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Sample records for pumped storage power

  1. The hydraulic design of pump turbine for Xianyou pumped storage power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. S.; Liu, W. C.; Fu, Z. Y.; Shi, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of pump turbines for Xianyou pumped storage power station. The method of improving the hydraulic performance of pump turbine with CFD analysis is given. The results of model test indicate that the final hydraulic design of pump turbine for Xianyou pumped storage power station is of high efficiencies, good

  2. How to Avoid Severe Incidents at Pumped Storage Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Masashi; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Pumped storage is now increasing its importance as the most powerful and reliable tool for stabilizing the electrical network, especially under the increase of intermittent power sources like wind-power and solar-power. However, pumped storage power plants have generally more machinery troubles than the conventional hydropower plants and sometimes they encountered unexpected severe incidents having long-term outage and a considerable restoration cost. The present paper provides some study results about general tendencies of machinery troubles in pumped storage, some examples of severe incidents mainly about the electro-mechanical troubles but also about the flood and fire, and possible scenarios which may lead into a severe result. Finally, it provides lessons learned and some recommendations to avoid severe incidents based on experiences.

  3. CFD research on runaway transient of pumped storage power station caused by pumping power failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. G.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2013-12-01

    To study runaway transient of pumped storage power station caused by pumping power failure, three dimensional unsteady numerical simulations were executed on geometrical model of the whole flow system. Through numerical calculation, the changeable flow configuration and variation law of some parameters such as unit rotate speed,flow rate and static pressure of measurement points were obtained and compared with experimental data. Numerical results show that runaway speed agrees well with experimental date and its error was 3.7%. The unit undergoes pump condition, brake condition, turbine condition and runaway condition with flow characteristic changing violently. In runaway condition, static pressure in passage pulses very strongly which frequency is related to runaway speed.

  4. Improving the Energy Efficiency of Pumped-Storage Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukh, S. F.; Galat, V. V.; Kuz’min, V. V.; Chervonenko, I. I.; Shakaryan, Yu. G.; Sokur, P. V.

    2015-01-15

    Possible ways to improve the energy efficiency of hydroelectric generating sets of pumped-storage power plants (PSPPs) are studied. The Kiev PSPP is used as an example to show how its generating sets can be upgraded. It is concluded based on studies conducted that synchronous motor-generators should be replaced with asynchronized motor-generators. The feasibility of changing over the turbine to variable-speed operation is shown.

  5. Pumped storage for hydroelectric power. (Latest citations from Fluidex data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, development, construction, and characteristics of surface and underground pumped storage for hydroelectric power. Pumped storage projects and facilities worldwide are referenced. There is some consideration of research and experimental results of pumped storage studies, as well as modeling. (Contains a minimum of 192 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. A Feasibility Study of Solar Thermal Power Generation as the Pumping Power Source for Pumped Storage in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funatsu, Tetsuya; Natsume, Hiroaki

    A pumped storage hydroelectric generation (PSHG) has been studied as alternative peak power source of the oil-fired power generation in Indonesia. However, because there is no surplus base load electricity even in the night, the economic advantage can not be found. The possibility of solar thermal power generation (STPG) is investigated to restrain the increase of fuel consumption by the existing peak power source. The optimum system simulation and the analysis of economy and environmental impact by a multiobjective optimization method provide the following results. The optimum aperture area and thermal storage capacity of STPG are found by the simulation based on the climate and the solar condition in West Java. PSHG with STPG as the power source of storage pump shows lower generation cost and CO2 emission than PSHG with existing oil fired peak power sources. Even if the fuel switch from oil to gas is supposed in future, PSHG with STPG will achieve the lower generation cost and CO2 emission than PSHG with the oil/gas fired combined cycle by sharing the peak electricity supply with the oil/gas fired combined cycle in an appropriate ratio. Furthermore, if the crude oil price hike in future is considered, PSHG with STPG may be the optimal solution for the peak electricity supply of Java-Bari grid.

  7. Commercial Impact and Optimum Capacity Determination of Pumped Storage Hydro Plant for a Practical Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latha, P. G.; Anand, S. R.; Imthias, Ahamed T. P.; Sreejith, P. S., Dr.

    2013-06-01

    This paper attempts to study the commercial impact of pumped storage hydro plant on the operation of a stressed power system. The paper further attempts to compute the optimum capacity of the pumped storage scheme that can be provided on commercial basis for a practical power system. Unlike the analysis of commercial aspects of pumped storage scheme attempted in several papers, this paper is presented from the point of view of power system management of a practical system considering the impact of the scheme on the economic operation of the system. A realistic case study is presented as the many factors that influence the pumped storage operation vary widely from one system to another. The suitability of pumped storage for the particular generation mix of a system is well explored in the paper. To substantiate the economic impact of pumped storage on the system, the problem is formulated as a short-term hydrothermal scheduling problem involving power purchase which optimizes the quantum of power to be scheduled and the duration of operation. The optimization model is formulated using an algebraic modeling language, AMPL, which is then solved using the advanced MILP solver CPLEX.

  8. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. D.; Doherty, T. J.; Kannberg, L. D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-velocity requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more.

  9. Identification of Dynamic Simulation Models for Variable Speed Pumped Storage Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, C.; Fulgêncio, N.; Silva, B.; Nicolet, C.; Béguin, A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper addresses the identification of reduced order models for variable speed pump-turbine plants, including the representation of the dynamic behaviour of the main components: hydraulic system, turbine governors, electromechanical equipment and power converters. A methodology for the identification of appropriated reduced order models both for turbine and pump operating modes is presented and discussed. The methodological approach consists of three main steps: 1) detailed pumped-storage power plant modelling in SIMSEN; 2) reduced order models identification and 3) specification of test conditions for performance evaluation.

  10. On the Profitability of Variable Speed Pump-Storage-Power in Frequency Restoration Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipe, Jorge; Bessa, Ricardo; Moreira, Carlos; Silva, Bernardo

    2017-04-01

    The increase penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) into the European power system has introduced a significant amount of variability and uncertainty in the generation profiles raising the needs for ancillary services as well as other tools like demand response, improved generation forecasting techniques and changes to the market design. While RES is able to replace energy produced by the traditional centralized generation, it cannot displace its capacity in terms of ancillary services provided. Therefore, centralized generation capacity must be retained to perform this function leading to over-capacity issues and underutilisation of the assets. Large-scale reversible hydro power plants represent the majority of the storage solution installed in the power system. This technology comes with high investments costs, hence the constant search for methods to increase and diversify the sources of revenue. Traditional fixed speed pump storage units typically operate in the day-ahead market to perform price arbitrage and, in some specific cases, provide downward replacement reserve (RR). Variable speed pump storage can not only participate in RR but also contribute to FRR, given their ability to control its operating point in pumping mode. This work does an extended analysis of a complete bidding strategy for Pumped Storage Power, enhancing the economic advantages of variable speed pump units in comparison with fixed ones.

  11. Research on Mechanism and Model of Centralized Bidding for Pumped Storage Power in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Zhong; Ying, Zhiwei; Lv, Zhengyu; Jianlin, Yang; Huang, Yupeng; Li, Dong

    2017-05-01

    China is now in the transition stage toward power market and in some specific area, market approach has already been adopted to improve the overall efficiency. In this paper, Bidding and trading modes of pumped storage energy in various regions of China are analysed. Based on the constraints of bidding price and electricity, as well as the system power flow, the trading model is established to collect the capacity cost of pumped storage energy in Shanghai. With the trading model proposed, that the generators who actively undertake the capacity cost of pumped storage energy and bid enough electricity with lower price can be rewarded, while those attempts to conspire and manipulate the market will be penalized. Finally, using seven generators in Shanghai as examples to simulate the market operation, the effectiveness of the proposed model is verified.

  12. Underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Kannberg, L.D.

    1984-07-01

    Underground pumped hydroelectric energy storage was conceived as a modification of surface pumped storage to eliminate dependence upon fortuitous topography, provide higher hydraulic heads, and reduce environmental concerns. A UPHS plant offers substantial savings in investment cost over coal-fired cycling plants and savings in system production costs over gas turbines. Potential location near load centers lowers transmission costs and line losses. Environmental impact is less than that for a coal-fired cycling plant. The inherent benefits include those of all pumped storage (i.e., rapid load response, emergency capacity, improvement in efficiency as pumps improve, and capacity for voltage regulation). A UPHS plant would be powered by either a coal-fired or nuclear baseload plant. The economic capacity of a UPHS plant would be in the range of 1000 to 3000 MW. This storage level is compatible with the load-leveling requirements of a greater metropolitan area with population of 1 million or more. The technical feasibility of UPHS depends upon excavation of a subterranean powerhouse cavern and reservoir caverns within a competent, impervious rock formation, and upon selection of reliable and efficient turbomachinery - pump-turbines and motor-generators - all remotely operable.

  13. Engineering the Implementation of Pumped Hydro Energy Storage in the Arizona Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, William Jesse J.

    This thesis addresses the issue of making an economic case for bulk energy storage in the Arizona bulk power system. Pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) is used in this study. Bulk energy storage has often been suggested for large scale electric power systems in order to levelize load (store energy when it is inexpensive [energy demand is low] and discharge energy when it is expensive [energy demand is high]). It also has the potential to provide opportunities to avoid transmission and generation expansion, and provide for generation reserve margins. As the level of renewable energy resources increases, the uncertainty and variability of wind and solar resources may be improved by bulk energy storage technologies. For this study, the MATLab software platform is used, a mathematical based modeling language, optimization solvers (specifically Gurobi), and a power flow solver (PowerWorld) are used to simulate an economic dispatch problem that includes energy storage and transmission losses. A program is created which utilizes quadratic programming to analyze various cases using a 2010 summer peak load from the Arizona portion of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) system. Actual data from industry are used in this test bed. In this thesis, the full capabilities of Gurobi are not utilized (e.g., integer variables, binary variables). However, the formulation shown here does create a platform such that future, more sophisticated modeling may readily be incorporated. The developed software is used to assess the Arizona test bed with a low level of energy storage to study how the storage power limit effects several optimization outputs such as the system wide operating costs. Large levels of energy storage are then added to see how high level energy storage affects peak shaving, load factor, and other system applications. Finally, various constraint relaxations are made to analyze why the applications tested eventually approach a constant value. This

  14. Contribution of variable-speed pump hydro storage for power system dynamic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, B.; Moreira, C.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the study of variable-speed Pump Storage Powerplant (PSP) in the Portuguese power system. It evaluates the progressive integration in three major locations and compares the power system performance following a severe fault event with consequent disconnection of non-Fault Ride-through (FRT) compliant Wind Farms (WF). To achieve such objective, a frequency responsive model was developed in PSS/E and was further used to substitute existing fixed-speed PSP. The results allow identifying a clear enhancement on the power system performance by the presence of frequency responsive variable-speed PSP, especially for the scenario presented, with high level of renewables integration.

  15. The First Israeli Hydro-Electric Pumped Storage Power Plant Gilboa PSPP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruzewski, P., Dr.; Sautereau, T.; Sapir, Y.; Barak, H.; Hénard, F.; Blaix, J.-C.

    2016-11-01

    The Israeli Public Utilities Authority, PUA, decided to increase the instantaneous power available on the grid by adding Pumped Storage Power Plants, PSPP, to the existing generation capacity. PSP Investments Ltd. is a private investor that decided to develop the Gilboa PSPP. Its capacity is 300MWe. The project performance has to comply with PUA regulation for PSPP, and with all relevant Israeli laws and IECo standards. This paper itemizes an overview of the Gilboa PSPP through short summaries of units’ components from design step to manufacturing processes.

  16. Coalmines as Underground Pumped Storage Power Plants (UPP) - A Contribution to a Sustainable Energy Supply?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luick, H.; Niemann, A.; Perau, E.; Schreiber, U.

    2012-04-01

    In Europe, electrical power generation from renewable energy sources rose by about 50% in the last 20 years. In Germany, renewable electricity is mainly provided by wind power and photovoltaic. Energy output depends on weather conditions like wind speed or solar radiation and may therefore vary considerably. Rapid fluctuations in power generation already require regulation of conventional power plants by the distribution network operators to stabilize and ensure grid frequency and overall system stability. In order to avoid future blackouts caused by intermittent energy sources, it is necessary to increase the storage capacity for electric power. Theoretically, there are many technologies for storing energy, like accumulators, hydrogen storage systems, biomethane facilities (hydrocarbon synthesis) or compressed air storage. Only a few technologies combine sufficient capacity, fast response, high efficiency, low storage loss and long-term application experience. A pumped storage power plant (PSPP) is a state of the art technology which combines all of these aspects. Energy is stored in form of potential energy by pumping water to an upper reservoir in times of energy surplus or low energy costs. In times of insufficient power supply or high energy costs, the water is released through turbines to produce electric energy. The efficiency of state-of-the-art systems is about 70-80%. The total head (geodetic height between upper and lower reservoirs) and the storage capacity of the reservoirs as given in a mountainous terrain, determine the energy storage capacity of a PSPP. An alternative is the use of man-made geodetic height differences as given in ore, coal or open cast lignite mines. In these cases, the lower reservoir of the plant is located in the drifts or at the bottom of the mine. Energieforschungszentrum Niedersachsen (EFZN) has already explored the installation of a PSPP in abandoned ore mines in the Harz-region/Germany (Beck 2011). In 2011/2012 a basic

  17. Simulation model of a variable-speed pumped-storage power plant in unstable operating conditions in pumping mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Lucas, G.; Pérez-Díaz, J. I.; Sarasúa, J. I.; Cavazzini, G.; Pavesi, G.; Ardizzon, G.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulation model of a laboratory-scale pumped-storage power plant (PSPP) operating in pumping mode with variable speed. The model considers the dynamic behavior of the conduits by means of an elastic water column approach, and synthetically generates both pressure and torque pulsations that reproduce the operation of the hydraulic machine in its instability region. The pressure and torque pulsations are generated each from a different set of sinusoidal functions. These functions were calibrated from the results of a CFD model, which was in turn validated from experimental data. Simulation model results match the numerical results of the CFD model with reasonable accuracy. The pump-turbine model (the functions used to generate pressure and torque pulsations inclusive) was up-scaled by hydraulic similarity according to the design parameters of a real PSPP and included in a dynamic simulation model of the said PSPP. Preliminary conclusions on the impact of unstable operation conditions on the penstock fatigue were obtained by means of a Monte Carlo simulation-based fatigue analysis.

  18. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  19. Pumping and Breastmilk Storage

    MedlinePlus

    ... by washing your pumping equipment with soap and water and letting the equipment air dry. Storage of breastmilk Store your breastmilk in clean glass or hard BPA-free plastic bottles with tight-fitting lids. You can also use ...

  20. Advanced pumped storage hydroelectric power may reduce NO{sub x} and VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    As a severe ozone nonattainment area, the New York/New Jersey metropolitan area faces the difficult challange of reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the primary precursors of ground-level ozone. An ambitious, $2.4 billion undertaking, known as the Mt. Hope project, may help the metropolitan area - and the entire Mid-Atlantic Ozone Transport Region (OTR) - attain ozone compliance. The project includes a new 2,000-MW electricity storage facility, which would allow thermal power plants in the region to run more efficiently and reduce NO{sub x} and VOC emissions, especially at times of critical ozone levels. The Mt. Hope project is the subject of a recent study that analyzed, potential reductions in ozone precursors from project implementation. According to the study, NO{sub x} emissions could be reduced by up to 50 tons per day and $91 million per year could potentially be saved if the project is implemented. Advanced pumped storage (APS) improves significantly on the conventional method. The Mt. Hope project, for example, is expected to consume only 22% more electricity than it generates. APS facilities are designed to switch from power-receiving to power-generating modes frequently in response to demand - up to 20 times a day in the Mt. Hope design. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  1. Simultaneous transient operation of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station in the same hydraulic scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cervantes, M. J.; Cǎlinoiu, C.; Isbǎşoiu, E. C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an on-site experimental analysis of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station, in an interconnected complex hydraulic scheme during simultaneous transient operation. The investigated hydropower site has a unique structure as the pumping station discharges the water into the hydropower plant penstock. The operation regimes were chosen for critical scenarios such as sudden load rejections of the turbines as well as start-ups and stops with different combinations of the hydraulic turbines and pumps operation. Several parameters were simultaneously measured such as the pumped water discharge, the pressure at the inlet pump section, at the outlet of the pumps and at the vane house of the hydraulic power plant surge tank. The results showed the dependence of the turbines and the pumps operation. Simultaneous operation of the turbines and the pumps is possible in safe conditions, without endangering the machines or the structures. Furthermore, simultaneous operation of the pumping station together with the hydropower plant increases the overall hydraulic efficiency of the site since shortening the discharge circuit of the pumps.

  2. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  3. Pumped storage: Surge in the southeast

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.M.; Hunt, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a surge of interest by independent power producers (IPPs) in developing pumped storage hydropower projects. However, of the 100 applicants for preliminary permits for pumped storage projects, only nine submitted license applications for development and none have been built. Two large pumped storage projects proposed by IPPs, Summit in Ohio and Mount Hope in New Jersey, received their Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licenses in record time.

  4. Solar powered absorption cycle heat pump using phase change materials for energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Solar powered heating and cooling system with possible application to residential homes is described. Operating principles of system are defined and illustration of typical energy storage and exchange system is provided.

  5. Effects of pipe diameters on the pressures during delayed load rejection in high-head pumped storage power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, W.; Yang, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    High-head pumped storage power stations face serious problems related to the transient process, especially in the area of delayed load rejection in stations with annular piping layouts. The controlled pressures are adversely affected, which leads to many problems in the engineering design phase. In this study, we investigated this condition through theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and actual engineering practice. We concluded that the root cause of the pressure issues is the flow switching resulted from the non-synchronous changes in pressure between each branch pipe. Moreover, we examined the impact of the diameters of the upstream main pipe and branch pipe on the controlled pressures and determined that the diameter of the branch pipe has a major influence on the pressures as it changes the flow switching rate. A similar investigation was conducted for downstream pipes. Our conclusions can be applied to actual engineering practice for high-head pumped storage power stations.

  6. Performances achieved to the Grid by a Full Power Converter Used in a Variable Speed Pumped Storage Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claude, Jean-Michel

    2017-04-01

    The growth of renewable energies likes wind and solar requires pumped-storage plants to increase their performances to stabilize grid frequency and voltage. The introduction of a full-power converter constitutes the ultimate step forward to meet the requirement in a safe, reliable and sustainable manner. This article quickly introduces the converter topology and technology before describing the performances it aims to deliver to the grid. Finally, converter bypass is discussed.

  7. Economic Viability of Pumped-Storage Power Plants Equipped with Ternary Units and Considering Hydraulic Short-Circuit Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazarra, Manuel; Pérez-Díaz, Juan I.; García-González, Javier

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the economic viability of pumped-storage hydropower plants equipped with ternary units and considering hydraulic short-circuit operation. The analysed plant is assumed to participate in the day-ahead energy market and in the secondary regulation service of the Spanish power system. A deterministic day-ahead energy and reserve scheduling model is used to estimate the maximum theoretical income of the plant assuming perfect information of the next day prices and the residual demand curves of the secondary regulation reserve market. Results show that the pay-back periods with and without the hydraulic short-circuit operation are significantly lower than their expected lifetime and that the pay-back periods can be reduced with the inclusion of the hydraulic short-circuit operation.

  8. Thermodynamic efficiency of pumped heat electricity storage.

    PubMed

    Thess, André

    2013-09-13

    Pumped heat electricity storage (PHES) has been recently suggested as a potential solution to the large-scale energy storage problem. PHES requires neither underground caverns as compressed air energy storage (CAES) nor kilometer-sized water reservoirs like pumped hydrostorage and can therefore be constructed anywhere in the world. However, since no large PHES system exists yet, and theoretical predictions are scarce, the efficiency of such systems is unknown. Here we formulate a simple thermodynamic model that predicts the efficiency of PHES as a function of the temperature of the thermal energy storage at maximum output power. The resulting equation is free of adjustable parameters and nearly as simple as the well-known Carnot formula. Our theory predicts that for storage temperatures above 400 °C PHES has a higher efficiency than existing CAES and that PHES can even compete with the efficiencies predicted for advanced-adiabatic CAES.

  9. Solar-powered saline sorbent-solution heat pump/storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robison, H.; Houston, S.

    Coastal Energy Laboratory Chemical Heat Pump (CEL-CHEAP) is a redesigned open-cycle liquid desiccant air conditioner. Heat is discharged to shallow-well water by dehumidification-humidification for cooling and extracted by humidification-dehumidification for heating. Direct solar radiation concentrates the desiccant. For continuous operation, a small uninsulated tank stores concentrated solution. This chemical heat pump needs no mechanical compressor, condenser, vacuum system, or pressure system. The collector-regenerators are inexpensive. The refrigerant is water and the desiccant is calcium chloride. First cost and operating expenses are very low.

  10. Hydraulic optimization of "S" characteristics of the pump-turbine for Xianju pumped storage plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. C.; Zheng, J. S.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    The pump-turbine with a rated power capacity of 375MW each at Xianju pumped storage plant is the most powerful one under construction in China. In order to avoid the instability near no-load conditions, the hydraulic design of the pump-turbine has been optimized to improving the "S" characteristic in the development of the model pump-turbine. This paper presents the cause of "S" characteristic of a pump-turbine by CFD simulation of the internal flow. Based on the CFD analysis, the hydraulic design optimization of the pump-turbine was carried out to eliminate the "S" characteristics of the machine at Xianju pumped storage plant and a big step for removing the "S" characteristic of a pump-turbine has been obtained. The model test results demonstrate that the pump-turbine designed for Xianju pumped storage plant can smoothly operate near no-load conditions without an addition of misaligned guide vanes.

  11. Preliminary design study of Underground Pumped Hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches. UPH, Appendix D: Power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    Studies were undertaken to determine power plant arrangements for a single stage reversible pump turbine two step underground pumped hydro (UPH) installation and for a multi-stage reversible pump turbine single step (MSRPT) UPH installation. Arrangements consist of: the underground powerhouses; transformer galleries; associated mechanical and electrical equipment; the administration and control building; hoist head frames; the access; draft tube and bus tunnels; and the switchyard. Primary considerations including the number and size of pump turbine and motor generator units, starting methods, transformers, high voltage connections, geotechnical and construction aspects and safety were studied. A feasibility analysis to minimize costs was conducted. The study led to the selection of suitable equipment and layouts for the powerhouses, transformer galleries, and associated facilities. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft.

  12. Analysis and evaluation of "noise" of occupational hazards in pumped storage power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xin; Yang, Hongjian; Zhang, Huafei; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the influence of "noise" of occupational hazards on the physical health of workers, the noise intensity of a working area of a hydropower station in China was evaluated comprehensively. Under the condition of power generation, noise detection is conducted on the main patrol area of the operator, and the noise samples in different regions are analyzed and processed by the single factor analysis of variance. The results show that the noise intensity of different working areas is significantly different, in which the overall noise level of the turbine layer is the highest and beyond the national standard, the protection measures need to be strengthened and the noise intensity of the rest area is normal

  13. Ocean powered pump

    SciTech Connect

    Westling, W. A.

    1985-04-30

    A pumping unit suitable for driving an electric generator and which is powered by ocean surf and waves. The unit includes a tower which is located on an ocean beach, and which includes a generally horizontal boom. The boom includes two forward sections disposed at right angles to one another. Two blades are mounted on the respective ends of the forward sections, and the forward sections are controlled so that the blades can be alternately dropped into the water to be driven toward the shore by the incoming surf and waves. As one blade is driven to the shore, it turns the boom in one direction about the vertical axis, causing the other blade to be moved out over the water. Then, the first blade can be lifted out of the water, and the second blade dropped into the water, so that the incoming surf will drive the second blade towards the shore turning the boom in the opposite direction about the vertical axis. The cycle is then repeated, and the resulting action is for the boom to turn reciprocally about the vertical axis. The boom is coupled to a pump, and its reciprocal action causes the pump to perform a desired pumping action.

  14. Pumped Storage and Potential Hydropower from Conduits

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2015-02-25

    Th is Congressional Report, Pumped Storage Hydropower and Potential Hydropower from Conduits, addresses the technical flexibility that existing pumped storage facilities can provide to support intermittent renewable energy generation. This study considered potential upgrades or retrofit of these facilities, the technical potential of existing and new pumped storage facilities to provide grid reliability benefits, and the range of conduit hydropower opportunities available in the United States.

  15. Solar-powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A solar powered pump particularly suited for intermittently delivering a stream of water is reported. The pump is characterized by a housing adapted to be seated in a source of water having a water discharge port disposed above the water line of the source, a sump including a valved inlet port through which water is introduced to the sump, disposed beneath the water line, a displacer supported for vertical reciprocation in said housing, an air passageway extended between the vertically spaced faces of the displacer, and a tipple disposed adjacent to the water discharge port adapted to be filled in response to a discharge of water from the housing. Air above a displacer is expanded in response to solar energy impinging on the housing and transferred into pressurizing relation with the sump for forcing water from the sump.

  16. Solar powered pump with electrical generator

    SciTech Connect

    Golben, P.M.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a pumping apparatus. It comprises: a solar collector, a heat exchange circuit including a circulating pump for moving a heat exchange fluid between the solar collector and a compressed gas engine for operation thereof, the compressed gas engine provided with a hydriable metal and hydrogen arranged operatively in a sealed loop to drive a master piston, a magnetic coupler for coupling the master piston to a slave well pump piston for conjoined motion therewith, the well pump piston arranged operatively for pumping a liquid, means for passing the liquid in noncontact heat exchange relationship with the hydriable metal for cooling thereof so that it can resorb hydrogen gas, a rack connected to the well pump piston and connected to drive a pinion gear which in turn is connected to run a permanent magnet motor to charge a storage battery which in turn is connected to power the circulating pump.

  17. Pumped storage job is a rocky challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Setzer, S.W.

    1994-03-07

    Georgia mountain lives up to its rugged name as excavators fight some unexpected ground conditions. When settlers pushed into the remote valleys of far northwestern Georgia, they had no idea just how apt the name given one odd geologic formation would become to a new generation of pioneers. Rocky Mountain`s 700 ft of diagonally upthrusting limestone, shale and sandstone layers have become the main antagonists in a decade-long struggle to place an 848-Mw pumped storage power project in and around the mountain.

  18. Investigation of heat and mass transfer process in metal hydride hydrogen storage reactors, suitable for a solar powered water pump system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldea, I.; Popeneciu, G.; Lupu, D.; Misan, I.; Blanita, G.; Ardelean, O.

    2012-02-01

    The paper analyzes heat and mass transfer process in metal hydride hydrogen storage systems as key element in the development of a solar powered pump system. Hydrogen storage and compression performance of the developed reactors are investigated according to the type of metal alloys, the metal hydride bed parameters and system operating conditions. To reach the desired goal, some metal hydride from groups AB5 and AB2 were synthesized and characterized using elements substitution for tailoring their properties: reversible hydrogen absorption capacity between the hydrogen absorption and desorption pressures at equilibrium at small temperature differences. For the designed hydrogen storage reactors, a new technical solution which combines the effective increase of the thermal conductivity of MH bed and good permeability to hydrogen gas circulation, was implemented and tested. The results permitted us to develop a heat engine with metal hydride, the main element of the functional model of a heat operated metal hydride based water pumping system using solar energy. This is a free energy system able to deliver water, at a convenience flow and pressure, in remote places without conventional energy access.

  19. Power recovery turbine pump

    SciTech Connect

    Oklejas, R.A.; Oklejas, E. Jr.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes an energy recovery pump turbine for use in industrial processes where a fluid is pumped at a high pressure into the process and at least a portion of the fluid is discharged from the process at a high pressure. It comprises a central body portion that defines a turbine impeller cavity and a pump impeller cavity; a turbine inlet nozzle extending from the turbine impeller cavity through the central body portion; the turbine inlet nozzle being located adjacent the outer periphery of the turbine impeller cavity, a turbine exhaust passageway passing into the turbine impeller cavity, the turbine exhaust passageway being located adjacent the center of the turbine impeller; a turbine positioned in the turbine impeller cavity to receive the high pressure fluid discharged from the process, the turbine having an impeller positioned on a shaft, the fluid engaging the impeller and causing the impeller and shaft to rotate.

  20. Solar-powered saline sorbent-solution heat pump/storage system. [Coastal Energy Laboratory-Chemical Heat Pump (CEL-CHEAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, H.; Houston, S.

    1981-01-01

    Coastal Energy Laboratory Chemical Heat Pump (CEL-CHEAP) is a redesigned open-cycle liquid desiccant air conditioner. Heat is discharged to shallow-well water by dehumidification-humidification for cooling and extracted by humidification-dehumidification for heating. Direct solar radiation concentrates the desiccant. For continuous operation, a small uninsulated tank stores concentrated solution. 6 refs.

  1. Feasibility of a small scale pumped storage demonstration project, Hibbing, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The economic and technical feasibility of developing a 5 to 15 MW pumped storage power plant was examined. The substitution of power from a pumped storage facility for the purchased peak power is advantageous because: (1) the coal fired cogeneration plant operates with an improved heat rate; (2) numerous open pits from abandoned iron ore mines are available as reservoirs for pumped storage; and (3) the peaking power generated does not depend on petroleum fuel. It is suggested that: eight mine sites are suitable for pumped storage; oil fired peak power units should be avoided to improve the efficiency of the existing cogeneration; this is a nonpolluting form of power generation; and the development of small scale reversible pump/turbine units for commercial operation is desirable.

  2. Thermal-powered reciprocating pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E.

    1972-01-01

    Waste heat from radioisotope thermal generators in spacecraft is transported to keep instruments warm by two-cylinder reciprocating pump powered by energy from warm heat exchange fluid. Each cylinder has thermally nonconductive piston, heat exchange coil, and heat sink surface.

  3. Underground pumped storage scheme in the Bukit Timah granite of Singapore

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, I.H.

    1996-10-01

    Pumped storage is an energy storage method that involves the pumping of water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir during off-peak period using low cost power and releasing of the water from the upper reservoir to produce electricity during peak load period. Because of the very small and relatively flat land area of Singapore, a conventional surface pumped storage plant is not feasible. A pumped storage plant can be constructed here by siting the upper reservoir in one of the many abandoned granite quarries and by placing the lower reservoir and the powerhouse underground in the Bukit Timah granite, which is sound, massive and impervious. The capital costs for a pumped storage plant could be the same as those of an oil-fired plant of a comparable size. When the very high cost of land in Singapore is taken into account, an underground pumped storage scheme for peaking purposes becomes attractive. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  5. Heat-Powered Pump for Liquid Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed thermoelectromagnetic pump for liquid metal powered by waste heat; needs no battery, generator, or other external energy source. Pump turns part of heat in liquid metal into pumping energy. In combination with primary pump or on its own, thermoelectric pump circulates coolant between reactor and radiator. As long as there is decay heat to be removed, unit performs function.

  6. 77 FR 43280 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All... Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With the Bureau of Land Management a. Date and Time of Meeting: Wednesday, August...

  7. 77 FR 47628 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Management Act and the Federal Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project...

  8. 78 FR 25263 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy... Power Act), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal...

  9. Fluid-powered subsurface pump

    SciTech Connect

    Gipson, T.C.

    1991-12-03

    This paper describes a fluid-powered pump for attachment to small diametered coiled tubing for pumping subsurface liquid from a well production tube. It comprises: a pump housing having an upper end and a lower end, the upper end releasably attachable to a downhole end of the coiled tubing, the inside of the upper end of the housing in fluid communication with the inside of the coiled tubing; a cross head seal member dividing the pump into an upper chamber and a lower chamber, the upper chamber in fluid communication with the inside of the coiled tubing; a pump actuator extending between the upper and lower chambers, the actuator having an upper piston head sealingly fitted to reciprocate in the upper chamber and a lower piston head sealingly fitted to reciprocate in the lower chamber, the upper piston head and the lower piston head connected to each other by a connector rod sealing slidable in the cross head seal member, the actuator having a conduit for fluid communication between the upper chamber and the lower chamber, the conduit extending from an orifice in the top surface of the upper piston head, through the connector rod to a port above the top surface of the lower piston head.

  10. Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Pump Room, showing pumps at right and power distribution cabinets for valve motors along north wall at left. View to east - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  11. 76 FR 62399 - Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, the Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC., filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Bison Peak Pumped...

  12. Optimum design of a photovoltaic powered pumping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Nour, M. A.

    Photovoltaic (PV)-powered pumping systems are relatively simple and reliable. Hence, they are applied worldwide. Two conventional techniques are currently in use: the first is the 'directly-coupled' system where a PV array is directly coupled to a d.c. motor-pump group; the second is the 'battery-buffered' system where a battery is connected across the array to feed the d.c. motor that drives the pump. Recently, a third system has been proposed, namely, the 'switched-mode' PV-powered pumping system. This system couples the pump to the PV array directly when the storage battery is fully charged. The objective is the maximum utilization of available solar radiation to minimize the cost per pumped cubic meter from a given water depth. For a given location, four main parameters affect the design of this system: (i) d.c. motor-pump group parameters; (ii) PV array size; (iii) battery storage size, and (iv) water storage tank size. It is found that some of the factors are more effective in reducing the cost than others. The PV array size is the predominant factor, while the battery storage and water-tank sizes have relatively less effect. A detailed economic analysis is given.

  13. 4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOCOPY, ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS FOR WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, REAR AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  15. 1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, FRONT AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Water Treatment & Storage Building, Southern portion of launch area, southeast of Ready Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  16. Jet entrainment in pumped-storage reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, P. J. W.

    1981-03-01

    A literature review was made in order to recommend a mathematical model to predict jet entrainment in pumped-storage reservoirs. It was found that because of the many different types of inflow situations possible, no one mathematical model would be adequate in all cases. It is recommended that each flow situation be classified and entrainment be predicted for each situation by means of techniques presented in the report. The flows are classified according to the source geometry, source buoyancy, ambient stratification, and degree of submergence. A primary and secondary classification scheme resulted in 16 possible flow types. Each situation is reviewed separately and a method for predicting entrainment presented. To use the results, judgment must first be used to classify the flow under consideration and the appropriate technique for that class of flows used. If some of the flows discussed are prevalent or of particular interest, they could be investigated in more depth and mathematical models of those developed.

  17. Determination of storage coefficients during pumping and recovery.

    PubMed

    Ashjari, Javad

    2013-01-01

    An aquifer test is used mostly to determine the storage coefficient and transmissivity. Although residual drawdown data are widely used in estimating the transmissivity of aquifers, the estimation of storage coefficients with recovery data is controversial. Some researchers have proposed methods to estimate storage coefficients with recovery data by assuming equality of storage coefficients for the recovery and pumping periods (S = S'). The aim of this study is to determine storage coefficients without such an assumption, that is, S≠S'. The method is a modified version of Banton-Bangoy's method without considering drawdown data due to pumping. Drawdown is plotted vs. the logarithmic ratio (t'/t) or time since pumping stopped to the duration of pumping and the ratio of storage coefficient during recovery to the storage coefficient from the pumping period (S'/S). The method is verified with one case study and two synthetic examples. Thus, it is possible to determine storage coefficient of pumping period accurately without any data from pumping period by recovery data.

  18. Solar powered blackbody-pumped lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Walter H.; Sirota, J. M.

    1991-02-01

    A concept for a solar-powered laser is presented which utilizes an intermediate blackbody cavity to provide a uniform optical pumping environment for the lasant, typically CO or CO2 or possibly a solid state laser medium. High power cw blackbody- pumped lasers with efficiencies on the order of 20 percent or more are feasible. The physical basis of this idea is reviewed. Small scale experiments using a high temperature oven as the optical pump have been carried out with gas laser mixtures. Detailed calculations showing a potential efficiency of 35 percent for blackbody pumped Nd:YAG system are discussed.

  19. Modeling Pumped Thermal Energy Storage with Waste Heat Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarr, Miles L. Lindsey

    This work introduces a new concept for a utility scale combined energy storage and generation system. The proposed design utilizes a pumped thermal energy storage (PTES) system, which also utilizes waste heat leaving a natural gas peaker plant. This system creates a low cost utility-scale energy storage system by leveraging this dual-functionality. This dissertation first presents a review of previous work in PTES as well as the details of the proposed integrated bottoming and energy storage system. A time-domain system model was developed in Mathworks R2016a Simscape and Simulink software to analyze this system. Validation of both the fluid state model and the thermal energy storage model are provided. The experimental results showed the average error in cumulative fluid energy between simulation and measurement was +/- 0.3% per hour. Comparison to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model showed <1% error for bottoming mode heat transfer. The system model was used to conduct sensitivity analysis, baseline performance, and levelized cost of energy of a recently proposed Pumped Thermal Energy Storage and Bottoming System (Bot-PTES) that uses ammonia as the working fluid. This analysis focused on the effects of hot thermal storage utilization, system pressure, and evaporator/condenser size on the system performance. This work presents the estimated performance for a proposed baseline Bot-PTES. Results of this analysis showed that all selected parameters had significant effects on efficiency, with the evaporator/condenser size having the largest effect over the selected ranges. Results for the baseline case showed stand-alone energy storage efficiencies between 51 and 66% for varying power levels and charge states, and a stand-alone bottoming efficiency of 24%. The resulting efficiencies for this case were low compared to competing technologies; however, the dual-functionality of the Bot-PTES enables it to have higher capacity factor, leading to 91-197/MWh levelized cost

  20. 76 FR 8729 - Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2010, the Bison Peak Pumped Storage, LLC., filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal Power Act (FPA), proposing to study the feasibility of the Bison Peak...

  1. Operation ranges and dynamic capabilities of variable-speed pumped-storage hydropower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier, Thomas; Olivier, Mathieu; Dejaeger, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The development of renewable and intermittent power generation creates incentives for the development of both energy storage solutions and more flexible power generation assets. Pumped-storage hydropower (PSH) is the most established and mature energy storage technology, but recent developments in power electronics have created a renewed interest by providing PSH units with a variable-speed feature, thereby increasing their flexibility. This paper reviews technical considerations related to variable-speed PSH in link with the provision of primary frequency control, also referred to as frequency containment reserves (FCRs). Based on the detailed characteristics of a scale model pump-turbine, the variable-speed operation ranges in pump and turbine modes are precisely assessed and the implications for the provision of FCRs are highlighted. Modelling and control for power system studies are discussed, both for fixed- and variable-speed machines and simulation results are provided to illustrate the high dynamic capabilities of variable-speed PSH.

  2. Proceedings of the Clemson Workshop on Environmental Impacts of Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clugston, J. P.

    1980-04-01

    The pumping of water to a high reservoir for storage during periods of low power demand, so that it can be used for the generation of electricity during peak power demand was discussed. Papers which were presented exchanged ideas and data with regard to the environmental impact of this regular interchange of water.

  3. High power diode pumped alkali vapor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.

    2008-05-01

    Diode pumped alkali lasers have developed rapidly since their first demonstration. These lasers offer a path to convert highly efficient, but relatively low brightness, laser diodes into a single high power, high brightness beam. General Atomics has been engaged in the development of DPALs with scalable architectures. We have examined different species and pump characteristics. We show that high absorption can be achieved even when the pump source bandwidth is several times the absorption bandwidth. In addition, we present experimental results for both potassium and rubidium systems pumped with a 0.2 nm bandwidth alexandrite laser. These data show slope efficiencies of 67% and 72% respectively.

  4. Pumped storage system model and experimental investigations on S-induced issues during transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Wei; Yang, Jiandong; Hu, Jinhong

    2017-06-01

    Because of the important role of pumped storage stations in the peak regulation and frequency control of a power grid, pump turbines must rapidly switch between different operating modes, such as fast startup and load rejection. However, pump turbines go through the unstable S region in these transition processes, threatening the security and stability of the pumped storage station. This issue has mainly been investigated through numerical simulations, while field experiments generally involve high risks and are difficult to perform. Therefore, in this work, the model test method was employed to study S-induced security and stability issues for a pumped storage station in transition processes. First, a pumped storage system model was set up, including the piping system, model units, electrical control systems and measurement system. In this model, two pump turbines with different S-shaped characteristics were installed to determine the influence of S-shaped characteristics on transition processes. The model platform can be applied to simulate any hydraulic transition process that occurs in real power stations, such as load rejection, startup, and grid connection. On the experimental platform, the S-shaped characteristic curves were measured to be the basis of other experiments. Runaway experiments were performed to verify the impact of the S-shaped characteristics on the pump turbine runaway stability. Full load rejection tests were performed to validate the effect of the S-shaped characteristics on the water-hammer pressure. The condition of one pump turbine rejecting its load after another defined as one-after-another (OAA) load rejection was performed to validate the possibility of S-induced extreme draft tube pressure. Load rejection experiments with different guide vane closing schemes were performed to determine a suitable scheme to adapt the S-shaped characteristics. Through these experiments, the threats existing in the station were verified, the

  5. 6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, WATER TREATMENT PUMPING AND STORAGE BUILDING, MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, GENERATOR BUILDING No. 3, AND WARHEADING BUILDING OF LAUNCH AREA. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Beck Road between Nike & M Roads, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Entropy, pricing and productivity of pumped-storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Tyralis, Hristos; Tzouka, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    Pumped-storage constitutes today a mature method of bulk electricity storage in the form of hydropower. This bulk electricity storability upgrades the economic value of hydropower as it may mitigate -or even neutralize- stochastic effects deriving from various geophysical and socioeconomic factors, which produce numerous load balance inefficiencies due to increased uncertainty. Pumped-storage further holds a key role for unifying intermittent renewable (i.e. wind, solar) units with controllable non-renewable (i.e. nuclear, coal) fuel electricity generation plants into integrated energy systems. We develop a set of indicators for the measurement of performance of pumped-storage, in terms of the latter's energy and financial contribution to the energy system. More specifically, we use the concept of entropy in order to examine: (1) the statistical features -and correlations- of the energy system's intermittent components and (2) the statistical features of electricity demand prediction deviations. In this way, the macroeconomics of pumped-storage emerges naturally from its statistical features (Karakatsanis et al. 2014). In addition, these findings are combined to actual daily loads. Hence, not only the amount of energy harvested from the pumped-storage component is expected to be important, but the harvesting time as well, as the intraday price of electricity varies significantly. Additionally, the structure of the pumped-storage market proves to be a significant factor as well for the system's energy and financial performance (Paine et al. 2014). According to the above, we aim at postulating a set of general rules on the productivity of pumped-storage for (integrated) energy systems. Keywords: pumped-storage, storability, economic value of hydropower, stochastic effects, uncertainty, energy systems, entropy, intraday electricity price, productivity References 1. Karakatsanis, Georgios et al. (2014), Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

  8. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  9. Nitrogen laser pumped by a longitudinal discharge from inductive and capacitative energy storage units

    SciTech Connect

    Baksht, E Kh; Panchenko, Aleksei N; Tarasenko, Viktor F

    1998-12-31

    An experimental investigation was made of the influence of various pump-pulse generators on the output radiation power of a nitrogen laser ({lambda}=337.1 nm) pumped by a longitudinal discharge. In addition to a magnetic switch and a semiconductor circuit-breaker, use was made of generators with inductive energy storage, with intermediate inductive energy storage, and with capacitative energy storage. Pumping by an inductive energy storage unit reduced the influence of the discharge circuit inductance and broadened the range of the operating pressures at which lasing was possible. Peaking capacitors, connected in parallel with a discharge tube, reduced the energy losses in the circuit-breaker and could increase laser output radiation energy. (lasers)

  10. Solar powered circulation pump development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. L.

    1980-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of liquid piston heat engines was examined. Next, a morphological analysis of the original concept was performed. An analysis of the pump performance from a theoretical basis was performed by deriving and solving the equations governing the cycle. The results are documented. An experimental evaluation of the condensing phenomena was performed. It was assumed that the boiling could be conducted in the solar panel. A number of solar panel designs were examined, and the most appropriate type of solar panel is described. A 1/4th scale unit was fabricated and tested. The overall efficiency was approximately 1% at the design point, compared with a theoretical limit of 1.6% for the given operating conditions. The production costs of the full size pump were examined. Systems integration aspects were considered and the results are presented.

