS ELECTRICAL CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-623. SWITCHYARD IS IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2753. Unknown Photographer, ca. 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Downhole pumps for water sampling in small diameter wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koopman, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    The relatively high cost and difficulty in locating a source of pumps for use in obtaining ground-water samples from small-diameter wells has demonstrated a need for this report. Criteria for selection of a pump and pumping equipment to meet specific requirements has been tabulated to assist field personnel in making a selection from commercial sources. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lorentz helical pumps (Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany) have been powered by solar energy for remote water pumping applications for many years, but from October 2005 to March 2008 a Lorentz helical pump was powered by wind energy at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near ...

  17. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  18. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  19. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  20. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically... water from the two highest fire hose outlets in a manner similar to that described in §...

  1. Water Pump Development for the EVA PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuller, Michael; Kurwitz, Cable; Goldman, Jeff; Morris, Kim; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the effort by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES) and Honeywell for NASA to design, fabricate, and test a preflight prototype pump for use in the Extravehicular activity (EVA) portable life support subsystem (PLSS). Major design decisions were driven by the need to reduce the pump s mass, power, and volume compared to the existing PLSS pump. In addition, the pump will accommodate a much wider range of abnormal conditions than the existing pump, including vapor/gas bubbles and increased pressure drop when employed to cool two suits simultaneously. A positive displacement, external gear type pump was selected because it offers the most compact and highest efficiency solution over the required range of flow rates and pressure drops. An additional benefit of selecting a gear pump design is that it is self priming and capable of ingesting noncondensable gas without becoming "air locked." The chosen pump design consists of a 28 V DC, brushless, sealless, permanent magnet motor driven, external gear pump that utilizes a Honeywell development that eliminates the need for magnetic coupling. Although the planned flight unit will use a sensorless motor with custom designed controller, the preflight prototype to be provided for this project incorporates Hall effect sensors, allowing an interface with a readily available commercial motor controller. This design approach reduced the cost of this project and gives NASA more flexibility in future PLSS laboratory testing. The pump design was based on existing Honeywell designs, but incorporated features specifically for the PLSS application, including all of the key features of the flight pump. Testing at TEES will simulate the vacuum environment in which the flight pump will operate. Testing will verify that the pump meets design requirements for range of flow rates, pressure rise, power consumption, working fluid temperature, operating time, and restart capability. Pump testing is currently

  2. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915measuredsamples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rateand heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08. PMID:26624613

  3. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  4. 4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  5. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  7. 27. Threequarter view of rear of building 153, water pump ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Three-quarter view of rear of building 153, water pump house, showing edge of water storage mound on far right, looking northwest - Nike Missile Battery MS-40, County Road No. 260, Farmington, Dakota County, MN

  8. 22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the southwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  9. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, PUMP INSTALLATION. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST CORNER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, PUMP INSTALLATION. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST CORNER. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON THE ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3998. Unknown Photographer, 12/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  11. Magnetically Diffused Radial Electric-Arc Air Heater Employing Water-Cooled Copper Electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, R. F.; Davis, D. D., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    A magnetically rotated electric-arc air heater has been developed that is novel in that an intense magnetic field of the order of 10,000 to 25,000 gauss is employed. This field is supplied by a coil that is connected in series with the arc. Experimentation with this heater has shown that the presence of an intense magnetic field transverse to the arc results in diffusion of the arc and that the arc has a positive effective resistance. With the field coil in series with the arc, highly stable arc operation is obtained from a battery power supply. External ballast is not required to stabilize the arc when it is operating at maximum power level. The electrode erosion rate is so low that the airstream contamination is no more than 0.07 percent and may be substantially less.

  12. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  13. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, Chad; Petersen, Michael; Elbel, Stefan; Hrnjak, Pega

    2012-07-15

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  14. Solar-assisted water-source heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    The usefulness of a collector array is to be extended to year-round usage by using the collectors to reject heat at night during the summer. A water source heat pump is used to cool a home by rejecting heat to water which is then held in a storage tank. At night the warm water is pumped through the collectors for radiative cooling. Two complete systems are being installed to demonstrate feasibility. One part of the system has been completed and tested.

  15. 7. ONE OF THREE CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS FOR STEAM PLANT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ONE OF THREE CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS FOR STEAM PLANT, LOCATED ON FIRST FLOOR UNDER TURBINE DECK. VIEW OF PUMP LOCATED FARTHEST NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Computational Simulation of a Water-Cooled Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozarth, Duane

    2008-01-01

    A Fortran-language computer program for simulating the operation of a water-cooled vapor-compression heat pump in any orientation with respect to gravity has been developed by modifying a prior general-purpose heat-pump design code used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  17. Corrosion protection of steel in ammonia/water heat pumps

    DOEpatents

    Mansfeld, Florian B.; Sun, Zhaoli

    2003-10-14

    Corrosion of steel surfaces in a heat pump is inhibited by adding a rare earth metal salt to the heat pump's ammonia/water working fluid. In preferred embodiments, the rare earth metal salt includes cerium, and the steel surfaces are cerated to enhance the corrosion-inhibiting effects.

  18. Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States with consumption of nearly 1.5 quads/year of energy (10{sup 15} quad = 1015 Btu) and cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) seeks to evaluate new energy -- saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP with funding support from the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of 4 candidate energy-saving technology-a water heater conversion system to convert electrically powered water heaters to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  19. Infrared Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The heating units shown in the accompanying photos are Panelbloc infrared heaters, energy savers which burn little fuel in relation to their effective heat output. Produced by Bettcher Manufacturing Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, Panelblocs are applicable to industrial or other facilities which have ceilings more than 12 feet high, such as those pictured: at left the Bare Hills Tennis Club, Baltimore, Maryland and at right, CVA Lincoln- Mercury, Gaithersburg, Maryland. The heaters are mounted high above the floor and they radiate infrared energy downward. Panelblocs do not waste energy by warming the surrounding air. Instead, they beam invisible heat rays directly to objects which absorb the radiation- people, floors, machinery and other plant equipment. All these objects in turn re-radiate the energy to the air. A key element in the Panelbloc design is a coating applied to the aluminized steel outer surface of the heater. This coating must be corrosion resistant at high temperatures and it must have high "emissivity"-the ability of a surface to emit radiant energy. The Bettcher company formerly used a porcelain coating, but it caused a production problem. Bettcher did not have the capability to apply the material in its own plant, so the heaters had to be shipped out of state for porcelainizing, which entailed extra cost. Bettcher sought a coating which could meet the specifications yet be applied in its own facilities. The company asked The Knowledge Availability Systems Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a NASA Industrial Applications Center (IAC), for a search of NASA's files

  20. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  1. 6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. 2. WATER PUMPS IN THE BASEMENT OF THE VISITORS CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER PUMPS IN THE BASEMENT OF THE VISITORS CENTER, LOOKING WEST. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Visitor's Center, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  3. 3. WATER PUMPS IN THE BASEMENT OF THE VISITORS CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WATER PUMPS IN THE BASEMENT OF THE VISITORS CENTER, LOOKING EAST. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Visitor's Center, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  4. Temperature field study of hot water circulation pump shaft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Y.; Kong, F. Y.; Daun, X. H.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    In the process of engineering application under the condition of hot water circulation pump, problems of stress concentration caused by the temperature rise may happen. In order to study the temperature field in bearing and electric motor chamber of the hot water circulation pump and optimize the structure, in present paper, the model of the shaft system is created through CREO. The model is analyzed by ANSYS workbench, in which the thermal boundary conditions are applied to calculate, which include the calorific values from the bearings, the thermal loss from electric motor and the temperature from the transporting medium. From the result, the finite element model can reflect the distribution of thermal field in hot water circulation pump. Further, the results show that the maximum temperature locates in the bearing chamber.The theoretical guidance for the electric motor heat dissipation design of the hot water circulation pump can be achieved.

  5. 131. ELEVATION AND PLAIN OF PUMP AND WATER MAIN, DATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. ELEVATION AND PLAIN OF PUMP AND WATER MAIN, DATED MARCH 8, 1847 Frederic Graff, Jr., Collection of Philadelphia Museum of Art - Fairmount Waterworks, East bank of Schuylkill River, Aquarium Drive, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  7. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation.

  8. Convective heater

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, R.M.

    1983-12-27

    A convective heater for heating fluids such as a coal slurry is constructed of a tube circuit arrangement which obtains an optimum temperature distribution to give a relatively constant slurry film temperature. The heater is constructed to divide the heating gas flow into two equal paths and the tube circuit for the slurry is arranged to provide a mixed flow configuration whereby the slurry passes through the two heating gas paths in successive co-current, counter-current and co-current flow relative to the heating gas flow. This arrangement permits the utilization of minimum surface area for a given maximum film temperature of the slurry consistent with the prevention of coke formation. 14 figs.

  9. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, Jeff; Fang, Xia; Wilson, Eric

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  11. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  12. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-05-01

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery.

  13. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R.

    2016-01-01

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery. PMID:27193507

  14. Nano-electro-mechanical pump: Giant pumping of water in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Aluru, Narayana R

    2016-05-19

    A fully controllable nano-electro-mechanical device that can pump fluids at nanoscale is proposed. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an applied electric field to an ion@C60 inside a water-filled carbon nanotube can pump water with excellent efficiency. The key physical mechanism governing the fluid pumping is the conversion of electrical energy into hydrodynamic flow with efficiencies as high as 64%. Our results show that water can be compressed up to 7% higher than its bulk value by applying electric fields. High flux of water (up to 13,000 molecules/ns) is obtained by the electro-mechanical, piston-cylinder-like moving mechanism of the ion@C60 in the CNT. This large flux results from the piston-like mechanism, compressibility of water (increase in density of water due to molecular ordering), orienting dipole along the electric field and efficient electrical to mechanical energy conversion. Our findings can pave the way towards efficient energy conversion, pumping of fluids at nanoscale, and drug delivery.

  15. Design Optimization of a Wave Driven Resonant Sea Water Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czitrom, Steven P. R.; Prado, Esteban

    1998-11-01

    Simplified algorithms for the air chamber volume and flow through a wave driven sea water pump at resonance based on solutions of the linearizaed equations of the system constitute powerful design tools for various applications of the pump. These include flushing of contaminated water bodies or the biological management of isolated coastal lagoon ecosystems. The algoritms are used in cost-benefit exercises that incorporate the dimensions of the various design parameters, the wave climate and the tidal range at a given location. The absence of moving parts in the sea water pump allows larvae of various organisms to pass through the system unscathed. This allows it to be used in the biological management of coastal water bodies with ephimerous connection to the adjacent ocean. An ongoing project with a fishermen's community is described.

  16. 35. MODEL T GASOLINE ENGINE. USED TO PUMP WATER FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. MODEL T GASOLINE ENGINE. USED TO PUMP WATER FROM THE ARTISAN WELL (THROUGH THE DOORWAY) TO THE CISTERN ON THE ROOF. WATER WAS THEN FED BY GRAVITY TO THE REST OF THE FACTORY. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  17. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 55. (Credit JAM) New main pumping room c1975, showing water ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. (Credit JAM) New main pumping room c1975, showing water pumps of high service engines; 1920 Worthington-Snow in foreground. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  19. Cavitation Performance of a Centrifugal Pump with Water and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammitt, F. G.; Barton, R. K.; Cramer, V. F.; Robinson, M. J.

    1961-01-01

    The cavitation performance of a given centrifugal pump with water (hot and cold) and mercury is compared. It is found that there are significant scale effects with all fluids tested, with the Thoma cavitation parameter decreasing in all cases for increased pump speed or fluid Reynolds' number. The data for a fixed flow coefficient fall into a single curve when plotted against pump speed (or fluid velocity), rather than against Reynolds' number. Conversely, the Thoma parameter for a given Reynolds' number is approximately twice as large for mercury as for water. The direction of this variation is as predicted from consideration of the cavitation thermodynamic parameters which vary by a factor of 10(exp 7) between these fluids. No difference in cavitation performance between hot and cold water (approximately 160 F and 80 F) was observed, However, the thermodynamic parameters vary only by a factor of 5.

  20. A NORMETEX MODEL 15 M3/HR WATER VAPOR PUMPING TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.; Fowley, M.; Steeper, T.

    2010-12-20

    Tests were performed using a Model 15 m{sup 3}/hr Normetex vacuum pump to determine if pump performance degraded after pumping a humid gas stream. An air feed stream containing 30% water vapor was introduced into the pump for 365 hours with the outlet pressure of the pump near the condensation conditions of the water. Performance of the pump was tested before and after the water vapor pumping test and indicated no loss in performance of the pump. The pump also appeared to tolerate small amounts of condensed water of short duration without increased noise, vibration, or other adverse indications. The Normetex pump was backed by a dual-head diaphragm pump which was affected by the condensation of water and produced some drift in operating conditions during the test.

  1. Comparative analysis of DG and solar PV water pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharani, Kusum; Dahiya, Ratna

    2016-03-01

    Looking at present day electricity scenario, there is a major electricity crisis in rural areas. The farmers are still dependant on the monsoon rains for their irrigation needs and livestock maintenance. Some of the agrarian population has opted to use Diesel Generators for pumping water in their fields. But taking into consideration the economics and environmental conditions, the above choice is not suitable for longer run. An effort to shift from non-renewable sources such as diesel to renewable energy source such as solar has been highlighted. An approximate comparative analysis showing the life cycle costs of a PV pumping system with Diesel Generator powered water pumping is done using MATLAB/STMULTNK.

  2. Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Interim report, 1994 Summer

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    The federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This interim report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP and the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of a candidate energy-saving technology-a hot water heater conversion system to convert electrically heated hot water tanks to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  3. Gas-driven pump for ground-water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signor, Donald C.

    1978-01-01

    Observation wells installed for artificial-recharge research and other wells used in different ground-water programs are frequently cased with small-diameter steel pipe. To obtain samples from these small-diameter wells in order to monitor water quality, and to calibrate solute-transport models, a small-diameter pump with unique operating characteristics is required that causes a minimum alternation of samples during field sampling. A small-diameter gas-driven pump was designed and built to obtain water samples from wells of two-inch diameter or larger. The pump is a double-piston type with the following characteristics: (1) The water sample is isolated from the operating gas, (2) no source of electricity is ncessary, (3) operation is continuous, (4) use of compressed gas is efficient, and (5) operation is reliable over extended periods of time. Principles of operation, actual operation techniques, gas-use analyses and operating experience are described. Complete working drawings and a component list are included. Recent modifications and pump construction for high-pressure applications also are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    PubMed

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making.

  6. 16 CFR Appendix D4 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Instantaneous-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  7. 16 CFR Appendix D1 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D1 Appendix D1...

  8. 1. VIEW OF THE WATER PUMP (FEATURE B25), FACING EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF THE WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25), FACING EAST. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE SEDIMENT DAM. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Pump, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  9. Pore Water Pumping by Upside-Down Jellyfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2016-11-01

    Patchy aggregations of Cassiopea medusae, commonly called upside-down jellyfish, are found in sheltered marine environments with low-speed ambient flows. These medusae exhibit a sessile, non-swimming lifestyle, and are oriented such that their bells are attached to the substrate and oral arms point towards sunlight. Pulsations of their bells are used to generate currents for suspension feeding. Their pulsations have also been proposed to generate forces that can release sediment locked nutrients into the surrounding water. The goal of this study is to examine pore water pumping by Cassiopea individuals in laboratory aquaria, as a model for understanding pore water pumping in unsteady flows. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements were conducted to visualize the release of pore water via bell motion, using fluorescent dye introduced underneath the substrate. 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted on the same individuals to correlate PLIF-based concentration profiles with the jets generated by pulsing of medusae. The effects of varying bell diameter on pore water release and pumping currents will be discussed.

  10. Are plastic heat exchangers feasible for solar water heaters? Part 2: Material choices

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R.; Mantell, S.; Davidson, J.

    1999-07-01

    Development of low cost plastic heat exchangers for solar water heating depends, at least in part, on the suitability of polymers for this demanding environment. Since the heat exchanger is in contact with pressurized potable water, some technical issues must be addressed that are not necessarily relevant to the development of polymer-based collectors. These include long-term pressure and temperature capabilities; compatibility with municipal drinking water and propylene glycol, and compliance with applicable plumbing codes. In this paper, polymers that are most appropriate for this application are identified. Because polymer strength, stiffness, and thermal conductivity requirements depend on the heat exchanger design, no single polymer emerged as ideal for every heat exchanger component. Fiber reinforced PolyPhthalAmide (PPA) and PolyPhenylene Sulphide (PPS) are recommended for fittings and manifolds. Unreinforced high temperature nylon (HTN) is recommended for thin walled tubes (either straight or coiled). Cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) is also recommended for coiled tubes. The selection process was based on three criteria levels: (1) polymer compatibility with potable water, (2) polymer behavior in hot water or propylene glycol, and (3) polymer attributes such as strength, stiffness, thermal conductivity and cost.

  11. Solar air heaters and their applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  12. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  13. Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.W.; Abdul.Hye, A.B.M.

    1983-10-25

    A pump for injecting chemicals into a well employs a pivot arm for synchronous movement with a well pump. The pivot arm causes reciprocation of a plunger within the body of the chemical pump. The plunger, during its upward stroke causes the entry of chemicals from an outside source into the pump body and, during its downward stroke, causes the exiting of the chemicals into the well. (2 claims.

  14. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  15. Applicability of uniform heat flux Nusselt number correlations to thermosyphon heat exchangers for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, S.; Davidson, J.

    1999-05-01

    Nusselt numbers are measured in three counterflow tube-in-shell heat exchangers with flow rates and temperatures representative of thermosyphon operation in solar water heating systems. Mixed convection heat transfer correlations for these tube-in-shell heat exchangers were previously developed in Dahl and Davidson (1998) from data obtained in carefully controlled experiments with uniform heat flux at the tube walls. The data presented in this paper confirm that the uniform heat flux correlations apply under more realistic conditions. Water flows in the shell and 50 percent ethylene glycol circulates in the tubes. Actual Nusselt numbers are within 15 percent of the values predicted for a constant heat flux boundary condition. The data reconfirm the importance of mixed convection in determining heat transfer rates. Under most operating conditions, natural convection heat transfer accounts for more than half of the total heat transfer rate.

  16. Applicability of uniform heat flux Nusselt number correlations to thermosyphon heat exchangers for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, S.; Davidson, J.

    1999-07-01

    Nusselt numbers are measured in three counterflow tube-in-shell heat exchangers with flow rates and temperatures representative of thermosyphon operation in solar water heating systems. Mixed convection heat transfer correlations for these tube-in-shell heat exchangers were previously developed in Dahl and Davidson (1998) from data obtained in carefully controlled experiments with uniform heat flux at the tube walls. The data presented in this paper confirm that the uniform heat flux correlations apply under more realistic conditions. Water flows in the shell and 50% ethylene glycol is circulated in the tubes. Actual Nusselt numbers are within 15% of the values predicted for a constant heat flux boundary condition. The data reconfirm the importance of mixed convection in determining heat transfer rates. Under most operating conditions, natural convection heat transfer accounts for more than half of the total heat transfer rate.

  17. Comparison of solar powered water pumping systems which use diaphragm pumps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four solar photovoltaic (PV) powered diaphragm pumps were tested at different simulated pumping depths at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory near Bushland, Texas. Two of the pumps were designed for intermediate pumping depths (30 to 70 meters), and the other two pumps were...

  18. Current turbine for water pumping and electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.I.E.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes work on Phase I of ''Mini Hydropower Research and Development Project'' in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Khartoum, in cooperation with the National Council for Research in Sudan. The main purpose of Phase I of the project has been to demonstrate and evaluate the use of water current energy for powering small-scale pumping units and for generating electricity. Power requirements for pumping water for irrigation on typical small land holdings in the Sudan will be of the order of 5-10 Kw. The same sizes of power should sufficiently meet power requirements of home factories for processing farm produce of these lands and of domestic uses. A vertical shaft impulse turbine of innovative design has been built in the Faculty of Engineering, University of Khartoum, to extract energy from water current of canals, rivers or streams. The useful shaft power from the turbine is used for pumping water or electricity generation. The turbine set is suspended from a floating pontoon (made from plastic drums) which is secured in the current by means of two horizontal supporting poles and steel cables. Field trials of a number of model turbine systems are currently being carried out and valuable findings are being obtained about the desirable features to be developed in these machines. However, concrete results are still to be finalized with a view to facilitating analytical design of pump-turbine and generatorturbine systems. Indications are that this work should lead to an efficient, cheap and simple-to-build current turbine. Detailed information on system design and performance are expected to be ready in time for the conference.

