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Sample records for pure lipid bilayers

  1. Configurational entropies of lipids in pure and mixed bilayers from atomic-level and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Baron, Riccardo; de Vries, Alex H; Hünenberger, Philippe H; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2006-08-10

    Single-chain and single-fragment configurational entropies of lipid tails in hydrated lipid bilayers are evaluated from molecular dynamics simulations using the quasi-harmonic approximation. The entropy distribution along individual acyl tails is obtained and compared to that of corresponding hydrocarbon chains in the liquid phase. We consider pure dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and mixed dioleoylphosphatidylcholine/dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers. The systems are modeled at different levels of spatial resolution: In an atomic-level (AL) model all (heavy) atoms are explicitly simulated; in a coarse-grained (CG) model particles (beads) representing groups of covalently bound atoms are used, which map approximately four non-hydrogen atoms to one interaction site. Single-chain and single-fragment entropies and correlations between the motions of (single) acyl chains are compared. A good correspondence is found between the flexibility of the AL and CG models. The loss in configurational entropy due to the reduction in the number of degrees of freedom upon coarse-graining of the model is estimated. The CG model shows about 4 times faster convergence of the chain entropies than the more detailed AL model. Corrections to the quasi-harmonic entropy estimates were found to be small for the CG model. For the AL model, the correction due to mode anharmonicities is small, but the correction due to pairwise (supralinear) mode correlations is sizable.

  2. Immobilized lipid-bilayer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Loy, Douglas A.; Yamanaka, Stacey A.

    2000-01-01

    A method for preparing encapsulated lipid-bilayer materials in a silica matrix comprising preparing a silica sol, mixing a lipid-bilayer material in the silica sol and allowing the mixture to gel to form the encapsulated lipid-bilayer material. The mild processing conditions allow quantitative entrapment of pre-formed lipid-bilayer materials without modification to the material's spectral characteristics. The method allows for the immobilization of lipid membranes to surfaces. The encapsulated lipid-bilayer materials perform as sensitive optical sensors for the detection of analytes such as heavy metal ions and can be used as drug delivery systems and as separation devices.

  3. Planar bilayer lipid memebranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tien, H. Ti

    The planar bilayer lipid membrane, also known as lipid bilayer membrane, black lipid membrane or simply BLM(s), for short, has been investigated since its inception in 1960, the details of which have been described in a monograph published in 1974. This review is a report on the advances in the BLM research since that time. After a brief introduction, the first five sections consider various aspects of experimental methods, optical properties, thermodynamics of lipid bilayers, permeability, and electrical properties of BLMs. Section 7 deals with the use of BLM as energy transducer, particularly the transduction of light into electrical energy. Section 8, the longest portion of the paper, is devoted to modelling of biomembranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells, the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, the cristae membrane of mitochondria, the visual receptor membrane of the eye, and the nerve membrane. The concluding section points out that studies of BLMs facilitate the initial testing of working hypothses and may lead to a better choice of appropriate in vivo and reconstituted membrane experiments.

  4. The Influence of Non Polar and Polar Molecules in Mouse Motile Cells Membranes and Pure Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Valdez, Francisco J.; Forero-Quintero, Linda S.; Zapata-Morin, Patricio A.; Costas, Miguel; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Ruiz-Suárez, Jesús C.

    2013-01-01

    We report an experimental study of mouse sperm motility that shows chief aspects characteristic of neurons: the anesthetic (produced by tetracaine) and excitatory (produced by either caffeine or calcium) effects and their antagonic action. While tetracaine inhibits sperm motility and caffeine has an excitatory action, the combination of these two substances balance the effects, producing a motility quite similar to that of control cells. We also study the effects of these agents (anesthetic and excitatory) on the melting points of pure lipid liposomes constituted by 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Tetracaine induces a large fluidization of the membrane, shifting the liposomes melting transition temperature to much lower values. The effect of caffeine is null, but its addition to tetracaine-doped liposomes greatly screen the fluidization effect. A high calcium concentration stiffens pure lipid membranes and strongly reduces the effect of tetracaine. Molecular Dynamics Simulations are performed to further understand our experimental findings at the molecular level. We find a strong correlation between the effect of antagonic molecules that could explain how the mechanical properties suitable for normal cell functioning are affected and recovered. PMID:23565149

  5. The influence of non polar and polar molecules in mouse motile cells membranes and pure lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Valdez, Francisco J; Forero-Quintero, Linda S; Zapata-Morin, Patricio A; Costas, Miguel; Chavez-Reyes, Arturo; Ruiz-Suárez, Jesús C

    2013-01-01

    We report an experimental study of mouse sperm motility that shows chief aspects characteristic of neurons: the anesthetic (produced by tetracaine) and excitatory (produced by either caffeine or calcium) effects and their antagonic action. While tetracaine inhibits sperm motility and caffeine has an excitatory action, the combination of these two substances balance the effects, producing a motility quite similar to that of control cells. We also study the effects of these agents (anesthetic and excitatory) on the melting points of pure lipid liposomes constituted by 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Tetracaine induces a large fluidization of the membrane, shifting the liposomes melting transition temperature to much lower values. The effect of caffeine is null, but its addition to tetracaine-doped liposomes greatly screen the fluidization effect. A high calcium concentration stiffens pure lipid membranes and strongly reduces the effect of tetracaine. Molecular Dynamics Simulations are performed to further understand our experimental findings at the molecular level. We find a strong correlation between the effect of antagonic molecules that could explain how the mechanical properties suitable for normal cell functioning are affected and recovered.

  6. Nanoparticle-lipid bilayer interactions studied with lipid bilayer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bin; Smith, Tyler; Schmidt, Jacob J.

    2015-04-01

    The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which can provide insight into the nature of the particle-membrane interaction through variation of membrane and solution properties not possible with cell-based assays. However, the scope of these studies can be limited because of the low throughput characteristic of lipid bilayer platforms. We have recently described an easy to use, parallel lipid bilayer platform which we have used to electrically investigate the activity of 60 nm diameter amine and carboxyl modified polystyrene nanoparticles (NH2-NP and COOH-NP) with over 1000 lipid bilayers while varying lipid composition, bilayer charge, ionic strength, pH, voltage, serum, particle concentration, and particle charge. Our results confirm recent studies finding activity of NH2-NP but not COOH-NP. Detailed analysis shows that NH2-NP formed pores 0.3-2.3 nm in radius, dependent on bilayer and solution composition. These interactions appear to be electrostatic, as they are regulated by NH2-NP surface charge, solution ionic strength, and bilayer charge. The ability to rapidly measure a large number of nanoparticle and membrane parameters indicates strong potential of this bilayer array platform for additional nanoparticle bilayer studies.The widespread environmental presence and commercial use of nanoparticles have raised significant health concerns as a result of many in vitro and in vivo assays indicating toxicity of a wide range of nanoparticle species. Many of these assays have identified the ability of nanoparticles to damage cell membranes. These interactions can be studied in detail using artificial lipid bilayers, which

  7. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R.; Harroun, Thad A.; Katsaras, John

    2016-04-04

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown – at least in some bilayers – to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in the vicinity of the lipid–water interface. In this study we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies.

  8. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Marquardt, Drew; Kučerka, Norbert; Wassall, Stephen R.; ...

    2016-04-04

    It is well known that cholesterol modifies the physical properties of lipid bilayers. For example, the much studied liquid-ordered Lo phase contains rapidly diffusing lipids with their acyl chains in the all trans configuration, similar to gel phase bilayers. Moreover, the Lo phase is commonly associated with cholesterol-enriched lipid rafts, which are thought to serve as platforms for signaling proteins in the plasma membrane. Cholesterol's location in lipid bilayers has been studied extensively, and it has been shown – at least in some bilayers – to align differently from its canonical upright orientation, where its hydroxyl group is in themore » vicinity of the lipid–water interface. In this study we review recent works describing cholesterol's location in different model membrane systems with emphasis on results obtained from scattering, spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies.« less

  9. Lipid bilayers on nano-templates

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr; Artyukhin, Alexander B.; Bakajin, Olgica; Stoeve, Pieter

    2009-08-04

    A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

  10. Multiscale modeling of lipids and lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lyubartsev, Alexander P

    2005-12-01

    A multiscale modeling approach is applied for simulations of lipids and lipid assemblies on mesoscale. First, molecular dynamics simulation of initially disordered system of lipid molecules in water within all-atomic model was carried out. On the next stage, structural data obtained from the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation were used to build a coarse-grained (ten sites) lipid model, with effective interaction potentials computed by the inverse Monte Carlo method. Finally, several simulations of the coarse-grained model on longer length- and time-scale were performed, both within Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations: a periodical sample of lipid molecules ordered in bilayer, a free sheet of such bilayer without periodic boundary conditions, formation of vesicle from a plain membrane, process of self-assembly of lipids randomly dispersed in volume. It was shown that the coarse-grained model, developed exclusively from all-atomic simulation data, reproduces well all the basic features of lipids in water solution.

  11. Phase Behavior of Lipid Bilayers under Tension

    PubMed Central

    Uline, Mark J.; Schick, M.; Szleifer, Igal

    2012-01-01

    Given the proposed importance of membrane tension in regulating cellular functions, we explore the effects of a finite surface tension on phase equilibrium using a molecular theory that captures the quantitative structure of the phase diagram of the tensionless DPPC/DOPC/Cholesterol lipid bilayer. We find that an increase in the surface tension decreases the temperature of the transition from liquid to gel in a pure DPPC system by ∼1.0 K/(mN/m), and decreases the liquid-disordered to liquid-ordered transition at constant chemical potentials by approximately the same amount. Our results quantitatively isolate the role of tension in comparison to other thermodynamic factors, such as pressure, in determining the phase behavior of lipid bilayers. PMID:22325274

  12. Bilayer Edges Catalyze Supported Lipid Bilayer Formation

    PubMed Central

    Weirich, Kimberly L.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Fygenson, D. Kuchnir

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Supported lipid bilayers (SLB) are important for the study of membrane-based phenomena and as coatings for biosensors. Nevertheless, there is a fundamental lack of understanding of the process by which they form from vesicles in solution. We report insights into the mechanism of SLB formation by vesicle adsorption using temperature-controlled time-resolved fluorescence microscopy at low vesicle concentrations. First, lipid accumulates on the surface at a constant rate up to ∼0.8 of SLB coverage. Then, as patches of SLB nucleate and spread, the rate of accumulation increases. At a coverage of ∼1.5 × SLB, excess vesicles desorb as SLB patches rapidly coalesce into a continuous SLB. Variable surface fluorescence immediately before SLB patch formation argues against the existence of a critical vesicle density necessary for rupture. The accelerating rate of accumulation and the widespread, abrupt loss of vesicles coincide with the emergence and disappearance of patch edges. We conclude that SLB edges enhance vesicle adhesion to the surface and induce vesicle rupture, thus playing a key role in the formation of continuous SLB. PMID:20085721

  13. Phosphoinositides alter lipid bilayer properties

    PubMed Central

    Hobart, E. Ashley; Koeppe, Roger E.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), which constitutes ∼1% of the plasma membrane phospholipid, plays a key role in membrane-delimited signaling. PIP2 regulates structurally and functionally diverse membrane proteins, including voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, inwardly rectifying ion channels, transporters, and receptors. In some cases, the regulation is known to involve specific lipid–protein interactions, but the mechanisms by which PIP2 regulates many of its various targets remain to be fully elucidated. Because many PIP2 targets are membrane-spanning proteins, we explored whether the phosphoinositides might alter bilayer physical properties such as curvature and elasticity, which would alter the equilibrium between membrane protein conformational states—and thereby protein function. Taking advantage of the gramicidin A (gA) channels’ sensitivity to changes in lipid bilayer properties, we used gA-based fluorescence quenching and single-channel assays to examine the effects of long-chain PIP2s (brain PIP2, which is predominantly 1-stearyl-2-arachidonyl-PIP2, and dioleoyl-PIP2) on bilayer properties. When premixed with dioleoyl-phosphocholine at 2 mol %, both long-chain PIP2s produced similar changes in gA channel function (bilayer properties); when applied through the aqueous solution, however, brain PIP2 was a more potent modifier than dioleoyl-PIP2. Given the widespread use of short-chain dioctanoyl-phosphoinositides, we also examined the effects of diC8-phosphoinositol (PI), PI(4,5)P2, PI(3,5)P2, PI(3,4)P2, and PI(3,4,5)P3. The diC8 phosphoinositides, except for PI(3,5)P2, altered bilayer properties with potencies that decreased with increasing head group charge. Nonphosphoinositide diC8 phospholipids generally were more potent bilayer modifiers than the polyphosphoinositides. These results show that physiological increases or decreases in plasma membrane PIP2 levels, as a result of activation of PI kinases or phosphatases, are likely

  14. Polydopamine-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Nirasay, Souryvanh; Badia, Antonella; Leclair, Grégoire; Claverie, Jerome P.; Marcotte, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    We report the formation of lipid membranes supported by a soft polymeric cushion of polydopamine. First, 20 nm thick polydopamine films were formed on mica substrates. Atomic force microscopy imaging indicated that these films were also soft with a surface roughness of 2 nm under hydrated conditions. A zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer was then deposited on the polydopamine cushion by fusion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles. Polydopamine films preserved the lateral mobility of the phospholipids as shown by fluorescence microscopy recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Diffusion coefficients of ~5.9 and 7.2 µm2 s−1 were respectively determined for DMPC and DOPC at room temperature, values which are characteristic of lipids in a free standing bilayer system.

  15. Cholesterol perturbs lipid bilayers nonuniversally.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jianjun; Mills, Thalia T; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F

    2008-05-16

    Cholesterol is well known to modulate the physical properties of biomembranes. Using modern x-ray scattering methods, we have studied the effects of cholesterol on the bending modulus K(C), the thickness D(HH), and the orientational order parameter S(xray) of lipid bilayers. We find that the effects are different for at least three classes of phospholipids characterized by different numbers of saturated hydrocarbon chains. Most strikingly, cholesterol strongly increases K(C) when both chains of the phospholipid are fully saturated but not at all when there are two monounsaturated chains.

  16. Cholesterol Perturbs Lipid Bilayers Nonuniversally

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Jianjun; Mills, Thalia T.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Nagle, John F.

    2008-05-16

    Cholesterol is well known to modulate the physical properties of biomembranes. Using modern x-ray scattering methods, we have studied the effects of cholesterol on the bending modulus K{sub C}, the thickness D{sub HH}, and the orientational order parameter S{sub xray} of lipid bilayers. We find that the effects are different for at least three classes of phospholipids characterized by different numbers of saturated hydrocarbon chains. Most strikingly, cholesterol strongly increases K{sub C} when both chains of the phospholipid are fully saturated but not at all when there are two monounsaturated chains.

  17. Energy transfer in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Estep, T N; Thompson, T E

    1979-01-01

    The quenching of fluorescence due to energy transfer between a dilute, random array of donor and acceptor chromophores in lipid bilayer was measured and compared to theoretical expressions developed to predict the decrease in emission intensity under these circumstances. The observed intensity was found to be the same function of quencher concentration in both planar, multilamellar dispersions and small, spherical vesicles. The degree of quenching was accurately predicted by a simple relation derived in this paper, as well as a more complex equation previously developed by Tweet, et al. The results suggest that significant quenching may be observed even when the average donor-acceptor separation exceeds the Förster critical distance by severalfold. Application of these results to problems of current interest in membrane research are discussed. PMID:262415

  18. DNA nanotechnology: Bringing lipid bilayers into shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howorka, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Lipid bilayers form the thin and floppy membranes that define the boundary of compartments such as cells. Now, a method to control the shape and size of bilayers using DNA nanoscaffolds has been developed. Such designer materials advance synthetic biology and could find use in membrane research.

  19. Lipid mobility in supported lipid bilayers by single molecule tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohram, Maryam; Shi, Xiaojun; Smith, Adam

    2015-03-01

    Phospholipid bilayers are the main component of cell membranes and their interaction with biomolecules in their immediate environment is critical for cellular functions. These interactions include the binding of polycationic polymers to lipid bilayers which affects many cell membrane events. As an alternative method of studying live cell membranes, we assemble a supported lipid bilayer and investigate its binding with polycationic polymers in vitro by fluorescently labeling the molecules of the supported lipid bilayer and tracking their mobility. In this work, we use single molecule tracking total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) to study phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids with and without an adsorbed polycationic polymer, quaternized polyvinylpyridine (QPVP). Individual molecular trajectories are obtained from the experiment, and a Brownian diffusion model is used to determine diffusion coefficients through mean square displacements. Our results indicate a smaller diffusion coefficient for the supported lipid bilayers in the presence of QPVP in comparison to its absence, revealing that their binding causes a decrease in lateral mobility.

  20. Biotechnology Applications of Tethered Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Joshua A.; Knoll, Wolfgang; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2012-01-01

    The importance of cell membranes in biological systems has prompted the development of model membrane platforms that recapitulate fundamental aspects of membrane biology, especially the lipid bilayer environment. Tethered lipid bilayers represent one of the most promising classes of model membranes and are based on the immobilization of a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support that enables characterization by a wide range of surface-sensitive analytical techniques. Moreover, as the result of molecular engineering inspired by biology, tethered bilayers are increasingly able to mimic fundamental properties of natural cell membranes, including fluidity, electrical sealing and hosting transmembrane proteins. At the same time, new methods have been employed to improve the durability of tethered bilayers, with shelf-lives now reaching the order of weeks and months. Taken together, the capabilities of tethered lipid bilayers have opened the door to biotechnology applications in healthcare, environmental monitoring and energy storage. In this review, several examples of such applications are presented. Beyond the particulars of each example, the focus of this review is on the emerging design and characterization strategies that made these applications possible. By drawing connections between these strategies and promising research results, future opportunities for tethered lipid bilayers within the biotechnology field are discussed.

  1. Mechanics of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas R.

    All cells have membranes. The plasma membrane encapsulates the cell's interior, acting as a barrier against the outside world. In cells with nuclei (eukaryotic cells), membranes also form internal compartments (organelles) which carry out specialized tasks, such as protein modification and sorting in the case of the Golgi apparatus, and ATP production in the case of mitochondria. The main components of membranes are lipids and proteins. The proteins can be channels, carriers, receptors, catalysts, signaling molecules, or structural elements, and typically contribute a substantial fraction of the total membrane dry weight. The equilibrium properties of pure lipid membranes are relatively well-understood, and will be the main focus of this article. The framework of elasticity theory and statistical mechanics that we will develop will serve as the foundation for understanding biological phenomena such as the nonequilibrium behavior of membranes laden with ion pumps, the role of membrane elasticity in ion channel gating, and the dynamics of vesicle fission and fusion. Understanding the mechanics of lipid membranes is also important for drug encapsulation and delivery.

  2. Analysis of Striped Nanoparticle Complexation with Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lehn, Reid; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2011-03-01

    A recent study has shown that a new class of synthetic ligand-protected gold nanoparticles is able to penetrate the cell membrane without inducing poration or endocytosis. Furthermore, these nanoparticles fuse with pure lipid bilayers while retaining high solubility in biological conditions. This complexation behavior is related to the morphology of the ligand shell, which is composed of alternating ribbon-like domains of linear alkanes with either hydrophobic or charged end-groups. Spontaneous complexation is surprising given the large free energy barrier for moving charges through the hydrophobic bilayer core. In this work, we provide a thermodynamic analysis of bilayer complexation supported by multiscale simulations. We show that the key to bilayer complexation is the rearrangement of ligands by bending to maximize hydrophobic matching and minimize charge exposure. We believe this result will improve our understanding of transmembrane proteins and enable the design of nanoparticles for drug delivery and biosensing applications.

  3. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  4. Lipid domains in supported lipid bilayer for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Chen; Blanchette, Craig D; Ratto, Timothy V; Longo, Marjorie L

    2007-01-01

    Phase-separated supported lipid bilayers have been widely used to study the phase behavior of multicomponent lipid mixtures. One of the primary advantages of using supported lipid bilayers is that the two-dimensional platform of this model membrane system readily allows lipid-phase separation to be characterized by high-resolution imaging techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, when supported lipid bilayers have been functionalized with a specific ligand, protein-membrane interactions can also be imaged and characterized through AFM. It has been recently demonstrated that when the technique of vesicle fusion is used to prepare supported lipid bilayers, the thermal history of the vesicles before deposition and the supported lipid bilayers after formation will have significant effects on the final phase-separated domain structures. In this chapter, three methods of vesicle preparations as well as three deposition conditions will be presented. Also, the techniques and strategies of using AFM to image multicomponent phase-separated supported lipid bilayers and protein binding will be discussed.

  5. Lipid Bilayers Covalently Anchored to Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Dayani, Yasaman; Malmstadt, Noah

    2012-01-01

    The unique physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes make them an exciting material for applications in various fields such as bioelectronics and biosensing. Due to the poor water solubility of carbon nanotubes, functionalization for such applications has been a challenge. Of particular need are functionalization methods for integrating carbon nanotubes with biomolecules and constructing novel hybrid nanostructures for bionanoelectronic applications. We present a novel method for the fabrication of dispersible, biocompatible carbon nanotube-based materials. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with primary amine-bearing phospholipids in a carbodiimide-activated reaction. These modified carbon nanotubes have good dispersibility in nonpolar solvents. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows peaks attributable to the formation of amide bonds between lipids and the nanotube surface. Simple sonication of lipid-modified nanotubes with other lipid molecules leads to the formation of a uniform lipid bilayer coating the nanotubes. These bilayer-coated nanotubes are highly dispersible and stable in aqueous solution. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows labeled lipids on the surface of bilayer-modified nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows the morphology of dispersed bilayer-coated MWCNTs. Fluorescence quenching of lipid-coated MWCNTs confirms the bilayer configuration of the lipids on the nanotube surface and fluorescence anisotropy measurements show that the bilayer is fluid above the gel-to-liquid transition temperature. The membrane protein α-hemolysin spontaneously inserts into the MWCNT-supported bilayer, confirming the biomimetic membrane structure. These biomimetic nanostructures are a promising platform for the integration of carbon nanotube-based materials with biomolecules. PMID:22568448

  6. Lipid bilayers covalently anchored to carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Dayani, Yasaman; Malmstadt, Noah

    2012-05-29

    The unique physical and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes make them an exciting material for applications in various fields such as bioelectronics and biosensing. Due to the poor water solubility of carbon nanotubes, functionalization for such applications has been a challenge. Of particular need are functionalization methods for integrating carbon nanotubes with biomolecules and constructing novel hybrid nanostructures for bionanoelectronic applications. We present a novel method for the fabrication of dispersible, biocompatible carbon nanotube-based materials. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are covalently modified with primary amine-bearing phospholipids in a carbodiimide-activated reaction. These modified carbon nanotubes have good dispersibility in nonpolar solvents. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy shows peaks attributable to the formation of amide bonds between lipids and the nanotube surface. Simple sonication of lipid-modified nanotubes with other lipid molecules leads to the formation of a uniform lipid bilayer coating the nanotubes. These bilayer-coated nanotubes are highly dispersible and stable in aqueous solution. Confocal fluorescence microscopy shows labeled lipids on the surface of bilayer-modified nanotubes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows the morphology of dispersed bilayer-coated MWCNTs. Fluorescence quenching of lipid-coated MWCNTs confirms the bilayer configuration of the lipids on the nanotube surface, and fluorescence anisotropy measurements show that the bilayer is fluid above the gel-to-liquid transition temperature. The membrane protein α-hemolysin spontaneously inserts into the MWCNT-supported bilayer, confirming the biomimetic membrane structure. These biomimetic nanostructures are a promising platform for the integration of carbon nanotube-based materials with biomolecules.

  7. Supported lipid bilayer/carbon nanotube hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.; Craighead, Harold G.; McEuen, Paul L.

    2007-03-01

    Carbon nanotube transistors combine molecular-scale dimensions with excellent electronic properties, offering unique opportunities for chemical and biological sensing. Here, we form supported lipid bilayers over single-walled carbon nanotube transistors. We first study the physical properties of the nanotube/supported lipid bilayer structure using fluorescence techniques. Whereas lipid molecules can diffuse freely across the nanotube, a membrane-bound protein (tetanus toxin) sees the nanotube as a barrier. Moreover, the size of the barrier depends on the diameter of the nanotube-with larger nanotubes presenting bigger obstacles to diffusion. We then demonstrate detection of protein binding (streptavidin) to the supported lipid bilayer using the nanotube transistor as a charge sensor. This system can be used as a platform to examine the interactions of single molecules with carbon nanotubes and has many potential applications for the study of molecular recognition and other biological processes occurring at cell membranes.

  8. Method of fabricating lipid bilayer membranes on solid supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Glenn, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support. With this method, a solution of lipid vesicles is first deposited on the solid support. Next, the lipid vesicles are destabilized by adding an amphipathic peptide solution to the lipid vesicle solution. This destabilization leads to production of a planar lipid bilayer on the solid support. The present invention also provides a supported planar lipid bilayer, where the planar lipid bilayer is made of naturally occurring lipids and the solid support is made of unmodified gold or titanium oxide. Preferably, the supported planar lipid bilayer is continuous. The planar lipid bilayer may be made of any naturally occurring lipid or mixture of lipids, including, but not limited to phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinsitol, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin.

  9. Pure Protein Bilayers and Vesicles from Native Fungal Hydrophobins.

    PubMed

    Hähl, Hendrik; Vargas, Jose Nabor; Griffo, Alessandra; Laaksonen, Päivi; Szilvay, Géza; Lienemann, Michael; Jacobs, Karin; Seemann, Ralf; Fleury, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-01-01

    Pure protein bilayers and vesicles are formed using the native, fungal hydrophobin HFBI. Bilayers with hydrophobic (red) and hydrophilic (blue) core are produced and, depending on the type of core, vesicles in water, oily media, and even in air can be created using microfluidic jetting. Vesicles in water are even able to incorporate functional gramicidin A pores. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cholera toxin interactions with lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, M T; Tosteson, D C; Rubnitz, J

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments described in this paper was to assess the binding of cholera toxin to bilayers containing its receptor, the monosialoganglioside, GMl. The assay was based on the fact that GMl confers on the bilayer a negative surface charge. The magnitude of this surface charge was estimated by measuring the electrical conductance (G) of the bilayers exposed to nonactin-K+ under conditions where G is directly proportional to the potassium concentration in the aqueous solutions immediatey adjacent to the membrane surface. When bilayers were formed from mixtures of GMl and glycerolmonooleate (GMO), it was found that the molar ratio of the lipids in the bilayer was the same as that in the membrane forming solution. It was further found that cholera toxin or the binding subunit of the toxin (choleragenoid) bind to GMO bilayers containing GMl (but not to GMO bilayers containing phosphatidyl serine or disialoganglioside GDla). The value of the apparent dissociation constant for the binding of choleragen to its receptor was found to be 10(-11) M, comparable to values found in intact cells.

  11. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-10-07

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic.

  12. Viscoelastic deformation of lipid bilayer vesicles†

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Sankhagowit, Shalene; Biswas, Roshni; Wu, Shuyang; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid bilayers form the boundaries of the cell and its organelles. Many physiological processes, such as cell movement and division, involve bending and folding of the bilayer at high curvatures. Currently, bending of the bilayer is treated as an elastic deformation, such that its stress-strain response is independent of the rate at which bending strain is applied. We present here the first direct measurement of viscoelastic response in a lipid bilayer vesicle. We used a dual-beam optical trap (DBOT) to stretch 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). Upon application of a step optical force, the vesicle membrane deforms in two regimes: a fast, instantaneous area increase, followed by a much slower stretching to an eventual plateau deformation. From measurements of dozens of GUVs, the average time constant of the slower stretching response was 0.225 ± 0.033 s (standard deviation, SD). Increasing the fluid viscosity did not affect the observed time constant. We performed a set of experiments to rule out heating by laser absorption as a cause of the transient behavior. Thus, we demonstrate here that the bending deformation of lipid bilayer membranes should be treated as viscoelastic. PMID:26268612

  13. Supported Lipid Bilayer/Carbon Nanotube Hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinjian; Moran-Mirabal, Jose; Craighead, Harold; McEuen, Paul

    2007-03-01

    We form supported lipid bilayers on single-walled carbon nanotubes and use this hybrid structure to probe the properties of lipid membranes and their functional constituents. We first demonstrate membrane continuity and lipid diffusion over the nanotube. A membrane-bound tetanus toxin protein, on the other hand, sees the nanotube as a diffusion barrier whose strength depends on the diameter of the nanotube. Finally, we present results on the electrical detection of specific binding of streptavidin to biotinylated lipids with nanotube field effect transistors. Possible techniques to extract dynamic information about the protein binding events will also be discussed.

  14. Ionic transport in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Bordi, F; Cametti, C; Naglieri, A

    1998-01-01

    The current-voltage relationships of model bilayer membranes have been measured in various phospholipid systems, under the influence of both a gradient of potential and an ionic concentration, in order to describe the ion translocation through hydrated transient defects (water channels) across the bilayer formed because of lipid structure fluctuations and induced by temperature. The results have been analyzed in the light of a statistical rate theory for the transport process across a lipid bilayer, recently proposed by Skinner et al. (1993). In order to take into account the observed I-V curves and in particular the deviation from an ohmic behavior observed at high potential values, the original model has been modified, and a new version has been proposed by introducing an additional kinetic process. In this way, a very good agreement with the experimental values has been obtained for all of the systems we have investigated (dimyristoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine bilayers and mixed systems composed by dimyristoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine mixtures and dimyristoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine/phosphatidic acid dipalmitoyl mixtures). The rate constants governing the reactions at the bilayer interfaces have been evaluated for K+ and Cl- ions, as a function of temperature, from 5 to 35 degrees C and bulk ionic concentrations from 0.02 to 0.2 M. Finally, a comparison between the original model of Skinner and the modified version is presented, and the advantages of this new formulation are briefly discussed. PMID:9512032

  15. Finite element modeling of lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Feng; Klug, William S.

    2006-12-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented for the study of biological membranes composed of lipid bilayers based on the finite element method. The classic model for these membranes employs a two-dimensional-fluid-like elastic constitutive law which is sensitive to curvature, and subjects vesicles to physically imposed constraints on surface area and volume. This model is implemented numerically via the use of C1-conforming triangular Loop subdivision finite elements. The validity of the framework is tested by computing equilibrium shapes from previously-determined axisymmetric shape-phase diagram of lipid bilayer vesicles with homogeneous material properties. Some of the benefits and challenges of finite element modeling of lipid bilayer systems are discussed, and it is indicated how this framework is natural for future investigation of biologically realistic bilayer structures involving nonaxisymmetric geometries, binding and adhesive interactions, heterogeneous mechanical properties, cytoskeletal interactions, and complex loading arrangements. These biologically relevant features have important consequences for the shape mechanics of nonidealized vesicles and cells, and their study requires not simply advances in theory, but also advances in numerical simulation techniques, such as those presented here.

  16. Diffusion in Single Supported Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, C. L.; Trapp, M.; Rheinstädter, M. C.