  11. Research on the function orientation of pumped-storage plant in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Bo, Yuan; Wu, Sheng-yu; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    With the growth of electrical load and development of clean energy, peak regulation of power system has been paid more attention to, in which case pumped-storage plant becomes the most efficient and economical way against peak load and the ensurance of safe and stable system operation. However, the dispatch and operation mode of pumped-storage plant is a little unreasonable at present in our country, due to the insufficient acknowledge of plants’ function orientation in different regions. This paper studied the standard of classifying pumped-storage plants, by dividing the plant function into three types security oriented, peak shaving oriented and renewable energy accommodation oriented, based on the local load characteristic, structure of power supply, accommodating capability of renewable energy, nuclear energy, etc. Finally, according to the current and future development situation of five Chinese regions, the function orientation partition of pumped-storage plant is given, which has profound guiding and practical significance for pumped-storage plant dispatch and operation.

  12. Energy Storage Systems as a Compliment to Wind Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieling, Jared D.; Niederriter, C. F.; Berg, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    As Gustavus Adolphus College prepares to install two wind turbines on campus, we are faced with the question of what to do with the excess electricity that is generated. Since the College pays a substantial demand charge, it would seem fiscally responsible to store the energy and use it for peak shaving, instead of selling it to the power company at their avoided cost. We analyzed six currently available systems: hydrogen energy storage, flywheels, pumped hydroelectric storage, battery storage, compressed air storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, for energy and financial suitability. Potential wind turbine production is compared to consumption to determine the energy deficit or excess, which is fed into a model for each of the storage systems. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the storage systems and their suitability for energy storage and peak shaving in this situation.

  13. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    DOEpatents

    Landerman, A.M.; Biancardi, F.R.; Melikian, G.; Meader, M.D.; Kepler, C.E.; Anderson, T.J.; Sitler, J.W.

    1982-08-12

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors and on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. The bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating and expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  14. Solar-powered turbocompressor heat pump system

    SciTech Connect

    Landerman, A.M.; Anderson, T.J.; Biancardi, F.; Kepler, C.E.; Meader, M.D.; Melikian, G.; Sitler, J.W.

    1984-08-14

    The turbocompressor comprises a power turbine and a compressor turbine having respective rotors on a common shaft, rotatably supported by bearings. A first working fluid is supplied by a power loop and is expanded in the turbine. A second working fluid is compressed in the turbine and is circulated in a heat pump loop. A lubricant is mixed with the second working fluid but is excluded from the first working fluid. Bearings are cooled and lubricated by a system which circulates the second working fluid and the intermixed lubricant through the bearings. Such system includes a pump, a thermostatic expansion valve for expanding the working fluid into the space between the bearings, and a return conduit system for withdrawing the expanded working fluid after it passes through the bearings and for returning the working fluid to the evaporator. A shaft seal excludes the lubricant from the power turbine. The power loop includes a float operable by liquid working fluid in the condenser for controlling a recirculation valve so as to maintain a minimum liquid level in the condenser, while causing a feed pump to pump most of the working fluid into the vapor generator. The heat pump compressor loop includes a float in the condenser for operating an expansion valve to maintain a minimum liquid working fluid level in the condenser while causing most of the working fluid to be expanded into the evaporator.

  15. Results from transient tests and spherical valve closure tests, Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant

    SciTech Connect

    March, P.A.

    1984-09-01

    Tests were conducted at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant to obtain data on hydraulic system characteristics during transient-state operation, to compare measured values for system pressures and surge levels with design values, to provide information for review of hydaulic transient computations, and to provide confirmation that the spherical valves are capable of shutting off plant flow under emergency conditions. The tests included single-unit load rejection, single-unit pump power loss, multi-unit emergency shutdown from generating, multi-unit emergency shutdown from pumping, and spherical valve closure.

  16. Modeling reservoir system with pumped storage. [Richard B. Russell Dam and Lake on Savannah River

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, G.F.; Bonner, V.R.; Eichert, B.S.

    1980-03-01

    The Richard B. Russell Dam and Lake Project is presently under construction and is being placed in tandem between Hartwell and Clark Hill, two existing multipurpose hydropower plants on the Savannah River in Georgia. System operational simulations were performed in support of a feasibility study for the installation of pump turbines at Russell, using a version of a Corps of Engineers' computer program modified for system power and pumped storage. Information developed from the simulations include system hydropower production, pumping energy requirements, daily reservoir pool fluctuations, and reservoir elevation statistics. This information was useful in judging the effects of the addition of pumped storage on system hydropower production and reservoir recreation useability, as well as in ascertaining efficient system operational methods. 13 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, T. J.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. It was concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site, even with the proposed savings from marketable material, amount to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. It was concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time.

  18. Comparison of solar powered water pumping systems which use diaphragm pumps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four solar photovoltaic (PV) powered diaphragm pumps were tested at different simulated pumping depths at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory near Bushland, Texas. Two of the pumps were designed for intermediate pumping depths (30 to 70 meters), and the other two pumps were...

  19. Hydraulic gas pump: A discussion of its power usage

    SciTech Connect

    Amani, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study that compares the theoretically calculated power consumption of a Hydraulic Gas Pump, rod pumps, and electric submersible pumps. The results indicate that, depending on the flowing bottomhole pressure of a well, a Hydraulic Gas Pump can have lower power costs than a rod pump or a submersible pump. The author presents a method for calculating the power cost of a Hydraulic Gas Pump and discusses the relationship of the power cost of this pump to the flowing bottomhole pressure. Several graphs compare the calculated power consumption of a rod pump, submersible pump, and Hydraulic Gas Pump for well depths ranging between 6,000 and 10,000 feet; flowing bottomhole pressure ranging between 500 and 2,000 psi; and production rates of 300 and 500 BLPD.

  20. Threshold pump power of a solar-pumped dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Kim, Kyung C.; Kim, Kyong H.

    1988-01-01

    Threshold solar power for dye laser pumping has been determined by measuring the gain of a rhodamine 6G dye laser amplifier at various solar-simulated irradiances on an amplifier cell. The measured threshold was 20,000 solar constants (2.7 kW/sq cm) for the dye volume of 2 x 5 x 40 cu mm and the optimum dye concentration of 0.001 M. The threshold is about one-third of that achievable with a high-intensity solar concentrator.

  1. Sorption pumps and storage for gases

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, Peter; Bethel, Dylan

    2016-08-16

    A method and system for filling gas storage vessels from a source operates by cooling a sorbent, opening a valve to transfer gas by physisorption, regulating the sorbent temperature to achieve the desired degree of filling, closing the valve connecting to the gas source, and warming the tank, sorbent, and gas to provide a predetermined pressure at room temperature.

  2. Livestock water pumping with wind and solar power

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent developments in pumping technologies have allowed for efficient use of renewable energies like wind and solar to power new pumps for remote water pumping. A helical type, positive displacement pump was developed a few years ago and recently modified to accept input from a variable power sourc...

  3. Heat-pump cool storage in a clathrate of freon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, J. J.

    Presented are the analytical description and assessment of a unique heat pump/storage system in which the conventional evaporator of the vapor compression cycle is replaced by a highly efficient direct contract crystallizer. The thermal storage technique requires the formation of a refrigerant gas hydrate (a clathrate) and exploits an enthalpy of reaction comparable to the heat of fusion of ice. Additional system operational benefits include cool storage at the favorable temperatures of 4 to 7 C (40 to 45 F), and highly efficient heat transfer ates afforded by he direct contact mechanism. In addition, the experimental approach underway at ORNL to study such a system is discussed.

  4. Energy storage by compressed air. [using windpowered pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szego, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of windpower energy storage by compressed air is considered. The system is comprised of a compressor, a motor, and a pump turbine to store air in caverns or aquifiers. It is proposed that storage of several days worth of compressed air up to 650 pounds per square inch can be used to push the aquifier up closer to the container dome and thus initiate piston action by simply compressing air more and more. More energy can be put into it by pressure increase or pushing back the water in the aquifier. This storage system concept has reheat flexibility and lowest cost effectiveness.

  5. 76 FR 22393 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Cancellation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy... and Wildlife Service for the proposed Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. This...

  6. Application of Energy Storage in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqunun, Khalid M.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the advantages of using energy storage systems. This study presents a model for energy storage in electric power systems. The model involves methods of reducing the operation cost of a power network and the calculation of capital cost of energy storage systems. Two test systems have been considered, the IEEE six-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system, to analyze the impact of energy storage on power system economic operation. Properties of energy storage have been considered such as rated power investment cost and rated energy investment cost. Mixed integer programming has been used to formulate the model. A comparison between centralized energy storage system and distributed energy storage system have been proposed. The results show that distributed energy storage system has more impact on reducing total operation cost. Also, an analysis on optimal sizing of energy storage system with fixed investment cost is provided.

  7. Set-up of a pump as turbine use in micro-pumped hydro energy storage: a case of study in Froyennes Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, A.; Steimes, J.; Bontems, O.; Zohbi, G. Al; Hendrick, P.

    2017-04-01

    Its maturity makes pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) the most used technology in energy storage. Micro-hydro plants (<100 kW) are globally emerging due to further increases in the share of renewable electricity production such as wind and solar power. This paper presents the design of a micro-PHES developed in Froyennes, Belgium, using a pump as turbine (PaT) coupled with a variable frequency driver (VFD). The methods adopted for the selection of the most suitable pump for pumping and reverse mode are compared and discussed. Controlling and monitoring the PaT performances represent a compulsory design phase in the analysis feasibility of PaT coupled with VFD in micro PHES plant. This study aims at answering technical research aspects of µ-PHES site used with reversible pumps.

  8. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically...

  9. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically...

  10. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically...

  11. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically...

  12. 21 CFR 884.5160 - Powered breast pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered breast pump. 884.5160 Section 884.5160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 884.5160 Powered breast pump. (a) Identification. A powered breast pump in an electrically...

  13. Experimental investigation of solar powered diaphragm and helical pumps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For several years, many types of solar powered water pumping systems were evaluated, and in this paper, diaphragm and helical solar photovoltaic (PV) powered water pumping systems are discussed. Data were collected on diaphragm and helical pumps which were powered by different solar PV arrays at mul...

  14. Large eddy simulation of a pumped- storage reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launay, Marina; Leite Ribeiro, Marcelo; Roman, Federico; Armenio, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The last decades have seen an increasing number of pumped-storage hydropower projects all over the world. Pumped-storage schemes move water between two reservoirs located at different elevations to store energy and to generate electricity following the electricity demand. Thus the reservoirs can be subject to important water level variations occurring at the daily scale. These new cycles leads to changes in the hydraulic behaviour of the reservoirs. Sediment dynamics and sediment budgets are modified, sometimes inducing problems of erosion and deposition within the reservoirs. With the development of computer performances, the use of numerical techniques has become popular for the study of environmental processes. Among numerical techniques, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) has arisen as an alternative tool for problems characterized by complex physics and geometries. This work uses the LES-COAST Code, a LES model under development in the framework of the Seditrans Project, for the simulation of an Upper Alpine Reservoir of a pumped-storage scheme. Simulations consider the filling (pump mode) and emptying (turbine mode) of the reservoir. The hydraulic results give a better understanding of the processes occurring within the reservoir. They are considered for an assessment of the sediment transport processes and of their consequences.

  15. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  16. Preliminary study of the effect of pumped-storage plant operation on zooplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Tseyeb, Y.Y.; Zhdanova, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    The hydromechanical effect of hydroelectric stations on zooplankton is customarily regarded as a constantly acting and comparatively harmless factor, since its destruction is inevitable when water masses are passed through hydroelectric stations, but its capacity for restoration is high (i.e., destruction of the zooplankton of the forebay is compensated by its production in the after bay). It is not known how correct such an opinion is, or what is the true balance of losses and reproduction of zooplankton in the forebays and after bays of hydroelectric stations. However, hydroelectric plants of a new type, pumped-storage plants, have been constructed in recent years and others are planned for the Dnieper reservoirs. The operational principle and purpose of these plants is that they employ special vertical turbine-electric pumps that pump water at night from the reservoirs into pumped-storage facilities at high levels, and then release this water during daytime peaks through pipes to the turbines that generate additional electric power. Such pumped-storage plants are planned, in particular, as part of the Danube-Dnieper water economy complex and for some reservoirs in the North European regions of the USSR.

  17. Storage systems for solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

  18. Storage systems for solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are currently under development. The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

  19. Storage systems for solar thermal power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calogeras, J. E.; Gordon, L. H.

    1978-01-01

    A major constraint to the evolution of solar thermal power systems is the need to provide continuous operation during periods of solar outage. A number of high temperature thermal energy storage technologies which have the potential to meet this need are currently under development. The development status is reviewed of some thermal energy storage technologies specifically oriented towards providing diurnal heat storage for solar central power systems and solar total energy systems. These technologies include sensible heat storage in caverns and latent heat storage using both active and passive heat exchange processes. In addition, selected thermal storage concepts which appear promising to a variety of advanced solar thermal system applications are discussed.

  20. Chemical heat pump and chemical energy storage system

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Edward C.; Huxtable, Douglas D.

    1985-08-06

    A chemical heat pump and storage system employs sulfuric acid and water. In one form, the system includes a generator and condenser, an evaporator and absorber, aqueous acid solution storage and water storage. During a charging cycle, heat is provided to the generator from a heat source to concentrate the acid solution while heat is removed from the condenser to condense the water vapor produced in the generator. Water is then stored in the storage tank. Heat is thus stored in the form of chemical energy in the concentrated acid. The heat removed from the water vapor can be supplied to a heat load of proper temperature or can be rejected. During a discharge cycle, water in the evaporator is supplied with heat to generate water vapor, which is transmitted to the absorber where it is condensed and absorbed into the concentrated acid. Both heats of dilution and condensation of water are removed from the thus diluted acid. During the discharge cycle the system functions as a heat pump in which heat is added to the system at a low temperature and removed from the system at a high temperature. The diluted acid is stored in an acid storage tank or is routed directly to the generator for reconcentration. The generator, condenser, evaporator, and absorber all are operated under pressure conditions specified by the desired temperature levels for a given application. The storage tanks, however, can be maintained at or near ambient pressure conditions. In another form, the heat pump system is employed to provide usable heat from waste process heat by upgrading the temperature of the waste heat.

  1. Designing Self-powered Nanomotors and Pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ayusman

    Self-powered nano and microscale moving systems are currently the subject of intense interest due in part to their potential applications in nanomachinery, nanoscale assembly, robotics, fluidics, and chemical/biochemical sensing. We will demonstrate that one can build autonomous nanomotors over a wide range of length-scales ``from scratch'' that mimic biological motors by using catalytic reactions to create forces based on chemical gradients. These motors are autonomous in that they do not require external electric, magnetic, or optical fields as energy sources. Instead, the input energy is supplied locally and chemically. These ''bots'' can be directed by information in the form of chemical and light gradients. Furthermore, we have developed systems in which chemical secretions from the translating nano/micromotors initiate long-range, collective interactions among themselves. This behavior is reminiscent of quorum sensing organisms that swarm in response to a minimum threshold concentration of a signaling chemical. In addition, an object that moves by generating a continuous surface force in a fluid can, in principle, be used to pump the fluid by the same catalytic mechanism. Thus, by immobilizing the nano/micromotors, we have developed nano/microfluidic pumps that transduce energy catalytically. These non-mechanical pumps provide precise control over flow rate without the aid of an external power source and are capable of turning on in response to specific analytes in solution.

  2. Premature failure of battery-powered syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Tatman, A; Brunner, H; Stokes, M

    1996-11-01

    Failure of battery-powered equipment during the interhospital transfer of patients is potentially life threatening. The time to failure of 60 fully-charged identical syringe pumps (20 from each batch purchased in 1992, 1994 and 1995) was measured. Older pumps were associated with less predictable charge capacity, with 40% of the 1992 pumps failing within 60 min. The premature failure of these pumps is most likely due to poor battery care. It is unsafe to assume that a fully-charged, battery-powered pump will continue to function throughout a long transfer. The routine carriage of spare pumps or a backup power supply is recommended.

  3. Operational adaptability evaluation index system of pumped storage in UHV receiving-end grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Feng, Junshu

    2017-01-01

    Pumped storage is an effective solution to deal with the emergency reserve shortage, renewable energy accommodating and peak-shaving problems in ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission receiving-end grids. However, governments and public opinion in China tend to evaluate the operational effectiveness of pumped storage using annual utilization hour, which may result in unreasonable and unnecessary dispatch of pumped storage. This paper built an operational adaptability evaluation index system for pumped storage in UHV-receiving end grids from three aspects: security insurance, peak-shaving and renewable energy accommodating, which can provide a comprehensive and objective way to evaluate the operational performance of a pumped storage station.

  4. Zooplankton communities of a new pumped storage reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, D.U.; Meyer, J.L.

    1982-08-01

    Zooplankton colonization was followed for 16 months in Lake Oconee, Georgia, a new pumped storage reservoir. Data were interpreted to identify differences among stations and seasons, as a function of the reservoir's early stage of development and of pumped storage operations. Colonization was rapid, and the zooplankton community was characterized by a high species diversity; approximately 40 rotifer species and 14 cladoceran genera were recorded. Zooplankton density varied along an environmental gradient from riverine to lentic conditions. Rotifer abundance varied from 10/sup 4/-10/sup 6/ individuals/m/sup 3/, with maxima in the summers. Copepod and cladoceran densities ranged from 10/sup 3/ to nearly 10/sup 5/ individuals/m/sup 3/; maxima for stations other than the dam were observed in the summer and early fall, but high values at the dam station occurred throughout winter 1980. When pumped storage operations began in December 1979, zooplankton densities increased at the dam station. Pumpback decreased the intensity of the environmental gradient from riverine to lentic conditions, and led to a more similar zooplankton community structure throughout the reservoir.

  5. Performance of a small wind powered water pumping system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lorentz helical pumps (Henstedt-Ulzburg, Germany) have been powered by solar energy for remote water pumping applications for many years, but from October 2005 to March 2008 a Lorentz helical pump was powered by wind energy at the USDA-ARS Conservation and Production Research Laboratory (CPRL) near ...

  6. Highly-efficient high-power pumps for fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gapontsev, V.; Moshegov, N.; Berezin, I.; Komissarov, A.; Trubenko, P.; Miftakhutdinov, D.; Berishev, I.; Chuyanov, V.; Raisky, O.; Ovtchinnikov, A.

    2017-02-01

    We report on high efficiency multimode pumps that enable ultra-high efficiency high power ECO Fiber Lasers. We discuss chip and packaged pump design and performance. Peak out-of-fiber power efficiency of ECO Fiber Laser pumps was reported to be as high as 68% and was achieved with passive cooling. For applications that do not require Fiber Lasers with ultimate power efficiency, we have developed passively cooled pumps with out-of-fiber power efficiency greater than 50%, maintained at operating current up to 22A. We report on approaches to diode chip and packaged pump design that possess such performance.

  7. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  8. Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Mohanpurkar, M.; Havsapian, R.; Koritarov, V.

    2015-04-06

    Hydropower is the largest producer of renewable energy in the U.S. More than 60% of the total renewable generation comes from hydropower. There is also approximately 22 GW of pumped storage hydropower (PSH). Conventional PSH uses a synchronous generator, and thus the rotational speed is constant at synchronous speed. This work details a hydrodynamic model and generator/power converter dynamic model. The optimization of the hydrodynamic model is executed by the hydro-turbine controller, and the electrical output real/reactive power is controlled by the power converter. All essential controllers to perform grid-interface functions and provide ancillary services are included in the model.

  9. Solar powered circulation pump development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.L.

    1980-09-01

    An iterative design and evaluation process was undertaken to develop a prototype solar powered liquid circulation pump. The first effort was to review the state-of-the-art of liquid piston heat engines. Next a morphological analysis of the original concept was performed. An analysis of the pump performance from a theoretical basis was performed by deriving and solving the equations governing the cycle. The results are documented. An experimental evaluation of the condensing phenomena was performed. The design of the boiler was then undertaken. This effort showed a fundamental physical limitation imposed by the original geometry and the physics of water boiling. In an effort to resolve this problem, a number of alternate configurations were examined, with the result being that the boiler and heat pipe elements of the design were entirely eliminated. In their stead it was assumed that the boiling could be conducted in the solar panel. A number of solar panel designs were examined, and the most appropriate type of solar panel is described in the appendix. A 1/4th scale unit was fabricated and tested. The overall efficiency was approximately 1% at the design point, compared with a theoretical limit of 1.6% for the given operating conditions. The production costs of the full size pump were examined. Finally systems integration aspects were considered and the results presented.

  10. Modeling the Benefits of Storage Technologies to Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.; Short, W.; Blair, N.

    2008-06-01

    Rapid expansion of wind power in the electricity sector is raising questions about how wind resource variability might affect the capacity value of wind farms at high levels of penetration. Electricity storage, with the capability to shift wind energy from periods of low demand to peak times and to smooth fluctuations in output, may have a role in bolstering the value of wind power at levels of penetration envisioned by a new Department of Energy report ('20% Wind by 2030, Increasing Wind Energy's Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply'). This paper quantifies the value storage can add to wind. The analysis was done employing the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model, formerly known as the Wind Deployment System (WinDS) model. ReEDS was used to estimate the cost and development path associated with 20% penetration of wind in the report. ReEDS differs from the WinDS model primarily in that the model has been modified to include the capability to build and use three storage technologies: pumped-hydroelectric storage (PHS), compressed-air energy storage (CAES), and batteries. To assess the value of these storage technologies, two pairs of scenarios were run: business-as-usual, with and without storage; 20% wind energy by 2030, with and without storage. This paper presents the results from those model runs.

  11. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  12. Pumpspeicherbecken im Karstgrundwasserleiter des Weißen Jura der Schwäbischen Alb. Erste Ergebnisse aus der geologischen und hydrogeologischen Erkundung für die Planfeststellung Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in the Jurassic karst aquifer of the swabian alb, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, Christoph; Köhler, Hans Joachim; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas; Hennings, Sibylle; Azzam, Rafig

    2014-06-01

    Extensive geological and hydrogeological investigations have been undertaken for the planned pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant in "Blautal" (Swabian Alb, Germany) in order to characterise the Jurassic karst aquifer in which the lower reservoir will be constructed. The preferred option for the plant setup is to integrate the lower reservoir into the groundwater without sealing. Therefore, in order to reliably predict the impact of the pumped storage plant operations on the surrounding drinking water wells and groundwater dependent ecosystems, a comprehensive database has been developed to assess the hydraulic conditions of the karst aquifer. A large scale geological site investigation was carried out to characterise the rock mass and extensive hydraulic tests were performed in many boreholes. The results of the hydraulic characterisation were then implemented in a three dimensional flow model. In this paper, the first results of the geological and hydrogeological investigations are presented and discussed.

  13. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lansey, Kevin; Hortsman, Chris

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  14. Effects of operation of Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage project on Nickajack Reservoir flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Price, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a study to determine the effects of Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant operations on flow conditions within Nickajack Reservoir are presented. Computer simulations and field studies have shown that flow reversals occur in Nickajack Reservoir as a result of the power peaking operations of the Nickajack and Chickamauga hydroelectric plants, both situated on the Tennessee River. The primary cause of these reversals is attributable to shutdowns of the Chickamauga turbines. The focus of this study is on flow reversals near the Moccasin Bend sewage treatment plant and near the Tennessee American water treatment plant, both of which are located on the Tennessee River near Chattanooga. Results from the study show that, under normal and extreme operating conditions at Chickamauga and Nickajack Dams, operation of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant has no appreciable influence on flow reversals at the two plant sites.

  15. Scalable high-power optically pumped GaAs laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, H. Q.; di Cecca, S.; Mooradian, A.

    1991-05-01

    The use of disk geometry, optically pumped semiconductor gain elements for high-power scalability and good transverse mode quality has been studied. A room-temperature TEM00 transverse mode, external-cavity GaAs disk laser has been demonstrated with 500 W peak-power output and 40-percent slope efficiency, when pumped by a Ti:Al2O3 laser. The conditions for diode laser pumping are shown to be consistent with available power level.

  16. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage plant: Ten years operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, F.E.

    1987-09-01

    Operational experience at the 1 530 MW Raccoon Mountain underground pumped-storage plant can be relevant to other large hydro facilities. A number of unusual features were incorporated and individual unit size was only recently overtaken elsewhere. Direct water cooling of rotor and stator winding has been successfully applied to salient pole machines. A number of problems, including difficulties with oil-filled 161 kV current transformers, and some mechanical aspects, are reported. Designed for remote supervisory control, the plant has required closer attention. Operating statistics are included.

  17. Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage facility operational fish monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, J.P.; Pasch, R.W.; Smith, A.O.; Swor, C.T.; Tomljanovich, D.A.

    1983-09-01

    The impact of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Facility operations on fisheries resources in the Nickajack Reservoir was investigated. Analyses of data collected from 1979 through 1981 on population status and distribution of adults, larvae and eggs are presented with comparisons of preoperational fisheries monitoring data collected by the TVA from 1977 through 1978. Although minor differences in composition of dominant species, and slight declines in standing stock of some species were noted, no major impacts were identified. Appendix B contains a short report entitled Nickajack Reservoir Ictiobine Study 1979 by Edwin Scott Jr. 7 references, 46 figures, 31 tables.

  18. Iowa Hill Pumped Storage Project Investigations - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David

    2016-07-01

    This Final Technical Report is a summary of the activities and outcome of the Department of Energy (DOE) Assistance Agreement DE-EE0005414 with the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD). The Assistance Agreement was created in 2012 to support investigations into the Iowa Hill Pumped-storage Project (Project), a new development that would add an additional 400 MW of capacity to SMUD’s existing 688MW Upper American River Hydroelectric Project (UARP) in the Sierra Nevada mountains east of Sacramento, California.

  19. Quantifying the Operational Benefits of Conventional and Advanced Pumped Storage Hydro on Reliability and Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Krad, I.; Ela, E.; Koritarov, V.

    2014-07-01

    Pumped storage hydro (PSH) plants have significant potential to provide reliability and efficiency benefits in future electric power systems with high penetrations of variable generation. New PSH technologies, such as adjustable-speed PSH, have been introduced that can also present further benefits. This paper demonstrates and quantifies some of the reliability and efficiency benefits afforded by PSH plants by utilizing the Flexible Energy Scheduling Tool for the Integration of Variable generation (FESTIV), an integrated power system operations tool that evaluates both reliability and production costs.

  20. Energy storage options for space power

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, H.W.; Martin, J.F.; Olszewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    Including energy storage in a space power supply enhances the feasibility of using thermal power cycles (Rankine or Brayton) and providing high-power pulses. Review of storage options (superconducting magnets, capacitors, electrochemical batteries, thermal phase-change materials (PCM), and flywheels) suggests that flywheels and phase-change devices hold the most promise. Latent heat storage using inorganic salts and metallic eutectics offers thermal energy storage densities of 1500 to 2000 kJ/kg at temperatures to 1675/sup 0/K. Innovative techniques allow these media to operate in direct contact with the heat engine working fluid. Enhancing thermal conductivity and/or modifying PCM crystallization habit provide other options. Flywheels of low-strain graphite and Kevlar fibers have achieved mechanical energy storage densities of 300 kJ/kg. With high-strain graphite fibers, storage densities appropriate to space power needs (approx. 550 kJ/kg) seem feasible. Coupling advanced flywheels with emerging high power density homopolar generators and compulsators could result in electric pulse-power storage modules of significantly higher energy density.

  1. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  2. Study on Compensation of Short Term Power Fluctuation by Use of Heat Pump Air Conditioning System based on Real Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawachi, Shunsuke; Hagiwara, Hiroto; Baba, Jumpei; Furukawa, Kei; Shimoda, Eisuke; Numata, Shigeo

    To reduce the energy capacity and power capacity of energy storage systems (ESSs) which is necessary to compensate power fluctuation in a power grid, the control of power that is used by electrical appliances on the demand side is considered. In this paper, the use of heat pump air conditioner for power fluctuation compensation is focused. The basic power consumption characteristics and processed heat characteristics of heat pump air conditioner which is measured by experiment using real machine is reported. Based on the measured characteristics, a simple model of heat pump is proposed. Using this heat pump model, simulations were carried out to analyse the amount of ESS's capacity that can be reduced by controlling the heat pump to compensate power fluctuations.

  3. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    ScienceCinema

    Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2016-07-12

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid. This technology provides the energy industry and the nation with a reliable, stable, safe, and low-cost storage alternative for a cleaner, efficient energy future.

  4. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-07-01

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid. This technology provides the energy industry and the nation with a reliable, stable, safe, and low-cost storage alternative for a cleaner, efficient energy future.

  5. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    PubMed

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  6. Energy storage options for space power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, H. W.; Martin, J. F.; Olszewski, M.

    Including energy storage in a space power supply enhances the feasibility of using thermal power cycles (Rankine or Brayton) and providing high-power pulses. Superconducting magnets, capacitors, electrochemical batteries, thermal phase-change materials (PCM), and flywheels are assessed; the results obtained suggest that flywheels and phase-change devices hold the most promise. Latent heat storage using inorganic salts and metallic eutectics offers thermal energy storage densities of 1500 kJ/kg to 2000 kJ/kg at temperatures to 1675 K. Innovative techniques allow these media to operate in direct contact with the heat engine working fluid. Enhancing thermal conductivity and/or modifying PCM crystallization habit provide other options. Flywheels of low-strain graphite and Kevlar fibers have achieved mechanical energy storage densities of 300 kJ/kg. With high-strain graphite fibers, storage densities appropriate to space power needs (about 500 kJ/kg) seem feasible. Coupling advanced flywheels with emerging high power density homopolar generators and compulsators could result in electric pulse-power storage modules of significantly higher energy density.

  7. Power storage system for electric railway

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamura, T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to a power storage system for electric railway which comprises a motor-generator connected to a power system for feeding an electric vehicle with electric power, and a flywheel coupled to the motor-generator, and in which the motor-generator is allowed to store the electric power and thereafter discharge it in correspondence with approach of the electric vehicle to a predetermined running section and running thereof in the section.

  8. Liquid-Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid-metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric pump is recommended for inclusion in the planned system at NASA MSFC based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over earlier flight pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  9. Operation of the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit installed in the power stabilizing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanemoto, T.; Honda, H.; Kasahara, R.; Miyaji, T.

    2014-03-01

    This serial research intends to put a unique power stabilization system with a pumped storage into practical use. The pumped storage is equipped with a counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit whose operating mode can be shifted instantaneously in response to the fluctuation of power from renewable resources. This paper verifies that the system is reasonably effective to stabilize the fluctuating power. It is necessary to quickly increase the rotational speed when the operation is shifted from the turbine to the pumping modes, because the unit cannot pump-up water from a lower reservoir at a slow rotational speed while keeping gross/geodetic head constant. The maximum hydraulic efficiency at the turbine mode is close to the efficiency of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. The system is also provided for a pilot plant to be operated in the field.

  10. Power cuts and EPI vaccine storage.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, M P; Perera, A S; De Silva, T U

    1997-06-01

    To study the integrity of EPI vaccine storage during interruptions to the power supply. Health centres in Colombo District. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on staff compliance with regulations of the expanded program of immunisation (EPI) and alternative facilities available for refrigeration during power failure. The refrigerator and storage conditions were inspected. The stored vaccines were tagged with thermosensitive cold chain monitors, which were read on revisiting the clinic 14 days later. During the study period, power cuts of 2 hours' duration were in force daily. A control study was carried out when there was no interruption to power supply. Diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) and measles vaccines had been exposed to temperatures outside the prescribed range during power cuts. Oral polio vaccine had adequate storage with power cuts of 2 hours' duration. Alternative facilities for vaccine storage during power cuts were not available and the potency of DPT and measles vaccines were compromised with interruptions to power of 2 hours' duration or more.

  11. Theoretical study of pump power distribution on modal instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Rumao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2017-02-01

    Influence of pump power distribution on modal instabilities (MI) is studied numerically, which reveals that the MI threshold is dependent on the pump power distribution in fiber amplifiers and can be increased by optimizing the pump power distribution without any adjustment of other amplifier parameters. It shows that amplifiers with backward or bi-direction pump schemes have a higher threshold than those employing forward pump schemes. For backward pumped amplifiers employing fiber with core/clad diameter being 20/400 µm, the MI threshold yields a 42% increase compared to the forward pumped ones. For bi-direction pumped amplifiers, there exists an optimal power ratio between forward and backward pump power, which results in the highest threshold power. When amplifiers with core/clad diameter being 20/400 µm employ a bi-direction pump scheme at the optimal backward pump power fraction, the threshold can be increased by a factor of approximately 60% with respect to the forward pump configuration. The threshold increment factor reduces as the gain saturation effect weakens. It also shows that the MI threshold can be increased by employing multi-point side pump schemes.

  12. 78 FR 26358 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Meeting With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy...), on the Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project. e. All local, state, and federal agencies...

  13. Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-13

    412TW-PA-15560 Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electrochemical Separation, Pumping, and Storage of Hydrogen or Oxygen into Nanocapillaries Via High Pressure MEA Seals...densities of oxygen gas cylinders can be cumbersome or prohibitively expensive for applications like terrestrial and marine breathing apparatus’ or manned

  14. Test Results for a Reciprocating Pump Powered by Decomposed Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C

    2001-06-13

    A four-chamber piston pump has been tested in several evolving configurations. A significant improvement over an earlier hyadrazine pump is the elimination of warm gas leakage in the powerhead. This has been achieved through the used of soft seals for the power piston and intake-exhaust valves, with gas temperatures approaching 800 K (980 F). The pumped fluid serves as a coolant, and the cylinder walls and heads are made of aluminum for high thermal conductivity, low mass, and affordability.

  15. Storage peak gas-turbine power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsinkotski, B.

    1980-01-01

    A storage gas-turbine power plant using a two-cylinder compressor with intermediate cooling is studied. On the basis of measured characteristics of a .25 Mw compressor computer calculations of the parameters of the loading process of a constant capacity storage unit (05.3 million cu m) were carried out. The required compressor power as a function of time with and without final cooling was computed. Parameters of maximum loading and discharging of the storage unit were calculated, and it was found that for the complete loading of a fully unloaded storage unit, a capacity of 1 to 1.5 million cubic meters is required, depending on the final cooling.

  16. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to rest prototypical space nuclear surface power system components. Conduction, induction and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated with incorporation into a reactor system. A thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is selected as the best option for use in NASA-MSFC's Fission Surface Power-Primary Test Circuit reactor simulator based on its relative simplicity, low power supply mass penalty, flight heritage, and the promise of increased pump efficiency over those earlier pump designs through the use of skutterudite thermoelectric elements.

  17. Wind powered direct drive water pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sadhu, D.

    1983-12-01

    Wind turbine of comparatively large capacities are used exclusively for electricity generation, and so far small multiblade horizontal axis turbines are extensively employed for water pumping with reciprocating piston pumps. However, the advent of wind turbines for irrigation, characterised with large discharge volume pumps, require application of large capacity and efficient ones to make the operation viable. An analysis is made in this paper to find matching pump coupled directly with wind turbine for optimum system operation in variable speed. There exist various type of wind turbines, operating on different principles having characteristics different, dependent not only on the types but also on the design criteria of the individuals. Water pumps are also of various types whose operation characteristics vary with the type, mode of operation and design parameters. A nondimensional analysis is carried out to match the two, to operate at optimum, by superimposing the operating characteristics of the one over the other. The transmission method is also taken in account on the investment analysis of the whole system. Positive displacement pumps are best suited for high starting torque turbines e.g. Savonius or Filippini or multiblade horizontal axis rotors, and consequently are less efficient, though is advantageous for high water lift operation.

  18. Low power, constant-flow air pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Polito, M.D.; Albert, B.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, yet small and lightweight constant-flow air pump system has been designed. Flow control is achieved using a novel approach which is three times more power efficient than previous designs. The resultant savings in battery size and weight makes these pumps ideal for sampling air on balloon platforms. The pump package includes meteorological sensors and an onboard computer that stores time and sensor data and turns the constant-flow pump circuit on/off. Some applications of these systems are also presented in this report.

  19. The geothermal analog of pumped storage for electrical demand load following

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.W.

    1996-09-01

    A 6 day cycle Load-Following Experiment, conducted in July 1995 at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site in New Mexico, has verified that an HDR geothermal reservoir has the capability for a significant, rapid increase in thermal power output upon demand. The objective was to study the behavior of the HDR reservoir in a high-production- backpressure (2200 psi) baseload operating condition when there was superimposed a demand for significantly increased power production for a 4 hour period each day. In practice, this enhanced production, an increase of 65%, was accomplished by a programmed decrease in the production well backpressure over 4 hours, from an initial 2200 psi down to 500 psi. The rapid depressurization of the wellbore during the period of enhanced production resulted in the draining of a portion of the fluid stored in the pressure dilated joints surrounding the production well. These joints were then gradually reinflated during the following 20-hour period of high backpressure baseload operation. In essence, the HDR reservoir was acting as a fluid capacitor, being discharged for 4 hours and then slowly recharged during the subsequent 20 hours of baseload operation. In this mode, there would be no increase in the reservoir size of number of wells (the {ital in situ} capital investment) for a significant amount of peaking power production for a few hours each day. Thus, one of the advantages of geothermal load following over utility options such as pumped storage or compressed air storage is that the HDR power plant would be operated during off-peak hours in a baseline mode, with an augmented return on investment compared to these other peaking systems which would normally not be operated during off-peak periods. The surface power plant and the geofluid reinjection pumps would need to be sized for the peak rate of thermal energy production, adding somewhat to the overall HDR system capital costs when compared to a simple baseload power plant design.

  20. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4780 Powered suction pump. (a... support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4780 Powered suction pump. (a... support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4780 Powered suction pump. (a... support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4780 Powered suction pump. (a... support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4780 - Powered suction pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4780 Powered suction pump. (a... support system. The device may be used during surgery in the operating room or at the patient's...

  5. Design and installation package for a solar powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The design and installation procedures of a solar powered pump developed by Calmac Manufacturing Company are presented. Subsystem installation, operation and maintenance requirements, subsystem performance specifications, and detailed design drawings are included.

  6. Sensitive Ion Pump Current Monitoring Using an In-House Built Ion Pump Power Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hansknecht, J.; Adderley, P.; Stutzman, M. L.; Poelker, M.

    2009-08-04

    Ion pumps are common vacuum pumps on DC high voltage photoguns and baked-accelerator beamlines. Commercial ion pump power supplies provide a measure of the electrical current drawn by the pump, but typically have resolution to only {approx}0.1 uA, which corresponds to pressure {approx}10{sup -9} Torr, a value considerably higher than the minimum pressure required by photoguns and nearby beamline. This submission describes a very sensitive in-house-built ion pump power supply with current monitoring capability good to less than 1 nA, and corresponding pressure in the low-minus;10{sup -11} Torr range. Besides providing 'free' pressure monitoring on a scale equivalent to the best available commercial pressure gauges, the ion pump power supply also serves as a sensitive diagnostic for detecting field emission from the photogun cathode electrode and bad electron beam orbits that could diminish photogun operating lifetime. Since its inception, this ion pump power supply has become an invaluable tool for operating the CEBAF polarized electron source. It is also a very useful low-cost diagnostic for ultrahigh vacuum studies in the laboratory.

  7. High power tandem-pumped thulium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao; Yang, Jianlong; Huang, Chongyuan; Luo, Yongfeng; Wang, Shiwei; Tang, Yulong; Xu, Jianqiu

    2015-02-09

    We propose a cascaded tandem pumping technique and show its high power and high efficient operation in the 2-μm wavelength region, opening up a new way to scale the output power of the 2-μm fiber laser to new levels (e.g. 10 kW). Using a 1942 nm Tm(3+) fiber laser as the pump source with the co- (counter-) propagating configuration, the 2020 nm Tm(3+) fiber laser generates 34.68 W (35.15W) of output power with 84.4% (86.3%) optical-to-optical efficiency and 91.7% (92.4%) slope efficiency, with respect to launched pump power. It provides the highest slope efficiency reported for 2-μm Tm(3+)-doped fiber lasers, and the highest output power for all-fiber tandem-pumped 2-μm fiber oscillators. This system fulfills the complete structure of the proposed cascaded tandem pumping technique in the 2-μm wavelength region (~1900 nm → ~1940 nm → ~2020 nm). Numerical analysis is also carried out to show the power scaling capability and efficiency of the cascaded tandem pumping technique.

  8. Potential Coastal Pumped Hydroelectric Energy Storage Locations Identified using GIS-based Topographic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, R.; Barnhart, C. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale electrical energy storage could accommodate variable, weather dependent energy resources such as wind and solar. Pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHS) and compressed energy storage area (CAES) have life cycle energy and financial costs that are an order of magnitude lower than conventional electrochemical storage technologies. However PHS and CAES storage technologies require specific geologic conditions. Conventional PHS requires an upper and lower reservoir separated by at least 100 m of head, but no more than 10 km in horizontal distance. Conventional PHS also impacts fresh water supplies, riparian ecosystems, and hydrologic environments. A PHS facility that uses the ocean as the lower reservoir benefits from a smaller footprint, minimal freshwater impact, and the potential to be located near off shore wind resources and population centers. Although technologically nascent, today one coastal PHS facility exists. The storage potential for coastal PHS is unknown. Can coastal PHS play a significant role in augmenting future power grids with a high faction of renewable energy supply? In this study we employ GIS-based topographic analysis to quantify the coastal PHS potential of several geographic locations, including California, Chile and Peru. We developed automated techniques that seek local topographic minima in 90 m spatial resolution shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) digital elevation models (DEM) that satisfy the following criteria conducive to PHS: within 10 km from the sea; minimum elevation 150 m; maximum elevation 1000 m. Preliminary results suggest the global potential for coastal PHS could be very significant. For example, in northern Chile we have identified over 60 locations that satisfy the above criteria. Two of these locations could store over 10 million cubic meters of water or several GWh of energy. We plan to report a global database of candidate coastal PHS locations and to estimate their energy storage capacity.

  9. Low power integrated pumping and valving arrays for microfluidic systems

    DOEpatents

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Benett, William J.; Rose, Klint A.; Hamilton, Julie; Maghribi, Mariam

    2006-04-11

    Low power integrated pumping and valving arrays which provide a revolutionary approach for performing pumping and valving approach for performing pumping and valving operations in microfabricated fluidic systems for applications such as medical diagnostic microchips. Traditional methods rely on external, large pressure sources that defeat the advantages of miniaturization. Previously demonstrated microfabrication devices are power and voltage intensive, only function at sufficient pressure to be broadly applicable. This approach integrates a lower power, high-pressure source with a polymer, ceramic, or metal plug enclosed within a microchannel, analogous to a microsyringe. When the pressure source is activated, the polymer plug slides within the microchannel, pumping the fluid on the opposite side of the plug without allowing fluid to leak around the plug. The plugs also can serve as microvalves.

  10. Pumping power considerations in the designs of NASA-Redox flow cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    Pressure drop data for six different cell geometries of various flow port, manifold, and cavity dimensions are presented. The redox/energy/storage system uses two fully soluble redox couples as anode and cathode fluids. Both fluids are pumped through a redox cell, or stack of cells, where the electrochemical reactions take place at porous carbon felt electrodes. Pressure drop losses are therefore associated with this system due to the continuous flow of reactant solutions. The exact pressure drop within a redox flow cell is directly dependent on the flow rate as well as the various cell dimensions. Pumping power requirements for a specific set of cell operating conditions are found for various cell geometries once the flow rate and pressure drop are determined. These pumping power requirements contribute to the overall system parasitic energy losses which must be minimized, the choice of cell geometry becomes critical.