  19. Characterization of a water pump for drum-type washing machine by vibration power approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, YongHwa; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2015-03-01

    Water pumps used in drum-type washing machines to save water are likely to make the washing process noisier than the one without those because the water pumps attached usually onto cabinet structure work as additional vibration and noise sources. In order to either counteract such vibration and noise problems by stiffness design of the cabinet structure or classify the water pumps from the view point of an acceptance test, characterization of the water pumps as excitation sources would be essential. In this paper, several methods to characterize a water pump as an excitation source are investigated. Measurements by traditional methods of blocked force and/or free velocity for a water pump of 35 W are presented. Two methods of vibration power suggested rather recently are reviewed. Then, another method of the vibration power is proposed. Estimations of the vibration power for the water pump operating on a beam structure are obtained and discussed comparatively.

  20. Design and Performance of a Hybrid PV/T Solar Water Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripanagnostopoulos, Y.; Souliotis, M.; Makris, Th.; Georgostathis, P.; Sarris, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present design considerations and experimental results of a thermosyphonic hybrid PV/T solar system that is investigated at the University of Patras. Hybrid PV/T systems can provide electrical and thermal energy, thus achieving a higher energy conversion rate of the absorbed solar radiation. We tested outdoors PV/T prototypes consisted of pc-Si PV modules and heat exchanger of copper sheet with copper pipes, for two system types (PVT/UNGL and PVT/GL). We used commercial PV modules, which give about 12%-15% efficiency, depending on the operating temperature and the use or not of additional glazing. During the experiments the generated electricity was transmitted to a load, simulating real system operation. Steady state tests of the system were performed outdoors to determine collector thermal efficiency. The glazed PV/T collector presents remarkably higher thermal output than the unglazed PV/T collector, but the electrical output of it is reduced due to additional optical losses. The experimental study of the tested thermosyphonic hybrid PV/T solar device showed that it can perform effectively during all year long, achieving at least 40° C of hot water and producing electricity at a satisfactory level.

  1. Impacts of Groundwater Pumping on Regional and Global Water Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, Yoshihide

    2016-01-01

    Except frozen water in ice and glaciers (68%), groundwater is the world's largest distributed store of freshwater (30%), and has strategic importance to global food and water security. In this chapter, the most recent advances assessing human impact on regional and global groundwater resources are reviewed. This chapter critically evaluates the recently advanced modeling approaches quantifying the effect of groundwater pumping in regional and global groundwater resources and the evidence of feedback to the Earth system including sea-level rise associated with groundwater use. At last, critical challenges and opportunities are identified in the use of groundwater to adapt to growing food demand and uncertain climate.

  2. A water-activated pump for portable microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Good, Brian T; Bowman, Christopher N; Davis, Robert H

    2007-01-15

    An on-chip micropump for portable microfluidic applications was investigated using mathematical modeling and experimental testing. This micropump is activated by the addition of water, via a dropper, to ionic polymer particles that swell due to osmotic effects when wetted. The resulting particle volume increase deflects a membrane, forcing a separate fluid from an adjacent reservoir. The micropump components, along with the microfluidic components, are fabricated using the contact liquid photolithographic polymerization (CLiPP) method. The maximum flow rate achieved with this pump is 17 microL per minute per mg of dry polymer particles of 355-425 microm in diameter. The pump flow rate may be controlled by adjusting the particle size and amount, the membrane properties, and the channel dimensions. The experimental results demonstrate good agreement with an analytical model describing the particle swelling and its coupling with resistive forces from the bending membrane, viscous flow in the microchannel, and interfacial effects. Key features of this micropump are that it can be placed directly on a microdevice, and that it requires only a small amount of water and no external power supply to function. Therefore, this pumping system is useful for applications in which a highly portable device is required.

  3. Design method of water jet pump towards high cavitation performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L. L.; Che, B. X.; Hu, L. J.; Wu, D. Z.

    2016-05-01

    As one of the crucial components for power supply, the propulsion system is of great significance to the advance speed, noise performances, stabilities and other associated critical performances of underwater vehicles. Developing towards much higher advance speed, the underwater vehicles make more critical demands on the performances of the propulsion system. Basically, the increased advance speed requires the significantly raised rotation speed of the propulsion system, which would result in the deteriorated cavitation performances and consequently limit the thrust and efficiency of the whole system. Compared with the traditional propeller, the water jet pump offers more favourite cavitation, propulsion efficiency and other associated performances. The present research focuses on the cavitation performances of the waterjet pump blade profile in expectation of enlarging its advantages in high-speed vehicle propulsion. Based on the specifications of a certain underwater vehicle, the design method of the waterjet blade with high cavitation performances was investigated in terms of numerical simulation.

  4. German/Indian cooperation program for solar powered water pumps, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T. K.; Santhanam, V. C.; Ahmed, S. B.; Schneller, D.; Speidel, K.

    1983-08-01

    A solar powered pump for pumping water from deep wells (up to 100 m) is described. The operating principle corresponds to a Rankine cycle, where solar energy generates vapor for a steam engine driving the water pump. About 900 trouble free working hours were achieved under realistic test conditions with solar energy. Test results indicate a daily pumping rate of 20 to 45 cum/day depending an solar radiation intensity with a collector panel of 28 sqm.

  5. Heat transfer performance of a phase-change thermal energy storage water heater using cross-linked high density polyethylene pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Jotshi, C.K.; Klausner, J.F.; Goswami, D.Y.; Hsieh, C.K.; Santhosh, M.K.; Colacino, F.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this investigation was to develop an efficient water heater that stores thermal energy in a mixture of cross-linked high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and propylene glycol. Properties of cross-linked HDPE, such as melting and crystallization temperatures, heat of fusion and crystallization, and volume change were measured in the laboratory. The heat transfer coefficient for the mixture was also measured in a laboratory test. A prototype model of a storage water heater using a mixture of cross-linked HDPE pellets and propylene glycol was designed and fabricated. A copper finned heat transfer coil was used to extract the heat from the storage tank by passing water through it. The heat transfer efficiency (heat extracted by water/heat stored) was measured to be about 70%. To increase the efficiency, the storage unit was modified. In the modified unit, the length of the heat transfer coil was increased and coil spacing optimized. With the modification, the heat transfer efficiency was measured to be about 90%. In addition, a variable heat flux heating element, having high heat flux at the bottom and low heat flux at top, was used to reduce thermal stratification of the propylene glycol/HDPE pellet mixture.

  6. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  7. Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James D.; Biermayer, Peter; King, Derek

    2008-10-27

    Energy required for water heating accounts for approximately 40percent of national residential natural gas consumption in California. With water heating contributing such a substantial portion of natural gas consumption, it is important to pay attention to water heater efficiencies. This paper reports on an investigation of a patented, buoyancy-operated flue damper. It is an add-on design to a standard atmospherically vented natural-draft gas-fired storage water heater. The flue damper was expected to reduce off-cycle standby losses, which would lead to improvements in the efficiency of the water heater. The test results showed that the Energy Factor of the baseline water heater was 0.576. The recovery efficiency was 0.768. The standby heat loss coefficient was 10.619 (BTU/hr-oF). After the damper was installed, the test results show an Energy Factor for the baseline water heater of 0.605. The recovery efficiency was 0.786. The standby heat loss coefficient was 9.135 (BTU/hr-oF). The recovery efficiency increased 2.3percent and the standby heat loss coefficient decreased 14percent. When the burner was on, the baseline water heater caused 28.0 CFM of air to flow from the room. During standby, the flow was 12.4 CFM. The addition of the damper reduced the flow when the burner was on to 23.5 CFM. During standby, flow with the damper was reduced to 11.1 CFM. The flue damper reduced off-cycle standby losses, and improved the efficiency of the water heater. The flue damper also improved the recovery efficiency of the water heater by restricting on-cycle air flows through the flue.With or without the flue damper, off-cycle air flow upthe stack is nearly half the air flow rate as when the burner is firing.

  8. Development of an Ultra-Low-Cost Solar Water Heater: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-487

    SciTech Connect

    Merrigan, Tim

    2016-02-17

    NREL and RhoTech will collaborate to bring long-lived, ultra-low-cost, high-performance solar water heaters (SWH) to market readiness. An existing RhoTech design uses seam-welded polymer thin films to make an unglazed thermosiphon, and this design will be modified to improve durability through ultraviolet and overheat protection, and to improve performance by adding a glazing to the collector. Two generations of the new glazed systems will be tested in the field, resulting in a robust market-ready SWH design that can be installed for under $1,000 without rebates.

  9. Solar-assisted water-source heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-01-01

    The construction of two solar assisted water source heat pump systems to evaluate the use of night sky radiation using standard solar collectors is reported. The design of the system's controller is described, and project efforts are summarized. The procedure involved in the determination of the feasibility of night sky radiation as the means of rejecting heat through solar collectors for a sample house is reported. Conclusions on different types of coatings that are used on solar collectors are presented. A system and its backup are designed and cooling tower and night sky radiation are compared.

  10. GROUND WATER PROTECTION ISSUES WITH GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1999-10-01

    Closed loop vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps are grouted to facilitate heat transfer and prevent ground water contamination. The grout must exhibit suitable thermal conductivity as well as adequate hydraulic sealing characteristics. Permeability and infiltration tests were performed to assess the ability of cementitious grout to control vertical seepage in boreholes. It was determined that a superplasticized cement-sand grout is a more effective borehole sealant than neat cement over a range of likely operational temperatures. The feasibility of using non-destructive methods to verify bonding in heat exchangers is reviewed.

  11. [Response of Algae to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration and Quantity of Pumping Water in Pumped Storage Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wan, You-peng; Yin, Kui-hao; Peng, Sheng-hua

    2015-06-01

    Taking a pumped storage reservoir located in southern China as the research object, the paper established a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and eutrophication model of the reservoir employing EFDC (environmental fluid dynamics code) model, calibrated and verified the model using long-term hydraulic and water quality data. Based on the model results, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the algae growth were analyzed, and the response of algae to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and quantity of pumping water was also calculated. The results showed that the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations had little limit on algae growth rate in the reservoir. In the nutrients reduction scenarios, reducing phosphorus would gain greater algae biomass reduction than reducing nitrogen. When reducing 60 percent of nitrogen, the algae biomass did not decrease, while 12.4 percent of algae biomass reduction could be gained with the same reduction ratio of phosphorus. When the reduction ratio went to 90 percent, the algae biomass decreased by 17.9 percent and 35.1 percent for nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, respectively. In the pumping water quantity regulation scenarios, the algae biomass decreased with the increasing pumping water quantity when the pumping water quantity was greater than 20 percent of the current value; when it was less than 20 percent, the algae biomass increased with the increasing pumping water quantity. The algae biomass decreased by 25.7 percent when the pumping water quantity was doubled, and increased by 38.8 percent when it decreased to 20 percent. The study could play an important role in supporting eutrophication controlling in water source area.

  12. Lead-leaching characteristics of submersible residential water pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Maas, R.P.; Patch, S.C.; Pope, J.; Thornton, L.

    1998-01-01

    In June 1991, the US Environmental Protection Agency set an action level of 15 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) for lead in drinking water and a maximum contaminant level goal of 0 {micro}g/L at the point of use. Consequently, it is important to understand the cumulative effect of lead exposure from all parts of a residential plumbing distribution system. This paper presents findings of the lead-leaching characteristics of submersible water pumps used in residential wells, which were tested under standard laboratory conditions and under actual residential usage patterns. Laboratory experiments found lead to be leaching in hundreds of {micro}g/L after 10 days of testing; when dilution factors approximating typical residential usage conditions were applied, both the laboratory and the field installation results were in the 3 to 5 {micro}g/L range after 30 days of testing. Exposures after several months were also determined, and overall, leaded-brass well pumps are concluded to represent a marginally significant source of lead exposure to the approximately 40 million Americans served by individual wells.

  13. Water balance and irrigation water pumping of Lake Merdada for potato farming in Dieng Highland, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fadlillah, Lintang N; Widyastuti, M

    2016-08-01

    Lakes provide water resources for domestic use, livestock, irrigational use, etc. Water availability of lakes can be estimated using lake water balance. Lake water balance is calculated from the water input and output of a lake. Dieng Highland has several volcanic lakes in its surroundings. Lake Merdada in Dieng Highland has been experiencing extensive water pumping for several years more than other lakes in the surrounding area. It provides irrigation water for potato farming in Dieng Highland. The hydrological model of this lake has not been studied. The modeled water balance in this research uses primary data, i.e., bathymetric data, soil texture, and outflow discharge, as well as secondary data, i.e., rainfall, temperature, Landsat 7 ETM+ band 8 image, and land use. Water balance input components consist of precipitation on the surface area, surface (direct) runoff from the catchment area, and groundwater inflow and outflow (G net), while the output components consist of evaporation, river outflow, and irrigation. It shows that groundwater is the dominant input and output of the lake. On the other hand, the actual irrigation water pumping plays the leading role as human-induced alteration of outflow discharge. The maximum irrigation pumping modeling shows that it will decrease lake storage up to 37.14 % per month and may affect the ecosystem inside the lake.

  14. GROUND WATER ISSUE - PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS OF PUMP-AND-TREAT REMEDIATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most commonly used ground-water remediation technologies is to pump contaminated water to the surface for treatment. Evaluating the effectiveness of pump-and-treat remediations at Superfund sites is an issue identified by the Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum as a ...

  15. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Coit, William George; Griffin, Peter Terry; Hamilton, Paul Taylor; Hsu, Chia-Fu; Mason, Stanley Leroy; Samuel, Allan James; Watkins, Ronnie Wade

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  16. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    DOEpatents

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  17. An analysis of water-to-air heat pump systems for use in government facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fretzs, R. G.

    1980-09-01

    Energy consumption is an important issue for government managers. Examined in this thesis is one source of potential energy savings: a method of heating and cooling buildings. Water-to-air heat pumps are analyzed and cost comparisons to conventional heating/cooling systems (gas, fuel oil, electric resistance, and air-to-air heat pumps) are made. The theory of heat pump technology is presented to show how water source heat pumps achieve improved efficiencies over conventional systems. Sources of and disposal of water to support the systems are discussed. Cost comparisons are presented based on computer simulations and fuel cost graphs. Twenty-one percent of U.S. energy consumption is used to heat and cool buildings. Water-to-air heat pumps provide a 30-50 percent savings over other systems. Therefore, a potential 10 percent savings in total energy consumption exists through the use of water source heat pumps.

  18. CNT based thermal Brownian motor to pump water in nanodevices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    Brownian molecular motors are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations for directional motion by employing mechanisms such as the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet. In this study, using Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics, we propose a novel thermal Brownian motor for pumping water through Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). To achieve this we impose a thermal gradient along the axis of a CNT filled with water and impose, in addition, a spatial asymmetry by fixing specific zones on the CNT in order to modify the vibrational modes of the CNT. We find that the temperature gradient and imposed spatial asymmetry drive the water flow in a preferential direction. We systematically modified the magnitude of the applied thermal gradient and the axial position of the fixed points. The analysis involves measurement of the vibrational modes in the CNTs using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. We observed water flow in CNTs of 0.94, 1.4 and 2.0 nm in diameter, reaching a maximum velocity of 5 m/s for a thermal gradient of 3.3 K/nm. The proposed thermal motor is capable of delivering a continuous flow throughout a CNT, providing a useful tool for driving liquids in nanofluidic devices by exploiting thermal gradients. We aknowledge partial support from Fondecyt project 11130559.

  19. Combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, D.L.

    1981-07-28

    A combination fence and solar heater for swimming pools comprises a fence shaped for extending about the periphery of the pool to restrict ingress and egress therefrom. A tubular heat exchanger is formed in at least one section of the fence, includes an exterior surface adapted to absorb solar energy, and communicates with the water in the swimming pool. The number of heat exchanger fence sections can be varied in accordance with the climate in which the pool is located. A pump flows the water in the swimming pool through the heat exchanger fence sections during daylight hours, thereby simultaneously heating the water in the pool, and providing an attractive and protective safety barrier about the swimming pool.

  20. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. 2. VIEW OF THE WATER PUMP (FEATURE B25) AND STANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE WATER PUMP (FEATURE B-25) AND STANDING POLE, FACING SOUTH. SEDIMENT DAM AND POND IS SEEN ON THE UPPER RIGHT OF PHOTO. - Nevada Lucky Tiger Mill & Mine, Water Pump, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  2. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  3. Hand-pumps as reservoirs for microbial contamination of well water.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Andrew S; Mailloux, Brian J; Ahmed, Kazi M; van Geen, Alexander; McKay, Larry D; Culligan, Patricia J

    2011-12-01

    The retention and release of total coliforms and Escherichia coli was investigated in hand-pumps removed from tubewells tapping a faecally contaminated aquifer in Matlab, Bangladesh, and from a new hand-pump deliberately spiked with E. coli. All hand-pumps were connected to reservoirs of sterile water and flushed. Faecal coliforms were observed in the discharge from all three of the previously used hand-pumps, at concentrations comparable to levels measured in discharge when they were attached to the tubewells. During daily flushing of one of the previously used hand-pumps, the concentration of total coliforms in the discharge remained relatively constant (approximately 10³ MPN/100 mL). Concentrations of E. coli in the pump discharge declined over time, but E. coli was still detectable up to 29 days after the start of flushing. In the deliberately spiked hand-pump, E. coli was observed in the discharge over 125 days (t₅₀ = 8 days) and found to attach preferentially to elastomeric materials within the hand-pump. Attempts to disinfect both the village and new hand-pumps using shock chlorination were shown to be unsuccessful. These results demonstrate that hand-pumps can act as persistent reservoirs for microbial indicator bacteria. This could potentially influence drinking water quality and bias testing of water quality.

  4. Assessment of hand pump waters in three tribal dominated districts of southern Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, B K; Sharma, L L; Durve, V S

    2008-04-01

    Udaipur, Banswara and Dungarpur districts of southern Rajasthan (India) have dominance of tribal population. In these districts besides other water resources, hand pumps are catering the need for drinking water. The present study was undertaken to assess the level of chemical and bacteriological status for comparing the water quality with the prevailing standards. 18 hand pumps were studied for selected water quality parameters such as, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, NO3 -N, EC, orthophosphate, TDS, TSS, BOD, total coliforms and faecal coliforms, following the standard methods. The data on chemical parameters revealed that in all 18 hand pumps the water quality was within the permissible level of WHO. However, in eight hand pumps the faecal coliforms were higher (2-6 MPN/100 mL) than the permissible limit which confirm organic contamination in these drinking water resources. On the basis of this study, suitable remedial measures for protection of water quality have been suggested.

  5. Synthesized attributes of water use by regional vegetation: a key to cognition of "water pump" viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-hui; Yu, Fu-ke; Li, Xiao-ying; Zheng, Yuan; Yuan, Hua; Ma, Jian-gang; Wang, Yan-xia; Qi, Dan-hui; Shao, Hong-bo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the frequent seasonal drought in Southwest China has brought considerable concerns and continuous heated arguments on the "water pump" viewpoint (i.e., the water demand from Hevea spp. and Eucalyptus spp. can be treated as a water pump) once again. However, such viewpoint just focused on water consumption from vegetation transpiration and its ecoenvironment impacts, which had not considered other attributes of vegetation, namely, water saving and drought resistance, and hydrological regulation (water conservation) into consideration. Thus, in this paper, the synthesized attributes of regional vegetation water use had been mainly discussed. The results showed that the study on such aspects as the characters of water consumption from vegetation transpiration, the potential of water saving and drought resistance, and the effects of hydrological regulation in Southwest China lagged far behind, let alone the report on synthesized attributes of water utilization with the organic combination of the three aspects above or the paralleled analysis. Accordingly, in this paper, the study on the synthesized attributes of water use by regional vegetation in Southwest China was suggested, and the objectives of such a special study were clarified, targeting the following aspects: (i) characters of water consumption from transpiration of regional typical artificial vegetation; (ii) potential of water saving and drought resistance of regional typical artificial vegetation; (iii) effects of hydrological regulation of regional typical artificial vegetation; (iv) synthesized attributes of water use by regional typical artificial vegetation. It is expected to provide a new idea for the scientific assessment on the regional vegetation ecoenvironment effects and theoretical guidance for the regional vegetation reconstruction and ecological restoration.

  6. Explosives tester with heater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Eckels, Joel; Nunes, Peter J.; Simpson, Randall L.; Whipple, Richard E.; Carter, J. Chance; Reynolds, John G.

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  7. Ply Thickness Fiber Glass on Windmill Drive Salt Water Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Suwandi, Dedi

    2016-04-01

    Factors management of salt-making processes need to be considered selection of the location and the season is very important to support the efforts of salting. Windmills owned by the farmers are still using wood materials are made each year it is not effectively done and the shape of windmills made not in accordance with the requirements without considering the wind speed and the pumping speed control influenced by the weight and size of windmill, it affects the productivity of salt. to optimize the function of windmills on pumping salt water by change the material blade on the wheel by using a material composite, composite or fiberglass are used for blades on windmills made of a material a mixture of Epoxy-Resin and Matrix E-Glass. The mechanical characteristics of the power of his blade one of determining the materials used and the thickness of the blade, which needed a strong and lightweight. The calculation result thick fiberglass with a composition of 60% fiber and 40% epoxy, at a wind speedof area salt fields 9 m/s, the drag force that occurs at 11,56 kg, then the calculation result by 0,19 mm thick with a layer of 10, the total thickness of 1,9 mm, with a density of 1760 kg/m3, mechanical character of elongated elastic modulus of 46200 MPa, modulus of transverse elasticity of 10309,6 MPa, shear modulus of 3719 MPa and Poisson ratio of 0,31, then the calculation using the finite element ABAQUS obtained critical point at the confluence of the blade to the value of Von Mises tension was happening 1,158e9 MPa maximum and minimum 2,123e5 MPa, for a maximum value of displacement occurred condition at the tip of the blade. The performance test results windmills at a wind speed of 5,5 m/s wind power shows that occur 402,42 watts and power turbines produced 44,21 watt, and TSR 0,095 and the value Cp of 0,1, test results windmill in salt fields in the beginning rotation windmill lighter, able to move above wind speed of 5.5 m/s.