    2011-03-01

    Despite their potential relevance for the development of functionalized surfaces and biosensors, the study of single supported membranes using neutron scattering has been limited by the challenge of obtaining relevant dynamic information from a sample with minimal material. Using state of the art neutron instrumentation we have, for the first time, modeled lipid diffusion in single supported lipid bilayers. While we find that the diffusion coefficient for the single bilayer system is comparable to a multi-lamellar lipid system, the molecular mechanism for lipid motion in the single bilayer is a continuous diffusion process with no sign of the flow-like ballistic motion reported in the stacked membrane system. In the future, these membranes will be used to hold and align proteins, mimicking physiological conditions enabling the study of protein structure, function and interactions in relevant and highly topical membrane/protein systems with minimal sample material. C.L. Armstrong, M.D. Kaye, M. Zamponi, E. Mamontov, M. Tyagi, T. Jenkins and M.C. Rheinstädter, Soft Matter Communication, 2010, Advance Article, DOI: 10.1039/C0SM00637H

  17. Lipid bilayer deposition and patterning via air bubble collapse.

    PubMed

    Mager, Morgan D; Melosh, Nicholas A

    2007-08-28

    We report a new method for forming patterned lipid bilayers on solid substrates. In bubble collapse deposition (BCD), an air bubble is first "inked" with a monolayer of phospholipid molecules and then touched to the surface of a thermally oxidized silicon wafer and the air is slowly withdrawn. As the bubble shrinks, the lipid monolayer pressure increases. Once the monolayer exceeds the collapse pressure, it folds back on itself, depositing a stable lipid bilayer on the surface. These bilayer disks have lateral diffusion coefficients consistent with high quality supported bilayers. By sequentially depositing bilayers in overlapping areas, fluid connections between bilayers of different compositions are formed. Performing vesicle rupture on the open substrate surrounding this bilayer patch results in a fluid but spatially isolated bilayer. Very little intermixing was observed between the vesicle rupture and bubble-deposited bilayers.

  18. Lipid Bilayers: Clusters, Domains and Phases

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, David G.; Feigenson, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss the complex mixing behavior of plasma membrane lipids. To do so, we first introduce the plasma membrane and membrane mixtures often used to model its complexity. We then discuss the nature of lipid phase behavior in bilayers and the distinction between these phases and other manifestations of nonrandom mixing found in one-phase mixtures, such as clusters, micelles, and microemulsions. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of Gibbs phase diagrams to the study of increasingly complex model membrane systems, with a focus on phase coexistence, morphology and their implications for the cell plasma membrane. PMID:25658342

  19. Engineering Lipid Bilayer Membranes for Protein Studies

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Shuja; Dosoky, Noura Sayed; Williams, John Dalton

    2013-01-01

    Lipid membranes regulate the flow of nutrients and communication signaling between cells and protect the sub-cellular structures. Recent attempts to fabricate artificial systems using nanostructures that mimic the physiological properties of natural lipid bilayer membranes (LBM) fused with transmembrane proteins have helped demonstrate the importance of temperature, pH, ionic strength, adsorption behavior, conformational reorientation and surface density in cellular membranes which all affect the incorporation of proteins on solid surfaces. Much of this work is performed on artificial templates made of polymer sponges or porous materials based on alumina, mica, and porous silicon (PSi) surfaces. For example, porous silicon materials have high biocompatibility, biodegradability, and photoluminescence, which allow them to be used both as a support structure for lipid bilayers or a template to measure the electrochemical functionality of living cells grown over the surface as in vivo. The variety of these media, coupled with the complex physiological conditions present in living systems, warrant a summary and prospectus detailing which artificial systems provide the most promise for different biological conditions. This study summarizes the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data on artificial biological membranes that are closely matched with previously published biological systems using both black lipid membrane and patch clamp techniques. PMID:24185908

  20. Investigating Hydrophilic Pores in Model Lipid Bilayers Using Molecular Simulations: Correlating Bilayer Properties with Pore-Formation Thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar; Patel, Sandeep

    2015-06-23

    Cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides show a remarkable ability to translocate across physiological membranes. Along with factors such as electric-potential-induced perturbations of membrane structure and surface tension effects, experiments invoke porelike membrane configurations during the solute transfer process into vesicles and cells. The initiation and formation of pores are associated with a nontrivial free-energy cost, thus necessitating a consideration of the factors associated with pore formation and the attendant free energies. Because of experimental and modeling challenges related to the long time scales of the translocation process, we use umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations with a lipid-density-based order parameter to investigate membrane-pore-formation free energy employing Martini coarse-grained models. We investigate structure and thermodynamic features of the pore in 18 lipids spanning a range of headgroups, charge states, acyl chain lengths, and saturation. We probe the dependence of pore-formation barriers on the area per lipid, lipid bilayer thickness, and membrane bending rigidities in three different lipid classes. The pore-formation free energy in pure bilayers and peptide translocating scenarios are significantly coupled with bilayer thickness. Thicker bilayers require more reversible work to create pores. The pore-formation free energy is higher in peptide-lipid systems than in peptide-free lipid systems due to penalties to maintain the solvation of charged hydrophilic solutes within the membrane environment.

  1. Investigating Hydrophilic Pores in Model Lipid Bilayers using Molecular Simulations: Correlating Bilayer Properties with Pore Formation Thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuan; Sinha, Sudipta Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides show remarkable ability to translocate across physiological membranes. Along with factors such as electric potential induced-perturbations of membrane structure and surface tension effects, experiments invoke pore-like membrane configurations during the solute transfer process into vesicles and cells. The initiation and formation of pores are associated with a non-trivial free energy cost, thus necessitating consideration of the factors associated with pore formation and attendant free energetics. Due to experimental and modeling challenges related to the long timescales of the translocation process, we use umbrella-sampling molecular dynamics simulations with a lipid-density based order parameter to investigate membrane pore-formation free energy employing Martini coarse-grained models. We investigate structure and thermodynamic features of the pore in 18 lipids spanning a range of head-groups, charge states, acyl chain lengths and saturation. We probe the dependence of pore-formation barriers on area per lipid, lipid bilayer thickness, membrane bending rigidities in three different lipid classes. The pore formation free energy in pure bilayers and peptide translocating scenarios are significantly coupled with bilayer thickness. Thicker bilayers require more reversible work to create pores. Pore formation free energy is higher in peptide-lipid systems relative to the peptide-free lipid systems due to penalties to maintain solvation of charged hydrophilic solutes within the membrane environment. PMID:25614183

  2. Functional One-Dimensional Lipid Bilayers on Carbon Nanotube Templates

    SciTech Connect

    Artyukhin, A; Shestakov, A; Harper, J; Bakajin, O; Stroeve, P; Noy, A

    2004-07-23

    We present one-dimensional (1-D) lipid bilayer structures that integrate carbon nanotubes with a key biological environment-phospholipid membrane. Our structures consist of lipid bilayers wrapped around carbon nanotubes modified with a hydrophilic polymer cushion layer. Despite high bilayer curvature, the lipid membrane maintains its fluidity and can sustain repeated damage-recovery cycles. We also present the first evidence of spontaneous insertion of pore-forming proteins into 1-D lipid bilayers. These structures could lead to the development of new classes of biosensors and bioelectronic devices.

  3. Liquid immiscibility in model bilayer lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veatch, Sarah L.

    There is growing evidence that cell plasma membranes are laterally organized into "raft" regions in which particular lipids and proteins are concentrated. These domains have sub-micron dimensions and have been implicated in vital cell functions. Similar liquid domains are observed in model bilayer membrane mixtures that mimick cellular lipid compositions. In model membranes, domains can be large (microns) and can readily form in the absence of proteins. This thesis presents studies of liquid immiscibility in model membrane systems using two experimental methods. By fluorescence microscopy, this thesis documents that miscibility transitions occur in a wide variety of ternary lipid mixtures containing high melting temperature (saturated) lipids, low melting temperature (usually unsaturated) lipids, and cholesterol. I have constructed detailed miscibility phase diagrams for three separate ternary lipid mixtures (DOPC/DPPC/Chol, DOPC/PSM/Chol, and POPC/PSM/Chol). Phase separation is also observed in membranes of lipids extracted from human erythrocytes. NMR experiments probe lipid order and verify the coexistence of a saturated lipid and cholesterol rich liquid ordered (Lo) phase with a more disordered, unsaturated lipid rich liquid crystalline (Lalpha) phase at low temperatures. These experiments also find multiple thermodynamic transitions and lipid organization on different length-scales. This complexity is revealed because fluorescence microscopy and NMR probe lipid order at different length-scales (>1mum vs. ˜100nm). NMR detects small domains (˜80nm) at temperatures just below the miscibility transition, even though micron-scale domains are observed by fluorescent microscopy. NMR does detect large-scale ("100nm) demixing, but at a lower temperature. In addition, it has long been known that >10nm length-scale structure is present in many lipid mixtures containing cholesterol and at least one additional lipid species, though it is shown here that only a subset of

  4. Self-assembled lipid bilayer materials

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Waggoner, Tina A.; Last, Julie A.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is a self-assembling material comprised of stacks of lipid bilayers formed in a columnar structure, where the assembly process is mediated and regulated by chemical recognition events. The material, through the chemical recognition interactions, has a self-regulating system that corrects the radial size of the assembly creating a uniform diameter throughout most of the structure. The materials form and are stable in aqueous solution. These materials are useful as structural elements for the architecture of materials and components in nanotechnology, efficient light harvesting systems for optical sensing, chemical processing centers, and drug delivery vehicles.

  5. Lipid bilayers suspended on microfabricated supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogier, Simon D.; Bushby, Richard J.; Cheng, Yaling; Cox, Tim I.; Evans, Stephen D.; Knowles, Peter F.; Miles, Robert E.; Pattison, Ian

    2001-03-01

    The plasma membrane, that exists as part of many animal and plant cells, is a regulator for the transport of ions and small molecules across cell boundaries. Two main components involved are the phospholipid bilayer and the transport proteins. This paper details the construction of a micromachined support for bilayers (MSB) as a first step towards the development of highly selective and highly sensitive ion-channel based biosensors. The device consists of a ~100 micrometer hole in a polymeric support above a cavity that can hold ~25 nL of electrolyte. Electrodes attached to the structure allow the resistance of the membranes to be measured using d.c. conductivity. The MSB is made in two halves, using SU8 ultra-thick resist, which are subsequently bonded together to make the final structure. A layer of gold, surrounding the aperture, enables self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols to be used to make the polymeric structure biocompatible. Lipid membranes have been formed over these holes with resistances comparable with those of natural membranes >10 MOhmcm^2. The ion-channel gramicidin has successfully been incorporated into the bilayer and its activity monitored. It is proposed that this type of device could be used not only for studying membrane transport phenomena but also as part of an ion-channel based biosensor.

  6. A Steroid in a Lipid Bilayer: Localization, Orientation, and Energetics

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, Ranjit; Biggin, Philip C.

    2008-01-01

    Steroid hormones are known to freely partition into lipid bilayers. As a case study, we investigated the behavior of the steroid hormone cortisone in a model lipid bilayer. First, we looked at energy barriers involved in the partitioning of a single molecule into a bilayer using umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations. A rather wide well of −4.5 kcal/mol was observed in the interfacial region between the lipid headgroup and tailgroup. Next, using two unconstrained molecular dynamics simulations with cortisone initially positioned at distinct locations within a bilayer, we studied the preferred location and orientation of the molecule. Finally, we observed how cortisone molecules could spontaneously insert and localize in a bilayer from bulk solution. The three independent approaches produced a converged picture of how cortisone behaves in a model lipid bilayer. PMID:18689457

  7. Lipid Bilayer-Integrated Optoelectronic Tweezers for Nanoparticle Manipulations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Lipid Bilayer -Integrated Optoelectronic Tweezers for Nanoparticle Manipulations Sadao Ota,† Sheng Wang,† Yuan Wang,† Xiaobo Yin,† and Xiang Zhang...undesired ionic convections, or irreversible particle immobilization on surfaces. We report here the first demonstration of a lipid bilayer ... bilayer membrane with a ∼5 nm thickness supported by a photoconductive electrode to confine the diffusion of chemically tethered nanoparticles in a

  8. Bilayer Deformation, Pores, and Micellation Induced by Oxidized Lipids.

    PubMed

    Boonnoy, Phansiri; Jarerattanachat, Viwan; Karttunen, Mikko; Wong-Ekkabut, Jirasak

    2015-12-17

    The influence of different oxidized lipids on lipid bilayers was investigated with 16 individual 1 μs atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Binary mixtures of lipid bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PLPC) and its peroxide and aldehyde products were performed at different concentrations. In addition, an asymmetrical short chain lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-decanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (PDPC), was used to compare the effects of polar/apolar groups in the lipid tail on lipid bilayer. Although water defects occurred with both aldehyde and peroxide lipids, full pore formation was observed only for aldehyde lipids. At medium concentrations the pores were stable. At higher concentrations, however, the pores became unstable and micellation occurred. Data analysis shows that aldehyde lipids' propensity for pore formation is due to their shorter and highly mobile tail. The highly polar peroxide lipids are stabilized by strong hydrogen bonds with interfacial water.

  9. Experimental and theoretical studies of emodin interacting with a lipid bilayer of DMPC.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Antonio R; Duarte, Evandro L; Stassen, Hubert; Lamy, M Teresa; Coutinho, Kaline

    2017-09-22

    Emodin is one of the most abundant anthraquinone derivatives found in nature. It is the active principle of some traditional herbal medicines with known biological activities. In this work, we combined experimental and theoretical studies to reveal information about location, orientation, interaction and perturbing effects of Emodin on lipid bilayers, where we have taken into account the neutral form of the Emodin (EMH) and its anionic/deprotonated form (EM(-)). Using both UV/Visible spectrophotometric techniques and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we showed that both EMH and EM(-) are located in a lipid membrane. Additionally, using MD simulations, we revealed that both forms of Emodin are very close to glycerol groups of the lipid molecules, with the EMH inserted more deeply into the bilayer and more disoriented relative to the normal of the membrane when compared with the EM(-), which is more exposed to interfacial water. Analysis of several structural properties of acyl chains of the lipids in a hydrated pure DMPC bilayer and in the presence of Emodin revealed that both EMH and EM(-) affect the lipid bilayer, resulting in a remarkable disorder of the bilayer in the vicinity of the Emodin. However, the disorder caused by EMH is weaker than that caused by EM(-). Our results suggest that these disorders caused by Emodin might lead to distinct effects on lipid bilayers including its disruption which are reported in the literature.

  10. Supported lipid bilayer repair mediated by AH peptide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Chul; Gunnarsson, Anders; Tabaei, Seyed R; Höök, Fredrik; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-28

    The adsorption and fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles on silica-based substrates such as glass is a common method used to fabricate supported lipid bilayers. Successful bilayer formation depends on a number of experimental conditions as well as on the quality of the vesicle preparation. Inevitably, a small fraction of unruptured vesicles always remains in a supported bilayer, and this kind of defect can have devastating influences on the morphological and electrical properties of the supported bilayer when used as a biosensing platform. In this paper, a simple method is reported to improve the completeness of supported bilayers by adding a vesicle rupturing peptide as a final step in the fabrication process. Peptide treatment reduces the fraction of unruptured vesicles to less than 1%, as determined by epifluorescence microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation experiments. This step can easily be incorporated into existing procedures for preparing high-quality supported lipid bilayers.

  11. Asymmetric heat transfer from nanoparticles in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potdar, Dipti; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-12-01

    Here, we use molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the heat transfer properties of lipid bilayer - gold nanoparticle systems in which the nanoparticle acts as a heat source. The focus is on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers and thiolated alcohol and alkyl functionalized nanoparticles as prototype hydrophilic and hydrophobic nanoparticles. We find hydrophilic nanoparticles which are partly in contact with the surrounding water environment are more efficient in transferring heat to the system than hydrophobic ones which reside surrounded by the membrane. This is because of the hydrogen bonding capability of the hydroxy pentanethiol and the more efficient heat conductivity through water than the lipid bilayer. Additionally, we find the heat conductance is strongly asymmetric and has a discontinuity between the bilayer leaflets. In total, the findings provide understanding on heat transport from localized heat sources in lipid bilayers and could bear significance, e.g., in engineering and controlling photoactivated triggering of liposomal systems.

  12. Enhanced stability of freestanding lipid bilayer and its stability criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Dae-Woong; Jang, Hyunwoo; Choi, Siyoung Q.; Choi, Myung Chul

    2016-12-01

    We present a new strategy to dramatically enhance the stability of freestanding lipid bilayers. We found that an addition of a water in oil emulsion stabilizer, SPAN 80 to a solvent phase guarantees nearly millimeter-scale stable freestanding lipid bilayers. The water permeability, bilayer area, contact angle, and interfacial tension were measured as a function of time and SPAN 80-to-lipid weight ratio (ΦSPAN 80) with several different solvents. Surprisingly, the SPAN 80, instead of remaining in the bilayer, was moved out of the bilayer during the bilayer formation. Also we studied the effect of solvent on freestanding bilayer formation, and found that squalene was the only solvent that was not incorporated into the bilayer. The regime of stable bilayer formation was experimentally determined to be 3/1 < ΦSPAN 80 < 15/1, and we suggest general stability criteria for bilayer formation. This technique and the suggested stability criteria can be potentially helpful to many model membrane-based researches in life sciences, physical sciences and biomedical engineering fields.

  13. Enhanced stability of freestanding lipid bilayer and its stability criteria

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Dae-Woong; Jang, Hyunwoo; Choi, Siyoung Q.; Choi, Myung Chul

    2016-01-01

    We present a new strategy to dramatically enhance the stability of freestanding lipid bilayers. We found that an addition of a water in oil emulsion stabilizer, SPAN 80 to a solvent phase guarantees nearly millimeter-scale stable freestanding lipid bilayers. The water permeability, bilayer area, contact angle, and interfacial tension were measured as a function of time and SPAN 80-to-lipid weight ratio (ΦSPAN 80) with several different solvents. Surprisingly, the SPAN 80, instead of remaining in the bilayer, was moved out of the bilayer during the bilayer formation. Also we studied the effect of solvent on freestanding bilayer formation, and found that squalene was the only solvent that was not incorporated into the bilayer. The regime of stable bilayer formation was experimentally determined to be 3/1 < ΦSPAN 80 < 15/1, and we suggest general stability criteria for bilayer formation. This technique and the suggested stability criteria can be potentially helpful to many model membrane-based researches in life sciences, physical sciences and biomedical engineering fields. PMID:27982049

  14. Pseudo painting/air bubble technique for planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Braun, Christian J; Baer, Tom; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2014-08-15

    A functional reconstitution of channel proteins in planar lipid bilayers is still very versatile to study structure/function correlates under well-defined conditions at the single protein level. In this study we present an improved planar lipid bilayer technique in which an air bubble is used for stabilizing unstable/leaky bilayers or for removing excess lipids. The bubble can also be used as a tool for reducing the number of channels in the bilayer with the goal of having only one active channel in the membrane. Stable planar lipid bilayers are formed within seconds to minutes. In the case of multiple channel insertion the air bubble can be used to reduce the number of channels within minutes. The simple improvement of the classical folding technique guarantees a very fast creation of stable bilayers even with difficult phospholipids in a conventional vertical bilayer set-up; it requires no modifications of the existing set-up. This technique is very easy to handle and guarantees successful single channel recordings for any kind of planar lipid bilayer experiment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Examination of Ion Channel Protein Orientation in Supported Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Youichi; Sumitomo, Koji; Tanaka, Aya; Kasai, Nahoko; Torimitsu, Keiichi

    2011-10-01

    We investigated techniques for regulating the orientation of ion channel-type membrane proteins reconstituted in lipid bilayers. Free ion channel proteins aligned their long axis parallel to the substrate. In contrast, immunochemical and atomic force microscopy images revealed that ion channels reconstituted in supported lipid bilayers oriented upward, with their long axis perpendicular to the substrate. Our data demonstrates that the reconstitution of ion channels into planar lipid bilayers by rupturing small unilamellar proteoliposomes is a promising way of aligning ion channels upward in a membrane and of obtaining ion channels with controlled functions.

  16. Structural Dynamics Of The S4 Voltage-Sensor Helix In Lipid Bilayers Lacking Lipid Phosphates

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Magnus; Freites, J. Alfredo; Tobias, Douglas J.; White, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-dependent K+ (Kv) channels require lipid phosphates for functioning. The S4 helix, which carries the gating charges in the voltage-sensing domain (VSD), inserts into membranes while being stabilized by a protein-lipid interface in which lipid phosphates play an essential role. To examine the physical basis of the protein-lipid interface in the absence of lipid phosphates, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a KvAP S4 variant (S4mut) in bilayers with and without lipid phosphates. We find that in dioleoyltrimethylammoniumpropane (DOTAP) bilayers lacking lipid phosphates, the gating charges are solvated by anionic counterions and, hence, lack the bilayer support provided by phosphate-containing palmitoyloleoylglycerophosphocholine (POPC) bilayers. The result is a water-permeable bilayer with a significantly smaller deformations around the peptide. Together, these results provide an explanation for the non-functionality of VSDs in terms of a destabilizing protein-lipid interface. PMID:21692541

  17. Thermodynamic study of benzocaine insertion into different lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Cascales, J J López; Costa, S D Oliveira; Porasso, R D

    2011-10-07

    Despite the general consensus concerning the role played by sodium channels in the molecular mechanism of local anesthetics, the potency of anaesthetic drugs also seems to be related with their solubility in lipid bilayers. In this respect, this work represents a thermodynamic study of benzocaine insertion into lipid bilayers of different compositions by means of molecular dynamics simulation. Thus, the free energy profiles associated with benzocaine insertion into symmetric lipid bilayers composed of different proportions of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine were studied. From the simulation results, a maximum in the free energy (ΔG) profile was measured in the region of the lipid/solution interface. This free energy barrier appears to be very much dependent on the lipid composition of the membrane. On the other hand, the minimum free energy (ΔG) within the bilayer remained almost independent of the lipid composition of the bilayer. By repeating the study at different temperatures, it was seen how the spontaneity of benzocaine insertion into the lipid bilayer is due to an increase in the entropy associated with the process. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Lipid Bilayers and Tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirst, Linda S.; Yuan, Jing; Pramudya, Yohannes; Nguyen, Lam T.

    2007-03-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are found in a variety of biological membranes and have been implicated with lipid raft formation and possible function, typical molecules include DHA (Docosahexanoic Acid) and AA (Alphalinoleic Acid) which have been the focus of considerable attention in recent years. We are interested in the phase behavior of these molecules in the lipid bilayer. The addition of lipid molecules with polyunsaturated chains has a clear effect on the fluidity and curvature of the membrane and we investigate the effects the addition of polyunsaturated lipids on bilayer structure and tubule formation. Self-assembled cylindrical lipid tubules have attracted considerable attention because of their interesting structures and potential technological applications. Using x-ray diffraction techniques, Atomic Force Microscopy and confocal fluorescence imaging, both symmetric and mixed chain lipids were incorporated into model membranes and the effects on bilayer structure and tubule formation investigated.

  19. Intercalation of small hydrophobic molecules in lipid bilayers containing cholesterol

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, D.L.; Hamacher, K.; Kaiser, H.; Kulasekere, R.; Torbet, J.

    1994-12-31

    Partitioning of small hydrophobic molecules into lipid bilayers containing cholesterol has been studied using the 2XC diffractometer at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. Locations of the compounds were determined by Fourier difference methods with data from both deuterated and undeuterated compounds introduced into the bilayers from the vapor phase. Data fitting procedures were developed for determining how well the compounds were localized. The compounds were found to be localized in a narrow region at the center of the hydrophobic layer, between the two halves of the bilayer. The structures are therefore intercalated structures with the long axis of the molecules in the plane of the bilayer.

  20. Microporous device for local electric recordings on model lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufeld, Theresa; Steinem, Claudia; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2015-01-01

    A powerful approach for characterizing lipid membranes and embedded proteins is the reconstitution of model lipid bilayers. The extreme fragility of 5 nm thick bilayers is a challenge for device design and requires a trade off of stability against accessibility. We here present a microporous lab-on-chip device that allows us to form stable, solvent-free lipid bilayers from giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in a geometry that provides a unique set of access possibilities. The device is constructed around a micro-fabricated silicon chip with clusters of 1 µm-diameter pores and provides optical access to the lipid bilayers for high-NA epifluorescence imaging. At the same time, solvent exchange is possible on both sides of the lipid bilayer. Complete coverage can be achieved with GUVs, so that voltages can be applied across the lipid bilayer and single-channel currents can be measured using external or integrated silver/silver chloride electrodes. We describe the micro-fabrication by standard cleanroom techniques and the characterization of the device by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. In proof-of-concept experiments we demonstrate that the device is capable of low-noise, single-ion-channel recordings. Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/b000000x/

  1. Diffraction studies on natural and model lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastiani, F.; Harvey, R.; Khanniche, S.; Artero, J.-B.; Haertlein, M.; Fragneto, G.

    2012-11-01

    In this study we have used neutron diffraction to examine the swelling behaviour and bilayer parameters of membranes reconstituted from polar lipids extracted from B. subtilis and model systems composed of synthetic phospholipids. Evidence for phase separation in the model system (lacking in Lysyl-PG, L-PG) is discussed in relation to its possible contribution to membrane domain formation through lipid-lipid interactions. Comparing these results with those obtained from the bilayers composed of lipids extracted from bacterial cells gives us some indication of the role of L-PG in the B. subtilis plasma membrane.

  2. Phase behavior of model lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, Marieke; Smit, Berend

    2005-04-14

    We investigated the phase behavior of double-tail lipids, as a function of temperature, headgroup interaction and tail length. At low values of the head-head repulsion parameter a(hh), the bilayer undergoes with increasing temperature the transitions from the subgel phase L(c) via the flat gel phase L(beta) to the fluid phase L(alpha). For higher values of a(hh), the transition from the L(c) to the L(alpha) phase occurs via the tilted gel phase L(beta)(') and the rippled phase P(beta)('). The occurrence of the L(beta)(') phase depends on tail length. We find that the rippled structure (P(beta)(')) occurs if the headgroups are sufficiently surrounded by water and that the ripple is a coexistence between the L(c) or L(beta)(') phase and the L(alpha) phase. The anomalous swelling, observed at the P(beta)(') --> L(alpha) transition, is not directly related to the rippled phase, but a consequence of conformational changes of the tails.

  3. Titration force microscopy on supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Manyes, Sergi; Gorostiza, Pau; Sanz, Fausto

    2006-01-01

    The use of chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes allows us to measure the surface charges of supported planar lipid bilayers with high sensitivity through the force spectroscopy operation mode. By controlling the chemistry of the tip, we can perform a classical analytical chemistry titration where the titration agent is a weak acid (attached to the AFM tip) with the particularity of being performed in surface rather than in solution and, especially, at the nanometric scale. Thus, the AFM tip acts as a real "nanosensor". The approaching curves of the force plots reveal that electrostatic interactions between the tip and the supported membrane play a key role. Besides, the plot of the adhesion force (measured from the retracting curve of the force plots) versus pH displays a nonsigmoidal shape with a peak in the adhesion force attributed to high-energy hydrogen bonds. One of these peaks corresponds to the pKa of the surface under study and the other to the pKa of the titrating probe attached to the tip.

  4. "Reversed" alamethicin conductance in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, R J; de Levie, R

    1991-01-01

    Alamethicin at a concentration of 2 micrograms/ml on one side of a lipid bilayer, formed at the tip of a patch clamp pipette from diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (2:1 mol ratio) in aqueous 0.5 M KCl, 5 mM Hepes, pH 7.0, exhibits an asymmetric current-voltage curve, only yielding alamethicin currents when the side to which the peptide has been added is made positive. Below room temperature, however, single alamethicin channels created in such membranes sometimes survive a sudden reversal of the polarity. These "reversed" channels are distinct from transiently observed states displayed as the channel closes after a polarity reversal. Such "reversed" channels can be monitored for periods up to several minutes, during which time we have observed them to fluctuate through more than 20 discrete conductance states. They are convenient for the study of isolated ion-conducting alamethicin aggregates because, after voltage reversal, no subsequent incorporation of additional ion-conducting aggregates takes place. PMID:1712238

  5. Intermonolayer Friction and Surface Shear Viscosity of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    den Otter, W. K.; Shkulipa, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    The flow behavior of lipid bilayer membranes is characterized by a surface viscosity for in-plane shear deformations, and an intermonolayer friction coefficient for slip between the two leaflets of the bilayer. Both properties have been studied for a variety of coarse-grained double-tailed model lipids, using equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. For lipids with two identical tails, the surface shear viscosity rises rapidly with tail length, while the intermonolayer friction coefficient is less sensitive to the tail length. Interdigitation of lipid tails across the bilayer midsurface, as observed for lipids with two distinct tails, strongly enhances the intermonolayer friction coefficient, but hardly affects the surface shear viscosity. The simulation results are compared against the available experimental data. PMID:17468168

  6. Thermotropic phase transition in soluble nanoscale lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Ilia G.; McLean, Mark A.; Shaw, Andrew W.; Grinkova, Yelena V.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2008-01-01

    The role of lipid domain size and protein-lipid interfaces in the thermotropic phase transition of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers in Nanodiscs was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and generalized polarization (GP) of the lipophilic probe Laurdan. Nanodiscs are water-soluble, monodisperse self-assembled lipid bilayers encompassed by a helical membrane scaffold protein (MSP). MSPs of different lengths were used to define the diameter of the Nanodisc lipid bilayer from 76 to 108 Å and the number of DPPC molecules from 164 to 335 per discoidal structure. In Nanodiscs of all sizes, the phase transitions were broader and shifted to higher temperatures relative to those observed in vesicle preparations. The size dependences of the transition enthalpies and structural parameters of Nanodiscs reveal the presence of a boundary lipid layer in contact with the scaffold protein encircling the perimeter of the disc. The thickness of this annular layer was estimated to be approximately 15 Å, or two lipid molecules. SAXS was used to measure the lateral thermal expansion of Nanodiscs and a steep decrease of bilayer thickness during the main lipid phase transition was observed. These results provide basis for the quantitative understanding of cooperative phase transitions in membrane bilayers in confined geometries at the nanoscale. PMID:16852976

  7. Mechanical properties of lipid bilayers from molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    Venable, Richard M.; Brown, Frank L.H.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Lipid areas (Aℓ), bilayer area compressibilities (KA), bilayer bending constants (KC), and monolayer spontaneous curvatures (c0) from simulations using the CHARMM36 force field are reported for 12 representative homogenous lipid bilayers. Aℓ (or their surrogate, the average deuterium order parameter in the “plateau region” of the chain) agree very well with experiment, as do the KA. Simulated KC are in near quantitative agreement with vesicle flicker experiments, but are somewhat larger than KC from x-ray, pipette aspiration, and neutron spin echo for saturated lipids. Spontaneous curvatures of bilayer leaflets from the simulations are approximately 30% smaller than experimental values of monolayers in the inverse hexagonal phase. PMID:26238099

  8. Tethered and Polymer Supported Bilayer Lipid Membranes: Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jakob; Köper, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Solid supported bilayer lipid membranes are model systems to mimic natural cell membranes in order to understand structural and functional properties of such systems. The use of a model system allows for the use of a wide variety of analytical tools including atomic force microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, neutron reflectometry, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Among the large number of different types of model membranes polymer-supported and tethered lipid bilayers have been shown to be versatile and useful systems. Both systems consist of a lipid bilayer, which is de-coupled from an underlying support by a spacer cushion. Both systems will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the effect that the spacer moiety has on the bilayer properties. PMID:27249006

  9. Lipid clustering in bilayers detected by the fluorescence kinetics and anisotropy of trans-parinaric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Reyes Mateo, C; Brochon, J C; Pilar Lillo, M; Ulises Acuña, A

    1993-01-01

    Fluid heterogeneity in lipid bilayers and shows a simple and useful method to quantify this heterogeneity. Taking advantage of the maximum entropy method, we have resolved the probe fluorescence lifetime distributions in homogeneous solutions and in single and two-component lipid bilayers at different temperatures. A precise description of the emission kinetics was obtained as a function of viscosity in the homogeneous solution and as a function of the phase composition (gel/fluid) in the lipid bilayers. These data show, unambiguously, that the same distribution pattern, with two well resolved lifetime classes, is observed both in pure solvents and in fluid bilayers. This distribution is modified during the thermotropic phase transition, with the appearance of a long lifetime component. The anisotropy experiments confirm that the amplitude of this component is proportional to the fraction of probe located in the gel phase. From this fraction we have quantified the amount of gel phase in the binary bilayer system dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine/dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and determined the thermotropic phase diagram of the mixture. This phase diagram agrees well with that calculated assuming ideal mixing of the lipids (Marbrey, S., and J.M. Sturtevant. 1976. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 73:862-3866). PMID:8298047

  10. Effects of amyloid beta-peptides on the lysis tension of lipid bilayer vesicles containing oxysterols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dennis H; Frangos, John A

    2008-07-01

    Amyloid beta-peptides (Abeta) applied directly from solution to model lipid membranes produced dramatic changes in the material properties of the bilayer when certain oxysterols were present in the bilayer. These effects were dependent on both lipid and peptide composition, and occurred at peptide concentrations as low as 100 nM. Using micropipette manipulation of giant unilamellar vesicles, we directly measured the lysis tension of lipid bilayers of various compositions. The glycerophospholipid 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) constituted the main lipid component at 70 mol %. The remaining 30 mol % was composed of the following pure or mixed sterols: cholesterol (CHOL), 7-ketocholesterol (KETO), or 7beta-hydroxycholesterol (OHCHOL). SOPC/CHOL bilayers did not exhibit significant changes in mechanical properties after exposure to either Abeta(1-42) or Abeta(1-40). Partial substitution of CHOL with KETO (5 mol %), however, caused a drastic reduction of the lysis tension after exposure to Abeta(1-42) but not to Abeta(1-40). Partial substitution of CHOL with OHCHOL (5 mol %) caused a drastic reduction of the lysis tension after exposure to Abeta(1-40) and to Abeta(1-42). We attribute these effects to the reduction in intermolecular cohesive interactions caused by the presence of the second dipole of oxysterols, which reduces the energetic barrier for Abeta insertion into the bilayer.