  11. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  12. Application of reactor-pumped lasers to power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Repetti, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    Power beaming is the concept of centralized power generation and distribution to remote users via energy beams such as microwaves or laser beams. The power beaming community is presently performing technical evaluations of available lasers as part of the design process for developing terrestrial and space-based power beaming systems. This report describes the suitability of employing a nuclear reactor-pumped laser in a power beaming system. Although there are several technical issues to be resolved, the power beaming community currently believes that the AlGaAs solid-state laser is the primary candidate for power beaming because that laser meets the many design criteria for such a system and integrates well with the GaAs photodiode receiver array. After reviewing the history and physics of reactor-pumped lasers, the advantages of these lasers for power beaming are discussed, along with several technical issues which are currently facing reactor-pumped laser research. The overriding conclusion is that reactor-pumped laser technology is not presently developed to the point of being technially or economically competitive with more mature solid-state technologies for application to power beaming. 58 refs.

  13. Application of reactor-pumped lasers to power beaming

    SciTech Connect

    Repetti, T.E.

    1991-10-01

    Power beaming is the concept of centralized power generation and distribution to remote users via energy beams such as microwaves or laser beams. The power beaming community is presently performing technical evaluations of available lasers as part of the design process for developing terrestrial and space-based power beaming systems. This report describes the suitability of employing a nuclear reactor-pumped laser in a power beaming system. Although there are several technical issues to be resolved, the power beaming community currently believes that the AlGaAs solid-state laser is the primary candidate for power beaming because that laser meets the many design criteria for such a system and integrates well with the GaAs photodiode receiver array. After reviewing the history and physics of reactor-pumped lasers, the advantages of these lasers for power beaming are discussed, along with several technical issues which are currently facing reactor-pumped laser research. The overriding conclusion is that reactor-pumped laser technology is not presently developed to the point of being technially or economically competitive with more mature solid-state technologies for application to power beaming. 58 refs.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power - Molten Salt Pump Development, Final Technical Report (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Michael McDowell; Alan Schwartz

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project is to develop a long shafted pump to operate at high temperatures for the purpose of producing energy with renewable resources. In Phase I of this three phase project we developed molten salt pump requirements, evaluated existing hardware designs for necessary modifications, developed a preliminary design of the pump concept, and developed refined cost estimates for Phase II and Phase III of the project. The decision has been made not to continue the project into Phases II and III. There is an ever increasing world-wide demand for sources of energy. With only a limited supply of fossil fuels, and with the costs to obtain and produce those fuels increasing, sources of renewable energy must be found. Currently, capturing the sun's energy is expensive compared to heritage fossil fuel energy production. However, there are government requirements on Industry to increase the amount of energy generated from renewable resources. The objective of this project is to design, build and test a long-shafted, molten salt pump. This is the type of pump necessary for a molten salt thermal storage system in a commercial-scale solar trough plant. This project is under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technologies Program, managed by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. To reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and to meet the requirements of 'tomorrows' demand, technical innovations are needed. The DOE is committed to reducing the LCOE to 7-10 cents/kWh by 2015, and to 5-7 cents/kWh by 2020. To accomplish these goals, the performance envelope for commercial use of long-shafted molten salt pumps must be expanded. The intent of this project is to verify acceptable operation of pump components in the type of molten salt (thermal storage medium) used in commercial power plants today. Field testing will be necessary to verify the integrity of the pump design, and thus reduce the risk to industry. While the primary goal is to

  15. Reducing pump power consumption by 40% (1000 kw) through improved pump management in a central plant

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, S.; Liu, M.; Turner, D.

    1998-07-01

    Chilled water system data collection and field measurements performed at the Central Utility Plant of Texas A and M University (TAMU) in College Station, Texas revealed that 30--50 % of the primary pump head is consumed by manual and automatic valves being operated in a partially-opened condition. A comprehensive analysis was performed to develop an improved pump management schedule. The results show potential savings of up to 40% of the pump power consumption without any capital investment. The optimized schedule is being implemented. This paper describes the method and presents results of the analysis and implementation.

  16. High power continuous-wave Alexandrite laser with green pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, Shirin; Major, Arkady

    2016-07-01

    We report on a continuous-wave (CW) Alexandrite (Cr:BeAl2O4) laser, pumped by a high power green source at 532 nm with a diffraction limited beam. An output power of 2.6 W at 755 nm, a slope efficiency of 26%, and wavelength tunability of 85 nm have been achieved using 11 W of green pump. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest CW output power of a high brightness laser pumped Alexandrite laser reported to date. The results obtained in this experiment can lead to the development of a high power tunable CW and ultrafast sources of the near-infrared or ultraviolet radiation through frequency conversion.

  17. Self-Powered Adaptive Switched Architecture Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mahboubi, F.; Bafleur, M.; Boitier, V.; Alvarez, A.; Colomer, J.; Miribel, P.; Dilhac, J.-M.

    2016-11-01

    Ambient energy harvesting coupled to storage is a way to improve the autonomy of wireless sensors networks. Moreover, in some applications with harsh environment or when a long service lifetime is required, the use of batteries is prohibited. Ultra-capacitors provide in this case a good alternative for energy storage. Such storage must comply with the following requirements: a sufficient voltage during the initial charge must be rapidly reached, a significant amount of energy should be stored and the unemployed residual energy must be minimised at discharge. To answer these apparently contradictory criteria, we propose a selfadaptive switched architecture consisting of a matrix of switched ultra-capacitors. We present the results of a self-powered adaptive prototype that shows the improvement in terms of charge time constant, energy utilization rate and then energy autonomy.

  18. 18. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY OIL PUMPS POWERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LOWER OIL ROOM DIABLO POWERHOUSE: GRAVITY OIL PUMPS POWERED BY LINCOLN AC MOTORS ON THE RIGHT AND TURBINE AIR DRY APPARATUS ON THE LEFT, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 6.1 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. Diode pumped alkali vapor lasers for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweiback, J.; Krupke, B.; Komashko, A.

    2008-02-01

    General Atomics has been engaged in the development of diode pumped alkali vapor lasers. We have been examining the design space looking for designs that are both efficient and easily scalable to high powers. Computationally, we have looked at the effect of pump bandwidth on laser performance. We have also looked at different lasing species. We have used an alexandrite laser to study the relative merits of different designs. We report on the results of our experimental and computational studies.

  20. High power CW iodine laser pumped by solar simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Lee, Min H.; Weaver, Willard R.

    1987-01-01

    An iodine photodissociation laser was pumped by a long Ar arc as the solar simulator to produce a 10-W CW output. Continuous lasing for 1 h was achieved with a flow of the laser material n-C3F7I. The 10-W CW output is the highest produced to date and establishes the feasibility of developing a solar-pumped laser for space power transmission.

  1. Enzyme-Powered Pumps: From Fundamentals to Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, Isamar

    Non-mechanical nano and microfluidic devices that function without the aid of an external power source, and can be tailored to meet specific needs, represent the next generation of smart devices. Recently, we have shown that surface-bound enzymes can act as pumps driving large-scale fluid flows in the presence of any substance that triggers the enzymatic reaction (e.g. substrate, co-factor, or biomarker). The fluid velocities attained in such systems depend directly on the enzymatic reaction rate and the concentration of the substance that initiates enzymatic catalysis. The use of biochemical reactions to power a micropump offers the advantages of specificity, sensitivity, and selectively, eliminating at the same time the need of an external power source, while providing biocompatibility. More importantly, these self-powered pumps overcome a significant obstacle in nano- and micro-fluidics: the need to use external pressure-driven pumps to push fluids through devices. Certainly, the development of enzyme-powered devices opens up new venues in biochemical engineering, particularly in the biomedical field. The work highlighted in this dissertation covers all the studies performed with enzyme-powered pumps, from the development of the micropump design, to the efforts invested in understanding the enzyme pump concept as a whole. The data collected to date, aims to expand our knowledge about enzyme-powered micropumps from the inside out: not only by exploring the different applications of these devices at the macroscale, but also by investigating in depth the mechanism of pump activation behind these systems. Specifically, we have focused on: (1) The general features that characterize the pumping behavior observed in enzyme-powered pumps, as well as the optimization of the device, (2) the possible mechanisms behind fluid motion, including the role of enzyme coverage and/or activity on the transduction of chemical energy into mechanical fluid flow in these devices

  2. High Average Power Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers: Power Scaling With High Spectral and Spatial Coherence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    TEM00 -mode, diode - laser - pumped , Nd:YAG miniature-slab laser ,” Opt. Lett...30-Sep-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER High Average Power Diode - Pumped Solid-State Lasers : Power DAAD19-02-1-0184 Scaling with High...documentation. 14. ABSTRACT The main program objective was the development ofa kilowatt class, cw Nd:YAG diode - laser - pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL)

  3. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. ELEVATIONS. CONCRETE VAULT FOR BRINE PITS. CONCRETE BLOCK BUILDING FOR BRINE PUMPS. CONCRETE PIPE TRENCH. BLAW-KNOX 3150-808-3, 1/1951. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100677. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. A [open quotes]green[close quotes] plan for pumped-storage projects

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, C.H. )

    1991-12-01

    Environmental issues are expected to play a major role in the development of future pumped-storage projects. It's the responsibility of the project developer to proactively address and then mitigate for environmental effects. Consolidated Pumped Storage, Inc. (CPS), a subsidiary of Consolidated Hydro, Inc., has had recent experience addressing environmental issues at two proposed pumped-storage developments: the 1,500-MW Summit Pumped-Storage Hydroelectric Project in Ohio and the 600-MW River Mountain Pumped-Storage Project in Arkansas. Thus far in the licensing process, both projects have passed environmental scrutiny. Formulating an environmentally acceptable pumped-storage project is a complex process that requires the developer to: identify and document all possible environmental effects; communicate with and respond to resource agencies and the public; and propose measures to mitigate effects and to enhance existing resources. CPS's experience has been that money spent up front in carefully addressing environmental and community issues is a small price to pay for avoiding serious public opposition later on in the licensing process.

  5. Solar-powered rankine cycle pumping engine

    SciTech Connect

    Spacer, J.P.

    1988-01-26

    A heat engine is described comprising: (a) a source of heating fluid; (b) a two phase working fluid; (c) a first heat exchanger for heating the working fluid with energy from the heating fluid; (d) first double acting cylinder means comprising opposing ends, and a piston which reciprocates within the cylinder means between the ends, the piston being affixed to a piston rod which extends through at least one of the ends; (e) means for doing work operably connected to the piston rod; (f) means connected to the first heat exchanger for passing only working fluid above predetermined pressure and temperature; (g) a pair of three-way valves positioned between the first cylinder means and the working fluid passing means and between the first cylinder means and a second heat exchanger; (h) condenser means; (i) double acting cylinder circulating pump means for pumping the working fluid through a working loop, and (j) means for operating the three-way valves to control working fluid entry into and exit from the first double acting cylinder means to cause the heat engine to do work.

  6. Report on technical feasibility of underground pumped hydroelectric storage in a marble quarry site in the Northeast United States

    SciTech Connect

    Chas. T. Main, Inc.

    1982-03-01

    The technical and economic aspects of constructing a very high head underground hydroelectric pumped storage were examined at a prefeasibility level. Excavation of existing caverns in the West Rutland Vermont marble quarry would be used to construct the underground space. A plant capacity of 1200 MW and 12 h of continuous capacity were chosen as plant operating conditions. The site geology, plant design, and electrical and mechanical equipment required were considered. The study concluded that the cost of the 1200 MW underground pumped storage hydro electric project at this site even with the proposed savings from marketable material amounts to between $581 and $595 per kilowatt of installed capacity on a January 1982 pricing level. System studies performed by the planning group of the New England Power System indicate that the system could economically justify up to about $442 per kilowatt on an energy basis with no credit for capacity. To accommodate the plant with the least expensive pumping energy, a coal and nuclear generation mix of approximately 65% would have to be available before the project becomes feasible. It is not expected that this condition can be met before the year 2000 or beyond. It is therefore concluded that the West Rutland underground pumped storage facility is uneconomic at this time. Several variables however could have marked influence on future planning and should be examined on periodic basis.

  7. High-power synchronously pumped femtosecond Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Churin, D; Olson, J; Norwood, R A; Peyghambarian, N; Kieu, K

    2015-06-01

    We report a high-power synchronously pumped femtosecond Raman fiber laser operating in the normal dispersion regime. The Raman laser is pumped by a picosecond Yb(3+)-doped fiber laser. It produces highly chirped pulses with energy up to 18 nJ, average power of 0.76 W and 88% efficiency. The pulse duration is measured to be 147 fs after external compression. We observed two different regimes of operation of the laser: coherent and noise-like regime. Both regimes were experimentally characterized. Numerical simulations are in a good agreement with experimental results.

  8. A theoretical model of a molecular-motor-powered pump.

    PubMed

    Bull, Joseph L; Hunt, Alan J; Meyhöfer, Edgar

    2005-03-01

    The motion of a cylindrical bead in a fluid contained within a two-dimensional channel is investigated using the boundary element method as a model of a biomolecular-motor-powered microfluidics pump. The novelty of the pump lies in the use of motor proteins (kinesin) to power the bead motion and the few moving parts comprising the pump. The performance and feasibility of this pump design is investigated using two model geometries: a straight channel, and a curved channel with two concentric circular walls. In the straight channel geometry, it is shown that increasing the bead radius relative to the channel width, increases the flow rate at the expense of increasing the force the kinesins must generate in order to move the bead. Pump efficiency is generally higher for larger bead radii, and larger beads can support higher imposed loads. In the circular channel geometry, it is shown that bead rotation modifies the force required to move the bead and that shifting the bead inward slightly reduces the required force. Bead rotation has a minimal effect on flow rate. Recirculation regions, which can develop between the bead and the channel walls, influence the stresses and force on the bead. These results suggest this pump design is feasible, and the kinesin molecules provide sufficient force to deliver pico- to atto- l/s flows.

  9. Integration of Variable Speed Pumped Hydro Storage in Automatic Generation Control Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulgêncio, N.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.

    2017-04-01

    Pumped storage power (PSP) plants are expected to be an important player in modern electrical power systems when dealing with increasing shares of new renewable energies (NRE) such as solar or wind power. The massive penetration of NRE and consequent replacement of conventional synchronous units will significantly affect the controllability of the system. In order to evaluate the capability of variable speed PSP plants participation in the frequency restoration reserve (FRR) provision, taking into account the expected performance in terms of improved ramp response capability, a comparison with conventional hydro units is presented. In order to address this issue, a three area test network was considered, as well as the corresponding automatic generation control (AGC) systems, being responsible for re-dispatching the generation units to re-establish power interchange between areas as well as the system nominal frequency. The main issue under analysis in this paper is related to the benefits of the fast response of variable speed PSP with respect to its capability of providing fast power balancing in a control area.

  10. Potential for a Danish power system using wind energy generators, solar cells and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blegaa, S.; Christiansen, G.

    1981-10-01

    Performance characteristics of a combined solar/wind power system equipped with storage and an unspecified back-up power source are studied on the basis of meteorological data in Denmark from 1959-1972. A model for annual production and storage from wind/solar installations is presented, assuming 12% efficiency for the solar cells and various power coefficients of the windmills, in addition to long and short-term storage. Noting that no correlation between wind and solar energy availability was found, and a constant ratio of 60% wind/40% solar was determined to be the optimum mix for large scale power production without taking into consideration the variations among years. It is concluded that 80-90% of the total Danish electrical load can be covered by solar/wind systems, and 100% may be possible with the addition of pumped hydroelectric storage.

  11. Assessment of high-head turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, S. W.; Frigo, A. A.; Blomquist, C. A.

    Underground pumped hydroelectric storage (UPHS) plants equipped with advanced reversible pump turbines for operating heads from 500 to 1500 m are discussed in terms of cost efficiency. It is found that the use of advanced machinery shifts the minimum UPHS plant cost to the head range 1200-1500 m. The interactive effects of pump-turbine efficiencies and charge/discharge ratios are examined. It is shown that under certain conditions, a pump-turbine option with a higher charge-discharge ratio at the expense of somewhat lower operating efficiency may be desirable.

  12. Renewable power needs smart storage solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2010-10-24

    Ancient Greek philosopher Heraclitus claimed that the only thing constant in life is change, a truth we must accept and even celebrate. Another truth we face today is a growing demand for more energy to help us power the kind and pace of change we’ve become accustomed to, while minimizing environmental consequences. Renewable energy--two words that often find themselves woven into environmentally conscious dialogue. And according to Dave Lucero, director of alternative energy storage at EaglePicher Technologies LLC, the Tri-Cities should be thinking about two more: energy storage. Lucero recently addressed the Tri-Cities Research District about tackling the persistent challenge of maximizing renewable energy, which is inherently variable due to changing weather patterns. Capturing that energy and making it available for later use is vital.

  13. Wind-powered heat pump experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, D. C.

    1983-05-01

    An evaluation of an automotive type freon compressor demonstrated that such a device could be operated at slow speeds (600 to 1200 rpm) and still produce useful amounts of heat transfer. This device was evaluated and output measured by temprature measurements made on tanks of water in which the condenser and evaporator coils were immersed. The second portion of the project was to have a demonstration using a wind turbine as the motive power and construction of a full scale system. However, after several different attempts to construct a working system, the work had to be terminated because the device to convert the wind power to mechanical power for turning the compressor could never be successfully operated for any extended perod of time. A description of the work completed and the reasons for failures of the concept are delineated.

  14. Wind-powered heat pump experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, D.C.

    1983-05-01

    The work described in this report was completed in two parts. The first part was an evaluation of an automotive type freon compressor, which demonstrated that such a device could be operated at slow speeds (600 to 1200 rpm) and still produce useful amounts of heat transfer. This device was evaluated and output measured by temperature measurements made on tanks of water in which the condenser and evaporator coils were immersed. The second portion of the project was to have been a demonstration using a wind turbine as the motive power and construction of a full scale system. However, after several different attempts to construct a working system, the work had to be terminated because the device to convert the wind power to mechanical power for turning the compressor coud never be successfully operated for any extended period of time. A description of the work completed and the reasons for the failure of the concept are delineated.

  15. Heat pump water heater and storage tank assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dieckmann, John T.; Nowicki, Brian J.; Teagan, W. Peter; Zogg, Robert

    1999-09-07

    A water heater and storage tank assembly comprises a housing defining a chamber, an inlet for admitting cold water to the chamber, and an outlet for permitting flow of hot water from the chamber. A compressor is mounted on the housing and is removed from the chamber. A condenser comprises a tube adapted to receive refrigerant from the compressor, and winding around the chamber to impart heat to water in the chamber. An evaporator is mounted on the housing and removed from the chamber, the evaporator being adapted to receive refrigerant from the condenser and to discharge refrigerant to conduits in communication with the compressor. An electric resistance element extends into the chamber, and a thermostat is disposed in the chamber and is operative to sense water temperature and to actuate the resistance element upon the water temperature dropping to a selected level. The assembly includes a first connection at an external end of the inlet, a second connection at an external end of the outlet, and a third connection for connecting the resistance element, compressor and evaporator to an electrical power source.

  16. Power transmitting device for an oil well pump

    SciTech Connect

    Wissink, R. L.; Munsch, J. A.

    1984-11-27

    A power transmitting device for an oil well pump of the type which utilizes a rotating power source and provides an input capable of operating a pair of cranks for driving a reciprocating pump. The power transmitting device includes a first speed reducer having an input shaft with a pinion bevel gear mounted thereon with the input shaft being operably connected to the power source. The first speed reducer also includes a ring bevel gear in meshing engagement with the pinion bevel gear which is fixedly mounted on a intermediate location of a rotatable output shaft. The output shaft operates a second speed reducer at each end thereon which is capable of providing an output which can be directly coupled to the cranks. The invention includes a method of manufacturing utilizing a number of existing components.

  17. High-power optically pumped semiconductor laser apllications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, S. Brandon

    2011-03-01

    OPS lasers have found applications in various industrial and scientific laser applications due to their power scaling capability, their wide range of emission wavelengths, physical size and their superior reliability. This paper provides an overview of commercially available OPS lasers and the applications in which they are used including biotechnology, medical, holography, Titanium-Sapphire laser pumping, non-lethal defense, forensics, and entertainment.

  18. Electromagnetic pump stator frame having power crossover struts

    DOEpatents

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1995-01-01

    A stator frame for an electromagnetic pump includes a casing joined to a hub by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. At least one electrically insulated power crossover lead extends through the hub, through a crossover one of the struts, and through the casing for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  19. Development of nonmetallic solar collector and solar-powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Design and building of two unique components for solar heating (1. flatplate solar collector using no metal components, and 2. solar powered pump for heating and cooling systems are outlined in report. Report also discusses hardware, deliverable end items, problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and performance certification.

  20. Power Factor Improvement for Pumping Stations using Capacitor Banks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Abd El-gawad, Amal F.; Ramadan, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems affects the performance of pumping stations is its relative high operational cost. As three-phase induction motors are the main prime mover of pumping stations and considered the most widely used electrical motors due to their reliability, ease of maintenance. However, its major problem is the low power factor which results in high electric energy consumption. Energy will be saved when power factor is improved. The main objective of this paper is studying the power factor improvement in El sadaa Pumping Station because of its low operating efficiency which goes from 20 % to 25 %and calculating penalty, ponus and savings in each cases. The correction is achieved by the addition of capacitor banks in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied to the starter, applied at the switchboard or the distribution panel. A model of this station is created using MatlabTM Simulink. Then the determination of induction motor parameters is performed. The station model is discussed. From the simulation results, the power factor enhancement of the pumping station is highlighted.

  1. Further development of high-power pump laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Berthold; Lichtenstein, Norbert; Sverdlov, Boris; Matuschek, Nicolai; Mohrdiek, Stefan; Pliska, Tomas; Mueller, Juergen; Pawlik, Susanne; Arlt, Sebastian; Pfeiffer, Hans-Ulrich; Fily, Arnaud; Harder, Christoph

    2003-12-01

    AlGaAs/InGaAs based high power pump laser diodes with wavelength of around 980 nm are key products within erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA) for today's long haul and metro-communication networks, whereas InGaAsP/InP based laser diodes with 14xx nm emission wavelength are relevant for advanced, but not yet widely-used Raman amplifiers. Due to the changing industrial environment cost reduction becomes a crucial factor in the development of new, pump modules. Therefore, pump laser chips were aggressively optimized in terms of power conversion and thermal stability, which allows operation without active cooling at temperatures exceeding 70°C. In addition our submarine-reliable single mode technology was extended to high power multi-mode laser diodes. These light sources can be used in the field of optical amplifiers as well as for medical, printing and industrial applications. Improvements of pump laser diodes in terms of power conversion efficiency, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) locking performance of single mode devices, noise reduction and reliability will be presented.

  2. 9xx high power pump modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, Susanne; Sverdlov, Boris; Bättig, Rainer; Schmidt, Berthold; Pfeiffer, Hans-Ulrich; Arlt, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Norbert; Müller, Jürgen; Troger, Jörg; Valk, Bernd; Harder, Christoph

    2006-02-01

    In this communication we present the characteristics of Bookham's MU7-9xx-01 laser module with multimode fiber output. This latest generation of our multimode modules is designed for light output power of up to 7 W in uncooled operation in the wavelength range between 915 nm and 975 nm. The key element of the module is our new SES8-9xx-01 broad area single emitter. These high power lasers in the 9xx nm wavelength range show a high slope efficiency of up to 1.2 W/A in CW room temperature operation. High efficiency combined with low threshold current and low operation voltage result in a maximum wall plug efficiency of above 65%. Almost 4000 h lifetest data at accelerated conditions are available for the laser diodes. The data give estimated reliability values of below 5 kFIT at operating conditions (between 8 A and 8.5 A injection current at up to 35°C heat sink temperature). The robustness of the new lasers is also illustrated by the fact that no catastrophic mirror damage was observed up to 22.5 W of light output power. The low divergence of the laser beam allows coupling into multimode fiber with 0.15 or 0.22 numerical aperture (NA) with a coupling efficiency above 90% at operation condition. Maximum ex-fiber light output powers of 11.5 W are shown. On module level around 2000 h lifetest data are accumulated without any failure or sign of degradation.

  3. Coolidge solar powered irrigation pumping project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A 150 kW solar thermal electric power plant which includes over 2100 square meters of parabolic trough type collectors and an organic Rankine cycle turbine engine was constructed on an irrigated farm. The plant is interconnected with the electrical utility grid. Operation is providing an evaluation of equipment performance and operating and maintenance requirements as well as the desirability of an on farm location.

  4. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; McDonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-02-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  5. High power diode lasers for solid-state laser pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, Kurt J.; Mcdonnell, Patrick N.

    1994-01-01

    The development and commercial application of high power diode laser arrays for use as solid-state laser pumps is described. Such solid-state laser pumps are significantly more efficient and reliable than conventional flash-lamps. This paper describes the design and fabrication of diode lasers emitting in the 780 - 900 nm spectral region, and discusses their performance and reliability. Typical measured performance parameters include electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiencies of 50 percent, narrow-band spectral emission of 2 to 3 nm FWHM, pulsed output power levels of 50 watts/bar with reliability values of over 2 billion shots to date (tests to be terminated after 10 billion shots), and reliable operation to pulse lengths of 1 ms. Pulse lengths up to 5 ms have been demonstrated at derated power levels, and CW performance at various power levels has been evaluated in a 'bar-in-groove' laser package. These high-power 1-cm stacked-bar arrays are now being manufactured for OEM use. Individual diode laser bars, ready for package-mounting by OEM customers, are being sold as commodity items. Commercial and medical applications of these laser arrays include solid-state laser pumping for metal-working, cutting, industrial measurement and control, ranging, wind-shear/atmospheric turbulence detection, X-ray generation, materials surface cleaning, microsurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and dental procedures.

  6. The geothermal analog of pumped storage for electrical demand load following

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    A 6-day cyclic Load-Following Experiment, conducted in July 1995 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test site in north-central New Mexico, has verified that an HDR geothermal reservoir has the capability for a significant, and very rapid, increase in thermal power output upon demand. The objective of the Load-Following Experiment was to study the behavior of the Fenton Hill HDR reservoir in a high-production-backpressure (2,200 psi) baseload operating condition when there was superimposed a demand for significantly increased power production for a 4-hour period each day. In practice, this enhanced production--an increase of about 65%--was accomplished by a programmed decrease in the production well backpressure over 4 hours, from an initial value of 2,200 psi down to about 500 psi. This rapid depressurization of the wellbore during the period of enhanced production resulted in the draining of a portion of the fluid stored in the pressure-dilated joints surrounding the production well. These joints were then gradually reinflated during the following 20-hour period of high-backpressure baseload operation. In essence, the HDR reservoir was acting as a fluid capacitor, being discharged for 4 hours and then slowly recharged during the subsequent 20 hours of baseload operation. In this mode of operation, there would be no increase required in the reservoir size or number of wells for a significant amount of peaking power production for a few hours each day. Therefore, one of the advantages of geothermal load following over other utility options such as pumped storage or compressed air energy storage is that the HDR power plant would be operated during off-peak hours in a baseload mode, with an augmented return on investment compared to these other peaking systems which would normally not be operated during off-peak periods.

  7. Fabrication and test of a space power boiler feed electromagnetic pump. Part 1: Design and manufacture of pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gahan, J. W.; Powell, A. H.; Pileggi, P. T.; Thompson, S. P.

    1972-01-01

    A three-phase helical induction electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and built. This pump was designed for use as the boiler-feed pump of a potassium Rankine-cycle space electric power system. The pump is constructed of high temperature materials including a T-111 duct, Hiperco 27 magnetic material, nickel clad silver conductor wire, and a completely inorganic insulation system. The pump is designed to deliver 3.25 lb/sec potassium at 1000 F with a developed head of 240 psi while being cooled by 800 F NaK. At these conditions, the overall pump efficiency is expected to be 18%.

  8. A study of pump power absorption efficiency of a diode side-pumped thin disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei-rong; Feng, Chi; Li, Qiang; Yan, Le-lun; Jiang, Meng-hua

    2011-06-01

    A method computing the absorption efficiency with the difference between pump power entering the thin disk and pump power transmitted through the disk is introduced. Compared with directly computing the absorbed power, the method presented here needs much less computation to achieve the same accuracy, making it possible to compare much more absorption efficiency values at higher accuracy with a few parameters varied within certain ranges. Nonabsorption loss values were calculated with absorption coefficient, array distance and round disk radius varied within certain ranges. Results of calculation showed that the nonabsorption loss generally increases with increasing array distance, decreases with increasing round disk radius and decreases with increasing absorption coefficient. The method introduced by this paper presents a theoretical reference for the optimal design of thin disk lasers.

  9. High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.

    1994-07-01

    Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.

  10. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  11. Solar-powered Rankine heat pump for heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, J.

    1978-01-01

    The design, operation and performance of a familyy of solar heating and cooling systems are discussed. The systems feature a reversible heat pump operating with R-11 as the working fluid and using a motor-driven centrifugal compressor. In the cooling mode, solar energy provides the heat source for a Rankine power loop. The system is operational with heat source temperatures ranging from 155 to 220 F; the estimated coefficient of performance is 0.7. In the heating mode, the vapor-cycle heat pump processes solar energy collected at low temperatures (40 to 80 F). The speed of the compressor can be adjusted so that the heat pump capacity matches the load, allowing a seasonal coefficient of performance of about 8 to be attained.

  12. Designs for a TFTR full-power pumped limiter

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.

    1986-10-01

    A pumped-limiter system which would provide increased particle control and enhance the performance of full-power discharges is being considered for TFTR. The system consists of two toroidal belts located near the Zirconium-Aluminium (ZrAl) getter panels. The limiter blades would be made of carbon/carbon composite in order to have a very thin profile, allowing a large fraction of the scrape-off flux to be pumped. Simulations of the plasma scrape-off and neutral transport indicate that the limiter pumping should reduce the recycling coefficient by 10 to 25%. Simulations of central plasma processes indicate that the lowered recycling could increase Q/sub fusion/ by more than 100%. This paper discusses the designs and the performance predictions for the system.

  13. Modular pump head design of diffused, metal, and hybrid pump geometry for diode-side-pumped high power Nd:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Sundar, R; Ranganathan, K; Hedaoo, P; Bindra, K S

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, we present a comparative study on pump heads for a high power diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser. The pump head is a modular type, which is in the form of discs, with each disc holding three pump diodes kept at 120° with respect to each other. Unabsorbed pump light from the active medium is reflected by reflectors mounted adjacent to the pump diodes. The performance of a high power pump head made of modular discs mounted with specular or diffused type reflectors was studied. Hybrid pump geometry was also investigated, where the pump head is made up of discs loaded with metal and diffused reflectors, alternately. The discs are loaded around the active medium in such a way that successive discs are rotated by sixty degrees with respect to each other. Fluorescence profiles, thermal lensing, laser output power, and M2 values were studied for pump heads made up of metal, diffused, and hybrid type reflectors. All of the pump heads were studied for three different resonator lengths to maximize the output power with the best beam quality. The experimental results show that the diffused reflector-based geometry in a sixty degree rotated configuration produced the maximum output power and best beam quality in terms of the M2 value.

  14. WEAPONS STORAGE AREA, LOOKING TOWARD ELECTRIC POWER STATION BUILDING (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEAPONS STORAGE AREA, LOOKING TOWARD ELECTRIC POWER STATION BUILDING (BUILDING 3583), STORAGE BUILDING (BUILDING 3584)NIGHT AND SECURITY POLICE ENTRY CONTROL (BUILDING 3582)LEFT. VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. [Response of Algae to Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentration and Quantity of Pumping Water in Pumped Storage Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Wan, You-peng; Yin, Kui-hao; Peng, Sheng-hua

    2015-06-01

    Taking a pumped storage reservoir located in southern China as the research object, the paper established a three-dimensional hydrodynamic and eutrophication model of the reservoir employing EFDC (environmental fluid dynamics code) model, calibrated and verified the model using long-term hydraulic and water quality data. Based on the model results, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the algae growth were analyzed, and the response of algae to nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and quantity of pumping water was also calculated. The results showed that the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations had little limit on algae growth rate in the reservoir. In the nutrients reduction scenarios, reducing phosphorus would gain greater algae biomass reduction than reducing nitrogen. When reducing 60 percent of nitrogen, the algae biomass did not decrease, while 12.4 percent of algae biomass reduction could be gained with the same reduction ratio of phosphorus. When the reduction ratio went to 90 percent, the algae biomass decreased by 17.9 percent and 35.1 percent for nitrogen and phosphorus reduction, respectively. In the pumping water quantity regulation scenarios, the algae biomass decreased with the increasing pumping water quantity when the pumping water quantity was greater than 20 percent of the current value; when it was less than 20 percent, the algae biomass increased with the increasing pumping water quantity. The algae biomass decreased by 25.7 percent when the pumping water quantity was doubled, and increased by 38.8 percent when it decreased to 20 percent. The study could play an important role in supporting eutrophication controlling in water source area.

  16. Solar heat pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanson, R.

    Brief discussions of the major components of a solar powered, chemical ground source heat pump are presented. The components discussed are the solar collectors and the chemical heat storage battery. Sodium sulfide is the medium used for heat storage. Catalog information which provides a description of all of the heat pump systems is included.

  17. Alkaline fuel cells for prime power and energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedman, J. K.

    Alkaline fuel cell technology and its application to future space missions requiring high power and energy storage are discussed. Energy densities exceeding 100 watthours per pound and power densities approaching 0.5 pounds per kilowatt are calculated for advanced systems. Materials research to allow reversible operation of cells for energy storage and higher temperature operation for peaking power is warranted.

  18. High Power 938nm Cladding Pumped Fiber Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Beach, R; Brobshoff, A; Liao, Z; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Taylor, L; Hackenberg, W; Bonaccini, D

    2002-12-26

    We have developed a Nd:doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier, which operates at 938nm with greater than 2W of output power. The core co-dopants were specifically chosen to enhance emission at 938nm. The fiber was liquid nitrogen cooled in order to achieve four-level laser operation on a laser transition that is normally three level at room temperature, thus permitting efficient cladding pumping of the amplifier. Wavelength selective attenuation was induced by bending the fiber around a mandrel, which permitted near complete suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm. We are presently seeking to scale the output of this laser to 10W. We will discuss the fiber and laser design issues involved in scaling the laser to the 10W power level and present our most recent results.

  19. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a microgrid

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Wilson, David; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-08-01

    An electric power storage device included in a microgrid is described herein. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for the microgrid. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the microgrid and specified load parameters in the microgrid.

  20. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary design study of water compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations was performed. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented.

  1. An investigation of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ibrahim, A.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.; Beckman, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    The performance of photovoltaic powered pumps in direct solar domestic hot water (PV-SDHW) systems has been studied. The direct PV- SDHW system employs a photovoltaic array, a separately excited DC- motor, a centrifugal pump, a thermal collector, and a storage tank. A search methodology for an optimum PV-SDHW system configuration has been proposed. A comparison is made between the long-term performance of a PV-SDHW system and a conventional SDHW system operating under three control schemes. The three schemes are: an ON-OFF flow controlled SDHW system operating at the manufacturer-recommended constant flow rate, and a linear proportional flow controlled SDHW system with the flow proportional to the solar radiation operating under an optimum proportionality. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Role of pump hydro in electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, R.; Moreira, C.; Silva, B.; Filipe, J.; Fulgêncio, N.

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an overview of the expected role that variable speed hydro power plants can have in future electric power systems characterized by a massive integration of highly variable sources. Therefore, it is discussed the development of a methodology for optimising the operation of hydropower plants under increasing contribution from new renewable energy sources, addressing the participation of a hydropower plant with variable speed pumping in reserve markets. Complementarily, it is also discussed the active role variable speed generators can have in the provision of advanced frequency regulation services.

  3. A fermentation-powered thermopneumatic pump for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Manuel; Ziaie, Babak

    2012-10-21

    We present a microorganism-powered thermopneumatic pump that utilizes temperature-dependent slow-kinetics gas (carbon dioxide) generating fermentation of yeast as a pressure source. The pump consists of stacked layers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a silicon substrate that form a drug reservoir, and a yeast-solution-filled working chamber. The pump operates by the displacement of a drug due to the generation of gas produced via yeast fermentation carried out at skin temperatures. The robustness of yeast allows for long shelf life under extreme environmental conditions (50 °C, >250 MPa, 5-8% humidity). The generation of carbon dioxide is a linear function of time for a given temperature, thus allowing for a controlled volume displacement. A polymeric prototype (dimensions 15 mm × 15 mm × 10 mm) with a slow flow rate of <0.23 μL min(-1) and maximum backpressure of 5.86 kPa capable of continuously pumping for over two hours is presented and characterized.

  4. Solar Pumped High Power Solid State Laser for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Laycock, Rustin L.; Green, Jason J. A.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Frederick, Kevin B.; Phillips, Dane J.

    2004-01-01

    Highly coherent laser light provides a nearly optimal means of transmitting power in space. The simplest most direct means of converting sunlight to coherent laser light is a solar pumped laser oscillator. A key need for broadly useful space solar power is a robust solid state laser oscillator capable of operating efficiently in near Earth space at output powers in the multi hundred kilowatt range. The principal challenges in realizing such solar pumped laser oscillators are: (1) the need to remove heat from the solid state laser material without introducing unacceptable thermal shock, thermal lensing, or thermal stress induced birefringence to a degree that improves on current removal rates by several orders of magnitude and (2) to introduce sunlight at an effective concentration (kW/sq cm of laser cross sectional area) that is several orders of magnitude higher than currently available while tolerating a pointing error of the spacecraft of several degrees. We discuss strategies for addressing these challenges. The need to remove the high densities of heat, e.g., 30 kW/cu cm, while keeping the thermal shock, thermal lensing and thermal stress induced birefringence loss sufficiently low is addressed in terms of a novel use of diamond integrated with the laser material, such as Ti:sapphire in a manner such that the waste heat is removed from the laser medium in an axial direction and in the diamond in a radial direction. We discuss means for concentrating sunlight to an effective areal density of the order of 30 kW/sq cm. The method integrates conventional imaging optics, non-imaging optics and nonlinear optics. In effect we use a method that combines some of the methods of optical pumping solid state materials and optical fiber, but also address laser media having areas sufficiently large, e.g., 1 cm diameter to handle the multi-hundred kilowatt level powers needed for space solar power.

  5. BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA631. LAYOUT PLAN, SECTIONS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRINE STORAGE PIT AND PUMP HOUSE, TRA-631. LAYOUT PLAN, SECTIONS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-8-2, 10/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0608-00-098-100016, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. 76 FR 15971 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project; Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, April 15, 2011 at 9 a.m. (Pacific Time). b...

  7. 76 FR 22699 - Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Mountain Pumped Storage Hydroelectric Project, Eagle Crest Energy; Notice of Teleconference a. Date and Time of Meeting: Friday, May 6, 2011 at 1 p.m. (Pacific Time). b...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  10. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  11. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  12. 30 CFR 57.4262 - Underground transformer stations, combustible liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... liquid storage and dispensing areas, pump rooms, compressor rooms, and hoist rooms. 57.4262 Section 57.4262 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire...

  13. 76 FR 70440 - Haiwee Ridge Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Ridge Pumped Storage Project to be located on South Haiwee reservoir, near the town of Olancha, Inyo... at elevation 3,766 feet above mean sea level (msl), but the water level in the reservoir is limited... Haiwee Alternative A: (1) An upper reservoir formed by a 160- foot-high by 2,270-foot-long,...

  14. Integrating energy storage with wind power in weak electricity grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowall, Jim

    Energy storage is required to match wind generation to consumption. This time shifting can be accomplished with several hours of storage, but studies have shown that the economic value of such storage systems is unlikely to support their widespread use. This does not mean that the outlook is uniformly bleak for storage with wind power. This paper discusses storage systems ranging from a few seconds of run time to several hours, and provides a rationale for the use of systems with several minutes of run time to support a high penetration of wind power into weak electricity grids.

  15. THERMOCHEMICAL HEAT STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

    SciTech Connect

    PROJECT STAFF

    2011-10-31

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is an integral part of a concentrated solar power (CSP) system. It enables plant operators to generate electricity beyond on sun hours and supply power to the grid to meet peak demand. Current CSP sensible heat storage systems employ molten salts as both the heat transfer fluid and the heat storage media. These systems have an upper operating temperature limit of around 400 C. Future TES systems are expected to operate at temperatures between 600 C to 1000 C for higher thermal efficiencies which should result in lower electricity cost. To meet future operating temperature and electricity cost requirements, a TES concept utilizing thermochemical cycles (TCs) based on multivalent solid oxides was proposed. The system employs a pair of reduction and oxidation (REDOX) reactions to store and release heat. In the storage step, hot air from the solar receiver is used to reduce the oxidation state of an oxide cation, e.g. Fe3+ to Fe2+. Heat energy is thus stored as chemical bonds and the oxide is charged. To discharge the stored energy, the reduced oxide is re-oxidized in air and heat is released. Air is used as both the heat transfer fluid and reactant and no storage of fluid is needed. This project investigated the engineering and economic feasibility of this proposed TES concept. The DOE storage cost and LCOE targets are $15/kWh and $0.09/kWh respectively. Sixteen pure oxide cycles were identified through thermodynamic calculations and literature information. Data showed the kinetics of re-oxidation of the various oxides to be a key barrier to implementing the proposed concept. A down selection was carried out based on operating temperature, materials costs and preliminary laboratory measurements. Cobalt oxide, manganese oxide and barium oxide were selected for developmental studies to improve their REDOX reaction kinetics. A novel approach utilizing mixed oxides to improve the REDOX kinetics of the selected oxides was proposed. It partially

  16. Reducing Pumping Power in Hydronic Heating and Cooling Systems with Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas, Kristoffer Jason

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are being used increasingly in a variety of thermal transfer and thermal storage applications. This thesis presents the results of a laboratory study into the feasibility of improving the performance of hydronic heating and cooling systems by adding microcapsules filled with a PCM to the water used as heat transport media in these systems. Microencapsulated PCMs (MPCMs) increase the heat carrying capacity of heat transport liquids by absorbing or releasing heat at a constant temperature through a change of phase. Three sequences of tests and their results are presented: 1) Thermal cycling tests conducted to determine the melting temperatures and extent of supercooling associated with the MPCMs tested. 2) Hydronic performance tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped through a fin-and-tube, air-to-liquid heat exchanger and their thermal transfer performance compared against that of ordinary water. 3) Mechanical stability tests in which MPCM slurries were pumped in a continuous loop in order to gauge the extent of rupture due to pumping. It is shown that slurries consisting of water and MPCMs ˜ 14-24 mum in diameter improve thermal performance and offer the potential for power savings in the form of reduced pumping requirements. In addition, it is shown that while slurries of MPCMs 2-5 mum in diameter appear to exhibit better mechanical stability than slurries of larger diameter MPCMs, the smaller MPCMs appear to reduce the thermal performance of air-to-liquid heat exchangers.

  17. Multi-objective optimization of water quality, pumps operation, and storage sizing of water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Wojciech; Ostfeld, Avi

    2013-01-30

    A multi-objective methodology utilizing the Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm (SPEA2) linked to EPANET for trading-off pumping costs, water quality, and tanks sizing of water distribution systems is developed and demonstrated. The model integrates variable speed pumps for modeling the pumps operation, two water quality objectives (one based on chlorine disinfectant concentrations and one on water age), and tanks sizing cost which are assumed to vary with location and diameter. The water distribution system is subject to extended period simulations, variable energy tariffs, Kirchhoff's laws 1 and 2 for continuity of flow and pressure, tanks water level closure constraints, and storage-reliability requirements. EPANET Example 3 is employed for demonstrating the methodology on two multi-objective models, which differ in the imposed water quality objective (i.e., either with disinfectant or water age considerations). Three-fold Pareto optimal fronts are presented. Sensitivity analysis on the storage-reliability constraint, its influence on pumping cost, water quality, and tank sizing are explored. The contribution of this study is in tailoring design (tank sizing), pumps operational costs, water quality of two types, and reliability through residual storage requirements, in a single multi-objective framework. The model was found to be stable in generating multi-objective three-fold Pareto fronts, while producing explainable engineering outcomes. The model can be used as a decision tool for both pumps operation, water quality, required storage for reliability considerations, and tank sizing decision-making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solar thermal power storage applications lead laboratory overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radosevich, L. G.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of the applications elements of the thermal energy storage for Solar Thermal Applications program is described. The program includes the accelerated development of thermal storage technologies matched to solar thermal power system requirements and scheduled milestones. The program concentrates on storage development in the FY80 to 85 time period with emphasis on the more near-term solar thermal power system application.