  8. Development of a Prototype Water Pump for Future Space Suit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, David; Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward, III; Trevino, Luis

    2009-01-01

    NASA's next generation of space suit systems will place new demands on the pump used to circulate cooling water through the life support system and the crew's liquid cooling garment. Long duration missions and frequent EVA require increased durability and reliability; limited resupply mass requirements demand compatibility with recycled water, and changing system design concepts demand increased tolerance for dissolved and free gas and the ability to operate over a broader range of flow rates and discharge pressure conditions. This paper describes the development of a positive displacement prototype pump to meet these needs. A gerotor based design has been adapted to meet pump performance, gas tolerance, and durability requirements while providing a small, lightweight pump assembly. This design has been detailed and implemented using materials selected to address anticipated water quality and mission needs as a prototype unit for testing in NASA laboratories. Design requirements, pump technology selection and design, performance testing and test results will be discussed.

  9. Development of a Prototype Water Pump for Future Space Suit Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartman, David; Hodgson, Edward; Gervais, Edward, III; Trevino, Luis

    2008-01-01

    NASA s next generation of space suit systems will place new demands on the pump used to circulate cooling water through the life support system and the crew s liquid cooling garment. Long duration missions and frequent EVA require increased durability and reliability; limited resupply mass requirements demand compatibility with recycled water, and changing system design concepts demand increased tolerance for dissolved and free gas and the ability to operate over a broader range of flow rates and discharge pressure conditions. This paper describes the development of a positive displacement prototype pump to meet these needs. A gerotor based design has been adapted to meet pump performance, gas tolerance, and durability requirements while providing a small, lightweight pump assembly. This design has been detailed and implemented using materials selected to address anticipated water quality and mission needs as a prototype unit for testing in NASA laboratories. Design requirements, pump technology selection and design, performance testing and test results will be discussed.

  10. Water Follies: Groundwater Pumping and the Fate of America's Fresh Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glennon, R.

    2002-12-01

    The next time you open a bottle of spring water, consider that it may have come from a well that is drying up a blue-ribbon trout stream. The next time you super-size a meal at McDonald's, note that the fries are all the same length. That's because the potato farmers irrigate their fields with groundwater from wells, some adjacent to nearby rivers. The next time you purchase gold jewelry, consider that it may have come from a mine that has pumped so much groundwater to de-water the gold-bearing rock that 60 to100 years will pass before the water table recovers. The next time you water your suburban lawn, pause to reflect on what that's doing to the nearby wetland. And the next time you visit Las Vegas and flip on the light in your hotel room, consider that the electricity may have been generated by a coal-fired power plant supplied by a slurry pipeline that uses groundwater critical to springs sacred to the Hopi people. These and countless other seemingly innocuous activities reflect our individual and societal dependence on groundwater that is hydrologically connected to surface water. Hydrologists understand that ground and surface water are interconnected, but frequently the legal rules governing water distinguish between ground and surface water. This has led to groundwater pumping that has dried up many rivers, particularly in the arid West. In Arizona, many once verdant streams have become desiccated sandboxes as city, mines, and farms pumped groundwater to such an extent that surface flows were totally depleted. The problem of the impact of groundwater pumping on the environment, however, is not confined to the arid West. It is an enormous national, indeed international problem. This presentation will focus on the United States and illustrate with examples from around the country the array of environmental problems caused by excessive groundwater pumping. The locations of these case studies range from Maine to California, from Minnesota to Florida, and from

  11. Primary-secondary pumping conversion: Retrofit of an existing campus chilled water distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Sczomak, D.P.; Nguyen, P.N.

    1996-08-01

    The chilled water distribution system within an existing 8,300 ton (29,200 kW) capacity regional chilled water plant at Michigan State University (MSU) is being converted from a primary pumping arrangement to a primary-secondary arrangement. The plant presently provides chilled water for air conditioning to twelve remote buildings. In the future, MSU plans to increase the plant`s capacity to 10,800 tons (38,000 kW) in order to serve seven more buildings. The addition of buildings to the distribution system has caused the existing primary pumps to be incapable of producing enough pressure to offset system losses at design flow rates. The existing system has become unable to concurrently provide adequate flow, design supply water temperature and efficient chiller operation due to the distribution system deficiencies. The primary-secondary pumping conversion will include modifications to the distribution piping, the addition of five variable speed secondary pumps, additions and modifications to the control systems, the trimming of impellers on six of the existing primary pumps and replacement of two primary pumps. The campus central control system will be utilized to provide automatic chiller staging, interface with the packaged secondary pump control systems, and control of the building interconnections. The total construction cost is approximately $1,400,000 and is scheduled for completion prior to the 1996 cooling season. Provisions have been made for two additional secondary pumps to accommodate the connection of additional buildings to the distribution system in the future.

  12. Identification of pumping influences in long-term water level fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Harp, Dylan R; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the pumping influences at monitoring wells caused by spatially and temporally variable water supply pumping can be a challenging, yet an important hydrogeological task. The information that can be obtained can be critical for conceptualization of the hydrogeological conditions and indications of the zone of influence of the individual pumping wells. However, the pumping influences are often intermittent and small in magnitude with variable production rates from multiple pumping wells. While these difficulties may support an inclination to abandon the existing dataset and conduct a dedicated cross-hole pumping test, that option can be challenging and expensive to coordinate and execute. This paper presents a method that utilizes a simple analytical modeling approach for analysis of a long-term water level record utilizing an inverse modeling approach. The methodology allows the identification of pumping wells influencing the water level fluctuations. Thus, the analysis provides an efficient and cost-effective alternative to designed and coordinated cross-hole pumping tests. We apply this method on a dataset from the Los Alamos National Laboratory site. Our analysis also provides (1) an evaluation of the information content of the transient water level data; (2) indications of potential structures of the aquifer heterogeneity inhibiting or promoting pressure propagation; and (3) guidance for the development of more complicated models requiring detailed specification of the aquifer heterogeneity.

  13. PUMP-AND-TREAT GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION: A GUIDE FOR DECISION MAKERS AND PRACTITIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide presents decision makers with a foundation for evaluating the appropriateness of conventional or innovative approaches. An introduction to pump-and-treat ground-water remediation, the guide addresses the following questions: When is pump-and-treat an appropriate remedi...

  14. Renewable Energy Water Pumping Systems Handbook; Period of Performance: April 1--September 1, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Argaw, N.

    2004-07-01

    Water is one of the most basic necessities of rural development. This book provides valuable information on how renewable energy technologies can be used for irrigation, livestock watering, and domestic water supplies. This report emphasizes wind and solar energy resources, and hybrid water pumping systems.

  15. 35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN PUMP ROOM. AIR COMPRESSOR ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. VIEW LOOKING EAST IN PUMP ROOM. AIR COMPRESSOR ON LEFT, FUEL OIL PUMP BEHIND ON LEFT, FUEL OIL HEATERS AND PUMPS IN BACKGROUND WITH DRAIN SYSTEM - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  16. Design of a cost effective solar powered water pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. G.

    1980-04-01

    The basic design consists of an expanding gaseous piston confined inside a chamber which is located in series with, and between, an inlet and an outlet check valve. The gas is generated by volatilizing cyclopentane or hexane. Four variations of this basic design concept were built and evaluated. Considerations in the choice of a cost effective solar collector are also reviewed. A 70 C heat source temperature is required to operate the pump if cyclopentane is used as the volatile fluid, 90 C is required if hexane is used. The pumps have a capacity of approximately 6 liters/minute when pumped to a height of 2 meters. Two square meters of sunshine are sufficient to operate the pump.

  17. 22. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: COOLING WATER PUMPS (WESTINGHOUSE C.S. INDUCTION MOTORS), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DIABLO POWERHOUSE: COOLING WATER PUMPS (WESTINGHOUSE C.S. INDUCTION MOTORS), 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  18. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. SUMP TANK PUMP. COMPARE WITH ID33G247. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. SUMP TANK PUMP. COMPARE WITH ID-33-G-247. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4378. Unknown Photographer, 3/5/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Vacuum hand pump apparatus for collecting water samples from a horizontal intragravel pipe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a lightweight, portable vacuum hand pump apparatus for use in collecting water samples from horizontal intragravel pipe samplers buried in the stream bottom. The apparatus is easily fabricated from relatively inexpensive materials available at many laboratory supply houses.

  20. Slip flow coefficient analysis in water hydraulics gear pump for environmental friendly application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, A. A.; Wasbari, F.; Zakaria, M. S.; Ibrahim, M. Q.

    2013-12-01

    Water hydraulics is the sustainable option in developing fluid power systems with environmental friendly approach. Therefore, an investigation on water-based external gear pump application is being conducted, as a low cost solution in the shifting effort of using water, instead of traditional oil hydraulics in fluid power application. As the gear pump is affected by fluid viscosity, an evaluation has been conducted on the slip flow coefficient, in order to understand to what extent the spur gear pump can be used with water-based hydraulic fluid. In this paper, the results of a simulated study of variable-speed fixed displacement gear pump are presented. The slip flow coefficient varies from rotational speed of 250 RPM to 3500 RPM, and provides volumetric efficiency ranges from 9 % to 97% accordingly.

  1. Study into a small-scale water-driven domestic heat pump: Design and performance analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yilbas, B.S.; Al-Garni, A.Z.; Sahin, A.Z.

    1996-12-01

    A heat pump of domestic capacity and applicable for a water-powered system is studied. A design of the necessary parts is carried out and realization of the heat pump system is achieved. In realization of the system, output power of a small-scale water turbine is considered, and an electrical motor requiring similar power is employed. The estimation of capital cost and payback period is not included in the study.

  2. Solar PV water pumping system for rural development in Nepal: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    Although PV water pumping systems have high initial costs, they require virtually no maintenance, require no fuel and thus save foreign exchange. They are easy to install and operate, have no moving parts and hence are highly reliable and durable and are modular in nature for future expansion, PV systems are found to be competitive with conventional diesel generator systems. Despite the above mentioned facts policy makers are still not convinced that solar PV water pumping systems can support rural development. This paper gives reasons for the failures of some solar PV water pumping projects in Nepal. Development of solar electricity totaling about 800 KWp in Nepal is briefly highlighted. Basic preconditions are identified for the successful operation of solar PV water pumping systems. The findings of successful solar PV water pumping systems are highlighted with specific reference to socio-economic impacts in the rural society. Subsidy policy of the government on solar PV water pumping systems is analyzed. Development of a spontaneous market for community solar PV water pumping system is analyzed. Suggestions are given on how solar PV water pumping system can be made more affordable by village people. Typical Nepalese rural areas are found to be suitable and economical for SPVWPS. Site evaluation procedure is given. Finally, the paper indicates the important of training for the local people in installation, operation and routine maintenance to ensure the reliability of the SPVWPS. The paper emphasizes the involvement of end-users from the very beginning of planning stage of SPVWPS. Detail comparison between a SPVWPS and an equivalent diesel generator is also indicated in the paper.

  3. Possible effects of groundwater pumping on surface water in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leake, Stanley A.; Haney, Jeanmarie

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, has applied a groundwater model to simulate effects of groundwater pumping and artificial recharge on surface water in the Verde Valley sub-basin of Arizona. Results are in two sets of maps that show effects of locations of pumping or recharge on streamflow. These maps will help managers make decisions that will meet water needs and minimize environmental impacts.

  4. Application of programmable logic controller to pump regulation system for supplying water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dao-Yi; Yang, Yong-Bin; Lu, Zong-Qi

    This paper describes a pump regulation system for supplying-water. The controlled variable is the output water pressure for supplying-water pumps. The reference input signal is given in PLC. The water pressure for supplying-water pump output is fed back by a A/D converter to CPU in PLC. The output of Programmable Logic Controller Controls a frequency converter. The frequency converter controls three groups of motor-pump. The water from the three pumps enters the same pipe. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) uses Ladder-shaped diagram software to implement logical control and proportional-plus-integral control. The method for automatic tuning of regulator of the PID type is based on a simple identification method which gives one point on the Nyquist curve of the open loop transfer function. The key idea is a scheme which provides automatic excitation of the process which is nearly optimal for estimating the desired process characteristics. Only a frequency converter controls several groups of motor pumps, therefore, the cost of the system is decreased. This system has electrically breaking off protection function and automatically restoring software. Through a long time operation, the system can work well.

  5. Effects of pumping strategies on pesticide concentration of a drinking water well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisopou, A.; Bjerg, P. L.; Binning, P. J.; Albrechtsen, H.

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater is an important source of drinking water production in many countries including Denmark. This requires high quality groundwater that meets the standards of the European Water Framework Directive. Yet as a result of agricultural activitity, deposition and previous handling, pesticides are frequently found in groundwater and can raise a substantial problem for ground water abstraction. The concentration of this contamination may vary between different layers. The heterogeneity of the subsurface geology and the depth of the drinking water well's screen are important parameters that affect the resulting contamination of the abstracted groundwater. The pesticide concentration in wells may also be affected by the pumping strategy because pumping can alter the structure of the flow field, the flowpath of water going to the well and subsequently the age of water at the well. The purpose of this study was to examine numerically the effects of pumping on pesticide contamination of drinking water wells using a reactive transport model in a hypothetical aquifer system resembling a typical Danish well field. The application history of the pesticides is crucial. This can be taken into account by assessing the effects of pumping on water age distribution along the well. Three compounds with different application histories were considered: an old banned pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and relatively persistent in deeper aquifers, and a highly applied, biodegradable and strongly sorbing pesticide glyphosate, and its degradation product AMPA. A steady state flow field was first computed. A well field was then introduced and different pumping regimes were applied for a period of 180 years; a low-rate pumping, a high-rate pumping and a varying pumping regime. A constant application rate at the surface was assumed for the application period of each pesticide. The pre-abstraction age distribution of the water in the system was first estimated using a steady

  6. Simulation of selected ground-water pumping scenarios at Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cherry, Gregory S.

    2006-01-01

    A regional MODFLOW ground-water flow model of parts of coastal Georgia, Florida, and South Carolina was used to evaluate the effects of current and hypothetical groundwater withdrawal, and the relative effects of pumping in specific areas on ground-water flow in the Upper Floridan aquifer near Fort Stewart and Hunter Army Airfield (HAAF), coastal Georgia. Simulation results for four steady-state pumping scenarios were compared to each other and to a Base Case condition. The Base Case represents year 2000 pumping rates throughout the model area, with the exception that permitted annual average pumping rates for the year 2005 were used for 26 production wells at Fort Stewart and HAAF. The four pumping scenarios focused on pumping increases at HAAF resulting from projected future demands and additional personnel stationed at the facility and on reductions in pumping at Fort Stewart. Scenarios A and B simulate 1- and 2-million-gallon-perday (Mgal/d) increases, respectively, at HAAF. Simulated water-level change maps for these scenarios indicate an area of influence that extends into parts of Bryan, Bulloch, Chatham, Effingham, and Liberty Counties, Ga., and Beaufort and Jasper Counties, S.C., with maximum drawdowns from 0.5 to 4 feet (ft) for scenario A and 1 to 8 ft for Scenario B. For scenarios C and D, increases in pumping at HAAF were offset by decreases in pumping at Fort Stewart. Scenario C represents a 1-Mgal/d increase at HAAF and a 1-Mgal/d decrease at Fort Stewart; simulated water-level changes range from 0.4 to -4 ft. Scenario D represents a 2-Mgal/d increase at HAAF and 2-Mgal/d decrease at Fort Stewart; simulated water-level changes range from 0.04 to -8 ft. The simulated water-level changes indicate an area of influence that extends into parts of Bryan, Bulloch, Chatham, Effingham, Liberty, and McIntosh Counties, Ga., and Jasper and Beaufort Counties, S.C. In general, decreasing pumping at Fort Stewart by an equivalent amount to pumping increases at HAAF

  7. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  8. A simple, low-cost method to monitor duration of ground water pumping.

    PubMed

    Massuel, S; Perrin, J; Wajid, M; Mascre, C; Dewandel, B

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring ground water withdrawals for agriculture is a difficult task, while agricultural development leads frequently to overexploitation of the aquifers. To fix the problem, sustainable management is required based on the knowledge of water uses. This paper introduces a simple and inexpensive direct method to determine the duration of pumping of a well by measuring the temperature of its water outlet pipe. A pumping phase is characterized by a steady temperature value close to ground water temperature. The method involves recording the temperature of the outlet pipe and identifying the different stages of pumping. It is based on the use of the low-cost and small-size Thermochron iButton temperature logger and can be applied to any well, provided that a water outlet pipe is accessible. The temperature time series are analyzed to determine the duration of pumping through manual and automatic posttreatments. The method was tested and applied in South India for irrigation wells using electricity-powered pumps. The duration of pumping obtained by the iButton method is fully consistent with the duration of power supply (1.5% difference).

  9. Air-Activated Ration Heaters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    regulated. After use, the product of the heating reaction is zinc oxide, an inert chemical used in many different products such as sunscreen , creams...low cost, easy-to-use chemical heater called the Flameless Ration Heater (FRH). The FRH consists of a magnesium/iron mixture sealed in a waterproof...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 1. HEATER DESIGN There is a narrow operating temperature range for chemical heaters for this specific

  10. Hot gas engine heater head

    DOEpatents

    Berntell, John O.

    1983-01-01

    A heater head for a multi-cylinder double acting hot gas engine in which each cylinder is surrounded by an annular regenerator unit, and in which the tops of each cylinder and its surrounding regenerator are interconnected by a multiplicity of heater tubes. A manifold for the heater tubes has a centrally disposed duct connected to the top of the cylinder and surrounded by a wider duct connecting the other ends of the heater tubes with the regenerator unit.

  11. Effects of irrigation pumping on the ground-water system in Newton and Jasper Counties, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergeron, Marcel P.

    1981-01-01

    Flow in the ground-water system in Newton and Jasper Counties, Indiana, was simulated in a quasi-three-dimensional model in a study of irrigation use of ground water in the two counties. The ground-water system consists of three aquifers: (1) a surficial coarse sand aquifer known as the Kankakee aquifer, (2) a limestone and dolomite bedrock aquifer, and (3) a sand and gravel bedrock valley aquifer. Irrigation pumping, derived primarily from the bedrock, was estimated to be 34.8 million gallons per day during peak irrigation in 1977. Acreage irrigated with ground water is estimated to be 6,200 acres. A series of model experiments was used to estimate the effects of irrigation pumping on ground-water levels and streamflow. Model analysis indicates that a major factor controlling drawdown due to pumping in the bedrock aquifer are the variations in thickness and in vertical hydraulic conductivity in a semiconfining unit overlying the bedrock. Streamflow was not significantly reduced by hypothetical withdrawals of 12.6 million gallons per day from the bedrock aquifer and 10.3 million gallons per day in the Kankakee aquifer. Simulation of water-level recovery after irrigation pumping indicated that a 5-year period of alternating between increasing pumping and recovery will not cause serious problems of residual drawdown or ground-water mining. 

  12. Experimental studies on heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of forced circulation solar water heater system fitted with helical twisted tapes

    SciTech Connect

    Jaisankar, S.; Radhakrishnan, T.K.; Sheeba, K.N.

    2009-11-15

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer, friction factor and thermal performance of twisted tape solar water heater with various twist ratios has been conducted and the results are compared with plain tube collector for the same operating conditions with Reynolds number varied from 3000 to 23,000. Experimental data from plain tube collector is validated with the fundamental equations and found that the discrepancy is less than {+-}5.35% and {+-}8.80% for Nusselt number and friction factor, respectively. Correlations have been developed for Nusselt number and friction factor with various twist ratios (Y = 3, 4, 5, 6) and are compared with the experimental values. Results conclude that, heat transfer and pressure drop are higher in twisted tape collector compared to the plain one. Among the various twist ratios, the minimum twist ratio 3 is found to enhance the heat transfer and pressure drop due to swirl generation. As the twist ratio increases, the swirl generation decreases and minimizes the heat transfer and friction factor. (author)

  13. Current inversions induced by resonant coupling to surface waves in a nanosized water pump.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Kou, Jianlong; Lu, Hui; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a molecular dynamics simulation to investigate current inversions in a nanosized water pump based on a single-walled carbon nanotube powered by mechanical vibration. It was found that the water current depended sensitively on the frequency of mechanical vibration. Especially in the resonance region, the nanoscale pump underwent reversals of the water current. This phenomenon was attributed to the dynamics competition of the water molecules in the two sections (the left and right parts) divided by the vibrating atom and the differences in phase and decay between the two mechanical waves generated by mechanical vibration and propagating in opposite directions toward the two ends of the carbon nanotube. Our findings provide an insight into water transportation through nanosized pumps and have potential in the design of high-flux nanofluidic systems and nanoscale energy converters.