  11. Structural Degradation and Swelling of Lipid Bilayer under the Action of Benzene.

    PubMed

    Odinokov, Alexey; Ostroumov, Denis

    2015-12-03

    Benzene and other nonpolar organic solvents can accumulate in the lipid bilayer of cellular membranes. Their effect on the membrane structure and fluidity determines their toxic properties and antibiotic action of the organic solvents on the bacteria. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction of benzene with the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer. An increase in the membrane surface area and fluidity was clearly detected. Changes in the acyl chain ordering, tilt angle, and overall bilayer thickness were, however, much less marked. The dependence of all computed quantities on the benzene content showed two regimes separated by the solubility limit of benzene in water. When the amount of benzene exceeded this point, a layer of almost pure benzene started to grow between the membrane leaflets. This process corresponds to the nucleation of a new phase and provides a molecular mechanism for the mechanical rupture of the bilayer under the action of nonpolar compounds.

  12. Reconstitution of rhodopsin into polymerizable planar supported lipid bilayers: influence of dienoyl monomer structure on photoactivation.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Varuni; D'Ambruoso, Gemma D; Hall, H K; Wysocki, Ronald J; Brown, Michael F; Saavedra, S Scott

    2008-10-07

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction and many are pharmacologically important targets for drug discovery. GPCRs can be reconstituted in planar supported lipid bilayers (PSLBs) with retention of activity, which has led to development of GPCR-based biosensors and biochips. However, PSLBs composed of natural lipids lack the high stability desired for many technological applications. One strategy is to use synthetic lipid monomers that can be polymerized to form robust bilayers. A key question is how lipid polymerization affects GPCR structure and activity. Here we have investigated the photochemical activity of bovine rhodopsin (Rho), a model GPCR, reconstituted into PSLBs composed of lipids having one or two polymerizable dienoyl moieties located in different regions of the acyl chains. Plasmon waveguide resonance spectroscopy was used to compare the degree of Rho photoactivation in fluid and poly(lipid) PSLBs. The position of the dienoyl moiety was found to have a significant effect: polymerization near the glycerol backbone significantly attenuates Rho activity whereas polymerization near the acyl chain termini does not. Differences in cross-link density near the acyl chain termini also do not affect Rho activity. In unpolymerized PSLBs, an equimolar mixture of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids enhances activity relative to pure PC; however after polymerization, the enhancement is eliminated which is attributed to stabilization of the membrane lamellar phase. These results should provide guidance for the design of robust lipid bilayers functionalized with transmembrane proteins for use in membrane-based biochips and biosensors.

  13. Coupled diffusion in lipid bilayers upon close approach

    SciTech Connect

    Pronk, Sander; Lindahl, Erik; Kasson, Peter M.

    2014-12-23

    Biomembrane interfaces create regions of slowed water dynamics in their vicinity. When two lipid bilayers come together, this effect is further accentuated, and the associated slowdown can affect the dynamics of larger-scale processes such as membrane fusion. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine how lipid and water dynamics are affected as two lipid bilayers approach each other. These two interacting fluid systems, lipid and water, both slow and become coupled when the lipid membranes are separated by a thin water layer. We show in particular that the water dynamics become glassy, and diffusion of lipids in the apposed leaflets becomes coupled across the water layer, while the “outer” leaflets remain unaffected. This dynamic coupling between bilayers appears mediated by lipid–water–lipid hydrogen bonding, as it occurs at bilayer separations where water–lipid hydrogen bonds become more common than water–water hydrogen bonds. We further show that such coupling occurs in simulations of vesicle–vesicle fusion prior to the fusion event itself. As a result, such altered dynamics at membrane–membrane interfaces may both stabilize the interfacial contact and slow fusion stalk formation within the interface region.

  14. Lipid Bilayer Membrane Perturbation by Embedded Nanopores: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fandiño, Rebeca; Piñeiro, Ángel; Trick, Jemma L; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-03-22

    A macromolecular nanopore inserted into a membrane may perturb the dynamic organization of the surrounding lipid bilayer. To better understand the nature of such perturbations, we have undertaken a systematic molecular dynamics simulation study of lipid bilayer structure and dynamics around three different classes of nanopore: a carbon nanotube, three related cyclic peptide nanotubes differing in the nature of their external surfaces, and a model of a β-barrel nanopore protein. Periodic spatial distributions of several lipid properties as a function of distance from the nanopore were observed. This was especially clear for the carbon nanotube system, for which the density of lipids, the bilayer thickness, the projection of lipid head-to-tail vectors onto the membrane plane, and lipid lateral diffusion coefficients exhibited undulatory behavior as a function of the distance from the surface of the channel. Overall, the differences in lipid behavior as a function of the nanopore structure reveal local adaptation of the bilayer structure and dynamics to different embedded nanopore structures. Both the local structure and dynamic behavior of lipids around membrane-embedded nanopores are sensitive to the geometry and nature of the outer surface of the macromolecule/molecular assembly forming the pore.

  15. Supported lipid bilayers as models for studying membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Volker; Yang, Sung-Tae; Tamm, Lukas K

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers have been in use for over 30 years. They have been employed to study the structure, composition, and dynamics of lipid bilayer phases, the binding and distribution of soluble, integral, and lipidated proteins in membranes, membrane fusion, and interactions of membranes with elements of the cytoskeleton. This review focuses on the unique ability of supported lipid bilayers to study liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains in membranes. We highlight methods to produce asymmetric lipid bilayers with lipid compositions that mimic those of the extracellular and cytoplasmic leaflets of cell membranes and the functional reconstitution of membrane proteins into such systems. Questions related to interleaflet domain coupling and membrane protein activation have been addressed and answered using advanced reconstitution and imaging procedures in symmetric and asymmetric supported membranes with and without coexisting lipid phase domains. Previously controversial topics regarding anomalous and anisotropic diffusion in membranes have been resolved by using supported membrane approaches showing that the propensity of certain lipid compositions to form "rafts" are important but overlaid with "picket-fence" interactions that are imposed by a subtended cytoskeletal network.

  16. Coupled diffusion in lipid bilayers upon close approach

    DOE PAGES

    Pronk, Sander; Lindahl, Erik; Kasson, Peter M.

    2014-12-23

    Biomembrane interfaces create regions of slowed water dynamics in their vicinity. When two lipid bilayers come together, this effect is further accentuated, and the associated slowdown can affect the dynamics of larger-scale processes such as membrane fusion. We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine how lipid and water dynamics are affected as two lipid bilayers approach each other. These two interacting fluid systems, lipid and water, both slow and become coupled when the lipid membranes are separated by a thin water layer. We show in particular that the water dynamics become glassy, and diffusion of lipids in the apposedmore » leaflets becomes coupled across the water layer, while the “outer” leaflets remain unaffected. This dynamic coupling between bilayers appears mediated by lipid–water–lipid hydrogen bonding, as it occurs at bilayer separations where water–lipid hydrogen bonds become more common than water–water hydrogen bonds. We further show that such coupling occurs in simulations of vesicle–vesicle fusion prior to the fusion event itself. As a result, such altered dynamics at membrane–membrane interfaces may both stabilize the interfacial contact and slow fusion stalk formation within the interface region.« less

  17. Lipid Droplets Can Spontaneously Bud Off from a Symmetric Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Deslandes, François; Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Forêt, Lionel

    2017-07-11

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are cytosolic organelles that protrude from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane under energy-rich conditions. How an LD buds off from the endoplasmic reticulum bilayer is still elusive. By using a continuous media description, we computed the morphology of a lipid droplet embedded in between two identical monolayers of a bilayer. We found that beyond a critical volume, the droplet morphology abruptly transits from a symmetrical elongated lens to a spherical protrusion. This budding transition does not require any energy-consuming machinery, or curvature-inducing agent, or intrinsic asymmetry of the bilayer; it is solely driven by the large interfacial energy of the LD, as opposed to the bilayer surface tension. This spontaneous budding mechanism gives key insights on cellular LD formation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cation and anion transport through hydrophilic pores in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Senthil K.; Larson, Ronald G.

    2006-08-01

    To understand the origin of transmembrane potentials, formation of transient pores, and the movement of anions and cations across lipid membranes, we have performed systematic atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipids. A double bilayer setup was employed and different transmembrane potentials were generated by varying the anion (Cl-) and cation (Na+) concentrations in the two water compartments. A transmembrane potential of ˜350mV was thereby generated per bilayer for a unit charge imbalance. For transmembrane potential differences of up to ˜1.4V, the bilayers were stable, over the time scale of the simulations (10-50ns). At larger imposed potential differences, one of the two bilayers breaks down through formation of a water pore, leading to both anion and cation translocations through the pore. The anions typically have a short residence time inside the pore, while the cations show a wider range of residence times depending on whether they bind to a lipid molecule or not. Over the time scale of the simulations, we do not observe the discharge of the entire potential difference, nor do we observe pore closing, although we observe that the size of the pore decreases as more ions translocate. We also observed a rare lipid flip-flop, in which a lipid molecule translocated from one bilayer leaflet to the opposite leaflet, assisted by the water pore.

  19. Single lipid bilayer deposition on polymer surfaces using bicelles.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Qasim; Zhang, Zhenfu; Petretic, Amy; Gradinaru, Claudiu C; Macdonald, Peter M

    2015-03-09

    A lipid bilayer was deposited on a 3 μm diameter polystyrene (PS) bead via hydrophobic anchoring of bicelles containing oxyamine-bearing cholesteric moieties reacting with the aldehyde functionalized bead surface. Discoidal bicelles were formed by mixing dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC), dimyristoyltrimethylammonium propane (DMTAP), and the oxyamine-terminated cholesterol derivative, cholest-5-en-3β-oxy-oct-3,6-oxa-an-8-oxyamine (CHOLOA), in the molar ratio DMPC/DHCP/DMTAP/CHOLOA (1/0.5/0.01/0.05) in water. Upon exposure to aldehyde-bearing PS beads, a stable single lipid bilayer coating rapidly formed at the bead surface. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching demonstrated that the deposited lipids fused into an encapsulating lipid bilayer. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry showed that the short chain lipid DHPC was entirely absent from the PS adherent lipid coating. Fluorescence quenching measurements proved that the coating was a single lipid bilayer. The bicelle coating method is thus simple and robust, can be modified to include membrane-associated species, and can be adapted to coat any number of different surfaces.

  20. Inducing morphological changes in lipid bilayer membranes with microfabricated substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangjie; Collins, Liam F.; Ashkar, Rana; Heberle, Frederick A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Lateral organization of lipids and proteins into distinct domains and anchoring to a cytoskeleton are two important strategies employed by biological membranes to carry out many cellular functions. However, these interactions are difficult to emulate with model systems. Here we use the physical architecture of substrates consisting of arrays of micropillars to systematically control the behavior of supported lipid bilayers - an important step in engineering model lipid membrane systems with well-defined functionalities. Competition between attractive interactions of supported lipid bilayers with the underlying substrate versus the energy cost associated with membrane bending at pillar edges can be systematically investigated as functions of pillar height and pitch, chemical functionalization of the microstructured substrate, and the type of unilamellar vesicles used for assembling the supported bilayer. Confocal fluorescent imaging and AFM measurements highlight correlations that exist between topological and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and lateral lipid mobility in these confined environments. This study provides a baseline for future investigations into lipid domain reorganization on structured solid surfaces and scaffolds for cell growth.

  1. Formation and Characterization of Supported Lipid Bilayers Composed of Hydrogenated and Deuterated Escherichia coli Lipids.

    PubMed

    Lind, Tania Kjellerup; Wacklin, Hanna; Schiller, Jürgen; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Cárdenas, Marité

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are widely used for sensing and deciphering biomolecular interactions with model cell membranes. In this paper, we present a method to form supported lipid bilayers from total lipid extracts of Escherichia coli by vesicle fusion. We show the validity of this method for different types of extracts including those from deuterated biomass using a combination of complementary surface sensitive techniques; quartz crystal microbalance, neutron reflection and atomic force microscopy. We find that the head group composition of the deuterated and the hydrogenated lipid extracts is similar (approximately 75% phosphatidylethanolamine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol and 12% cardiolipin) and that both samples can be used to reconstitute high-coverage supported lipid bilayers with a total thickness of 41 ± 3 Å, common for fluid membranes. The formation of supported lipid bilayers composed of natural extracts of Escherichia coli allow for following biomolecular interactions, thus advancing the field towards bacterial-specific membrane biomimics.

  2. Formation and Characterization of Supported Lipid Bilayers Composed of Hydrogenated and Deuterated Escherichia coli Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Tania Kjellerup; Wacklin, Hanna; Schiller, Jürgen; Moulin, Martine; Haertlein, Michael; Pomorski, Thomas Günther; Cárdenas, Marité

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers are widely used for sensing and deciphering biomolecular interactions with model cell membranes. In this paper, we present a method to form supported lipid bilayers from total lipid extracts of Escherichia coli by vesicle fusion. We show the validity of this method for different types of extracts including those from deuterated biomass using a combination of complementary surface sensitive techniques; quartz crystal microbalance, neutron reflection and atomic force microscopy. We find that the head group composition of the deuterated and the hydrogenated lipid extracts is similar (approximately 75% phosphatidylethanolamine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol and 12% cardiolipin) and that both samples can be used to reconstitute high-coverage supported lipid bilayers with a total thickness of 41 ± 3 Å, common for fluid membranes. The formation of supported lipid bilayers composed of natural extracts of Escherichia coli allow for following biomolecular interactions, thus advancing the field towards bacterial-specific membrane biomimics. PMID:26658241

  3. Noble gases in pure lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Valdez, F J; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2013-03-21

    The mechanism of how a noble gas modifies the excitability of nerve cells and how such excitability can be recovered under hyperbaric pressure remains unclear. Here we present a calorimetric study where the melting point depression of pure lipid membranes induced by noble gases and its recovery with a hydrostatic pressure is addressed. A correlation is found between the electric polarizability (α) of these gases and their effect on the melting transition of the membranes. These results concur with other findings to support the idea that general anesthesia only depends on the ability of a certain atom or molecule to increase the general disorder of the membrane.

  4. Photon correlation spectroscopy of bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, J F; Earnshaw, J C

    1983-01-01

    Light scattering by thermal fluctuations on simple monoglyceride bilayer membranes has been used to investigate the viscoelastic properties of these structures. Spectroscopic analysis of these fluctuations (capillary waves) permits the nonperturbative measurement of the interfacial tension and a shear interfacial viscosity acting normal to the membrane plane. The methods were established by studies of solvent and nonsolvent bilayers of glycerol monooleate (GMO). Changes in the tension of GMO/n-decane membranes induced by altering the composition of the parent solution were detected and quantified. In a test of the reliability of the technique controlled variations of the viscosity of the aqueous bathing solution were accurately monitored. The technique was applied to solvent-free bilayers formed from dispersions of GMO in squalane. The lower tensions observed attested to the comparative absence of solvent in such bilayers. In contrast to the solvent case, the solvent-free membranes exhibited a significant transverse shear viscosity, indicative of the enhanced intermolecular interactions within the bilayer. PMID:6838962

  5. Polyelectrolyte multilayer-cushioned fluid lipid bilayers: a parachute model.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingxin; Wen, Caixia; Xuan, Mingjun; Zhang, Hongyue; Frueh, Johannes; Wan, Mingwei; Gao, Lianghui; He, Qiang

    2017-01-18

    Lipid bilayer membranes supported on polyelectrolyte multilayers are widely used as a new biomembrane model that connects biological and artificial materials since these ultrathin polyelectrolyte supports may mimic the role of the extracellular matrix and cell skeleton in living systems. Polyelectrolyte multilayers were fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation was used in real time to monitor the interaction between phospholipids and polyelectrolytes in situ on a planar substrate. The surface properties of polyelectrolyte films were investigated by the measurement of contact angles and zeta potential. Phospholipid charge, buffer pH and substrate hydrophilicity were proved to be essential for vesicle adsorption, rupture, fusion and formation of continuous lipid bilayers on the polyelectrolyte multilayers. The results clearly demonstrated that only the mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid (4 : 1) resulted in fluid bilayers on chitosan and alginate multilayers with chitosan as a top layer at pH 6.5. A coarse-grained molecular simulation study elucidated that the exact mechanism of the formation of fluid lipid bilayers resembles a "parachute" model. As the closest model to the real membrane, polyelectrolyte multilayer-cushioned fluid lipid bilayers can be appropriate candidates for application in biomedical fields.

  6. Biophysical implications of lipid bilayer rheometry for mechanosensitive channels.

    PubMed

    Bavi, Navid; Nakayama, Yoshitaka; Bavi, Omid; Cox, Charles D; Qin, Qing-Hua; Martinac, Boris

    2014-09-23

    The lipid bilayer plays a crucial role in gating of mechanosensitive (MS) channels. Hence it is imperative to elucidate the rheological properties of lipid membranes. Herein we introduce a framework to characterize the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers by combining micropipette aspiration (MA) with theoretical modeling. Our results reveal that excised liposome patch fluorometry is superior to traditional cell-attached MA for measuring the intrinsic mechanical properties of lipid bilayers. The computational results also indicate that unlike the uniform bilayer tension estimated by Laplace's law, bilayer tension is not uniform across the membrane patch area. Instead, the highest tension is seen at the apex of the patch and the lowest tension is encountered near the pipette wall. More importantly, there is only a negligible difference between the stress profiles of the outer and inner monolayers in the cell-attached configuration, whereas a substantial difference (∼30%) is observed in the excised configuration. Our results have far-reaching consequences for the biophysical studies of MS channels and ion channels in general, using the patch-clamp technique, and begin to unravel the difference in activity seen between MS channels in different experimental paradigms.

  7. Fluorescence study on aggregated lysozyme and lipid bilayer interactions.

    PubMed

    Trusova, Valeriya M; Gorbenko, Galyna P

    2012-08-01

    Fluorescent probes 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH), pyrene, 4-dimethylaminochalcone (DMC) and 4-p-(dimethylaminostyryl)-1-dodecylpyridinium (DSP-12) have been utilized to monitor the impact of lysozyme (Lz) oligomers on physicochemical properties of phosphatidylcholine/cardiolipin (PC/CL) membranes. Analysis of spectral responses of the employed probes revealed the reduction of membrane free volume and dehydration of lipid bilayer surface upon incorporation of Lz self-assemblies. Hydrophobic interactions were found to control the binding of Lz oligomers to the lipid bilayer. Comparison of the effects of Lz monomers, oligomers and fibrils showed that soluble oligomeric intermediates exert the most destructive influence on membrane properties.

  8. A Parameterization of Cholesterol for Mixed Lipid Bilayer Simulation within the Amber Lipid14 Force Field.

    PubMed

    Madej, Benjamin D; Gould, Ian R; Walker, Ross C

    2015-09-24

    The Amber Lipid14 force field is expanded to include cholesterol parameters for all-atom cholesterol and lipid bilayer molecular dynamics simulations. The General Amber and Lipid14 force fields are used as a basis for assigning atom types and basic parameters. A new RESP charge derivation for cholesterol is presented, and tail parameters are adapted from Lipid14 alkane tails. 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayers are simulated at a range of cholesterol contents. Experimental bilayer structural properties are compared with bilayer simulations and are found to be in good agreement. With this parameterization, another component of complex membranes is available for molecular dynamics with the Amber Lipid14 force field.

  9. Irregular bilayer structure in vesicles prepared from Halobacterium cutirubrum lipids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Fluorescent probes were used to study the structure of the cell envelope of Halobacterium cutirubrum, and, in particular, to explore the effect of the heterogeneity of the lipids in this organism on the structure of the bilayers. The fluorescence polarization of perylene was followed in vesicles of unfractionated lipids and polar lipids as a function of temperature in 3.4 M solutions of NaCl, NaNO3, and KSCN, and it was found that vesicles of unfractionated lipids were more perturbed by chaotropic agents than polar lipids. The dependence of the relaxation times of perylene on temperature was studied in cell envelopes and in vesicles prepared from polar lipids, unfractionated lipids, and mixtures of polar and neutral lipids.

  10. The relative effect of sterols and hopanoids on lipid bilayers: when comparable is not identical.

    PubMed

    Poger, David; Mark, Alan E

    2013-12-19

    Sterols are the hallmarks of eukaryotic membranes where they are often found in specialized functional microdomains of the plasma membrane called lipid rafts. Despite some notable exceptions, prokaryotes lack sterols. However, growing evidence has suggested the existence of raft-like domains in the plasma membrane of bacteria. A structurally related family of triterpenoids found in some bacteria called hopanoids has long been assumed to be bacterial surrogates for sterols in membranes. Although the effect of sterols, in particular cholesterol, on lipid bilayers has been extensively characterized through experimental and simulation studies, those of hopanoids have hardly been investigated. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the effect of two hopanoids, diploptene (hop-22(29)-ene) and bacteriohopanetetrol ((32R,33S,34S)-bacteriohopane-32,33,34,35-tetrol), on a model bilayer. The results are compared with those obtained for cholesterol and a pure phosphatidylcholine bilayer. It is shown that diploptene and bacteriohopanetetrol behave very differently under the conditions simulated. Whereas bacteriohopanetetrol adopted a cholesterol-like upright orientation in the bilayer, diploptene partitioned between the two leaflets inside the bilayer. Analysis of various structural properties (area per lipid, electron density profile, tilt angle of the lipids, and conformation and order parameters of the phosphatidylcholine tails) in bacteriohopanetetrol- and cholesterol-containing bilayers indicates that the condensing and ordering effect of bacteriohopanetetrol is weaker than that of cholesterol. The simulations suggest that the chemical diversity of hopanoids may lead to a broader range of functional roles in bacterial membranes than sterols in eukaryotic membranes.

  11. Structure and fluctuations of a single floating lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Daillant, J; Bellet-Amalric, E; Braslau, A; Charitat, T; Fragneto, G; Graner, F; Mora, S; Rieutord, F; Stidder, B

    2005-08-16

    A single lipid molecular bilayer of 17 or 18 carbon chain phosphocholines, floating in water near a flat wall, is prepared in the bilayer gel phase and then heated to the fluid phase. Its structure (electron density profile) and height fluctuations are determined by using x-ray reflectivity and non-specular scattering. By fitting the off-specular signal to that calculated for a two-dimensional membrane using a Helfrich Hamiltonian, we determine the three main physical quantities that govern the bilayer height fluctuations: The wall attraction potential is unexpectedly low; the surface tension, roughly independent on chain length and temperature, is moderate (approximately 5 x 10(-4) J.m(-2)) but large enough to dominate the intermediate range of the fluctuation spectrum; and the bending modulus abruptly decreases by an order-of-magnitude from 10(-18) J to 10(-19) J at the bilayer gel-to-fluid transition.

  12. Super-resolution Microscopy of Lipid Bilayer Phases

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chinkuei; Hochstrasser, Robin M.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-diffraction optical imaging with nanometer resolution of lipid phase separated regions is reported. Merocyanine 540, a probe whose fluorescence is sensitive to the lipid phase, is combined with super-resolution imaging to distinguish the liquid and gel phase nanoscale domains of lipid bilayers supported on glass. The monomer-dimer equilibrium of MC 540 in membranes is deemed responsible for the population difference of single molecule fluorescence bursts in the different phase regions. The extension of this method to other binary or ternary lipid models or natural systems provides a promising new super-resolution strategy. PMID:21405121

  13. Influence of lipid-bilayer-associated molecules on lipid-vesicle adsorption.

    PubMed

    Dimitrievski, Kristian

    2010-04-20

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) containing different types of bilayer-associated molecules (membrane-bound molecules) where one part of the molecule resides inside the lipid bilayer and another part of the molecule sticks out of the bilayer (e.g., membrane proteins) are important biophysical model systems. SLBs are commonly formed via lipid vesicle adsorption on certain surfaces (e.g., SiO(2)). However, vesicles doped with different types of (bio)molecules often do not form an SLB on the surface, and the reasons for this are not clear. Using a newly developed model of a lipid bilayer, simulations were performed to clarify the influence of the bilayer-associated molecules on vesicle adsorption and rupture. It is shown that by increasing the concentration of membrane-bound molecules in the vesicles the tendency for vesicle rupture decreases markedly and for a certain concentration rupture does not happen. The reason for this is that vesicles containing significant concentrations of such molecules tend to deform less on the surface (lower vesicle strain), especially for a significantly corrugated bilayer-surface potential. After vesicle rupture, membrane-bound molecules face either the surface or the solution in the resulting bilayer patch on the surface, depending on whether the molecules point outward or inward in the original vesicle, respectively. Vesicle surface diffusion is also studied for weak and strong surface corrugation, where vesicles are found to be almost immobile in the latter case.

  14. Polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin increases its insertion into lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Kegel, Kimberly B; Schewkunow, Vitali; Sapp, Ellen; Masso, Nicholas; Wanker, Erich E; DiFiglia, Marian; Goldmann, Wolfgang H

    2009-09-25

    An expanded polyglutamine (Q) tract (>37Q) in huntingtin (htt) causes Huntington disease. Htt associates with membranes and polyglutamine expansion in htt may alter membrane function in Huntington disease through a mechanism that is not known. Here we used differential scanning calorimetry to examine the effects of polyQ expansion in htt on its insertion into lipid bilayers. We prepared synthetic lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine and tested interactions of htt amino acids 1-89 with 20Q, 32Q or 53Q with the vesicles. GST-htt1-89 with 53Q inserted into synthetic lipid vesicles significantly more than GST-htt1-89 with 20Q or 32Q. We speculate that by inserting more into cell membranes, mutant huntingtin could increase disorder within the lipid bilayer and thereby disturb cellular membrane function.

  15. Laurdan fluorescence senses mechanical strain in the lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Liang; Frangos, John A; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2006-09-01

    The precise molecular mechanisms by which cells transduce a mechanical stimulus into an intracellular biochemical response have not yet been established. Here, we show for the first time that the fluorescence emission of an environment-sensitive membrane probe Laurdan is modulated by mechanical strain of the lipid bilayer membrane. We have measured fluorescence emission of Laurdan in phospholipid vesicles of 30, 50, and 100 nm diameter to show that osmotically induced membrane tension leads to an increase in polarity (hydration depth) of the phospholipid bilayer interior. Our data indicate that the general polarization of Laurdan emission is linearly dependent on membrane tension. We also show that higher membrane curvature leads to higher hydration levels. We anticipate that the proposed method will facilitate future studies of mechanically induced changes in physical properties of lipid bilayer environment both in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Cubic phases for studies of drug partition into lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Engström, S; Nordén, T P; Nyquist, H

    1999-08-01

    Drug partition into lipid bilayers in a cubic liquid-crystalline phase was investigated. Glyceryl monooleate was used to form the lipid bilayer in a reversed bicontinuous cubic liquid-crystalline phase. The reason for using the cubic phase is that it may coexist with an external aqueous phase, and that the phase boundary (cubic phase/aqueous bulk) is well-defined due to the stiffness of the cubic phase. This makes the cubic phase a potential candidate for high throughput screening (HTS) of the lipophilicity and the dissociation constant (if any) of drug compounds. Clomethiazole (CMZ), lidocaine, prilocaine and 4-phenylbutylamine (4-PBA) were chosen as model drug compounds. It was shown that it is possible to determine a pH-dependent apparent partition coefficient, Kbl/w, of a drug compound using a lipid bilayer expressed as a cubic liquid-crystalline structure. Good agreement was found when the resulting Kbl/w vs. pH curves for CMZ, lidocaine and prilocaine were fitted to a mathematical expression. This included the bilayer/water partition coefficient for the unionised and ionised drug respectively and the pKa of the drug. The effect of different experimental conditions; such as amount of cubic phase, temperature, agitation, sample preparation and interfacial area between the cubic phase and the aqueous bulk on the partition kinetics were investigated as well. The studies reveal that the time needed to reach partition equilibrium was, as expected, substantially reduced (from days to hours) by decreasing the amount of cubic phase, increasing the interfacial area between the cubic phase and the aqueous phase, and increasing the temperature and the agitation of the sample. It was also shown that the bilayer affinity of 4-PBA was increased when a zwitterionic lipid (i.e. dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine, DOPC) was incorporated in the bilayer.

  17. Investigation of the elastic properties of a lipid bilayer by fluorescence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Dong; Lin, Hsiang-Ku; Noruzifar, Ehsan; Pryadko, Leonid; Zandi, Roya; Mohideen, Umar

    2012-02-01

    Freestanding curved lipid bilayers were formed on micron diameter wells fabricated on a silicon chip. The height profile of the lipid bilayers was measured using fluorescence interference contrast microscopy. Dark and bright rings resulted from the interference of emission from the fluorophores in the lipid bilayers with the same light reflected from the bottom surface of the well. By changing the osmotic pressure difference across the bilayers, the relationship between the pressure and the membrane curvature was studied. By using Helfrich theory, the surface tension of the bilayer was extracted. The influence of detergents and antibiotics on the elastic property of lipid bilayers was also investigated.

  18. The Effects of Polyunsaturated Lipid Components on bilayer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramudya, Y.; Kiss, A.; Nguyen, Lam T.; Yuan, J.; Hirst, Linda S.

    2007-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as DHA (Docosahexanoic Acid) and AA (Alphalinoleic Acid) have been the focus of much research attention in recent years, due to their apparent health benefits and effects on cell physiology. They are found in a variety of biological membranes and have been implicated with lipid raft formation and possible function, particularly in the retinal rod cells and the central nervous system. In this work lipid bilayer structure has been investigated in lipid mixtures, incorporating polyunsaturated fatty acid moieties. The structural effects of increasing concentrations of both symmetric and asymmetric PUFA materials on the bilayer structure are investigated via synchrotron x-ray diffraction on solution samples. We observe bilayer spacings to increase with the percentage of unsaturated fatty acid lipid in the membrane, whilst the degree of ordering significantly decreases. In fact above 20% of fatty acid, well defined bilayers are no longer observed to form. Evidence of phase separation can be clearly seen from these x-ray results and in combination with AFM measurements.