  19. Thermal storage requirements for parabolic dish solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.; Steele, H.

    1980-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of a high temperature thermal storage system is investigated for a representative parabolic dish solar power plant. The plant supplies electrical power in accordance with a specific, seasonally varying demand profile. The solar power received by the plant is supplemented by power from fuel combustion. The cost of electricity generated by the solar power plant is calculated, using the cost of mass-producible subsystems (specifically, parabolic dishes, receivers, and power conversion units) now being designed for this type of solar plant. The trade-off between fuel and thermal storage is derived in terms of storage effectiveness, the cost of storage devices, and the cost of fuel. Thermal storage requirements, such as storage capacity, storage effectiveness, and storage cost are established based on the cost of fuel and the overall objective of minimizing the cost of the electricity produced by the system. As the cost of fuel increases at a rate faster than general inflation, thermal storage systems in the $40 to $70/kWthr range could become cost effective in the near future.

  20. Thermal storage requirements for parabolic dish solar power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, L.; Steele, H.

    1980-01-01

    The cost effectiveness of a high temperature thermal storage system is investigated for a representative parabolic dish solar power plant. The plant supplies electrical power in accordance with a specific, seasonally varying demand profile. The solar power received by the plant is supplemented by power from fuel combustion. The cost of electricity generated by the solar power plant is calculated, using the cost of mass-producible subsystems (specifically, parabolic dishes, receivers, and power conversion units) now being designed for this type of solar plant. The trade-off between fuel and thermal storage is derived in terms of storage effectiveness, the cost of storage devices, and the cost of fuel. Thermal storage requirements, such as storage capacity, storage effectiveness, and storage cost are established based on the cost of fuel and the overall objective of minimizing the cost of the electricity produced by the system. As the cost of fuel increases at a rate faster than general inflation, thermal storage systems in the $40 to $70/kWthr range could become cost effective in the near future.

  1. NASA Redox cell stack shunt current, pumping power, and cell performance tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagedorn, N.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Thaller, L. H.

    1982-01-01

    The NASA Redox energy storage system is under active technology development. The hardware undergoing laboratory testing is either 310 sq. cm. or 929 sq. cm. (0.33 sq. ft. or 1.0 sq. ft. per cell active area with up to 40 individual cells connected to make up a modular cell stack. This size of hardware allows rather accurate projections to be made of the shunt power/pump power tradeoffs. The modeling studies that were completed on the system concept are reviewed along with the approach of mapping the performance of Redox cells over a wide range of flow rates and depths of discharge of the Redox solutions. Methods are outlined for estimating the pumping and shunt current losses for any type of cell and stack combination. These methods are applicable to a variety of pumping options that are present with Redox systems. The results show that a fully developed Redox system has acceptable parasitic losses when using a fixed flow rate adequate to meet the worst conditions of current density and depth of discharge. These losses are reduced by about 65 percent if variable flow schedules are used. The exact value of the overall parasitics will depend on the specific system requirements of current density, voltage limits, charge, discharge time, etc.

  2. Low-power communication with a photonic heat pump.

    PubMed

    Huang, Duanni; Santhanam, Parthiban; Ram, Rajeev J

    2014-12-15

    An optical communication channel is constructed using a heated thermo-electrically pumped, high efficiency infrared light-emitting diode (LED). In these devices, electro-luminescent cooling is observed, resulting in greater than unity (> 100%) efficiency in converting electrical power to optical power. The average amount of electrical energy required to generate a photon (4.3 meV) is much less than the optical energy in that photon (520 meV). Such a light source can serve as a test-bed for fundamental studies of energy-efficient bosonic communication channels. In this low energy consumption mode, we demonstrate data transmission at 3 kilobits per second (kbps) with only 120 picowatts of input electric power. Although the channel employs a mid-infrared source with limited quantum efficiency, a binary digit can be communicated using 40 femtojoules with a bit error rate of 3 x 10-3.

  3. The performance optimization of a gas turbine cogeneration/heat pump facility with thermal storage

    SciTech Connect

    Spakovsky, M.R. von; Curti, V.; Batato, M.

    1995-01-01

    With the push for greater energy conservation, the need for heating and/or power production is being filled by cogeneration facilities. Thus, the search for the best performance at the least cost for such multipurpose plants is made much more difficult by the fact that such facilities must meet differing goals or demands. Such a facility exists at the Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and has been studied in order to find the optimum modes of operation as a function of time for variations in both the heating and electrical demands this facility must meet. The results of this study are presented here. The plant itself provides heat and electricity for both the EPFL and the University of Lausanne and is projected to supply electricity to the exterior utility grid provided it can be shown to be economically viable. The plant`s primary components include two gas turbines, a heat recovery system, two heat pumps, a set of heat storage tanks, and both medium and low-temperature district heating networks. In order to find the optimum mode of operation, a mixed-integer linear programming approach was used, which balances the competing costs of operation and minimizes these costs subject to the operational constraints placed on the system. The effects of both the cost of the fuel and the costs of electricity sold and bought on the best performance of the system are evaluated. In addition, the important features of the modeling process are discussed, in particular the heat storage tanks, which complicate the optimization of the series of steady-state models used to model the overall quasi-steady-state behavior of the system.

  4. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 11: Plant design. UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The plant design for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and energy storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal heat of 5000 ft. is presented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single-stage reversible pump-turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. The surface facilities and upper reservoir, shafts and hoists, penstocks and hydraulic tunnels, powerhouses, and intermediate and lower reservoirs are described. Details of the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump-turbine and motor-generator units, are given. The development of the site is outlined together with the construction methods and schedule. The cost estimates and a cost-risk analysis are presented. Plant operation, including unit operation, two-step operation, plant efficiency, and availability, is outlined.

  5. Optimizing the pumping configuration for the power scaling of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ee-Leong; Alam, Shaif-ul; Richardson, David J

    2012-06-18

    A highly efficient (~80%), high power (18.45 W) in-band, core pumped erbium/ytterbium co-doped fiber laser is demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported efficiency from an in-band pumped 1.5 µm fiber laser operating in the tens of watts regime. Using a fitted simulation model, we show that the significantly sub-quantum limit conversion efficiency of in-band pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers observed experimentally can be explained by concentration quenching. We then numerically study and experimentally validate the optimum pumping configuration for power scaling of in-band, cladding pumped erbium doped fiber amplifiers. Our simulation results indicate that a ~77% power conversion efficiency with high output power should be possible through cladding pumping of current commercially available pure Erbium doped active fibers providing the loss experienced by the cladding guided 1535 nm pump due to the coating absorption can be reduced to an acceptable level by better coating material choice. The power conversion efficiency has the potential to exceed 90% if concentration quenching of erbium ions can be reduced via improvements in fiber design and fabrication.

  6. Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES). Application Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    APPLICATION MANUAL Improving Geothermal Heat Pump Air Conditioning Efficiency with Wintertime Cooling using Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage... Energy Storage (STES) Ronald W. Falta and Fred Molz Clemson University Charles Newell GSI Environmental, Inc. Clemson University P.O. Box...manual is to describe the use of the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage (STES) technology, particularly through the employment of wintertime cooling

  7. High power resonant pumping of Tm-doped fiber amplifiers in core- and cladding-pumped configurations.

    PubMed

    Creeden, Daniel; Johnson, Benjamin R; Rines, Glen A; Setzler, Scott D

    2014-11-17

    We have demonstrated ultra-high efficiency amplification in Tm-doped fiber with both core- and cladding-pumped configurations using a resonant tandem-pumping approach. These Tm-doped fiber amplifiers are pumped in-band with a 1908 nm Tm-doped fiber laser and operate at 1993 nm with >90% slope efficiency. In a core-pumped configuration, we have achieved 92.1% slope efficiency and 88.4% optical efficiency at 41 W output power. In a cladding-pumped configuration, we have achieved 123.1 W of output power with 90.4% optical efficiency and a 91.6% slope efficiency. We believe these are the highest optical efficiencies achieved in a Tm-doped fiber amplifier operating in the 2-micron spectral region.

  8. Assessment of energy storage concepts for use in sprint power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, M.; Morris, D. G.

    Estimated sprint power levels required for space defense weapon systems are very high, with projections in the multimegawatt power range. However, these high power levels are required in a pulsed (sprint) mode where the power demand is at the high levels for short time periods. Energy can be stored in thermal storage media at the heat source and/or sink. For storage at the source, the primary power source is used to charge or heat up the thermal store. Results show that regenerable electrical storage system value is greatest for pulse durations of 500 s or less but that mass savings are still realized for generation times one and a half time as long. Flywheel energy storage shows the most benefit among near term technologies. Thus, incorporating a near term flywheel in the power supply decreases nuclear Rankine cycle system mass by 16 percent for a generation time of 500 s. Similar findings resulted from using thermal storage in the heat rejection system; namely, mass reductions of the order of 30 percent. Advances in storage component performance will result in increased value of storage to the overall power system.

  9. High average power diode pumped solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yue; Wang, Yanjie; Chan, Amy; Dawson, Murray; Greene, Ben

    2017-03-01

    A new generation of high average power pulsed multi-joule solid state laser system has been developed at EOS Space Systems for various space related tracking applications. It is a completely diode pumped, fully automated multi-stage system consisting of a pulsed single longitudinal mode oscillator, three stages of pre-amplifiers, two stages of power amplifiers, completely sealed phase conjugate mirror or stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) cell and imaging relay optics with spatial filters in vacuum cells. It is capable of generating pulse energy up to 4.7 J, a beam quality M 2 ~ 3, pulse width between 10–20 ns, and a pulse repetition rate between 100–200 Hz. The system has been in service for more than two years with excellent performance and reliability.

  10. Method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump

    DOEpatents

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.; Jain, Jinesh C.

    2014-07-22

    A method and device for remotely monitoring an area using a low peak power optical pump comprising one or more pumping sources, one or more lasers; and an optical response analyzer. Each pumping source creates a pumping energy. The lasers each comprise a high reflectivity mirror, a laser media, an output coupler, and an output lens. Each laser media is made of a material that emits a lasing power when exposed to pumping energy. Each laser media is optically connected to and positioned between a corresponding high reflectivity mirror and output coupler along a pumping axis. Each output coupler is optically connected to a corresponding output lens along the pumping axis. The high reflectivity mirror of each laser is optically connected to an optical pumping source from the one or more optical pumping sources via an optical connection comprising one or more first optical fibers.

  11. A remotely controlled and powered artificial heart pump.

    PubMed

    Mussivand, T; Hendry, P J; Masters, R G; Holmes, K S; Hum, A; Keon, W J

    1996-12-01

    An intrathoracic pulsatile artificial heart pump has been developed. Transcutaneous energy transfer and biotelemetry systems provide continuous power and remote monitoring and control, with no percutaneous connections required. The electrohydraulic system can be used either as a ventricular assist device or with modifications as a total artificial heart. The device uses a unidirectional axial flow pump coupled with a pressure activated one-way valve to allow hydraulic fluid to passively return to the volume displacement chamber during diastole. The transcutaneous energy transfer system provides power to the device and recharges the implantable battery pack. A wearable external controller and external battery pack provide the patient enhanced mobility and thus an improved quality of life. The biotelemetry system allows control and monitoring of the device after implantation, as well as an added capability to monitor and control the device remotely over public communication lines. Early prototypes have functioned failure free for up to 3 years in vitro. The device has sustained circulation in vivo for up to 4 days. Design optimization is continuing, and chronic in vivo evaluation is planned.

  12. Muscle powered blood pump: design and initial test results.

    PubMed

    Trumble, D R; Magovern, J A

    1999-01-01

    A pneumatic ventricular assist device (Sarns/3M) has been redesigned for low volume hydraulic actuation to accommodate muscle powered drive systems. Design modifications include adding a bellows/piston mechanism (to compress the blood sac) and a compliance chamber for volume compensation. A simple prototype device was constructed to measure the efficacy of piston pump actuation and to validate pusher plate design. Device manufacture was affected by removing the drive line housing from the pneumatic pump and replacing it with a piston/bushing mechanism. A convex piston profile was chosen to maximize ejection fraction and minimize device size. Stroke volume was found to be a linear function of piston displacement (approximately 3 ml/mm) and reached a maximum value of 45 ml. Mean compression forces of 46-56 N acting during a 12 mm stroke (2.1 L/min at 60 cycles/min) were sufficient to generate mean afterload pressures of 70-110 mm Hg in a mock circulatory loop. Peak compression forces ranged from 72 to 86 N and work input was calculated to be 552-672 mJ/stroke. These data indicate that this method for delivering muscle power to the bloodstream is both mechanically viable and compatible with the functional capacity of conditioned latissimus dorsi muscle.

  13. Optimization of the weekly operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric development, including a pumped storage plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, R.; Popa, F.; Popa, B.; Zachia-Zlatea, D.

    2010-08-01

    It is presented an optimization model based on genetic algorithms for the operation of a multipurpose hydroelectric power development consisting in a pumped storage plant (PSP) with weekly operation cycle. The lower reservoir of the PSP is supplied upstream from a peak hydropower plant (HPP) with a large reservoir and supplies the own HPP which provides the required discharges towards downstream. Under these conditions, the optimum operation of the assembly consisting in 3 reservoirs and hydropower plants becomes a difficult problem if there are considered the restrictions as regards: the gradients allowed for the reservoirs filling/emptying, compliance with of a long-term policy of the upper reservoir from the hydroelectric development and of the weekly cycle for the PSP upper reservoir, correspondence between the power output/consumption in the weekly load schedule, turning to account of the water resource at maximum overall efficiencies, etc. Maximization of the net energy value (generated minus consumed) was selected as performance function of the model, considering the differentiated price of the electric energy over the week (working or weekend days, peak, half-peak or base hours). The analysis time step was required to be of 3 hours, resulting a weekly horizon of 56 steps and 168 decision variables, respectively, for the 3 HPPs of the system. These were allowed to be the flows turbined at the HPP and the number of working hydrounits at PSP, on each time step. The numerical application has considered the guiding data of Fantanele-Tarnita-Lapustesti hydroelectric development. Results of various simulations carried out proved the qualities of the proposed optimization model, which will allow its use within a decisional support program for such a development.

  14. Valuing hydrological forecasts for a pumped storage assisted hydro facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guangzhi; Davison, Matt

    2009-07-01

    SummaryThis paper estimates the value of a perfectly accurate short-term hydrological forecast to the operator of a hydro electricity generating facility which can sell its power at time varying but predictable prices. The expected value of a less accurate forecast will be smaller. We assume a simple random model for water inflows and that the costs of operating the facility, including water charges, will be the same whether or not its operator has inflow forecasts. Thus, the improvement in value from better hydrological prediction results from the increased ability of the forecast using facility to sell its power at high prices. The value of the forecast is therefore the difference between the sales of a facility operated over some time horizon with a perfect forecast, and the sales of a similar facility operated over the same time horizon with similar water inflows which, though governed by the same random model, cannot be forecast. This paper shows that the value of the forecast is an increasing function of the inflow process variance and quantifies how much the value of this perfect forecast increases with the variance of the water inflow process. Because the lifetime of hydroelectric facilities is long, the small increase observed here can lead to an increase in the profitability of hydropower investments.

  15. Development of Inductive Storage Pulsed Power Generators.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-06

    in the capacitor bank is transferred to a vacuum storage inductor in 20 A. Wire fuses provide the first stage of pulse compression. Further pulse ...Introduction contained within a pressurized gas enclosure, a vacuum flashover closing switch that can be Inductive energy storage in combination command or self...contains the vacuum accomplished by a sequence of opening switches flashover switch (VFS), the vacuum opening svitcn electrically in parallel with each

  16. WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619, AND TWO WATER STORAGE RESERVOIRS. INDUSTRIAL WINDOWS AND COPING STRIPS AT TOP OF WALLS AND ENTRY VESTIBULE. BOLLARDS PROTECT UNDERGROUND FACILITIES. SWITCHYARD AT RIGHT EDGE OF VIEW. CARD IN LOWER RIGHT WAS INSERTED BY INL PHOTOGRAPHER TO COVER AN OBSOLETE SECURITY RESTRICTION PRINTED ON ORIGINAL NEGATIVE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3816. Unknown Photographer, 11/28/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Mines as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity): groundwater impacts and feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, Sarah; Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The energy framework is currently characterized by an expanding use of renewable sources. However, their intermittence could not afford a stable production according to the energy demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient possibility to store and release electricity according to the demand needs. Because of the topographic and environmental constraints of classical PSH, new potential suitable sites are rare in countries whose topography is weak or with a high population density. Nevertheless, an innovative alternative is to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants by using old underground mine works as lower reservoir. In that configuration, large amount of pumped or injected water in the underground cavities would impact the groundwater system. A representative UPSH facility is used to numerically determine the interactions with surrounding aquifers Different scenarios with varying parameters (hydrogeological and lower reservoir characteristics, boundaries conditions and pumping/injection time-sequence) are computed. Analysis of the computed piezometric heads around the reservoir allows assessing the magnitude of aquifer response and the required time to achieve a mean pseudo-steady state under cyclic solicitations. The efficiency of the plant is also evaluated taking the leakage into the cavity into account. Combining these two outcomes, some criterions are identified to assess the feasibility of this type of projects within potential old mine sites from a hydrogeological point of view.

  18. Water chemical evolution in Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower plants and induced consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Orban, Philippe; Jurado, Anna; Ayora, Carlos; Brouyère, Serge; Dassargues, Alain

    2017-04-01

    Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) using abandoned mines is an alternative to manage the electricity production in flat regions. UPSH plants consist of two reservoirs; the upper reservoir is located at the surface or at shallow depth, while the lower reservoir is underground. These plants have potentially less constraints that the classical Pumped Storage Hydropower plants because more sites are available and impacts on landscape, land use, environment and society seem lower. Still, it is needed to consider the consequences of the groundwater exchanges occurring between the underground reservoir and surrounding porous media. Previous studies have been focused on the influence of these groundwater exchanges on the efficiency and on groundwater flow impacts. However, hydrochemical variations induced by the surface exposure of pumped water and their consequences have not been yet addressed. The objective of this work is to evaluate the hydrochemical evolution of the water in UPSH plants and its effects on the environment and on the UPSH efficiency. The problem is studied numerically by means of reactive transport modelling. Different scenarios are considered varying the chemical properties of the surrounding porous medium and groundwater. Results show that the dissolution and/or precipitation of some compounds may affect (1) the groundwater quality, and (2) the efficiency and the useful life of the used pumps and turbines of the UPSH system.

  19. Electric power processing, distribution, management and energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Power distribution subsystems are required for three elements of the SPS program: (1) orbiting satellite, (2) ground rectenna, and (3) Electric Orbiting Transfer Vehicle (EOTV). Power distribution subsystems receive electrical power from the energy conversion subsystem and provide the power busses rotary power transfer devices, switchgear, power processing, energy storage, and power management required to deliver control, high voltage plasma interactions, electric thruster interactions, and spacecraft charging of the SPS and the EOTV are also included as part of the power distribution subsystem design.

  20. OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW FROM OIL STORAGE TANKS. FOUNDATION OF 1980 POWER PLANT IN FOREGROUND, CORNER OF CARPENTER SHOP TO THE RIGHT, CORNER OF BAGASSE STORAGE BUILDING TO THE LEFT. MACHINE SHOP AND BOILER HOUSE IN MIDDLE GROUND, 1948 STACK AND BOILING HOUSE TO REAR. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  1. Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domeniconi, Mike

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom electric power system evolutionary energy storage are presented. Topics covered include: system requirements evolution; Space Station Freedom timeline; development of technologies selection criteria; and candidate technologies.

  2. 76 FR 30936 - West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... Contact: Bart M. O'Keeffe, West Maui Pumped Storage Water Supply, LLC, P.O. Box 1916, Discovery Bay, CA... copy of the application, can be viewed or printed on the ``eLibrary'' link of Commission's Web site...

  3. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  4. High-power cw operation of diode laser transversely-pumped Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, Dirk; Knoke, S.; Schoene, Wolfram; Ernst, G.; Tuennermann, Andreas; Welling, Herbert

    1995-04-01

    We report on diode laser side-pumped, cw Nd:YAG rod lasers operating at pump powers up to 1 kW. With linear diode laser arrays as pump sources a pump power of 90 W/cm is realized. In multimode operation at 1064 nm, output powers of more than 300 W cw are observed. Applying a dynamically stable resonator design, an output power of more than 45 W in TEM00 mode operation is realized with an optical-to-optical efficiency of more than 11%. Higher pump powers up to several 100 W/cm can be achieved by using fiber-coupled diode lasers as pump sources. Laser performance, thermal properties and possible applications of these laser systems will be discussed.

  5. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Syuhada, Ahmad Mubarak, Amir Zaki Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  6. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  7. Thermal optimization of second harmonic generation at high pump powers.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Alexander; Uebernickel, Mirko; Paschke, Katrin; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2011-11-07

    We measure the temperature distribution of a 3 cm long periodically poled LiNbO₃ crystal in a single-pass second harmonic generation (SHG) setup at 488 nm. By means of three resistance heaters and directly mounted Pt100 sensors the crystal is subdivided in three sections. 9.4 W infrared pump light and 1.3 W of SHG light cause a de-homogenized temperature distribution of 0.2 K between the middle and back section. A sectional offset heating is used to homogenize the temperature in those two sections and thus increasing the conversion efficiency. A 15% higher SHG output power matching the prediction of our theoretical model is achieved.

  8. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants-pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, S.; Katz, D.; Daavettila, N.; Lehnert, D.

    1994-03-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in BWR and PWR commercial nuclear power plant pumps important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR Part 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  9. Photovoltaic Power Station with Ultracapacitors for Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Kolacz, John S.; Soltis, Richard F.; Tavernelli, Paul F.

    2003-01-01

    A solar photovoltaic power station in which ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, are used to store energy is discussed. Developments in the semiconductor industry have reduced the cost and increased the attainable efficiency of commercially available photovoltaic panels; as a result, photovoltaic generation of power for diverse applications has become practical. Photovoltaic generation can provide electric power in remote locations where electric power would otherwise not be available. Photovoltaic generation can also afford independence from utility systems. Applications include supplying power to scientific instruments and medical equipment in isolated geographical regions.

  10. Characterization of a water pump for drum-type washing machine by vibration power approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, YongHwa; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2015-03-01

    Water pumps used in drum-type washing machines to save water are likely to make the washing process noisier than the one without those because the water pumps attached usually onto cabinet structure work as additional vibration and noise sources. In order to either counteract such vibration and noise problems by stiffness design of the cabinet structure or classify the water pumps from the view point of an acceptance test, characterization of the water pumps as excitation sources would be essential. In this paper, several methods to characterize a water pump as an excitation source are investigated. Measurements by traditional methods of blocked force and/or free velocity for a water pump of 35 W are presented. Two methods of vibration power suggested rather recently are reviewed. Then, another method of the vibration power is proposed. Estimations of the vibration power for the water pump operating on a beam structure are obtained and discussed comparatively.

  11. German/Indian cooperation program for solar powered water pumps, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T. K.; Santhanam, V. C.; Ahmed, S. B.; Schneller, D.; Speidel, K.

    1983-08-01

    A solar powered pump for pumping water from deep wells (up to 100 m) is described. The operating principle corresponds to a Rankine cycle, where solar energy generates vapor for a steam engine driving the water pump. About 900 trouble free working hours were achieved under realistic test conditions with solar energy. Test results indicate a daily pumping rate of 20 to 45 cum/day depending an solar radiation intensity with a collector panel of 28 sqm.

  12. Low-power microfluidic electro-hydraulic pump (EHP).

    PubMed

    Lui, Clarissa; Stelick, Scott; Cady, Nathaniel; Batt, Carl

    2010-01-07

    Low-power electrolysis-based microfluidic pumps utilizing the principle of hydraulics, integrated with microfluidic channels in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates, are presented. The electro-hydraulic pumps (EHPs), consisting of electrolytic, hydraulic and fluidic chambers, were investigated using two types of electrodes: stainless steel for larger volumes and annealed gold electrodes for smaller-scale devices. Using a hydraulic fluid chamber and a thin flexible PDMS membrane, this novel prototype successfully separates the reagent fluid from the electrolytic fluid, which is particularly important for biological and chemical applications. The hydraulic advantage of the EHP device arises from the precise control of flow rate by changing the electrolytic pressure generated, independent of the volume of the reagent chamber, mimicking the function of a hydraulic press. Since the reservoirs are pre-filled with reagents and sealed prior to testing, external fluid coupling is minimized. The stainless steel electrode EHPs were manufactured with varying chamber volume ratios (1 : 1 to 1 : 3) as a proof-of-concept, and exhibited flow rates of 1.25 to 30 microl/min with electrolysis-based actuation at 2.5 to 10 V(DC). The miniaturized gold electrode EHPs were manufactured with 3 mm diameters and 1 : 1 chamber volume ratios, and produced flow rates of 1.24 to 7.00 microl/min at 2.5 to 10 V(AC), with a higher maximum sustained pressure of 343 KPa, suggesting greater device robustness using methods compatible with microfabrication. The proposed technology is low-cost, low-power and disposable, with a high level of reproducibility, allowing for ease of fabrication and integration into existing microfluidic lab-on-a-chip and analysis systems.

  13. High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B

    1999-10-01

    A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M{sup 2} = 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M{sup 2} value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M{sup 2} < 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods.

  14. Reducing the peak-power crisis with residential energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, J.F.; Miller, W.H.; Durand, J.

    1986-01-01

    A means of delaying the peak-load crisis is proposed that involves a low capital cost investment, better utilization of the existing electrical system (now with average capacity factor of <50%), and that would be able to compensate for more than half of the next 10-yr peak-load growth at the rate of 3% per annum, without building any new generating capacity. The proposed method involves only the residential sector that uses electric powered heat pumps and proposes to accomplish the above goals through time-of-day metering incentives and central station line signal control of the heat pumps and electric hot water heaters. Heat pump compressors and hot water heater elements would be shut off for periods of up to 3 h, and the storage system would later be recharged during off-peak nighttime hours. Two-way communication is preferred, so that the central station computer could assess the condition of each residence and its storage system before turning off the power. An analysis has been done for the central Missouri climate and general utility system characteristics, which it would appear represents a reasonable average for the nation.

  15. Relative Contribution of Monsoon Precipitation and Pumping to Changes in Groundwater Storage in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asoka, Akarsh; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of groundwater resources threatens food and water security in India. However, the relative influence of groundwater pumping and climate variability on groundwater availability and storage remains unclear. Here we show from analyses of satellite and local well data spanning the past decade that long-term changes in monsoon precipitation are driving groundwater storage variability in most parts of India either directly by changing recharge or indirectly by changing abstraction. We find that groundwater storage has declined in northern India at the rate of 2 cm/yr and increased by 1 to 2 cm/yr in southern India between 2002 and 2013. We find that a large fraction of the total variability in groundwater storage in north-central and southern India can be explained by changes in precipitation. Groundwater storage variability in northwestern India can be explained predominantly by variability in abstraction for irrigation, which is in turn influenced by changes in precipitation. Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized teleconnection between ocean temperatures and groundwater storage.

  16. Relative contribution of monsoon precipitation and pumping to changes in groundwater storage in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoka, Akarsh; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of groundwater resources threatens food and water security in India. However, the relative influence of groundwater pumping and climate variability on groundwater availability and storage remains unclear. Here we show from analyses of satellite and local well data spanning the past decade that long-term changes in monsoon precipitation are driving groundwater storage variability in most parts of India either directly by changing recharge or indirectly by changing abstraction. We find that groundwater storage has declined in northern India at the rate of 2 cm yr-1 and increased by 1 to 2 cm yr-1 in southern India between 2002 and 2013. We find that a large fraction of the total variability in groundwater storage in north-central and southern India can be explained by changes in precipitation. Groundwater storage variability in northwestern India can be explained predominantly by variability in abstraction for irrigation, which is in turn influenced by changes in precipitation. Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized teleconnection between ocean temperatures and groundwater storage.

  17. Relative Contribution of Monsoon Precipitation and Pumping to Changes in Groundwater Storage in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asoka, Akarsh; Gleeson, Tom; Wada, Yoshihide; Mishra, Vimal

    2017-01-01

    The depletion of groundwater resources threatens food and water security in India. However, the relative influence of groundwater pumping and climate variability on groundwater availability and storage remains unclear. Here we show from analyses of satellite and local well data spanning the past decade that long-term changes in monsoon precipitation are driving groundwater storage variability in most parts of India either directly by changing recharge or indirectly by changing abstraction. We find that groundwater storage has declined in northern India at the rate of 2 cm/yr and increased by 1 to 2 cm/yr in southern India between 2002 and 2013. We find that a large fraction of the total variability in groundwater storage in north-central and southern India can be explained by changes in precipitation. Groundwater storage variability in northwestern India can be explained predominantly by variability in abstraction for irrigation, which is in turn influenced by changes in precipitation. Declining precipitation in northern India is linked to Indian Ocean warming, suggesting a previously unrecognized teleconnection between ocean temperatures and groundwater storage.

  18. Low-pump-power, short-fiber copropagating dual-pumped (800 and 1050 nm) thulium-doped fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A S L; Carvalho, M T; Sundheimer, M L; Bastos-Filho, C J A; Martins-Filho, J F; Von der Weid, J P; Margulis, W

    2003-03-01

    Using optical frequency-domain reflectometry to reveal the gain distribution and allow us to optimize a thulium-doped fiber amplifier, we have demonstrated 18-dB gain by employing only 5 m of a 2000-parts-in-10(6)-Tm-doped fiber pumped with 145 mW of power at dual wavelengths of 800 and 1050 nm. The role of the 800-nm pump, which by itself does not permit population inversion, was clearly observed experimentally.

  19. Assessment of power step performances of variable speed pump-turbine unit by means of hydro-electrical system simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béguin, A.; Nicolet, C.; Hell, J.; Moreira, C.

    2017-04-01

    The paper explores the improvement in ancillary services that variable speed technologies can provide for the case of an existing pumped storage power plant of 2x210 MVA which conversion from fixed speed to variable speed is investigated with a focus on the power step performances of the units. First two motor-generator variable speed technologies are introduced, namely the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM) and the Full Scale Frequency Converter (FSFC). Then a detailed numerical simulation model of the investigated power plant used to simulate power steps response and comprising the waterways, the pump-turbine unit, the motor-generator, the grid connection and the control systems is presented. Hydroelectric system time domain simulations are performed in order to determine the shortest response time achievable, taking into account the constraints from the maximum penstock pressure and from the rotational speed limits. It is shown that the maximum instantaneous power step response up and down depends on the hydro-mechanical characteristics of the pump-turbine unit and of the motor-generator speed limits. As a results, for the investigated test case, the FSFC solution offer the best power step response performances.

  20. Pump power stability range of single-mode solid-state lasers with rod thermal lensing

    SciTech Connect

    De Silvestri, S.; La Porta, P.; Magni, V.

    1987-11-01

    The pump power stability range of solid-state laser resonators operating in the TEM/sub 00/ mode has been thoroughly investigated. It has been shown that, for a very general resonator containing intracavity optical systems, rod thermal lensing engenders a pump power stability range which is a characteristic parameter of laser material and pump cavity, but is independent of resonator configuration. Stability ranges have been calculated and critically discussed for Nd:YAG, Nd:Glasses, Nd:Cr:GSGG, and alexandrite. The independence of the pump power stability range from the resonator configuration has been experimentally demonstrated for a CW Nd:YAG laser.

  1. Magnetic Energy Storage System: Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage System with Direct Power Electronics Interface

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: ABB is developing an advanced energy storage system using superconducting magnets that could store significantly more energy than today’s best magnetic storage technologies at a fraction of the cost. This system could provide enough storage capacity to encourage more widespread use of renewable power like wind and solar. Superconducting magnetic energy storage systems have been in development for almost 3 decades; however, past devices were designed to supply power only for short durations—generally less than a few minutes. ABB’s system would deliver the stored energy at very low cost, making it ideal for eventual use in the electricity grid as a costeffective competitor to batteries and other energy storage technologies. The device could potentially cost even less, on a per kilowatt basis, than traditional lead-acid batteries.

  2. Thermal energy storage for CSP (Concentrating Solar Power)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Py, Xavier; Sadiki, Najim; Olives, Régis; Goetz, Vincent; Falcoz, Quentin

    2017-07-01

    The major advantage of concentrating solar power before photovoltaic is the possibility to store thermal energy at large scale allowing dispatchability. Then, only CSP solar power plants including thermal storage can be operated 24 h/day using exclusively the solar resource. Nevertheless, due to a too low availability in mined nitrate salts, the actual mature technology of the two tanks molten salts cannot be applied to achieve the expected international share in the power production for 2050. Then alternative storage materials are under studies such as natural rocks and recycled ceramics made from industrial wastes. The present paper is a review of those alternative approaches.

  3. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 5: Site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    A six-step site selection process undertaken to identify and subsequently rank potential sites suitable for either an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility, or a water-compensated hard-rock cavern compressed air energy storage (CAES) facility is described. The region of study was confined to the service area of the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and contiguous areas. Overriding considerations related to geology, environmental impact and transmission-line routing were studies within the context of minimizing plant costs. The selection process led to the identification of several sites suitable for the development of either a CAES or an UPH facility. Design development and site exploration at the selected site are described.

  4. The emerging roles of energy storage in a competitive power market: Summary of a DOE Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, S.P.; Falcone, P.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains a summary of the workshop, {open_quotes}The Emerging Roles of Energy Storage in a Competitive Power Market,{close_quotes} which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories and was held in Pleasanton, California on December 6-7, 1994. More than 70 people attended, representing government agencies, national laboratories, equipment vendors, electric utilities and other energy providers, venture capital interests, and consultants. Many types of energy storage were discussed, including electrical (batteries and superconducting magnets), mechanical (flywheels and pumped hydro), hydrogen, compressed air, and thermal energy storage. The objectives of the workshop were to communicate within the energy storage community regarding the costs, benefits, and technical status of various technology options; to explore and elucidate the evolving roles of energy storage in a more dynamic and competitive power and energy marketplace; and to discuss the optimum federal role in this area. The goals of the workshop were fully realized through knowledgeable and insightful presentations and vigorous discussion, which are summarized.

  5. The mechanism of photo-energy storage in the Halorhodopsin chloride pump.

    PubMed

    Pfisterer, Christoph; Gruia, Andreea; Fischer, Stefan

    2009-05-15

    The light-driven pump Halorhodopsin (hR) uses the energy stored in an initial meta-stable state (K), in which the bound retinal chromophore has been photoisomerized from all-trans to 13-cis, to drive the translocation of one chloride anion across the membrane. Thus far it was unclear whether retinal twisting or charge separation between the positive Schiff base of the retinal and the chloride anion is the primary mechanism of energy storage. Here, combined quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations show that the energy is predominantly stored by charge separation. However, a large variability in retinal twisting is observed, thus reconciling the contradictory hypotheses for storage. Surprisingly, the energy stored in the K-state amounts to only one-fifth of the photon energy. We explain why the protein cannot store more: even though this would accelerate chloride pumping, raising the K-state also reduces the relative energy barriers against unproductive decay, in particular via the premature cis to trans back-isomerization. Indeed, the protein has maximized its storage so that the back-isomerization barriers are just high enough (> or =18 kcal/mol) to keep the decay rate (1/100 ms) slower than the remaining photocycle (1/20 ms). This need to stabilize the captured photon-energy until it can be used in subsequent steps is inherent to light-driven proteins.

  6. Thermal energy storage for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Sathyanarayana, K.

    1989-10-01

    Studies strongly indicate that the United States will face widespread electrical power constraints in the 1990s, with most regions of the country experiencing capacity shortages by the year 2000. In many cases, the demand for increased power will occur during intermediate and peak demand periods. Much of this demand is expected to be met by oil- and natural gas-fired Brayton cycle turbines and combined-cycle plants. While natural gas is currently plentiful and reasonably priced, the availability of an economical long-term coal-fired option for peak and intermediate load power generation will give electric power utilities an option in case either the availability or cost of natural gas should deteriorate. 54 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Comparison of acoustic and conventional flow measurement techniques at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    March, P.A.; Missimer, J.R.; Voss, A.; Pearson, H.S.

    1987-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a research project to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using the acoustic method of flow measurement in hydroelectric power plant efficiency tests. As a portion of this program, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant was chosen as one of the sites to be tested. The primary objective of the TVA test was to compare the measurements of the Ocean Research Engineering (ORE), acoustic flowmeter installed on Unit 1 to the Volumetric and Winter-Kennedy Techniques for flow measurement. The Winter-Kennedy Technique is the standard flow measurement technique used in the plant. The Volumetric Technique consisted of accurate measurement of the upper reservoir volume over specified time increments. For calibration, the upper reservoir was initially drained and as it was being filled, aerial photographs were taken to obtain contour lines which were correlated with simultaneous stage measurements. The photographs were used to compute the differential volume of the reservoir associated with a change in stage. Six performance tests were conducted on Unit 1. During the tests no other units were operated. Five tests were conducted in the generating mode and one test was conducted in the pumping mode. The uncertainty in the measurements using the Volumetric Technique is of the order of 0.5 percent for changes of stage elevation in excess of two feet. The flowrate measured by the ORE acoustic flowmeter was consistently of the order of 1.5 percent lower than the flowrate determined from the Volumetric Technique in both the generating and pumping modes. 3 refs., 32 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Distributed Non-evaporable Getter pumps for the storage ring of the APS

    SciTech Connect

    Dortwegt, R.; Benaroya, R.

    1993-07-01

    A pair of distributed Non-evaporable Getter (NeG) strip assemblies is installed in each of 236 aluminum vacuum chambers of the 1104-m storage ring of the Advanced Photon Source. Distributed pumping is provided to remove most of the gas resulting from photon-stimulated desorption occurring along the outer walls of the chambers. This is an efficient way of pumping because conductance is limited along the beam axis. The St-707 NeG strips are conditioned at 450{degree}C for 45 min. with 42 A. Base pressures obtained are also as low as 4 {times} 10{sup 11} Torr. The NeG strip assemblies are supported by a series of electrically isolated, 125-mm-long, interlocking stainless steel carriers. These unique interlocking carrier elements provide flexibility along the vacuum chamber curvature (r=38.96 m) and permit removal and installation of assemblies with as little as 150 mm external clearance between adjacent chambers.

  9. High-power in-band pumped Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Shen, D Y; Sahu, J K; Clarkson, W A

    2008-04-14

    High-power room-temperature operation of an Er:YAG laser at 1617 nm in-band pumped by a cladding-pumped Er,Yb fiber laser at 1532 nm is reported. The Er:YAG laser yielded 31 W of continuous-wave output in a beam with M(2) approximately = 2.2 for 72 W of incident pump power. The threshold pump power was 4.1 W and the slope efficiency with respect to incident pump power was approximately 47%. The influence of erbium doping level and resonator design on laser performance is discussed, and the prospects for further increase in output power and improvement in lasing efficiency are considered.

  10. High to ultra-high power electrical energy storage.

    PubMed

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-12-14

    High power electrical energy storage systems are becoming critical devices for advanced energy storage technology. This is true in part due to their high rate capabilities and moderate energy densities which allow them to capture power efficiently from evanescent, renewable energy sources. High power systems include both electrochemical capacitors and electrostatic capacitors. These devices have fast charging and discharging rates, supplying energy within seconds or less. Recent research has focused on increasing power and energy density of the devices using advanced materials and novel architectural design. An increase in understanding of structure-property relationships in nanomaterials and interfaces and the ability to control nanostructures precisely has led to an immense improvement in the performance characteristics of these devices. In this review, we discuss the recent advances for both electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors as high power electrical energy storage systems, and propose directions and challenges for the future. We asses the opportunities in nanostructure-based high power electrical energy storage devices and include electrochemical and electrostatic capacitors for their potential to open the door to a new regime of power energy.

  11. Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.W.; Abdul.Hye, A.B.M.

    1983-10-25

    A pump for injecting chemicals into a well employs a pivot arm for synchronous movement with a well pump. The pivot arm causes reciprocation of a plunger within the body of the chemical pump. The plunger, during its upward stroke causes the entry of chemicals from an outside source into the pump body and, during its downward stroke, causes the exiting of the chemicals into the well. (2 claims.

  12. Hand-powered microfluidics: A membrane pump with a patient-to-chip syringe interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Brendan; Gong, Max; Nguyen, Trung; Sinton, David

    2012-11-01

    In this talk, an on-chip hand-powered membrane pump with a robust patient-to-chip syringe interface is presented. This approach enables safe sample collection, sample containment, integrated sharps disposal, high sample volume capacity, and controlled downstream flow with no electrical power requirements. Sample is manually injected into the device via a syringe and needle. The membrane pump inflates upon injection and subsequently deflates, delivering fluid to downstream components in a controlled manner. The device is fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silicone, using CO2 laser micromachining. Pump performance is experimentally demonstrated and the behavior is subsequently modeled with reference to a resistor-capacitor electrical circuit analogy. Downstream output of the membrane pump is regulated, and scaled, by connecting multiple pumps in parallel. The device provides precisely controlled pumping rates and high volume throughput without any electrical power requirements.

  13. Simple highly efficient pumping configuration in high-power thin-disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedzamani, Sasan; Eslami, Esmaeil

    2017-08-01

    A simple high-power thin-disk pumping configuration using a radiation combination of four commercially available laser-diode stacks is introduced. Two setup modifications are presented to compensate the nonsuitable shape of the pumping spot arising from low beam quality in our combination method. The effects of setup modifications on pumping spot shapes are confirmed by ray tracing simulations using Trace-pro™ software. All setups are arranged in the laboratory, and the experimental measurements show pumping spots improvements on the disk due to modifications in agreement with simulation results. Output power measurements show that by adapting the pumping spot size to the disk cooling capacity the modified setups can deliver higher output powers and efficiencies. Furthermore, the modifications reduce the laser threshold and improve output laser beam quality. Hence, the modifications make the simple four laser-diodes beam combination applicable for thin-disk laser pumping.

  14. High power VCSEL array pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yihan; Van Leeuwen, Robert; Watkins, Laurence S.; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2012-03-01

    Solid-state lasers pumped by high-power two-dimensional arrays of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) were investigated. Both end-pumping and side-pumping schemes of Nd:YAG lasers with high power kW-class 808 nm VCSEL pump modules were implemented. For one application 10 mJ blue laser pulses were obtained from a frequencydoubled actively Q-switched VCSEL-array dual side-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 946 nm. For another application 10 mJ green laser pulses were obtained from a frequency-doubled passively Q-switched VCSEL-array endpumped Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm. Both QCW and CW pumping schemes were investigated to achieve high average Q-switched power.

  15. 77 FR 20440 - Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... COMMISSION Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation, Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power... Virginia Electric and Power Company (Dominion or licensee) pursuant to 10 CFR 72.7 from the requirements of... reactors, Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2, located in Surry County, Virginia. II. Environmental...

  16. Field performance of cavitation erosion resistant alloy on pumped-storage hydroturbine

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, O.F.; Brooks, J.B.; March, P.A.; Epps, J.M.

    1992-10-01

    The TVA Raccoon Mountain Plant is a four unit pumped-storage plant located on the Tennessee River, Nickajack Reservoir, in Marion County, Tennessee, six miles (3.7 km) west of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The four units went into commercial operation between January 31, 1978 and August 31, 19179. Each unit has a generating rating of 392 MW at a 1020 ft head (310.9 meters). Each turbine is a reversible Francis type, with vertical shaft, manufactured by Allis-Chalmers (now Voith Hydro, Inc.). The runner diameter is 16 ft 7 inches (5.05 meters). the runner material is ASTM A296-CA6NM.

  17. Replacement of the static frequency converter starting equipment at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, G.; Deckman, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    In October 1994, the Tennessee Valley Authority awarded a contract for replacement of their Static Frequency Converter (SFC) Starting Equipment at the Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant. Replacement of the original SFC was deemed necessary to counter a rising forced outage rate and costly repairs directly attributable to the advanced age and condition of the original equipment. This paper presents a comparison of the features of the new SFC versus the original SFC. The new SFC is scheduled to undergo check-out and testing in Spring of 1996.