  14. Current inversions induced by resonant coupling to surface waves in a nanosized water pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Kou, Jianlong; Lu, Hui; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a molecular dynamics simulation to investigate current inversions in a nanosized water pump based on a single-walled carbon nanotube powered by mechanical vibration. It was found that the water current depended sensitively on the frequency of mechanical vibration. Especially in the resonance region, the nanoscale pump underwent reversals of the water current. This phenomenon was attributed to the dynamics competition of the water molecules in the two sections (the left and right parts) divided by the vibrating atom and the differences in phase and decay between the two mechanical waves generated by mechanical vibration and propagating in opposite directions toward the two ends of the carbon nanotube. Our findings provide an insight into water transportation through nanosized pumps and have potential in the design of high-flux nanofluidic systems and nanoscale energy converters.

  15. Fast Water Thermo-pumping Flow Across Nanotube Membranes for Desalination.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kuiwen; Wu, Huiying

    2015-06-10

    Development of high-efficiency and low-cost seawater desalination technologies is critical to meet global water crisis. Here we report a fast water pumping method in which the water molecules in seawater are continuously pumped across nanotube membranes driven by a small temperature difference, opening the possibility of high-throughput small-scale desalination devices driven by low-grade thermal energy. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that an equivalent driving pressure of 5.3 MPa is achieved with a temperature difference of only 15 K. The remarkable water pumping ability is attributed to the asymmetric thermal fluctuation of water molecules. With this method, a 10 cm(2) nanotube membrane with 1.5 × 10(13) pores per cm(2) will produce freshwater with a flow rate of 7.77 L/h under a small temperature difference of 15 K.

  16. AIR HEATER EXPERIMENT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The test program described in this report was designed to determine the feasibility of using a vitiated air heater for the PLUTO facility from the...profiles across the outlet proved relatively flat. The feasibility of using this burner for PLUTO facility air heating was established. (Author)

  17. Design of Nano Screw Pump for Water Transport and its Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liya; Wu, Hengan; Wang, Fengchao

    2017-02-01

    Nanopumps conducting fluids through nanochannels have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in nanofiltration, water desalination and drug delivery. Here, we demonstrate by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that a nano screw pump is designed with helical nanowires embedded in a nanochannel, which can be used to drive unidirectional water flow. Such helical nanowires have been successfully synthesized in many experiments. By investigating the water transport mechanism through nano screw pumps with different configuration parameters, three transport modes were observed: cluster-by-cluster, pseudo-continuous, and linear-continuous, in which the water flux increases linearly with the rotating speed. The influences of the nanowires’ surface energy and the screw’s diameter on water transport were also investigated. Results showed that the water flux rate increases as the decreasing wettability of helical nanowires. The deviation in water flux in screw pumps with smaller radius is attributed to the weak hydrogen bonding due to space confinement and the hydrophobic blade. Moreover, we also proposed that such screw pumps with appropriate diameter and screw pitch can be used for water desalination. The study provides an insight into the design of multifunctional nanodevices for not only water transport but water desalination in practical applications.

  18. Design of Nano Screw Pump for Water Transport and its Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wang, LiYa; Wu, HengAn; Wang, FengChao

    2017-02-03

    Nanopumps conducting fluids through nanochannels have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in nanofiltration, water desalination and drug delivery. Here, we demonstrate by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that a nano screw pump is designed with helical nanowires embedded in a nanochannel, which can be used to drive unidirectional water flow. Such helical nanowires have been successfully synthesized in many experiments. By investigating the water transport mechanism through nano screw pumps with different configuration parameters, three transport modes were observed: cluster-by-cluster, pseudo-continuous, and linear-continuous, in which the water flux increases linearly with the rotating speed. The influences of the nanowires' surface energy and the screw's diameter on water transport were also investigated. Results showed that the water flux rate increases as the decreasing wettability of helical nanowires. The deviation in water flux in screw pumps with smaller radius is attributed to the weak hydrogen bonding due to space confinement and the hydrophobic blade. Moreover, we also proposed that such screw pumps with appropriate diameter and screw pitch can be used for water desalination. The study provides an insight into the design of multifunctional nanodevices for not only water transport but water desalination in practical applications.

  19. Design of Nano Screw Pump for Water Transport and its Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, LiYa; Wu, HengAn; Wang, FengChao

    2017-01-01

    Nanopumps conducting fluids through nanochannels have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications in nanofiltration, water desalination and drug delivery. Here, we demonstrate by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that a nano screw pump is designed with helical nanowires embedded in a nanochannel, which can be used to drive unidirectional water flow. Such helical nanowires have been successfully synthesized in many experiments. By investigating the water transport mechanism through nano screw pumps with different configuration parameters, three transport modes were observed: cluster-by-cluster, pseudo-continuous, and linear-continuous, in which the water flux increases linearly with the rotating speed. The influences of the nanowires’ surface energy and the screw’s diameter on water transport were also investigated. Results showed that the water flux rate increases as the decreasing wettability of helical nanowires. The deviation in water flux in screw pumps with smaller radius is attributed to the weak hydrogen bonding due to space confinement and the hydrophobic blade. Moreover, we also proposed that such screw pumps with appropriate diameter and screw pitch can be used for water desalination. The study provides an insight into the design of multifunctional nanodevices for not only water transport but water desalination in practical applications. PMID:28155898

  20. The role of capacitance in a wind-electric water pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Shitao; Clark, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    The development of controllers for wind-electric water pumping systems to enable the use of variable voltage, variable frequency electricity to operate standard AC submersible pump motors has provided a more efficient and flexible water pumping system to replace mechanical windmills. A fixed capacitance added in parallel with the induction motor improves the power factor and starting ability of the pump motor at the lower cut-in frequency. The wind-electric water pumping system developed by USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Bushland, TX, operated well at moderate wind speeds (5-12 m/s), but tended to lose synchronization in winds above 12 m/s, especially if they were gusty. Furling generally did not occur until synchronization had been lost and the winds had to subside before synchronization could be reestablished. The frequency needed to reestablish synchronization was much lower (60-65 Hz) than the frequency where synchronization was lost (70-80 Hz). As a result, the load (motor and pump) stayed off an excessive amount of time thus causing less water to be pumped and producing a low system efficiency. The controller described in this paper dynamically connects additional capacitance of the proper amount at the appropriate time to keep the system synchronized (running at 55 to 60 Hz) and pumping water even when the wind speed exceeds 15 m/s. The system efficiency was improved by reducing the system off-line time and an additional benefit was reducing the noise caused by the high speed blade rotation when the load was off line in high winds.

  1. Simulation of lakes and surface water heat exchangers for design of surface water heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conjeevaram Bashyam, Krishna

    Surface Water Heat Pump (SWHP) system utilize surface water bodies, such as ponds, lakes, rivers, and the sea, as heat sources and/or sinks. These systems may be open-loop, circulating water between the surface water body and a heat exchanger on dry land, or closed-loop, utilizing a submerged surface water heat exchanger (SWHE). Both types of SWHP systems have been widely used, but little in the way of design data, design procedures, or energy calculation procedures is available to aid engineers in the design and analysis of these systems. For either type of SWHP system, the ability to predict the evolution of lake temperature with time is an important aspect of needed design and energy analysis procedures. This thesis describes the development and validation of a lake model that is coupled with a surface water heat exchanger model to predict both the lake dynamics (temperature, stratification, ice/snow cover) and the heat transfer performance of different types of SWHE. This one-dimensional model utilizes a detailed surface heat balance model at the upper boundary, a sediment conduction heat transfer model at the lower boundary, and an eddy diffusion model to predict transport within the lake. The lake model is implemented as part of the developed software design tool, which can be used as an aid in the sizing of SWHE used in closed loop SWHP systems.

  2. Effect of Pumping Strategies on Pesticide Concentrations in Water Abstraction Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Binning, Philip

    2013-04-01

    Pesticide use in agriculture is one of the main sources of groundwater contamination and poses an important threat to groundwater abstraction. Pesticides have been detected in 37% of Danish monitoring wells sampled, with 12 % exceeding ground water guidelines. Field data captured in monitoring and pumping wells show that pesticide concentrations vary greatly in both time and space. This study aimed to use models to determine how pumping affects pesticide concentrations in water abtraction wells placed in two hypothetical aquifer systems; a homogeneous layered aquifer and a layered aquifer with a stream. Two pesticides with different application histories, chemical structure and properties were considered: an old pesticide, MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and relatively persistent; and a newer pesticide, bentazone, which is persistent and low-sorbing. Numerical models of contaminant transport in a pumping well capture zone were constructed using COMSOL Multiphysics. A series of simulations were conducted to examine the effect of pumping strategies (constant versus varying pumping rate), pesticide properties and aquifer hydrogeology on the concentration in drinking water wells. The results of the simulations showed that the pumping rate can significantly affect the pesticide breakthrough time and maximum concentration at an abstraction well. The effect of the pumping rate on the pesticide concentration depended on the hydrogeology of the aquifer. For example, in a layered aquifer a high pumping rate resulted in a considerably different breakthrough than a low pumping rate, while in an aquifer with a stream the pumping rate had an insignificant effect on the breakthrough at the well. The pesticide properties and application history had a great impact on the observed pesticide concentrations. For example, for a non-sorbing and non-degradable pesticide (e.g., bentazone), the pumping rate was insignificant, while for a sorbing and degradable pesticide (e.g., MCPP) the

  3. TOUGH2 model of the G-tunnel heater test

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.K.; Eaton, R.R.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment designed to observe water migration under non-isothermal conditions in welded tuff was performed in 1980 in the welded portion of the Grouse Canyon Member in the U12g tunnel (G-tunnel) at Rainier Mesa. Significant amounts of water were observed to migrate towards a heated hole bored into the welded tuff. The water migration was attributed to vapor phase diffusion, but other processes such as gravity driven flow were not considered and may have contributed significantly to the observed water migration. The modeling studies presented here address processes of water migration near heated regions in partially saturated tuff. The multiphase, non-isothermal numerical code TOUGH2 was used to model the G-Tunnel heater experiment. The numerical simulation consisted of 10 days of heating at 1000 W. Temperatures, liquid saturations, gas pressures, gas and liquid velocities, and vapor mass fractions were recorded to determine the processes affecting water migration. Results of the simulation indicated that water migration near heated tuffaceous rock involves a combination of processes. Gas-phase advection and diffusion transported water vapor that was evaporated near the heater toward outer regions. Water vapor condensed in cooler regions away from the heater, increasing the saturations. As liquid water accumulated in the heater borehole, capillary suction pulled some of the liquid toward the drier heated region while gravity drained some of the liquid away from the heater. In natural systems, high permeability fractures could mimic the role of the heater hole.

  4. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  5. Solar Load Voltage Tracking for Water Pumping: An Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappali, M.; Udayakumar, R. Y.

    2014-07-01

    Maximum power is to be harnessed from solar photovoltaic (PV) panel to minimize the effective cost of solar energy. This is accomplished by maximum power point tracking (MPPT). There are different methods to realise MPPT. This paper proposes a simple algorithm to implement MPPT lv method in a closed loop environment for centrifugal pump driven by brushed PMDC motor. Simulation testing of the algorithm is done and the results are found to be encouraging and supportive of the proposed method MPPT lv .

  6. Numerical simulation on casing modification of a boiler water circulation pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. Z.; Fan, Y. Z.; Liu, S. H.; Wu, Y. L.; Zuo, Z. G.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, hydraulic performance comparisons are made by numerical simulation method on boiler water circulation pump with casings of different shapes. The existing pump adopts a semispherical casing and a garlic-shaped casing. Results show that in the garlic-shaped casing noticeable swirling vortex can be found in the top region of the discharge nozzle, and semispherical casing has better performance in hydraulic efficiency and head.

  7. Simulated water sources and effects of pumping on surface and ground water, Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.; Whealan, Ann T.

    2005-01-01

    The sandy sediments underlying Cape Cod, Massachusetts, compose an important aquifer that is the sole source of water for a region undergoing rapid development. Population increases and urbanization on Cape Cod lead to two primary environmental effects that relate directly to water supply: (1) adverse effects of land use on the quality of water in the aquifer and (2) increases in pumping that can adversely affect environmentally sensitive surface waters, such as ponds and streams. These considerations are particularly important on the Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses, which underlie the largest and most populous areas on Cape Cod. Numerical models of the two flow lenses were developed to simulate ground-water-flow conditions in the aquifer and to (1) delineate areas at the water table contributing water to wells and (2) estimate the effects of pumping and natural changes in recharge on surface waters. About 350 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water recharges the aquifer at the water table in this area; most water (about 65 percent) discharges at the coast and most of the remaining water (about 28 percent) discharges into streams. A total of about 24.9 Mgal/d, or about 7 percent, of water in the aquifer is withdrawn for water supply; most pumped water is returned to the hydrologic system as return flow creating a state of near mass balance in the aquifer. Areas at the water table that contribute water directly to production wells total about 17 square miles; some water (about 10 percent) pumped from the wells flows through ponds prior to reaching the wells. Current (2003) steady-state pumping reduces simulated ground-water levels in some areas by more than 4 feet; projected (2020) pumping may reduce water levels by an additional 3 feet or more in these same areas. Current (2003) and future (2020) pumping reduces total streamflow by about 4 and 9 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), corresponding to about 5 percent and 9 percent, respectively, of total streamflow

  8. Effect of suction pipe leaning angle and water level on the internal flow of pump sump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z.-M.; Lee, Y.-B.; Kim, K.-Y.; Park, S.-H.; Choi, Y.-D.

    2016-11-01

    The pump sump, which connects forebay and intake of pump station, supplies good flow condition for the intake of the pump. If suction sumps are improperly shaped or sized, air entraining vortices or submerged vortices may develop. This may greatly affect pump operation if vortices grow to an appreciable extent. Moreover, the noise and vibration of the pump can be increased by the remaining of vortices in the pump flow passage. Therefore, the vortices in the pump flow passage have to be reduced for a good performance of pump sump station. In this study, the effect of suction pipe leaning angle on the pump sump internal flow with different water level has been investigated by CFD analysis. Moreover, an elbow type pipe was also investigated. There are 3 leaning angles with 0°, 45° and 90° for the suction pipe. The suction pipe inlet centre is kept same for all the cases. In addition, the three different water levels of H/D=1.85, 1.54, and 1.31, is applied to different suction pipe types. The result shows that the amount of air sucked into the suction pipe increases with increasing the suction pipe leaning angle. Especially for the horizontal suction pipe, there is maximum air sucked into the suction pipe. However, there is certain effect of the elbow type bell mouth installation in the horizontal suction pipe on suppressing the amount of air sucked into the pipe. Moreover, vertical suction pipe plays an effective role on reducing the free surface vortex intake area.

  9. NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER WATER JET PUMP TEST FACILITY IN TEST CELL SE-12 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER WATER JET PUMP TEST FACILITY IN TEST CELL SE-12 IN THE ENGINE RESEARCH BUILDING ERB - ALKALI METAL LOW PRESSURE PUMP FACILITY AND ALKALI METAL HIGH PRESSURE PUMP FACILITY IN CELL W-6 OF THE COMPRESSOR & TURBINE WING C&T

  10. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  11. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N.; Molla, S.

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  12. Design of a cost effective solar powered water pump. Hydrology and hydraulics series report

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.G.

    1980-04-01

    The design and performance of a vacuum lift, solar powered water pump is discussed. The basic design consists of an expanding gaseous piston confined inside a chamber which is located in series with, and between, an inlet and an outlet check valve. The gas is generated by volatilizing cyclopentane or hexane. Four variations of this basic design concept were built and evaluated. The various features of each are discussed. Considerations in the choice of a cost-effective solar collector are also reviewed. Several of the more promising types of solar collectors were built and evaluated for use on the pump. A 70C heat source temperature is required to operate the pump if cyclopentane is used as the volatile fluid, 90C is required if hexane is used. The volatile fluid is not expended in the pumping process. The pumps constructed on this project have a capacity of approximately 6 liters/minute when pumped to a height of 2 meters. Two square meters of sunshine are sufficient to operate the pump.

  13. BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BOILING HOUSE, GROUND FLOOR. WAREHOUSE TO LEFT REAR, MASSECUITTE HEATERS ABOVE RIGHT, LOW GRADE CENTRIFUGALS BELOW. CRYSTALLIZER HOT WATER TANK TO REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  14. Development of a capillary plasma pump with vapour bubble for water purification: experimental and theoretical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, S.; Ishihata, K.; Nishiyama, H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a small-sized reactive plasma pump driven by capillary bubble discharge for the purification of treated water. The apparatus we developed decomposes the pollutants in the water by using chemical species generated by the plasma discharge. The resulting stream of bubbles obviates the need for an external gas supply or pump to transport the water. A high-speed camera was used to investigate the bubble dynamics responsible for the pumping effect, which is achieved by selecting the shape of the capillary such that the bubble ejections within enhance the ‘self-repetition’ action required for the pumping motion. Our experiments showed that optimal bubble generation requires a consumed power of 17.8 W. A theoretical model was developed to investigate the pumping mechanism. We solve the problems associated with liquid oscillations in the U-shaped water reservoir by employing a non-uniform cross-sectional area in our model. The chemical reactivity of the device was confirmed by using emission spectroscopy of OH radical and by measuring the decomposition of methylene blue.

  15. Engineering bacterial efflux pumps for solar-powered bioremediation of surface waters.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vikram; Wendell, David

    2013-05-08

    Antibiotics are difficult to selectively remove from surface waters by present treatment methods. Bacterial efflux pumps have evolved the ability to discriminately expel antibiotics and other noxious agents via proton and ATP driven pathways. Here, we describe light-dependent removal of antibiotics by engineering the bacterial efflux pump AcrB into a proteovesicle system. We have created a chimeric protein with the requisite proton motive force by coupling AcrB to the light-driven proton pump Delta-rhodopsin (dR) via a glycophorin A transmembrane domain. This creates a solar powered protein material capable of selectively capturing antibiotics from bulk solutions. Using environmental water and direct sunlight, our AcrB-dR vesicles removed almost twice as much antibiotic as the treatment standard, activated carbon. Altogether, the AcrB-dR system provides an effective means of extracting antibiotics from surface waters as well as potential antibiotic recovery through vesicle solubilization.

  16. Simulated changes in water levels caused bypotential changes in pumping from shallow aquifersof Virginia Beach, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Barry S.

    2005-01-01

    A steady-state ground-water flow model of the southern watersheds of Virginia Beach, Virginia, was refined and used to simulate changes in aquifer water levels caused by potential changes in pumping in the Transition Area of Virginia Beach, Va., a 20-square mile planning zone that runs through the middle of the city. Cessation of dewatering at borrow pits, pumping to irrigate a golf course, pumping to irrigate lawns of a hypothetical neighborhood, and pumping to irrigate both the golf course and lawns of the hypothetical neighborhood were simulated. Simulated recoveries from cessation of dewatering of borrow pits were generally restricted to the immediate area of the pits. The simulated recoveries averaged about 20 feet (ft) near the center of the cells representing the active areas of the pits and 2 ft at the cells representing the extent of the pits. At a golf course, 4 hypothetical wells pumping 300,000 gallons per day (gal/d) from the Yorktown sand aquifer resulted in drawdowns averaging 10 ft in the pumping cells and 1 ft at a distance of 1.2 miles (mi) from the center of the pumping cells. The extent of the 1-ft drawdown was virtually the same as that simulated previously and reported in a permit application for the golf course. Simulated pumping of 150,000 gal/d from 4 cells in the confined sand aquifer representing a 40-acre neighborhood resulted in drawdowns averaging 7 ft in the pumping cells and 1 ft at a distance of 0.8 mi from the center of the cells. Simulated pumping of 300,000 gal/d from the same 4 cells resulted in drawdowns averaging 15 ft in the pumping cells and 1 ft at a distance of 1.4 mi from the center of the cells. Simulated pumping of 150,000 gal/d at the golf course and another 150,000 gal/d in the hypothetical neighborhood resulted in drawdowns that averaged 5 ft around the cells representing the golf course wells spaced 1,300 ft apart and 7 ft around the contiguous cells representing the 40-acre neighborhood. A drawdown of 1 ft

  17. Effects of water compressibility on the pressure fluctuation prediction in pump turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J. L.; Wang, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.; Wu, Y. L.; Wei, X. Z.