  19. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  20. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

  1. A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Structural and Dynamical Properties of Putative Arsenic Substituted Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hui-Hsu Gavin; Lee, Jian-Bin; Huang, Jian-Ming; Juwita, Ratna

    2013-01-01

    Cell membranes are composed mainly of phospholipids which are in turn, composed of five major chemical elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. Recent studies have suggested the possibility of sustaining life if the phosphorus is substituted by arsenic. Although this issue is still controversial, it is of interest to investigate the properties of arsenated-lipid bilayers to evaluate this possibility. In this study, we simulated arsenated-lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-arsenocholine (POAC), lipid bilayers using all-atom molecular dynamics to understand basic structural and dynamical properties, in particular, the differences from analogous 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, (POPC) lipid bilayers. Our simulations showed that POAC lipid bilayers have distinct structural and dynamical properties from those of native POPC lipid bilayers. Relative to POPC lipid bilayers, POAC lipid bilayers have a more compact structure with smaller lateral areas and greater order. The compact structure of POAC lipid bilayers is due to the fact that more inter-lipid salt bridges are formed with arsenate-choline compared to the phosphate-choline of POPC lipid bilayers. These inter-lipid salt bridges bind POAC lipids together and also slow down the head group rotation and lateral diffusion of POAC lipids. Thus, it would be anticipated that POAC and POPC lipid bilayers would have different biological implications. PMID:23571494

  2. Protein-induced bilayer perturbations: Lipid ordering and hydrophobic coupling.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Frederic N R; Laursen, Ib; Bohr, Henrik; Nielsen, Claus Hélix

    2009-10-02

    The host lipid bilayer is increasingly being recognized as an important non-specific regulator of membrane protein function. Despite considerable progress the interplay between hydrophobic coupling and lipid ordering is still elusive. We use electron spin resonance (ESR) to study the interaction between the model protein gramicidin and lipid bilayers of varying thickness. The free energy of the interaction is up to -6kJ/mol; thus not strongly favored over lipid-lipid interactions. Incorporation of gramicidin results in increased order parameters with increased protein concentration and hydrophobic mismatch. Our findings also show that at high protein:lipid ratios the lipids are motionally restricted but not completely immobilized. Both exchange on and off rate values for the lipid<-->gramicidin interaction are lowest at optimal hydrophobic matching. Hydrophobic mismatch of few A results in up to 10-fold increased exchange rates as compared to the 'optimal' match situation pointing to the regulatory role of hydrophobic coupling in lipid-protein interactions.

  3. Membrane-Protein Interactions in a Generic Coarse-Grained Model for Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    West, Beate; Brown, Frank L.H.; Schmid, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We study membrane-protein interactions and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions by Monte Carlo simulations of a generic coarse-grained model for lipid bilayers with cylindrical hydrophobic inclusions. The strength of the hydrophobic force and the hydrophobic thickness of the proteins are systematically varied. The results are compared with analytical predictions of two popular analytical theories: The Landau-de Gennes theory and the elastic theory. The elastic theory provides an excellent description of the fluctuation spectra of pure membranes and successfully reproduces the deformation profiles of membranes around single proteins. However, its prediction for the potential of mean force between proteins is not compatible with the simulation data for large distances. The simulations show that the lipid-mediated interactions are governed by five competing factors: direct interactions; lipid-induced depletion interactions; lipid bridging; lipid packing; and a smooth long-range contribution. The mechanisms leading to hydrophobic mismatch interactions are critically analyzed. PMID:18835907

  4. PI3 kinase enzymology on fluid lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Luo, Wei; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-10-21

    We report the use of fluid lipid bilayer membrane as a model platform to study the influence of the bilayer microenvironment and composition on the enzymology in membrane. As a model system we determined the enzyme kinetics on membranes for the transformation of bilayers containing phosphoinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to phosphoinositol(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) by the enzyme phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) using radiolabeled ATP. The activity of the enzyme was monitored as a function of the radioactivity incorporated within the bilayer. The transformation of PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3 was determined using a mass strip assay. The fluidity of the bilayer was confirmed by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Kinetic simulations were performed based on Langmuir adsorption and Michaelis-Menton kinetics equations to generate the rate constants for the enzymatic reaction. The effect of cholesterol on the enzyme kinetics was studied by doping the bilayer with 1% cholesterol. This leads to significant reduction in reaction rate due to change in membrane microenvironment. This strategy provides a method to study the enzymology of various kinases and phosphatases occurring at the membrane and also how these reactions are affected by the membrane composition and surface microenvironment.

  5. Convergence of Free Energy Profile of Coumarin in Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of druglike molecules embedded in lipid bilayers are of considerable interest as models for drug penetration and positioning in biological membranes. Here we analyze partitioning of coumarin in dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer, based on both multiple, unbiased 3 μs MD simulations (total length) and free energy profiles along the bilayer normal calculated by biased MD simulations (∼7 μs in total). The convergences in time of free energy profiles calculated by both umbrella sampling and z-constraint techniques are thoroughly analyzed. Two sets of starting structures are also considered, one from unbiased MD simulation and the other from “pulling” coumarin along the bilayer normal. The structures obtained by pulling simulation contain water defects on the lipid bilayer surface, while those acquired from unbiased simulation have no membrane defects. The free energy profiles converge more rapidly when starting frames from unbiased simulations are used. In addition, z-constraint simulation leads to more rapid convergence than umbrella sampling, due to quicker relaxation of membrane defects. Furthermore, we show that the choice of RESP, PRODRG, or Mulliken charges considerably affects the resulting free energy profile of our model drug along the bilayer normal. We recommend using z-constraint biased MD simulations based on starting geometries acquired from unbiased MD simulations for efficient calculation of convergent free energy profiles of druglike molecules along bilayer normals. The calculation of free energy profile should start with an unbiased simulation, though the polar molecules might need a slow pulling afterward. Results obtained with the recommended simulation protocol agree well with available experimental data for two coumarin derivatives. PMID:22545027

  6. Lipid Bilayer Mechanics in a Pipette with Glass-Bilayer Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Ursell, Tristan; Agrawal, Ashutosh; Phillips, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiology is a central tool for measuring how different driving forces (e.g., ligand concentration, transmembrane voltage, or lateral tension) cause a channel protein to gate. Upon formation of the high resistance seal between a lipid bilayer and a glass pipette, the so-called “giga-seal”, channel activity can be recorded electrically. In this article, we explore the implications of giga-seal formation on the mechanical state of a lipid bilayer patch. We use a mechanical model for the free energy of bilayer geometry in the presence of glass-bilayer adhesion to draw three potentially important conclusions. First, we use our adhesion model to derive an explicit relationship between applied pressure and patch shape that is consistent with the Laplace-Young Law, giving an alternative method of calculating patch tension under pressure. With knowledge of the adhesion constant, which we find to be in the range ∼0.4–4 mN/m, and the pipette size, one can precisely calculate the patch tension as a function of pressure, without the difficultly of obtaining an optical measurement of the bilayer radius of curvature. Second, we use data from previous electrophysiological experiments to show that over a wide range of lipids, the resting tension on a electrophysiological patch is highly variable and can be 10–100 times higher than estimates of the tension in a typical cell membrane. This suggests that electrophysiological experiments may be systematically altering channel-gating characteristics and querying the channels under conditions that are not the same as their physiological counterparts. Third, we show that reversible adhesion leads to a predictable change in the population response of gating channels in a bilayer patch. PMID:22004745

  7. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Akio; Yan, Dan; Tomita, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and PSD-95-like MAGUKs. Among the three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA-, NMDA, kainate-type), AMPA receptor activity is most regulatable by neuronal activity to adjust synaptic strength. Here, we mutated the prototypical TARP, stargazin, and found that TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptor activity in vivo. We also found that stargazin interacts with negatively-charged lipid bilayers in its phosphorylation dependent manner, and that the lipid interaction inhibited stargazin binding to PSD-95. Cationic lipids dissociated stargazin from lipid bilayers and enhanced synaptic AMPA receptor activity in a stargazin phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, TARP phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via a lipid bilayer interaction. PMID:20547132

  8. Gravimetric antigen detection utilizing antibody-modified lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Charlotte; Bramfeldt, Hanna; Wingren, Christer; Borrebaeck, Carl; Höök, Fredrik

    2005-10-01

    Lipid bilayers containing 5% nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) lipids supported on SiO2 have been used as a template for immobilization of oligohistidine-tagged single-chained antibody fragments (scFvs) directed against cholera toxin. It was demonstrated that histidine-tagged scFvs could be equally efficiently coupled to an NTA-Ni2+-containing lipid bilayer from a purified sample as from an expression supernatant, thereby providing a coupling method that eliminates time-consuming protein prepurification steps. Irrespective of whether the coupling was made from the unpurified or purified antibody preparation, the template proved to be efficient for antigen (cholera toxin) detection, verified using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. In addition, via a secondary amplification step using lipid vesicles containing GM1 (the natural membrane receptor for cholera toxin), the detection limit of cholera toxin was less than 750 pM. To further strengthen the coupling of scFvs to the lipid bilayer, scFvs containing two histidine tags, instead of just one tag, were also evaluated. The increased coupling strength provided via the bivalent anchoring significantly reduced scFv displacement in complex solutions containing large amounts of histidine-containing proteins, verified via cholera toxin detection in serum.

  9. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Sumioka, Akio; Yan, Dan; Tomita, Susumu

    2010-06-10

    Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and PSD-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases. Among the three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA, NMDA, and kainate type), AMPA receptor activity is most regulatable by neuronal activity to adjust synaptic strength. Here, we mutated the prototypical TARP, stargazin, and found that TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptor activity in vivo. We also found that stargazin interacts with negatively charged lipid bilayers in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and that the lipid interaction inhibited stargazin binding to PSD-95. Cationic lipids dissociated stargazin from lipid bilayers and enhanced synaptic AMPA receptor activity in a stargazin phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, TARP phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via a lipid bilayer interaction.

  10. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-28

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  11. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  12. Collective Lipid Bilayer Dynamics Excited by Surface Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, T.; Schülein, F. J. R.; Nicolas, J. D.; Osterhoff, M.; Beerlink, A.; Krenner, H. J.; Müller, M.; Wixforth, A.; Salditt, T.

    2014-09-01

    We use standing surface acoustic waves to induce coherent phonons in model lipid multilayers deposited on a piezoelectric surface. Probing the structure by phase-controlled stroboscopic x-ray pulses we find that the internal lipid bilayer electron density profile oscillates in response to the externally driven motion of the lipid film. The structural response to the well-controlled motion is a strong indication that bilayer structure and membrane fluctuations are intrinsically coupled, even though these structural changes are averaged out in equilibrium and time integrating measurements. Here the effects are revealed by a timing scheme with temporal resolution on the picosecond scale in combination with the sub-nm spatial resolution, enabled by high brilliance synchrotron x-ray reflectivity.

  13. Free energy of adsorption of supported lipid bilayers from molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneemilch, M.; Quirke, N.

    2016-11-01

    A novel method is presented for the calculation of adhesion energies of lipid bilayers on solid surfaces from molecular dynamics simulation. We illustrate the method with a fully atomistic model comprising a gold surface and an adsorbed lipid bilayer. We use our technique to scale the lipid-surface interactions to reproduce the experimental value for adsorption of DMPC bilayers on gold surfaces. Finally we estimate the entropic contribution to the free energy change on adsorption of the bilayer.

  14. Unraveling supported lipid bilayer formation kinetics: osmotic effects.

    PubMed

    Hain, Nicole; Gallego, Marta; Reviakine, Ilya

    2013-02-19

    Solid-supported lipid bilayers are used as cell membrane models and form the basis of biomimetic and biosensor platforms. The mechanism of their formation from adsorbed liposomes is not well-understood. Using membrane-permeable solute glycerol, impermeable solutes sucrose and dextran, and a pore forming peptide melittin, we studied experimentally how osmotic effects affect the kinetics of the adsorbed liposome-to-bilayer transition. We find that its rate is enhanced if adsorbed liposomes are made permeable but is not significantly retarded by impermeable solutes. The results are explained in terms of adsorbed liposome deformation and formation of transmembrane pores.

  15. Functional reconstitution of photosynthetic reaction centers in planar lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, M.; Montal, M.; Feher, G.

    1979-01-01

    Planar lipid bilayers containing reaction centers from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26 were formed by apposing two reaction center—lipid monolayers formed from a reaction center—lipid complex in hexane. Secondary donors (cytochrome c) and acceptors (ubiquinone-0) were added on opposite sides of the membrane. Upon illumination, this system generated transient and steady-state voltages and currents. The wavelength dependence of the photoresponse matched the absorption spectrum of reaction centers. A simple model based on the transfer of charges across the membrane that explains the salient features of the photoresponse is presented. PMID:16592737

  16. Dynamics of Lipid Bilayer Vesicles in Viscous Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalbe, Jonathan; Vlahovska, Petia; Miksis, Michael J.

    2008-11-01

    An analytical theory is developed to describe the dynamics of a closed lipid bilayer membrane (vesicle) in a general linear viscous flow. The dynamics of the membrane is governed by the Stokes equations in the fluid plus the normal and tangential stress condition along the bilayer interface. The effects of the membrane fluidity, incompressibility and resistance to bending are taken into account. The model is a generalization of the work on planar membranes by Seifert and Langer (Europhys. Lett. vol. 23, 71, 1993), which accounted for the variations in lipid density along both leaflets of the bilayer. Considering a nearly spherical vesicle, a perturbation solution is derived. The leading order analysis results in a nonlinear coupled system of equations for the dynamics of the shape and the mean lipid density difference between the inner and outer monolayer. Multiple solution states are found as a function of viscosity ratio and the monolayer slip coefficient. The dynamics and stability of these solutions is discussed. Comparisons are made to previous works based on the minimal curvature model which did not consider variable lipid density.

  17. Penetration of Cell Membranes and Synthetic Lipid Bilayers by Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Matthew R.; Wang, Andrew; Thomas, Aman; Schaefer, Andreas T.; Melosh, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale devices have been proposed as tools for measuring and controlling intracellular activity by providing electrical and/or chemical access to the cytosol. Unfortunately, nanostructures with diameters of 50–500 nm do not readily penetrate the cell membrane, and rationally optimizing nanoprobes for cell penetration requires real-time characterization methods that are capable of following the process of membrane penetration with nanometer resolution. Although extensive work has examined the rupture of supported synthetic lipid bilayers, little is known about the applicability of these model systems to living cell membranes with complex lipid compositions, cytoskeletal attachment, and membrane proteins. Here, we describe atomic force microscopy (AFM) membrane penetration experiments in two parallel systems: live HEK293 cells and stacks of synthetic lipid bilayers. By using the same probes in both systems, we were able to clearly identify membrane penetration in synthetic bilayers and compare these events with putative membrane penetration events in cells. We examined membrane penetration forces for three tip geometries and 18 chemical modifications of the probe surface, and in all cases the median forces required to penetrate cellular and synthetic lipid bilayers with nanoprobes were greater than 1 nN. The penetration force was sensitive to the probe's sharpness, but not its surface chemistry, and the force did not depend on cell surface or cytoskeletal properties, with cells and lipid stacks yielding similar forces. This systematic assessment of penetration under various mechanical and chemical conditions provides insights into nanoprobe-cell interactions and informs the design of future intracellular nanoprobes. PMID:25418094

  18. Interaction of myelin basic protein isoforms with lipid bilayers studied by FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Michael; Choo, Lin-P'ing; Boulias, Christopher; Moscarello, Mario A.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1993-05-01

    The secondary structure of the naturally occurring isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP1-8) from human myelin was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy under a variety of experimental conditions. In aqueous solution each isoform was found to be unstructured. In the presence of negatively charged liquid bilayers MBP1-4 were shown to exhibit an amide I band maximum indicative of the adoption of (alpha) -helical secondary structures. A detailed analysis revealed that significant proportions of (beta) -sheet secondary structure were also present. MBP5 and MBP8, which have significantly less cationic charge than MBP1-4, exhibited an amide I maximum identical to that seen in solution, suggesting that no interaction with the bilayer occurred. Analysis of the lipid CH2 and C equals O stretching vibrations also pointed towards significant interaction of MBP1-4 with the bilayer. The changes in intensity and frequency of these bands which typically accompany the phase transition in the pure bilayer were abolished by addition of the proteins. No such effect was seen for MBP5 and 8, the normal lipid phase transition being apparent. The implications of these results in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis is discussed.

  19. Nonadditive Compositional Curvature Energetics of Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodt, A. J.; Venable, R. M.; Lyman, E.; Pastor, R. W.

    2016-09-01

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface, in turn, govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and thus they will underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. We describe observations from simulations of unexpected nonadditive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature.

  20. Nonadditive Compositional Curvature Energetics of Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Sodt, A J; Venable, R M; Lyman, E; Pastor, R W

    2016-09-23

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface, in turn, govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and thus they will underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. We describe observations from simulations of unexpected nonadditive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature.

  1. Supported lipid bilayers with controlled curvature via colloidal lithography.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Maria; Manandhar, Michal; Svedhem, Sofia; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-09-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) at surfaces provide a route to quantitatively study molecular interactions with and at lipid membranes via different surface-based analytical techniques. Here, a method to fabricate SLBs with controlled curvatures, in the nanometer regime over large areas, is presented, utilizing lipid vesicle rupture onto nanostructured sensor substrates. Heat treated colloidal particle masks were used as templates to produce silicon dioxide films with systematically varied radius of curvature (ROC, 70 to 170 nm are demonstrated) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) was used to confirm vesicle rupture onto such structured surfaces. Fluorescence microscopy was used to show fluidity of the supported membranes. The formation of confluent SLBs is demonstrated at the nanostructured surfaces from vesicles composed of POPC lipids. However, at surfaces with decreasing ROCs, vesicle rupture was hindered but with an increasing fraction of the positively charged lipid POEPC in the vesicles, it was possible to form good quality supported bilayers on all curvatures studied. Curved SLBs open up the possibility to systematically study the influence of curvature on molecular interactions at lipid membranes. © 2011 IEEE

  2. Dynamic and mechanical properties of supported lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hsing-Lun; Tsao, Heng-Kwong; Sheng, Yu-Jane

    2016-04-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) offer an excellent model system for investigating the physico-chemical properties of the cell membrane. In this work, dynamic and mechanical properties of SLBs are explored by dissipative particle dynamics simulations for lipids with different architectures (chain length, kink, and asymmetry associated with lipid tails). It is found that the lateral diffusivity (Dx) and flip-flop rate (FF) grow with increasing temperature in both gel and liquid phases and can be described by an Arrhenius-like expression. Three regimes can be clearly identified for symmetric and asymmetric saturated lipids but only two regimes are observed for kinked lipids. Both Dx and FF grow with decreasing tail length and increasing number of kinks. The stretching (KA) and apparent bending (KB) moduli exhibit concave upward curves with temperature and the minima are attained at Tm. In general, the minima of KA and KB decrease with the chain length and increase with number of kinks. The typical relation among the bending modulus, area stretching modulus, and bilayer thickness is still followed, KB = βKAh2 and β is much smaller in the gel phase. The dynamic and mechanical properties of lipids with asymmetric tails are found to situate between their symmetric counterparts.

  3. Boundary potential of lipid bilayers: methods, interpretations and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Yu A.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field distribution at boundaries of cell membranes consists of diffuse part of the electrical double layer and the potential drop over the polar area generally attributed to dipole effects. This report focuses on the molecular nature of dipole components of boundary potential and its relation to bilayer structure as it follows from different experimental approaches and molecular dynamic (MD) simulations. Alterations of the total boundary potential (BP) of planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) can be detected by the method of Intramembraneous Field Compensation, developed in our laboratory. When combined with traditional electrokinetic measurements in liposome suspension and Volta potential control at lipid monolayers it reveals alterations of the dipole potential induced by multivalent cations (Be2+, Gd3+) about 100-150 mV. It is related to the lipid phase transition detected by isotherm titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements. IFC method combined with perfusion of the cell show reversible electrostatic effects due to lysine adsorption and irreversible binding of polylysines accompanied by fast positive changes of BP as electrokinetic measurements, and slow negative ones attributed to BP dipole component. According to model proposed it related with changes of lipid hydration state varied by incorporation of ions or organic molecules into the lipid monolayer. Molecular dynamic simulations support this idea and relate dipole effects with H-bonded water molecules and lipid lateral coordination. Both effects are assumed as the principal reason of Gd3+ blocking effect on E.coli mechanosensitive channels.

  4. Melittin-induced cholesterol reorganization in lipid bilayer membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2015-06-12

    The peptide melittin, a 26 amino acid, cationic peptide from honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom, disrupts lipid bilayer membranes in a concentration-dependent manner. Rather than interacting with a specific receptor, the peptide interacts directly with the lipid matrix of the membrane in a manner dependent on the lipid composition. Here, a small-angle neutron scattering study of the interaction of melittin with lipid bilayers made of mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and cholesterol (Chol) is presented. Through the use of deuterium-labeled DMPC, changes in the distribution of the lipid and cholesterol in unilamellar vesicles were observed for peptide concentrations below those thatmore » cause pores to form. In addition to disrupting the in-plane organization of Chol, melittin produces vesicles having inner and outer leaflet compositions that depend on the lipid–Chol molar ratio and on the peptide concentration. The changes seen at high cholesterol and low peptide concentration are similar to those produced by alamethicin (Qian, S. et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2014, 118, 11200–11208), which points to an underlying physical mechanism driving the redistribution of Chol, but melittin displays an additional effect not seen with alamethicin. Furthermore, a model for how the peptide drives the redistribution of Chol is proposed. The results suggest that redistribution of the lipids in a target cell membrane by membrane active peptides takes places as a prelude to the lysis of the cell.« less

  5. Mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and regulation of mechanosensitive function

    PubMed Central

    Balleza, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Material properties of lipid bilayers, including thickness, intrinsic curvature and compressibility regulate the function of mechanosensitive (MS) channels. This regulation is dependent on phospholipid composition, lateral packing and organization within the membrane. Therefore, a more complete framework to understand the functioning of MS channels requires insights into bilayer structure, thermodynamics and phospholipid structure, as well as lipid-protein interactions. Phospholipids and MS channels interact with each other mainly through electrostatic forces and hydrophobic matching, which are also crucial for antimicrobial peptides. They are excellent models for studying the formation and stabilization of membrane pores. Importantly, they perform equivalent responses as MS channels: (1) tilting in response to tension and (2) dissipation of osmotic gradients. Lessons learned from pore forming peptides could enrich our knowledge of mechanisms of action and evolution of these channels. Here, the current state of the art is presented and general principles of membrane regulation of mechanosensitive function are discussed. PMID:22790280

  6. Supported Lipid Bilayer Technology for the Study of Cellular Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Crites, Travis J.; Maddox, Michael; Padhan, Kartika; Muller, James; Eigsti, Calvin; Varma, Rajat

    2015-01-01

    Glass-supported lipid bilayers presenting freely diffusing proteins have served as a powerful tool for studying cell-cell interfaces, in particular, T cell–antigen presenting cell (APC) interactions, using optical microscopy. Here we expand upon existing protocols and describe the preparation of liposomes by an extrusion method, and describe how this system can be used to study immune synapse formation by Jurkat cells. We also present a method for forming such lipid bilayers on silica beads for the study of signaling responses by population methods, such as western blotting, flow cytometry, and gene-expression analysis. Finally, we describe how to design and prepare transmembrane-anchored protein-laden liposomes, following expression in suspension CHO (CHOs) cells, a mammalian expression system alternative to insect and bacterial cell lines, which do not produce mammalian glycosylation patterns. Such transmembrane-anchored proteins may have many novel applications in cell biology and immunology. PMID:26331983

  7. Experimental evidence for hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated interactions in lipid bilayers containing gramicidin.

    PubMed Central

    Harroun, T A; Heller, W T; Weiss, T M; Yang, L; Huang, H W

    1999-01-01

    Hydrophobic matching, in which transmembrane proteins cause the surrounding lipid bilayer to adjust its hydrocarbon thickness to match the length of the hydrophobic surface of the protein, is a commonly accepted idea in membrane biophysics. To test this idea, gramicidin (gD) was embedded in 1, 2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) and 1, 2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayers at the peptide/lipid molar ratio of 1:10. Circular dichroism (CD) was measured to ensure that the gramicidin was in the beta6.3 helix form. The bilayer thickness (the phosphate-to-phosphate distance, or PtP) was measured by x-ray lamellar diffraction. In the Lalpha phase near full hydration, PtP is 30.8 A for pure DLPC, 32.1 A for the DLPC/gD mixture, 35.3 A for pure DMPC, and 32.7 A for the DMPC/gD mixture. Gramicidin apparently stretches DLPC and thins DMPC toward a common thickness as expected by hydrophobic matching. Concurrently, gramicidin-gramicidin correlations were measured by x-ray in-plane scattering. In the fluid phase, the gramicidin-gramicidin nearest-neighbor separation is 26.8 A in DLPC, but shortens to 23.3 A in DMPC. These experiments confirm the conjecture that when proteins are embedded in a membrane, hydrophobic matching creates a strain field in the lipid bilayer that in turn gives rise to a membrane-mediated attractive potential between proteins. PMID:9929495

  8. Electrochemical characterization of bilayer lipid membrane-semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiao Kang; Baral, S.; Fendler, J.H. )

    1990-03-08

    Three different systems of glyceryl monooleate (GMO), bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) supported semiconductor particles have been prepared and characterized. A single composition of particulate semiconductor deposited only on one side of the BLM constituted system A, two different compositions of particulate semiconductors sequentially deposited on the same side of the BLM represented system B, and two different compositions of particulate semiconductors deposited on the opposite sides of the BLM made up system C.

  9. Photoinduced Fusion of Lipid Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yui; Nagai, Ken H; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Hamada, Tsutomu

    2017-03-14

    We have developed a novel system for photocontrol of the fusion of lipid vesicles through the use of a photosensitive surfactant containing an azobenzene moiety (AzoTAB). Real-time microscopic observations clarified a change in both the surface area and internal volume of vesicles during fusion. We also determined the optimal cholesterol concentrations and temperature for inducing fusion. The mechanism of fusion can be attributed to a change in membrane tension, which is caused by the solubilization of lipids through the isomerization of AzoTAB. We used a micropipet technique to estimate membrane tension and discuss the mechanism of fusion in terms of membrane elastic energy. The obtained results regarding this novel photoinduced fusion could lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of membrane fusion in living cells and may also see wider applications, such as in drug delivery and biomimetic material design.

  10. A model of lipid rearrangements during pore formation in the DPPC lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Wrona, Artur; Kubica, Krystian

    2017-07-10

    The molecular bases of pore formation in the lipid bilayer remain unclear, as do the exact characteristics of their sizes and distributions. To understand this process, numerous studies have been performed on model lipid membranes including cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV). The effect of an electric field on DPPC GUV depends on the lipid membrane state: in the liquid crystalline phase the created pores have a cylinder-like shape, whereas in the gel phase a crack has been observed. The aim of the study was to investigate the geometry of pores created in a lipid bilayer in gel and liquid crystalline phases in reference to literature experimental data. A mathematical model of the pore in a DPPC lipid bilayer developed based on the law of conservation of mass and the assumption of constant volume of lipid molecules, independent of their conformation, allows for analysis of pore shape and accompanying molecular rearrangements. The membrane area occupied by the pore of a cylinder-like shape is greater than the membrane area occupied by lipid molecules creating the pore structure (before pore appearance). Creation of such pores requires more space, which can be achieved by conformational changes of lipid chains toward a more compact state. This process is impossible for a membrane in the most compact, gel phase. We show that the geometry of the pores formed in the lipid bilayer in the gel phase must be different from the cylinder shape formed in the lipid bilayer in a liquid crystalline state, confirming experimental studies. Furthermore, we characterize the occurrence of the 'buffer' zone surrounding pores in the liquid crystalline phase as a mechanism of separation of neighbouring pores.

  11. Supported lipid bilayer nanosystems: stabilization by undulatory-protrusion forces and destabilization by lipid bridging.

    PubMed

    Savarala, Sushma; Monson, Frederick; Ilies, Marc A; Wunder, Stephanie L

    2011-05-17

    Control of the stabilization/destabilization of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on nanoparticles is important for promotion of their organized assembly and for their use as delivery vehicles. At the same time, understanding the mechanism of these processes can yield insight into nanoparticle-cell interactions and nanoparticle toxicity. In this study, the suspension/precipitation process of zwitterionic lipid/SiO(2) nanosystems was analyzed as a function of ionic strength and as a function of the ratio of lipid/SiO(2) surface areas, at pH = 7.6. Salt is necessary to induce supported lipid bilayer (SLB) formation for zwitterionic lipids on silica (SiO(2)) (Seantier, B.; Kasemo, B., Influence of Mono- and Divalent Ions on the Formation of Supported Phospholipid Bilayers via Vesicle Adsorption. Langmuir 2009, 25 (10), 5767-5772). However, for zwitterionic SLBs on SiO(2) nanoparticles, addition of salt can cause precipitation of the SLBs, due to electrostatic shielding by both the lipid and the salt and to the suppression of thermal undulation/protrusion repulsive forces for lipids on solid surfaces. At ionic strengths that cause precipitation of SLBs, it was found that addition of excess SUVs, at ratios where there were equal populations of SUVs and SLBs, restored the undulation/protrusion repulsive forces and restabilized the suspensions. We suggest that SUVs separate SLBs in the suspension, as observed by TEM, and that SLB-SLB interactions are replaced by SLB-SUV interactions. Decreasing the relative amount of lipid, to the extent that there was less lipid available than the amount required for complete bilayer coverage of the SiO(2), resulted in precipitation of the nanosystem by a process of nanoparticle lipid bridging. For this case, we postulate a process in which lipid bilayer patches on one nanoparticle collide with bare silica patches on another SiO(2) nanoparticle, forming a single bilayer bridge between them. TEM data confirmed these findings, thus

  12. Volatile anesthetics inhibit sodium channels without altering bulk lipid bilayer properties

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, R. Lea; Lee, William; Schultz, Margaret F.; Ingólfsson, Helgi I.