  18. Microfluidic pump powered by self-organizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jun; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate the successful use of live bacteria as mechanical actuators in microfabricated fluid systems. The flow deposition of bacteria is used to create a motile bacterial carpet that can generate local fluid motion inside a microfabricated system. By tracking the motion of tracer particles, we demonstrate that the bacterial cells that comprise the carpet self-organize, generating a collective fluid motion that can pump fluid autonomously through a microfabricated channel at speeds as high as 25 microm s(-1). The pumping performance of the system can also be augmented by changing the chemical environment. The addition of glucose to the working buffer raises the metabolic activity of the bacterial carpet, resulting in increased pumping performance. The performance of the bacterial pump is also shown to be strongly influenced by the global geometry of the pump, with narrower channels achieving a higher pumping velocity with a faster rise time.

  19. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is recommended for inclusion in the present system based on favorable quantitative and qualitative measures relative to the other options under consideration.

  20. Liquid Metal Pump Technologies for Nuclear Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple liquid metal pump options are reviewed for the purpose of determining the technologies that are best suited for inclusion in a nuclear reactor thermal simulator intended to test prototypical space nuclear system components. Conduction, induction, and thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps are evaluated based on their performance characteristics and the technical issues associated incorporation into a reactor system. The thermoelectric electromagnetic pump is recommended for inclusion in the present system based on favorable quantitative and qualitative measures relative to the other options under consideration.

  1. High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellhorn, M.; Ngcobo, S.; Bollig, C.

    2009-02-01

    A 2% Tm3+-doped LiYF4(Tm:YLF) slab is double-end-pumped by two laser diode stacks. The pumped volume has a rectangular cross section. The Tm:YLF laser produced 148 W of continuos-wave output at 1912 nm in a beam with M {/x 2}≈199 and M {/y 2}≈1.7 for 554 W of incident pump power. The slope efficiency with respect to the incident pump power was 32.6%, and the optical-to-optical efficiency was 26.7%.

  2. Measurement of rotary pump flow and pressure by computation of driving motor power and speed.

    PubMed

    Qian, K X; Zeng, P; Ru, W M; Yuan, H Y; Feng, Z G; Li, L

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of pump flow and pressure by ventricular assist is an important process, but difficult to achieve. On one hand, the pump flow and pressure are indicators of pump performance and the physiologic status of the receptor, meanwhile providing a control basis of the blood pump itself. On the other hand, the direct measurement forces the receptor to connect with a flow meter and a manometer, and the sensors of these meters may cause haematological problems and increase the danger of infection. A novel method for measuring flow rate and pressure of rotary pump has been developed recently. First the pump performs at several rotating speeds, and at each speed the flow rate, pump head and the motor power (voltage x current) are recorded and shown in diagrams, thus obtaining P (motor power)-Q (pump volume) curves as well as P-H (pump head) curves. Secondly, the P, n (rotating speed) values are loaded into the input layer of a 3-layer BP (back propagation) neural network and the Q and H values into the output layer, to convert P-Q and P-H relations into Q = f (P,n) and H = g (P, n) functions. Thirdly, these functions are stored by computer to establish a database as an archive of this pump. Finally, the pump flow and pressure can be computed from motor power and speed during animal experiments or clinical trials. This new method was used in the authors' impeller pump. The results demonstrated that the error for pump head was less than 2% and that for pump flow was under 5%, so its accuracy is better than that of non-invasive measuring methods.

  3. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, G. E.; Studer, P. A.; Baer, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  4. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, G.E.; Studer, P.A.; Baer, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  5. Inductive Storage - Prospects for High Power Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    discussed in ref.7, 4-erosion switch6 1 5-magnetically operated mechanical breaker ~, 6-explosively driven switch 10 , i- SF6 circuit breakerll, 8...evolve from power circuit breaker technology. This paper discusses the status of orening switches and their relation to development of large...of current ensues. Appropriate commutating circuit can be expected to provide very fast voltage recovery associated with that of vacuum breaker

  6. Thermal energy storage units for solar electric power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudkov, V. I.; Chakalev, K. N.

    Several types of heat storage units for solar power plants with thermodynamic cycles of energy conversion are examined, including specific-heat units (particularly water-vapor devices), thermochemical units, and phase-change units. The dependence of specific capital costs for heat storage units upon time of operation is discussed, and particular consideration is give to types of connections of specific-heat units into the thermal circuit of a power plant, and to a phase-change unit that uses a heat pipe for internal heat transport.

  7. Power consumption of rotary blood pumps: pulsatile versus constant-speed mode.

    PubMed

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Cotter, Chris; Bourque, Kevin

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the power consumption of a HeartMate III rotary blood pump based on in vitro experiments performed in a cardiovascular simulator. To create artificial-pulse mode, we modulated the pump speed by decreasing the mean speed by 2000 rpm for 200 ms and then increasing speed by 4000 rpm (mean speeds plus 2000 rpm) for another 200 ms, creating a square waveform shape. The HeartMate III was connected to a cardiovascular simulator consisting of a hydraulic pump system to simulate left ventricle pumping action, arterial and venous compliance chambers, and an adjustable valve for peripheral resistance to facilitate the desired aortic pressure. The simulator operated based on Suga's elastance model to mimic the Starling response of the heart, thereby reproducing physiological blood flow and pressure conditions. We measured the instantaneous total electrical current and voltage of the pump to evaluate its power consumption. The aim was to answer these fundamental questions: (i) How does pump speed modulation affect pump power consumption? (ii) How does the power consumption vary in relation to external pulsatile flow? The results indicate that speed modulation and external pulsatile flow both moderately increase the power consumption. Increasing the pump speed reduces the impact of external pulsatile flow.

  8. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  9. Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Drost, M.K.; Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.

    1990-11-01

    This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used to generate steam for a Rankine steam power cycle. This allowed the coal-fired salt heater to be approximately one-third the size of a coal-fired boiler in a conventional cycling plant. The use of nitrate salt TES also reduced the levelized cost of power by between 5% and 24% depends on the operating schedule. The second case evaluate the use of thermal energy storage with an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this concept, the nitrate salt was heated by a combination of the gas turbine exhaust and the hot fuel gas. The IGCC plant also contained a low-temperature storage unit that uses a mixture of oil and rock as the thermal storage medium. Thermal energy stored in the low-temperature TES was used to preheat the feedwater after it leaves the condenser and to produce process steam for other applications in the IGCC plant. This concept study also predicted a 5% to 20% reduction in levelized cost of power compared to other coal-fired alternatives. If significant escalation rates in the price of fuel were assumed, the concept could be competitive with natural-gas-fired intermediate-load power generation. A sensitivity analysis of using a direct-contact heat exchanger instead of the conventional finned-tube design showed a significant reduction in the installed capital cost. 3 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. High power high repetition rate VCSEL array side-pumped pulsed blue laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Robert; Zhao, Pu; Chen, Tong; Xu, Bing; Watkins, Laurence; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Xu, Guoyang; Miglo, Alexander; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2013-03-01

    High power, kW-class, 808 nm pump modules based on the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) technology were developed for side-pumping of solid-state lasers. Two 1.2 kW VCSEL pump modules were implemented in a dual side-pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 946 nm. The laser output was frequency doubled in a BBO crystal to produce pulsed blue light. With 125 μs pump pulses at a 300 Hz repetition rate 6.1 W QCW 946 nm laser power was produced. The laser power was limited by thermal lensing in the Nd:YAG rod.

  11. Stability analysis of the governor-turbine-hydraulic system of pumped storage plant during small load variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X. D.; Zhang, J.; Chen, S.; Liu, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Governor-turbine-hydraulic (GTH) system is complex because of strong couplings of hydraulic, mechanical and electrical system. This paper presents a convenient mathematical model of the GTH system of a pumped storage plant (PSP) during small load variation. By using state space method and eigenvalue method, the stability of the GTH system is analyzed and the stable regions of the system can be given as well, which would help to optimize system design or the turning of governors. The proposed method is used to analyze the stability of a practical pumped storage plant during small load variation, which is also simulated in time domain on the basis of characteristics method. The theoretical analysis is in good agreement with numerical simulations. Based on the proposed method, the effect of the system parameters and operating conditions on the stable regions is investigated. These results are useful for the design of the GTH system of pumped storage plants.

  12. 54. PORTION OF SPARE STORAGE BUILDING (FORMERLY AC POWER HOUSE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PORTION OF SPARE STORAGE BUILDING (FORMERLY AC POWER HOUSE) ON THE LEFT, AND CARRIE BOILER SHOP (FORMERLY CARRIE No. 6 AND No. 7 BLOWING ENGINE HOUSE) ON THE RIGHT. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Non-Treaty Storage Agreement / Bonneville Power Administration.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; B.C. Hydro

    1990-03-01

    Appendices A thru L are included in this volume. The appendices contain information dealing with: treaty and non-treaty agreements, analytical methods and assumptions, storage use, power systems effects, economic analyses, PNW hydropower systems planning and operation, wildlife studies, and other environmental impacts. (JEF)

  14. The effect on syringe performance of fluid storage and repeated use: implications for syringe pumps.

    PubMed

    Capes, D F; Herring, D; Sunderland, V B; McMillan, D; McDonald, C

    1996-01-01

    Syringe stiction has been reported to cause syringe pump malfunction, hence the effect on syringe performance of syringe use and the formulations used in the syringe were investigated. The force required for syringe plunger motion (at 2.5 mm min-1), when filled with soybean oil emulsion (SBOE) and with water, and the extraction of silicone oil from syringes by these fluids, were measured for Primo, Talus and Terumo 10 mL, and Terumo 50 mL syringes. The breakloose, average extrusion and maximum force required to maintain plunger motion increased after storage of SBOE for 7 days in all syringes tested (p < 0.05). The storage of water increased the breakloose force of all syringes, but only increased the maximum force of Talus syringes, and both the average extrusion and maximum forces of Terumo 10 mL syringes. The mechanism for this is most likely swelling of the elastomer of the piston due to sorption of fluid. The force was found to increase logarithmically with repeated syringe use. Electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to measure the silicone oil content of syringe extractions. Three extractions were performed: repeated flushing, vigorous washing, and storage for 7 days with occasional agitation. Up to 69.4% of the silicone oil present in the syringes was extracted with both water and SBOE when they were stored or washed. In contrast to water, SBOE also extracted the lubricant when the syringe was filled and flushed immediately. If syringes are refilled, stored filled before use, or used over a prolonged period, particularly with a SBOE formulation, syringe striction may occur during infusion with a syringe pump.

  15. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 2: Project design criteria: UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    The design criteria for an underground pumped hydroelectric (JPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh at a nominal head of 5000 ft are documented. The UPH facility is a two step configuration with single stage reversible pump turbines, each step consisting of a 1000 MW plant at a nominal head of 2500 ft. Overall design criteria including operating requirements, civil/structural criteria, geotechnical criteria, mechanical criteria and electrical criteria are detailed. Specific requirements are given for the upper reservoir, intake/outlet structure, penstock and draft tubes, powerhouses, transformer galleries, intermediate reservoir, lower reservoir, shafts and hoists, switchyard and surface buildings. The requirements for the power plant electrical and mechanical equipment, including pump turbine and motor generator units, are referred to. Electrical design criteria are given to meet the requirements of two power houses located underground at different depths, but these criteria may not necessarily reflect PEPCO's current engineering practice. The criteria refer to a specific site and take into account the site investigation results. The design criteria given were used as the basis for the plant design.

  16. Design of a cost effective solar powered water pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, D. G.

    1980-04-01

    The basic design consists of an expanding gaseous piston confined inside a chamber which is located in series with, and between, an inlet and an outlet check valve. The gas is generated by volatilizing cyclopentane or hexane. Four variations of this basic design concept were built and evaluated. Considerations in the choice of a cost effective solar collector are also reviewed. A 70 C heat source temperature is required to operate the pump if cyclopentane is used as the volatile fluid, 90 C is required if hexane is used. The pumps have a capacity of approximately 6 liters/minute when pumped to a height of 2 meters. Two square meters of sunshine are sufficient to operate the pump.

  17. Pump-turbine performance test, Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant and Forebay Dam, Unit 1, Fryingpan-Arkansas project, Colorado. Flow measurement by the salt-velocity method

    SciTech Connect

    Lewey, A.B.; Favero, J.F.

    1984-12-01

    On September 13, 14, 22, and 23, 1982, a performance test was conducted on the vertical-shaft, single-impeller, pump-turbine designated Unit 1 at Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant and Forebay Dam. The operating characteristics were determined in the pump and turbine modes.

  18. Design, manufacture, and test of coolant pump-motor assembly for Brayton power conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabacz, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication, and testing of seven coolant circulating pump-motor assemblies are discussed. The pump-motor assembly is driven by the nominal 44.4-volt, 400-Hz, 3-phase output of a nominal 56-volt dc input inverter. The pump-motor assembly will be used to circulate Dow Corning 200 liquid coolant for use in a Brayton cycle space power system. The pump-motor assembly develops a nominal head of 70 psi at 3.7 gpm with an over-all efficiency of 26 percent. The design description, drawings, photographs, reliability results, and developmental and acceptance test results are included.

  19. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  20. Performance Testing of a Prototypic Annular Linear Induction Pump for Fission Surface Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Schoenfeld, M. P.; Webster, K.; Houts, M. G.; Godfroy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal (NaK) through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 25 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head <1 to 90 kPa (<0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. While the pump was powered, the fluid responded immediately to changes in the input power level, but when power was removed altogether, there was a brief slow-down period before the fluid would come to rest. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

  1. Review of power quality applications of energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing US competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.

  2. Power scaling of a directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Roth, Peter W; Burns, David; Kemp, Alan J

    2012-08-27

    Improvements in the output power of a directly GaN diode-laser-pumped Ti:Al2O3 laser are achieved by using double-sided pumping. In continuous wave operation, an output power of 159 mW is reported. A tuning range of over 125 nm with output powers in excess of 100 mW is achieved. Pulses of 111 fs duration and an average power of 101 mW are demonstrated by mode locking the laser with a saturable Bragg reflector. Pumping with GaN diode lasers at wavelengths around 450 nm induces an additional parasitic crystal loss of about 1% per resonator roundtrip that is not observed at the conventional green pump wavelengths.

  3. Evaluation of advanced turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 3. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    SciTech Connect

    Frigo, A.A.; Pistner, C.

    1980-08-01

    This is the final report in a series of three on studies of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. All three reports address Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines. The first report covered single-stage regulated units; the second report covered two-stage regulated units; the present report covers multistage unregulated units. Multistage unregulated pump/turbines offer an economically attractive option for heads of 1000 to 1500 m. The feasibility of developing such machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1500 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six multistage pump/turbines. The designs are for nominal capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 1000, 1250, and 1500 m. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost with no unsolvable problems. Efficiencies of 85.8% and 88.5% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1500-m unit. Performances of the other five machines are at least comparable, and usually better. Over a 1000 to 1500-m head range, specific $/kW costs of the pump/turbines in mid-1978 US dollars vary from 19.0 to 23.1 for the 500-MW machines, and from 21.0 to 24.1 for the 350-MW machines.

  4. Demonstration of a Low-Lift Heat Pump for High-Power Spacecraft Thermal Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzyll, Lawrence R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development and demonstration of a prototype low-lift heat pump for high-power spacecraft thermal control The low-lift heat pump was designed to provide 25 kW of cooling at 303 K and transport this waste heat to a radiator for heat rejection. To accomplish this, a demonstration heat pump with an evaporation temperature of 298 K and a condensing temperature of 301 K was designed and built. HFC-227ea was the working fluid. This effort resulted in optimization of the centrifugal compressor impeller, diffuser, and shroud designs through extensive experimental testing. The detailed design of a magnetic bearing centrifugal compressor was completed. A prototype heat pump thermal control system was designed and fabricated which contained prototypical cold plate and condenser designs. This prototype system was extensively tested and demonstrated to measure performance parameters such as power consumption, cooling capacity, system size and mass, and other key parameters. Finally, the experimental performance was input into the theoretical trade study allowing for a comparison of the actual performance of the low-lift heat pump to a single-phase pumped loop. Inputting the experimental low-lift heat pump performance into the trade study showed that the low-lift heat pump still has lower system mass than the single-phase pumped loop for all space temperatures considered. The experimental results very closely match the theoretical results used in the trade study.

  5. Optimal Operation of Energy Storage in Power Transmission and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan Hejazi, Seyed Hossein

    In this thesis, we investigate optimal operation of energy storage units in power transmission and distribution grids. At transmission level, we investigate the problem where an investor-owned independently-operated energy storage system seeks to offer energy and ancillary services in the day-ahead and real-time markets. We specifically consider the case where a significant portion of the power generated in the grid is from renewable energy resources and there exists significant uncertainty in system operation. In this regard, we formulate a stochastic programming framework to choose optimal energy and reserve bids for the storage units that takes into account the fluctuating nature of the market prices due to the randomness in the renewable power generation availability. At distribution level, we develop a comprehensive data set to model various stochastic factors on power distribution networks, with focus on networks that have high penetration of electric vehicle charging load and distributed renewable generation. Furthermore, we develop a data-driven stochastic model for energy storage operation at distribution level, where the distribution of nodal voltage and line power flow are modelled as stochastic functions of the energy storage unit's charge and discharge schedules. In particular, we develop new closed-form stochastic models for such key operational parameters in the system. Our approach is analytical and allows formulating tractable optimization problems. Yet, it does not involve any restricting assumption on the distribution of random parameters, hence, it results in accurate modeling of uncertainties. By considering the specific characteristics of random variables, such as their statistical dependencies and often irregularly-shaped probability distributions, we propose a non-parametric chance-constrained optimization approach to operate and plan energy storage units in power distribution girds. In the proposed stochastic optimization, we consider

  6. Multiphysics Modeling of an Annular Linear Induction Pump With Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbane, J.; Polzin, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    An annular linear induction pump (ALIP) that could be used for circulating liquid-metal coolant in a fission surface power reactor system is modeled in the present work using the computational COMSOL Multiphysics package. The pump is modeled using a two-dimensional, axisymmetric geometry and solved under conditions similar to those used during experimental pump testing. Real, nonlinear, temperature-dependent material properties can be incorporated into the model for both the electrically-conducting working fluid in the pump (NaK-78) and structural components of the pump. The intricate three-phase coil configuration of the pump is implemented in the model to produce an axially-traveling magnetic wave that is qualitatively similar to the measured magnetic wave. The model qualitatively captures the expected feature of a peak in efficiency as a function of flow rate.

  7. Design of a Mechanical NaK Pump for Fission Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Bradley, David E.; Godfroy, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Alkali liquid metal cooled fission reactor concepts are under development for spaceflight power requirements. One such concept utilizes a sodium-potassium eutectic (NaK) as the primary loop working fluid, which has specific pumping requirements. Traditionally, electromagnetic linear induction pumps have been used to provide the required flow and pressure head conditions for NaK systems but they can be limited in performance, efficiency, and number of available vendors. The objective of the project was to develop a mechanical NaK centrifugal pump that takes advantages of technology advances not available in previous liquid metal mechanical pump designs. This paper details the design, build, and performance test of a mechanical NaK pump developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The pump was designed to meet reactor cooling requirements using commercially available components modified for high temperature NaK service.

  8. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  9. Phase change energy storage for solar dynamic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiaramonte, F. P.; Taylor, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a transient computer simulation that was developed to study phase change energy storage techniques for Space Station Freedom (SSF) solar dynamic (SD) power systems. Such SD systems may be used in future growth SSF configurations. Two solar dynamic options are considered in this paper: Brayton and Rankine. Model elements consist of a single node receiver and concentrator, and takes into account overall heat engine efficiency and power distribution characteristics. The simulation not only computes the energy stored in the receiver phase change material (PCM), but also the amount of the PCM required for various combinations of load demands and power system mission constraints. For a solar dynamic power system in low earth orbit, the amount of stored PCM energy is calculated by balancing the solar energy input and the energy consumed by the loads corrected by an overall system efficiency. The model assumes an average 75 kW SD power system load profile which is connected to user loads via dedicated power distribution channels. The model then calculates the stored energy in the receiver and subsequently estimates the quantity of PCM necessary to meet peaking and contingency requirements. The model can also be used to conduct trade studies on the performance of SD power systems using different storage materials.

  10. GaSe Parametric Oscillator Pumped by Powerful Holmium Laser Near 3 Microns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    GaSe Parametric Oscillator Pumped by Powerful Holmium Laser near 3 Microns EOARD OPO Contract F61775-99...COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2001 to xx-xx-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GaSe Parametric Oscillator Pumped by Powerful Holmium Laser near 3 Microns Unclassified... holmium laser near 3 microns with a goal of achieving an output energy from the OPO near the degenerate wavelength of 10 to 20mJ per pulse. 15. SUBJECT

  11. Intensity and absorbed-power distribution in a cylindrical solar-pumped dye laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    The internal intensity and absorbed-power distribution of a simplified hypothetical dye laser of cylindrical geometry is calculated. Total absorbed power is also calculated and compared with laboratory measurements of lasing-threshold energy deposition in a dye cell to determine the suitability of solar radiation as a pump source or, alternatively, what modifications, if any, are necessary to the hypothetical system for solar pumping.

  12. Solar Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pique, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Proposed pump moves liquid by action of bubbles formed by heat of sun. Tube of liquid having boiling point of 100 to 200 degrees F placed at focal axis of cylindrical reflector. Concentrated sunlight boils liquid at focus, and bubbles of vapor rise in tube, carrying liquid along with them. Pressure difference in hot tube sufficient to produce flow in large loop. Used with conventional flat solar heating panel in completely solar-powered heat-storage system.

  13. Commercialization of PV-powered pumping systems for use in utility PV service programs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The project described in this report was a commercialization effort focused on cost-effective remote water pumping systems for use in utility-based photovoltaic (PV) service programs. The project combined a commercialization strategy tailored specifically for electric utilities with the development of a PV-powered pumping system that operates conventional ac pumps rather than relying on the more expensive and less reliable PV pumps on the market. By combining these two attributes, a project goal was established of creating sustained utility purchases of 250 PV-powered water pumping systems per year. The results of each of these tasks are presented in two parts contained in this Final Summary Report. The first part summarizes the results of the Photovoltaic Services Network (PSN) as a new business venture, while the second part summarizes the results of the Golden Photon system installations. Specifically, results and photographs from each of the system installations are presented in this latter part.

  14. Electric Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles: Electric-Powered Adsorption Heat Pump for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a new class of advanced nanomaterial called an electrical metal organic framework (EMOF) for EV heating and cooling systems. The EMOF would function similar to a conventional heat pump, which circulates heat or cold to the cabin as needed. However, by directly controlling the EMOF's properties with electricity, the PNNL design is expected to use much less energy than traditional heating and cooling systems. The EMOF-based heat pumps would be light, compact, efficient, and run using virtually no moving parts.

  15. Gamma Stirling configuration and simultaneous production of shaft power and heat pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, J. L.; Griffin, F. P.; West, C. D.

    1985-05-01

    In an ideal gamma configuration Stirling engine, the volume of the cold end of the displacer varies 180(0) out of phase with that at the hot end; therefore, exactly as much heat must be rejected as the hot end absorbs. The power piston, moving with a different phase, produces mechanical energy, so the power piston cylinder must absorb heat for there to be an overall energy balance. In other words, the engine simultaneously produces mechanical power and pumps heat between the two sections of the compression space. Inclusion of a second regenerator, between the cold displacer cylinder and the power piston cylinder, can capture this heat flow; the resulting machine is a heat-actuated heat pump that also produces shaft power. Unlike the duplex Stirling heat pump, the new configuration has only one working space and produces a surplus of shaft power.

  16. Study of a low power dissipation, miniature laser-pumped rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guo-Bin; Zhao, Feng; Gu, Si-Hong

    2009-09-01

    This paper studies a miniature low power consumption laser-pumped atom vapour cell clock scheme. Pumping 87Rb with a vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode pump and locking the laser frequency on a Doppler-broadened spectral line, it records a 5 × 10-11τ-1/2 (τ < 500 s) frequency stability with a table-top system in a primary experiment. The study reveals that the evaluated scheme is at the level of 2.7 watts power consumption, 90 cm3 volume and 10-12τ-1/2 short-term frequency stability.

  17. 28W average power hydrocarbon-free rubidium diode pumped alkali laser.

    PubMed

    Zweiback, Jason; Krupke, William F

    2010-01-18

    We present experimental results for a high-power diode pumped hydrocarbon-free rubidium laser with a scalable architecture. The laser consists of a liquid cooled, copper waveguide which serves to both guide the pump light and to provide a thermally conductive surface near the gain volume to remove heat. A laser diode stack, with a linewidth narrowed to approximately 0.35 nm with volume bragg gratings, is used to pump the cell. We have achieved 24W average power output using 4 atmospheres of naturally occurring helium ((4)He) as the buffer gas and 28W using 2.8 atmospheres of (3)He.

  18. PUMPS

    DOEpatents

    Thornton, J.D.

    1959-03-24

    A pump is described for conveving liquids, particure it is not advisable he apparatus. The to be submerged in the liquid to be pumped, a conduit extending from the high-velocity nozzle of the injector,and means for applying a pulsating prcesure to the surface of the liquid in the conduit, whereby the surface oscillates between positions in the conduit. During the positive half- cycle of an applied pulse liquid is forced through the high velocity nozzle or jet of the injector and operates in the manner of the well known water injector and pumps liquid from the main intake to the outlet of the injector. During the negative half-cycle of the pulse liquid flows in reverse through the jet but no reverse pumping action takes place.

  19. Simulating on water storage and pump capacity of "Kencing" river polder system in Kudus regency, Central Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyudi, Slamet Imam; Adi, Henny Pratiwi; Santoso, Esti; Heikoop, Rick

    2017-03-01

    Settlement in the Jati District, Kudus Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia, is growing rapidly. Previous paddy fields area turns into new residential, industrial and office buildings. The rain water collected in small Kencing river that flows into big Wulan River. But the current condition, during high rain intensity Wulan river water elevation higher than the Kencing river, so that water can not flow gravity and the area inundated. To reduce the flooding, required polder drainage system by providing a long channel as water storage and pumping water into Wulan river. How to get optimal value of water storage volume, drainage system channels and the pump capacity? The result used to be efficient in the operation and maintenance of the polder system. The purpose of this study is to develop some scenarios water storage volume, water gate operation and to get the optimal value of operational pumps removing water from the Kencing River to Wulan River. Research Method is conducted by some steps. The first step, it is done field orientation in detail, then collecting secondary data including maps and rainfall data. The map is processed into Watershed or catchment area, while the rainfall data is processed into runoff discharge. Furthermore, the team collects primary data by measuring topography to determine the surface and volume of water storage. The analysis conducted to determine of flood discharge, water channel hydraulics, water storage volume and pump capacity corresponding. Based on the simulating of long water storage volume and pump capacity with some scenario trying, it can be determined optimum values. The results used to be guideline in to construction proses, operation and maintenance of the drainage polder system.

  20. Metal hydrides for concentrating solar thermal power energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Paskevicius, M.; Humphries, T. D.; Felderhoff, M.; Capurso, G.; Bellosta von Colbe, J.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Ward, P. A.; Teprovich, J. A.; Corgnale, C.; Zidan, R.; Grant, D. M.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    The development of alternative methods for thermal energy storage is important for improving the efficiency and decreasing the cost of concentrating solar thermal power. We focus on the underlying technology that allows metal hydrides to function as thermal energy storage (TES) systems and highlight the current state-of-the-art materials that can operate at temperatures as low as room temperature and as high as 1100 °C. The potential of metal hydrides for thermal storage is explored, while current knowledge gaps about hydride properties, such as hydride thermodynamics, intrinsic kinetics and cyclic stability, are identified. The engineering challenges associated with utilising metal hydrides for high-temperature TES are also addressed.

  1. FY 17 Q1 Commercial integrated heat pump with thermal storage milestone report

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Heiba, Ahmad; Baxter, Van D.; Shen, Bo; Rice, C. Keith

    2017-01-01

    The commercial integrated heat pump with thermal storage (AS-IHP) offers significant energy saving over a baseline heat pump with electric water heater. The saving potential is maximized when the AS-IHP serves coincident high water heating and high space cooling demands. A previous energy performance analysis showed that the AS-IHP provides the highest benefit in the hot-humid and hot-dry/mixed dry climate regions. Analysis of technical potential energy savings for these climate zones based on the BTO Market calculator indicated that the following commercial building market segments had the highest water heating loads relative to space cooling and heating loads education, food service, health care, lodging, and mercantile/service. In this study, we focused on these building types to conservatively estimate the market potential of the AS-IHP. Our analysis estimates maximum annual shipments of ~522,000 units assuming 100% of the total market is captured. An early replacement market based on replacement of systems in target buildings between 15 and 35 years old was estimated at ~136,000 units. Technical potential energy savings are estimated at ~0.27 quad based on the maximum market estimate, equivalent to ~13.9 MM Ton CO2 emissions reduction.

  2. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches: UPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-06-01

    The development of the design approaches used to determine the plant and overall layout for a underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) storage facility having a maximum generating capacity of 2000 MW and a storage capacity of 20,000 MWh is discussed. Key factors were the selection of the high head pump-turbine equipment and the geotechnical considerations relevant to the underground cavern designs. The comparison of pump-turbine alternatives is described leading to the selection for detailed study of both a single-step configurations, using multistage reversible pump-turbines, and a two-step configuration, with single-stage reversible pump-turbines.

  3. Nonlinear femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy using a power-encoded soliton delay line.

    PubMed

    Saint-Jalm, Sarah; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Bendahmane, Abdelkrim; Kudlinski, Alexandre; Rigneault, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    We show femtosecond time-resolved nonlinear pump-probe spectroscopy using a fiber soliton as the probe pulse. Furthermore, we exploit soliton dynamics to record an entire transient trace with a power-encoded delay sweep. The power-encoded delay line takes advantage of the dependency of the soliton trajectory in the (λ,z) space upon input power; the difference in accumulated group delay between trajectories converts a fast power sweep into a fast delay sweep. We demonstrate the concept by performing transient absorption spectroscopy in a test sample and validate it against a conventional pump-probe setup.

  4. Highly efficient and high-power diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:LYSO laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wenlong; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Zheng, Lihe; Xu, Jun; Wei, Zhiyi

    2017-04-01

    A diode-pumped high-power femtosecond Yb:LYSO laser with high efficiency is demonstrated. With a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror for passive mode-locking and a Gires–Tournois interferometer mirror for intracavity dispersion compensation, stable mode-locking pulses of 297 fs duration at 1042 nm were obtained. The maximum average power of 3.07 W was realized under 5.17 W absorbed pump power, corresponding to as high as 59.4% opt–opt efficiency. The single pulse energy and peak power are about 35.5 nJ and 119.5 kW, respectively.

  5. High power pumped MID-IR wavelength devices using nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  6. High power pumped mid-IR wavelength systems using nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength systems include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  7. High power operation of cladding pumped holmium-doped silica fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Alexander; Bennetts, Shayne; Simakov, Nikita; Davidson, Alan; Haub, John; Carter, Adrian

    2013-02-25

    We report the highest power operation of a resonantly cladding-pumped, holmium-doped silica fibre laser. The cladding pumped all-glass fibre utilises a fluorine doped glass layer to provide low loss cladding guidance of the 1.95 µm pump radiation. The operation of both single mode and large-mode area fibre lasers was demonstrated, with up to 140 W of output power achieved. A slope efficiency of 59% versus launched pump power was demonstrated. The free running emission was measured to be 2.12-2.15 µm demonstrating the potential of this architecture to address the long wavelength operation of silica based fibre lasers with high efficiency.

  8. 78 FR 1210 - Grand River Dam Authority; Notice of Telephone Meeting To Discuss the Salina Pumped Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Pumped Storage Project Water Quality Study Results a. Date and Time of Meeting: Wednesday, January 16...) Oklahoma Water Resources Control Board (OWRB): Water quality study results at the conclusion of fieldwork... Grand River Dam Authority (GRDA) is holding a technical meeting to discuss the results of the...

  9. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  10. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  11. Hot Thermal Storage in a Variable Power, Renewable Energy System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    characteristics and may not necessarily be available in all cases. Types of direct heat energy systems include solar thermal, waste heat, and geothermal ...the amount of energy absorbed in heating to the maximum temperature. These are conservative estimates of cost per kilowatt hour, gravimetric energy ...STORAGE IN A VARIABLE POWER, RENEWABLE ENERGY SYSTEM by Themba D. Hinke June 2014 Thesis Advisor: Anthony J. Gannon Co-Advisor: Anthony G

  12. Examination of pump failure data in the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Casada, D.

    1996-12-01

    There are several elements that are critical to any program which is used to optimize the availability and reliability of process equipment. Perhaps the most important elements are routine monitoring and predictive maintenance elements. In order to optimize equipment monitoring and predictive maintenance, it is necessary to fundamentally and thoroughly understand the principal failure modes for the equipment and the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods. While these observations are general in nature, they are certainly true for the {open_quotes}heart{close_quotes} of fluid systems - pumps. In recent years, particularly within the last decade, the capabilities and ease of use of previously existing pump diagnostic technologies, such as vibration monitoring and oil analysis, have improved dramatically. Newer technologies, such as thermal imaging, have been found effective at detecting certain undesirable or degraded conditions, such as misalignment and overheated bearings or packing. The ASME Code and NRC regulatory requirements have been, like essentially all similar code and regulatory bodies, conservative in their adoption or endorsement of newer technologies. The requirements prescribed by the Code and endorsed by the NRC have, in their essence, changed only minimally over more than a dozen years. As a follow-on to studies of check valve failure experience in the nuclear industry that have proven useful in identifying the effectiveness of alternative monitoring methods, a study of nuclear industry pump failure data has been conducted. The results of this study, conducted for the NRC by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, are presented. The historical effectiveness of both regulatory required and voluntarily implemented pump monitoring programs are shown. The distribution of pump failures by application, affected area, and level of significance are indicated. Apparent strengths and weaknesses of alternative monitoring methods are discussed.

  13. High-power pulsed diode-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Gorjan, Martin; Petkovšek, Rok; Marinček, Marko; Čopič, Martin

    2011-05-15

    We report on the operation and performance of a gain-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser based on an active pulsed diode pump system. The produced laser pulses offer high peak powers while retaining the high average powers and efficiency of the cw regime. The measured pulse duration was about 300 ns and nearly independent of the pump repetition frequency. The maximum obtained 68 W of peak power is the highest reported, to our knowledge, for diode-pumped Er:ZBLAN fiber lasers, and the 2 W of average power at the repetition frequency of 100 kHz is 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously reported average power in a pulsed regime. The obtained slope efficiency was 34%.

  14. Dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine during hydraulic transients of a model pumped-storage system: 3D CFD simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. X.; Cheng, Y. G.; Xia, L. S.; Yang, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    The runaway process in a model pumped-storage system was simulated for analyzing the dynamic characteristics of a pump-turbine. The simulation was adopted by coupling 1D (One Dimensional) pipeline MOC (Method of Characteristics) equations with a 3D (Three Dimensional) pump-turbine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model, in which the water hammer wave in the 3D zone was defined by giving a pressure dependent density. We found from the results that the dynamic performances of the pump-turbine do not coincide with the static operating points, especially in the S-shaped characteristics region, where the dynamic trajectories follow ring-shaped curves. Specifically, the transient operating points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories give different n11. The main reason of this phenomenon is that the transient flow patterns inside the pump-turbine are influenced by the ones in the previous time step, which leads to different flow patterns between the points with the same Q11 and M11 in different moving directions of the dynamic trajectories.

  15. A theoretical model of a molecular-motor-powered microfluidics pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, Joseph L.

    2003-11-01

    Flow induced by translating and rotating beads within a circular channel is investigated as a model of a novel molecular-motor-powered microfluidics pump. Micro flows are often generated by external pumps, rather than by devices that are integral to the microfluidics chip. We are currently developing a micro-scale pump that could be part of a biosensor, "lab on a chip" device, drug delivery system, or other bio-microfluidics device. The pump consists of a kinesin-coated bead moving along a microtubule track in a circular channel. The model is developed from the Stokes equation subject to wall and bead boundary conditions, and is solved using the boundary element method. It is shown that the pump can generate flows in the atto- to pico-l/s range, and that there is an optimal loading for a given pump geometry that results in maximum pump efficiency. Increasing the diameter of the bead relative to the channel width increases the flow generated at the expense of requiring a higher force to move the bead. It is found that bead rotation can increase or reduce the power required, depending on the direction of rotation, and that positioning the bead slightly off center can reduce the required power input. This work is funded by DARPA.

  16. Development of a bionanobattery for distributed power storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Chu, Sang-Hyon; Kim, Jae-Woo; Park, Yeonjoon; Lillehei, Peter T.; Watt, Gerald D.; Davis, Robert C.; Harb, John N.

    2004-07-01

    Currently available power storage systems, such as those used to supply power to microelectronic devices, typically consist of a single centralized canister and a series of wires to supply electrical power to where it is needed in a circuit. As the size of electrical circuits and components become smaller, there exists a need for a distributed power system to reduce Joule heating, wiring, and to allow autonomous operation of the various functions performed by the circuit. Our research is being conducted to develop a bio-nanobattery using ferritins reconstituted with both an iron core (Fe-ferritin) and a cobalt core (Co-ferritin). Both Co-ferritin and Fe-ferritin were synthesized and characterized as candidates for the bio-nanobattery. The reducing capability was determined as well as the half-cell electrical potentials, indicating an electrical output of nearly 0.5 V for the battery cell. Ferritins having other metallic cores are also being investigated, in order to increase the overall electrical output. Two dimensional ferritin arrays were also produced on various substrates, demonstrating the necessary building blocks for the bio-nanobattery. The bio-nanobattery will play a key role in moving to a distributed power storage system for electronic applications.

  17. Modulation of pulmonary NA+ pump gene expression during cold storage and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Kim, J D; Baker, C J; Danto, S I; Starnes, V A; Barr, M L

    2000-10-15

    Reperfusion injury with pulmonary edema continues to be a major complication after lung transplantation. Alveolar fluid homeostasis is regulated by Na+/K+-ATPase activity on the basolateral surface of alveolar epithelial cells. Intact Na+/K+-ATPase is essential to the resolution of pulmonary edema. We characterized the effects of cold ischemia and reperfusion on expression of Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA and protein. Baseline values for Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA and protein were determined from freshly harvested lungs with no cold storage time or reperfusion (group I). Group II lungs were analyzed after cold storage times of 12 or 24 hr without subsequent reperfusion. Group III lungs were analyzed after cold storage times of 12 or 24 hr with subsequent reperfusion. Lungs were flushed with either Euro-Collins (EC) or University of Wisconsin (UW) solution in each group. All samples were quantified for Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA and Na+/K+-ATPase protein. Physiological parameters including oxygenation and compliance were also measured. There were no significant differences in the level of mRNA and protein for samples that were cold stored without reperfusion (group II). With reperfusion (group III) there was a significant increase in the level of the Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA after 12 hr of storage for both EC and UW. After 24 hr of storage and subsequent reperfusion, lungs flushed with EC had significantly decreased Na+/K+-ATPase protein and mRNA, although lungs preserved with UW maintained their increased levels of Na+/K+-ATPase protein and mRNA. Our data suggest that ischemia-reperfusion injury results in an initial up-regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA. With prolonged injury in lungs preserved with EC, the level of the mRNA decreased with a corresponding decrease in the Na+/K+-ATPase protein. The different response seen in EC versus UW may be explained by better preservation of pump function with UW than EC and correlates with improved physiological function in lungs preserved with UW solution.

  18. High power diode pumped solid state laser development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Solarz, R.; Albrecht, G.; Hackel, L.

    1994-03-01

    The authors recent developments in high powered diode pumped solid state lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Over the past year the authors have made continued improvements to semiconductor pump array technology which includes the development of higher average power and lower cost pump modules. They report the performance of high power AlGaAs, InGaAs, and AlGaInP arrays. They also report on improvement to the integrated micro-optics designs in conjunction with lensing duct technology which gives rise to very high performance end pumping designs for solid state lasers which have major advantages which they detail. Substantial progress on beam quality improvements to near the diffraction limit at very high power have also been made and will be reported. They also will discuss recent experiments on high power non-linear materials for q-switches, harmonic converters, and parametric oscillators. Advances in diode pumped devices at LLNL which include tunable Cr:LiSrAlF{sub 6}, mid-IR Er:YAG, holmium based lasers and other developments will also be outlined. Concepts for delivering up to 30 kilowatts of average power from a DPSSL oscillator will be described.

  19. The heat supply system for a self-contained dwelling house on the basis of a heat pump and wind power installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemekov, V. V.; Kharchenko, V. V.

    2013-03-01

    Matters concerned with setting up environmentally clean supply of heat to dwelling houses in the resort zone of the Russian Black Sea coast on the basis of air-water type heat pumps powered from wind power installations are discussed. The investigations were carried out as applied to the system supplying heat for an individual dwelling house with an area of around 300 m2 situated in the Tuapse city. The design heat load of the building's heating system is around 8.3 kW. The Viessmann Vitocal 300 AW pump is chosen as the main source of heat supply, and a 4-kW electric heater built into a storage tank is chosen as a standby source. The selected wind power installation (the EuroWind 10 unit) has a power capacity of 13 kWe.

  20. Light-powered, artificial molecular pumps: a minimalistic approach

    PubMed Central

    Ragazzon, Giulio; Baroncini, Massimo; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita

    2015-01-01

    Summary The realization of artificial molecular motors capable of converting energy into mechanical work is a fascinating challenge of nanotechnology and requires reactive systems that can operate away from chemical equilibrium. This article describes the design and construction of a simple, supramolecular ensemble in which light irradiation causes the directional transit of a macrocycle along a nonsymmetric molecular axle, thus forming the basis for the development of artificial molecular pumps. PMID:26665081

  1. Light-powered, artificial molecular pumps: a minimalistic approach.

    PubMed

    Ragazzon, Giulio; Baroncini, Massimo; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita; Credi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The realization of artificial molecular motors capable of converting energy into mechanical work is a fascinating challenge of nanotechnology and requires reactive systems that can operate away from chemical equilibrium. This article describes the design and construction of a simple, supramolecular ensemble in which light irradiation causes the directional transit of a macrocycle along a nonsymmetric molecular axle, thus forming the basis for the development of artificial molecular pumps.

  2. High power continuous-wave diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golla, D.; Knoke, S.; Schöne, W.; Tünnermann, A.; Schmidt, H.

    1994-05-01

    We report on a diode-laser-pumped cw Nd: YAG laser operating at a power level of 150 W. By using a transverse pump geometry, the radiation of 54 diode lasers with an output power of 10 W each is coupled into a Nd:YAG rod. In multimode operation, an optical slope efficiency of 32% and an optical to optical efficiency of 29% are obtained. In TEM00 operation, an output power of more than 30 W is realized with an optical to optical efficiency of 10%.

  3. Efficient, 15-W output power, diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, S. C.; Seamans, J. F.; Hamilton, C. E.; Muller, C. H.; Lowenthal, D. D.

    1991-04-01

    The design and performance of a 15-W output-power, diode-pumped CW Nd:YAG laser is described. With the use of geometrically multiplexed end pumping, the combined power of four 10-W diode-laser bars is deposited in the active-medium mode volume with an efficiency of 80 percent. While operating on several transverse modes the laser has a threshold of 3 W, an optical slope efficiency of 60 percent, and an overall electrical efficiency of 10.5 percent. Thermally induced higher-order spherical aberration of 1.2 waves limits the output power in the TEM00 mode to approximately 6 W.

  4. Lithium neodymium tetraphosphate lasers pumped via close-coupling to high-power laser diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, G.J.; Lingvay, L.S.; Jarman, R.H.