    2012-11-01

    The compressible effect of water is a key factor in transient flows. However, it is always neglected in the unsteady simulations for hydraulic machinery. In light of this, the governing equation of the flow is deduced to combine the compressibility of water, and then simulations with compressible and incompressible considerations to the typical unsteady flow phenomenon (Rotor stator interaction) in a pump turbine model are carried out and compared with each other. The results show that water compressibility has great effects on the magnitude and frequency of pressure fluctuation. As the operating condition concerned, the compressibility of water will induce larger pressure fluctuation, which agrees better with measured data. Moreover, the lower frequency component of the pressure signal can only be captured with the combination of water compressibility. It can be concluded that water compressibility is a fatal factor, which cannot be neglected in the unsteady simulations for pump turbines.

  18. Pumping of water through carbon nanotubes by rotating electric field and rotating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Peng; Kong, Gao-Pan; Zhang, Xing; He, Guo-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate pumping of water through a carbon nanotube by applying the combination of a rotating electric field and a rotating magnetic field. The driving force is a Lorentz force generated from the motion of charges in the magnetic field, and the motion is caused by the rotation of the electric field. We find that there exits a linear relationship between the average pumping velocity v and magnetic field strength B, which can be used to control the flux of the continuous unidirectional water flow. This approach is expected to be used in liquid circulation without a pressure gradient.

  19. Photovoltaic water pumping applications: Assessment of the near-term market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.; Bifano, W. J.; Scudder, L. R.; Poley, W. A.; Cusick, J. P.

    1978-01-01

    Water pumping applications represent a potential market for photovoltaics. The price of energy for photovoltaic systems was compared to that of utility line extensions and diesel generators. The potential domestic demand was defined in the government, commercial/institutional and public sectors. The foreign demand and sources of funding for water pumping systems in the developing countries were also discussed briefly. It was concluded that a near term domestic market of at least 240 megawatts and a foreign market of about 6 gigawatts exist.

  20. Application of the Pump in the Tube in Secondary Water Supply Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. C.; Tan, S. W.; Zhang, J. M.

    At present, secondary water supply demand increases, there are more and more forms of secondary water supply equipment, and became the necessary tools of residential water consumption. Our country has been advocating the concept of energy conservation and environmental protection. Based on the analysis of it and its application in water equipment, and the comparison with other water supply equipment's advantages and disadvantages, explain the characteristic of pump in the tube in water supply equipment and problems that should be paid attention to in application.

  1. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  2. Pumping bottom water to prevent Korean red tide damage caused by Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Seob; Moon, Seong Yong; Shu, Young Sang; Hwang, Jae Dong; Youn, Seok Hyun

    2015-09-01

    Cochlodinium polykrikoides Margalef produces annual massive blooms in Korean coastal waters which cause great damage to aquaculture and fisheries. Although various methods have been developed to remove the red tide of C. polykrikoides, release of yellow loess has been regarded as the most desirable technique for mitigation for over 10 years. Each August, strong irradiation generates water column stratification separating warm surface from colder bottom waters. Water from a distance of 0 (St. 1), 5 (St. 2), 10 (St. 3), and 15 m (St. 4) was pumped by running a pump for 0, 10, 30 and 90 min and characterized water temperature, salinity collected, suspended solids, Chl-a, and phytoplankton including C. polykrikoides. After running for 30 min, was temperature and salinity in surface water was similar to those of bottom water, and water column stratification completely reversed after 90 min. Likewise, suspended solids, Chl-a, and total phytoplankton cell density decreased after 30 min, but C. polykrikoides did not show strong removal because of low cell density during sampling. However, the number of C. polykrikoides was significantly diluted (80%) after 90 min. These results suggested that pumping device was as an environmentally-friendly method convenient to be install in fish cages and effective to remove C. polykrikoides stratified water column conditions.

  3. Water Flow Testing and Unsteady Pressure Analysis of a Two-Bladed Liquid Oxidizer Pump Inducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, Jordan B.; Mulder, Andrew; Zoladz, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The unsteady fluid dynamic performance of a cavitating two-bladed oxidizer turbopump inducer was characterized through sub-scale water flow testing. While testing a novel inlet duct design that included a cavitation suppression groove, unusual high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed. With potential implications for inducer blade loads, these high-frequency components were analyzed extensively in order to understand their origins and impacts to blade loading. Water flow testing provides a technique to determine pump performance without the costs and hazards associated with handling cryogenic propellants. Water has a similar density and Reynolds number to liquid oxygen. In a 70%-scale water flow test, the inducer-only pump performance was evaluated. Over a range of flow rates, the pump inlet pressure was gradually reduced, causing the flow to cavitate near the pump inducer. A nominal, smooth inducer inlet was tested, followed by an inlet duct with a circumferential groove designed to suppress cavitation. A subsequent 52%-scale water flow test in another facility evaluated the combined inducer-impeller pump performance. With the nominal inlet design, the inducer showed traditional cavitation and surge characteristics. Significant bearing loads were created by large side loads on the inducer during synchronous cavitation. The grooved inlet successfully mitigated these loads by greatly reducing synchronous cavitation, however high-frequency pressure oscillations were observed over a range of frequencies. Analytical signal processing techniques showed these oscillations to be created by a rotating, multi-celled train of pressure pulses, and subsequent CFD analysis suggested that such pulses could be created by the interaction of rotating inducer blades with fluid trapped in a cavitation suppression groove. Despite their relatively low amplitude, these high-frequency pressure oscillations posed a design concern due to their sensitivity to flow conditions and

  4. Solar Hot Water for Motor Inn--Texas City, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Final report describes solar domestic-hot-water heater installation at LaQuinta Motor Inn, Texas City, Texas which furnished 63% of total hot-water load of new 98-unit inn. Report presents a description of system, drawings and photographs of collectors, operations and maintenance instructions, manufacturers' specifications for pumps, and an engineer's report on performance.

  5. Investigation and analysis on a cellular heat pipe flat solar heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z. T.; Hu, Y. C.; Hong, R. H.; Cen, K. F.

    2005-12-01

    A new cellular heat pipe flat solar energy collector is introduced, and the thermal performance of the new solar heater comprised by water heat pipe or acetone heat pipe is tested. The results are compared with the performance of the evacuated glass tube solar heater. It is found that: the heat loss coefficient of the cellular heat pipe flat solar heater is 54% less than that of the evacuated glass tube solar heater, while the daily average efficiency of solar absorbency is 15% higher, when the water temperature of heating is lower than 65°C. In conclusion, the thermal performance of such new solar heater is better than that of evacuated glass tube solar heater or ordinary flat solar heater, both of which are still popular in China. This new solar energy application promises to be a prosperous technology.

  6. Corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.A.; Agrawal, A.K.; Berry, W.E.

    1983-07-01

    A survey of the literature was performed for the Electric Power Research Institute on corrosion-related failures in feedwater heaters. The survey was directed toward failures in fossil and in pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, but includes some pertinent information related to failures in boiling water reactor (BWR) power plants. The survey was organized into sections on the commonly used feedwater heater materials; C steel, brasses, Cu-Ni alloys, MONEL Alloy 400, and Type 304 Stainless Steel. A section on Ti as a potential feedwater heater material also is given in the appendices. Each section is divided into subsections on field experience and laboratory studies tat relate to the field failures that have been observed. Appendices are given on a feedwater heater description, water quality in power plants, forms of corrosion, and failure analysis techniques.

  7. Heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilli, P. V.

    1982-11-01

    Heat pumps for residential/commercial space heating and hot tap water make use of free energy of direct or indirect solar heat and save from about 40 to about 70 percent of energy if compared to a conventional heating system with the same energy basis. In addition, the electrically driven compressor heat pump is able to substitute between 40% (bivalent alternative operation) to 100% (monovalent operation) of the fuel oil of an oilfired heating furnace. For average Central European conditions, solar space heating systems with high solar coverage factor show the following sequence of increasing cost effectiveness: pure solar systems (without heat pumps); heat pump assisted solar systems; solar assisted heat pump systems; subsoil/water heat pumps; air/water heat pumps; air/air heat pumps.

  8. Simple systems for treating pumped, turbid water with flocculants and a geotextile dewatering bag.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jihoon; McLaughlin, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Pumping sediment-laden water from excavations is often necessary on construction sites. This water is often treated by pumping it through geotextile dewatering bags. The bags are not designed to filter the fine sediments that create high turbidity, but dosing with a flocculant prior to the bag could result in greater turbidity control. This study compared two systems for introducing flocculant: passive dosing of commercial solid biopolymer (chitosan) and injection of dissolved polyacrylamide (PAM) in a length of corrugated pipe connected to the bag. The biopolymer system consisted of sequential porous socks containing a "charging agent" followed by chitosan in the corrugated pipe with two levels of dosing. The dissolved PAM was injected into turbid water at a flow-weighted concentration at 1 mg L(-1). For each treatment, sediment-laden turbid water in the range of 2000 to 3500 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) was pumped into the upstream of corrugated pipe and samples were taken from pipe entrance, pipe exit, and dewatering bag exit. Without flocculant treatment, the dewatering bag reduced turbidity by 70% but the addition of flocculant increased the turbidity reduction up to 97% relative to influent. At the pipe exit, the low-dose biopolymer was less effective in reducing turbidity (37%) but it was equally effective as the high-dose biopolymer or PAM injection after the bag. Our results suggest that a relatively simple treatment with flocculants, either passively or actively, can be very effective in reducing turbidity for pumped water on construction sites.

  9. Tomographic inverse estimation of aquifer properties based on pressure variations caused by transient water-supply pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; Harp, D. R.; Koch, R. J.; Birdsell, K. H.

    2008-12-01

    Groundwater pumping of water-supply wells frequently exhibits substantial temporal and spatial variability. Wells are typically operated periodically (on daily and seasonal temporal scales), and the total production is controlled by the water-supply demand,. The pumping causes temporal and spatial variability in the water levels around the pumping wells. During the wellfield operation, water-level data are collected from the production and nearby observation wells. Water level fluctuations are a result of the manner in which the pumping is conducted, aquifer heterogeneity, and variations in other influences such as recharge, poroelastic effects, etc. The variability in aquifer stresses due to pumping can provide valuable information about aquifer properties. The supply-well pumping can be viewed as a single prolonged pumping test extending over multiple pumping cycles and including multiple pumping and observation wells. Here we discuss water level and pumping production data acquired during water-supply production from the regional aquifer at Los Alamos, New Mexico. We have performed extensive interpretation of the data using analytical and numerical techniques. The analytical techniques are applied to provide (1) initial screening of the data for measurement errors, (2) identification of correlations between the pumping and water-level variability, and (3) estimation of the large-scale properties of the aquifer. The numerical models are applied to characterize the spatial heterogeneity of the aquifer using an approach based on tomographic inverse analysis. Our results demonstrate that there are large-scale features in the aquifer that appear to control the spatial propagation of transient pumping effects. The identified aquifer heterogeneities were not previously recognized and are expected to have important effects on the potential migration of contaminants in the regional aquifer.

  10. Estimating formation properties from early-time oscillatory water levels in a pumped well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, A.M.; Oki, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrologists often attempt to estimate formation properties from aquifer tests for which only the hydraulic responses in a pumped well are available. Borehole storage, turbulent head losses, and borehole skin, however, can mask the hydraulic behavior of the formation inferred from the water level in the pumped well. Also, in highly permeable formations or in formations at significant depth below land surface, where there is a long column of water in the well casing, oscillatory water levels may arise during the onset of pumping to further mask formation responses in the pumped well. Usually borehole phenomena are confined to the early stages of pumping or recovery, and late-time hydraulic data can be used to estimate formation properties. In many instances, however, early-time hydraulic data provide valuable information about the formation, especially if there are interferences in the late-time data. A mathematical model and its Laplace transform solution that account for inertial influences and turbulent head losses during pumping is developed for the coupled response between the pumped borehole and the formation. The formation is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, of infinite areal extent, and uniform thickness, with leakage from an overlying aquifer, and the screened or open interval of the pumped well is assumed to fully penetrate the pumped aquifer. Other mathematical models of aquifer flow can also be coupled with the equations describing turbulent head losses and the inertial effects on the water column in the pumped well. The mathematical model developed in this paper is sufficiently general to consider both underdamped conditions for which oscillations arise, and overdamped conditions for which there are no oscillations. Through numerical inversion of the Laplace transform solution, type curves from the mathematical model are developed to estimate formation properties through comparison with the measured hydraulic response in the pumped well. The

  11. Qualification of improved joint heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Qualification testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters was conducted on the fired TEM-04 static test motor and was completed on 7 Sep. 1989. The purpose of the test was to certify the installation and performance of the improved joint heaters for use on flight motors. The changes incorporated in the improved heaters improve durability and should reduce handling damage. The igniter-to-case joint and field joint primary heater circuits were subjected to five 20-hr ON cycles. The heater redundant circuits were then subjected to one 20-hr ON cycle. Voltage, current, and temperature set point values were maintained within the specified limits for both heaters during each ON cycle. When testing was complete, both heaters were removed and inspected. No discolorations or any other anomalies were found on either of the heaters. Based on the successful completion of this test, it is recommended that the improved igniter-to-case joint and field joint heaters be used on future flight motors.

  12. 18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Electrically driven pumps in Armory Street Pump House. Pumps in background formerly drew water from the clear well. They went out of service when use of the beds was discontinued. Pumps in the foreground provide high pressure water to Hamden. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  13. An experimental and analytical investigation into the performance of centrifugal pumps operating with air-water mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterrett, John Douglas

    1994-01-01

    An investigation was made into the performance of centrifugal pumps when two-phase non-condensable mixtures of gas and liquid are flowing. This problem is encountered during loss-of-coolant accidents in nuclear reactor systems and in the pumping of oil where natural gas may be present in the mixture. Analytical and experimental techniques were used to address the issues of scaling between a model and a prototype pump and the validity of the single-phase pump affinity laws when two-phase flows are present. The results from this effort have also provided insight into the physical phenomena which cause the degradation in pump performance. An analytical model for the motion of a single bubble through a pump impeller is provided. The results from this fundamental problem show that the Coriolis and buoyancy forces are important in describing the kinematics of a gas phase. These results show that dynamic similitude is not preserved between a model and prototype impeller when the standard single-phase pump scaling relationships are used. The motion of a single bubble is also shown to be influenced by the magnitude of the pump suction pressure. The results from an extensive series of air-water two phase pump tests are provided. A 1/4 scale pump, modeled after the Savannah River Site K-reactor pumps, was tested over a wide range of pump speeds, flow rates, and suction pressures. These results indicate that the single-phase pump affinity laws are not applicable to two-phase pump flows and that the magnitude of the pump suction pressure is an important quantity in determining the pump performance. A second analytical model is developed for two-phase flow through a pump impeller. The results from this one-dimensional, two-fluid, non-homogeneous streamline model show good agreement with the experimental data. The model results support the experimental data in showing that the single-phase pump affinity relationships are not valid for two-phase pump flows and that dynamic

  14. Representations and evolutionary operators for the scheduling of pump operations in water distribution networks.

    PubMed

    López-Ibáñez, Manuel; Prasad, T Devi; Paechter, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the energy consumption of water distribution networks has never had more significance. The greatest energy savings can be obtained by carefully scheduling the operations of pumps. Schedules can be defined either implicitly, in terms of other elements of the network such as tank levels; or explicitly, by specifying the time during which each pump is on/off. The traditional representation of explicit schedules is a string of binary values with each bit representing pump on/off status during a particular time interval. In this paper, we formally define and analyze two new explicit representations based on time-controlled triggers, where the maximum number of pump switches is established beforehand and the schedule may contain fewer than the maximum number of switches. In these representations, a pump schedule is divided into a series of integers with each integer representing the number of hours for which a pump is active/inactive. This reduces the number of potential schedules compared to the binary representation, and allows the algorithm to operate on the feasible region of the search space. We propose evolutionary operators for these two new representations. The new representations and their corresponding operations are compared with the two most-used representations in pump scheduling, namely, binary representation and level-controlled triggers. A detailed statistical analysis of the results indicates which parameters have the greatest effect on the performance of evolutionary algorithms. The empirical results show that an evolutionary algorithm using the proposed representations is an improvement over the results obtained by a recent state of the art hybrid genetic algorithm for pump scheduling using level-controlled triggers.

  15. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Elizabeth C.; Healy, William M.; Ullah, Tania

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as a backup. Modeling results show that this configuration is the most efficient of the systems studied over the course of a year, with a system coefficient of performance (COPsys) of 2.87. The heat pump water heater alone results in a COPsys of 1.9, while the baseline resistance water heater has a COPsys of 0.95. Impacts on space conditioning are also investigated by considering the extra energy consumption required of the air source heat pump to remove or add heat from the conditioned space by the water heating system. A modified COPsys that incorporates the heat pump energy consumption shows a significant drop in efficiency for the dual tank configuration since the heat pump water heater draws the most heat from the space in the heating season while the high temperatures in the solar storage tank during the cooling season result in an added heat load to the space. Despite this degradation in the COPsys, the combination of the solar thermal preheat tank and the heat pump water heater is the most efficient option even when considering the impacts on space conditioning. PMID:27990058

  16. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate.

    PubMed

    Balke, Elizabeth C; Healy, William M; Ullah, Tania

    2016-12-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as a backup. Modeling results show that this configuration is the most efficient of the systems studied over the course of a year, with a system coefficient of performance (COPsys) of 2.87. The heat pump water heater alone results in a COPsys of 1.9, while the baseline resistance water heater has a COPsys of 0.95. Impacts on space conditioning are also investigated by considering the extra energy consumption required of the air source heat pump to remove or add heat from the conditioned space by the water heating system. A modified COPsys that incorporates the heat pump energy consumption shows a significant drop in efficiency for the dual tank configuration since the heat pump water heater draws the most heat from the space in the heating season while the high temperatures in the solar storage tank during the cooling season result in an added heat load to the space. Despite this degradation in the COPsys, the combination of the solar thermal preheat tank and the heat pump water heater is the most efficient option even when considering the impacts on space conditioning.

  17. Effects of outlet blade angle of centrifugal pump on the pump performance under air-water two-phase flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Minemura, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Katsuhiko; Ihara, Masaru; Furukawa, Hironori; Egashira, Kazuyuki

    1995-12-31

    To establish the optimum design parameters of offshore oil well centrifugal pumps, which should deliver crude oil containing a large amount of gas, various shapes of pump impeller with different outlet blade angles, locations of leading-edge and numbers of impeller blades as the design parameters were tested with various rotating speeds and suction pressures under air-water two-phase flow conditions. The greater the outlet blade angle, the less the degradation of the pump performance becomes, showing the optimum blade angle approximately equals to 90{degree}.

  18. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, P.B.; Baldner, R.

    1980-11-26

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  19. Regenerative air heater

    DOEpatents

    Hasselquist, Paul B.; Baldner, Richard

    1982-01-01

    A gas-cooled steel skirt is used to support a refractory cored brick matrix and dome structure in a high temperature regenerative air heater useful in magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The steel skirt thermally expands to accommodate the thermal expansion of the dome structure despite substantial temperature differential thereby reducing relative movement between the dome bricks. Gas cooling of the steel skirt allows the structure to operate above its normal temperature during clean-out cycles and also allows for the control of the thermal expansion of the steel skirt.

  20. Diesel driven low capacity heat pump for heating and hot water production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefler, P.

    1982-08-01

    Heat pumps that reduce primary energy consumption for heating needs when they are driven by an internal combustion motor were studied. The heat produced as well from the heat pump as from the combustion in the diesel motor was used for home heating and hot water preparation. The objective was a 25kW capacity for a one familiy house. Material used should be standard, so a special design diesel motor or heat pump was not considered. An air/water cooled type diesel motor was coupled to a 12kW capacity heat pump for an outdoor temperature of 3 C using R12 freon as refrigerant. Description of all elements is given. Tests were in the laboratory and in a one family house. The expected efficiency factor of 1.34 could not be confirmed and an average annual value of only 1.05 is assumed. The diesel driven heat pump can not produce the energy savings hoped for.

  1. Antibiotic resistance, efflux pump genes and virulence determinants in Enterococcus spp. from surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Molale, L G; Bezuidenhout, Cornelius Carlos

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report on antibiotic susceptibility patterns as well as highlight the presence of efflux pump genes and virulence genetic determinants in Enterococcus spp. isolated from South African surface water systems. One hundred and twenty-four Enterococcus isolates consisting of seven species were identified. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high percentage of isolates was resistant to β-lactams and vancomycin. Many were also resistant to other antibiotic groups. These isolates were screened by PCR, for the presence of four efflux pump genes (mefA, tetK, tetL and msrC). Efflux genes mefA and tetK were not detected in any of the Enterococcus spp. However, tetL and msrC were detected in 17 % of the Enterococcus spp. The presence of virulence factors in the Enterococcus spp. harbouring efflux pump genes was determined. Virulence determinants were detected in 86 % of the Enterococcus spp. harbouring efflux pump genes. Four (asa1, cylA, gel and hyl) of the five virulence factors were detected. The findings of this study have demonstrated that Enterococcus from South African surface water systems are resistant to multiple antibiotics, some of which are frequently used for therapy. Furthermore, these isolates harbour efflux pump genes coding for resistance to antibiotics and virulence factors which enhance their pathogenic potential.