    2014-01-01

    Although general anesthetics are clinically important and widely used, their molecular mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Volatile anesthetics such as isoflurane (ISO) are thought to alter neuronal function by depressing excitatory and facilitating inhibitory neurotransmission through direct interactions with specific protein targets, including voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav). Many anesthetics alter lipid bilayer properties, suggesting that ion channel function might also be altered indirectly through effects on the lipid bilayer. We compared the effects of ISO and of a series of fluorobenzene (FB) model volatile anesthetics on Nav function and lipid bilayer properties. We examined the effects of these agents on Nav in neuronal cells using whole-cell electrophysiology, and on lipid bilayer properties using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay, which is a functional assay for detecting changes in lipid bilayer properties sensed by a bilayer-spanning ion channel. At clinically relevant concentrations (defined by the minimum alveolar concentration), both the FBs and ISO produced prepulse-dependent inhibition of Nav and shifted the voltage dependence of inactivation toward more hyperpolarized potentials without affecting lipid bilayer properties, as sensed by gramicidin channels. Only at supra-anesthetic (toxic) concentrations did ISO alter lipid bilayer properties. These results suggest that clinically relevant concentrations of volatile anesthetics alter Nav function through direct interactions with the channel protein with little, if any, contribution from changes in bulk lipid bilayer properties. Our findings further suggest that changes in lipid bilayer properties are not involved in clinical anesthesia. PMID:25385786

  13. Interaction of Daptomycin with Lipid Bilayers: A Lipid Extracting Effect

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Daptomycin is the first approved member of a new structural class of antibiotics, the cyclic lipopeptides. The peptide interacts with the lipid matrix of cell membranes, inducing permeability of the membrane to ions, but its molecular mechanism has been a puzzle. Unlike the ubiquitous membrane-acting host-defense antimicrobial peptides, daptomycin does not induce pores in the cell membranes. Thus, how it affects the permeability of a membrane to ions is not clear. We studied its interaction with giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) and discovered a lipid-extracting phenomenon that correlates with the direct action of daptomycin on bacterial membranes observed in a recent fluorescence microscopy study. Lipid extraction occurred only when the GUV lipid composition included phosphatidylglycerol and in the presence of Ca2+ ions, the same condition found to be necessary for daptomycin to be effective against bacteria. Furthermore, it occurred only when the peptide/lipid ratio exceeded a threshold value, which could be the basis of the minimal inhibitory concentration of daptomycin. In this first publication on the lipid extracting effect, we characterize its dependence on ions and lipid compositions. We also discuss possibilities for connecting the lipid extracting effect to the antibacterial activity of daptomycin. PMID:25093761

  14. Lipid domains control myelin basic protein adsorption and membrane interactions between model myelin lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Kristiansen, Kai; Kaufman, Yair; Boggs, Joan M; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2014-02-25

    The surface forces apparatus and atomic force microscope were used to study the effects of lipid composition and concentrations of myelin basic protein (MBP) on the structure of model lipid bilayers, as well as the interaction forces and adhesion between them. The lipid bilayers had a lipid composition characteristic of the cytoplasmic leaflets of myelin from "normal" (healthy) and "disease-like" [experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)] animals. They showed significant differences in the adsorption mechanism of MBP. MBP adsorbs on normal bilayers to form a compact film (3-4 nm) with strong intermembrane adhesion (∼0.36 mJ/m(2)), in contrast to its formation of thicker (7-8 nm) swelled films with weaker intermembrane adhesion (∼0.13 mJ/m(2)) on EAE bilayers. MBP preferentially adsorbs to liquid-disordered submicron domains within the lipid membranes, attributed to hydrophobic attractions. These results show a direct connection between the lipid composition of membranes and membrane-protein adsorption mechanisms that affects intermembrane spacing and adhesion and has direct implications for demyelinating diseases.

  15. Lipid bilayer thickness determines cholesterol's location in model membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A.; Greathouse, Denise V.; ...

    2016-10-11

    Cholesterol is an essential biomolecule of animal cell membranes, and an important precursor for the biosynthesis of certain hormones and vitamins. It is also thought to play a key role in cell signaling processes associated with functional plasma membrane microdomains (domains enriched in cholesterol), commonly referred to as rafts. In all of these diverse biological phenomena, the transverse location of cholesterol in the membrane is almost certainly an important structural feature. Using a combination of neutron scattering and solid-state 2H NMR, we have determined the location and orientation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine (PC) model membranes having fatty acids of differentmore » lengths and degrees of unsaturation. The data establish that cholesterol reorients rapidly about the bilayer normal in all the membranes studied, but is tilted and forced to span the bilayer midplane in the very thin bilayers. The possibility that cholesterol lies flat in the middle of bilayers, including those made from PC lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is ruled out. Finally, these results support the notion that hydrophobic thickness is the primary determinant of cholesterol's location in membranes.« less

  16. Lipid bilayer thickness determines cholesterol's location in model membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A.; Greathouse, Denise V.; Koeppe, II, Roger E.; Standaert, Robert F.; Van Oosten, Brad J.; Harroun, Thad A.; Kinnun, Jacob J.; Williams, Justin A.; Wassall, Stephen R.; Katsaras, John

    2016-10-11

    Cholesterol is an essential biomolecule of animal cell membranes, and an important precursor for the biosynthesis of certain hormones and vitamins. It is also thought to play a key role in cell signaling processes associated with functional plasma membrane microdomains (domains enriched in cholesterol), commonly referred to as rafts. In all of these diverse biological phenomena, the transverse location of cholesterol in the membrane is almost certainly an important structural feature. Using a combination of neutron scattering and solid-state 2H NMR, we have determined the location and orientation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine (PC) model membranes having fatty acids of different lengths and degrees of unsaturation. The data establish that cholesterol reorients rapidly about the bilayer normal in all the membranes studied, but is tilted and forced to span the bilayer midplane in the very thin bilayers. The possibility that cholesterol lies flat in the middle of bilayers, including those made from PC lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is ruled out. Finally, these results support the notion that hydrophobic thickness is the primary determinant of cholesterol's location in membranes.

  17. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine andmore » phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.« less

  18. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.

  19. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.

  20. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Rai, Durgesh K; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T

    2016-11-01

    Membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L=1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L=1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. The results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipid Clustering Correlates with Membrane Curvature as Revealed by Molecular Simulations of Complex Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Koldsø, Heidi; Shorthouse, David; Hélie, Jean; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Cell membranes are complex multicomponent systems, which are highly heterogeneous in the lipid distribution and composition. To date, most molecular simulations have focussed on relatively simple lipid compositions, helping to inform our understanding of in vitro experimental studies. Here we describe on simulations of complex asymmetric plasma membrane model, which contains seven different lipids species including the glycolipid GM3 in the outer leaflet and the anionic lipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphophate (PIP2), in the inner leaflet. Plasma membrane models consisting of 1500 lipids and resembling the in vivo composition were constructed and simulations were run for 5 µs. In these simulations the most striking feature was the formation of nano-clusters of GM3 within the outer leaflet. In simulations of protein interactions within a plasma membrane model, GM3, PIP2, and cholesterol all formed favorable interactions with the model α-helical protein. A larger scale simulation of a model plasma membrane containing 6000 lipid molecules revealed correlations between curvature of the bilayer surface and clustering of lipid molecules. In particular, the concave (when viewed from the extracellular side) regions of the bilayer surface were locally enriched in GM3. In summary, these simulations explore the nanoscale dynamics of model bilayers which mimic the in vivo lipid composition of mammalian plasma membranes, revealing emergent nanoscale membrane organization which may be coupled both to fluctuations in local membrane geometry and to interactions with proteins. PMID:25340788

  2. Lipid clustering correlates with membrane curvature as revealed by molecular simulations of complex lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Koldsø, Heidi; Shorthouse, David; Hélie, Jean; Sansom, Mark S P

    2014-10-01

    Cell membranes are complex multicomponent systems, which are highly heterogeneous in the lipid distribution and composition. To date, most molecular simulations have focussed on relatively simple lipid compositions, helping to inform our understanding of in vitro experimental studies. Here we describe on simulations of complex asymmetric plasma membrane model, which contains seven different lipids species including the glycolipid GM3 in the outer leaflet and the anionic lipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphophate (PIP2), in the inner leaflet. Plasma membrane models consisting of 1500 lipids and resembling the in vivo composition were constructed and simulations were run for 5 µs. In these simulations the most striking feature was the formation of nano-clusters of GM3 within the outer leaflet. In simulations of protein interactions within a plasma membrane model, GM3, PIP2, and cholesterol all formed favorable interactions with the model α-helical protein. A larger scale simulation of a model plasma membrane containing 6000 lipid molecules revealed correlations between curvature of the bilayer surface and clustering of lipid molecules. In particular, the concave (when viewed from the extracellular side) regions of the bilayer surface were locally enriched in GM3. In summary, these simulations explore the nanoscale dynamics of model bilayers which mimic the in vivo lipid composition of mammalian plasma membranes, revealing emergent nanoscale membrane organization which may be coupled both to fluctuations in local membrane geometry and to interactions with proteins.

  3. Voltage-dependent capacitance in lipid bilayers made from monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, O; Latorre, R

    1978-01-01

    Electrocompression has been measured in lipid bilayers made by apposition of two monolayers. The capacitance C(V), as a function of membrane potential, V, was found to be well described by C(V) = C(O) [1 + alpha(V + delta psi)2] where C(O) is the capacitance at V = O, alpha is the fractional increase in capacitance per square volt, and delta psi is the surface potential difference. In lipid bilayers made from monolayers alpha has a value of 0.02 V-2, which is ca. 500-fold smaller than the value found in solvent containing membranes. In asymmetric bilayers made of one neutral and one negatively charged monolayer, delta psi values were found to be those expected from independent measurements of surface charge density. If the fractional increase in capacitance found here is a good approximation to that of biological membranes, nonlinear capacitative charge displacement derived from electrostriction is expected to be less than 1% of the total gating charge displacement found in squid axons. PMID:620076

  4. Fusion of biomimetic stealth probes into lipid bilayer cores

    PubMed Central

    Almquist, Benjamin D.; Melosh, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Many biomaterials are designed to regulate the interactions between artificial and natural surfaces. However, when materials are inserted through the cell membrane itself the interface formed between the interior edge of the membrane and the material surface is not well understood and poorly controlled. Here we demonstrate that by replicating the nanometer-scale hydrophilic-hydrophobic-hydrophilic architecture of transmembrane proteins, artificial “stealth” probes spontaneously insert and anchor within the lipid bilayer core, forming a high-strength interface. These nanometer-scale hydrophobic bands are readily fabricated on metallic probes by functionalizing the exposed sidewall of an ultrathin evaporated Au metal layer rather than by lithography. Penetration and adhesion forces for butanethiol and dodecanethiol functionalized probes were directly measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM) on thick stacks of lipid bilayers to eliminate substrate effects. The penetration dynamics were starkly different for hydrophobic versus hydrophilic probes. Both 5- and 10 nm thick hydrophobically functionalized probes naturally resided within the lipid core, while hydrophilic probes remained in the aqueous region. Surprisingly, the barrier to probe penetration with short butanethiol chains (Eo,5 nm = 21.8kbT, Eo,10 nm = 15.3kbT) was dramatically higher than longer dodecanethiol chains (Eo,5 nm = 14.0kbT, Eo,10 nm = 10.9kbT), indicating that molecular mobility and orientation also play a role in addition to hydrophobicity in determining interface stability. These results highlight a new strategy for designing artificial cell interfaces that can nondestructively penetrate the lipid bilayer. PMID:20212151

  5. 2D lattice model of a lipid bilayer: Microscopic derivation and thermodynamic exploration.

    PubMed

    Hakobyan, Davit; Heuer, Andreas

    2017-02-14

    Based on all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of a lipid bilayer we present a systematic mapping on a 2D lattice model. Keeping the lipid type and the chain order parameter as key variables we derive a free energy functional, containing the enthalpic interaction of adjacent lipids as well as the tail entropy. The functional form of both functions is explicitly determined for saturated and polyunsaturated lipids. By studying the lattice model via Monte Carlo simulations it is possible to reproduce the temperature dependence of the distribution of order parameters of the pure lipids, including the prediction of the gel transition. Furthermore, application to a mixture of saturated and polyunsaturated lipids yields the correct phase separation behavior at lower temperatures with a simulation time reduced by approximately 7 orders of magnitude as compared to the corresponding MD simulations. Even the time-dependence of the de-mixing is reproduced on a semi-quantitative level. Due to the generality of the approach we envisage a large number of further applications, ranging from modeling larger sets of lipids, sterols, and solvent proteins to predicting nucleation barriers for the melting of lipids. Particularly, from the properties of the 2D lattice model one can directly read off the enthalpy and entropy change of the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine gel-to-liquid transition in excellent agreement with experimental and MD results.

  6. 2D lattice model of a lipid bilayer: Microscopic derivation and thermodynamic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, Davit; Heuer, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Based on all-atom Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of a lipid bilayer we present a systematic mapping on a 2D lattice model. Keeping the lipid type and the chain order parameter as key variables we derive a free energy functional, containing the enthalpic interaction of adjacent lipids as well as the tail entropy. The functional form of both functions is explicitly determined for saturated and polyunsaturated lipids. By studying the lattice model via Monte Carlo simulations it is possible to reproduce the temperature dependence of the distribution of order parameters of the pure lipids, including the prediction of the gel transition. Furthermore, application to a mixture of saturated and polyunsaturated lipids yields the correct phase separation behavior at lower temperatures with a simulation time reduced by approximately 7 orders of magnitude as compared to the corresponding MD simulations. Even the time-dependence of the de-mixing is reproduced on a semi-quantitative level. Due to the generality of the approach we envisage a large number of further applications, ranging from modeling larger sets of lipids, sterols, and solvent proteins to predicting nucleation barriers for the melting of lipids. Particularly, from the properties of the 2D lattice model one can directly read off the enthalpy and entropy change of the 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine gel-to-liquid transition in excellent agreement with experimental and MD results.

  7. Intermolecular Interactions in Dry and Rehydrated Pure and Mixed Bilayers of Phosphatidylcholine and Digalactosyldiacylglycerol: A Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Antoaneta V.; Hincha, Dirk K.

    2003-01-01

    Glycolipids are an important part of almost all biological membranes. Their effects on membrane structure and their interactions with phospholipids, however, have not been extensively studied so far. We have investigated the phase behavior and intermolecular interactions in dry and rehydrated bilayers made from the phospholipid egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) and the plant chloroplast glycolipid digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG), or from a mixture (1:1) of these lipids, using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We show that there are extensive interactions between EPC and DGDG in mixed membranes, and also between DGDG molecules in pure DGDG membranes, involving sugar OH groups and C=O, P=O, and choline moieties in dry membranes. These interactions persist to a certain degree even after rehydration. We present evidence that these interactions influence the mixing behavior in phosphatidylcholine/DGDG membranes and also the phase behavior of both EPC/DGDG and pure DGDG membranes in the dry state. PMID:12944283

  8. Absorption and folding of melittin onto lipid bilayer membranes via unbiased atomic detail microsecond molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Charles H; Wiedman, Gregory; Khan, Ayesha; Ulmschneider, Martin B

    2014-09-01

    Unbiased molecular simulation is a powerful tool to study the atomic details driving functional structural changes or folding pathways of highly fluid systems, which present great challenges experimentally. Here we apply unbiased long-timescale molecular dynamics simulation to study the ab initio folding and partitioning of melittin, a template amphiphilic membrane active peptide. The simulations reveal that the peptide binds strongly to the lipid bilayer in an unstructured configuration. Interfacial folding results in a localized bilayer deformation. Akin to purely hydrophobic transmembrane segments the surface bound native helical conformer is highly resistant against thermal denaturation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy experiments confirm the strong binding and thermostability of the peptide. The study highlights the utility of molecular dynamics simulations for studying transient mechanisms in fluid lipid bilayer systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Phase transition process in DDAB supported lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isogai, Takumi; Nakada, Sakiko; Yoshida, Naoya; Sumi, Hayato; Tero, Ryugo; Harada, Shunta; Ujihara, Toru; Tagawa, Miho

    2017-06-01

    We report the results of microscope measurements examining the phase transition process of a cationic lipid, Dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB) supported lipid bilayer (SLB). Due to lateral fluidity and strong electrostatic interaction with DNA, SLB serves as a fluid substrate for assembling 2D lattices of DNA functionalized nanoparticles (DNA-NPs): lipid molecules work as carriers for transporting DNA-NPs. By fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), two types of phase transitions, which correspond to liquid crystalline-gel and liquid crystalline-interdigitated gel (LβI) ones, were observed in DDAB SLB during cooling. In thermal equilibrium at room temperature both gel and LβI phases have enough adsorbed amounts of DNA-NPs which indicate that both domains have enough surface charge densities for adsorbing DNA-NPs, however, during phase transition DNA-NPs preferably distributed into LβI phase.

  10. Clinical concentrations of chemically diverse general anesthetics minimally affect lipid bilayer properties

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Karl F.; Sanford, R. Lea; Lee, William; Andersen, Olaf S.; Hemmings, Hugh C.

    2017-01-01

    General anesthetics have revolutionized medicine by facilitating invasive procedures, and have thus become essential drugs. However, detailed understanding of their molecular mechanisms remains elusive. A mechanism proposed over a century ago involving unspecified interactions with the lipid bilayer known as the unitary lipid-based hypothesis of anesthetic action, has been challenged by evidence for direct anesthetic interactions with a range of proteins, including transmembrane ion channels. Anesthetic concentrations in the membrane are high (10–100 mM), however, and there is no experimental evidence ruling out a role for the lipid bilayer in their ion channel effects. A recent hypothesis proposes that anesthetic-induced changes in ion channel function result from changes in bilayer lateral pressure that arise from partitioning of anesthetics into the bilayer. We examined the effects of a broad range of chemically diverse general anesthetics and related nonanesthetics on lipid bilayer properties using an established fluorescence assay that senses drug-induced changes in lipid bilayer properties. None of the compounds tested altered bilayer properties sufficiently to produce meaningful changes in ion channel function at clinically relevant concentrations. Even supra-anesthetic concentrations caused minimal bilayer effects, although much higher (toxic) concentrations of certain anesthetic agents did alter lipid bilayer properties. We conclude that general anesthetics have minimal effects on bilayer properties at clinically relevant concentrations, indicating that anesthetic effects on ion channel function are not bilayer-mediated but rather involve direct protein interactions. PMID:28265069

  11. Boundary potential of lipid bilayers: methods and interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, Yu A.; Nesterenko, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field distribution at the boundaries of cell membrane consists of diffuse part of the electrical double layer and the potential drop over polar area inside the membrane itself. The latter is generally attributed to the dipole effect, which depends on the lipid hydration and phase state. This report focuses on the experimental approaches developed to detect the relation between dipole effects and the bilayer structure, and to study their molecular nature. The total boundary potential (BP) of planar bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) can be controlled by Intramembranous Field Compensation (IFC) method developed in our laboratory. When combined with electrokinetic measurements in liposome suspension it allows detecting the changes of the dipole potential due to adsorption of inorganic cations and charged molecules. Multivalent inorganic cations increase the dipole potential up to 100-150 mV and make the membrane rigid. Most of these observations were simulated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) in order to visualize the relationship of electric field with the different structural factors (lipid structure, water orientation, ion adsorption etc.) responsible for its dipole component. Two principal contributors to BP – water and lipid molecules – create the opposite effects. The negative contribution with respect to the bulk is due to lipid itself and the inorganic cation penetration into the polar area of membrane. The positive contribution is caused by water orientation. Particularly, in the case of lysine adsorption, the contribution of water includes the rearrangement of H-bonds with the lipid phosphate group. This fact explains well the unusual kinetic phenomena registered by IFC in the case of polylysine adsorption at the BLM surface.

  12. Extension of the GLYCAM06 Biomolecular Force Field to Lipids, Lipid Bilayers and Glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Matthew B; Demarco, Mari L; Yongye, Austin B; Woods, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    GLYCAM06 is a generalisable biomolecular force field that is extendible to diverse molecular classes in the spirit of a small-molecule force field. Here we report parameters for lipids, lipid bilayers and glycolipids for use with GLYCAM06. Only three lipid-specific atom types have been introduced, in keeping with the general philosophy of transferable parameter development. Bond stretching, angle bending, and torsional force constants were derived by fitting to quantum mechanical data for a collection of minimal molecular fragments and related small molecules. Partial atomic charges were computed by fitting to ensemble-averaged quantum-computed molecular electrostatic potentials.In addition to reproducing quantum mechanical internal rotational energies and experimental valence geometries for an array of small molecules, condensed-phase simulations employing the new parameters are shown to reproduce the bulk physical properties of a DMPC lipid bilayer. The new parameters allow for molecular dynamics simulations of complex systems containing lipids, lipid bilayers, glycolipids, and carbohydrates, using an internally consistent force field. By combining the AMBER parameters for proteins with the GLYCAM06 parameters, it is also possible to simulate protein-lipid complexes and proteins in biologically relevant membrane-like environments.

  13. Temperature effect on the bilayer stacking in multilamellar lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Valério, Joana; Lameiro, M Helena; Funari, Sérgio S; Moreno, M João; Melo, Eurico

    2012-01-12

    The small-angle region of the Bragg diffraction of MLV samples is a simple and powerful tool for the study of mesoscopic lipid structures either alone or in interaction with molecules of biological interest. It is also a helpful tool to obtain the much needed thermotropic phase diagrams of lipid mixtures. In the course of our work, we found that the analysis of the diffractograms obtained as a function of temperature is not as straightforward as we expected. When the aqueous medium is concentrated in univalent salts, the small-angle X-ray scattering, SAXS, develops several peaks that have been interpreted to result from regions with different thickness of the interbilayer region. However, a systematic study shows that nonzero ionic strength is by no means a necessary criterion for irregularity of bilayer stacking. We show that MLV in water are uniform and stable if made, kept, and measured at the same temperature. If not, the lamellar repeat distance is smaller than the equilibrated one, eventually developing transient multimodal SAXS diffractions. We present a detailed study of this phenomenon using SAXS and dynamic light scattering and conclude that the deviations from the equilibrium interbilayer distance is a consequence of geometric constraints created by the insufficient thermal expansion of the lipid bilayers.

  14. Amphiphilic lipids in solution: a simulational study of lipid bilayer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Thomas; Landau, David P.; Gai, Lili; Maerzke, Katie A.; Iacovella, Christopher R.; McCabe, Clare M.; Cummings, Peter T.

    2013-03-01

    Amphiphilic molecules consisting of hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail groups self-assemble into a wide variety of structures, such as bilayers (membranes), micelles, or vesicles (liposomes) when mixed with a suitable solvent. The understanding of this lipid self-assembly is essential for industrial, biological, or medical applications, but computer simulations are generally challenging due to the complex structure of the energy landscape. We show results for the lipid bilayer formation process obtained by newly developed parallel Wang-Landau Monte Carlo and statistical temperature molecular dynamics simulations. By applying those methods to a generic coarse-grained model for amphiphilic molecules in solution, we were able to obtain the thermodynamical data over the whole relevant temperature and energy range and to unravel the membrane formation process including all structural sub-transitions between different fluid and gel-phase bilayers. Research supported by NSF

  15. Assembly of RNA nanostructures on supported lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Michanek, Agnes; Jaeger, Luc; Rabe, Michael; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Höök, Fredrik; Nylander, Tommy; Sparr, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures with controlled size and shape has large impact in the fields of nanotechnology, nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The directed arrangement of nanostructures at interfaces is important for many applications. In spite of this, the use of laterally mobile lipid bilayers to control RNA three-dimensional nanostructure formation on surfaces remains largely unexplored. Here, we direct the self-assembly of RNA building blocks into three-dimensional structures of RNA on fluid lipid bilayers composed of cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) or mixtures of zwitterionic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cationic sphingosine. We demonstrate the stepwise supramolecular assembly of discrete building blocks through specific and selective RNA-RNA interactions, based on results from quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), ellipsometry, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) experiments. The assembly can be controlled to give a densely packed single layer of RNA polyhedrons at the fluid lipid bilayer surface. We show that assembly of the 3D structure can be modulated by sequence specific interactions, surface charge and changes in the salt composition and concentration. In addition, the tertiary structure of the RNA polyhedron can be controllably switched from an extended structure to one that is dense and compact. The versatile approach to building up three-dimensional structures of RNA does not require modification of the surface or the RNA molecules, and can be used as a bottom-up means of nanofabrication of functionalized bio-mimicking surfaces. PMID:25417592

  16. Interaction of the Antimicrobial Peptide Aurein 1.2 and Charged Lipid Bilayer

    DOE PAGES

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo

    2017-06-16

    Aurein 1.2 is a potent antimicrobial peptide secreted by frog Litoria aurea. As a short membrane-active peptide with only 13 amino acids in sequence, it has been found to be residing on the surface of lipid bilayer and permeabilizing bacterial membranes at high concentration. However, the detail at the molecular level is largely unknown. Here in this study, we investigated the action of Aurein 1.2 in charged lipid bilayers composed of DMPC/DMPG. Oriented Circular Dichroism results showed that the peptide was on the surface of lipid bilayer regardless of the charged lipid ratio. Only at a very high peptide-to-lipid ratiomore » (~1/10), the peptide became perpendicular to the bilayer, however no pore was detected by neutron in-plane scattering. To further understand how it interacted with charged lipid bilayers, we employed Small Angle Neutron Scattering to probe lipid distribution across bilayer leaflets in lipid vesicles. The results showed that Aurein 1.2 interacted strongly with negatively charged DMPG, causing strong asymmetry in lipid bilayer. At high concentration, while the vesicles were intact, we found additional structure feature on the bilayer. Finally, our study provides a glimpse into how Aurein 1.2 disturbs anionic lipid-containing membranes without pore formation.« less

  17. Interaction of the Antimicrobial Peptide Aurein 1.2 and Charged Lipid Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Rai, Durgesh K; Qian, Shuo

    2017-06-16

    Aurein 1.2 is a potent antimicrobial peptide secreted by frog Litoria aurea. As a short membrane-active peptide with only 13 amino acids in sequence, it has been found to be residing on the surface of lipid bilayer and permeabilizing bacterial membranes at high concentration. However, the detail at the molecular level is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the action of Aurein 1.2 in charged lipid bilayers composed of DMPC/DMPG. Oriented Circular Dichroism results showed that the peptide was on the surface of lipid bilayer regardless of the charged lipid ratio. Only at a very high peptide-to-lipid ratio (~1/10), the peptide became perpendicular to the bilayer, however no pore was detected by neutron in-plane scattering. To further understand how it interacted with charged lipid bilayers, we employed Small Angle Neutron Scattering to probe lipid distribution across bilayer leaflets in lipid vesicles. The results showed that Aurein 1.2 interacted strongly with negatively charged DMPG, causing strong asymmetry in lipid bilayer. At high concentration, while the vesicles were intact, we found additional structure feature on the bilayer. Our study provides a glimpse into how Aurein 1.2 disturbs anionic lipid-containing membranes without pore formation.

  18. Lipid Bilayer Vesicles with Numbers of Membrane-Linking Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken-ichirou Akashi,; Hidetake Miyata,

    2010-06-01

    We report that phospholipid membranes spontaneously formed in aqueous medium giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) possessing many membranous wormhole-like structures (membrane-linking pores, MLPs). By phase contract microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy, the structures of the MLPs, consisting of lipid bilayer, were resolvable, and a variety of vesicular shapes having many MLPs (a high genus topology) were found. These vesicles were stable but easily deformed by micromanipulation with a microneedle. We also observed the size reduction of the MLPs with the increase in membrane tension, which was qualitatively consistent with a prediction from a simple dynamical model.

  19. Lipid Bilayer Vesicle Dynamics in AC Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Lane; Vlahovska, Petia; Miksis, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Vesicles are closed, fluid-filled lipid bilayers which are mechanically similar to biological cells and which undergo shape transitions in the presence of electric fields. Here we model the vesicle membrane as an infinitely thin, capacitive, area-incompressible interface with the surrounding fluids acting as charge-advecting leaky dielectrics. We then implement the boundary integral method to numerically investigate the dynamics of a vesicle in various AC electric field profiles. Our numerical results are then compared with recent small deformation theory and experimental data. We also note our observation of a new theoretical vesicle behavior that has yet to be observed experimentally.

  20. Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, Guillaume; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel

    2014-08-01

    A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau Hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields ψ 1 and ψ 2, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as C 0 + C 1(ψ 1 - ψ 2/2), and a bending modulus equal to κ 0 + κ 1(ψ 1 + ψ 2)/2. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, ψ 1 - ψ 2, is large, and thick and stiff patches where ψ 1 + ψ 2 is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones and for a whole set of parameters including the surface tension and the coupling in the two leaflet compositions. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force κ 1 C 0 (2) is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100 nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle.

  1. Kinematics, material symmetry, and energy densities for lipid bilayers with spontaneous curvature

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Mohsen; Seguin, Brian; Fried, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Continuum mechanical tools are used to describe the deformation, energy density, and material symmetry of a lipid bilayer with spontaneous curvature. In contrast to conventional approaches in which lipid bilayers are modeled by material surfaces, here we rely on a three-dimensional approach in which a lipid bilayer is modeling by a shell-like body with finite thickness. In this setting, the interface between the leaflets of a lipid bilayer is assumed to coincide with the mid-surface of the corresponding shell-like body. The three-dimensional deformation gradient is found to involve the curvature tensors of the mid-surface in the spontaneous and the deformed states, the deformation gradient of the mid-surface, and the transverse deformation. Attention is also given to the coherency of the leaflets and to the area compatibility of closed lipid bilayers (i.e., vesicles). A hyperelastic constitutive theory for lipid bilayers in the liquid phase is developed. In combination, the requirements of frame-indifference and material symmetry yield a representation for the energy density of a lipid bilayer. This representation shows that three scalar invariants suffice to describe the constitutive response of a lipid bilayer exhibiting in-plane fluidity and transverse isotropy. In addition to exploring the geometrical and physical properties of these invariants, fundamental constitutively-associated kinematical quantities are emphasized. On this basis, the effect on the energy density of assuming that the lipid bilayer is incompressible is considered. Lastly, a dimension reduction argument is used to extract an areal energy density per unit area from the three-dimensional energy density. This step explains the origin of spontaneous curvature in the areal energy density. Importantly, along with a standard contribution associated with the natural curvature of lipid bilayer, our analysis indicates that constitutive asymmetry between the leaflets of the lipid bilayer gives rise to

  2. Anisotropic metal growth on phospholipid nanodiscs via lipid bilayer expansion

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Jana; Keller, Adrian; Prinz, Julia; Schreiber, Benjamin; Hübner, René; Kerbusch, Jochen; Bald, Ilko; Fahmy, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembling biomolecules provide attractive templates for the preparation of metallic nanostructures. However, the intuitive transfer of the “outer shape” of the assembled macromolecules to the final metallic particle depends on the intermolecular forces among the biomolecules which compete with interactions between template molecules and the metal during metallization. The shape of the bio-template may thus be more dynamic than generally assumed. Here, we have studied the metallization of phospholipid nanodiscs which are discoidal particles of ~10 nm diameter containing a lipid bilayer ~5 nm thick. Using negatively charged lipids, electrostatic adsorption of amine-coated Au nanoparticles was achieved and followed by electroless gold deposition. Whereas Au nanoparticle adsorption preserves the shape of the bio-template, metallization proceeds via invasion of Au into the hydrophobic core of the nanodisc. Thereby, the lipidic phase induces a lateral growth that increases the diameter but not the original thickness of the template. Infrared spectroscopy reveals lipid expansion and suggests the existence of internal gaps in the metallized nanodiscs, which is confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering from the encapsulated lipids. Interference of metallic growth with non-covalent interactions can thus become itself a shape-determining factor in the metallization of particularly soft and structurally anisotropic biomaterials. PMID:27216789

  3. Anisotropic metal growth on phospholipid nanodiscs via lipid bilayer expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertel, Jana; Keller, Adrian; Prinz, Julia; Schreiber, Benjamin; Hübner, René; Kerbusch, Jochen; Bald, Ilko; Fahmy, Karim

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembling biomolecules provide attractive templates for the preparation of metallic nanostructures. However, the intuitive transfer of the “outer shape” of the assembled macromolecules to the final metallic particle depends on the intermolecular forces among the biomolecules which compete with interactions between template molecules and the metal during metallization. The shape of the bio-template may thus be more dynamic than generally assumed. Here, we have studied the metallization of phospholipid nanodiscs which are discoidal particles of ~10 nm diameter containing a lipid bilayer ~5 nm thick. Using negatively charged lipids, electrostatic adsorption of amine-coated Au nanoparticles was achieved and followed by electroless gold deposition. Whereas Au nanoparticle adsorption preserves the shape of the bio-template, metallization proceeds via invasion of Au into the hydrophobic core of the nanodisc. Thereby, the lipidic phase induces a lateral growth that increases the diameter but not the original thickness of the template. Infrared spectroscopy reveals lipid expansion and suggests the existence of internal gaps in the metallized nanodiscs, which is confirmed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering from the encapsulated lipids. Interference of metallic growth with non-covalent interactions can thus become itself a shape-determining factor in the metallization of particularly soft and structurally anisotropic biomaterials.