    1989-05-01

    The authors report what they believe to be the first demonstration of a LiNdP/sub 4/O/sub 12/ solid-state laser in which the active medium was close-coupled to the pump diode. With a pump power of approximately 250 mW, a TEM/sub 00/, multilongitudinal mode output power of 73 mW has been obtained from an external mirror device operating simultaneously on the two lines at 1047 and 1055 nm. Devices operating at 1317 nm have also been studied and a close-coupled, monolithic laser with an output power in excess of 28 mW has been demonstrated.

  5. Volume Bragg grating narrowed high-power and highly efficient cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Weichao; Zhao, Chujun; Shen, Deyuan; Fan, Dianyuan

    2014-12-10

    High-power and highly efficient operation of a single-mode cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser with narrow lasing bandwidth is demonstrated. The spectral narrowing was realized by an external cavity containing a volume Bragg grating with a center wavelength of 1658 nm. A maximum output power of 10.4 W at 1658.3 nm with a spectral linewidth (FWHM) of ∼0.1  nm was obtained for the launched pump power of 18.4 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 109% with respect to the launched pump power. Lasing characteristics of free-running operation are also evaluated and discussed.

  6. Design, development and testing of a solar-powered multi-family residential size prototype turbocompressor heat pump

    SciTech Connect

    1981-03-01

    A program described to design, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing of a prototype solar-powered Rankine cycle turbocompressor heat pump module for a multi-family residential building is presented. A solar system designed to use the turbocompressor heat pump module including all of the subsystems required and the various system operating modes is described in Section I. Section II includes the preliminary design analyses conducted to select the heat pump module components and operating features, working fluid, configuration, size and performance goals, and estimated performance levels in the cooling and heating modes. Section III provides a detailed description of the other subsystems and components required for a complete solar installation. Using realistic performance and cost characteristics for all subsystems, the seasonal performance of the UTC heat pump is described in various US locations. In addition, the estimated energy savings and an assessment of the economic viability of the solar system is presented in Section III. The detailed design of the heat pump module and the arrangement of components and controls selected to conduct the laboratory performance tests are described in Section IV. Section V provides a description of the special laboratory test facility, including the subsystems to simulate the collectors and storage tanks for building load and ambient conditions and the instrumentation, monitoring, and data acquisition equipment. The test results and sample computer analyses and comparisons with predicted performance levels are presented in Section VI. Various appendices provide supplementary and background information concerning working fluid selection (A), configuration selection (B), capacity control concepts (C), building models (D), computer programs used to determine component and system performance and total system economics (E), and weather data (F).

  7. Optimization of fluid line sizes with pumping power penalty IBM-360 computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinek, D.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program has been developed to calculate and total weights for tubing, fluid in tubing, and weight of fuel cell power source necessary to power pump based on flow rate and pressure drop. Program can be used for fluid systems used in any type of aircraft, spacecraft, trucks, ships, refineries, and chemical processing plants.

  8. Off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower plant to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreira, Inês; Gueifão, Carlos; Ferreira de Jesus, J.

    2017-04-01

    In order to reduce the high dependence on imported fuels and to meet the ongoing growth of electricity demand, Cape Verde government set the goal to increase renewable energy penetration in Santiago Island until 2020. To help maximize renewable energy penetration, an off-stream Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plant will be installed in Santiago, in one of the following locations: Chã Gonçalves, Mato Sancho and Ribeira dos Picos. This paper summarizes the studies carried out to find the optimal location and connection point of the PSH plant in Santiago’s electricity network. This goal was achieved by assessing the impact of the PSH plant, in each location, on power system stability. The simulation tool PSS/E of Siemens was used to study the steady-state and dynamic behavior of the future (2020) Santiago MV grid. Different scenarios of demand and renewable resources were created. Each hydro unit of the PSH plant was modeled as an adjustable speed reversible turbine employing a DFIM. The results show that Santiago’s grid with the PSH plant in Chã Gonçalves is the one that has the best performance.

  9. Hand-powered microfluidics: A membrane pump with a patient-to-chip syringe interface

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Max M.; MacDonald, Brendan D.; Vu Nguyen, Trung; Sinton, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an on-chip hand-powered membrane pump using a robust patient-to-chip syringe interface. This approach enables safe sample collection, sample containment, integrated sharps disposal, high sample volume capacity, and controlled downstream flow with no electrical power requirements. Sample is manually injected into the device via a syringe and needle. The membrane pump inflates upon injection and subsequently deflates, delivering fluid to downstream components in a controlled manner. The device is fabricated from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and silicone, using CO2 laser micromachining, with a total material cost of ∼0.20 USD/device. We experimentally demonstrate pump performance for both deionized (DI) water and undiluted, anticoagulated mouse whole blood, and characterize the behavior with reference to a resistor-capacitor electrical circuit analogy. Downstream output of the membrane pump is regulated, and scaled, by connecting multiple pumps in parallel. In contrast to existing on-chip pumping mechanisms that typically have low volume capacity (∼5 μL) and sample volume throughput (∼1–10 μl/min), the membrane pump offers high volume capacity (up to 240 μl) and sample volume throughput (up to 125 μl/min). PMID:24143160

  10. Design of a Mechanical NaK Pump for Fission Space Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Bradley, David; Godfroy, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Alkali liquid metal cooled fission reactor concepts are under development for mid-range spaceflight power requirements. One such concept utilizes a sodium-potassium eutectic (NaK) as the primary loop working fluid. Traditionally, linear induction pumps have been used to provide the required flow and head conditions for liquid metal systems but can be limited in performance. This paper details the design, build, and check-out test of a mechanical NaK pump. The pump was designed to meet reactor cooling requirements using commercially available components modified for high temperature NaK service.

  11. Results of TC-1 boost pump icing tests in the space power facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentile, L. C.; Walter, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted in the space power facility to investigate the failure of the Centaur oxidizer boost pump during the Titan/Centaur proof flight February 11, 1974. The three basic objectives of the tests were: (1) demonstrate if an evaporative freezing type failure mechanism could have prevented the pump from operating, (2) determine if steam from the exhaust of one of the attitude control engine could have entered a pump seal cavity and caused the failure, and (3) obtain data on the heating effects of the exhaust plume from a hydrogen peroxide attitude control engine.

  12. Electrical power free, low dead volume, pressure-driven pumping for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Mario; Chien, Wei-Yin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Sun, Yu

    2010-10-13

    This paper presents a simple-to-construct, low dead volume pump capable of generating a wide range of positive and negative pressures for microfluidic applications. The pump generates pressure or vacuum by changing the volume of air confined inside a syringe and is able to generate pressures between -95 and +300 kPa with a resolution as high as 1 Pa. Different from syringe pumps and electrokinetic pumping, which are capable of controlling flow rates only, our pump can be used to generate constant flow rates or constant pressures, which are required for certain applications such as the aspiration of biological cells for biophysical characterization. Compared to syringe pumps, the new pump has almost zero dead volume and does not exhibit pulsatile flows. Additionally, the system does not require electrical power and is cost effective (∼$100). To demonstrate the capabilities of the pump, we used it to aspirate osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) and to determine Young's modulus of the cells, to generate a concentration gradient, and to produce variable-sized droplets in microchannels using hydrodynamic focusing.

  13. Electrical power free, low dead volume, pressure-driven pumping for microfluidic applications

    PubMed Central

    Moscovici, Mario; Chien, Wei-Yin; Abdelgawad, Mohamed; Sun, Yu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simple-to-construct, low dead volume pump capable of generating a wide range of positive and negative pressures for microfluidic applications. The pump generates pressure or vacuum by changing the volume of air confined inside a syringe and is able to generate pressures between −95 and +300 kPa with a resolution as high as 1 Pa. Different from syringe pumps and electrokinetic pumping, which are capable of controlling flow rates only, our pump can be used to generate constant flow rates or constant pressures, which are required for certain applications such as the aspiration of biological cells for biophysical characterization. Compared to syringe pumps, the new pump has almost zero dead volume and does not exhibit pulsatile flows. Additionally, the system does not require electrical power and is cost effective (∼$100). To demonstrate the capabilities of the pump, we used it to aspirate osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells) and to determine Young’s modulus of the cells, to generate a concentration gradient, and to produce variable-sized droplets in microchannels using hydrodynamic focusing. PMID:21057609

  14. High power 1.57-?m OPO pumped by MOPA with SBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Youlun; Yao, Baoquan; Qi, Sheng

    2005-06-01

    A Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system, pumped by a pulse flash-lamps as the pump source of optical parametric oscillator (OPO), is employed to improve the pump beam quality of OPO pump source. A back amplifying configuration with stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation mirror is used. OPO pump laser energy of 611 mJ/pulse with 30-ns pulse duration is obtained, and near diffraction limited beam quality is achieved. Based on the type II degenerate non-critically phase-matched KTP crystal, the OPO is used to convert pump beam from 1.064 ?m to 1.57 ?m, eye-safe near infrared laser range source. 1.57-?m output energy of 209 mJ/pulse with 18-ns pulse duration is attained with a short cavity KTP OPO, when pump laser energy is approximately 611 mJ. OPO conversion efficiency is up to 38.7% when pump laser energy is approximately 200 mJ.

  15. A review of vibration problems in power station boiler feed pumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, David

    1994-01-01

    Boiler feed pump reliability and availability is recognized as important to the overall efficiency of power generation. Vibration monitoring is often used as a part of planned maintenance. This paper reviews a number of different types of boiler feed pump vibration problems describing some methods of solution in the process. It is hoped that this review may assist both designers and users faced with similar problems.

  16. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  17. Pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy by a high-power 90 nm vacuum-ultraviolet laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoki; Suzuki, Yoshi-ichi; Suzuki, Toshinori; Adachi, Shunsuke

    2016-02-01

    We present pump-probe photoelectron spectroscopy of Kr and NO using a high-power vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) laser at a wavelength of 90 nm. Clear quantum beats are observed in the photoelectron angular distributions as well as in the photoelectron yields, resulting from the coherent excitation of two Kr Rydberg states by the VUV pump. The entire Franck-Condon envelope of the NO A(2Σ+) excited state is also successfully captured by the VUV probe.

  18. Electrochemical Energy Storage and Power Sources for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of NASA s electrochemical energy storage programs for NASA Exploration missions is being presented at the 10th Electrochemical Power Sources R&D Symposium, which is being held in Williamsburg, VA on August 20-23, 2007. This public domain venue, which is sponsored by the U.S. Navy and held every two years, serves as a forum for the dissemination of research and development results related to electrochemical energy storage technology programs that are currently being supported and managed within governmental agencies. Technology areas of primary interest include batteries, fuel cells, and both overview and focused presentations on such are given by both governmental and contractual researchers. The forum also provides an opportunity to assess technology areas of mutual interest with respect to establishing collaborative and/or complementary programmatic interactions.

  19. Low-power photolytically pumped lasers: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, I.; Lorents, D.C.; Eckstrom, D.J.

    1987-08-01

    We have carried out an extensive series of measurements of the time-resolved Xe/sub 2/* emission spectra following optical pumping by a short-pulse F/sub 2/ laser at 157.6 nm. Most measurements were performed using a gated Optical Multichannel Analyzer detector; we also made measurements using a scanning monochromator fitted with a photomultiplier and using a boxcar integrator for time resolution. The two sets of results agree well and show that both the singlet and triplet emission bands are broader than expected and have center wavelengths closer together than expected. Measurements were performed both at room temperature and at elevated (140/sup 0/C) and reduced (-27/sup 0/C) temperatures. The broad bandwidth of the individual spectral bands was unexpected and conflicted with a previous spectral measurement using optical pumping by the Xe* resonance line from a microwave discharge lamp. Therefore, we also performed a series of spectral measurements using this type of optical pumping. We achieved good agreement with some previous results in the literature, but not with the result in question. We conclude that the present results are reliable. The results presented in this report provide the first definitive measurement of the individual excimer emissions from each of the Xe/sub 2/(0/sub u//sup +/) and Xe/sub 2/(1/sub u/) states. From these measurements and the known ground state potential, we derived a 1/sub u/ potential that reproduces the emission band very well. However, the 1/sub u/ potential is in substantial disagreement with the recent 1/sub u/ potential derived by the Toronto group. 13 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Customized electric power storage device for inclusion in a collective microgrid

    DOEpatents

    Robinett, III, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2016-02-16

    An electric power storage device is described herein, wherein the electric power storage device is included in a microgrid. The electric power storage device has at least one of a charge rate, a discharge rate, or a power retention capacity that has been customized for a collective microgrid. The collective microgrid includes at least two connected microgrids. The at least one of the charge rate, the discharge rate, or the power retention capacity of the electric power storage device is computed based at least in part upon specified power source parameters in the at least two connected microgrids and specified load parameters in the at least two connected microgrids.

  1. Plan for Using Solar-Powered Jack Pumps to Sample Groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    David Hudson, Charles Lohrstorfer, Bruce Hurley

    2007-05-03

    Groundwater is sampled from 39 monitoring wells on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program. Many of these wells were not designed or constructed for long-term groundwater monitoring. Some have extensive completion zones and others have obstructions such as pumps and tubing. The high-volume submersible pumps in some wells are unsuitable for long-term monitoring and result in large volumes of water that may have to be contained and characterized before subsequent disposition. The configuration of most wells requires sampling stagnant well water with a wireline bailer. Although bailer sampling allows for the collection of depth-discrete samples, the collected samples may not be representative of local groundwater because no well purging is done. Low-maintenance, solar-powered jack pumps will be deployed in nine of these onsite monitoring wells to improve sample quality. These pumps provide the lift capacity to produce groundwater from the deep aquifers encountered in the arid environment of the NTS. The water depths in these wells range from 700 to 2,340 ft below ground surface. The considerable labor and electrical power requirements of electric submersible pumps are eliminated once these pumps are installed. Access tubing will be installed concurrent with the installation of the pump string to provide downhole access for water-level measurements or other wireline instruments. Micro-purge techniques with low pump rates will be used to minimize purge volumes and reduce hydraulic gradients. The set depths of the pumps will be determined by the borehole characteristics and screened interval.

  2. Certification report for the CALMAC solar powered pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The certification of the CALMAC solar powered thermopump is presented. Each element of the specification is delineated, together with the verification, based on analysis, similarity, inspection, or testing.

  3. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  4. High-power, high repetition-rate, green-pumped, picosecond LBO optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Kienle, Florian; Teh, Peh Siong; Lin, Dejiao; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Price, Jonathan H V; Hanna, D C; Richardson, David J; Shepherd, David P

    2012-03-26

    We report on a picosecond, green-pumped, lithium triborate optical parametric oscillator with record-high output power. It was synchronously pumped by a frequency-doubled (530 nm), pulse-compressed (4.4 ps), high-repetition-rate (230 MHz), fiber-amplified gain-switched laser diode. For a pump power of 17 W, a maximum signal and idler power of 3.7 W and 1.8 W was obtained from the optical parametric oscillator. A signal pulse duration of ~3.2 ps was measured and wide tunability from 651 nm to 1040 nm for the signal and from 1081 nm to 2851 nm for the idler was achieved.

  5. Improvement of the main pump equipment used in large thermal power installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgunov, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    The establishment and development history of the Moscow Power Engineering Institute's Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Machines, and the educational and scientific work presently conducted at it are briefly described. The research and design work aimed at developing the optimal construction of the flow path and blade systems for the stages of a feedwater pump with a useful capacity of 25 MW with the traditional one-sided admission of working fluid for power units designed to operate at supercritical steam conditions is discussed. A new alternative design solution for the cartridge of a super-powerful feedwater pump with the two-sided admission of working fluid is presented. The predicted possibility of achieving more reliable and energy-efficient performance of a feedwater pump equipped with such a cartridge is substantiated.

  6. Discharge formation in a XеCl laser pumped by high specific power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.

    2013-02-01

    Stable glow of the discharge of various types in the gas mixture of a XeCl laser is investigated for specific pumping power in the range 1.2-4.6 MW/cm3 and pulse duration of 40 ns. It is demonstrated that formation of partially homogeneous plasma with many intensive cathode spots on the electrode allows the maximum energy and duration of the lasing pulse to be obtained with laser efficiency of 2.4%. It is revealed that for the specific pumping powers up to 1.5 MW/cm3, a very homogeneous volume discharge with a small number of lowintensive cathode spots is formed in the discharge gap. With further increase in the specific pumping power exceeding 4.5 MW/cm3, current microinhomogeneities are formed in the volume discharge of this type leading to lasing breakdown.

  7. Analysis of Pumped Storage Plants (PSP) viability associated with other types of intermittent renewable energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, J. G. P.; Barbosa, P. S. F.; Luvizotto, E., Jr.; Zuculin, S.; Pinto, Marrc; Tiago Filho, G. L.

    2014-03-01

    The energy generated by wind or solar photovoltaic (PV system) can be used by PSP to accumulate water in the upper reservoir, in the form of potential energy to be used later, during periods of high energy demand. This procedure offers the advantage of enabling the use of intermittent renewable energy source in times of growing needs of the electric power supply. The location of the PSP, the environmental aspects involved, their possible use for various purposes (stability of the power system at peak times, associate the turbine water for public supply purposes, among others) and the discussion of regulatory issues needs to be debated in the current context, where environmental issues require reliable sources of power generation and demand shows strong growth rates. A dynamic model is used to analyze the behavior of a PSP proposal for a site in Brazil, analyzing a complete cycle of its operation as a pump or turbine. The existing difficulties to use this proposal based on existing regulatory policies are also discussed, and a list of recommended adjustments is provided to allow the penetrations of PSP projects in the Brazilian institutional framework, coupled with other intermittent energy sources.

  8. High-Power CW Diode-Laser-Array-Pumped Solid-State Lasers and Efficient Nonlinear Optical Frequency Conversion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-29

    laser - diode pump power. The data was taken for TEM00 mode operation with a 4% output coupler. The performance of this side pumped miniature slab laser ...performance of the laser when operated at 1.321rm. [32] TEM00 mode, 4% Output Coupler 5 4 a- 3 2 0 .. . 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Diode Pump Power (W) Figure 18... TEM00 mode output power vs input laser - diode pumping power for the 5 Watt laser . 25 50 Watt cw,

  9. A novel all-in-one magnetic pump and power harvester design for bio-medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Shin, Jaewon; Hashi, Shuichiro; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a magnetic centrifugal pump with a magnetic power harvester (all-in-one system) for medical applications. The proposed pump is driven by an external rotating magnetic field. To produce pressure and electrical power, an all-in-one device consisting of a pump and a power harvester was designed. It consists of a multi-stage impeller, a disc type NdFeB permanent magnet, and a fixed wound coil on the pump case. The rotation of the rotor creates a continuous flow of liquid through the pump, with a pressure head, and an electrical power is generated in the wound coil because of the rotating magnetic field. The maximum flow rate and pressure are 5000 ml min-1 and 16 kPa, respectively, at 100 Hz. These results meet the requirements of an artificial heart assistance blood pump. Under these operating conditions, the harvested voltage can reach a maximum of 8.2 Vp-p. With this configuration and control method, wireless and battery-free operation is possible, which is required in the medical field. Moreover, the power harvester can monitor the pump conditions without additional electrical power and can provide electrical power to other implanted electrical devices. The performances of the pump and power harvester were verified in a laboratory experiment. Overall, the proposed system acts as a pump and a power harvester that is fully wireless and battery-free.

  10. Laser Seeding of the Storage-Ring Microbunching Instability for High-Power Coherent Terahertz Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J. M.; Hao, Z.; Martin, M. C.; Robin, D. S.; Sannibale, F.; Schoenlein, R. W.; Zholents, A. A.; Zolotorev, M. S.

    2006-08-18

    We report the first observation of laser seeding of the storage-ring microbunching instability. Above a threshold bunch current, the interaction of the beam and its radiation results in a coherent instability, observed as a series of stochastic bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at terahertz frequencies initiated by fluctuations in the beam density. We have observed that this effect can be seeded by imprinting an initial density modulation on the beam by means of laser ''slicing.'' In such a situation, most of the bursts of CSR become synchronous with the pulses of the modulating laser and their average intensity scales exponentially with the current per bunch. We present detailed experimental observations of the seeding effect and a model of the phenomenon. This seeding mechanism also creates potential applications as a high-power source of CSR at terahertz frequencies.

  11. Laser seeding of the storage-ring microbunching instability for high-power coherent terahertz radiation.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J M; Hao, Z; Martin, M C; Robin, D S; Sannibale, F; Schoenlein, R W; Zholents, A A; Zolotorev, M S

    2006-08-18

    We report the first observation of laser seeding of the storage-ring microbunching instability. Above a threshold bunch current, the interaction of the beam and its radiation results in a coherent instability, observed as a series of stochastic bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) at terahertz frequencies initiated by fluctuations in the beam density. We have observed that this effect can be seeded by imprinting an initial density modulation on the beam by means of laser "slicing." In such a situation, most of the bursts of CSR become synchronous with the pulses of the modulating laser and their average intensity scales exponentially with the current per bunch. We present detailed experimental observations of the seeding effect and a model of the phenomenon. This seeding mechanism also creates potential applications as a high-power source of CSR at terahertz frequencies.

  12. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  13. Packaging of high-power bars for optical pumping and direct applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Stefan; An, Haiyan; Barnowski, Tobias; Jiang, John; Negoita, Viorel; Roff, Robert; Vethake, Thilo; Boucke, Konstantin; Treusch, Georg

    2015-03-01

    Continuous cost reduction, improved reliability and modular platform guide the design of our next generation heatsink and packaging process. Power scaling from a single device effectively lowers the cost, while electrical insulation of the heatsink, low junction temperature and hard solder enable high reliability. We report on the latest results for scaling the output power of bars for optical pumping and materials processing. The epitaxial design and geometric structures are specific for the application, while packaging with minimum thermal impedance, low stress and low smile are generic features. The isolated heatsink shows a thermal impedance of 0.2 K/W and the maximum output power is limited by the requirement of a junction temperature of less than 68oC for high reliability. Low contact impedance are addressed for drive currents of 300 A. For pumping applications, bars with a fill factor of 60% are deployed emitting more than 300 W of output power with an efficiency of about 55% and 8 bars are arranged in a compact pump module emitting 2 kW of collimated power suitable for pumping disk lasers. For direct applications we target coupling kilowatts of output powers into fibers of 100 μm diameter with 0.1 NA based on dense wavelength multiplexing. Low fill factor bars with large optical waveguide and specialized coating also emit 300 W.

  14. Sub-100 fs high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Markovic, Vesna; Pallmann, Wolfgang; Resan, Bojan

    2016-03-01

    Ti:sapphire oscillators are a proven technology to generate sub-100 fs (even sub-10 fs) pulses in the near infrared and are widely used in many high impact scientific fields. However, the need for a bulky, expensive and complex pump source, typically a frequency-doubled multi-watt neodymium or optically pumped semiconductor laser, represents the main obstacle to more widespread use. The recent development of blue diodes emitting over 1 W has opened up the possibility of directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillators. Beside the lower cost and footprint, a direct diode pumping provides better reliability, higher efficiency and better pointing stability to name a few. The challenges that it poses are lower absorption of Ti:sapphire at available diode wavelengths and lower brightness compared to typical green pump lasers. For practical applications such as bio-medicine and nano-structuring, output powers in excess of 100 mW and sub-100 fs pulses are required. In this paper, we demonstrate a high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator without active cooling. The SESAM modelocking ensures reliable self-starting and robust operation. We will present two configurations emitting 460 mW in 82 fs pulses and 350 mW in 65 fs pulses, both operating at 92 MHz. The maximum obtained pulse energy reaches 5 nJ. A double-sided pumping scheme with two high power blue diode lasers was used for the output power scaling. The cavity design and the experimental results will be discussed in more details.

  15. Efficient, high-power, ytterbium-fiber-laser-pumped picosecond optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Kokabee, O; Esteban-Martin, A; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M

    2010-10-01

    We report a high-power picosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) synchronously pumped by a Yb fiber laser at 1.064 μm, providing 11.7 W of total average power in the near to mid-IR at 73% extraction efficiency. The OPO, based on a 50 mm MgO:PPLN crystal, is pumped by 20.8 ps pulses at 81.1 MHz and can simultaneously deliver 7.1 W of signal at 1.56 μm and 4.6 W of idler at 3.33 μm for 16 W of pump power. The oscillator has a threshold of 740 mW, with maximum signal power of 7.4 W at 1.47 μm and idler power of 4.9 W at 3.08 μm at slope efficiencies of 51% and 31%, respectively. Wavelength coverage across 1.43-1.63 μm (signal) and 4.16-3.06 μm (idler) is obtained, with a total power of ~11 W and an extraction efficiency of ~68%, with pump depletion of ~78% maintained over most of the tuning range. The signal and idler output have a single-mode spatial profile and a peak-to-peak power stability of ±1.8% and ±2.9% over 1 h at the highest power, respectively. A signal pulse duration of 17.3 ps with a clean single-peak spectrum results in a time-bandwidth product of ~1.72, more than four times below the input pump pulses.

  16. Acquisition of a Nd-Yag Pumped MOPO (Master Oscillator/Power Oscillator) Optical Parametric Oscillator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    SEP 1997 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1997 to 00-00-1997 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition of a Nd-Yag Pumped MOPO (Master Oscillator...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ACQUISITION OF A ND-YAG PUMPED MOPO (MASTER OSCILLATOR / POWER OSCILLATOR) OPTICAL...instrument is configured in a master oscillator/power oscillator configuration, hence the designation MOPO . The MOPO will be used in conjunction

  17. Self sufficient wireless transmitter powered by foot-pumped urine operating wearable MFC.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, M; Stinchcombe, A; Greenman, J; Mattoli, V; Beccai, L; Mazzolai, B; Melhuish, C; Ieropoulos, I A

    2015-12-10

    The first self-sufficient system, powered by a wearable energy generator based on microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology is introduced. MFCs made from compliant material were developed in the frame of a pair of socks, which was fed by urine via a manual gaiting pump. The simple and single loop cardiovascular fish circulatory system was used as the inspiration for the design of the manual pump. A wireless programmable communication module, engineered to operate within the range of the generated electricity, was employed, which opens a new avenue for research in the utilisation of waste products for powering portable as well as wearable electronics.

  18. Design of a cost effective solar powered water pump. Hydrology and hydraulics series report

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, D.G.

    1980-04-01

    The design and performance of a vacuum lift, solar powered water pump is discussed. The basic design consists of an expanding gaseous piston confined inside a chamber which is located in series with, and between, an inlet and an outlet check valve. The gas is generated by volatilizing cyclopentane or hexane. Four variations of this basic design concept were built and evaluated. The various features of each are discussed. Considerations in the choice of a cost-effective solar collector are also reviewed. Several of the more promising types of solar collectors were built and evaluated for use on the pump. A 70C heat source temperature is required to operate the pump if cyclopentane is used as the volatile fluid, 90C is required if hexane is used. The volatile fluid is not expended in the pumping process. The pumps constructed on this project have a capacity of approximately 6 liters/minute when pumped to a height of 2 meters. Two square meters of sunshine are sufficient to operate the pump.

  19. Performance of an Annular Linear Induction Pump with Applications to Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Schoenfeld, Michael; Pearson, J. Boise; Webster, Kenneth; Godfroy, Thomas; Adkins, Harold E., Jr.; Werner, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump are presented. The pump electromagnetically pumps liquid metal through a circuit specially designed to allow for quantification of the performance. Testing was conducted over a range of conditions, including frequencies of 33, 36, 39, and 60 Hz, liquid metal temperatures from 125 to 525 C, and input voltages from 5 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.16 to 5.7 L/s (2.5 to 90 gpm), and pressure head less than 1 to 90 kPa (less than 0.145 to 13 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was slightly greater than 6%. The efficiency was fairly insensitive to input frequency from 33 to 39 Hz, and was markedly lower at 60 Hz. In addition, the efficiency decreased as the NaK temperature was raised. The performance of the pump operating on a variable frequency drive providing 60 Hz power compared favorably with the same pump operating on 60 Hz power drawn directly from the electrical grid.

  20. High-power diode-pumped Tm:YLF laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellhorn, M.

    2008-04-01

    A high-power, continuous-wave 3.5% Tm3+ doped LiYF4 (Tm:YLF) laser has been developed. Using two Tm:YLF rods in a single cavity, 55 W of laser output at 1910 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 49%. The M2 factor was found to be <3. With a single Tm:YLF rod, a maximum laser power of 30 W was obtained with a slope efficiency of 50%. The laser was tuned to the peak absorption wavelength of Ho:YAG of 1907.5 nm by an intracavity quartz etalon with an output power loss < 1 W.

  1. Flight experiment of thermal energy storage. [for spacecraft power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkoong, David

    1989-01-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) enables a solar dynamic system to deliver constant electric power through periods of sun and shade. Brayton and Stirling power systems under current considerations for missions in the near future require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1300+ K range. TES materials that meet these requirements fall into the fluoride family of salts. Salts shrink as they solidify, a change reaching 30 percent for some salts. Hot spots can develop in the TES container or the container can become distorted if the melting salt cannot expand elsewhere. Analysis of the transient, two-phase phenomenon is being incorporated into a three-dimensional computer code. The objective of the flight program is to verify the predictions of the code, particularly of the void location and its effect on containment temperature. The four experimental packages comprising the program will be the first tests of melting and freezing conducted under microgravity.

  2. Determination and suppression of back-reflected pump power in Yb:YAG thin-disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Seyed Shahram; Mahdieh, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the influence of back-reflected pump power in a high-power Yb:YAG thin-disk laser. In such lasers, there is usually a fraction of pump power that is not absorbed in the Yb:YAG crystal reflected back via the initial path and incident on the pumping laser diode. In a high-power laser, such a reflection may cause catastrophic optical damage in laser diodes. The unabsorbed pump power was calculated using rate equations. The experimental results are in agreement with those obtained through calculations. Furthermore, two methods for back-reflected pump power suppression were introduced. We have shown that with a thin-film polarizer and quarter wave plate, unabsorbed power incident on the laser diode can be reduced significantly.

  3. A stable, high power optically pumped far infrared laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam; Pickett, Herbert M.

    1988-01-01

    The generation of 1.25 watts of CW laser power at the 119-micron (2522.8 GHz) methanol line is reported. The maximum frequency fluctuation of the free running laser is less than + or - 100 kHz per hour. This laser has also been tested on numerous other lines ranging from 403.7 GHz (HCOOH) to 5260 GHz (CH3OD) with improved power and stability.

  4. New Class of CW High-Power Diode-Pumped Alkali Lasers (DPALs)

    SciTech Connect

    Krupke, W F; Beach, R J; Kanz, V K; Payne, S A; Early, J T

    2004-03-23

    The new class of diode-pumped alkali vapor lasers (DPALs) offers high efficiency cw laser radiation at near-infrared wavelengths: cesium 895 nm, rubidium 795 nm, and potassium 770 nm. The working physical principles of DPALs will be presented. Initial 795 nm Rb and 895 nm Cs laser experiments performed using a titanium sapphire laser as a surrogate pump source demonstrated DPAL slope power conversion efficiencies in the 50-70% range, in excellent agreement with device models utilizing only literature spectroscopic and kinetic data. Using these benchmarked models for Rb and Cs, optimized DPALs with optical-optical efficiencies >60%, and electrical efficiencies of 25-30% are projected. DPAL device architectures for near-diffraction-limited power scaling into the high kilowatt power regime from a single aperture will be described. DPAL wavelengths of operation offer ideal matches to silicon and gallium arsenide based photovoltaic power conversion cells for efficient power beaming.

  5. Use of the acoustic method for checking the quality of concrete of hydroelectric and pumped storage stations

    SciTech Connect

    Filonidov, A.M.; Lyubinskii, V.Yu.

    1987-09-01

    This article describes acoustic methods used in the in-service inspection of the dams and peripheral concrete structures of the Toktogul, Kurpsai, and Bratsk hydroelectric and pumped storage plants. The tests were conducted to assess the compression strength, elasticity, and tensile strength of the concretes. Comparative evaluations against drill core studies proved the acoustic methods to be sufficiently accurate in predicting aging behavior and loss of mechanical and physical integrity in the concretes.

  6. Effects of operating Mt. Elbert pumped-storage powerplant on Twin Lakes, Colorado: 1982 report of findings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaBounty, J.F.; Sartoris, J.J.; Lieberman, D.M.

    1984-09-01

    A series of studies is being performed to identify and quantify changes that occur in the aquatic ecology of Twin Lakes, Colorado, because of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant, which began operation in September 1981. The report presents results of studies done is 1982. These results, along with those from studies presently being done, will be compared with results from preoperational limnology studies at Twin Lakes from 1971 through 1981.

  7. Evaluating Effects of Pump-Storage Water Withdrawals Using an Individual-Based Metapopulation Model of a Benthic Fish Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    maintaining ab- undance of a native fish species, the Turquoise darter (Etheostoma inscriptum). We developed and applied an individual-based...based metapopulation model for assessing the effects of water withdrawals on a flow-dependent species, the Turquoise darter (Etheostoma inscriptum...withdrawal strategy for a municipal pump-storage reservoir and the status of the Turquoise darter over a 20-year period in the Middle Oco- nee River near

  8. Optimized high-power diode laser, laser arrays, and bars for pump applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hülsewede, R.; Schulze, H.; Sebastian, J.; Schröder, D.; Meusel, J.; Wolf, J.; Hennig, P.

    2009-02-01

    Broad area diode laser and diode laser bars are the most efficient light sources. In comparison to solid state laser or gas laser systems the over all beam quality of the diode laser is poor. Thus most application of diode laser bars is high efficient pumping of solid state lasers converting the beam quality and scaling the power of laser systems within the kW range. The pump efficiency and the beam coupling efficiency of the diode laser pumped systems has to be increased to meet the increasing laser market demands for reduced costs. JENOPTIK Diode Lab GmbH (JDL) has optimized their high power brilliance bars to enable reliable high power operation especially, for the 9xx nm wavelength range and low far field divergences. Superior reliability with long operation time of 13,000 hours and high power operation of 200 W are demonstrated for high power bars high filling factor mounted on passively cooled heat sinks. Smaller far field divergence at high power levels requires longer cavity length and higher efficiencies in the beam coupling needs requires lower filling factors. The new high brilliance bars and arrays with 20% filling factor are showing high power operation up to 95 W and a slow axis beam divergence of less than 8° (95% power content).

  9. Power scaling of diode-pumped neodymium yttrium aluminum borate laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the efficient diode-pumped operation of a neodymium yttrium aluminum borate (NYAB) laser at 531.5 nm using two 1-W diode-laser arrays for the pump. With 1380 mW of CW power incident on the crystal, as much as 51 mW of 532.5-nm laser radiation was obtained with the unoptimized cavity. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency was 3.7 percent. A plot of the output 531.5 nm vs incident 807 nm pump power is shown. The crystal output power was critically dependent on the rotational and translational adjustment of the NYAB crystal inside the cavity. It is suggested that a crystal cut at the exact phase matching angle, placed in a cavity with proper optimal reflection and transmission mirror coatings, and pumped at proper wavelength can result in higher output power. Thus, the NYAB output power approaches that of a CW intracavity frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser.

  10. High Power Diode Pumped 1.06 Micron Solid State Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvind, Mukundarajan A.; Martin, Dan W.; Osterhage, R. J.

    1989-07-01

    Diode pumped solid state lasers have been attracting significant interest in recent years due to advances in high power semiconductor diode lasers. They offer considerable advantages over flashlamp pumped lasers such as compact size, high efficiency, lower heat dissipation and solid-state reliability. In this paper, we report on the results of a Nd:YAG laser, transverse pumped by diode laser arrays. We have measured an output power of 1.14 Watts at 1.06 microns with a laser diode power consumption of 40 Watts. This represents the highest reported electrical efficiency (2.85%) for a transverse pumped, CW, TEM00 laser. The diode arrays were selected and tuned to emit at wavelengths close to the peak neodymium absorption line at 0.808 microns with Peltier coolers. Two diode laser bars side pumped a 20 mm long, 1.5 mm diameter Nd:YAG laser rod. The optical cavity is 13.8 cm long consisting of a high reflectivity mirror and a 95% reflectivity output mirror. The output beam divergence was measured to be near diffraction limited at 1.4 milliradians, and the beam diameter was 1 mm.

  11. Fiber laser pumped high power mid-infrared laser with picosecond pulse bunch output.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kaihua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Peipei; Yang, Dingzhong; Wu, Bo; Shen, Yonghang

    2013-10-21

    We report a novel quasi-synchronously pumped PPMgLN-based high power mid-infrared (MIR) laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The pump laser is a linearly polarized MOPA structured all fiberized Yb fiber laser with picosecond pulse bunch output. The output from a mode-locked seed fiber laser was directed to pass through a FBG reflector via a circulator to narrow the pulse duration from 800 ps to less than 50 ps and the spectral FWHM from 9 nm to 0.15 nm. The narrowed pulses were further directed to pass through a novel pulse multiplier through which each pulse was made to become a pulse bunch composing of 13 sub-pulses with pulse to pulse time interval of 1.26 ns. The pulses were then amplified via two stage Yb fiber amplifiers to obtain a linearly polarized high average power output up to 85 W, which were then directed to pass through an isolator and to pump a PPMgLN-based optical parametric oscillator via quasi-synchronization pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output. High MIR output with average power up to 4 W was obtained at 3.45 micron showing the feasibility of such pump scheme for ps pulse bunch MIR output.

  12. High-power 2-μm diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Raymond J.; Sutton, Steven B.; Honea, Eric C.; Skidmore, Jay A.; Emanuel, Mark A.

    1996-03-01

    Using a scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have demonstrated a compact Tm:YAG laser capable of generating greater than 50 W of cw 2 micrometer laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser, which was built originally for use in assessing laser surgical techniques, are discussed. The 2 micrometer radiation produced by the 3F4 - 3H6 transition of Tm3+ has many practical applications because it is strongly absorbed by water and also because it is an 'eye-safe' wavelength. The strong absorption of 2 micrometer radiation by water makes this transition a very attractive candidate for performing laser surgical procedures as most tissue types are predominately composed of liquid water. The fact that 2 micrometer radiation is considered 'eye-safe' makes this transition attractive for laser range finding and remote sensing applications where other laser wavelengths could pose a safety hazard. At sufficiently high doping densities, Tm3+ exhibits a beneficial two-for-one quantum pump efficiency enabling well developed AlGaAs laser diode arrays to be used as efficient excitation sources. Many applications requiring 2 micrometer laser radiation such as remote sensing, laser radar, anti sensor, sensor spoofing, and OPO pumping have driven the development of diode pumped all solid state TM3+ laser systems because of their potential for efficiency, compactness, and ruggedness. Here we focus on Tm3+:YAG and the scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at LLNL which enables higher average power operation of diode pumped Tm3+ laser systems than has previously been possible. To date we have demonstrated cw operation of this laser to power levels of 51 W. The end-pumping technology used is the same as was previously used to demonstrate a 100 mJ Q-switched Nd:YLF laser. (Truncated.)

  13. Cost Benefit Analysis of the Power Storage System Considering Outage Cost in the Deregulated Power Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuru, Hirokazu; Fujii, Yasumasa

    In this paper, the authors propose the mathematical model which derives the optimal operation strategies of an on-site power storage system through the use of stochastic dynamic programming technique. The model takes account of the variations and uncertainties of electricity market prices as well as the outage costs of power grid failures. The market price fluctuation is modeled with stochastic differential equation. The stochastic state transitions between normal and failed systems are modeled with exponential density functions. The derived optimal operation indicates that the economic value of the storage system may be increased substantially, if the avoided outage costs are explicitly taken into account. The results of the sensitivity analysis indicate that the most influential parameters are the magnitude of outage cost and the mean time to failure of power grid.

  14. High-power diode-end-pumped Tm:LiLuF4 slab lasers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaojin; Zhang, Shuaiyi; Xu, Jianqui; Peng, Haiyan; Hang, Yin

    2009-08-17

    Diode-end-pumped continuous-wave and acousto-optics Q-switched Tm:LiLuF(4) slab lasers were demonstrated. The a-cut Tm:LiLuF(4) slab with doping concentrations of 2 at.% was pumped by fast-axis collimated laser diodes at room temperature. The maximum continuous-wave output power of 10.4 W was obtained while the absorbed pump power was 31.6 W and the cavity length was 30 mm. For Q-switched operation, we got the maximum pulse energy of 8 mJ with pulse width of 315.2 ns at 1 KHz pulse repetition frequency. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  15. New power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.M.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation presents the development of new power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), which can regulate fast and independently the active and reactive powers demanded in the ac network. Three new power-conditioning systems were developed through a systematic approach to match the requirements of the superconducting coil and the ac power network. Each of these new systems is composed of ten 100-MW modules connected in parallel to handle the large current through the superconducting coil. The first system, which was published in the IEEE Transactions on EnergyConversion, consists of line-commutated 24-pulse converter, a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer, and a thyristor-switched capacitor bank. The second system, which was accepted for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of a 12-pulse GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) converter and a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer. The third system, which was submitted to the International Journal of Energy System, consists of a dc chopper and a voltage-source PWM (pulse width modulation) converter. The operational concept of each new system is verified through mathematical analyses and computer simulations. The dynamic interaction of each new system with the ac network and the superconducting coil is analyzed using a simulation model with EMTP (electro-magnetic transients program). The analysis results prove that each new system is feasible and realizable. Each system can regulate the active and reactive powers of the utility network rapidly and independently, and each offer a significant reduction of the system rating by reducing the reactive power demand in the converter. Feasible design for each new system was introduced using a modular design approach based on the 1000 MW/5000 MWH plant, incorporating commercially available components and proven technologies.

  16. New power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Byung Moon

    1992-06-01

    This dissertation presents the development of new power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), which can regulate fast and independently the active and reactive powers demanded in the ac network. Three new power-conditioning systems were developed through a systematic approach to match the requirements of the superconducting coil and the ac power network. Each of these new systems is composed of ten 100-MW modules connected in parallel to handle the large current through the superconducting coil. The first system, which was published in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of line-commutated 24-pulse converter, a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer, and a thyristor-switched capacitor bank. The second system, which was accepted for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of a 12-pulse GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) converter and a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer. The third system, which was submitted to the International Journal of Energy System, consists of a dc chopper and a voltage-source PWM (pulse width modulation) converter. The operational concept of each new system is verified through mathematical analyses and computer simulations. The dynamic interaction of each new system with the ac network and the superconducting coil is analyzed using a simulation model with EMTP (electro-magnetic transients program). The analysis results prove that each new system is feasible and realizable. Each system can regulate the active and reactive powers of the utility network rapidly and independently, and each offer a significant reduction of the system rating by reducing the reactive power demand in the converter. Feasible design for each new system was introduced using a modular design approach based on the 1000 MW/5000 MWH plant, incorporating commercially available components and proven technologies.

  17. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sizing procedures are presented for latent heat thermal energy storage systems that can be used for electric utility off-peak energy storage, solar power plants and other preliminary design applications.

  18. Thermonuclear inverse magnetic pumping power cycle for stellarator reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    A novel power cycle for direct conversion of alpha-particle energy into electricity is proposed for an ignited plasma in a stellarator reactor. The plasma column is alternately compressed and expanded in minor radius by periodic variation of the toroidal magnetic field strength. As a result of the way a stellarator is expected to work, the plasma pressure during expansion is greater than the corresponding pressure during compression. Therefore, negative work is done on the plasma during a complete cycle. This work manifests itself as a back-voltage in the toroidal field coils, and direct electrical energy is obtained from this voltage. For a typical reactor, the average power obtained from this cycle (with a minor radius compression factor on the order of 50%) can be as much as 50% of the electrical power obtained from the thermonuclear neutrons without compressing the plasma. Thus, if it is feasible to vary the toroidal field strength, the power cycle provides an alternative scheme of energy conversion for a deuterium-tritium fueled reactor. The cycle may become an important method of energy conversion for advanced neutron-lean fueled reactors. By operating two or more reactors in tandem, the cycle can be made self-sustaining.