  2. Analysis of off-grid hybrid wind turbine/solar PV water pumping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While many remote water pumping systems exist (e.g. mechanical windmills, solar photovoltaic , wind-electric, diesel powered), very few combine both the wind and solar energy resources to possibly improve the reliability and the performance of the system. In this paper, off-grid wind turbine (WT) a...

  3. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. SUMP TANK PUMPS AND THEIR MOTORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. SUMP TANK PUMPS AND THEIR MOTORS WERE SEPARATED FROM EACH OTHER BY SHIELDED WALL. THIS IS ONE OF THE MOTORS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4370. Unknown Photographer, 3/5/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. ADM. Water well pump houses (TAN612 and TAN613). Plans, elevations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Water well pump houses (TAN-612 and TAN-613). Plans, elevations, floor and other details. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-612-613-A S & P 82. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0612-00-693-106743 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. Wind Systems for Pumping Water: A Training Manual. No. T-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eschenbach, Willis

    This document was prepared as a training manual for people interested in developing appropriate technological approaches to using wind power to pump water. The training program is divided into two basic formats, one in which a session focuses on the design process and participants are expected to do some design work in groups, and another which…

  6. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619. FOUNDATION, FLOOR AND ROOF PLANS. BLAWKNOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. FOUNDATION, FLOOR AND ROOF PLANS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-819-1, 10/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0619-00-098-100705, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. BLAWKNOX 31508192, 10/1950. INL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. ELEVATIONS. SECTIONS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-819-2, 10/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0619-00-098-100706, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. ADM. Water System Pump House (TAN610). Elevations, plan, and sections. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ADM. Water System Pump House (TAN-610). Elevations, plan, and sections. Ralph M. Parsons 902-2-ANP-610-A 74. Date: February 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 035-0610-00-693-106739 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  10. Test results for the Oasis 3C high performance water-pumping windmill

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleston, D.M.

    1997-12-31

    The WINDTech International, L.L.C. Oasis 3C, a 3 m diameter, high-performance water-pumping windmill, was tested at the DME Engineering Wind Test Site just south of Midland, Texas from August through December, 1996. This machine utilizes a 3:1 gearbox with rotating counterweights, similar to a conventional oilfield pumping unit, driven by a multibladed rotor. The rotating counterweight system balances most of the pumping loads and reduces gear loads and starting torque by a factor of at least two and often by a factor of four or more. The torque reduction substantially extends gear and bearing life, and reduces wind speeds required for starting by 30 to 50% or more. The O3C was tested pumping from a quiescent fluid depth of 12.2 m (40 ft) from a 28.3 m (93 ft)-deep well, with additional pumping depth simulated using a pressure regulator valve system. A 9.53 cm (3.75 in.) diameter Harbison-Fischer seal-less single-acting piston pump was used to eliminate pump seal friction as a variable, and standard O3C stroke lengths of 30.5 and 15.2 cm (12 and 6 inches) were used. The regulator spring was set to give a maximum stroke rate of 33 strokes per minute. The water pumped was returned to the well after flowing through a settling tank. The tests were performed in accordance with AWEA WECS testing standards. Instrumentation provided 16 channels of data to accurately measure machine performance, including starting wind speeds, flow rates, O3C azimuth, tail furl angle, wind direction tracking errors, RPM, sucker rod loads, and other variables. The most significant performance data is summarized herein. A mathematical model of machine performance was developed that fairly accurately predicts performance for each of three test conditions. The results verify that the O3C is capable of pumping water at wind speeds from 30% to more than 50% lower than comparable un-counterbalanced units.

  11. Low Cost Solar Water Heater

    SciTech Connect

    William Bostic

    2005-12-16

    This project was directed by NREL to pursue development of an all polymer solar thermal collector. The proposed design utilized a dual sheet thermoform process to coincidentally form the absorber as well as the containment structure to support the glazing. It utilized ventilation to overcome stagnation degradation of the polymer materials.

  12. Trailing edge devices to improve performance and increase lifetime of wind-electric water pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N.

    1996-12-31

    Trailing edge flaps were applied to the blades of a 10 kW wind turbine used for water pumping to try to improve the performance and decrease the structural fatigue on the wind turbine. Most small wind turbines (10 kW and below) use furling (rotor turns out of wind similar to a mechanical windmill) to protect the wind turbine from overspeed during high winds. Some small wind turbines, however, do not furl soon enough to keep the wind turbine from being off line part of the time in moderately high wind speeds (10 - 16 m/s). As a result, the load is disconnected and no water is pumped at moderately high wind speeds. When the turbine is offline, the frequency increases rapidly often causing excessive vibration of the wind turbine and tower components. The furling wind speed could possibly be decreased by increasing the offset between the tower centerline and the rotor centerline, but would be a major and potentially expensive retrofit. Trailing edge flaps (TEF) were used as a quick inexpensive method to try to reduce the furling wind speed and increase the on time by reducing the rotor RPM. One TEF configuration improved the water pumping performance at moderately high wind speeds, but degraded the pumping performance at low wind speeds which resulted in little change in daily water volume. The other TEF configuration differed very little from the no flap configuration. Both TEF configurations however, reduced the rotor RPM in high wind conditions. The TEF, did not reduce the rotor RPM by lowering the furling wind speed as hoped, but apparently did so by increasing the drag which also reduced the volume of water pumped at the lower wind speeds. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  13. Modeling water and sediment contamination of Lake Pontchartrain following pump-out of Hurricane Katrina floodwater.

    PubMed

    Dortch, Mark S; Zakikhani, Mansour; Kim, Sung-Chan; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2008-05-01

    Levee failure and overtopping as a result of Hurricane Katrina caused major flooding of New Orleans, Louisiana. Floodwaters, which were contaminated with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and fecal coliform bacteria (FCB), were pumped into neighboring Lake Pontchartrain during dewatering. The impact of levee failure on water and benthic sediment concentrations in the lake was investigated by applying a numerical water quality model coupled to a three-dimensional, numerical hydrodynamic model. The model was used to compute water and benthic sediment concentrations throughout the lake for lead, arsenic, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), and water concentrations for FCB. Computed concentrations resulting from actual pumped discharges with levee failure and overtopping were compared to computed concentrations resulting from pumped discharges without levee failure or overtopping, and concentrations from both sets of conditions were compared to ecological water and sediment quality screening guideline values. The model indicated that incremental increases above pre-Katrina benthic sediment concentrations are about a factor of 10 greater with dewatering of the floodwaters than with dewatering of storm water without flooding. However, these increases for the metals are small relative to pre-Katrina concentrations. The results showed that the ecological screening-level sediment quality guideline values were exceeded for BaP and DDE in areas near the south shoreline of the lake as a result of floodwater pump-out, whereas, this was not the case for storm water removal without flooding. The model showed that lake water column concentrations should be about the same during both dewatering conditions regardless of whether there is flooding or not.

  14. Technical Report for Water Circulation Pumping System for Trihalomethanes (THMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Bellah, W.

    2015-06-08

    The TSWWS was added as an active source of supply to the permit (No. 03-10-13P-003) in 2010, but has never been used due to the potential for formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the distribution system. THMs are formed as a by-product when chlorine is used to disinfect water for drinking. THMs are a group of chemicals generally referred to as disinfection by-products (DBPs). THMs result from the reaction of chlorine with organic matter that is present in the water. Some of the THMs are volatile and may easily vaporize into the air. This fact forms the basis of the design of the system discussed in this technical report. In addition, the design is based on the results of a study that has shown success using aeration as a means to reduce TTHMs to within allowable concentration levels with turn-over times as long as ten days. The Primary Drinking Water Standards of Regulated Contaminants Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for TTHMs is 80 parts per billion (ppb). No other changes to the existing drinking water distribution system and chlorination operations are anticipated before switching to the TSWWS as the primary drinking water source. The two groundwater wells (Wells 20 and 18) which are currently the primary and backup water sources for the system would be maintained for use as backup supply. In the future, one of the wells may be removed from the system. A permit amendment would be filed at that time if this modification was deemed appropriate.

  15. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    SciTech Connect

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  16. Simulation of water column separation in Francis pump-turbine draft tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolet, C.; Alligne, S.; Bergant, A.; Avellan, F.

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents the modelling, simulation and analysis of the transient behaviour of a 340 MW pump-turbine in case of emergency shutdown in turbine mode with focus on possible draft tube water column separation. The model of a pumped storage power plant with simplified layout is presented. This model includes a penstock feeding one 340MW pump-turbine with the related rotating inertia and a tailrace tunnel. The model of the tailrace tunnel allowing for water column separation simulation is introduced. The simulation results of the transient behaviour of the pump-turbine in case of emergency shutdown in generating mode, with and without downstream water column separation model are presented for different degree of severity triggered by the submergence and the tailrace tunnel length. The amplitudes of the pressure peaks induced by the cavity collapse are analysed with respect to the pressure drop magnitude and tailrace dimensions. The maximum and minimum pressure amplitudes obtained along the tailrace tunnel are analysed for different test case conditions.

  17. Simulated effects of pumping irrigation wells on ground-water levels in western Saginaw County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, Christopher J.; Westjohn, David B.

    2001-01-01

    Success of agriculture in many areas of Michigan relies on withdrawal of large quantities of ground water for irrigation. In some areas of the State, water-level declines associated with large ground-water withdrawals may adversely affect nearby residential wells. Residential wells in several areas of Saginaw County, in Michigan's east-central Lower Peninsula, recently went dry shortly after irrigation of crop lands commenced; many of these wells also went dry during last year's agricultural cycle (summer 2000). In September 2000, residential wells that had been dry returned to function after cessation of pumping from large-capacity irrigation wells. To evaluate possible effects of groundwater withdrawals from irrigation wells on residential wells, the U.S. Geological Survey used hydrogeologic data including aquifer tests, water-level records, geologic logs, and numerical models to determine whether water-level declines and the withdrawal of ground water for agricultural irrigation are related. Numerical simulations based on representative irrigation well pumping volumes and a 3-month irrigation period indicate water-level declines that range from 5.3 to 20 feet, 2.8 to 12 feet and 1.7 to 6.9 feet at distances of about 0.5, 1.5 and 3 miles from irrigation wells, respectively. Residential wells that are equipped with shallow jet pumps and that are within 0.5 miles of irrigation wells would likely experience reduced yield or loss of yield during peak periods of irrigation. The actual 1 extent that irrigation pumping cause reduced function of residential wells, however, cannot be fully predicted on the basis of the data analyzed because many _other factors may be adversely affecting the yield of residential wells.

  18. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  19. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  20. Nano-porous-water Absorbents for Solid-absorbebt Heat Pump System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizota, Tadato; Nakayama, Noriaki

    Zeolite-water heat-pump system has been developed in these 25 years. Recently, an instant beer-cooling system has appeared by using the zeolite heat pump system as a commercial product. It takes so long time for the development since the first proposal. The most serious problem through the development has been of the ability of absorbents. Themaximum heat exchange capacity to date exceeds 1MJ•kg-1 for Mg89-A, which is comparable to the energy storage capacity of modern alkaline-ion batteries in weight-bases. But it needs high temperature heat sources more than 200°C for the activation. Absorbents useful at lower temperatures are thus desirable for effective use of various kinds of lower temperature heat sources Various nano-porous materials as well as zeolites now under investigation as candidates of heat-pump absorbents, such as silica-gels, allophane, imogolite, hydrotalcite, etc.

  1. CFD Simulation of SDHW Storage Tank with and Without Heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaumik, Mainak

    2012-07-01

    2D-Single Phase heat and fluid flow analysis of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) storage tank has been carried out by using CFD tools, ICEM for modelling & meshing and FLUENT for analysis. The tank fluid is in static mode. Heat diffusion and convective heat loss from the tank without heater and with the involvement of additional heater is studied. After heating water gets lighter and moves upward in the tank and cold denser water remains at the bottom of the tank. The movement of the water particles are also analysed to find the effect on heat transfer and heat loss. Time transient analysis is focused on for a constant fixed temperature of water inside the tank and the heat drop is captured. Investigation gives guidelines how long the water temperature can be maintain warmer within the tank while the tank is uninsulated. If it is required to maintain temperature constant then the involvement of heater can be useful in what extend.

  2. Analysis of the performance of an air-water heat pump: Regulation of intrinsic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Neuville, H.; Reybillet, M.; Patureau, J. P.

    Improvements for an electrical compressor heat pump of around 12 kW with air as a heat source are examined. To test the heat pump under different weather conditions a test loop has been built. On the condenser side a water circuit with several capacities and heat exchangers simulates the thermal behavior of a 120 sq m dwelling. A commercial domestic heat pump was extensively tested. The instantaneous performance of the heat pump agreed well with the data claimed by the manufacturer. The annual energy saving, however, was significantly less due to the following: (1) loss of efficiency caused by defrosting cycles; (2) loss of efficiency due to inadequate thermal load matching between the heat pump and the house. It was shown that control of the condensing temperature can bring energy savings of 10 percent. This could probably also be realized by load matching with a compressor with a variable speed; and (3) the inefficient operation of components such as the evaporator and the condenser heat exchangers and the expansion valve. Optimization could lead to a considerable improvement. Modifications in the compressor are proposed which may lead to an increase in efficiency to 60 or 70 percent.

  3. Research on energy conversion mechanism of a screw centrifugal pump under the water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, H.; Li, R. N.; Su, Q. M.; Han, W.; Cheng, X. R.; Shen, Z. J.

    2013-12-01

    In order to research screw centrifugal pump impeller power capability and energy conversion mechanism, we used Navier-Stokes equation and standard k-ε equation turbulence model on the basis of the Euler equations to carry out screw centrifugal pump internal flow numerical simulation. This was explored by simulating specific design conditions; the medium is water, variation of speed and pressure of flow filed under the action of the impeller, and the screw centrifugal impeller shroud line and wheel line segment take monitoring sites. The monitoring points are between dynamic head and static head change to analyze the energy conversion capability along the impeller corners of screw centrifugal pump. The results show that the energy of fluid of the screw centrifugal pump is provided by spiral segment, the spiral segment in front of the impeller has played a multi-level role, it has significant reference value to research the energy conversion mechanism of screw centrifugal pump under solid-liquid two phase.

  4. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-09-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity ( T) and storativity ( S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  5. Optimal Pumping Strategy with Conjunctive Operation Rule for the Water Supply System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. A.; Chiu, Y.; CHEN, Y.; Tung, C.

    2011-12-01

    The traditional conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater is that the water demand is first satisfied with the reservoirs operated based on the rule curves, and the groundwater resource constrained by its safety yield is used to provide the deficit between demand and supply, if exists. However, this operation strategy may cause the problem of that the pumped groundwater is excessively centralized during the drought periods and results in serious damage to the aquifers. Hence, in this study we propose an alternative strategy, named conjunctive operation rule, which extends the concept of reservoir operation rule curves to the groundwater resources and allows pumping groundwater during the non-drought periods. The conjunctive operation rule curves, which include two kinds of operation rule curves, one used by reservoir and the other used by groundwater, are defined. The objective function to be minimized was the total water deficit and the operation rule curves were assumed regular distribution and stationary. By considering the damage to the aquifers resulted from the large pumping centralized in a short period, the safety yield and the recovery rates of groundwater levels are included in the constraint set. The global-local optimization scheme is used to simultaneously optimize the spatial and temporal distributions of pumpage with the associated reservoirs operation rules as well. Hence, the optimized pumping distribution could not only effectively reduce the risk of the severe water shortage but minimize the damage to the aquifers due to the excessively centralized pumpage. The developed conjunctive-use model can also provide managers with a tool for decision-making with regard to conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and achieve the goal of sustainable use of water resources.

  6. Estimation of salt water upconing using a steady-state solution for partial completion of a pumped well.

    PubMed

    Garabedian, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    A new steady-state analytical solution to the two-dimensional radial-flow equation was developed for drawdown (head) conditions in an aquifer with constant transmissivity, no-flow conditions at the top and bottom, constant head conditions at a known radial distance, and a partially completed pumping well. The solution was evaluated for accuracy by comparison to numerical simulations using MODFLOW. The solution was then used to estimate the rise of the salt water-fresh water interface (upconing) that occurs under a pumping well, and to calculate the critical pumping rate at which the interface becomes unstable, allowing salt water to enter the pumping well. The analysis of salt water-fresh water interface rise assumed no significant effect on upconing by recharge; this assumption was tested and supported using results from a new steady-state analytical solution developed for recharge under two-dimensional radial-flow conditions. The upconing analysis results were evaluated for accuracy by comparison to those from numerical simulations using SEAWAT for salt water-fresh water interface positions under mild pumping conditions. The results from the equation were also compared with those of a published numerical sharp-interface model applied to a case on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. This comparison indicates that estimating the interface rise and maximum allowable pumping rate using the analytical method will likely be less conservative than the maximum allowable pumping rate and maximum stable interface rise from a numerical sharp-interface model.

  7. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  8. Field observation of the response to pumping and recovery in the water table region of an unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Melissa I.; Rudolph, David L.; Endres, Anthony L.; Jones, Jon P.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryA 24-h pumping test was conducted in the shallow water table portion of an unconfined aquifer located at Canadian Forces Base Borden near Alliston, Ontario, Canada. This test was designed to monitor the dynamic nature of the vertical gradients that form within the zone of tension saturation above the water table during pumping and recovery. During the test, pressure head was monitored throughout the saturated zone, both above (tensiometers) and below (piezometers) the water table; soil water content was monitored using both neutron moisture probes and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Following pumping, recovery was monitored in the same manner as the pumping portion of the test. The hydraulic head drawdown observed above the water table in the tension saturated zone during pumping and recovery was very similar to the drawdown observed below the water table. Vertical gradients throughout the saturated zone appeared to be uniform and low, and did not change significantly in the transition across the water table. The magnitude of the vertical gradients peaked early in the test, and subsequently decreased, with the reduction being more significant at greater radial distances from the pumping well. Neutron measurements indicate that only a minor degree of drainage occurred within the measurement interval for the duration of the test, a result of the low magnitude of drawdown generated during pumping and influence of hysteresis on the moisture profile. Although drainage was negligible from within the tension saturated zone during pumping, the hydraulic head drawdown below the water table displayed reduced rates of drawdown during the intermediate period of the test. TDR data was only collected during recovery; however, the data set displays hysteretic behavior in the pressure-saturation profiles, with all profiles plotting on scanning curves. Based on these observations it appears that a conceptual model in which vertical gradients below the water table are of the

  9. Using a Cast Iron Hand-Pump to Teach Students About Water Resources and Resource Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Radloff, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Simply turning on the tap brings safe, clean, fresh-tasting water to most Americans. Students never need to consider basic concepts about water supply, including their daily water consumption and the quality of the water required for drinking. In stark contrast, the issues of water quality and quantity play a central role in people’s daily lives in the developing world. It is difficult to convey this reality to our students through lectures alone and hands-on activities are required. In order to develop an active learning based approach, we transported a traditional cast iron hand-pump and aluminum urns from Bangladesh to the United States. The hand-pump is mounted on a cooler, which acts as a water reservoir, and is now functional and easily transportable. Using this powerful demonstration tool, we have developed an active learning module we call “How far will you walk for water?”. The goal of the module is to teach students about water quantity, water quality, and resource allocation with a focus on Arsenic and Bangladesh, but the system could be applied to other areas of concern. First the students are given a quick lecture on Arsenic, its health impacts, and the extent of contamination in Bangladesh. They are then assigned a specific well, complete with a map of their village and picture of their well and a water sample (pre-spiked with arsenic to be above or below the 10 ug/L WHO limit). Next they pump the wellhead, fill an urn, walk down the hall and back, and measure the distance walked. This is compared to the distance from their village home to their private well, to safe wells belonging to neighbors and to a community well. The students then use the Hach Arsenic test kit to test the arsenic levels in their water samples and learn if their well is safe to drink. Finally, given all this information students must determine if they should continue drinking from their well or switch to a new well, even if that means making multiple, long trips each day

  10. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  11. Water Flow Performance of a Superscale Model of the Fastrac Liquid Oxygen Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Zoladz, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ongoing effort to lower the cost of access to space, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a rocket engine with 60,000 pounds of thrust for use on the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology demonstrator slated for launch in 2000. This gas generator cycle engine, known as the Fastrac engine, uses liquid oxygen and RP-1 for propellants and includes single stage liquid oxygen and RP-1 pumps and a single stage supersonic turbine on a common shaft. The turbopump design effort included the first use and application of new suction capability prediction codes and three-dimensional blade generation codes in an attempt to reduce the turbomachinery design and certification costs typically associated with rocket engine development. To verify the pump's predicted cavitation performance, a water flow test of a superscale model of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump was conducted to experimentally evaluate the liquid oxygen pump's performance at and around the design point. The water flow test article replicated the flow path of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump in a 1.582x scale model, including scaled seal clearances for correct leakage flow at a model operating speed of 5000 revolutions per minute. Flow entered the 3-blade axial-flow inducer, transitioned to a shrouded, 6- blade radial impeller, and discharged into a vaneless radial diffuser and collection volute. The test article included approximately 50 total and static pressure measurement locations as well as flush-mounted, high frequency pressure transducers for complete mapping of the pressure environment. The primary objectives of the water flow test were to measure the steady-state and dynamic pressure environment of the liquid oxygen pump versus flow coefficient, suction specific speed, and back face leakage flow rate. Initial results showed acceptable correlation between the predicted and experimentally measured pump head rise at low suction specific speeds