  4. Stress Induced Domain Formation in Multilamellar Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayebi, Lobat; Gillmore, Sean; Parikh, Atul

    2010-03-01

    Domain formation in lipid mixtures due to phase separation of the components is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in mono- and bi-molecular lipid configurations. We report same phenomenon, however, in multilamellar configurations consisting of thousands of lamellae where the domain pattern in each layer is interestingly aligned with the other lamellae. In this process, both dehydration and hydration of lipid cake can act as the driving force to separate two phases of liquid ordered and liquid disordered. In a controlled experiment with a stack lipid saturated with water, mechanical perturbation can induce domain formation too. Series of experiments of this kind reaches us to the conclusion that any sort of stress in special condition may cause domain formation. We use a combination of microscopy tools including AFM, fluorescence confocal and bright-field microscopy to determine the influence of interaction between the line tension and key elastic properties of the lipid bilayers. As a particular interest we studied the dynamics of the domain pattern formation and the interactions between the domains such as long-term fusion.

  5. Supported lipid bilayer membranes for water purification by reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Yair; Berman, Amir; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2010-05-18

    Some biological plasma membranes pass water with a permeability and selectivity largely exceeding those of commercial membranes for water desalination using specialized trans-membrane proteins aquaporins. However, highly selective transport of water through aquaporins is usually driven by an osmotic rather mechanical pressure, which is not as attractive from the engineering point of view. The feasibility of adopting biomimetic membranes for water purification driven by a mechanical pressure, i.e., filtration is explored in this paper. Toward this goal, it is proposed to use a commercial nanofiltration (NF) membrane as a support for biomimetic lipid bilayer membranes to render them robust enough to withstand the required pressures. It is shown in this paper for the first time that by properly tuning molecular interactions supported phospholipid bilayers (SPB) can be prepared on a commercial NF membrane. The presence of SPB on the surface was verified and quantified by several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, which showed morphology close to the desired one with very few defects. As an ultimate test it is shown that hydraulic permeability of the SPB supported on the NF membrane (NTR-7450) approaches the values deduced from the typical osmotic permeabilities of intact continuous bilayers. This permeability was unaffected by the trans-membrane flow of water and by repeatedly releasing and reapplying a 10 bar pressure. Along with a parallel demonstration that aquaporins could be incorporated in a similar bilayer on mica, this demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed approach. The prepared SPB structure may be used as a platform for preparing biomimetic filtration membranes with superior performance based on aquaporins. The concept of SPBs on permeable substrates of the present type may also be useful in the future for studying transport of various molecules through trans-membrane proteins.

  6. Toward a multi-scale simulation of lipid bilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugii, Taisuke; Takagi, Shu; Matsumoto, Yoichiro

    2006-03-01

    In numerical simulations of lipid bilayer systems, it has become important to treat the membrane molecules (e.g., lipids, proteins, and drug molecules) explicitly for designing medical drugs and for developing drug delivery systems. However, it is difficult to apply straightforwardly a microscopic simulation technique such as the molecular dynamics method to the large-scale bilayer systems, because the length and the time scales of these systems are very large compared to the scales of the molecules. The authors take two approaches for this problem. First, we use the dissipative particle dynamics method and the coarse grained molecular dynamics method in addition to the standard molecular dynamics method. The results are compared with the molecular-dynamics results and experimental data. Secondly we use a molecular dynamics and continuum hybrid simulation method. In this method, the region near the membrane is computed by an atomistic-simulation method and the solvent region is computed by a continuum-simulation method. (In our study, the coarse grained molecular dynamics was used for the atomistic region.) The validity and availability of this later approach will be discussed.

  7. Molecular Theory Applied to Lipid Bilayers and Lipid-Protein Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischknecht, Amalie L.; Frink, Laura J. D.

    The fundamental, necessary components of biomembranes are the lipids that form the membrane bilayer. Although a typical plasma membrane is composed of about 50% percent proteins by mass [1], the lipids provide the structure of the membrane through their self-assembly into a bilayer. The self-assembly is driven by the amphiphilic nature of the lipids: they contain a headgroup that is hydrophilic and a tailgroup that is hydrophobic. The basic principles of lipid self-assembly are well understood [2]. The physical properties and behavior of the lipid bilayer have been studied theoretically using a variety of models and techniques. With increasing computational resources available, a popular approach has been to study membranes using atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In such simulations, all the atoms are represented explicitly. The interactions between atoms are described by effective potentials which must be obtained through either quantum mechanical calculations or by fitting various properties to experiment. Such simulations istic MD simulations have been able to treat patches of membrane up to a few tens of nanometers in lateral extent, over timescales of a few tens of nanoseconds.

  8. Formation of arenicin-1 microdomains in bilayers and their specific lipid interaction revealed by Z-scan FCS.

    PubMed

    Macháň, Radek; Hof, Martin; Chernovets, Tatsiana; Zhmak, Maxim N; Ovchinnikova, Tatiana V; Sýkora, Jan

    2011-04-01

    Z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is employed to characterize the interaction between arenicin-1 and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) of different compositions. Lipid analogue C8-BODIPY 500/510C5-HPC and ATTO 465 labelled arenicin-1 are used to detect changes in lipid and peptide diffusion upon addition of unlabelled arenicin-1 to SLBs. Arenicin-1 decreases lipid mobility in negatively charged SLBs. According to diffusion law analysis, microdomains of significantly lower lipid mobility are formed. The analysis of peptide FCS data confirms the presence of microdomains for anionic SLBs. No indications of microdomain formation are detected in SLBs composed purely of zwitterionic lipids. Additionally, our FCS results imply that arenicin-1 exists in the form of oligomers and/or aggregates when interacting with membranes of both compositions.

  9. Assembly of RNA nanostructures on supported lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Michanek, Agnes; Jaeger, Luc; Rabe, Michael; Chworos, Arkadiusz; Höök, Fredrik; Nylander, Tommy; Sparr, Emma

    2014-12-01

    The assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures with controlled size and shape has large impact in the fields of nanotechnology, nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The directed arrangement of nano-structures at interfaces is important for many applications. In spite of this, the use of laterally mobile lipid bilayers to control RNA three-dimensional nanostructure formation on surfaces remains largely unexplored. Here, we direct the self-assembly of RNA building blocks into three-dimensional structures of RNA on fluid lipid bilayers composed of cationic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) or mixtures of zwitterionic 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and cationic sphingosine. We demonstrate the stepwise supramolecular assembly of discrete building blocks through specific and selective RNA-RNA interactions, based on results from quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), ellipsometry, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRF) experiments. The assembly can be controlled to give a densely packed single layer of RNA polyhedrons at the fluid lipid bilayer surface. We show that assembly of the 3D structure can be modulated by sequence specific interactions, surface charge and changes in the salt composition and concentration. In addition, the tertiary structure of the RNA polyhedron can be controllably switched from an extended structure to one that is dense and compact. The versatile approach to building up three-dimensional structures of RNA does not require modification of the surface or the RNA molecules, and can be used as a bottom-up means of nanofabrication of functionalized bio-mimicking surfaces.The assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures with controlled size and shape has large impact in the fields of nanotechnology, nanomedicine and synthetic biology. The directed arrangement of nano-structures at interfaces is important for many applications. In spite of

  10. Triglyceride Blisters in Lipid Bilayers: Implications for Lipid Droplet Biogenesis and the Mobile Lipid Signal in Cancer Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Duelund, Lars; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.; Ipsen, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Triglycerides have a limited solubility, around 3%, in phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. Using millisecond-scale course grained molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the model lipid bilayer can accommodate a higher concentration of triolein (TO) than earlier anticipated, by sequestering triolein molecules to the bilayer center in the form of a disordered, isotropic, mobile neutral lipid aggregate, at least 17 nm in diameter, which forms spontaneously, and remains stable on at least the microsecond time scale. The results give credence to the hotly debated existence of mobile neutral lipid aggregates of unknown function present in malignant cells, and to the early biogenesis of lipid droplets accommodated between the two leaflets of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The TO aggregates give the bilayer a blister-like appearance, and will hinder the formation of multi-lamellar phases in model, and possibly living membranes. The blisters will result in anomalous membrane probe partitioning, which should be accounted for in the interpretation of probe-related measurements. PMID:20877640

  11. Polyoxometalate (POM) Nanocluster-Induced Phase Transition and Structural Disruption in Lipid Bilayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Benxin; Zhu, Y. Elaine; Hutin, Marie; Cronin, Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Polyoxometalate (POM) nanoclusters that are transition metal oxygen clusters with well defined atomic coordination structures have recently emerged as new and functional nanocolloidal materials used as catalysts, anti-cancer medicines, and building blocks for novel functional materials. However, their implications to human health and environment remain poorly investigated. In this work, we examine the interaction of highly charged anionic POM nanocluters with lipid bilayers as a model cell membrane system. It is observed that upon the adsorption of anionic POMs, lipid dynamics is significantly suppressed and lipid bilayers are disrupted with resultant pore and budding-like structural formation. Direct calorimetric experiment of POM interaction with lipid bilayers of varied lipid compositions confirms the POM-induced fluid-to-gel phase transition in lipid bilayers, due to strong electrostatic interaction between POM nanocluster and lipid head groups.

  12. Theoretical studies of lipid bilayer electroporation using molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Zachary Alan

    Computer simulations of physical, chemical, and biological systems have improved tremendously over the past five decades. From simple studies of liquid argon in the 1960s to fully atomistic simulations of entire viruses in the past few years, recent advances in high-performance computing have continuously enabled simulations to bridge the gap between scientific theory and experiment. Molecular dynamics simulations in particular have allowed for the direct observation of spatial and temporal events which are at present inaccessible to experiments. For this dissertation I employ all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the transient, electric field-induced poration (or electroporation) of phospholipid bilayers at MV/m electric fields. Phospholipid bilayers are the dominant constituents of cell membranes and act as both a barrier and gatekeeper to the cell interior. This makes their structural integrity and susceptibility to external perturbations an important topic for study, especially as the density of electromagnetic radiation in our environment is increasing steadily. The primary goal of this dissertation is to understand the specific physical and biological mechanisms which facilitate electroporation, and to connect our simulated observations to experiments with live cells and to continuum models which seek to describe the underlying biological processes of electroporation. In Chapter 1 I begin with a brief introduction to phospholipids and phospholipid bilayers, followed by an extensive overview of electroporation and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The following chapters will then focus on peer-reviewed and published work we performed, or on existing projects which are currently being prepared for submission. Chapter 2 looks at how external electric fields affect both oxidized and unoxidized lipid bilayers as a function of oxidation concentration and oxidized lipid type. Oxidative damage to cell membranes represents a physiologically relevant

  13. Permeability of lipid bilayers to amino acids and phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Permeability coefficients for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, were measured and compared with values for other ionic solutes such as phosphate. The rates of efflux of glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan were determined after they were passively entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The following permeability coefficients were obtained for: glycine, 5.7 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 2.0 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); serine, 5.5 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.6 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); lysine, 5.1 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.9 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); tryptophan, 4.1 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC); and phenylalanine, 2.5 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC). Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly, while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested. Phosphate permeability was in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1 depending on the pH of the medium. The values for the polar and charged amino acids were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium, which are in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1, depending on conditions and the lipid species used. This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. The results are relevant to the permeation of certain peptides into lipid bilayers during protein translocation and membrane biogenesis.

  14. Permeability of lipid bilayers to amino acids and phosphate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A. C.; Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Permeability coefficients for amino acid classes, including neutral, polar, hydrophobic, and charged species, were measured and compared with values for other ionic solutes such as phosphate. The rates of efflux of glycine, lysine, phenylalanine, serine and tryptophan were determined after they were passively entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) composed of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). The following permeability coefficients were obtained for: glycine, 5.7 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 2.0 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); serine, 5.5 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.6 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); lysine, 5.1 x 10(-12) cm s-1 (EPC), 1.9 x 10(-11) cm s-1 (DMPC); tryptophan, 4.1 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC); and phenylalanine, 2.5 x 10(-10) cm s-1 (EPC). Decreasing lipid chain length increased permeability slightly, while variations in pH had only minor effects on the permeability coefficients of the amino acids tested. Phosphate permeability was in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1 depending on the pH of the medium. The values for the polar and charged amino acids were surprisingly similar to those previously measured for monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium, which are in the range of 10(-12)-10(-13) cm s-1, depending on conditions and the lipid species used. This observation suggests that the permeation rates for the neutral, polar and charged amino acids are controlled by bilayer fluctuations and transient defects, rather than partition coefficients and Born energy barriers. The results are relevant to the permeation of certain peptides into lipid bilayers during protein translocation and membrane biogenesis.

  15. A lipid E-MAP identifies Ubx2 as a critical regulator of lipid saturation and lipid bilayer stress.

    PubMed

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Peng, Debby; Shales, Michael; Mrejen, Caroline; Stefanko, Adam; Braberg, Hannes; Gordon, David E; Vorkel, Daniela; Ejsing, Christer S; Farese, Robert; Simons, Kai; Krogan, Nevan J; Ernst, Robert

    2013-08-22

    Biological membranes are complex, and the mechanisms underlying their homeostasis are incompletely understood. Here, we present a quantitative genetic interaction map (E-MAP) focused on various aspects of lipid biology, including lipid metabolism, sorting, and trafficking. This E-MAP contains ∼250,000 negative and positive genetic interaction scores and identifies a molecular crosstalk of protein quality control pathways with lipid bilayer homeostasis. Ubx2p, a component of the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation pathway, surfaces as a key upstream regulator of the essential fatty acid (FA) desaturase Ole1p. Loss of Ubx2p affects the transcriptional control of OLE1, resulting in impaired FA desaturation and a severe shift toward more saturated membrane lipids. Both the induction of the unfolded protein response and aberrant nuclear membrane morphologies observed in cells lacking UBX2 are suppressed by the supplementation of unsaturated FAs. Our results point toward the existence of dedicated bilayer stress responses for membrane homeostasis.

  16. The Alzheimer's disease Aβ peptide binds to the anionic DMPS lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Christopher; Klimov, Dmitri K

    2016-06-01

    We have applied isobaric-isothermal replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) and the all-atom explicit water model to study binding of Aβ10-40 peptide to the anionic DMPS bilayer. To provide comparison with a zwitterionic bilayer, we used our previous REMD simulations probing binding of the same peptide to the DMPC bilayer. Using two sets of simulations, we comparatively analyzed the equilibrium Aβ conformational ensemble, peptide-bilayer interactions, and changes in the bilayer structure induced by Aβ binding. Our results are six-fold. (1) Binding to the DMPS bilayer triggers the formation of stable helix in the Aβ C-terminal, although the helix-inducing effect caused by DMPS lipids is weaker than that of DMPC. (2) Compared to the DMPC-bound Aβ monomer, the anionic bilayer weakens intrapeptide interactions, particularly, formed by charged amino acids. (3) Binding of Aβ peptide to the DMPS bilayer is primarily governed by electrostatic interactions between charged amino acids and charged lipid groups. In contrast, these interactions play minor role in Aβ binding to the DMPC bilayer. (4) Aβ peptide generally resides on the DMPS bilayer surface causing relatively minor bilayer thinning. The opposite scenario applies to Aβ binding to the DMPC bilayer. (5) In contrast to DMPC simulations, Aβ largely expels anionic lipids from its binding "footprint" forming a ring of charged amino acids mixed with charged lipid groups around the peptide. (6) Aβ binding disorders proximal DMPS lipids more strongly than their DMPC counterparts. Our simulations show that Aβ monomers fail to perturb anionic or zwitterionic bilayers across both leaflets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tributyltin-mediated exchange diffusion of halides in lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the inorganic anion permeability of lipid bilayers. When this compound is added in micromolar concentrations to one or both sides of a phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) membrane formed in 0.1 M NaCl or KCl (pH 7), there is no change in the electrical conductance. Under these circumstances, the Cl self-exchange flux measured with 36Cl (MCl) increases from a value of approximately 10(-12) mol.cm-2.s-1, to approximately 10(-8) mol.cm- 2.s-1. It was further found that the relation between chloride flux and [TBT] and [Cl] can be described as: MCl = B[TBT] [Cl]. When chloride was replaced by an equimolar concentration of different univalent anions in the trans compartment, the heteroexchange flux of chloride followed the sequence: I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than F greater than NO3. Under all experimental conditions tested, the chloride flux was always more than 10(3) times the maximum flux predicted from the value of the membrane conductance, and at least 100 times higher than the expected fluxes of ion pairs (TBT-Cl) diffusing across the unstirred layers. Thus, the mechanism by which tributyltin increases anion permeability in bilayers seems to be that of an obligatory exchange diffusion, with the reaction between tributyltin and the halides occurring at the membrane surface. Measurements of interfacial potentials indicate that tributyltin chloride lowers the positive intrinsic dipole potential of PE membranes by approximately 70 mV (at a TBT concentration of 30 microM) without substantial alteration of other parameters of the bilayer. The estimated adsorption coefficient of TBT-Cl was found to be 3 x 10(-4) cm. PMID:479815

  18. Tributyltin-mediated exchange diffusion of halides in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, M T; Wieth, J O

    1979-06-01

    This paper describes the effect of tributyltin (TBT) on the inorganic anion permeability of lipid bilayers. When this compound is added in micromolar concentrations to one or both sides of a phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE) membrane formed in 0.1 M NaCl or KCl (pH 7), there is no change in the electrical conductance. Under these circumstances, the Cl self-exchange flux measured with 36Cl (MCl) increases from a value of approximately 10(-12) mol.cm-2.s-1, to approximately 10(-8) mol.cm-2.s-1. It was further found that the relation between chloride flux and [TBT] and [Cl] can be described as: MCl = B[TBT] [Cl]. When chloride was replaced by an equimolar concentration of different univalent anions in the trans compartment, the heteroexchange flux of chloride followed the sequence: I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than F greater than NO3. Under all experimental conditions tested, the chloride flux was always more than 10(3) times the maximum flux predicted from the value of the membrane conductance, and at least 100 times higher than the expected fluxes of ion pairs (TBT-Cl) diffusing across the unstirred layers. Thus, the mechanism by which tributyltin increases anion permeability in bilayers seems to be that of an obligatory exchange diffusion, with the reaction between tributyltin and the halides occurring at the membrane surface. Measurements of interfacial potentials indicate that tributyltin chloride lowers the positive intrinsic dipole potential of PE membranes by approximately 70 mV (at a TBT concentration of 30 microM) without substantial alteration of other parameters of the bilayer. The estimated adsorption coefficient of TBT-Cl was found to be 3 x 10(-4) cm.

  19. Interplay between hydration water and headgroup dynamics in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, P; Svanberg, C; Swenson, J

    2011-03-03

    In this study, the interplay between water and lipid dynamics has been investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The multilamellar lipid bilayer system 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) has been studied over a broad temperature range at three different water contents: about 3, 6, and 9 water molecules per lipid molecule. The results from the dielectric relaxation measurements show that at temperatures <250 K the lipid headgroup rotation is described by a super-Arrhenius temperature dependence at the lowest hydration level and by the Arrhenius law at the highest hydration level. This difference in the temperature dependence of the lipid headgroup rotation can be explained by the increasing interaction between the headgroups with decreasing water content, which causes their rotational motion to be more cooperative in character. The main water relaxation shows an anomalous dependence on the water content in the supercooled and glassy regime. In contrast to the general behavior of interfacial water, the water dynamics is fastest in the driest sample and its temperature dependence is best described by a super-Arrhenius temperature dependence. The best explanation for this anomalous behavior is that the water relaxation becomes more determined by fast local lipid motions than by the intrinsic water dynamics at low water contents. In support for this interpretation is the finding that the relaxation time of the main water process is faster than that in most other host systems at temperatures below 180 K. Thus, the dielectric relaxation data show clearly the strong interplay between water and lipid dynamics; the water influences the lipid dynamics and vice versa. In the MDSC data, we observe a weak enthalpy relaxation at 203 K for the driest sample and at 179 K for the most hydrated sample, attributed to the freezing-in of the lipid headgroup rotation observed in the dielectric data, since

  20. Multi-Stacked Supported Lipid Bilayer Micropatterning through Polymer Stencil Lift-Off.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yujie; Negmi, Ahmed; Moran-Mirabal, Jose

    2015-08-28

    Complex multi-lamellar structures play a critical role in biological systems, where they are present as lamellar bodies, and as part of biological assemblies that control energy transduction processes. Multi-lamellar lipid layers not only provide interesting systems for fundamental research on membrane structure and bilayer-associated polypeptides, but can also serve as components in bioinspired materials or devices. Although the ability to pattern stacked lipid bilayers at the micron scale is of importance for these purposes, limited work has been done in developing such patterning techniques. Here, we present a simple and direct approach to pattern stacked supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) using polymer stencil lift-off and the electrostatic interactions between cationic and anionic lipids. Both homogeneous and phase-segregated stacked SLB patterns were produced, demonstrating that the stacked lipid bilayers retain lateral diffusivity. We demonstrate patterned SLB stacks of up to four bilayers, where fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and quenching was used to probe the interactions between lipid bilayers. Furthermore, the study of lipid phase behaviour showed that gel phase domains align between adjacent layers. The proposed stacked SLB pattern platform provides a robust model for studying lipid behaviour with a controlled number of bilayers, and an attractive means towards building functional bioinspired materials or devices.

  1. Specific electrical capacitance and voltage breakdown as a function of temperature for different planar lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Velikonja, Aljaž; Kramar, Peter; Miklavčič, Damijan; Maček Lebar, Alenka

    2016-12-01

    The breakdown voltage and specific electrical capacitance of planar lipid bilayers formed from lipids isolated from the membrane of archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 as a function of temperature were studied and compared with data obtained previously in MD simulation studies. Temperature dependence of breakdown voltage and specific electrical capacitance was measured also for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers and bilayers formed from mixture of diphytanoylphosphocholine (DPhPC) and DPPC in ratio 80:20. The breakdown voltage of archaeal lipids planar lipid bilayers is more or less constant until 50°C, while at higher temperatures a considerable drop is observed, which is in line with the results from MD simulations. The breakdown voltage of DPPC planar lipid bilayer at melting temperature is considerably higher than in the gel phase. Specific electrical capacitance of planar lipid bilayers formed from archaeal lipids is approximately constant for temperatures up to 40°C and then gradually decreases. The difference with MD simulation predictions is discussed. Specific electrical capacitance of DPPC planar lipid bilayers in fluid phase is 1.75 times larger than that of the gel phase and it follows intermediated phases before phase transition. Increase in specific electrical capacitance while approaching melting point of DPPC is visible also for DPhPC:DPPC mixture.

  2. Corrugation of Phase-Separated Lipid Bilayers Supported by Nanoporous Silica Xerogel Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Goksu, E I; Nellis, B A; Lin, W; Satcher Jr., J H; Groves, J T; Risbud, S H; Longo, M L

    2008-10-30

    Lipid bilayers supported by substrates with nanometer-scale surface corrugations holds interest in understanding both nanoparticle-membrane interactions and the challenges of constructing models of cell membranes on surfaces with desirable properties, e.g. porosity. Here, we successfully form a two-phase (gel-fluid) lipid bilayer supported by nanoporous silica xerogel. Surface topology, diffusion, and lipid density in comparison to mica-supported lipid bilayers were characterized by AFM, FRAP, FCS, and quantitative fluorescence microscopy, respectively. We found that the two-phase lipid bilayer follows the xerogel surface contours. The corrugation imparted on the lipid bilayer results in a lipid density that is twice that on a flat mica surface. In direct agreement with the doubling of actual bilayer area in a projected area, we find that the lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of lipids on xerogel ({approx}1.7 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) is predictably lower than on mica ({approx}4.1 {micro}m{sup 2}/s) by both FRAP and FCS techniques. Furthermore, the gel-phase domains on xerogel compared to mica were larger and less numerous. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a relatively defect-free continuous two-phase bilayer that penetrates approximately midway into the first layer of {approx}50 nm xerogel beads.

  3. Multi-Stacked Supported Lipid Bilayer Micropatterning through Polymer Stencil Lift-Off

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yujie; Negmi, Ahmed; Moran-Mirabal, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Complex multi-lamellar structures play a critical role in biological systems, where they are present as lamellar bodies, and as part of biological assemblies that control energy transduction processes. Multi-lamellar lipid layers not only provide interesting systems for fundamental research on membrane structure and bilayer-associated polypeptides, but can also serve as components in bioinspired materials or devices. Although the ability to pattern stacked lipid bilayers at the micron scale is of importance for these purposes, limited work has been done in developing such patterning techniques. Here, we present a simple and direct approach to pattern stacked supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) using polymer stencil lift-off and the electrostatic interactions between cationic and anionic lipids. Both homogeneous and phase-segregated stacked SLB patterns were produced, demonstrating that the stacked lipid bilayers retain lateral diffusivity. We demonstrate patterned SLB stacks of up to four bilayers, where fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and quenching was used to probe the interactions between lipid bilayers. Furthermore, the study of lipid phase behaviour showed that gel phase domains align between adjacent layers. The proposed stacked SLB pattern platform provides a robust model for studying lipid behaviour with a controlled number of bilayers, and an attractive means towards building functional bioinspired materials or devices. PMID:26343733

  4. Refined dynamic structure factor of a lipid bilayer on scales comparable to its thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhvataev, V. E.

    2017-07-01

    The structural inhomogeneity of a lipid bilayer is an obstacle to applying the classical Canham-Helfrich model to describe its dynamics on nanometer length scales. In this paper, a refined expression for the free energy of a single-component lipid bilayer is used to describe the dynamics of lipid density fluctuations. In particular, the expression with a term involving the gradient of the area per lipid [8] is used for the free energy per lipid. A refined expression has been derived for the dynamic structure factor of a free lipid bilayer in the hydrodynamic region. It leads to differences in the interpretation and values of the bilayer parameters in comparison with the standard model.

  5. Phase separation in lipid bilayers triggered by low pH

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, Swetha; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Lipid bilayers have been imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM). {yields} At pH 5 phase separation occurs in lipid bilayers containing mixed acyl chains. {yields} Phase separation does not occur when lipids have only unsaturated chains. {yields} Phase separation might drive protein clustering during endocytosis. -- Abstract: Endocytosis involves the capture of membrane from the cell surface in the form of vesicles, which become rapidly acidified to about pH 5. Here we show using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging that this degree of acidification triggers phase separation in lipid bilayers containing mixed acyl chains (e.g. palmitoyl/oleoyl) or complex mixtures (e.g. total brain extract) but not in bilayers containing only lipids with unsaturated chains (e.g. dioleoyl). Since mixed-chain lipids are major constituents of the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane, the type of phase separation reported here might support protein clustering and signaling during endocytosis.

  6. Permeability of small nonelectrolytes through lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, A.; Gutknecht, J.

    1986-01-01

    Diffusion of small nonelectrolytes through planar lipid bilayer membranes (egg phosphatidylcholine-decane) was examined by correlating the permeability coefficients of 22 solutes with their partition coefficients between water and four organic solvents. High correlations were observed with hexadecane and olive oil (r = 0.95 and 0.93), but not octanol and ether (r = 0.75 and 0.74). Permeabilities of the seven smallest molecules (mol wt less than 50) (water, hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, methylamine, formic acid and formamide) were 2- to 15-fold higher than the values predicted by the permeabilities of the larger molecules (50 less than mol wt less than 300). The extra permeabilities of the seven smallest molecules were not correlated with partition coefficients but were inversely correlated with molecular volumes. The larger solute permeabilities also decreased with increasing molecular volume, but the relationship was neither steep nor significant. The permeability pattern cannot be explained by the molecular volume dependence of partitioning into the bilayer or by the existence of transient aqueous pores. The molecular volume dependence of solute permeability suggests that the membrane barrier behaves more like a polymer than a liquid hydrocarbon. All the data are consistent with the solubility-diffusion model, which can explain both the hydrophobicity dependence and the molecular volume dependence of nonelectrolyte permeability.

  7. Morphogenesis of protrusions from confined lipid bilayers mediated by mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo, Marino; Staykova, Margarita; Rahimi, Mohammad; Stone, Howard A.

    2012-02-01

    Biological membranes adopt a wide range of shapes that structure and give functionality to cells, compartmentalizing the cytosol, forming organelles, or regulating their area. The formation, stabilization, and remodeling of these structures is generally attributed to localized forces or to biochemical processes (insertion of proteins, active compositional regulation). Noting that in the crowded intra and extra-cellular environments membranes are highly constrained, we explore to what extent can mechanics explain the shape of protrusions out of confined membranes. For this purpose, we developed an in-vitro system coupling a lipid bilayer to the strain-controlled deformation of an elastic sheet (Staykova et al, PNAS 108, 2011). We show that upon contracting the elastic support, tubular or spherical protrusions grow out of the adhered membrane, which can be reversibly controlled with strain and osmolarity without resorting to localized forces or chemical alterations of the bilayer. The morphologies produced by our minimal system are ubiquitous in cells, suggesting mechanics may be a simple and generic organizing principle. We can understand most of our observations in terms of a phase diagram accounting for elasticity, adhesion, and the limited amount of area and volume available.

  8. Porous Nanoparticle Supported Lipid Bilayers (Protocells) as Delivery Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juewen; Stace-Naughton, Alison; Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Mixing liposomes with hydrophilic particles will induce fusion of the liposome onto the particle surface. Such supported bilayers have been extensively studied as a model for the cell membrane, while its application in drug delivery has not been pursued. In this communication, we report the use of phospholipids to achieve synergistic loading and encapsulating of a fluorescent dye (calcein) in mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and its delivery into mammalian cells. We found that cationic lipid DOTAP provides the highest calcein loading with the concentration inside silica ∼110× higher than that in the solution under experimental conditions. Compared to some other nanoparticle systems, protocells provide a simple construct for loading, sealing, delivering and releasing, and should serve as a useful system in nanomedicine. PMID:19173660

  9. Kinetin Increases Water Permeability of Phosphatidylcholine Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, William; Hester, Paul

    1983-01-01

    Kinetin is shown to increase substantially the water permeability of liposomes composed of several types of phosphatidylcholines including the natural phospholipids egg lecithin and asolectin and the synthetic phospholipids dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. Kinetin effects were measured from 16.3 micromolar to 2.4 millimolar at temperatures from 10°C to 50°C and at pH 2.0, 7.0, and 11.0. Temperature studies indicate that kinetin produces a larger increase in water permeability with membranes in the more fluid liquid crystalline state. Kinetin is also shown to enhance [14C]glucose permeability and perhaps promotes membrane aggregation. From these experiments, we conclude that kinetin may produce its initial effect by altering the lipid bilayer portion of membranes. PMID:16662860

  10. Simulated microgravity impacts the plant plasmalemma lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedukha, Olena; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Vorobyeva, Tamara; Grakhov, Volodimir; Klimenko, Elena; Zhupanov, Ivan; Jadko, Sergiy

    Biological membranes, especially the plasmalemma, and their properties and functions can be considered one of the most sensitive indicators of gravity interaction or alteration of gravity, respectively. Studies on the molecular basis of cellular signal perception and transduction are very important in order to understand signal responses at the cellular and organism level. The plasmalemma lipid bilayer is the boundary between the cell internal and external environment and mediates communication between them. Therefore, we studied the content and composition of lipids, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and microviscosity in the plasmalemma isolated from pea seedling roots and epicotyls grown in the stationary conditions and under slow horizontal clinorotation. In addition, lipid peroxidation intensity of intact roots was also identified. The plasmalemma fraction was isolated by the two-phase aquatic-polymer system optimized for pea using a centrifuge Optima L-90K. Lipid bilayer components were determined by using highly effective liquid chromatography with a system Angilent 1100 (Germany). Spontaneous chemiluminescence intensity was measured with a chemiluminometer ChLMTS-01. The obtained data showed that plasmalemma investigated parameters are sensitive to clinorotation, namely: increasing or decreasing the different lipids content, among which, phospho- and glycolipids were dominated, as well as changes in the content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids and sterols. A degree of plasmalemma sensitivity to clinorotation was higher for the root plasmalemma than epicocotyl ones. This distinguish may be naturally explained by the differences in the structure, cell types, growth, and specific functions of a root and an epicotyl, those are the most complicated in roots. An index of unsaturation under clinorotation was similar to that in the stationary conditions as a result of the certain balance between changes in the content of saturated and

  11. Arrays of lipid bilayers and liposomes on patterned polyelectrolyte templates.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Neeraj; Vaidya, Sachin; Ofoli, Robert Y; Worden, Robert M; Lee, Ilsoon

    2006-09-15

    This paper presents novel methods to produce arrays of lipid bilayers and liposomes on patterned polyelectrolyte multilayers. We created the arrays by exposing patterns of poly(dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) (PDAC), polyethylene glycol (m-dPEG) acid, and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) on polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) to liposomes of various compositions. The resulting interfaces were characterized by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), fluorescence recovery after pattern photobleaching (FRAPP), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and fluorescence microscopy. Liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (monosodium salt) (DOPA) were found to preferentially adsorb on PDAC and PAH surfaces. On the other hand, liposome adsorption on sulfonated poly(styrene) (SPS) surfaces was minimal, due to electrostatic repulsion between the negatively charged liposomes and the SPS-coated surface. Surfaces coated with m-dPEG acid were also found to resist liposome adsorption. We exploited these results to create arrays of lipid bilayers by exposing PDAC, PAH and m-dPEG patterned substrates to DOPA/DOPC vesicles of various compositions. The patterned substrates were created by stamping PDAC (or PAH) on SPS-topped multilayers, and m-dPEG acid on PDAC-topped multilayers, respectively. This technique can be used to produce functional biomimetic interfaces for potential applications in biosensors and biocatalysis, for creating arrays that could be used for high-throughput screening of compounds that interact with cell membranes, and for probing, and possibly controlling, interactions between living cells and synthetic membranes.