  19. High-power and highly efficient Tm3+-doped silica fiber lasers pumped with diode lasers operating at 1150 nm.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stuart D; Bugge, Frank; Erbert, Götz

    2007-10-01

    An output power of 1.74 W at 2.03 microm was generated at a slope efficiency of 51% when a double-clad Tm(3+)-doped silica fiber laser was pumped with high-power 1150 nm diode lasers. Pump excited state absorption from the upper laser level populates higher energy levels allowing cross relaxation to repopulate the upper laser level at a quantum efficiency greater than unity and to limit losses relating to additional pump excited state absorption. The output power was scaled to 4.77 W when both ends of the fiber were pumped.

  20. Operational performance of the photovoltaic-powered grain mill and water pump at Tangaye, Upper Volta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martz, J. E.; Ratajczak, A. F.; Delombard, R.

    1982-01-01

    The first two years of operation of a stand alone photovoltaic (PV) power system for the village of Tangaye, Upper Volta in West Africa are described. The purpose of the experiment was to demonstrate that PV systems could provide reliable electrical power for multiple use applications in remote areas where local technical expertise is limited. The 1.8 kW (peak) power system supplies 120-V (d.c.) electrical power to operate a grain mill, a water pump, and mill building lights for the village. The system was initially sized to pump a part of the village water requirements from an existing improved well, and to meet a portion of the village grain grinding requirements. The data, observations, experiences, and conclusions developed during the first two years of operation are discussed. Reports of tests of the mills used in the project are included.

  1. Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang Kang; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Price, Jonathan H V; Hayes, John R; Lin, Dejiao; Malinowski, Andrew; Codemard, Christophe; Ghosh, Debashri; Pal, Mrinmay; Bhadra, Shyamal K; Richardson, David J

    2010-03-15

    We report a picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output, spanning at least 0.4-2.25 microm at a repetition rate of 114.8 MHz. The 2m long PCF had a large, 4.4 microm diameter core and a high-delta design which led to an 80% coupling efficiency, high damage threshold and rapid generation of visible continuum generation from the picosecond input pulses. The high and relatively uniform power density across the visible spectral region was approximately 31.7 mW/nm corresponding to peak power density of approximately 12.5 W/nm for the 21 ps input pulses. The peak power density was increased to 26.9 W/nm by reducing the repetition rate to 28 MHz. This represents an increase in both average and peak power compared to previously reported visible supercontinuum sources from either CW pumped or pulsed-systems.

  2. High-power 1018 nm ytterbium-doped fiber laser and its application in tandem pump.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Zhang, Hanwei; Huang, Liangjin; Xu, Jiangming; Zhou, Pu

    2015-09-20

    In this paper, we present our experimental results of a high-power 1018 nm fiber laser and its usage in tandem pump. A record output power of 476 W 1018 nm fiber laser is obtained with an efficiency of 78.2%. Utilizing a specially designed gain fiber, a one-stage high-power monolithic fiber amplifier tandem pumped by six 1018 nm fiber lasers is assembled. A 110 W 1090 nm seed is amplified to 2140 W, and the efficiency is as high as 86.9%. The beam quality factor M2 is measured to be 1.9. Limitations and possible solutions for purchasing higher output power are discussed.

  3. Environment qualification of power cable for the hydrogen mitigation pump number 3

    SciTech Connect

    Benegas, T.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-27

    This report presents the severe environment qualification of the power cable in severe radiation and thermal conditions. This qualification program provides Fluor Daniel Hanford Company information for the use of the new cable in the mixer pump for hydrogen mitigation and retrieval purposes.

  4. High power, high efficiency, 2D laser diode arrays for pumping solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, A.; McShea, J.C.; Bogdan, A.R.; Petheram, J.C.; Rosen, A.

    1987-11-01

    This document reports the current performance of 2D laser diode arrays operating at 770 nm and 808 nm for pumping promethium and neodymium solid state lasers, respectively. Typical power densities are in excess of 2kw/cm/sup 2/ with overall efficiencies greater than 30%.

  5. High power 2 {micro}m wing-pumped Tm{sup 3+}:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.J.; Sutton, S.B.; Honea, E.C.; Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using a scalable diode end-pumping technology developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the authors have demonstrated a compact Tm{sup 3+}:YAG laser capable of generating greater than 50 W of cw 2 {micro}m laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser will be discussed.

  6. High power 2 {mu}m diode-pumped Tm:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect

    Beach, R.J.; Sutton, S.B.; Honea, E.C.; Skidmore, J.A.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Using a scaleable diode end-pumping technology developed at LLNL, we have demonstrated a compact Tm:YAG laser capable of generating more than 50 W of cw 2 {mu}m laser output power. The design and operational characteristics of this laser, which was built originally for use in assessing laser surgical techniques, are discussed.

  7. The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

    1991-10-01

    Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. High-power and highly efficient diode-cladding-pumped Ho3+-doped silica fiber lasers.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Stuart D; Bugge, Frank; Erbert, Götz

    2007-11-15

    We demonstrate high-power operation from a singly Ho3+-doped silica fiber laser that is cladding pumped directly with diode lasers operating at 1150 nm. Internal slope efficiencies approaching the Stokes limit were produced, and the maximum output power was 2.2W. This result was achieved using a low Ho3+-ion concentration and La3+-ion codoping, which together limit the transfer of energy between excited Ho3+ ions.

  9. Method to Utilize Surplus Electric Power of Photovoltaic Systems by Heat Pump Water Heaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatta, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Hiromu

    Large capacity photovoltaic (PV) systems will be installed in future power systems. According to Japan's energy outlook, the target capacity of PV systems for 2030 is about 50GW. When the large volume PV systems are installed in a power system, the reverse power flow from PV systems may cause the surplus electric power. To utilize the surplus electric power without the reduction of PV power generation, operation of customer equipment such as heat pump water heater (HPWH) according to PV power generation is expected to be one of the solutions. In this paper, cooperative control method of customer equipment with the PV power generation is proposed, and the effectiveness of the proposed control is evaluated by simulation analyses.

  10. High average and peak power few-cycle laser pulses delivered by fiber pumped OPCPA system.

    PubMed

    Rothhardt, J; Hädrich, S; Seise, E; Krebs, M; Tavella, F; Willner, A; Düsterer, S; Schlarb, H; Feldhaus, J; Limpert, J; Rossbach, J; Tünnermann, A

    2010-06-07

    We report on a high power optical parametric amplifier delivering 8 fs pulses with 6 GW peak power. The system is pumped by a fiber amplifier and operated at 96 kHz repetition rate. The average output power is as high as 6.7 W, which is the highest average power few-cycle pulse laser reported so far. When stabilizing the seed oscillator, the system delivered carrier-envelop phase stable laser pulses. Furthermore, high harmonic generation up to the 33(th) order (21.8 nm) is demonstrated in a Krypton gas jet. In addition, the scalability of the presented laser system is discussed.

  11. High power tube solid-state laser with zigzag propagation of pump and laser beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savich, Michael

    2015-02-01

    A novel resonator and pumping design with zigzag propagation of pumping and laser beams permits to design an improved tube Solid State Laser (SSL), solving the problem of short absorption path to produce a high power laser beam (100 - 1000kW). The novel design provides an amplifier module and laser oscillator. The tube-shaped SSL includes a gain element fiber-optically coupled to a pumping source. The fiber optic coupling facilitates light entry at compound Brewster's angle of incidence into the laser gain element and uses internal reflection to follow a "zigzag" path in a generally spiral direction along the length of the tube. Optics are arranged for zigzag propagation of the laser beam, while the cryogenic cooling system is traditional. The novel method of lasing uses advantages of cylindrical geometry to reach the high volume of gain medium with compactness and structural rigidity, attain high pump density and uniformity, and reach a low threshold without excessive increase of the temperature of the crystal. The design minimizes thermal lensing and stress effects, and provides high gain amplification, high power extraction from lasing medium, high pumping and lasing efficiency and a high beam quality.

  12. Large-area high-power VCSEL pump arrays optimized for high-energy lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chad; Geske, Jonathan; Garrett, Henry; Cardellino, Terri; Talantov, Fedor; Berdin, Glen; Millenheft, David; Renner, Daniel; Klemer, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Practical, large-area, high-power diode pumps for one micron (Nd, Yb) as well as eye-safer wavelengths (Er, Tm, Ho) are critical to the success of any high energy diode pumped solid state laser. Diode efficiency, brightness, availability and cost will determine how realizable a fielded high energy diode pumped solid state laser will be. 2-D Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) arrays are uniquely positioned to meet these requirements because of their unique properties, such as low divergence circular output beams, reduced wavelength drift with temperature, scalability to large 2-D arrays through low-cost and high-volume semiconductor photolithographic processes, high reliability, no catastrophic optical damage failure, and radiation and vacuum operation tolerance. Data will be presented on the status of FLIR-EOC's VCSEL pump arrays. Analysis of the key aspects of electrical, thermal and mechanical design that are critical to the design of a VCSEL pump array to achieve high power efficient array performance will be presented.

  13. Innovative Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Solution for Baseload Power Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Songgang

    2013-05-15

    The primary purpose of this project is to develop and validate an innovative, scalable phase change salt thermal energy storage (TES) system that can interface with Infinia’s family of free-piston Stirling engines (FPSE). This TES technology is also appropriate for Rankine and Brayton power converters. Solar TES systems based on latent heat of fusion rather than molten salt temperature differences, have many advantages that include up to an order of magnitude higher energy storage density, much higher temperature operation, and elimination of pumped loops for most of Infinia’s design options. DOE has funded four different concepts for solar phase change TES, including one other Infinia awarded project using heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the salt. The unique innovation in this project is an integrated TES/pool boiler heat transfer system that is the simplest approach identified to date and arguably has the best potential for minimizing the levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The Phase 1 objectives are to design, build and test a 1-hour TES proof-of-concept lab demonstrator integrated with an Infinia 3 kW Stirling engine, and to conduct a preliminary design of a 12-hour TES on-sun prototype.

  14. Cryogenic storage tank with a retrofitted in-tank cryogenic pump

    SciTech Connect

    Zwick, E.B.; Brigham, W.D.

    1989-08-29

    This patent describes a low boiloff submersible pump assembly for use in a conventional cryogenic tank having an open access port. It comprises: a pump; a removable pump mounting tube extending through the access port of the cryogenic tank. The pump mounting tube having an inner surface thermally insulated from an outer surface of the tube and thermally insulated from the access port of the cryogenic tank. The tube having an open lower end, the upper end of the tube including means adapted to make a gas-tight seal with the pump mounted thereto. The tube extending through the tank and into the cryogen stored in the tank; and block means for thermally insulating the removable pump mounting tube from the cryogenic tank at the access port of the cryogenic tank. The mounting tube connecting the tank only at the access port through the block means.

  15. Combined Modular Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plus Solar PV Proposal for Rio Rancho High School, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bibeault, Mark Leonide

    2015-08-25

    This is a proposal to locate a combined Modular Pumped Hydro (MPH) Energy Storage plus PV solar facility at Rio Rancho High School, NM. The facility will functionally provide electricity at night derived from renewable solar energy. Additionally the facility will provide STEM related educational opportunities for students and staff of the school, public community outreach, and validation of an energy storage approach applicable for the Nation (up to 1,000,000 kWh per installation). The proposal will summarize the nature of electricity, why energy storage is useful, present the combined MPH and solar PV production design, present how the actual design will be built and operated in a sustainable manner, how the project could be funded, and how the project could be used in STEM related activities.

  16. Peak power tunable mid-infrared oscillator pumped by a high power picosecond pulsed fiber amplifier with bunch output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kaihua; Guo, Yan; Lai, Xiaomin; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-07-01

    A high power mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with picosecond pulse bunch output is experimentally demonstrated. The pump source was a high power master oscillation power amplifier (MOPA) picosecond pulsed fiber amplifier. The seed of the MOPA was a gain-switched distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser diode (LD) with picosecond pulse operation at a high repetition rate. The seed laser was amplified to 50 W by two-stage pre-amplifiers and a large mode area (LMA) Yb fiber based power-amplifier. A fiber-pigtailed acousto-optic modulator with the first order diffraction transmission was inserted into the second pre-amplifier to form a picosecond pulse bunch train and to change the peak power simultaneously. The power-amplified pulse bunches were focused to pump a wavelength-tunable OPO for emitting high power mid-infrared laser. By adjusting the OPO cavity length, the maximum average idler powers obtained at 3.1, 3.3 and 3.5 μm were 7, 6.6 and 6.4 W respectively.

  17. Thermoelectric Powered Wireless Sensors for Dry-Cask Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, Thomas Alan

    This study focuses on the development of self-powered wireless sensors. These sensors can be used to measure key parameters in extreme environments; e.g., temperature monitoring for spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. This study has developed a design methodology for these self-powered monitoring systems. The main elements that constitute this work consist of selecting and testing a power source for the wireless sensor, determination of the attenuation of the wireless signal, and testing the wireless sensor circuitry in an extreme environment. OrigenArp determined the decay heat and gamma/neutron source strength of the spent fuel throughout the service life of the dry-cask. A first principles analysis modeled the temperatures inside the dry-cask. A finite-element heat transfer code calculated the temperature distribution of the thermoelectric and heat sink. The temperature distributions determine the power produced by the thermoelectric. It was experimentally verified that a thermoelectric generator (HZ-14) with a DC/DC converter (Linear Technology LTC3108EDE) can power a transceiver (EmbedRF) at condition which represent prototypical conditions throughout and beyond the service life of the dry-cask. The wireless sensor is required to broadcast with enough power to overcome the attenuation from the dry-cask. It will be important to minimize the attenuation of the signal in order to broadcast with a small transmission power. To investigate the signal transmission through the dry-cask, CST Microwave Studio was used to determine the scattering parameter S2,1 for a horizontal dry-cask. Important parameters that can influence the transmission of the signal are antenna orientation, antenna placement, and transmission frequency. The thermoelectric generator, DC/DC converter, and transceiver were exposed to 60Co gamma radiation (exposure rate170.3 Rad/min) at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center. The effects of gamma radiation on the

  18. Dynamical behavior and peak power reduction in a pair of energy storage oscillators coupled by delayed power price.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Imasaka, Tomoaki; Ito, Akira; Sugitani, Yoshiki; Konishi, Keiji; Hara, Naoyuki

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates dynamics of a management system for controlling a pair of energy storages. The system involves the following two characteristics: each storage behaves in a manner that reduces the number of charge noncharge cycles and begins to be charged when the price of power is lower than a particular price threshold. The price is proportional to the past total power flow from a power grid to all storages. A peak of the total power flow occurs when these storages are charged simultaneously. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, the energy storages can be considered as relaxation oscillators coupled by a delay connection. Our analytical results suggest that the peak can be reduced by inducing an antiphase synchronization in coupled oscillators. We confirm these analytical results through numerical simulations. In addition, we numerically investigate the dynamical behavior in 10 storages and find that time delay in the connection is important in reducing the peak.

  19. Energetics of Hydrogen Storage Reactions: The Power of DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbst, Jan

    2005-03-01

    Calculations of hydrogen site energetics in LaNi5Hn (hexagonal P63mc crystal structure) and LaCo5Hn (orthorhombic Cmmm structure) have been performed within density functional theory (DFT). In each case DFT correctly identifies the most stable hydrogen site configuration, yields an accurate value for the enthalpy of hydride formation, and predicts hydrogen-richer hydrides. The novel hydrogen storage reaction LiNH2 + LiH <-> Li2NH + H2 has also been investigated, with the inclusion of zero point energies and finite temperature corrections. The generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy functional μxc provides much better agreement with experiment than the local density approximation for the structural parameters as well as for the enthalpy of formation of LiNH2, LiH, and the reaction enthalpy. While the choice of μxc may have substantial impact on results, it is indisputably clear that DFT is a powerful tool for understanding hydrogen storage energetics.

  20. The Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    DOE PAGES

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2010-06-14

    Our paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in a number of regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis also shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant's solar field to be used, allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We also analyze the sensitivity of this value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, andmore » dry cooling of the CSP plant, and also estimate the capacity value of a CSP plant with TES. We further discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.« less

  1. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  2. The Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Denholm, Paul

    2010-06-14

    Our paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in a number of regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis also shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant's solar field to be used, allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We also analyze the sensitivity of this value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, and dry cooling of the CSP plant, and also estimate the capacity value of a CSP plant with TES. We further discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  3. Candidate advanced energy storage concepts for multimegawatt burst power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretz, John E.; Sollo, Charles

    Three candidate advanced energy storage systems are reviewed and compared with the Thermionic Operating Reactor (THOR) concept. The three systems considered are the flywheel generator, the lithium-metal sulfide battery and the alkaline fuel cell. From a minimum mass viewpoint, only the regenerative fuel cell (RFC) can result in a lighter system than THOR. Because of its lower operating temperature, as compared to THOR, a considerable reduction in materials problems is to be expected when compared to the extremely high operating temperatures of the THOR system. Frozen heat pipes and their impact on response time as well as the complexity of the required retraction/extension mechanism of the THOR system would tend to place the RFC system in a much lower category of development risk. Finally, if spot shielding of sensitive electronic and power conditioning equipment becomes necessary for the reactor radiation environment of the THOR system, the weight advantage of the RFC system may become even greater.

  4. Technology of a freon and steam reciprocating engine for low temperature solar thermal powered water pump

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, M.P.

    1983-12-01

    This paper comprises a comparative study between a Freon-11 and steam reciprocating engine for low temperature solar thermal powered water pump. Theoretical aspects like thermal efficiency, cycle work and feed pump work have been compared using Freon-11 and steam as working fluid assuming a generator temperature of 80/sup 0/C at two different condenser temperatures (30/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/C). The ratio of the required sizes of the reciprocating engine and feed pumps for the same power generation, using Freon and water as working fluids are also compared. It is found that in the case of engines, this ratio is 2.4 and 2.1 at a condenser temperature of 30/sup 0/C and 40/sup 0/C respectively, while in the case of the feed pump, this ratio is 10.7 and 0.1 at a condenser temperature of 30/sup 0/ and 40/sup 0/C, respectively. Various technical problems which are encountered in these engines, such as sealing and maintaining vacuum are also covered. The various types of dynamic seals and their possible uses for steam and freon reciprocating engines are elaborated. Alternate possible solutions for sealing problems of a Freon-11 reciprocating engine have also been covered. Design and development of a sealing system for a specific freon engine is mentioned. This engine is directly coupled to a water pump. Even after technical viability of such low temperature solar thermal powered systems for water pumping, these systems do not seem to be very attractive as their economic viability is very far away.

  5. Decay heat power of spent nuclear fuel of power reactors with high burnup at long-term storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternovykh, Mikhail; Tikhomirov, Georgy; Saldikov, Ivan; Gerasimov, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Decay heat power of actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuel of power VVER-1000 type reactors at long-term storage is calculated. Two modes of storage are considered: mode in which single portion of actinides or fission products is loaded in storage facility, and mode in which actinides or fission products from spent fuel of one VVER reactor are added every year in storage facility during 30 years and then accumulated nuclides are stored without addition new nuclides. Two values of fuel burnup 40 and 70 MW·d/kg are considered for the mode of storage of single fuel unloading. For the mode of accumulation of spent fuel with subsequent storage, one value of burnup of 70 MW·d/kg is considered. Very long time of storage 105 years accepted in calculations allows to simulate final geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat power of fission products decreases quickly after 50-100 years of storage. The power of actinides decreases very slow. In passing from 40 to 70 MW·d/kg, power of actinides increases due to accumulation of higher fraction of 244Cm. These data are important in the back end of fuel cycle when improved cooling system of the storage facility will be required along with stronger radiation protection during storage, transportation and processing.

  6. Economics of internal and external energy storage in solar power plant operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1977-01-01

    A simple approach is formulated to investigate the effect of energy storage on the bus-bar electrical energy cost of solar thermal power plants. Economic analysis based on this approach does not require detailed definition of a specific storage system. A wide spectrum of storage system candidates ranging from hot water to superconducting magnets can be studied based on total investment and a rough knowledge of energy in and out efficiencies. Preliminary analysis indicates that internal energy storage (thermal) schemes offer better opportunities for energy cost reduction than external energy storage (nonthermal) schemes for solar applications. Based on data and assumptions used in JPL evaluation studies, differential energy costs due to storage are presented for a 100 MWe solar power plant by varying the energy capacity. The simple approach presented in this paper provides useful insight regarding the operation of energy storage in solar power plant applications, while also indicating a range of design parameters where storage can be cost effective.

  7. Economics of internal and external energy storage in solar power plant operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1977-01-01

    A simple approach is formulated to investigate the effect of energy storage on the bus-bar electrical energy cost of solar thermal power plants. Economic analysis based on this approach does not require detailed definition of a specific storage system. A wide spectrum of storage system candidates ranging from hot water to superconducting magnets can be studied based on total investment and a rough knowledge of energy in and out efficiencies. Preliminary analysis indicates that internal energy storage (thermal) schemes offer better opportunities for energy cost reduction than external energy storage (nonthermal) schemes for solar applications. Based on data and assumptions used in JPL evaluation studies, differential energy costs due to storage are presented for a 100 MWe solar power plant by varying the energy capacity. The simple approach presented in this paper provides useful insight regarding the operation of energy storage in solar power plant applications, while also indicating a range of design parameters where storage can be cost effective.

  8. Location selection of riverside pumping wells in Qinbei Power Plant well field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Shu, L.; Wen, Z.

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to derive the optimal solution for well locations based on hydrological information and allowable water withdrawals. To demonstrate the proposed technique, a numerical model of the well field at the Qinbei Power Plant in China was constructed and 20 possible drawdown scenarios were simulated for each of three different arrangements of pumping wells. The concept of the Unit Increased Drawdown Value (UIDV) was used as a basis to select the location of pumping wells, where the UIDV is defined as the increase in drawdown associated with the addition of a unit of extraction. Results showed that for modeled well fields with the same number of wells and rates of exploitation, drawdown will reach the maximum and minimum when the well field is located in the recharge zone and discharge zone, respectively, due to the specific relationships between groundwater and surface water. This paper considered a pumping program with maximum exploitation and minimum costs corresponding to allowable withdrawals of 2.44 m3/s and 1.07 m3/s, respectively, and the relationships between groundwater and surface water in the Qinbei Power Plant riverside well field were elucidated. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the optimal layout of wells in the Qinbei Power Plant riverside well field. The solution takes economic factors into consideration and describes the best solution for well locations to meet drawdown limitations during practical pumping applications.

  9. The Stirling alternative. Power systems, refrigerants and heat pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.; Reader, G.; Fauvel, O.R.; Bingham, E.R. )

    1993-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date reference on the technology, history, and practical applications of Stirling engines, including recent developments in the field and a convenient survey of the Stirling engine literature. The topics of the book include: fundamentals of Stirling technology, definition and terminology, thermodynamic laws and cycles: some elementary considerations, the Stirling cycle, practical regenerative cycle, theoretical aspects and computer simulation of Stirling machines, mechanical arrangements, control systems, heat exchangers, performance characteristics, working fluids, applications of Stirling machines, advantages of Stirling machines, disadvantages of Stirling machines, Stirling versus internal combustion engines, Stirling versus Rankine engines, applications for Stirling machines, Stirling power systems, the literature and sources of supply, the literature of Stirling engines, and the literature of cryocoolers.

  10. Evaluating the effects of real power losses in optimal power flow based storage integration

    DOE PAGES

    Castillo, Anya; Gayme, Dennice

    2017-03-27

    This study proposes a DC optimal power flow (DCOPF) with losses formulation (the `-DCOPF+S problem) and uses it to investigate the role of real power losses in OPF based grid-scale storage integration. We derive the `- DCOPF+S problem by augmenting a standard DCOPF with storage (DCOPF+S) problem to include quadratic real power loss approximations. This procedure leads to a multi-period nonconvex quadratically constrained quadratic program, which we prove can be solved to optimality using either a semidefinite or second order cone relaxation. Our approach has some important benefits over existing models. It is more computationally tractable than ACOPF with storagemore » (ACOPF+S) formulations and the provably exact convex relaxations guarantee that an optimal solution can be attained for a feasible problem. Adding loss approximations to a DCOPF+S model leads to a more accurate representation of locational marginal prices, which have been shown to be critical to determining optimal storage dispatch and siting in prior ACOPF+S based studies. Case studies demonstrate the improved accuracy of the `-DCOPF+S model over a DCOPF+S model and the computational advantages over an ACOPF+S formulation.« less

  11. Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower using abandoned open pit mines: influence of groundwater seepage on the system efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujades, Estanislao; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-04-01

    Pumped Storage Hydropower (PSH) plants can be used to manage the production of electrical energy according to the demand. These plants allow storing and generating electricity during low and high demand energy periods, respectively. Nevertheless, PSH plants require a determined topography because two reservoirs located at different heights are needed. At sites where PSH plants cannot be constructed due to topography requirements (flat regions), Underground Pumped Storage Hydropower (UPSH) plants can be used to adjust the electricity production. These plants consist in two reservoirs, the upper one is located at the surface (or at shallow depth) while the lower one is underground (or deeper). Abandoned open pit mines can be used as lower reservoirs but these are rarely isolated. As a consequence, UPSH plants will interact with surrounding aquifers exchanging groundwater. Groundwater seepage will modify hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir affecting global efficiency of the UPSH plant. The influence on the plant efficiency caused by the interaction between UPSH plants and aquifers will depend on the aquifer parameters, underground reservoir properties and pumping and injection characteristics. The alteration of the efficiency produced by the groundwater exchanges, which has not been previously considered, is now studied numerically. A set of numerical simulations are performed to establish in terms of efficiency the effects of groundwater exchanges and the optimum conditions to locate an UPSH plant.

  12. Advances in high-power 9XXnm laser diodes for pumping fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Jay; Peters, Matthew; Rossin, Victor; Guo, James; Xiao, Yan; Cheng, Jane; Shieh, Allen; Srinivasan, Raman; Singh, Jaspreet; Wei, Cailin; Duesterberg, Richard; Morehead, James J.; Zucker, Erik

    2016-03-01

    A multi-mode 9XXnm-wavelength laser diode was developed to optimize the divergence angle and reliable ex-facet power. Lasers diodes were assembled into a multi-emitter pump package that is fiber coupled via spatial and polarization multiplexing. The pump package has a 135μm diameter output fiber that leverages the same optical train and mechanical design qualified previously. Up to ~ 270W CW power at 22A is achieved at a case temperature ~ 30ºC. Power conversion efficiency is 60% (peak) that drops to 53% at 22A with little thermal roll over. Greater than 90% of the light is collected at < 0.12NA at 16A drive current that produces 3.0W/(mm-mr)2 radiance from the output fiber.

  13. The Effect Of Neutron Attenuation On Power Deposition In Nuclear Pumped 3He-Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Cetin, Fuesun

    2007-04-23

    Nuclear-pumped lasers (NPLs) are driven by the products of nuclear reactions and directly convert the nuclear energy to directed optical energy. Pumping gas lasers by nuclear reaction products has the advantage of depositing large energies per reaction. The need for high laser power output implies high operating pressure. In the case of volumetric excitation by 3He(n, p)3H reactions, however, operation at high pressure (more than a few atm) causes excessive neutron attenuation in the 3He gas. This fact adversely effects on energy deposition and, hence, laser output power and beam quality. Here, spatial and temporal variations of neutron flux inside a closed 3He -filled cylindrical laser tube have been numerically calculated for various tube radii and operating pressures by using a previously reported dynamic model for energy deposition. Calculations are made by using ITU TRIGA Mark II Reactor as the neutron source. The effects of neutron attenuation on power deposition are examined.

  14. Random fiber laser directly pumped by a high-power laser diode.

    PubMed

    Babin, S A; Dontsova, E I; Kablukov, S I

    2013-09-01

    A random lasing based on Rayleigh scattering (RS) in a passive fiber directly pumped by a high-power laser diode (LD) has been demonstrated. Owing to the RS-based random distributed feedback (RDFB) the low-quality LD beam (938 nm) is converted into the high-quality laser output (980 nm). Because of the relatively low excess above the threshold with the available LD, the RDFB laser output is not stationary and limited in power at the 0.5 W level. In the used gradient-index fiber, the output beam has 4.5 lower divergence as compared with the pump beam thus demonstrating a new way for development of high-power fiber lasers with high-quality output.

  15. Low power energy harvesting and storage techniques from ambient human powered energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Faruk

    Conventional electrochemical batteries power most of the portable and wireless electronic devices that are operated by electric power. In the past few years, electrochemical batteries and energy storage devices have improved significantly. However, this progress has not been able to keep up with the development of microprocessors, memory storage, and sensors of electronic applications. Battery weight, lifespan and reliability often limit the abilities and the range of such applications of battery powered devices. These conventional devices were designed to be powered with batteries as required, but did not allow scavenging of ambient energy as a power source. In contrast, development in wireless technology and other electronic components are constantly reducing the power and energy needed by many applications. If energy requirements of electronic components decline reasonably, then ambient energy scavenging and conversion could become a viable source of power for many applications. Ambient energy sources can be then considered and used to replace batteries in some electronic applications, to minimize product maintenance and operating cost. The potential ability to satisfy overall power and energy requirements of an application using ambient energy can eliminate some constraints related to conventional power supplies. Also power scavenging may enable electronic devices to be completely self-sustaining so that battery maintenance can eventually be eliminated. Furthermore, ambient energy scavenging could extend the performance and the lifetime of the MEMS (Micro electromechanical systems) and portable electronic devices. These possibilities show that it is important to examine the effectiveness of ambient energy as a source of power. Until recently, only little use has been made of ambient energy resources, especially for wireless networks and portable power devices. Recently, researchers have performed several studies in alternative energy sources that could provide

  16. Thermal and economic assessment of ground-coupled storage for residential solar heat pump systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M. K.; Morehouse, J. H.

    1980-11-01

    This study performed an analysis of ground-coupled stand-alone and series configured solar-assisted liquid-to-air heat pump systems for residences. The year-round thermal performance of these systems for space heating, space cooling, and water heating were determined by simulation and compared against non-ground-coupled solar heat pump systems as well as conventional heating and cooling systems in three geographic locations: Washington, D.C., Fort Worth, Tex., and Madison, Wis. The results indicate that without tax credits a combined solar/ground-coupled heat pump system for space heating and cooling is not cost competitive with conventional systems. Its thermal performance is considerably better than non-ground-coupled solar heat pumps in Forth Worth. Though the ground-coupled stand-alone heat pump provides 51% of the heating and cooling load with non-purchased energy in Forth Worth, its thermal performance in Washington and Madison is poor.

  17. High-Power Nd:GdVO4 Innoslab Continuous-Wave Laser under Direct 880 nm Pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Bo; Zhang, Heng-Li; Xu, Liu; Mao, Ye-Fei; He, Jing-Liang; Xin, Jian-Guo

    2014-11-01

    A high-power cw end-pumped laser device is demonstrated with a slab crystal of Nd:GdVO4 operating at 1063 nm. Diode laser stacks at 880 nm are used to pump Nd:GdVO4 into emitting level 4F3/2. The 149 W output power is presented when the absorbed pump power is 390 W and the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 38.2%. When the output power is 120 W, the M2 factors are 2.3 in both directions. Additionally, mode overlap inside the resonator is analyzed to explain the beam quality deterioration.

  18. Testing of an Annular Linear Induction Pump for the Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K. A.; Pearson, J. B.; Webster, K.; Godfoy, T. J.; Bossard, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Results of performance testing of an annular linear induction pump that has been designed for integration into a fission surface power technology demonstration unit are presented. The pump electromagnetically pushes liquid metal (NaK) through a specially-designed apparatus that permits quantification of pump performance over a range of operating conditions. Testing was conducted for frequencies of 40, 55, and 70 Hz, liquid metal temperatures of 125, 325, and 525 C, and input voltages from 30 to 120 V. Pump performance spanned a range of flow rates from roughly 0.3 to 3.1 L/s (4.8 to 49 gpm), and pressure heads of <1 to 104 kPa (<0.15 to 15 psi). The maximum efficiency measured during testing was 5.4%. At the technology demonstration unit operating temperature of 525 C the pump operated over a narrower envelope, with flow rates from 0.3 to 2.75 L/s (4.8 to 43.6 gpm), developed pressure heads from <1 to 55 kPa (<0.15 to 8 psi), and a maximum efficiency of 3.5%. The pump was supplied with three-phase power at 40 and 55 Hz using a variable-frequency motor drive, while power at 55 and 70 Hz was supplied using a variable-frequency power supply. Measured performance of the pump at 55 Hz using either supply exhibited good quantitative agreement. For a given temperature, the peak in efficiency occurred at different flow rates as the frequency was changed, but the maximum value of efficiency was relative insensitive within 0.3% over the frequency range tested, including a scan from 45 to 78 Hz. The objectives of the FSP technology project are as follows:5 • Develop FSP concepts that meet expected surface power requirements at reasonable cost with added benefits over other options. • Establish a nonnuclear hardware-based technical foundation for FSP design concepts to reduce overall development risk. • Reduce the cost uncertainties for FSP and establish greater credibility for flight system cost estimates. • Generate the key nonnuclear products to allow Agency

  19. Scalable pumping approach for extracting the maximum TEM(00) solar laser power.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana; Vistas, Cláudia R

    2014-10-20

    A scalable TEM(00) solar laser pumping approach is composed of four pairs of first-stage Fresnel lens-folding mirror collectors, four fused-silica secondary concentrators with light guides of rectangular cross-section for radiation homogenization, four hollow two-dimensional compound parabolic concentrators for further concentration of uniform radiations from the light guides to a 3 mm diameter, 76 mm length Nd:YAG rod within four V-shaped pumping cavities. An asymmetric resonator ensures an efficient large-mode matching between pump light and oscillating laser light. Laser power of 59.1 W TEM(00) is calculated by ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis, revealing 20 times improvement in brightness figure of merit.

  20. Engineering bacterial efflux pumps for solar-powered bioremediation of surface waters.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vikram; Wendell, David

    2013-05-08

    Antibiotics are difficult to selectively remove from surface waters by present treatment methods. Bacterial efflux pumps have evolved the ability to discriminately expel antibiotics and other noxious agents via proton and ATP driven pathways. Here, we describe light-dependent removal of antibiotics by engineering the bacterial efflux pump AcrB into a proteovesicle system. We have created a chimeric protein with the requisite proton motive force by coupling AcrB to the light-driven proton pump Delta-rhodopsin (dR) via a glycophorin A transmembrane domain. This creates a solar powered protein material capable of selectively capturing antibiotics from bulk solutions. Using environmental water and direct sunlight, our AcrB-dR vesicles removed almost twice as much antibiotic as the treatment standard, activated carbon. Altogether, the AcrB-dR system provides an effective means of extracting antibiotics from surface waters as well as potential antibiotic recovery through vesicle solubilization.

  1. Generation of high-power nanosecond pulses from laser diode-pumped Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Kinpui

    1988-01-01

    Simulation results are used to compare the pulse energy levels and pulse energy widths that can be achieved with LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers for both the pulse-transmission mode (PTM) and pulse-reflection mode (PRM) Q-switching methods for pulse energy levels up to hundreds of microjoules and pulse widths as short as 1 ns. It is shown that high-power pulses with pulse widths as short as 1 ns can be generated with PTM Q-switched in LD-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. With the PRM Q-switching method, pulse widths as short as 2 ns and pulse energy at the level of a few hundred microjoules can also be achieved but require pumping with 8-10-mJ AlGaAs laser diode arrays.

  2. Diode Pumped Alkali Vapor Lasers - A New Pathway to High Beam Quality at High Average Power

    SciTech Connect

    Page, R H; Boley, C D; Rubenchik, A M; Beach, R J

    2005-05-06

    Resonance-transition alkali-vapor lasers have only recently been demonstrated [1] but are already attracting considerable attention. Alkali-atom-vapor gain media are among the simplest possible systems known, so there is much laboratory data upon which to base performance predictions. Therefore, accurate modeling is possible, as shown by the zero- free-parameter fits [2] to experimental data on alkali-vapor lasers pumped with Ti:sapphire lasers. The practical advantages of two of the alkali systems--Rb and Cs--are enormous, since they are amenable to diode-pumping [3,4]. Even without circulating the gas mixture, these lasers can have adequate cooling built-in owing to the presence of He in their vapor cells. The high predicted (up to 70%) optical-to-optical efficiency of the alkali laser, the superb (potentially 70% or better) wall-plug efficiency of the diode pumps, and the ability to exhaust heat at high temperature (100 C) combine to give a power-scalable architecture that is lightweight. A recent design exercise [5] at LLNL estimated that the system ''weight-to-power ratio'' figure of merit could be on the order of 7 kg/kW, an unprecedented value for a laser of the 100 kW class. Beam quality is expected to be excellent, owing to the small dn/dT value of the gain medium. There is obviously a long way to go, to get from a small laser pumped with a Ti:sapphire or injection-seeded diode system (of near-perfect beam quality, and narrow linewidth) [1, 4] to a large system pumped with broadband, multimode diode- laser arrays. We have a vision for this technology-development program, and have already built diode-array-pumped Rb lasers at the 1 Watt level. A setup for demonstrating Diode-array-Pumped Alkali vapor Lasers (DPALs) is shown in Figure 1. In general, use of a highly-multimode, broadband pump source renders diode-array-based experiments much more difficult than the previous ones done with Ti:sapphire pumping. High-NA optics, short focal distances, and short

  3. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 8: Design approaches - UPH. Appendix B: Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    An assessment of shaft requirements for an underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) facility is documented. Shaft requirements for both the construction and the permanent operation phases of the facility are outlined. Possible shaft arrangements are developed and the design of shaft linings is discussed. Methods of shaft sinking are reviewed. Alternative schedules for the sinking of the shafts are described and a preferred schedule selected. The material presented and also the cost estimates are based on the requirements for a 2000 MW plant providing 20,000 MWh of storage with a nominal head of 4600 ft. Studies subsequently carried out, including power plant design, head optimization analyses for the overall UPH surface and underground configuration, and further refinement of selected designs, have modified some of the material given.

  4. High power mid-IR OPCPA system pumped by a femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigaud, P.; Van de Walle, A.; Hanna, M.; Forget, N.; Guichard, F.; Zaouter, Y.; Guesmi, K.; Druon, F.; Georges, P.

    2017-02-01

    We describe an optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA) architecture built around a state of the art Yb-doped fiber femtosecond pump source delivering 300 fs 400 μ pulses at a repetition rate 125 kHz (50 W average power) and a central wavelength of 1030 nm. The short pump pulse duration compared to bulk Yb:YAG or Nd:YVO4 based systems results in a number of important advantages. First, it allows efficient seeding at 1550 nm using supercontinuum generation directly from the pump pulses in a bulk YAG crystal, resulting in extremely robust passive pump-signal synchronization. The short pump pulse duration also allows the use of millimeter to centimeter lengths of bulk materials to provide stretching and compression for the signal and idler, which minimizes the accumulation of higher-order spectral phase. Finally, the shorter pump pulse duration increases the damage peak intensity, permitting the use of shorter nonlinear crystals to perform the amplification, which increases the spectral bandwidth of the parametric process. Additional experiments are performed to sort out the phenomena that limit power scaling in MgO:PPLN crystals. The OPCPA stages are all operated in collinear geometry, allowing the use of both signal and idler without the introduction of angular chirp on the latter. These points result in the dual generation of 70 fs 23 μJ signal pulses at 1550 nm and 60 fs 10 μJ idler pulses at 3070 nm from a simple setup, with the added benefit of inherent CEP stability of the idler pulses.

  5. High temperature thermal energy storage, including a discussion of TES integrated into power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Storage temperatures of 260 C and above are considered. Basic considerations concerning energy thermal storage are discussed, taking into account general aspects of thermal energy storage, thermal energy storage integrated into power plants, thermal storage techniques and technical considerations, and economic considerations. A description of system concepts is provided, giving attention to a survey of proposed concepts, storage in unpressurized fluids, water storage in pressurized containers, the use of an underground lined cavern for water storage, a submerged thin insulated steel shell under the ocean containing pressurized water, gas passage through solid blocks, a rock bed with liquid heat transport fluid, hollow steel ingots, heat storage in concrete or sand, sand in a fluidized bed, sand poured over pipes, a thermal energy storage heat exchanger, pipes or spheres filled with phase change materials (PCM), macroencapsulated PCM with heat pipe concept for transport fluid, solid PCM removed from heat transfer pipes by moving scrapers, and the direct contact between PCM and transport fluid.

  6. High temperature thermal energy storage, including a discussion of TES integrated into power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Storage temperatures of 260 C and above are considered. Basic considerations concerning energy thermal storage are discussed, taking into account general aspects of thermal energy storage, thermal energy storage integrated into power plants, thermal storage techniques and technical considerations, and economic considerations. A description of system concepts is provided, giving attention to a survey of proposed concepts, storage in unpressurized fluids, water storage in pressurized containers, the use of an underground lined cavern for water storage, a submerged thin insulated steel shell under the ocean containing pressurized water, gas passage through solid blocks, a rock bed with liquid heat transport fluid, hollow steel ingots, heat storage in concrete or sand, sand in a fluidized bed, sand poured over pipes, a thermal energy storage heat exchanger, pipes or spheres filled with phase change materials (PCM), macroencapsulated PCM with heat pipe concept for transport fluid, solid PCM removed from heat transfer pipes by moving scrapers, and the direct contact between PCM and transport fluid.

  7. An economic evaluation comparison of solar water pumping system with engine pumping system for rice cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treephak, Kasem; Thongpron, Jutturit; Somsak, Dhirasak; Saelao, Jeerawan; Patcharaprakiti, Nopporn

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we propose the design and economic evaluation of the water pumping systems for rice cultivation using solar energy, gasoline fuel and compare both systems. The design of the water and gasoline engine pumping system were evaluated. The gasoline fuel cost used in rice cultivation in an area of 1.6 acres. Under same conditions of water pumping system is replaced by the photovoltaic system which is composed of a solar panel, a converter and an electric motor pump which is compose of a direct current (DC) motor or an alternating current (AC) motor with an inverter. In addition, the battery is installed to increase the efficiency and productivity of rice cultivation. In order to verify, the simulation and economic evaluation of the storage energy battery system with batteries and without batteries are carried out. Finally the cost of four solar pumping systems was evaluated and compared with that of the gasoline pump. The results showed that the solar pumping system can be used to replace the gasoline water pumping system and DC solar pump has a payback less than 10 years. The systems that can payback the fastest is the DC solar pumping system without batteries storage system. The system the can payback the slowest is AC solar pumping system with batteries storage system. However, VAC motor pump of 220 V can be more easily maintained than the motor pump of 24 VDC and batteries back up system can supply a more stable power to the pump system.

  8. Evaluation of the feasibility and viability of modular pumped storage hydro (m-PSH) in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Witt, Adam M.; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Martinez, Rocio; Bishop, Norm

    2015-09-01

    The viability of modular pumped storage hydro (m-PSH) is examined in detail through the conceptual design, cost scoping, and economic analysis of three case studies. Modular PSH refers to both the compactness of the project design and the proposed nature of product fabrication and performance. A modular project is assumed to consist of pre-fabricated standardized components and equipment, tested and assembled into modules before arrival on site. This technology strategy could enable m-PSH projects to deploy with less substantial civil construction and equipment component costs. The concept of m-PSH is technically feasible using currently available conventional pumping and turbine equipment, and may offer a path to reducing the project development cycle from inception to commissioning.

  9. Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Flow in an Axial Rotor and Impeller for Large Storage Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosioc, A. I.; Muntean, S.; Draghici, I.; Anton, L. E.

    2016-11-01

    In hydropower systems among hydropower plants there are integrated pumping stations (PS). In order to ensure higher flow rate, the pumps have constructive differences besides regular. Consequently, the complex shape of the suction-elbow with symmetric inlet generates an unsteady flow which is ingested by impeller. These phenomena's also generate stronger unsteady flow conditions, such as stall, wakes, turbulence and pressure fluctuations, which affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the pump with vibration, noise and radial and axial forces on the rotor. Alternatively, an axial rotor can be installed in front of the impeller. In this case, the flow non-uniformity will be decreased and the static pressure will be increased at the impeller inlet. Consequently, the efficiency behaviour practically remains unchanged while the cavitational behaviour is improved. From the assembly between axial rotor and centrifugal impeller, the axial rotor usually works in cavitation and is often replaced. The paper investigates experimentally and numerically the comparison between pump impeller without and with axial rotor hydrodynamics taking into account the flow given by the symmetrical suction elbow. Full three-dimensional turbulent numerical investigation of the symmetrical suction elbow, with axial rotor and without, pump impeller and volute are performed. The hydrodynamic analysis confirms that once the axial rotor is mounted in front of the pump impeller increase the static pressure and the incidence angle is improved at the inlet of the pump impeller.