  12. Water Flow Performance of a Superscale Model of the Fastrac Liquid Oxygen Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Stephen; Zoladz, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ongoing effort to lower the cost of access to space, the Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a rocket engine with 60,000 pounds of thrust for use on the Reusable Launch Vehicle technology demonstrator slated for launch in 2000. This gas generator cycle engine, known as the Fastrac engine, uses liquid oxygen and RP-1 for propellants and includes single stage liquid oxygen and RP-1 pumps and a single stage supersonic turbine on a common shaft. The turbopump design effort included the first use and application of new suction capability prediction codes and three-dimensional blade generation codes in an attempt to reduce the turbomachinery design and certification costs typically associated with rocket engine development. To verify the pump's predicted cavitation performance, a water flow test of a superscale model of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump was conducted to experimentally evaluate the liquid oxygen pump's performance at and around the design point. The water flow test article replicated the flow path of the Fastrac liquid oxygen pump in a 1.582x scale model, including scaled seal clearances for correct leakage flow at a model operating speed of 5000 revolutions per minute. Flow entered the 3-blade axial-flow inducer, transitioned to a shrouded, 6-blade radial impeller, and discharged into a vaneless radial diffuser and collection volute. The test article included approximately 50 total and static pressure measurement locations as well as flush-mounted, high frequency pressure transducers for complete mapping of the pressure environment. The primary objectives of the water flow test were to measure the steady-state and dynamic pressure environment of the liquid oxygen pump versus flow coefficient, suction specific speed, and back face leakage flow rate. Results showed excellent correlation between the predicted and experimentally measured pump head rise at low suction specific speeds. Likewise

  13. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

  14. Giant pumping of single-file water molecules in a carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Zhao, Y J; Huang, J P

    2011-11-17

    Achieving a fast, unidirectional flow of single-file water molecules (UFSWM) across nanochannels is important for membrane-based water purification or seawater desalination. For this purpose, electro-osmosis methods are recognized as a very promising approach and have been extensively discussed in the literature. Utilizing molecular dynamics simulations, here we propose a design for pumping water molecules in a single-walled carbon nanotube in the presence of a linearly gradient electric (GE) field. Such a GE field is inspired by GE fields generated from charged ions located adjacent to biological membrane water nanochannels that can conduct water in and out of cells and can be experimentally achieved by using the charged tip of an atomic force microscope. As a result, the maximum speed of the UFSWM can be 1 or 2 orders of magnitude larger than that in a uniform electric (UE) field. Also, inverse transportation of water molecules does not exist in case of the GE field but can appear for the UE field. Thus, the GE field yields a much more efficient UFSWM than the UE field. The giant pumping ability as revealed is attributed to the nonzero net electrostatic force acting on each water molecule confined in the nanotube. These observations have significance for the design of nanoscale devices for readily achieving controllable UFSWM at high speed.

  15. Fuel savings with conventional hot water space heating systems by incorporating a natural gas powered heat pump. Preliminary project: Development of heat pump technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanheyden, L.; Evertz, E.

    1980-12-01

    Compression type air/water heat pumps were developed for domestic heating systems rated at 20 to 150 kW. The heat pump is driven either by a reciprocating piston or rotary piston engine modified to operate on natural gas. Particular features of natural gas engines as prime movers, such as waste heat recovery and variable speed, are stressed. Two systems suitable for heat pump operation were selected from among five different mass produced car engines and were modified to incorporate reciprocating piston compressor pairs. The refrigerants used are R 12 and R 22. Test rig data transferred to field conditions show that the fuel consumption of conventional boilers can be reduced by 50% and more by the installation of engine driven heat pumps. Pilot heat pumps based on a 1,600 cc reciprocating piston engine were built for heating four two-family houses. Pilot pump operation confirms test rig findings. The service life of rotary piston and reciprocating piston engines was investigated. The tests reveal characteristic curves for reciprocating piston engines and include exhaust composition measurements.

  16. Methods for forming long subsurface heaters

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Dong Sub

    2013-09-17

    A method for forming a longitudinal subsurface heater includes longitudinally welding an electrically conductive sheath of an insulated conductor heater along at least one longitudinal strip of metal. The longitudinal strip is formed into a tubular around the insulated conductor heater with the insulated conductor heater welded along the inside surface of the tubular.

  17. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... charcoal. Any stove or other heater employing solid fuel except wood charcoal. (6) Portable heaters... the vehicle or burning occupants by direct radiation. Wood charcoal heaters shall be enclosed within a... or on which it is mounted. Wood charcoal heaters shall be secured against relative motion within...

  18. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... charcoal. Any stove or other heater employing solid fuel except wood charcoal. (6) Portable heaters... the vehicle or burning occupants by direct radiation. Wood charcoal heaters shall be enclosed within a... or on which it is mounted. Wood charcoal heaters shall be secured against relative motion within...

  19. Design of the ONR AxWJ-2 Axial Flow Water Jet Pump

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    performance of a water jet pump design. The mesh for Fluent is created using Ansys IcemCFD Hexa. ICEM is used to create a structured topology domain...both generated by rotating and scaling data from the Tecplot output of NCBLADE. Once the geometry is imported to ICEM , the topology domain is divided...edges not on surfaces are given an imported curve to snap to. Once the topology is fitted to the geometry, ICEM writes out a Fluent input mesh. The

  20. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  1. Estimation of groundwater pumping as closure to the water balance of a semi-arid, irrigated agricultural basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruud, Nels; Harter, Thomas; Naugle, Alec

    2004-09-01

    Groundwater pumping is frequently the least measured water balance component in semi-arid basins with significant agricultural production. In this article, we develop a GIS-based water balance model for estimating basin-scale monthly and annual groundwater pumping and apply it to a 2300 km 2 semi-arid, irrigated agricultural area in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Both, annual groundwater storage changes and pumping are estimated as closure terms. The local hydrology is dominated by distributed surface water supplies, limited precipitation, and large crop water uses; whereas basin-scale runoff generation and groundwater-to-surface water discharges are negligible. Groundwater represents a terminal long-term storage reservoir with distributed inputs and outputs. To capture the spatio-temporal variability in water management and water use, the study area is delineated into 26 water service areas and 9611 individual fields or land units. The model computes conveyance seepage losses external to districts; seepage losses within districts; and net applied surface water of each district. For each land unit, the model calculates the applied water demand; its allotment of delivered surface water; the groundwater pumping required to meet the balance of its applied water demand; and aquifer recharge resulting from deep percolation of applied water and precipitation. These spatially distributed components are aggregated to the basin scale. Estimated annual groundwater storage changes compared well to those computed by the water-table fluctuation method over the 30-year study period, providing an independent verification of the consumptive use estimation. Pumping accounted for as much as 80% of the total applied water in 'Critical' water years and as little as 30% in 'Wet' years. Pumping estimates are most sensitive to estimation uncertainty of soil available water. They show little sensitivity to estimation errors in effective root depth, irrigation efficiencies

  2. Investigation of Turbulent Tip Leakage Vortex in an Axial Water Jet Pump with Large Eddy Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Katz, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Detailed steady and unsteady numerical studies were performed to investigate tip clearance flow in an axial water jet pump. The primary objective is to understand physics of unsteady tip clearance flow, unsteady tip leakage vortex, and cavitation inception in an axial water jet pump. Steady pressure field and resulting steady tip leakage vortex from a steady flow analysis do not seem to explain measured cavitation inception correctly. The measured flow field near the tip is unsteady and measured cavitation inception is highly transient. Flow visualization with cavitation bubbles shows that the leakage vortex is oscillating significantly and many intermittent vortex ropes are present between the suction side of the blade and the tip leakage core vortex. Although the flow field is highly transient, the overall flow structure is stable and a characteristic frequency seems to exist. To capture relevant flow physics as much as possible, a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculation and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) were applied for the current investigation. The present study reveals that several vortices from the tip leakage vortex system cross the tip gap of the adjacent blade periodically. Sudden changes in local pressure field inside tip gap due to these vortices create vortex ropes. The instantaneous pressure filed inside the tip gap is drastically different from that of the steady flow simulation. Unsteady flow simulation which can calculate unsteady vortex motion is necessary to calculate cavitation inception accurately even at design flow condition in such a water jet pump.

  3. Optimal Operation of Variable Speed Pumping System in China's Eastern Route Project of S-to-N Water Diversion Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jilin; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Rentian; Gong, Yi; Zhu, Honggeng; Deng, Dongsheng; Feng, Xuesong; Qiu, Jinxian

    2010-06-01

    A dynamic planning model for optimizing operation of variable speed pumping system, aiming at minimum power consumption, was proposed to achieve economic operation. The No. 4 Jiangdu Pumping Station, a source pumping station in China's Eastern Route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project, is taken as a study case. Since the sump water level of Jiangdu Pumping Station is affected by the tide of Yangtze River, the daily-average heads of the pumping system varies yearly from 3.8m to 7.8m and the tide level difference in one day up to 1.2m. Comparisons of operation electricity cost between optimized variable speed and fixed speed operations of pumping system were made. When the full load operation mode is adopted, whether or not electricity prices in peak-valley periods are considered, the benefits of variable speed operation cannot compensate the energy consumption of the VFD. And when the pumping system operates in part load and the peak-valley electricity prices are considered, the pumping system should cease operation or lower its rotational speed in peak load hours since the electricity price are much higher, and to the contrary the pumping system should raise its rotational speed in valley load hours to pump more water. The computed results show that if the pumping system operates in 80% or 60% loads, the energy consumption cost of specified volume of water will save 14.01% and 26.69% averagely by means of optimal variable speed operation, and the investment on VFD will be paid back in 2 or 3 years. However, if the pumping system operates in 80% or 60% loads and the energy cost is calculated in non peak-valley electricity price, the repayment will be lengthened up to 18 years. In China's S-to-N Water Diversion Project, when the market operation and peak-valley electricity prices are taken into effect to supply water and regulate water levels in regulation reservoirs as Hongzehu Lake, Luomahu Lake, etc. the economic operation of water-diversion pumping stations

  4. Heater head for stirling engine

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  5. Characterisation of the water quality from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H B; Shantz, A; Shin, G; Sampson, M L; Meschke, J S

    2010-01-01

    An 8 month investigation into the quality of water from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia was conducted. Wells were analysed for indicators of the health (arsenic, fluoride, manganese, nitrate, total coliforms, E. coli, male-specific coliphage) and aesthetic (iron, chloride, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardnesss, turbidity, pH) quality of the water, and referenced to the Cambodian Drinking Water Standard when available. The shallow aquifer was chemically less of a health risk than the deep aquifer; however, microbial contamination was considerable for both shallow well types with mean E. coli loads of 10(3) CFU/100 mL and male-specific coliphage contamination of 10(2) PFU/eluate. Temporal variation in microbial contamination was significant (p<0.05), with overall loads decreasing during the dry season. The aesthetic quality of the water was poor for all samples, but worsened during the dry season. No significant difference was observed in the quality of water from open and rope-pump wells, despite their classification as unimproved and improved respectively by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Contaminants present in both well types may readily be removed by simple water treatment, suggesting that household treatment may be more beneficial to rural Cambodian households than shallow aquifer source improvements.

  6. Development of Absorption Heat Pump Driven by Low Temperature Hot Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshida, Toshihiro; Nakamura, Naoto; Asai, Hiroshi; Hasatani, Masanobu; Watanabe, Fujio; Fujisawa, Ryou

    We developed an Adsorption Heat Pump (AHP) system, which applies silica-gel as adsorbent and H2O as refrigerant, and is possibly intended to use low temperature hot water (333K) as a driving force. The growing importance to save energy, leads us to develop energy saving systems such as Co-generation systems, including fuel cell system. It is important to use low temperature hot water in order to achieve high efficiency in total. It is, however, noticed that the lower water temperature is, the more difficult its' heat recovery becomes. We reported experimental results of the AHP system, and estimated the possibility to apply low temperature hot water from fuel cell system to the AHP system. We showed quantitatively that the AHP system is able to be driven by low temperature hot water(333K).

  7. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Contact: Bart M. O'Keeffe, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, P.O. Box 1916, Discovery Bay, CA... copy of the application, can be viewed or printed on the ``eLibrary'' link of Commission's Web site...

  8. Water-glycol hydraulic fluid maintenance -- Pump wear implications and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, G.E.; Bishop, R.J. Jr.; Wachter, D.A.

    1995-07-01

    The performance of all hydraulic fluids in general, and water glycol hydraulic fluids specifically, is dependent on both fluid cleanliness and fluid composition. In fact, fluid cleanliness (and contamination) can exhibit dramatic increases in pump wear, even for new fluids, if inadequate filtration is used or if contamination occurs. Since fluid composition can also similarly affect war rates, it is also essential that compositional changes during use be minimized. The impact of improper fluid maintenance on hydraulic fluid performance will be discussed and recommended fluid maintenance procedures for water-glycol hydraulic fluids will be provided.

  9. The direction of water transport on Mars: A possible pumping mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P. B.

    It is suggested that an atmospheric pumping mechanism might be at work in which water is preferentially transported into the north by a mass outflow wind (due to sublimation from polar cap) that is stronger during southern spring than it is during northern spring. The mechanism is provided by the asymmetric seasonal temperature distribution produced by the eccentric martial orbit and by the associated seasonal asymmetry in the carbon dioxide cycle. The alternating condensation and sublimation of CO2 at the poles produces condensation winds which, in turn, contribute to the meridional transport of water vapor.

  10. The direction of water transport on Mars: A possible pumping mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that an atmospheric pumping mechanism might be at work in which water is preferentially transported into the north by a mass outflow wind (due to sublimation from polar cap) that is stronger during southern spring than it is during northern spring. The mechanism is provided by the asymmetric seasonal temperature distribution produced by the eccentric martial orbit and by the associated seasonal asymmetry in the carbon dioxide cycle. The alternating condensation and sublimation of CO2 at the poles produces condensation winds which, in turn, contribute to the meridional transport of water vapor.

  11. Combustible particluate fuel heater

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.H.; Jurgens, H.J.W.

    1986-01-21

    This patent describes a combustible particulate fired heater. It consists of: a combustion chamber defined by upright side walls extending between open top and bottom ends; an enclosure surrounding the combustion chamber; a retort within the combustion chamber adjacent the bottom end and having a lower particulate receiving end and an upper open end; feed conveyor means leading through the enclosure to the retort for delivering metered quantities of combustible particulates to the lower particulate receiving end of the retort; primary combustion air supply means having a primary combustion air supply manifold extending at least partially about the upper open end of the retort; primary air control means on the primary air supply means for selectively allowing entry of combustion air from outside the enclosure in to the retort; secondary combustion air supply means including a secondary air supply manifold within the combustion chamber above the primary combustion air supply manifold; secondary air control means independent of the primary air control means for selectively allowing entry of secondary air from outside the enclosure to an area within the combustion chamber above the retort; an exhaust duct opening into the enclosure; and vacuum means connected to the exhaust duct for producing a pressure differential between the area confined by the enclosure and the ambient atmosphere such that ambient air is drawn through at least one of the combustion air supply means to induce a high level of gasification and to support combustion at the retort and for drawing combustion exhaust gases out through the exhaust duct.

  12. Phase change material storage heater

    DOEpatents

    Goswami, D. Yogi; Hsieh, Chung K.; Jotshi, Chand K.; Klausner, James F.

    1997-01-01

    A storage heater for storing heat and for heating a fluid, such as water, has an enclosure defining a chamber therein. The chamber has a lower portion and an upper portion with a heating element being disposed within the enclosure. A tube through which the fluid flows has an inlet and an outlet, both being disposed outside of the enclosure, and has a portion interconnecting the inlet and the outlet that passes through the enclosure. A densely packed bed of phase change material pellets is disposed within the enclosure and is surrounded by a viscous liquid, such as propylene glycol. The viscous liquid is in thermal communication with the heating element, the phase change material pellets, and the tube and transfers heat from the heating element to the pellets and from the pellets to the tube. The viscous fluid has a viscosity so that the frictional pressure drop of the fluid in contact with the phase change material pellets substantially reduces vertical thermal convection in the fluid. As the fluid flows through the tube heat is transferred from the viscous liquid to the fluid flowing through the tube, thereby heating the fluid.

  13. Effects of Pumping on Ground-Water Flow Near Water-Supply Wells in the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy Aquifer, Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Since the 1970's, hexavalent chromium has been detected in concentrations as great as 1.0 milligram per liter in wells at the Puchack well field operated by the Camden City Department of Utilities, Water Division (Water Department), forcing the Water Department to progressively remove five of its six wells from service between 1975 and 1988. The wells in the Puchack well field range in depth from 140 to 220 feet and are screened in the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer. The Water Department has continued to pump Puchack Well 1 to maintain a hydraulic gradient toward the well field in an attempt to limit contaminant migration. In late 1997, concerns about treating the water withdrawn from Puchack Well 1 led water managers to consider temporarily discontinuing the pumping. In the spring of 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, began a preliminary assessment of the potential effects of temporarily removing Puchack Well 1 from service. Water levels in the Lower Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer were measured during both pumping and nonpumping conditions to determine the direction and velocity of ground-water flow and the results were compared. Data collected in late March and early April 1998 indicate the presence of a ground-water divide between the Puchack well field and the Morris and Delair well fields when Puchack Well 1 was being pumped. A similar divide also was present when the well was not being pumped. The position and persistence of this divide limits the probability that contaminants in the vicinity of the Puchack well field will reach the Delair and Morris well fields during either pumping condition. Another divide southeast of Puchack Well 1 while the well was being pumped was no longer evident when the pumping was stopped and water levels had recovered. Under non-pumping conditions, ground water between Puchack Well 1 and this divide could begin to migrate toward other large

  14. Stimulated scattering effects in gold-nanorod-water samples pumped by 532 nm laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiulin; Wu, Haopeng; Liu, Juan; Li, Shujing; He, Xingdao

    2015-01-01

    Stimulated scattering in gold-nanorod-water samples has been investigated experimentally. The scattering centers are impurity particles rather than the atoms or molecules of conventional homogeneous scattering media. The pump source for exciting stimulated scattering is a pulsed and narrow linewidth second-harmonic Nd: YAG laser, with 532 nm wavelength, ~8 ns pulse duration, and 10 Hz repetition rate. Experimental results indicate that SMBS, SBS and STRS can be generated in gold-nanorod-water samples under appropriate pump and absorption conditions. The incident pump energy has to be larger than a certain threshold value before stimulated scattering can be detected. The absorption coefficient of samples at 532 nm wavelength depends on the one of characteristic absorption bands of gold nanorods located around 530 nm. A critical absorption coefficient can be determined for the transition from SBS to STRS. Also, the spectral-line-broadening effects of STRS have been observed, the line-shape presents a pseudo-Voigt profile due to the random thermal motion of molecules and strong particle collision. PMID:26173804

  15. Stimulated scattering effects in gold-nanorod-water samples pumped by 532 nm laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jiulin; Wu, Haopeng; Liu, Juan; Li, Shujing; He, Xingdao

    2015-07-01

    Stimulated scattering in gold-nanorod-water samples has been investigated experimentally. The scattering centers are impurity particles rather than the atoms or molecules of conventional homogeneous scattering media. The pump source for exciting stimulated scattering is a pulsed and narrow linewidth second-harmonic Nd: YAG laser, with 532 nm wavelength, ~8 ns pulse duration, and 10 Hz repetition rate. Experimental results indicate that SMBS, SBS and STRS can be generated in gold-nanorod-water samples under appropriate pump and absorption conditions. The incident pump energy has to be larger than a certain threshold value before stimulated scattering can be detected. The absorption coefficient of samples at 532 nm wavelength depends on the one of characteristic absorption bands of gold nanorods located around 530 nm. A critical absorption coefficient can be determined for the transition from SBS to STRS. Also, the spectral-line-broadening effects of STRS have been observed, the line-shape presents a pseudo-Voigt profile due to the random thermal motion of molecules and strong particle collision.