  12. New optical method for measuring the bending elasticity of lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minetti, C.; Vitkova, V.; Dubois, F.; Bivas, I.

    2016-02-01

    The knowledge of the elasticity of lipid bilayer structures is fundamental for new developments in biophysics, pharmacology and biomedical research. Lipid vesicles are readily prepared in laboratory conditions and employed for studying the physical properties of lipid membranes. The thermal fluctuation analysis of the shape of lipid vesicles (or flicker spectroscopy) is one of the experimental methods widely used for the measurement of the bending modulus of lipid bilayers. We present direct phase measurements performed on dilute vesicular suspensions by means of a new optical method exploiting holographic microscopy. For the bending constant of phosphatidylcholine bilayers we report the value of 23kBT in agreement with values previously measured by micropipette aspiration, electrodeformation and flicker spectroscopy of giant lipid vesicles. The application of this novel approach for the evaluation of the bending elasticity of lipid membranes opens the way to future developments in the phase measurements on lipid vesicles for the evaluation of their mechanical constants.

  13. Formation and characterization of planar lipid bilayer membranes from synthetic phytanyl-chained glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Toshima, Y; Minamikawa, H; Hato, M; Suzuki, K; Kamo, N

    1999-09-21

    The formability, current-voltage characteristics and stability of the planar lipid bilayer membranes from the synthetic phytanyl-chained glycolipids, 1, 3-di-O-phytanyl-2-O-(beta-glycosyl)glycerols (Glc(Phyt)(2), Mal(N)(Phyt)(2)) were studied. The single bilayer membranes were successfully formed from the glycolipid bearing a maltotriosyl group (Mal(3)(Phyt)(2)) by the folding method among the synthetic glycolipids examined. The membrane conductance of Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) bilayers in 100 mM KCl solution was significantly lower than that of natural phospholipid, soybean phospholipids (SBPL) bilayers, and comparable to that of 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) bilayers. From the permeation measurements of lipophilic ions through Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) and DPhPC bilayers, it could be presumed that the carbonyl groups in glycerol backbone of the lipid molecule are not necessarily required for the total dipole potential barrier against cations in Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) bilayer. The stability of Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) bilayers against long-term standing and external electric field change was rather high, compared with SBPL bilayers. Furthermore, a preliminary experiment over the functional incorporation of membrane proteins was demonstrated employing the channel proteins derived from octopus retina microvilli vesicles. The channel proteins were functionally incorporated into Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) bilayers in the presence of a negatively charged glycolipid. From these observations, synthetic phytanyl-chained glycolipid bilayers are promising materials for reconstitution and transport studies of membrane proteins.

  14. Tubular lipid membranes pulled from vesicles: Dependence of system equilibrium on lipid bilayer curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golushko, I. Yu.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditions of joint equilibrium and stability are derived for a spherical lipid vesicle and a tubular lipid membrane (TLM) pulled from this vesicle. The obtained equations establish relationships between the geometric and physical characteristics of the system and the external parameters, which have been found to be controllable in recent experiments. In particular, the proposed theory shows that, in addition to the pressure difference between internal and external regions of the system, the variable spontaneous average curvature of the lipid bilayer (forming the TLM) also influences the stability of the lipid tube. The conditions for stability of the cylindrical phase of TLMs after switching off the external force that initially formed the TLM from a vesicle are discussed. The loss of system stability under the action of a small axial force compressing the TLM is considered.

  15. Tubular lipid membranes pulled from vesicles: Dependence of system equilibrium on lipid bilayer curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Golushko, I. Yu. Rochal, S. B.

    2016-01-15

    Conditions of joint equilibrium and stability are derived for a spherical lipid vesicle and a tubular lipid membrane (TLM) pulled from this vesicle. The obtained equations establish relationships between the geometric and physical characteristics of the system and the external parameters, which have been found to be controllable in recent experiments. In particular, the proposed theory shows that, in addition to the pressure difference between internal and external regions of the system, the variable spontaneous average curvature of the lipid bilayer (forming the TLM) also influences the stability of the lipid tube. The conditions for stability of the cylindrical phase of TLMs after switching off the external force that initially formed the TLM from a vesicle are discussed. The loss of system stability under the action of a small axial force compressing the TLM is considered.

  16. High Resistivity Lipid Bilayers Assembled on Polyelectrolyte Multilayer Cushions: An Impedance Study.

    PubMed

    Diamanti, Eleftheria; Gregurec, Danijela; Rodríguez-Presa, María José; Gervasi, Claudio A; Azzaroni, Omar; Moya, Sergio E

    2016-06-28

    Supported membranes on top of polymer cushions are interesting models of biomembranes as cell membranes are supported on a polymer network of proteins and sugars. In this work lipid vesicles formed by a mixture of 30% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 70% 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DOPS) are assembled on top of a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) cushion of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(styrene sodium sulfonate) (PSS). The assembly results in the formation of a bilayer on top of the PEM as proven by means of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation technique (QCM-D) and by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). The electrical properties of the bilayer are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bilayer supported on the PEMs shows a high resistance, on the order of 10(7) Ω cm(2), which is indicative of a continuous, dense bilayer. Such resistance is comparable with the resistance of black lipid membranes. This is the first time that such values are obtained for lipid bilayers supported on PEMs. The assembly of polyelectrolytes on top of a lipid bilayer decreases the resistance of the bilayer up to 2 orders of magnitude. The assembly of the polyelectrolytes on the lipids induces defects or pores in the bilayer which in turn prompts a decrease in the measured resistance.

  17. Effect of Membrane Tension on the Electric Field and Dipole Potential of Lipid Bilayer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Warshaviak, Dora Toledo; Muellner, Michael J.; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2011-01-01

    The dipole potential of lipid bilayer membrane controls the difference in permeability of the membrane to oppositely charged ions. We have combined molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental studies to determine changes in electric field and electrostatic potential of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer in response to applied membrane tension. MD simulations based on CHARMM36 force field showed that electrostatic potential of DOPC bilayer decreases by ~45 mV in the physiologically relevant range of membrane tension values (0 to 15 dyn/cm). The electrostatic field exhibits a peak (~0.8×109 V/m) near the water/lipid interface which shifts by 0.9 Å towards the bilayer center at 15 dyn/cm. Maximum membrane tension of 15 dyn/cm caused 6.4% increase in area per lipid, 4.7% decrease in bilayer thickness and 1.4% increase in the volume of the bilayer. Dipole-potential sensitive fluorescent probes were used to detect membrane tension induced changes in DOPC vesicles exposed to osmotic stress. Experiments confirmed that dipole potential of DOPC bilayer decreases at higher membrane tensions. These results are suggestive of a potentially new mechanosensing mechanism by which mechanically induced structural changes in the lipid bilayer membrane could modulate the function of membrane proteins by altering electrostatic interactions and energetics of protein conformational states. PMID:21722624

  18. Non-Gaussian Fluctuations Resulting from Power-Law Trapping in a Lipid Bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Takuma; Yamamoto, Eiji; Yasuoka, Kenji; Hirano, Yoshinori; Yasui, Masato

    2011-10-01

    Anomalous diffusion in lipid bilayers is usually attributed to viscoelastic behavior. We compute the scaling exponent of relative fluctuations of the time-averaged mean square displacement in a lipid bilayer, by using a molecular dynamics simulation. According to the continuous time random walk theory, this exponent indicates non-Gaussian behavior caused by a power-law trapping time. Our results provide the first evidence that a lipid bilayer has not only viscoelastic properties but also trapping times distributed according to a power law.

  19. Dynamics, Surface Electrostatics and Phase Properties of Nanoscale Curved Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koolivand, Amir

    Surface electrostatic potential of a lipid bilayer governs many vital functions of living cells. Several classes of proteins are known of exhibiting strong binding preferences to curved lipid bilayer surfaces. In this project we employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of a recently introduced phospholipid (IMTSL-PTE) bearing a pH-sensitive nitroxide covalently attached to the lipid head group to measure the surface electrostatics of the lipid membrane and nanopore-confined lipid bilayers as a function of the bilayer curvature. The pKa of the ionizable group of this lipid-based spin probe is reporting on the bilayer surface electrostatics potential by changes in the EPR spectra. Specifically, both rotational dynamics and magnetic parameters of the nitroxide are affected by the probe protonation. Effect of curvature on the surface electrostatic potential and dynamics of lipid bilayer was studied for POPG and DMPG unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). It was found that the magnitude of the negative surface electrostatic potential increased upon decrease in the vesicle diameter for the bilayers in the fluid phase; however, no significant changes were observed for DMPG ULVs in a gel phase. We speculate that biologically relevant fluid bilayer phase allows for a larger variability in the lipid packing density in the lipid polar head group region than a more ordered gel phase and it is likely that the lipid flip-flop is responsible for pH equilibration of IMTSL-PTE. The kinetic EPR study of nitroxide reduction showed that the rate of flip-flop is in the order of 10-5 s-1. The flip-flop rate constant increases when vesicle size deceases. Oxygen permeability measured by X-ban EPR decreases in higher curved vesicles---an observation that is consistent with a tighter packing in smaller vesicles. Partitioning of a small nitroxide molecule TEMPO into ULVs was measured by X-band (9 GHz) and W-band (95 GHz) EPR spectroscopy. The partitioning coefficient of this probe in the lipid

  20. Application of pressure perturbation calorimetry to lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Heerklotz, Heiko; Seelig, Joachim

    2002-03-01

    Pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) is a new method that measures the heat consumed or released by a sample after a sudden pressure jump. The heat change can be used to derive the thermal volume expansion coefficient, alpha(V), as a function of temperature and, in the case of phase transitions, the volume change, DeltaV, occurring at the phase transition. Here we present the first report on the application of PPC to determine these quantities for lipid bilayers. We measure the volume changes of the pretransition and main transition of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), and the thermal expansivity of the fluid phase of DMPC and of two unsaturated lipids, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The high sensitivity of PPC instrumentation gives accurate data for alpha(V) and DeltaV even upon the application of relatively low pressures of approximately 5 bar.

  1. Tuning Membrane Thickness Fluctuations in Model Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ashkar, Rana; Nagao, Michihiro; Butler, Paul D.; Woodka, Andrea C.; Sen, Mani K.; Koga, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    Membrane thickness fluctuations have been associated with a variety of critical membrane phenomena, such as cellular exchange, pore formation, and protein binding, which are intimately related to cell functionality and effective pharmaceuticals. Therefore, understanding how these fluctuations are controlled can remarkably impact medical applications involving selective macromolecule binding and efficient cellular drug intake. Interestingly, previous reports on single-component bilayers show almost identical thickness fluctuation patterns for all investigated lipid tail-lengths, with similar temperature-independent membrane thickness fluctuation amplitude in the fluid phase and a rapid suppression of fluctuations upon transition to the gel phase. Presumably, in vivo functions require a tunability of these parameters, suggesting that more complex model systems are necessary. In this study, we explore lipid tail-length mismatch as a regulator for membrane fluctuations. Unilamellar vesicles of an equimolar mixture of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and distearoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, with different tail-lengths and melting transition temperatures, are used as a model system for this next level of complexity. Indeed, this binary system exhibits a significant response of membrane dynamics to thermal variations. The system also suggests a decoupling of the amplitude and the relaxation time of the membrane thickness fluctuations, implying a potential for independent control of these two key parameters. PMID:26153707

  2. Analytical investigation of bilayer lipid biosensor based on graphene.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Elnaz; Buntat, Zolkafle; Shahraki, Elmira; Parvaz, Ramtin; Kiani, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is another allotrope of carbon with two-dimensional monolayer honeycomb. Owing to its special characteristics including electrical, physical and optical properties, graphene is known as a more suitable candidate compared to other materials to be used in the sensor application. It is possible, moreover, to use biosensor by using electrolyte-gated field effect transistor based on graphene (GFET) to identify the alterations in charged lipid membrane properties. The current article aims to show how thickness and charges of a membrane electric can result in a monolayer graphene-based GFET while the emphasis is on the conductance variation. It is proposed that the thickness and electric charge of the lipid bilayer (LLP and QLP) are functions of carrier density, and to find the equation relating these suitable control parameters are introduced. Artificial neural network algorithm as well as support vector regression has also been incorporated to obtain other models for conductance characteristic. The results comparison between analytical models, artificial neural network and support vector regression with the experimental data extracted from previous work show an acceptable agreement.

  3. Mechanisms of Budding of Nanoscale Particles through Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herrero, Teresa; Velasco, Enrique; Hagan, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the budding of a nanoscale particle through a lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and an elastic theory, with the aim of determining the extent to which equilibrium elasticity theory can describe the factors that control the mechanism and efficiency of budding. The particle is a smooth sphere which experiences attractive interactions to the lipid head groups. Depending on the parameters, we observe four classes of dynamical trajectories: particle adhesion to the membrane, stalled partially wrapped states, budding followed by scission, and membrane rupture. In most regions of parameter space we find that the elastic theory agrees nearly quantitatively with the simulated phase behavior as a function of adhesion strength, membrane bending rigidity, and particle radius. However, at parameter values near the transition between particle adhesion and budding, we observe long-lived partially wrapped states which are not captured by existing elastic theories. These states could constrain the accessible system parameters for those enveloped viruses or drug delivery vehicles which rely on exo- or endocytosis for membrane transport. PMID:22803595

  4. Asymmetric Structural Features in Single Supported Lipid Bilayers Containing Cholesterol and GM1 Resolved with Synchrotron X-Ray Reflectivity

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Christian; Horton, Margaret R.; Krause, Bärbel; Gast, Alice P.; Rädler, Joachim O.; Nickel, Bert

    2008-01-01

    The cell membrane comprises numerous protein and lipid molecules capable of asymmetric organization between leaflets and liquid-liquid phase separation. We use single supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) to model cell membranes, and study how cholesterol and asymmetrically oriented ganglioside receptor GM1 affect membrane structure using synchrotron x-ray reflectivity. Using mixtures of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, we characterize the structure of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered SLBs in terms of acyl-chain density, headgroup size, and leaflet thickness. SLBs modeling the liquid-ordered phase are 10 Å thicker and have a higher acyl-chain electron density (〈ρchain〉 = 0.33 e−/Å3) compared to SLBs modeling the liquid-disordered phase, or pure phosphatidylcholine SLBs (〈ρchain〉 = 0.28 e−/Å3). Incorporating GM1 into the distal bilayer leaflet results in membrane asymmetry and thickening of the leaflet of 4–9 Å. The structural effect of GM1 is more complex in SLBs of cholesterol/sphingomyelin/1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, where the distal chains show a high electron density (〈ρchain〉 = 0.33 e−/Å3) and the lipid diffusion constant is reduced by ∼50%, as measured by fluorescence microscopy. These results give quantitative information about the leaflet asymmetry and electron density changes induced by receptor molecules that penetrate a single lipid bilayer. PMID:18375517

  5. Fluorescence study of lipid bilayer interactions of Eu(III) coordination complexes.

    PubMed

    Kutsenko, Olga K; Trusova, Valeriya M; Gorbenko, Galyna P; Deligeorgiev, Todor; Vasilev, Aleksey; Kaloianova, Stefka; Lesev, Nedyalko

    2011-07-01

    The interaction between Eu(III) tris-β-diketonato coordination complexes (EC), displaying antitumor activity, and lipid vesicles composed of zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine has been studied using fluorescence spectroscopy techniques. To characterize EC-membrane binding, several fluorescent probes, including pyrene, Prodan and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, have been employed. It has been found that EC display effective partitioning into lipid phase, giving rise to structural modifications of both polar and nonpolar lipid bilayer regions, viz. enhancement of membrane hydration and increase in tightness of lipid chain packing. The fact that EC accumulating in lipid bilayer are incapable of inducing significant disruption of membrane structural integrity creates strong prerequisites for development of liposomal nanocarriers of these potential antitumor drugs. Such a possibility is also corroborated by the observation that EC membrane incorporation does not prevent lipid bilayer partitioning of long-wavelength squaraine dyes which represent promising candidates for visualization of liposome biodistribution.

  6. Rough-smooth-rough dynamic interface growth in supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Verma, Piyush; Mager, Morgan D; Melosh, N A

    2014-01-01

    The role of lipid bilayer viscoelasticity and the substrate-bilayer interactions on the spreading behavior of supported phospholipid bilayer membranes is studied using fluorescence microscopy. Unlike the monotonic roughening observed on silica or in other dynamic interface growth systems, a unique rough-smooth-rough (RSR) interface transition occurred on chromium oxide with a roughness exponent of 0.45 ± 0.04. This RSR transition is attributed to the elasticity of the lipid bilayer which is initially under compression due to surface interactions, and is well approximated by adding an elastic term to the quenched noise Edwards-Wilkinson equation. A phase diagram depicting the conditions necessary to observe RSR transitions in dynamic interface systems is derived, revealing the classes of dynamically evolving systems is broader than previously thought, and the viscoelastic nature of the lipid bilayer may play a role in supported membrane behavior.

  7. Material property characteristics for lipid bilayers containing lysolipid.

    PubMed Central

    Zhelev, D V

    1998-01-01

    The apparent area expansion modulus and tensile strength of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) membranes are measured in the presence of monooleoylphosphatidylcholine (MOPC). The apparent area expansion modulus decreases from 171 mN m-1 for pure EPC membrane to 82 mN m-1 for a membrane containing 30 mol % MOPC. This significant decrease of the apparent area expansion modulus is attributed to the change of the membrane area due to the tension-dependent exchange of MOPC between the bathing solution and the membrane. Similar to the apparent area expansion modulus, the tensile strength of the membrane decreases with the increase of the molar concentration of MOPC in the membrane. The tensile strength of pure EPC membrane is 9.4 mN m-1 whereas that for a membrane containing 30 mol % MOPC is only 1.8 mN m-1, and for a membrane containing 50 mol % MOPC it is even smaller, on the order of 0.07 mN m-1. The decrease of the tensile strength is coupled with a decrease of the work for membrane breakdown, which changes from 4.3 x 10(-2) kT for pure EPC membrane to 2 x 10(-6) kT for a membrane with 50 mol % MOPC. Overall, these results show that the decrease of the apparent area expansion modulus in the presence of exchangeable molecules is a fundamental property for all membranes and depends on the area occupied by these molecules. The method presented here provides a unique tool for measuring the area occupied by an exchangeable molecule in the bilayer membrane. PMID:9649389

  8. Lipid insertion domain unfolding regulates protein orientational transition behavior in a lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kwan Hon; Qiu, Liming; Cheng, Sara Y; Vaughn, Mark W

    2015-11-01

    We have used coarse-grained (CG) and united atom (UA) molecular dynamics simulations to explore the mechanisms of protein orientational transition of a model peptide (Aβ42) in a phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (PC/CHO) lipid bilayer. We started with an inserted state of Aβ42 containing a folded (I) or unfolded (II) K28-A42 lipid insertion domain (LID), which was stabilized by the K28-snorkeling and A42-anchoring to the PC polar groups in the lipid bilayer. After a UA-to-CG transformation and a 1000ns-CG simulation for enhancing the sampling of protein orientations, we discovered two transitions: I-to-"deep inserted" state with disrupted K28-snorkeling and II-to-"deep surface" state with disrupted A42-anchoring. The new states remained stable after a CG-to-UA transformation and a 200ns-UA simulation relaxation. Significant changes in the cholesterol-binding domain of Aβ42 and protein-induced membrane disruptions were evident after the transitions. We propose that the conformation of the LID regulates protein orientational transitions in the lipid membrane.

  9. Pore spanning lipid bilayers on silanised nanoporous alumina membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Jani, Abdul M.; Zhou, Jinwen; Nussio, Matthew R.; Losic, Dusan; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2008-12-01

    The preparation of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) on solid surfaces is important for many studies probing various important biological phenomena including the cell barrier properties, ion-channels, biosensing, drug discovery and protein/ligand interactions. In this work we present new membrane platforms based on suspended BLMs on nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. AAO membranes were prepared by electrochemical anodisation of aluminium foil in 0.3 M oxalic acid using a custom-built etching cell and applying voltage of 40 V, at 1oC. AAO membranes with controlled diameter of pores from 30 - 40 nm (top of membrane) and 60 -70 nm (bottom of membrane) were fabricated. Pore dimensions have been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AAO membranes were chemically functionalised with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Confirmation of the APTES attachment to the AAO membrane was achieved by means of infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of functionalised membranes show several peaks from 2800 to 3000 cm-1 which were assigned to symmetric and antisymmetric CH2 bands. XPS data of the membrane showed a distinct increase in C1s (285 eV), N1s (402 eV) and Si2p (102 eV) peaks after silanisation. The water contact angle of the functionalised membrane was 80o as compared to 20o for the untreated membrane. The formation of BLMs comprising dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine (DOPS) on APTESmodified AAO membranes was carried using the vesicle spreading technique. AFM imaging and force spectroscopy was used to characterise the structural and nanomechanical properties of the suspended membrane. This technique also confirmed the stability of bilayers on the nanoporous alumina support for several days. Fabricated suspended BLMs on nanoporous AAO hold promise for the construction of biomimetic membrane architectures with embedded

  10. Combined Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulation of hydrated 18:0 sphingomyelin-cholesterol lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khelashvili, George A.; Scott, H. L.

    2004-05-01

    We have carried out atomic level molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations of hydrated 18:0 sphingomyelin (SM)-cholesterol (CHOL) bilayers at temperatures of 20 and 50 °C. The simulated systems each contained 266 SM, 122 CHOL, and 11861 water molecules. Each simulation was run for 10 ns under semi-isotropic pressure boundary conditions. The particle-mesh Ewald method was used for long-range electrostatic interactions. Properties of the systems were calculated over the final 3 ns. We compare the properties of 20 and 50 °C bilayer systems with each other, with experimental data, and with experimental and simulated properties of pure SM bilayers and dipalmitoyl phospatidyl choline (DPPC)-CHOL bilayers. The simulations reveal an overall similarity of both systems, despite the 30 °C temperature difference which brackets the pure SM main phase transition. The area per molecule, lipid chain order parameter profiles, atom distributions, and electron density profiles are all very similar for the two simulated systems. Consistent with simulations from our lab and others, we find strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding in SM molecules between the phosphate ester oxygen and the hydroxyl hydrogen atoms. We also find that cholesterol hydroxyl groups tend to form hydrogen bonds primarily with SM carbonyl, methyl, and amide moieties and to a lesser extent methyl and hydroxyl oxygens.

  11. Single Lipid Molecule Dynamics on Supported Lipid Bilayers with Membrane Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Philip P.; Weisgerber, Alan W.; Feuerbach, Alec M.; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    The plasma membrane is a highly compartmentalized, dynamic material and this organization is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes. Nanoscale domains allow proteins to organize for cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, and other essential processes. Even in the absence of proteins, lipids have the ability to organize into domains as a result of a variety of chemical and physical interactions. One feature of membranes that affects lipid domain formation is membrane curvature. To directly test the role of curvature in lipid sorting, we measured the accumulation of two similar lipids, 1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE) and hexadecanoic acid (HDA), using a supported lipid bilayer that was assembled over a nanopatterned surface to obtain regions of membrane curvature. Both lipids studied contain 16 carbon, saturated tails and a head group tag for fluorescence microscopy measurements. The accumulation of lipids at curvatures ranging from 28 nm to 55 nm radii was measured and fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulated more than fluorescein labeled HDA at regions of membrane curvature. We then tested whether single biotinylated DHPE molecules sense curvature using single particle tracking methods. Similar to groups of fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulating at curvature, the dynamics of single molecules of biotinylated DHPE was also affected by membrane curvature and highly confined motion was observed. PMID:28294967

  12. Formation, Stability, and Mobility of One-Dimensional Lipid Bilayer on High Curvature Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J; Martinez, J; Artyukhin, A; Sirbuly, D; Wang, Y; Ju, J W; Stroeve, P; Noy, A

    2007-03-23

    Curved lipid membranes are ubiquitous in living systems and play an important role in many biological processes. To understand how curvature and lipid composition affect membrane formation and fluidity we have assembled and studied mixed 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) supported lipid bilayers on amorphous silicon nanowires with controlled diameters ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. Addition of cone-shaped DOPE molecules to cylindrical DOPC molecules promotes vesicle fusion and bilayer formation on smaller diameter nanowires. Our experiments demonstrate that nanowire-supported bilayers are mobile, exhibit fast recovery after photobleaching, and have low concentration of defects. Lipid diffusion coefficients in these high-curvature tubular membranes are comparable to the values reported for flat supported bilayers and increase with decreasing nanowire diameter.

  13. Molecular design and MD simulations of epitaxial superlattice of self-assembling ternary lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, George; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, K.

    2011-10-01

    Multicomponent lipid bilayers represent an important model system for studying cell membranes. At present, an ordered multicomponent phospholipid/cholesterol bilayer system involving charged lipid is still not available. Using a lipid superlattice (SL) model, a 13 x 15 x 15 nm^3 ternary phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine/cholesterol bilayer system in water with simultaneous headgroup SL and acyl chain SL at different depths, or epitaxial SL, of the bilayer has been designed with atomistic detail. The arrangements of this epitaxial SL system were optimized by only two molecular parameters, lattice space and rotational angle of the lipids. Using atomistic MD simulations, we demonstrated the stability of the ordered structures for more than 100 ns. A positional restrained system was also used as a control. This system will provide new insights into understanding the nanodomain structures of cell membranes at the molecular level.

  14. Electrostatic interactions at the microscale modulate dynamics and distribution of lipids in bilayers.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, Agustín; Wilke, Natalia

    2017-01-18

    For decades, it has been assumed that electrostatic long-range (micron distances) repulsions in lipid bilayers are negligible due to screening from the aqueous milieu. This concept, mostly derived from theoretical calculations, is broadly accepted in the biophysical community. Here we present experimental evidence showing that domain-domain electrostatic repulsions in charged and also in neutral lipid bilayers regulate the diffusion, in-plane structuring and merging of lipid domains in the micron range. All the experiments were performed on both, lipid monolayers and bilayers, and the remarkable similarity in the results found in bilayers compared to monolayers led us to propose that inter-domain repulsions occur mainly within the plane of the membrane. Finally, our results indicate that electrostatic interactions between the species inserted in a cell membrane are not negligible, not only at nanometric but also at larger distances, suggesting another manner for regulating the membrane properties.

  15. Mechanism of Lipid Vesicles Spreading and Bilayer Formation on a Au(111) Surface.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, Jan; Juhaniewicz, Joanna; Güzeloğlu, Alişan; Sęk, Sławomir

    2015-10-13

    Spreading of small unilamellar vesicles on solid surfaces is one of the most common ways to obtain supported lipid bilayers. Although the method has been used successfully for many years, the details of this process are still the subject of intense debate. Particularly controversial is the mechanism of bilayer formation on metallic surfaces like gold. In this work, we have employed scanning probe microscopy techniques to evaluate the details of lipid vesicles spreading and formation of the lipid bilayer on a Au(111) surface in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. Nanoscale imaging revealed that the mechanism of this process differs significantly from that usually assumed for hydrophilic surfaces such as mica, glass, and silicon oxide. Formation of the bilayer on gold involves several steps. Initially, the vesicles accumulate on a gold surface and release lipid molecules that adsorb on a Au(111) surface, giving rise to the appearance of highly ordered stripelike domains. The latter serve as a template for the buildup of a hemimicellar film, which contributes to the increased hydrophilicity of the external surface and facilitates further adsorption and rupture of the vesicles. As a result, the bilayer is spread over a hemimicellar film, and then it is followed by slow fusion between coupled layers leading to formation of a single bilayer supported on a gold surface. We believe that the results presented in this work may provide some new insights into the area of research related to supported lipid bilayers.

  16. Water permeability and mechanical strength of polyunsaturated lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Olbrich, K; Rawicz, W; Needham, D; Evans, E

    2000-01-01

    Micropipette aspiration was used to test mechanical strength and water permeability of giant-fluid bilayer vesicles composed of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine PC lipids. Eight synthetic-diacyl PCs were chosen with 18 carbon chains and degrees of unsaturation that ranged from one double bond (C18:0/1, C18:1/0) to six double bonds per PC molecule (diC18:3). Produced by increasing pipette pressurization, membrane tensions for lysis of single vesicles at 21 degrees C ranged from approximately 9 to 10 mN/m for mono- and dimono-unsaturated PCs (18:0/1, 18:1/0, and diC18:1) but dropped abruptly to approximately 5 mN/m when one or both PC chains contained two cis-double bonds (C18:0/2 and diC18:2) and even lower approximately 3 mN/m for diC18:3. Driven by osmotic filtration following transfer of individual vesicles to a hypertonic environment, the apparent coefficient for water permeability at 21 degrees C varied modestly in a range from approximately 30 to 40 microm/s for mono- and dimono-unsaturated PCs. However, with two or more cis-double bonds in a chain, the apparent permeability rose to approximately 50 microm/s for C18:0/2, then strikingly to approximately 90 microm/s for diC18:2 and approximately 150 microm/s for diC18:3. The measurements of water permeability were found to scale exponentially with the reduced temperatures reported for these lipids in the literature. The correlation supports the concept that increase in free volume acquired in thermal expansion above the main gel-liquid crystal transition of a bilayer is a major factor in water transport. Taken together, the prominent changes in lysis tension and water permeability indicate that major changes occur in chain packing and cohesive interactions when two or more cis-double bonds alternate with saturated bonds along a chain. PMID:10866958

  17. Specific volume and compressibility of bilayer lipid membranes with incorporated Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Hianik, Tibor; Rybár, Peter; Krivánek, Roland; Petríková, Mária; Roudna, Milena; Apell, Hans Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasound velocimetry and densitometry methods were used to study the interactions of the Na,K-ATPase with the lipid bilayer in large unilamellar liposomes composed of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC). The ultrasound velocity increased and the specific volume of the phospholipids decreased with increasing concentrations of protein. These experiments allowed us to determine the reduced specific apparent compressibility of the lipid bilayer, which decreased by approx. 11% with increasing concentrations of the Na,K-ATPase up to an ATPase/DOPC molar ratio = 2 × 10⁻⁴. Assuming that ATPase induces rigidization of the surrounding lipid molecules one can obtain from the compressibility data that 3.7 to 100 times more lipid molecules are affected by the protein in comparison with annular lipids. However, this is in contradiction with the current theories of the phase transitions in lipid bilayers. It is suggested that another physical mechanisms should be involved for explanation of observed effect.