  10. Power beaming to space using a nuclear reactor-pumped laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.J.; Monroe, D.K.; Pickard, P.S.

    1993-10-01

    The present political and environmental climate may slow the inevitable direct utilization of nuclear power in space. In the meantime, there is another approach for using nuclear energy for space power. That approach is to let nuclear energy generate a laser beam in a ground-based nuclear reactor-pumped laser (RPL), and then beam the optical energy into space. Potential space applications for a ground-based RPL include (1) illuminating geosynchronous communication satellites in the earth`s shadow to extend their lives, (2) beaming power to orbital transfer vehicles, (3) providing power (from earth) to a lunar base during the long lunar night, and (4) removing space debris. FALCON is a high-power, steady-state, nuclear reactor-pumped laser (RPL) concept that is being developed by the Department of Energy with Sandia National Laboratories as the lead laboratory. The FALCON program has experimentally demonstrated reactor-pumped lasing in various mixtures of xenon, argon, neon, and helium at wavelengths of 0.585, 0.703, 0.725, 1.271, 1.733, 1.792, 2.032, 2.63, 2.65, and 3.37 {mu}m with intrinsic efficiency as high as 2.5%. Frequency-doubling the 1.733{minus}{mu}m line would yield a good match for photovoltaic arrays at 0.867 {mu}m. Preliminary designs of an RPL suitable for power beaming have been completed. The MWclass laser is fairly simple in construction, self-powered, closed-cycle (no exhaust gases), and modular. This paper describes the FALCON program accomplishments and power-beaming applications.

  11. High-power passively Q-switched Nd:KGW laser pumped at 877 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, K.; Ge, W. Q.; Zhao, T. Z.; Feng, C. Y.; Yu, J.; He, J. G.; Xiao, H.; Fan, Z. W.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, a high-power passively Q-switched Ng-cut Nd3+:KGd(WO4)2/Cr4+:YAG laser pumped at 877 nm. The maximum average output power of ~1.6 W is obtained at the pump power of 5.22 W, when a saturable absorber with 98 % of initial transmission is used. The corresponding pulse energy is up to 16 µJ. The maximum pulse energy of 25.3 µJ is achieved at a repetition rate of 59 kHz, by employing a saturable absorber with 95 % of initial transmission. The corresponding pulse width and average output power are 89.0 ns and 1.5 W, respectively. A careful cavity design and a good thermal management ensure nearly TEM00 output with M 2 ≤ 1.22 within the whole range of operation in both N p and N m directions at 877 nm pump.

  12. High-power directly diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:KGW lasers with optimized parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. H.; Yang, J.; Kulik, A. V.; Sall, E. G.; Chizhov, S. A.; Yashin, V. E.; Kang, U.

    2014-02-01

    We report a diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser that is capable of operating as a Q-switched oscillator or as a regenerative amplifier with average power of more than 20 W. The laser is based on a dual-crystal configuration where the pump thermal load is distributed over relatively long two crystals. It permits a sufficiently large number of passes with low passive losses and maximizes the energy extraction efficiency. The amplification bandwidth was extended by spectral combining of two Yb:KGW crystals with spectrally shifted gain maxima, that allows to mitigate spectral gain narrowing and provides pulse length down to 200 fs after compression in a stretcher-compressor module. The output power saturated with increasing pump power and output beam quality was defined by aberration of thermal lenses. Optimization of laser cavity allows us to compensate thermal lens partially and provide output beams with quality M2<1.2. Efficient frequency doubling and tripling of high-power femtosecond Yb:KGW laser is demonstrated in a nonlinear BBO crystal. Second or third harmonic generation with respective conversion efficiency of 55% or 24% was achieved in a single-pass configuration.

  13. Numerical investigation on high power mid-infrared supercontinuum fiber lasers pumped at 3 µm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chen; Zhu, Xiushan; Norwood, Robert A; Song, Feng; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-12-02

    High power mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) laser sources in the 3-12 µm region are of great interest for a variety of applications in many fields. Although various mid-IR SC laser sources have been proposed and investigated experimentally and theoretically in the past several years, power scaling of mid-IR SC lasers beyond 3 μm with infrared edges extending beyond 7 μm are still challenges because the wavelengths of most previously used pump sources are below 2 μm. These problems can be solved with the recent development of mode-locked fiber lasers at 3 μm. In this paper, high power mid-IR SC laser sources based on dispersion engineered tellurite and chalcogenide fibers and pumped by ultrafast lasers at 3 µm are proposed and investigated. Our simulation results show that, when a W-type tellurite fiber with a zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of 2.7 µm is pumped at 2.78 μm, the power proportion of the SC laser beyond 3 µm can exceed 40% and the attainable SC output power of the proposed solid-cladding tellurite fiber is one order of magnitude higher than that of existing microstructured tellurite fibers. Our calculation also predicts that a very promising super-broadband mid-IR SC fiber laser source covering two atmospheric windows and molecules' "fingerprint" region can be obtained with a microstructured As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber pumped at 2.78 μm.

  14. Counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit cooperating with wind power unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Tengen; Kanemoto, Toshiaki

    2013-02-01

    This serial research proposes the hybrid power system combined the wind power unit with the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit, to provide the constant output for the grid system, even at the suddenly fluctuating/turbulent wind. In this paper, the tandem impellers of the counter-rotating type pumping unit was operated at the turbine mode, and the performances and the flow conditions were investigated numerically and experimentally. The 3-D turbulent flows in the runners were simulated at the steady state condition by using the commercial CFD code of ANSYS-CFX ver.12 with the SST turbulence model. While providing the pump unit for the turbine mode, the maximum hydraulic efficiency is close to one of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. Besides, the runner/impeller of the unit works evidently so as to coincide the angular momentum change through the front runners/impellers with that through the rear runners/impellers, namely to take the axial flow at not only the inlet but also the outlet without the guide vanes. These results show that this type of unit is effective to work at not only the pumping but also the turbine modes.

  15. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  16. Generation of pulsed ion beams by an inductive storage pulsed power generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; Maeda, Sadao

    1990-10-01

    A pulsed power generator by an inductive energy storage system is extremely compact and light in comparison with a conventional pulsed power generator, which consists of a Marx bank and a water pulse forming line. A compact and light pulse power generator is applied to the generation of pulsed ion beams. A thin copper fuse is used an an opening switch, which is necessary in the inductive storage pulsed power generator. A magnetically insulated diode is used for the generation of ion beams. The pulsed ion beams are successfully generated by the inductive storage pulsed power generator for the first time.

  17. Performance of passive Q-switched solar-pumped high-power Nd:YAG lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noter, Yoram; Naftali, Nir; Pe'er, Idit L.; Yogev, Amnon; Lando, Mordechai; Shimony, Yehoshua

    1997-09-01

    Q-switched, solar-pumped, high power Nd:YAG lasers are attractive for a variety of applications requiring high instantaneous peak power density. The Q-switching can be obtained by an acousto-optic, electro-optic or passive device. Passive Q-switching seems an excellent choice for space as well as for other applications since it neither requires an external driver nor an electrical power supply. In recent years Cr+4:YAG single crystals were extensively used as passive Q-switches for flashlamp-pumped high power Nd:YAG lasers, demonstrating their superior thermal superior thermal characteristics and durability. In this work we report the first operation of passive Q- switched, solar-pumped, high power Nd:YAG lasers. The concentrated solar energy for he optical pumping of the laser was obtained by a 3-stage combination of imaging and non-imaging optics. It included: i) Weizmann Institute solar tower heliostats, ii) 3D compound parabolic concentrator, and iii) 2D compound parabolic concentrator in which the laser rod was placed. 72 mm long laser rods with either 3 mm or 4 mm diameter were used. The passive Q-switch was made from a Cr$=+4):YAG single crystal having a low- intensity transmission of 72 percent at 1.06 (mu) . Its rear surface was coated by a high reflectivity coating, serving as the rear mirror of the cavity. Output coupling mirrors with various reflectivities were used. The passive Q-switch demonstrated excellent durability and reliability during all the experiments. Repetition rates of 6-39 kHz were measured, showing higher repetition rates at higher laser power levels. The pulses demonstrated shorter full width at half maximum (FWHM) time for higher laser power elves, and the FWHM time range was 190-310 nsec. The maximal measured average power was 14 W. Thermal lensing was measured as a function of the absorbed solar power in the laser rod. It is estimated that laser peak power densities of approximately 100 kW/cm2 were achieved in the experiments. It is

  18. 76 FR 60491 - Mona South Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... consist of the following: (1) An underground powerhouse containing the pump-turbines and motor- generators... Commission, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426. More information about this project, including...

  19. Thermal storage studies for solar heating and cooling: Applications using chemical heat pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offenhartz, P. O.

    1981-04-01

    The simulation of chemical heat pumps and simulations (including heating, cooling, and domestic hot water) were performed for Washington, D.C. and Ft. Worth, Texas. Direct weekly comparisons of the H2SO4/H2O and CaCl2/CH3OH cycles were carried out. Projected performance of the NH4NO3/NH3 cycle was also investigated, and was identical to H2SO4/H2O. In all simulated cases, the solar collector is a fixed evacuated tube system. With standard residential loads, the chemical heat pumps performed well. Gas fired backup via the heat pump was quite effective in reducing fossil fuel consumption. Chemical heat pumps are designed to reject heat at relatively high temperatures, however, they are also effective in providing domestic hot water.

  20. Pump and flow control subassembly of thermal control subsystem for photovoltaic power module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motil, Brian; Santen, Mark A.

    The pump and flow control subassembly (PFCS) is an orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module (PVM). The PFCS pumps liquid ammonia at a constant rate of approximately 1170 kg/hr while providing temperature control by flow regulation between the radiator and the bypass loop. Also, housed within the ORU is an accumulator to compensate for fluid volumetric changes as well as the electronics and firmware for monitoring and control of the photovoltaic thermal control system (PVTCS). Major electronic functions include signal conditioning, data interfacing and motor control. This paper will provide a description of each major component within the PFCS along with performance test data. In addition, this paper will discuss the flow control algorithm and describe how the nickel hydrogen batteries and associated power electronics will be thermally controlled through regulation of coolant flow to the radiator.

  1. High-power continuous-wave cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Codemard, C A; Dupriez, P; Jeong, Y; Sahu, J K; Ibsen, M; Nilsson, J

    2006-08-01

    We demonstrate a high-power single-mode cladding-pumped Raman fiber laser. The Raman fiber laser consists of a 1.2 km long germanium-doped double-clad fiber in a linear cavity, which is spliced to a single-mode fiber. The laser is end pumped by a multimode erbium-ytterbium-doped fiber, which is coupled to the inner cladding of the Raman fiber. The embedded core was designed to be single mode at the Raman Stokes wavelength, and up to 10 W of power was obtained at 1660 nm from the single-mode fiber end. The laser has a slope efficiency of 67% and a threshold of 6.5 W.

  2. Pump and Flow Control Subassembly of Thermal Control Subsystem for Photovoltaic Power Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Santen, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    The pump and flow control subassembly (PFCS) is an orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module (PVM). The PFCS pumps liquid ammonia at a constant rate of approximately 1170 kg/hr while providing temperature control by flow regulation between the radiator and the bypass loop. Also, housed within the ORU is an accumulator to compensate for fluid volumetric changes as well as the electronics and firmware for monitoring and control of the photovoltaic thermal control system (PVTCS). Major electronic functions include signal conditioning, data interfacing and motor control. This paper will provide a description of each major component within the PFCS along with performance test data. In addition, this paper will discuss the flow control algorithm and describe how the nickel hydrogen batteries and associated power electronics will be thermally controlled through regulation of coolant flow to the radiator.

  3. Pump and Flow Control Subassembly of Thermal Control Subsystem for Photovoltaic Power Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motil, Brian; Santen, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    The pump and flow control subassembly (PFCS) is an orbital replacement unit (ORU) on the Space Station Freedom photovoltaic power module (PVM). The PFCS pumps liquid ammonia at a constant rate of approximately 1170 kg/hr while providing temperature control by flow regulation between the radiator and the bypass loop. Also, housed within the ORU is an accumulator to compensate for fluid volumetric changes as well as the electronics and firmware for monitoring and control of the photovoltaic thermal control system (PVTCS). Major electronic functions include signal conditioning, data interfacing and motor control. This paper will provide a description of each major component within the PFCS along with performance test data. In addition, this paper will discuss the flow control algorithm and describe how the nickel hydrogen batteries and associated power electronics will be thermally controlled through regulation of coolant flow to the radiator.

  4. Tm3+ cladding-doped fiber for selective wavelength filtering in high-power pump lasers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Monica K; Dejneka, Matthew J; Ainslie, Jim

    2004-04-01

    Scattering and reflection of transmission band power in a fiber amplifier cause increased bit-error rates through multiple path interference (MPI). We report a passive method for reducing MPI contributions from the front facet of a 980-nm fiber-Bragg-grating-stabilized pump laser by use of a Tm3+-doped fiber pigtail between the diode facet and the fiber Bragg grating. Optical return loss in the C band is reduced to below -30 dB.

  5. High-power compact laser with segmented longitudinal pumping of coupled laser channels

    SciTech Connect

    Mamonov, D N; Il'ichev, N N; Sirotkin, A A; Pivovarov, P A; Derzhavin, S I; Klimentov, S M; Rebrov, S G

    2015-06-30

    The characteristics of a compact Nd:YAG/Cr:YAG laser with segmented end pumping using a bundle of seven optical fibres are presented. In the regime of optical coupling of thus formed seven laser channels, 3-ns pulses with an energy up to 20 mJ, as well as their trains, are obtained. The used method makes it possible to scale the energy and power of lasers of this type with controlled spatial beam profile. (lasers)

  6. High-power terahertz optically pumped NH{sub 3} laser for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, V. A.; Petrushevich, Yu. V.; Sobolenko, D. N.; Starostin, A. N.

    2012-06-15

    The parameter of a terahertz (THz) laser intended for plasma diagnostics in electrodynamic accelerators and tokamaks with a strong magnetic field are discussed. Generation of THz radiation in an ammonia laser under the action of high-power pulsed optical pumping by the radiation of a 10P(32) CO{sub 2} laser is simulated numerically. The main characteristics of the output radiation, such as its spectrum, peak intensity, time dependence, and total energy, are calculated.

  7. High-power terahertz optically pumped NH3 laser for plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, V. A.; Petrushevich, Yu. V.; Sobolenko, D. N.; Starostin, A. N.

    2012-06-01

    The parameter of a terahertz (THz) laser intended for plasma diagnostics in electrodynamic accelerators and tokamaks with a strong magnetic field are discussed. Generation of THz radiation in an ammonia laser under the action of high-power pulsed optical pumping by the radiation of a 10P(32) CO2 laser is simulated numerically. The main characteristics of the output radiation, such as its spectrum, peak intensity, time dependence, and total energy, are calculated.

  8. Perfluoro-n-hexyl iodide as gain media for high power, continuous solar-pumped lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ja H.; Tabibi, Bagher M.; Humes, Donald H.; Weaver, Willard R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of CW laser performance with n-C6F13I and n-C3F7I was performed using a 10-W solar-simulator-pumped laser system. The measured output power for n-C6F13I is near 10 W and is comparable to that of n-C3F7I. However, n-C6F13I has the advantages of easy purification and repeated use.

  9. Numerical prediction of impacts of cavitation in pumps for power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlář, M.; Šoukal, J.; Krátký, T.; Vyroubal, M.

    2015-06-01

    The article describes the possibilities of the numerical modelling of cavitating flow in high-performance pumps for power generation. Three main adverse effects of cavitation and their analysis are discussed with some practical examples. Numerical analysis is based both on the commercial CFD code and the inhouse software solving the Rayleigh-Plesset equation along flow trajectories. Cavitation bubbles at the same time are presented as active (not passive) impurity which interacts with fluid during the phase transitions.

  10. Directly solar-pumped iodine laser for beamed power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Meador, W. E.; Lee, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.

  11. Directly solar-pumped iodine laser for beamed power transmission in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. H.; Meador, W. E.; Lee, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach for development of a 50-kW directly solar-pumped iodine laser (DSPIL) system as a space-based power station was made using a confocal unstable resonator (CUR). The CUR-based DSPIL has advantages, such as performance enhancement, reduction of total mass, and simplicity which alleviates the complexities inherent in the previous system, master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) configurations. In this design, a single CUR-based DSPIL with 50-kW output power was defined and compared to the MOPA-based DSPIL. Integration of multiple modules for power requirements more than 50-kW is physically and structurally a sound approach as compared to building a single large system. An integrated system of multiple modules can respond to various mission power requirements by combining and aiming the coherent beams at the user's receiver.

  12. Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on threshold pump power in quasi-three-level solid-state lasers.

    PubMed

    Kim, J W; Mackenzie, J I; Clarkson, W A

    2009-07-06

    A simple analytical expression for threshold pump power in an end-pumped quasi-three-level solid-state laser, which takes into account the influence of energy-transfer-upconversion (ETU), is derived. This expression indicates that threshold pump power can be increased dramatically by ETU, especially in low gain lasers and lasers with pronounced three-level character due to the need for high excitation densities in the upper manifold to reach threshold. The analysis has been applied to an Er:YAG laser operating at 1645 nm in-band pumped by an Er,Yb fiber laser at 1532 nm. Predicted values for threshold pump power as a function of erbium doping concentration are in very good agreement with measured values. The results indicate that very low erbium doping levels (approximately 0.25 at.% or less) are required to avoid degradation in performance due to ETU even under continuous-wave lasing conditions in Er:YAG.

  13. Microbial Carbon Pump ---A New Mechanism for Long-Term Carbon Storage in the Global Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, N.; Azam, F.; McP Working Group; Scor Wg134

    2010-12-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) reservoir, containing carbon equivalent to the total carbon inventory of atmospheric CO2, is an important issue in understanding the role of the ocean in climate change. The known biological mechanism for oceanic carbon sequestration is the biological pump, which depends on vertical transportation of carbon either through particulate organic matter (POM) sedimentation or DOM export by mixing and downwelling. Both the POM and the DOM are subject to microbial mineralization and most of the organic carbon will be returned to dissolved inorganic carbon within a few decades. Only a small fraction of the POM escapes mineralization and reaches the sediment where organic carbon can be buried and stored for thousands and even millions of years. The efficiency of the biological pump is currently the basic measure of the ocean’s ability to store biologically fixed carbon. However, the production and fate of the large pool of recalcitrant DOM with an averaged turnover time of 4000-6000 thousands of years in the water column has not been adequately considered to date. Marine microbes essentially monopolize the utilization of DOM. Although their diverse adaptive strategies for using newly fixed carbon are well known, major gaps exist in our knowledge on how they interact with the large pool of DOM that appears to be recalcitrant. This is an important problem, as DOM molecules that are not degraded for extended periods of time constitute carbon storage in the ocean. A newly proposed concept - the “microbial carbon pump (MCP)” (NATURE REVIEWS Microbiology 2010.8:593-599) (also see diagram below) provides a formalized focus on the significance of microbial processes in carbon storage in the recalcitrant DOM reservoir, and a framework for testing hypotheses on the sources and sinks of DOM and the underlying biogeochemical mechanisms. The MCP, through concessive processing of DOM, transforms some organic carbon from the reactive DOM pools

  14. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  15. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  16. To pump or not to pump: a comparison of machine perfusion vs cold storage for deceased donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Robert M; Brock, Guy N; Garrison, R Neal; Smith, Jason W; Marvin, Michael R; Franklin, Glen A

    2013-04-01

    A recent multicenter European trial has demonstrated reduced rates of delayed graft function when kidneys undergo machine perfusion before transplantation. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of machine perfusion on early kidney transplant function in the United States. Retrospective review of United Network for Organ Sharing data from January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2011 was undertaken. Comparisons were made between kidneys that underwent machine perfusion (MP) vs cold storage (CS) alone in terms of delayed graft function (DGF). The analysis was performed in a cohort of MP and CS kidneys matched by propensity scoring, as well as in a cohort of paired kidneys from the same donor in which one underwent MP and the other underwent CS. Secondary end points analyzed included recipient length of stay after transplantation and graft survival. In the overall cohort, rates of DGF were similar for MP and CS kidneys (25.7% vs 25.0%; p = 0.082), likely due to preferential use of MP in marginal kidneys. In the propensity matched cohort, MP was associated with significantly lower rates of DGF compared with CS (21.1% vs 29.1%; p < 0.001). These findings were corroborated by the paired kidney analysis, in which DGF occurred in 19.7% of the MP group compared with 27.5% of the CS group (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the hazard for graft failure between the MP and CS group in the propensity matched analysis (hazard ratio = 0.98; p = 0.622) and in the paired kidney analysis (hazard ratio = 1.02; p = 0.839). Machine perfusion of deceased donor kidneys results in significantly decreased rates of DGF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Cost analysis of power plant cooling using aquifer thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Drost, M.K.

    1989-05-01

    Most utilities in the US experience their peak demand for electric power during periods with high ambient temperature. Unfortunately, the performance of many power plants decreases with high ambient temperature. The use of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) for seasonal storage of chill can be an alternative method for heat rejection. Cold water produced during the previous winter is stored in the aquifer and can be used to provide augmented cooling during peak demand periods increasing the output of many Rankine cycle power plants. This report documents an investigation of the technical and economic feasibility of using aquifer thermal energy storage for peak cooling of power plants. 9 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Energy Storage for Variable Renewable Energy Resource Integration - A Regional Assessment for the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Jin, Chunlian; Balducci, Patrick J.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Guo, Xinxin; Nguyen, Tony B.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.

    2011-03-20

    This paper addresses the following key questions in the discussion on the integration of renewable energy resources in the Pacific Northwest power grid: a) what will be the future balancing requirement to accommodate a simulated expansion of wind energy resources from 3.3 GW in 2008 to 14.4 GW in 2019 in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP), and b) what are the most cost effective technological solutions for meeting the balancing requirements in the Northwest Power Pool (NWPP). A life-cycle analysis was performed to assess the least-cost technology option for meeting the new balancing requirement. The technologies considered in this study include conventional turbines (CT), sodium sulfur (NaS) batteries, lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries, pumped hydro energy storage (PH), and demand response (DR). Hybrid concepts that combine 2 or more of the technologies above are also evaluated. This analysis was performed with collaboration by the Bonneville Power Administration and funded by the Energy Storage Systems Program of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  19. Modeling and performance improvement of the constant power regulator systems in variable displacement axial piston pump.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software.

  20. Modeling and Performance Improvement of the Constant Power Regulator Systems in Variable Displacement Axial Piston Pump

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Ji Min; Kim, Jong Shik

    2013-01-01

    An irregular performance of a mechanical-type constant power regulator is considered. In order to find the cause of an irregular discharge flow at the cut-off pressure area, modeling and numerical simulations are performed to observe dynamic behavior of internal parts of the constant power regulator system for a swashplate-type axial piston pump. The commercial numerical simulation software AMESim is applied to model the mechanical-type regulator with hydraulic pump and simulate the performance of it. The validity of the simulation model of the constant power regulator system is verified by comparing simulation results with experiments. In order to find the cause of the irregular performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator system, the behavior of main components such as the spool, sleeve, and counterbalance piston is investigated using computer simulation. The shape modification of the counterbalance piston is proposed to improve the undesirable performance of the mechanical-type constant power regulator. The performance improvement is verified by computer simulation using AMESim software. PMID:24282389

  1. Power flow control based solely on slow feedback loop for heart pump applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bob; Hu, Aiguo Patrick; Budgett, David

    2012-06-01

    This paper proposes a new control method for regulating power flow via transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) for implantable heart pumps. Previous work on power flow controller requires a fast feedback loop that needs additional switching devices and resonant capacitors to be added to the primary converter. The proposed power flow controller eliminates these additional components, and it relies solely on a slow feedback loop to directly drive the primary converter to meet the heart pump power demand and ensure zero voltage switching. A controlled change in switching frequency varies the resonant tank shorting period of a current-fed push-pull resonant converter, thus changing the magnitude of the primary resonant voltage, as well as the tuning between primary and secondary resonant tanks. The proposed controller has been implemented successfully using an analogue circuit and has reached an end-to-end power efficiency of 79.6% at 10 W with a switching frequency regulation range of 149.3 kHz to 182.2 kHz.

  2. Recent development on high-power tandem-pumped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pu; Xiao, Hu; Leng, Jinyong; Zhang, Hanwei; Xu, Jiangmin; Wu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    High power fiber laser is attracting more and more attention due to its advantage in excellent beam quality, high electricto- optical conversion efficiency and compact system configuration. Power scaling of fiber laser is challenged by the brightness of pump source, nonlinear effect, modal instability and so on. Pumping active fiber by using high-brightness fiber laser instead of common laser diode may be the solution for the brightness limitation. In this paper, we will present the recent development of various kinds of high power fiber laser based on tandem pumping scheme. According to the absorption property of Ytterbium-doped fiber, Thulium-doped fiber and Holmium-doped fiber, we have theoretically studied the fiber lasers that operate at 1018 nm, 1178 nm and 1150 nm, respectively in detail. Consequently, according to the numerical results we have optimized the fiber laser system design, and we have achieved (1) 500 watt level 1018nm Ytterbium-doped fiber laser (2) 100 watt level 1150 nm fiber laser and 100 watt level random fiber laser (3) 30 watt 1178 nm Ytterbium-doped fiber laser, 200 watt-level random fiber laser. All of the above-mentioned are the record power for the corresponded type of fiber laser to the best of our knowledge. By using the high-brightness fiber laser operate at 1018 nm, 1178 nm and 1150 nm that we have developed, we have achieved the following high power fiber laser (1) 3.5 kW 1090 nm Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier (2) 100 watt level Thulium-doped fiber laser and (3) 50 watt level Holmium -doped fiber laser.

  3. Development of high-brightness high-power fiber laser pump sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, J. A.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Swint, Reuel B.; Coleman, James J.; Forbes, David V.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2004-06-01

    High power fiber lasers have strong potential for use in both commercial and military applications. Improved wall plug efficiency over Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers combined with up to a 10-fold improvement in beam quality, make fiber lasers extremely attractive for industrial applications such as welding and cutting. In military applications, fiber lasers offer a simplified logistic train, a deep magazine limited only by electric power, and a compact footprint, allowing theater defense and self-protection of combat platforms with speed of light engagement and flexible response. Commercial viability of these systems, however, is limited by the availability of compact, cost effective, and reliable diode laser pump sources in the multi-kilowatt regime. The relatively low brightness of diode laser sources has complicated the task of building high power pumps at a reasonable cost. In response to this need, Nuvonyx, Inc. in conjunction with the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has been developing a new technology for producing high power, single lateral mode devices which do not suffer form the instabilities mentioned above. The waveguide consists of a narrow section, approximately 2 μm wide, which flares to approximately 12 μm wide at the output facet. The flaring of the waveguide increases the gain volume and reduces the optical power density at the facet allowing for higher output power capability. The index guide is defined using an epitaxial process which allows the confinement of the mode to be reduced as the width of the guide expands. Thus, the mode is confined in a single mode waveguide throughout the cavity maintaining stability of the mode to the emitting facet. In November 2002, Nuvonyx, Inc. was awarded a contract with the Air Force Research Lab, Kirtland AFB, Albuquerque, NM, to transition these devices to production quality for use in high-power fiber laser pumps. Partnered with Alfalight, Inc. and the University of Illinois, we have begun initial

  4. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOEpatents

    King, R.D.; DeDoncker, R.W.A.A.

    1998-01-20

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power. 8 figs.

  5. Power electronic interface circuits for batteries and ultracapacitors in electric vehicles and battery storage systems

    DOEpatents

    King, Robert Dean; DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for load leveling of a battery in an electrical power system includes a power regulator coupled to transfer power between a load and a DC link, a battery coupled to the DC link through a first DC-to-DC converter and an auxiliary passive energy storage device coupled to the DC link through a second DC-to-DC converter. The battery is coupled to the passive energy storage device through a unidirectional conducting device whereby the battery can supply power to the DC link through each of the first and second converters when battery voltage exceeds voltage on the passive storage device. When the load comprises a motor capable of operating in a regenerative mode, the converters are adapted for transferring power to the battery and passive storage device. In this form, resistance can be coupled in circuit with the second DC-to-DC converter to dissipate excess regenerative power.

  6. Characterization of high power flashlamps and application to Nd:glass laser pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H.T.; Erlandson, A.C.; Jancaitis, K.S.

    1986-01-17

    Detailed spectral and temporal measurements of the output radiation from Xe flashlamps are reported together with their use in predicting the pumping efficiency of Nd-doped laser glass. We have made absolute spectral-intensity measurements for 0.5, 1.5, and 4.2-cm-bore flashlamps for input powers ranging from 5 to 90 kW/cm/sup 2/ and pulselengths of 600 ..mu..s. Under quasi-stationary conditions these flashlamps emit essentially identical spectra when excited at equal input power per unit-area of the bore. This behavior is characteristic of an optically-thick radiator although it is not completely clear why flashlamps should behave this way. A simple model is also described which accounts for the transient response of flashlamps by characterizing the output spectra and radiation efficiencies in terms of the radiant output power rather than the electrical input power. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  7. Power scaling of directly dual-end-pumped Nd:GdVO4 laser using grown-together composite crystal.

    PubMed

    Li, XuDong; Yu, Xin; Chen, Fei; Yan, RenPeng; Luo, Ming; Yu, JunHua; Chen, DeYing

    2010-03-29

    Power scaling of end-pumped Nd:GdVO(4) laser was realized by direct pumping, grown-together composite crystal and dual-end-pumping. A maximum CW output power of 46.0W with M(2)<1.1 was achieved, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 71.1% to absorbed pump power. In A-O Q-switch operation, peak power of 304.1kW, 58.6kW and 23.8kW, pulse width of 7.2ns, 11.3ns and 16.2ns were obtained at the repetition rates of 10kHz, 50kHz and 100kHz, respectively.

  8. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) and Acres American Incorporated (AAI) have carried out a preliminary design study of water-compensated Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) and Underground Pumped Hydroelectric (UPH) plants for siting in geological conditions suitable for hard rock excavations. The work was carried out over a period of three years and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and PEPCO. The study was divided into five primary tasks as follows: establishment of design criteria and analysis of impact on power system; selection of site and establishment of site characteristics; formulation of design approaches; assessment of environmental and safety aspects; and preparation of preliminary design of plant. The salient aspects considered and the conclusions reached during the consideration of the five primary tasks for both CAES and UPH are presented in this Executive Summary, which forms Volume 1 of the series of reports prepared during the study. The investigations and analyses carried out, together with the results and conclusions reached, are described in detail in Volumes 2 through 13 and ten appendices.

  9. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.; Nyeng, Preben; Miller, Carl H.; Ma, Jian; Lu, Shuai; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; McManus, Bart; Pease, John; Loutan, Clyde; RosenBlum, Grant R.

    2009-11-30

    The project described in the paper addresses the issue of mitigating additional intermittency and fast ramps that will occur at higher penetration levels of intermittent resources, including wind generation resources, in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) areas. The proposed Wide Area Energy Management System (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participating control areas and through the use of energy stor-age and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control centers, the new regulation service will look no different comparing with the traditional balancing services. The work conducted developed principles, algorithms, mar-ket integration rules, functional de-sign and technical specifica-tions for the WAEMS system. Main results obtained in the project are as follow: •Most suitable energy storage technologies for the pro-posed application include flywheel energy storage devices (ESD), pumped or conventional hydro power plants, and so-dium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries. •A preferred WAEMS architecture was selected as an ag-gregate of a flywheel ESD and a pumped storage (or a con-ventional hydro plant). The aggregate to be integrated with BPA/CAISO automatic generation control systems. •An optimization control algorithm has been developed. It provides an excellent regulation signal following capability, helps to maintain a desired state of charge on the ESD, pre-vent violations, and keep the hydro (pumped storage) power output close to the most efficient operating point. •It has been shown that the WAEMS service could help to reduce the regulation requirement in BPA and CAISO con-trol areas by about 30% compared to a traditional regulation service with the same total regulation capacity.

  10. Heat Transfer and Latent Heat Storage in Inorganic Molten Salts for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Anoop

    2013-08-14

    A key technological issue facing the success of future Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants is creating an economical Thermal Energy Storage (TES) system. Current TES systems use either sensible heat in fluids such as oil, or molten salts, or use thermal stratification in a dual-media consisting of a solid and a heat-transfer fluid. However, utilizing the heat of fusion in inorganic molten salt mixtures in addition to sensible heat , as in a Phase change material (PCM)-based TES, can significantly increase the energy density of storage requiring less salt and smaller containers. A major issue that is preventing the commercial use of PCM-based TES is that it is difficult to discharge the latent heat stored in the PCM melt. This is because when heat is extracted, the melt solidifies onto the heat exchanger surface decreasing the heat transfer. Even a few millimeters of thickness of solid material on heat transfer surface results in a large drop in heat transfer due to the low thermal conductivity of solid PCM. Thus, to maintain the desired heat rate, the heat exchange area must be large which increases cost. This project demonstrated that the heat transfer coefficient can be increase ten-fold by using forced convection by pumping a hyper-eutectic salt mixture over specially coated heat exchanger tubes. However,only 15% of the latent heat is used against a goal of 40% resulting in a projected cost savings of only 17% against a goal of 30%. Based on the failure mode effect analysis and experience with pumping salt at near freezing point significant care must be used during operation which can increase the operating costs. Therefore, we conclude the savings are marginal to justify using this concept for PCM-TES over a two-tank TES. The report documents the specialty coatings, the composition and morphology of hypereutectic salt mixtures and the results from the experiment conducted with the active heat exchanger along with the lessons learnt during

  11. Development of solar concentrators for high-power solar-pumped lasers.

    PubMed

    Dinh, T H; Ohkubo, T; Yabe, T

    2014-04-20

    We have developed unique solar concentrators for solar-pumped solid-state lasers to improve both efficiency and laser output power. Natural sunlight is collected by a primary concentrator which is a 2  m×2  m Fresnel lens, and confined by a cone-shaped hybrid concentrator. Such solar power is coupled to a laser rod by a cylinder with coolant surrounding it that is called a liquid light-guide lens (LLGL). Performance of the cylindrical LLGL has been characterized analytically and experimentally. Since a 14 mm diameter LLGL generates efficient and uniform pumping along a Nd:YAG rod that is 6 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length, 120 W cw laser output is achieved with beam quality factor M2 of 137 and overall slope efficiency of 4.3%. The collection efficiency is 30.0  W/m2, which is 1.5 times larger than the previous record. The overall conversion efficiency is more than 3.2%, which can be comparable to a commercial lamp-pumped solid-state laser. The concept of the light-guide lens can be applied for concentrator photovoltaics or other solar energy optics.

  12. Improved Automatic Filtered Power Control Pumping Method for Uniform Shortpass Band in Optical Fiber Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jyi-Lai; Huang, Hau-Min; Lee, Yueh-Chien; Huang, Chia-Chih; Lin, Huang-Cuang; Lin, Chin-Yuan

    2009-01-01

    To form a low noise figure and uniform shortpass band in optical fiber communications an improved automatic filtered power control (AFPC) pumping method is proposed here. A modulated single laser signal was entered in a closed feedback loop, in which the erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) was used as a part of the AFPC loop. Owing to the constant filtered signal and the quadrature phase shift delay inside the feedback loop, an optical pass band was uniformly formed. This EDFA attains high performance with a low noise figure simultaneously. The method was successfully applied to the fabrication of practical 12.0 m length of erbium-doped fiber pumped at 980 nm wavelength and 20 dBm power. Experiments prove that the signal gain of the loop remain flat in the range of 18.2 to 22.4 dB with a worst case error of ±0.5 dB and the noise figure was reduced by 2.2 dB at optimal, which correspond to a shortpass range of 40 nm band pass from 1525 nm to 1565 nm in wavelength. Of course, it should be possible to extent the system performance to all pumping configurations for semiconductor optical amplifiers. This provides the simplest and most economical way to transmit a well-defined band of modulated laser signal and to reject all other unwanted radiation.

  13. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 4: System planning studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Preliminary design and planning studies of water compensated compressed air energy storage (CAES) and underground pumped hydroelectric (UPH) power plants are presented. The costs of the CAES and UPH plant designs, and the results of economic evaluations performed for the PEPCO system are presented. The PEPCO system planning analysis was performed in parallel stages with plant design development. Analyses performed early in the project indicated a requirement for 1000 MW/10,000 MWH of energy storage on a daily operating schedule, with economic installation in two segments of 500 MW in 1990 and 1997. The analysis was updated eighteen months later near the end of the project to reflect the impact of new growth projections and revised plant costs. The revised results indicated economic installations for either UPH or CAES of approximately 675 MW/6750 MWH on a daily cycle, installed in blocks of approximately 225 MW in 1990, 1993 and 1995. Significant savings in revenue requirements and oil fuel over the combustion turbine alternative were identified for both CAES and UPH.

  14. PLZT Film Capacitors for Power Electronics and Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Beihai; Hu, Zhongqiang; Koritala, Rachel E.; Lee, Tae H.; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Ceramic film capacitors with high dielectric constant and high breakdown strength hold special promise for applications demanding high power density. By means of chemical solution deposition, we deposited ≈2-μm-thick films of lanthanum-doped lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) on LaNiO3-buffered Ni (LNO/Ni) foils and platinized silicon (PtSi) substrates. The dielectric properties and energy storage performance of the resulting samples were determined under a high level of applied electric field. X-ray diffraction stress analysis revealed that PLZT on LNO/Ni bears a compressive stress of ≈370 MPa while PLZT on PtSi endures a tensile stress of ≈250 MPa. Compressive stress was found to lead to heightened polarization, improved tunability, increased irreversible domain wall motion, and enhanced breakdown strength for PLZT deposited on the LNO/Ni as compared with the PtSi substrate. We observed a tunability of ≈55 and ≈40 % at room temperature under 100 kV/cm applied field, remanent polarization of ≈23.5 and ≈7.4 µC/cm^2, coercive electric field of ≈25.6 and ≈21.1 kV/cm, and dielectric breakdown strength of ≈2.6 and ≈1.5 MV/cm for PLZT deposited on LNO/Ni foils and PtSi substrates, respectively. A high recoverable energy density of ≈85 J/cm^3 and energy conversion efficiency of ≈65 % were measured on the PLZT film grown on LNO/Ni.

  15. 77 FR 19279 - Long Canyon Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... would consist of the following: (1) An upper reservoir formed by a 160-foot-high by 6,750-foot-long...-diameter penstocks; (4) an underground powerhouse roughly 750-feet-long by 175-feet-high by 70-feet-wide...) pump-turbines with a capacity of roughly 800 megawatts (MW) (3 units x 267 MW unit). The annual...

  16. 76 FR 18547 - Grand River Dam Authority, Salina Pumped Storage Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places Rule 2010 of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission..., or eligible for inclusion in, the National Register of Historic Places at the existing Salina Pumped... proceedings may request inclusion on the restricted service list, or may request that a restricted service...

  17. LD-pumped double-clad fiber single-frequency power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wen-Feng; Yang, Su-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Ming

    2005-12-01

    Single frequency, single mode laser output from a monolithic resonator was amplified by a double-clad D-shape fiber of 4.4 meters long. When the signal laser is 200mw, up to 6.65 W single frequency laser output was obtained, slope efficiency is 30.6%. The amplifier is Yb 3+ doped glass fiber pumped by a laser diode array at 976nm with signal at 1064nm. Single frequency amplification has been proved by a Fabri-Parrot interferometer. It is shown from the experiments that the signal input has not been saturated. By increasing the input signal, amplification can be increased further under the same pumping power. Experimental results meet well with theoretical calculation.

  18. Influence of power changes in single cut rigid contact lenses on tear pump efficiency.

    PubMed

    Fink, B A; Carney, L G; Hill, R M

    1992-09-01

    Differences between corneal oxygen uptake rates measured after 5 min of static (without blinking) and 5 min of dynamic (with blinking once every 5 s) non-gas permeable (polymethyl methacrylate) contact lens wear, referenced to the oxygen uptake rates of the normal open eye, were used as indications of tear pump efficiencies associated with each of seven contact lens back vertex powers (-9.00 to +9.00 D, in 3.00 D steps). Measurements were made in vivo on six human corneas showing with-the-rule (0.25 to 0.87 D) toricity. Lens overall diameter was 8.8 mm, optic zone diameter was 7.4 mm, and base curve radius was fitted "on K." Lens center thickness was 0.14 mm for all minus-powered lenses, and 0.19, 0.26, 0.34, and 0.41 mm for the plano, +3.00, +6.00, and +9.00 D lenses, respectively, maintaining an edge thickness of 0.11 mm. Under both static and dynamic wearing conditions, no significant differences were found among the corneal oxygen uptake rates associated with the various contact lens back vertex powers; however, the difference between the static and dynamic condition data, an indication of tear pump efficiency, was greatest for the -3.00 D lens. The difference values associated with the +9.00 and +6.00 D lenses were significantly lower than those associated with the minus power lenses.

  19. Reviews of a Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL): a potential high powered light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, He; Wang, You; Han, Juhong; An, Guofei; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Liangping; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhou, Jie; Gao, Ming; Jiang, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    Diode pumped alkali vapor lasers (DPALs) were first developed by in W. F. Krupke at the beginning of the 21th century. In the recent years, DPALs have been rapidly developed because of their high Stokes efficiency, good beam quality, compact size and near-infrared emission wavelengths. The Stokes efficiency of a DPAL can achieve a miraculous level as high as 95.3% for cesium (Cs), 98.1% for rubidium (Rb), and 99.6% for potassium (K), respectively. The thermal effect of a DPAL is theoretically smaller than that of a normal diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL). Additionally, generated heat of a DPAL can be removed by circulating the gases inside a sealed system. Therefore, the thermal management would be relatively simple for realization of a high-powered DPAL. In the meantime, DPALs combine the advantages of both DPSSLs and normal gas lasers but evade the disadvantages of them. Generally, the collisionally broadened cross sections of both the D1 and the D2 lines for a DPAL are much larger than those for the most conventional solid-state, fiber and gas lasers. Thus, DPALs provide an outstanding potentiality for realization of high-powered laser systems. It has been shown that a DPAL is now becoming one of the most promising candidates for simultaneously achieving good beam quality and high output power. With a lot of marvelous merits, a DPAL becomes one of the most hopeful high-powered laser sources of next generation.

  20. Powerful linearly-polarized high-order random fiber laser pumped by broadband amplified spontaneous emission source

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiangming; Zhou, Pu; Leng, Jinyong; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Hanwei

    2016-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been drawn to Random fiber lasers (RFLs) for their typical features of modeless, cavity-less and low coherence length. However, most previously reported high power RFLs employ narrowband fiber lasers as the pump source, thus inducing the self-pulsing transferring from pump source to output Stokes. In this contribution, linearly-polarized RFL pumped by broadband amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) is demonstrated and continuous-wave (CW) high order Stokes can be obtained.With 30.6 W pump injected into the half-opened cavity, 23.51 W the 2nd order Stokes centered at 1178 nm with a full width at half-maximum linewidth of 1.73 nm and polarization extinction ratio of about 25 dB can be obtained. The standard deviation and peak-vale value of the 2nd order Stokes light at maximal output power is just 0.47% and 4.10%, which indicates the good power stability. Significantly, the corresponding quantum efficiency of the 1st and 2nd order Stokes light is about 87% and 85%, and almost all pump photons are converted into Stokes photons. As far as we know, it is the highest power ever reported from linearly polarized RFL, and further power scaling is available in the case of more powerful pump source and optimization of system parameters. PMID:27725759