  16. Comfortable, high-efficiency heat pump with desiccant-coated, water-sorbing heat exchangers.

    PubMed

    Tu, Y D; Wang, R Z; Ge, T S; Zheng, X

    2017-01-12

    Comfortable, efficient, and affordable heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in buildings are highly desirable due to the demands of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. Traditional vapor-compression air conditioners exhibit a lower coefficient of performance (COP) (typically 2.8-3.8) owing to the cooling-based dehumidification methods that handle both sensible and latent loads together. Temperature- and humidity-independent control or desiccant systems have been proposed to overcome these challenges; however, the COP of current desiccant systems is quite small and additional heat sources are usually needed. Here, we report on a desiccant-enhanced, direct expansion heat pump based on a water-sorbing heat exchanger with a desiccant coating that exhibits an ultrahigh COP value of more than 7 without sacrificing any comfort or compactness. The pump's efficiency is doubled compared to that of pumps currently used in conventional room air conditioners, which is a revolutionary HVAC breakthrough. Our proposed water-sorbing heat exchanger can independently handle sensible and latent loads at the same time. The desiccants adsorb moisture almost isothermally and can be regenerated by condensation heat. This new approach opens up the possibility of achieving ultrahigh efficiency for a broad range of temperature- and humidity-control applications.

  17. Stimulated scattering effects in gold-nanorod-water samples pumped by 532 nm laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiulin; Wu, Haopeng; Liu, Juan; Li, Shujing; He, Xingdao

    2015-07-15

    Stimulated scattering in gold-nanorod-water samples has been investigated experimentally. The scattering centers are impurity particles rather than the atoms or molecules of conventional homogeneous scattering media. The pump source for exciting stimulated scattering is a pulsed and narrow linewidth second-harmonic Nd: YAG laser, with 532 nm wavelength, ~8 ns pulse duration, and 10 Hz repetition rate. Experimental results indicate that SMBS, SBS and STRS can be generated in gold-nanorod-water samples under appropriate pump and absorption conditions. The incident pump energy has to be larger than a certain threshold value before stimulated scattering can be detected. The absorption coefficient of samples at 532 nm wavelength depends on the one of characteristic absorption bands of gold nanorods located around 530 nm. A critical absorption coefficient can be determined for the transition from SBS to STRS. Also, the spectral-line-broadening effects of STRS have been observed, the line-shape presents a pseudo-Voigt profile due to the random thermal motion of molecules and strong particle collision.

  18. Evaluation of water source heat pumps for the Juneau, Alaska Area

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.J.; King, J.C.; Eisenhauer, J.L.; Gibson, C.I.

    1980-07-01

    The purposes of this project were to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of water source heat pumps (WSHP) for use in Juneau, Alaska and to identify potential demonstration projects to verify their feasibility. Information is included on the design, cost, and availability of heat pumps, possible use of seawater as a heat source, heating costs with WSHP and conventional space heating systems, and life cycle costs for WSHP-based heating systems. The results showed that WSHP's are technically viable in the Juneau area, proper installation and maintenance is imperative to prevent equipment failures, use of WSHP would save fuel oil but increase electric power consumption. Life cycle costs for WSHP's are about 8% above that for electric resistance heating systems, and a field demonstration program to verify these results should be conducted. (LCL)

  19. Energy and Exergy Analysis of a Ground Water Heat Pump System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Lei; Pingfang, Hu

    In the application of ground water source heat pump technology, energy saving considerations play an important role. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the performance characteristics of a groundwater heat pump system (GWHP) on the actual operation, using the energy and exergy analysis method. The system was installed in a apartment buildings of Wuhan, China. In the duration of one year, various operating parameters of the system were monitored and the coefficient of performance (COP) values of system and chiller is determined based on a series of measurements. The exergy transports and destruction between the components of the system are determined for the average measured parameters obtained from the experimental results. Inefficient facts are found out. Lower approach temperature is effective energy saving. In addition to the energy analysis, a full exergy analysis helps to identify the components where inefficiencies occur.

  20. Performance Analysis of Air-to-Water Heat Pump in Latvian Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazjonovs, Janis; Sipkevics, Andrejs; Jakovics, Andris; Dancigs, Andris; Bajare, Diana; Dancigs, Leonards

    2014-12-01

    Strategy of the European Union in efficient energy usage demands to have a higher proportion of renewable energy in the energy market. Since heat pumps are considered to be one of the most efficient heating and cooling systems, they will play an important role in the energy consumption reduction in buildings aimed to meet the target of nearly zero energy buildings set out in the EU Directive 2010/31/EU. Unfortunately, the declared heat pump Coefficient of Performance (COP) corresponds to a certain outdoor temperature (+7 °C), therefore different climate conditions, building characteristics and settings result in different COP values during the year. The aim of this research is to investigate the Seasonal Performance factor (SPF) values of air-to-water heat pump which better characterize the effectiveness of heat pump in a longer selected period of time, especially during the winter season, in different types of residential buildings in Latvian climate conditions. Latvia has four pronounced seasons of near-equal length. Winter starts in mid-December and lasts until mid-March. Latvia is characterized by cold, maritime climate (duration of the average heating period being 203 days, the average outdoor air temperature during the heating period being 0.0 °C, the coldest five-day average temperature being -20.7 °C, the average annual air temperature being +6.2 °C, the daily average relative humidity being 79 %). The first part of this research consists of operational air-towater heat pump energy performance monitoring in different residential buildings during the winter season. The second part of the research takes place under natural conditions in an experimental construction stand which is located in an urban environment in Riga, Latvia. The inner area of this test stand, where air-to-water heat pump performance is analyzed, is 9 m2. The ceiling height is 3 m, all external wall constructions (U = 0.16 W/(m2K)) have ventilated facades. To calculate SPF, the

  1. Municipal water-based heat pump heating and/or cooling systems: Findings and recommendations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Wegman, S.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the present work was to determine if existing heat pump systems based on municipal water systems meet existing water quality standards, to analyze water that has passed through a heat pump or heat exchanger to determine if corrosion products can be detected, to determine residual chlorine levels in municipal waters on the inlet as well as the outlet side of such installations, to analyses for bacterial contaminants and/or regrowth due to the presence of a heat pump or heat exchanger, to develop and suggest criteria for system design and construction, to provide recommendations and specifications for material and fluid selection, and to develop model rules and regulations for the installation, operation, and monitoring of new and existing systems. In addition, the Washington State University (WSU) has evaluated availability of computer models that would allow for water system mapping, water quality modeling and system operation.

  2. Optimization and Thermoeconomics Research of a Large Reclaimed Water Source Heat Pump System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-ping; Du, Fang-hui

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a large reclaimed water source heat pump system (RWSHPS) and elaborates on the composition of the system and its design principles. According to the characteristics of the reclaimed water and taking into account the initial investment, the project is divided into two stages: the first stage adopts distributed heat pump heating system and the second adopts the combination of centralized and decentralized systems. We analyze the heating capacity of the RWSHPS, when the phase II project is completed, the system can provide hydronic heating water with the supply and return water temperature of 55°C/15°C and meet the hydronic heating demand of 8 million square meters of residential buildings. We make a thermal economics analysis by using Thermal Economics theory on RWSHPS and gas boiler system, it is known that the RWSHPS has more advantages, compared with the gas boiler heating system; both its thermal efficiency and economic efficiency are relatively high. It provides a reference for future applications of the RWSHPS. PMID:24089607

  3. Optimization and thermoeconomics research of a large reclaimed water source heat pump system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-ping; Du, Fang-hui

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a large reclaimed water source heat pump system (RWSHPS) and elaborates on the composition of the system and its design principles. According to the characteristics of the reclaimed water and taking into account the initial investment, the project is divided into two stages: the first stage adopts distributed heat pump heating system and the second adopts the combination of centralized and decentralized systems. We analyze the heating capacity of the RWSHPS, when the phase II project is completed, the system can provide hydronic heating water with the supply and return water temperature of 55°C/15°C and meet the hydronic heating demand of 8 million square meters of residential buildings. We make a thermal economics analysis by using Thermal Economics theory on RWSHPS and gas boiler system, it is known that the RWSHPS has more advantages, compared with the gas boiler heating system; both its thermal efficiency and economic efficiency are relatively high. It provides a reference for future applications of the RWSHPS.

  4. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  5. What depth should deep-sea water be pumped up from in the South China Sea for medicinal research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shan; Liu, Hongbing; Yang, Xue; Li, Chunxia; Guan, Huashi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, seawater was pumped up from 150, 200, 300, 500 and 1000 m in the South China Sea and analyzed to make certain what depth should deep-sea water (DSW) be pumped up for medicinal usage. The pumping depth of DSW was determined on the basis of chemical ingredients. The analyses of inorganic elements and dissolved organic matter (DOM) were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) respectively. The raw data were used for hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that seawater pumped up from 500 m and 1000 m was similar in their chemical ingredients, and was different from the seawater pumped up from other depths. These results indicated that seawater from more than 500 m depth had relatively stable chemical ingredients and could be used as DSW in the South China Sea.

  6. Development of the Flameless Ration Heater for the Meal, Ready-to-Eat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    health concerns including residual water contaminat. on, food contamination , toxic gases in enclosed spaces and asbestos. These findings, which were...in the heater bag following the heating reaction is considered safe. Regarding food contamination , it was determined that as packaged in the heater

  7. Vibrating-charge-driven water pump controlled by the deformation of the carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Fengmin; Kou, Jianlong; Nie, Xuanchuan; Liu, Yang; Lu, Hangjun

    2013-10-03

    The directed transport of water molecules in a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) based on a ratchet effect is investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The system is driven far away from thermal equilibrium by an additional deterministic perturbation of a vibrating charge, and the spatial inversion symmetry is broken by the continuous deformations of the SWNT. It is well-known that the water flux across a circular channel decreases when the channel is narrowed or deformed. However, our simulation results show that the water flux almost increases linearly within a deformation of 1.9 Å. There exists an optimized value of deformation at which the pumping capacity takes its maximum value. Moreover, the direction of transport even exhibits a change of sign with narrowing the carbon nanotube.

  8. Comparison of chlorine dioxide photochemistry in acetonitrile and water using subpicosecond pump probe spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpott, Matthew J.; Charalambous, Sophia; Reid, Philip J.

    1997-12-01

    The photochemical reaction dynamics of chlorine dioxide (OClO) dissolved in water and acetonitrile are investigated using subpicosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The spectral dynamics observed at 267 and 400 nm demonstrate that the quantum yield for geminate recombination of ClO and O to form OClO is reduced in acetonitrile relative to water. However, the dynamics at 800 nm are similar for both solvents consistent with ClOO rather than OClO being responsible for the evolution at this wavelength. The kinetics for ground-state ClOO production and decomposition are significantly slower in acetonitrile relative to water suggesting that solvent-solute hydrogen bonding is important in defining the ground state reactivity of this photoproduct.

  9. Pumping of nutrients to ocean surface waters by the action of propagating planetary waves.

    PubMed

    Uz, B M; Yoder, J A; Osychny, V

    2001-02-01

    Primary productivity in the oceans is limited by the lack of nutrients in surface waters. These nutrients are mostly supplied from nutrient-rich subsurface waters through upwelling and vertical mixing, but in the ocean gyres these mechanisms do not fully account for the observed productivity. Recently, the upward pumping of nutrients, through the action of eddies, has been shown to account for the remainder of the primary productivity; however, these were regional studies which focused on mesoscale (100-km-scale) eddies. Here we analyse remotely sensed chlorophyll and sea-surface-height data collected over two years and show that 1,000-km-scale planetary waves, which propagate in a westward direction in the oceans, are associated with about 5 to 20% of the observed variability in chlorophyll concentration (after low-frequency and large-scale variations are removed from the data). Enhanced primary production is the likely explanation for this observation, and if that is the case, propagating disturbances introduce nutrients to surface waters on a global scale--similar to the nutrient pumping that occurs within distinct eddies.

  10. Femtosecond pump probe studies of chlorine dioxide photochemistry in water and acetonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpott, Matthew J.; Hayes, Sophia C.; Reid, Philip J.

    1998-09-01

    The reaction dynamics of chlorine dioxide (OClO) dissolved in water and acetonitrile are investigated using femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy. The change in optical density following photoexcitation of OClO at 400 nm is monitored at 12 wavelengths ranging from 267 to 900 nm. The dynamics observed at 267 and 400 nm demonstrate that the geminate recombination quantum yield of the primary ClO and O photofragments to reform ground-state OClO is reduced by a factor of six in acetonitrile relative to water. Calculations are presented that model the contribution of vibrationally excited OClO formed by geminate recombination to the pump-probe dynamics. Comparison of the experimental and computational results demonstrates that a portion of the dynamics can be attributed to vibrationally excited OClO. However, the optical-density changes observed between 700 and 900 nm are similar in magnitude for both solvents, suggesting that another species not produced by geminate recombination is responsible for these dynamics. The appearance and relaxation kinetics in acetonitrile are significantly slower than in water demonstrating the solvent dependence of photoproduct formation and ground-state vibrational relaxation. Reasons for this dependence including Coulombic solvent-solute interactions and intermolecular hydrogen bonding are discussed.

  11. Small-signal modelling and control of photovoltaic based water pumping system.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun; Ganesh Malla, Siva; Narayan Bhende, Chandrasekhar

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies small-signal modelling and control design for a photovoltaic (PV) based water pumping system without energy storage. First, the small-signal model is obtained and then, using this model, two proportional-integral (PI) controllers, where one controller is used to control the dc-link voltage and the other one to control the speed of induction motor, are designed to meet control goals such as settling time and peak overshoot of the closed loop responses. The loop robustness of the design is also studied. For a given set of system parameters, simulations are carried out to validate the modelling and the control design.

  12. Limiting pumping from the Edwards Aquifer: An economic investigation of proposals, water markets, and spring flow guarantees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarl, Bruce A.; Dillon, Carl R.; Keplinger, Keith O.; Williams, R. Lynn

    1999-04-01

    The Edwards Aquifer, near San Antonio, Texas, is an important water source for both pumping and spring flow, which in turn provides water for recreation and habitat for several endangered species. A management authority is charged with aquifer management and is mandated to reduce pumping, facilitate water markets, protect agricultural rights, and protect the species habitat. This paper examines the economic dimensions of authority duties. A combined hydrologic-economic model is used in the investigation. The results indicate that proposed pumping limits are shown to have large consequences for agricultural usage and to decrease the welfare of current aquifer pumping users. However, the spring flow habitat is found to be protected, and the gains from that protection would have to exceed pumping user losses in order for the protection measures to increase regional economic welfare. Agricultural guarantees are shown to cause use value differences, indicating the opportunity for emergence of an active water market. Fixed quantity pumping limits are found to be an expensive way of insuring adequate spring flow.

  13. Dynamics of nanoscopic water: vibrational echo and infrared pump-probe studies of reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Piletic, Ivan R; Tan, Howe-Siang; Fayer, M D

    2005-11-17

    The dynamics of water in nanoscopic pools 1.7-4.0 nm in diameter in AOT reverse micelles were studied with ultrafast infrared spectrally resolved stimulated vibrational echo and pump-probe spectroscopies. The experiments were conducted on the OD hydroxyl stretch of low-concentration HOD in the H2O, providing a direct examination of the hydrogen-bond network dynamics. Pump-probe experiments show that the vibrational lifetime of the OD stretch mode increases as the size of the reverse micelle decreases. These experiments are also sensitive to hydrogen-bond dissociation and reformation dynamics, which are observed to change with reverse micelle size. Spectrally resolved vibrational echo data were obtained at several frequencies. The vibrational echo data are compared to data taken on bulk water and on a 6 M NaCl solution, which is used to examine the role of ionic strength on the water dynamics in reverse micelles. Two types of vibrational echo measurements are presented: the vibrational echo decays and the vibrational echo peak shifts. As the water nanopool size decreases, the vibrational echo decays become slower. Even the largest nanopool (4 nm, approximately 1000 water molecules) has dynamics that are substantially slower than bulk water. It is demonstrated that the slow dynamics in the reverse micelle water nanopools are a result of confinement rather than ionic strength. The data are fit using time-dependent diagrammatic perturbation theory to obtain the frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF) for each reverse micelle. The results are compared to the FFCF of water and show that the largest differences are in the slowest time scale dynamics. In bulk water, the slowest time scale dynamics are caused by hydrogen-bond network equilibration, i.e., the making and breaking of hydrogen bonds. For the smallest nanopools, the longest time scale component of the water dynamics is approximately 10 times longer than the dynamics in bulk water. The vibrational echo

  14. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  15. Pumps, germs and storage: the impact of improved water containers on water quality and health.

    PubMed

    Günther, Isabel; Schipper, Youdi

    2013-07-01

    Applying a randomized controlled trial, we study the impact of improved water transport and storage containers on the water quality and health of poor rural households. The results indicate that improved household water infrastructure improves water quality and health outcomes in an environment where point-of-source water quality is good but where recontamination is widespread, leading to unsafe point-of-use drinking water. Moreover, usage rates of 88% after 7 months are encouraging with regard to sustainable adoption. Our estimates suggest that the provision of improved household water infrastructure could 'keep clean water clean' at a cost of only 5% of the costs of providing households with improved public water supply. Given the general consensus in the literature that recontamination of water from improved public sources is a severe public health problem, improved transport and storage technologies appear to be an effective low-cost supplement to the current standard of financing public water supply for poor rural communities.

  16. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  17. Optimization of gaseous helium heater for 2 K cryogenic system for VECC’s superconducting electron linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahammed, Manir; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Saha, Subrata; Singh, Sandeep Kumar; Bhattacharya, Tamal Kumar; DuttaGupta, Anjan; Pal, Gautam; Naik, Vaishali; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2014-09-01

    Niobium superconducting radiofrequency cavities are generally operated at around 2 K temperature to achieve a high quality factor by reducing residual surface losses. 2 K temperature is produce by lowering down the pressure of the helium by employing a sub-atmospheric vacuum pumping system. The cavities are immersed in liquid helium bath, maintained in the helium chamber. A special heater is optimized for warming up the helium gas coming out from the helium chamber to 300 K before it enters the pumping system. Keeping in view the uninterrupted and reliable operation of the superconducting electron linac and safe running of the liquid helium plant, a tubular heat exchanger type of heater is designed. Current is passed through the tubes of the heater so as to let the tube banks themselves act as heating element. He gas, passing through the tubes, absorbs the heat and warms up to the desired temperature. Unlike common notion, it has been observed that heater with longer length could reduce the requirement of the heater power but at the cost of extra pumping power, required to counter balance the excess pressure drop caused by the additional length of the heater. Pressure drop is kept within 50 Pa for 2 g/s helium flow rate. The whole lot of tubes, divided into 4 bundles, are electrically connected in series so that current rating of the feed-through could be kept within 750 A. This paper discusses the methodology used for optimizing the design of the heater.

  18. Understanding the Residential Wood Heater Rules

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the components of the current wood heater new source performance standards (NSPS) and proposed updates to the NSPS including which types of heaters are covered under the rules and the benefits.

  19. Conformational changes in the archaerhodopsin-3 proton pump: detection of conserved strongly hydrogen bonded water networks.

    PubMed

    Clair, Erica C Saint; Ogren, John I; Mamaev, Sergey; Kralj, Joel M; Rothschild, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Archaerhodopsin-3 (AR3) is a light-driven proton pump from Halorubrum sodomense, but little is known about its photocycle. Recent interest has focused on AR3 because of its ability to serve both as a high-performance, genetically-targetable optical silencer of neuronal activity and as a membrane voltage sensor. We examined light-activated structural changes of the protein, retinal chromophore, and internal water molecules during the photocycle of AR3. Low-temperature and rapid-scan time-resolved FTIR-difference spectroscopy revealed that conformational changes during formation of the K, M, and N photocycle intermediates are similar, although not identical, to bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Positive/negative bands in the region above 3,600 cm( - 1), which have previously been assigned to structural changes of weakly hydrogen bonded internal water molecules, were substantially different between AR3 and BR. This included the absence of positive bands recently associated with a chain of proton transporting water molecules in the cytoplasmic channel and a weakly hydrogen bonded water (W401), which is part of a hydrogen-bonded pentagonal cluster located near the retinal Schiff base. However, many of the broad IR continuum absorption changes below 3,000 cm( - 1) assigned to networks of water molecules involved in proton transport through cytoplasmic and extracellular portions in BR were very similar in AR3. This work and subsequent studies comparing BR and AR3 structural changes will help identify conserved elements in BR-like proton pumps as well as bioengineer AR3 to optimize neural silencing and voltage sensing.

  20. Solar heating and domestic hot water system installed at Kansas City, Fire Stations, Kansas City, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The solar system was designed to provide 47 percent of the space heating, 8,800 square feet area and 75 percent of the domestic hot water (DHW) load. The solar system consists of 2,808 square feet of Solaron, model 2001, air, flat plate collector subsystem, a concrete box storage subsystem which contains 1,428 cubic feet of 0.5 inch diameter pebbles weighing 71.5 tons, a DHW preheat tank, blowers, pumps, heat exchangers, air ducting, controls and associated plumbing. Two 120 gallon electric DHW heaters supply domestic hot water which is preheated by the solar system. Auxiliary space heating is provided by three electric heat pumps with electric resistance heaters and four 30 kilowatt electric unit heaters. There are six modes of system operation.