  18. Hydrodynamic Forces on Macromolecules Protruding from Lipid Bilayers Due to External Liquid Flows.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Peter; Jönsson, Bengt

    2015-11-24

    It has previously been observed that an externally applied hydrodynamic shear flow above a fluid lipid bilayer can change the local concentration of macromolecules that are associated with the lipid bilayer. The external liquid flow results in a hydrodynamic force on molecules protruding from the lipid bilayer, causing them to move in the direction of the flow. However, there has been no quantitative study about the magnitude of these forces. We here use finite element simulations to investigate how the magnitude of the external hydrodynamic forces varies with the size and shape of the studied macromolecule. The simulations show that the hydrodynamic force is proportional to the effective hydrodynamic area of the studied molecule, Ahydro, multiplied by the mean hydrodynamic shear stress acting on the membrane surface, σhydro. The parameter Ahydro depends on the size and shape of the studied macromolecule above the lipid bilayer and scales with the cross-sectional area of the molecule. We also investigate how hydrodynamic shielding from other surrounding macromolecules decreases Ahydro when the surface coverage of the shielding macromolecules increases. Experiments where the protein streptavidin is anchored to a supported lipid bilayer on the floor of a microfluidic channel were finally performed at three different surface concentrations, Φ = 1%, 6%, and 10%, where the protein is being moved relative to the lipid bilayer by a liquid flow through the channel. From photobleaching measurements of fluorescently labeled streptavidin we found the experimental drift data to be within good accuracy of the simulated results, less than 12% difference, indicating the validity of the results obtained from the simulations. In addition to giving a deeper insight into how a liquid flow can affect membrane-associated molecules in a lipid bilayer, we also see an interesting potential of using hydrodynamic flow experiments together with the obtained results to study the size and

  19. The Role of Atomic Polarization in the Thermodynamics of Chloroform Partitioning to Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Vorobyov, Igor; Bennett, W F Drew; Tieleman, D Peter; Allen, Toby W; Noskov, Sergei

    2012-02-14

    In spite of extensive research and use in medical practice, the precise molecular mechanism of volatile anesthetic action remains unknown. The distribution of anesthetics within lipid bilayers and potential targeting to membrane proteins is thought to be central to therapeutic function. Therefore, obtaining a molecular level understanding of volatile anesthetic partitioning into lipid bilayers is of vital importance to modern pharmacology. In this study we investigate the partitioning of the prototypical anesthetic, chloroform, into lipid bilayers and different organic solvents using molecular dynamics simulations with potential models ranging from simplified coarse-grained MARTINI to additive and polarizable CHARMM all-atom force fields. Many volatile anesthetics display significant inducible dipole moments, which correlate with their potency, yet the exact role of molecular polarizability in their stabilization within lipid bilayers remains unknown. We observe that explicit treatment of atomic polarizability makes it possible to accurately reproduce solvation free energies in solvents with different polarities, allowing for quantitative studies in heterogeneous molecular distributions, such as lipid bilayers. We calculate the free energy profiles for chloroform crossing lipid bilayers to reveal a role of polarizability in modulating chloroform partitioning thermodynamics via the chloroform-induced dipole moment and highlight competitive binding to the membrane core and toward the glycerol backbone that may have significant implications for understanding anesthetic action.

  20. Insertion and pore formation driven by adsorption of proteins onto lipid bilayer membrane-water interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckermann, M J; Heimburg, T

    2001-01-01

    We describe the binding of proteins to lipid bilayers in the case for which binding can occur either by adsorption to the lipid bilayer membrane-water interface or by direct insertion into the bilayer itself. We examine in particular the case when the insertion and pore formation are driven by the adsorption process using scaled particle theory. The adsorbed proteins form a two-dimensional "surface gas" at the lipid bilayer membrane-water interface that exerts a lateral pressure on the lipid bilayer membrane. Under conditions of strong intrinsic binding and a high degree of interfacial converge, this pressure can become high enough to overcome the energy barrier for protein insertion. Under these conditions, a subtle equilibrium exists between the adsorbed and inserted proteins. We propose that this provides a control mechanism for reversible insertion and pore formation of proteins such as melittin and magainin. Next, we discuss experimental data for the binding isotherms of cytochrome c to charged lipid membranes in the light of our theory and predict that cytochrome c inserts into charged lipid bilayers at low ionic strength. This prediction is supported by titration calorimetry results that are reported here. We were furthermore able to describe the observed binding isotherms of the pore-forming peptides endotoxin (alpha 5-helix) and of pardaxin to zwitterionic vesicles from our theory by assuming adsorption/insertion equilibrium. PMID:11606262

  1. Influence of membrane surface charge on adsorption of complement proteins onto supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, Saziye; Jackman, Joshua A; Hunziker, Walter; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-12-01

    The complement system is an important part of the innate immune response, and there is great interest in understanding how complement proteins interact with lipid membrane interfaces, especially in the context of recognizing foreign particulates (e.g., liposomal nanomedicines). Herein, a supported lipid bilayer platform was employed in order to investigate the effect of membrane surface charge (positive, negative, or neutral) on the adsorption of three complement proteins. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments measured the real-time kinetics and total uptake of protein adsorption onto supported lipid bilayers. The results demonstrate that all three proteins exhibit preferential, mainly irreversible adsorption onto negatively charged lipid bilayers, yet there was also significant variation in total uptake and the relative degree of adsorption onto negatively charged bilayers versus neutral and positively charged bilayers. The total uptake was also observed to strongly depend on the bulk protein concentration. Taken together, our findings contribute to a broader understanding of the factors which influence adsorption of complement proteins onto lipid membranes and offer guidance towards the design of synthetic lipid bilayers with immunocompetent features.

  2. Diffusive nature of xenon anesthetic changes properties of a lipid bilayer: molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Eiji; Akimoto, Takuma; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Yoshinori; Yasui, Masato; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2012-08-02

    Effects of general anesthesia can be controllable by the ambient pressure. We perform molecular dynamics simulations for a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine lipid bilayer with or without xenon molecules by changing the pressure to elucidate the mechanism of the pressure reversal of general anesthesia. According to the diffusive nature of xenon molecules in the lipid bilayer, a decrease in the orientational order of the lipid tails, an increase in the area and volume per lipid molecule, and an increase in the diffusivity of lipid molecules are observed. We show that the properties of the lipid bilayer with xenon molecules at high pressure come close to those without xenon molecules at 0.1 MPa. Furthermore, we find that xenon molecules are concentrated in the middle of the lipid bilayer at high pressures by the pushing effect and that the diffusivity of xenon molecules is suppressed. These results suggest that the pressure reversal originates from a jamming and suppression of the diffusivity of xenon molecules in lipid bilayers.

  3. Shaped Apertures in Photoresist Films Enhance the Lifetime and Mechanical Stability of Suspended Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Kalsi, Sumit; Powl, Andrew M.; Wallace, B.A.; Morgan, Hywel; de Planque, Maurits R.R.

    2014-01-01

    Planar lipid bilayers suspended in apertures provide a controlled environment for ion channel studies. However, short lifetimes and poor mechanical stability of suspended bilayers limit the experimental throughput of bilayer electrophysiology experiments. Although bilayers are more stable in smaller apertures, ion channel incorporation through vesicle fusion with the suspended bilayer becomes increasingly difficult. In an alternative bilayer stabilization approach, we have developed shaped apertures in SU8 photoresist that have tapered sidewalls and a minimum diameter between 60 and 100 μm. Bilayers formed at the thin tip of these shaped apertures, either with the painting or the folding method, display drastically increased lifetimes, typically >20 h, and mechanical stability, being able to withstand extensive perturbation of the buffer solution. Single-channel electrical recordings of the peptide alamethicin and of the proteoliposome-delivered potassium channel KcsA demonstrate channel conductance with low noise, made possible by the small capacitance of the 50 μm thick SU8 septum, which is only thinned around the aperture, and unimpeded proteoliposome fusion, enabled by the large aperture diameter. We anticipate that these shaped apertures with micrometer edge thickness can substantially enhance the throughput of channel characterization by bilayer lipid membrane electrophysiology, especially in combination with automated parallel bilayer platforms. PMID:24739164

  4. Millimeter microwave effect on ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M C

    1995-01-01

    The effects of millimeter microwaves in the frequency range of 54-76 GHz on capacitance and conductance of lipid bilayer membranes (BLM) were studied. Some of the membranes were modified by gramicidin A and amphotericin B or by tetraphenylboron anions (TPhB-). The millimeter microwaves were pulse-modulated (PW) at repetition rates ranging from 1 to 100 pps, PW at 1000 pps, or unmodulated continuous waves (CW). The maximum output power at the waveguide outlet was 20 mW. It was found that CW irradiation decreased the unmodified BLM capacitance by 1.2% +/- 0.5%. At the same time, membrane current induced by TPhB- transport increased by 5% +/- 1%. The changes in conductance of ionic channels formed by gramicidin A and amphotericin B were small (0.6% +/- 0.4%). No "resonance-like" effects of mm-wave irradiation on membrane capacitance, ionic channel currents, or TPhB- transport were detected. All changes in membrane capacitance and currents were independent of the modulation employed and were equivalent to heating by approximately 1.1 degrees C.

  5. Detergent interaction with tethered bilayer lipid membranes for protein reconstitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broccio, Matteo; Zan Goh, Haw; Loesche, Mathias

    2009-03-01

    Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) are self-assembled biomimetic structures in which the membrane is separated from a solid substrate by a nm-thick hydrated submembrane space. These model systems are being used in binding studies of peripheral proteins and exotoxins. Here we aim at their application for the reconstitution of water-insoluble integral membrane proteins. As an alternative to fusion of preformed proteoliposomes we study the direct reconstitution of such proteins for applications in biosensing and pharmaceutical screening. For reconstitution, highly insulating tBLMs (R˜10^5-10^6 φ) were temporarily incubated with a detergent to screen for conditions that keep the detergent-saturated membranestable and ready to incorporate detergent-solubilized proteins. We assess the electrical characteristics, i.e. specific resistance and capacitance, by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under timed incubation with decylmaltoside and dodecylmaltoside detergents in a regime around their critical micelle concentration, 1.8 mM and 0.17 mM respectively and demonstrate the restoration of the tBLM upon detergent removal. Thereby a range of concentration and incubation times was identified, that represents optimal conditions for the subsequent membrane protein reconstitution.

  6. Acyl chain composition and coexisting fluid phases in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongwen; Bradley, Miranda; Mitchell, Drake

    2011-10-01

    At room temperature phospholipid bilayers enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol may form a solid phase as well as two coexisting fluid phases. These are the standard fluid phase, or the liquid-disordered phase, ld, and the liquid-ordered phase, lo, which is commonly associated with lipid rafts. Ternary mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphocholine (POPC; 16:0,18:1 PC), sphingomyelin (SPM), and cholesterol (Chol) form coexisting lo, ld and solid phases over a wide range of molar ratios. We are examining the ability of two fluorescent probes to detect these 2 phases: NBD linked to di-16:0 PE which partitions strongly into the lo phase and NBD linked to di-18:1 PE which partitions strongly into the ld phase. We are also examining the effect of the highly polyunsaturated phospholipid stearoyl-docosahexanoyl-phosphocholine (SDPC; 18:0, 22:6 PC) on the ternary phase diagram of POPC/SPM/Chol with particular focus on the functionally important lo/ld coexistence region. We report on the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay dynamics of these two fluorescent probes.

  7. Gap junction channels reconstituted in two closely apposed lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Ramundo-Orlando, Alfonsina; Serafino, Annalucia; Villalobo, Antonio

    2005-04-01

    Intercellular communication mediated by gap junction channels plays an important role in many cellular processes. In contrast to other channels, gap junction channels span two plasma membranes resulting in an intracellular location for both ends of the junctional pore and the regulatory sites for channel gating. This configuration presents unique challenges for detailed experimental studies of junctional channel physiology and ligand-activation in situ. Availability of an appropriate model system would significantly facilitate future studies of gap junction channel function and structure. Here we show that the double-membrane channel can be reconstituted in pairs of closely apposed lipid bilayers, as experienced in cells. We have trapped the calcium-sensitive dye, arsenazo III (AIII), partially calcium-saturated (AIII-Ca), in one population of connexin32 reconstituted-liposomes, and EGTA in a second one. In such mixtures, the interaction of EGTA with AIII-Ca was measured by a large color shift from blue to red (decreased absorbance at 652 nm). The exchange of these compounds through gap junctions was proportional to these decrements. Results indicate that these connexon-mediated interliposomal channels are functional and are inhibited by the addition of alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid and by flufenamic acid, two gap junction communication inhibitors. Future use of this model system has the potential to improve our understanding of the permeability and modulation of junctional channels in its native intercellular assembly.

  8. Undulation Contributions to the Area Compressibility in Lipid Bilayer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Waheed, Qaiser; Edholm, Olle

    2009-01-01

    Abstract It is here shown that there is a considerable system size-dependence in the area compressibility calculated from area fluctuations in lipid bilayers. This is caused by the contributions to the area fluctuations from undulations. This is also the case in experiments. At present, such a contribution, in most cases, is subtracted from the experimental values to obtain a true area compressibility. This should also be done with the simulation values. Here, this is done by extrapolating area compressibility versus system size, down to very small (zero) system size, where undulations no longer exist. The area compressibility moduli obtained from such simulations do not agree with experimental true area compressibility moduli as well as the uncorrected ones from contemporary or earlier simulations, but tend, instead, to be ∼50% too large. As a byproduct, the bending modulus can be calculated from the slope of the compressibility modulus versus system-size. The values obtained in this way for the bending modulus are then in good agreement with experiment. PMID:19917229

  9. Undulation contributions to the area compressibility in lipid bilayer simulations.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Qaiser; Edholm, Olle

    2009-11-18

    It is here shown that there is a considerable system size-dependence in the area compressibility calculated from area fluctuations in lipid bilayers. This is caused by the contributions to the area fluctuations from undulations. This is also the case in experiments. At present, such a contribution, in most cases, is subtracted from the experimental values to obtain a true area compressibility. This should also be done with the simulation values. Here, this is done by extrapolating area compressibility versus system size, down to very small (zero) system size, where undulations no longer exist. The area compressibility moduli obtained from such simulations do not agree with experimental true area compressibility moduli as well as the uncorrected ones from contemporary or earlier simulations, but tend, instead, to be approximately 50% too large. As a byproduct, the bending modulus can be calculated from the slope of the compressibility modulus versus system-size. The values obtained in this way for the bending modulus are then in good agreement with experiment.

  10. Partial Localization, Lipid Bilayers, and the Elastica Functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Mark A.; Röger, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    Partial localization is the phenomenon of self-aggregation of mass into highdensity structures that are thin in one direction and extended in the others. We give a detailed study of an energy functional that arises in a simplified model for lipid bilayer membranes. We demonstrate that this functional, defined on a class of two-dimensional spatial mass densities, exhibits partial localization and displays the “solid-like” behaviour of cell membranes. Specifically, we show that density fields of moderate energy are partially localized, that is, resemble thin structures. Deviation from a specific uniform thickness, creation of “ends,” and the bending of such structures all carry an energy penalty, of different orders in terms of the thickness of the structure. These findings are made precise in a Gamma-convergence result. We prove that a rescaled version of the energy functional converges in the zero-thickness limit to a functional that is defined on a class of planar curves. Finiteness of the limit enforces both optimal thickness and non-fracture; if these conditions are met, then the limit value is given by the classical elastica (bending) energy of the curve.

  11. Analysis of the Torus Surrounding Planar Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephen H.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and behavior of the torus (annulus) surrounding planar lipid bilayer membranes formed across a cylindrical aperture are analyzed using equations for the shape and volume of the annulus derived by the methods of variational calculus. The analysis leads to the following results: (a) Design criteria for the aperture can be established. (b) The transition region between thin film and thick annulus can be defined quantitatively and its effect on the measurement of specific capacitance determined. (c) At fixed annulus volume the diameter of the thin membrane is a function of the thin film-annulus contact angle. This suggests a new method for examining changes in free energy of the thin film, and explains why the area of thin film increases reversibly when potentials are present across the film. (d) In the absence of buoyant forces, the equations for the shape and volume of the annulus consist of incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds; however, the shape of the annulus in the transition region can be described with good accuracy by an approximate equation of greater simplicity. PMID:5019479

  12. Analysis of the torus surrounding planar lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    White, S H

    1972-04-01

    The characteristics and behavior of the torus (annulus) surrounding planar lipid bilayer membranes formed across a cylindrical aperture are analyzed using equations for the shape and volume of the annulus derived by the methods of variational calculus. The analysis leads to the following results: (a) Design criteria for the aperture can be established. (b) The transition region between thin film and thick annulus can be defined quantitatively and its effect on the measurement of specific capacitance determined. (c) At fixed annulus volume the diameter of the thin membrane is a function of the thin film-annulus contact angle. This suggests a new method for examining changes in free energy of the thin film, and explains why the area of thin film increases reversibly when potentials are present across the film. (d) In the absence of buoyant forces, the equations for the shape and volume of the annulus consist of incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds; however, the shape of the annulus in the transition region can be described with good accuracy by an approximate equation of greater simplicity.

  13. Coarse-grain molecular dynamics simulations of diblock copolymer surfactants interacting with a lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Goundla; Klein, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    The interaction of surfactant diblock poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(ethylethylene) copolymers (PEO-PEE) with a lipid bilayer of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine has been studied by means of coarse-grain molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of the surfactants on the lipid bilayer was studied over a wide range of diblock copolymer concentrations. The simulations show that the hydrophilic PEO chains adopt different structures at low and high concentrations. In particular, the computed density profiles reveal that the PEO chains extend over a longer range from the bilayer surface, with increasing copolymer concentration. The simulated density profiles are in agreement with the scaling law predictions.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of unsaturated lipid bilayers at low hydration: parameterization and comparison with diffraction studies.

    PubMed Central

    Feller, S E; Yin, D; Pastor, R W; MacKerell, A D

    1997-01-01

    A potential energy function for unsaturated hydrocarbons is proposed and is shown to agree well with experiment, using molecular dynamics simulations of a water/octene interface and a dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer. The simulation results verify most of the assumptions used in interpreting the DOPC experiments, but suggest a few that should be reconsidered. Comparisons with recent results of a simulation of a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer show that disorder is comparable, even though the temperature, hydration level, and surface area/lipid for DOPC are lower. These observations highlight the dramatic effects of unsaturation on bilayer structure. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:9370424

  15. Molecular dynamics simulation of unsaturated lipid bilayers at low hydration: parameterization and comparison with diffraction studies.

    PubMed

    Feller, S E; Yin, D; Pastor, R W; MacKerell, A D

    1997-11-01

    A potential energy function for unsaturated hydrocarbons is proposed and is shown to agree well with experiment, using molecular dynamics simulations of a water/octene interface and a dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayer. The simulation results verify most of the assumptions used in interpreting the DOPC experiments, but suggest a few that should be reconsidered. Comparisons with recent results of a simulation of a dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayer show that disorder is comparable, even though the temperature, hydration level, and surface area/lipid for DOPC are lower. These observations highlight the dramatic effects of unsaturation on bilayer structure.

  16. An Ising-like model for monolayer-monolayer coupling in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sornbundit, Kan; Modchang, Charin; Nuttavut, Narin; Ngamsaad, Waipot; Triampo, Darapond; Triampo, Wannapong

    2013-07-01

    We have proposed the Ising bilayer model to study the domain growth dynamics in lipid bilayers. Interactions within and between layers are adopted from recent experimental and theoretical data. We investigate the effects of the mismatch area on the domain coarsening dynamics in both symmetric and asymmetric lipid bilayers. To explore domain coarsening, we used the Monte Carlo (MC) method with a standard Kawasaki dynamics to simulate the systems. The results show that domains on both layers grow following a power-law and that the domains grow slower when the mismatch areas are increased.

  17. Two-Phase Contiguous Supported Lipid Bilayer Model for Membrane Rafts via Polymer Blotting and Stenciling.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark J; Daniel, Susan

    2017-02-07

    The supported lipid bilayer has been portrayed as a useful model of the cell membrane compatible with many biophysical tools and techniques that demonstrate its appeal in learning about the basic features of the plasma membrane. However, some of its potential has yet to be realized, particularly in the area of bilayer patterning and phase/composition heterogeneity. In this work, we generate contiguous bilayer patterns as a model system that captures the general features of membrane domains and lipid rafts. Micropatterned polymer templates of two types are investigated for generating patterned bilayer formation: polymer blotting and polymer lift-off stenciling. While these approaches have been used previously to create bilayer arrays by corralling bilayers patches with various types of boundaries impenetrable to bilayer diffusion, unique to the methods presented here, there are no physical barriers to diffusion. In this work, interfaces between contiguous lipid phases define the pattern shapes, with continuity between them allowing transfer of membrane-bound biomolecules between the phases. We examine effectors of membrane domain stability including temperature and cholesterol content to investigate domain dynamics. Contiguous patterning of supported bilayers as a model of lipid rafts expands the application of the SLB to an area with current appeal and brings with it a useful toolset for characterization and analysis. These combined tools should be helpful to researchers investigating lipid raft dynamics and function and biomolecule partitioning studies. Additionally, this patterning technique may be useful for applications such as bioseparations that exploit differences in lipid phase partitioning or creation of membranes that bind species like viruses preferentially at lipid phase boundaries, to name a few.

  18. Cholesterol effect on water permeability through DPPC and PSM lipid bilayers: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Shinoda, Wataru

    2011-12-29

    Water permeability of two different lipid bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) in the absence and presence of cholesterol (0-50 mol %) have been studied by molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the reduction in water leakage across the membranes by the addition of cholesterol. An enhanced free energy barrier was observed in these membranes with increased cholesterol concentration, and this was explained by the reduced cavity density around the cholesterol in the hydrophobic membrane core. There was an increase of trans conformers in the hydrophobic lipid chains adjacent to the cholesterol, which reduced the cavity density. The enhanced free energy barrier was found to be the main reason to reduce the water permeability with increased cholesterol concentration. At low cholesterol concentrations the PSM bilayer exhibited a higher free energy barrier than the DPPC bilayer for water permeation, while at greater than 30 mol % of cholesterol the difference became minor. This tendency for the PSM and DPPC bilayers to resemble each other at higher cholesterol concentrations was similar to commonly observed trends in several structural properties, such as order parameters, cross-sectional area per molecule, and cavity density profiles in the hydrophobic regions of bilayer membranes. These results demonstrate that DPPC and PSM bilayers with high cholesterol contents possess similar physical properties, which suggests that the solubility of cholesterol in these lipid bilayers has importance for an understanding of multicomponent lipid membranes with cholesterol.

  19. Phase behavior of supported lipid bilayers: A systematic study by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poursoroush, Asma; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Laradji, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Solid-supported lipid bilayers are utilized by experimental scientists as models for biological membranes because of their stability. However, compared to free standing bilayers, their close proximity to the substrate may affect their phase behavior. As this is still poorly understood, and few computational studies have been performed on such systems thus far, here we present the results from a systematic study based on molecular dynamics simulations of an implicit-solvent model for solid-supported lipid bilayers with varying lipid-substrate interactions. The attractive interaction between the substrate and the lipid head groups that are closest to the substrate leads to an increased translocation of the lipids from the distal to the proximal bilayer-leaflet. This thereby leads to a transbilayer imbalance of the lipid density, with the lipid density of the proximal leaflet higher than that of the distal leaflet. Consequently, the order parameter of the proximal leaflet is found to be higher than that of the distal leaflet, the higher the strength of lipid interaction is, the stronger the effect. The proximal leaflet exhibits gel and fluid phases with an abrupt melting transition between the two phases. In contrast, below the melting temperature of the proximal leaflet, the distal leaflet is inhomogeneous with coexisting gel and fluid domains. The size of the fluid domains increases with increasing the strength of the lipid interaction. At low temperatures, the inhomogeneity of the distal leaflet is due to its reduced lipid density.

  20. Influence of Hydrophobic Mismatch on Structures and Dynamics of Gramicidin A and Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taehoon; Lee, Kyu Il; Morris, Phillip; Pastor, Richard W.; Andersen, Olaf S.; Im, Wonpil

    2012-01-01

    Gramicidin A (gA) is a 15-amino-acid antibiotic peptide with an alternating L-D sequence, which forms (dimeric) bilayer-spanning, monovalent cation channels in biological membranes and synthetic bilayers. We performed molecular dynamics simulations of gA dimers and monomers in all-atom, explicit dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC) bilayers. The variation in acyl chain length among these different phospholipids provides a way to alter gA-bilayer interactions by varying the bilayer hydrophobic thickness, and to determine the influence of hydrophobic mismatch on the structure and dynamics of both gA channels (and monomeric subunits) and the host bilayers. The simulations show that the channel structure varied little with changes in hydrophobic mismatch, and that the lipid bilayer adapts to the bilayer-spanning channel to minimize the exposure of hydrophobic residues. The bilayer thickness, however, did not vary monotonically as a function of radial distance from the channel. In all simulations, there was an initial decrease in thickness within 4–5 Å from the channel, which was followed by an increase in DOPC and POPC or a further decrease in DLPC and DMPC bilayers. The bilayer thickness varied little in the monomer simulations—except one of three independent simulations for DMPC and all three DLPC simulations, where the bilayer thinned to allow a single subunit to form a bilayer-spanning water-permeable pore. The radial dependence of local lipid area and bilayer compressibility is also nonmonotonic in the first shell around gA dimers due to gA-phospholipid interactions and the hydrophobic mismatch. Order parameters, acyl chain dynamics, and diffusion constants also differ between the lipids in the first shell and the bulk. The lipid behaviors in the first shell around gA dimers are more complex than predicted from a simple mismatch

  1. Solvent-assisted lipid bilayer formation on silicon dioxide and gold.

    PubMed

    Tabaei, Seyed R; Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Haw Zan, Goh; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2014-09-02

    Planar lipid bilayers on solid supports mimic the fundamental structure of biological membranes and can be investigated using a wide range of surface-sensitive techniques. Despite these advantages, planar bilayer fabrication is challenging, and there are no simple universal methods to form such bilayers on diverse material substrates. One of the novel methods recently proposed and proven to form a planar bilayer on silicon dioxide involves lipid deposition in organic solvent and solvent exchange to influence the phase of adsorbed lipids. To scrutinize the specifics of this solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation method and clarify the limits of its applicability, we have developed a simplified, continuous solvent-exchange version to form planar bilayers on silicon dioxide, gold, and alkanethiol-coated gold (in the latter case, a lipid monolayer is formed to yield a hybrid bilayer) and varied the type of organic solvent and rate of solvent exchange. By tracking the SALB formation process with simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) and ellipsometry, it was determined that the acoustic, optical, and hydration masses along with the acoustic and optical thicknesses, measured at the end of the process, are comparable to those observed by employing conventional fabrication methods (e.g., vesicle fusion). As shown by QCM-D measurements, the obtained planar bilayers are highly resistant to protein adsorption, and several, but not all, water-miscible organic solvents could be successfully used in the SALB procedure, with isopropanol yielding particularly high-quality bilayers. In addition, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements demonstrated that the coefficient of lateral lipid diffusion in the fabricated bilayers corresponds to that measured earlier in the planar bilayers formed by vesicle fusion. With increasing rate of solvent exchange, it was also observed that the bilayer became incomplete and a phenomenological

  2. Quantum Yield Measurements of Fluorophores in Lipid Bilayers Using a Plasmonic Nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Falk; Ruhlandt, Daja; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg; Chizhik, Alexey I

    2017-03-20

    Precise knowledge of the quantum yield is important for many fluorescence-spectroscopic techniques, for example, for Förster resonance energy transfer. However, to measure it for emitters in a complex environment and at low concentrations is far from being trivial. Using a plasmonic nanocavity, we measure the absolute quantum yield value of lipid-conjugated dyes incorporated into a supported lipid bilayer. We show that for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules the quantum yield of dyes inside the lipid bilayer strongly differs from its value in aqueous solution. This finding is of particular importance for all fluorescence-spectroscopic studies involving lipid bilayers, such as protein-protein or protein-lipid interactions in membranes or direct fluorescence-spectroscopic measurements of membrane physical properties.

  3. Regulation of channel function due to physical energetic coupling with a lipid bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md.; Tseng, C.-Y.; Tuszynski, J.A.

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Lipid membrane regulation of membrane protein functions has been addressed. • Energetics behind ion channel-membrane coupling phenomena has been investigated. • Charge based interactions stabilize peptide–lipid complex. • Screened Coulomb interaction model explains the energetics. • Van der Waals and electrostatic forces drive peptides and lipids to close proximity. - Abstract: Regulation of membrane protein functions due to hydrophobic coupling with a lipid bilayer has been investigated. An energy formula describing interactions between lipid bilayer and integral ion channels with different structures, which is based on the screened Coulomb interaction approximation, has been developed. Here the interaction energy is represented as being due to charge-based interactions between channel and lipid bilayer. The hydrophobic bilayer thickness channel length mismatch is found to induce channel destabilization exponentially while negative lipid curvature linearly. Experimental parameters related to channel dynamics are consistent with theoretical predictions. To measure comparable energy parameters directly in the system and to elucidate the mechanism at an atomistic level we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the ion channel forming peptide–lipid complexes. MD simulations indicate that peptides and lipids experience electrostatic and van der Waals interactions for short period of time when found within each other’s proximity. The energies from these two interactions are found to be similar to the energies derived theoretically using the screened Coulomb and the van der Waals interactions between peptides (in ion channel) and lipids (in lipid bilayer) due to mainly their charge properties. The results of in silico MD studies taken together with experimental observable parameters and theoretical energetic predictions suggest that the peptides induce ion channels inside lipid membranes due to peptide–lipid physical interactions

  4. Incorporation of quantum dots into the lipid bilayer of giant unilamellar vesicles and its stability.

    PubMed

    Wi, Haeng Sub; Kim, Seong Jin; Lee, Kyuyong; Kim, Sang Min; Yang, Ho Soon; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2012-09-01

    We studied CdSe Quantum dot-Liposome Complexes (QLCs), which are GUVs (Giant Unilamellar Vesicles) incorporated with quantum dots (QDs) loaded into the DOPC lipid bilayer. QLCs were prepared by employing the electroswelling method combined with spin coating techniques. Hexadecylamine (HDA) coated CdSe QDs of five different sizes from blue- (radius ~2.05 nm) to red-emission (~3.5 nm) were used to examine what size of QDs can be loaded into the DOPC lipid bilayer. Blue (radius ~2.05 nm), green (~2.25 nm), and yellow (~2.65 nm)-emission QDs were successfully inserted in the lipid bilayer. However, we did not observe any QLCs for the orange-emission QDs (~3.0-3.15 nm) and red-emission ones (~3.5 nm). This QD size dependence of the incorporation into the lipid bilayer is partly supporting the predictions in our published theoretical work. DOPC lipids showed a much smaller QLC yield than that of asolectin which is a mixture of many different kinds of lipids. Our model explains this large difference in the population qualitatively. The existence of QDs in the lipid bilayer at a nanometer scale was confirmed by employing laser-scanning confocal microscopy, Cryo-TEM, and negative staining and sectioning TEM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Water channel formation and ion transport in linear and branched lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihu; Larson, Ronald G

    2014-04-28

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the influence of methyl chain branching on transmembrane potential induced formation of water channels in lipid bilayers and ion transport. We compared the response of a bilayer lipid that has multiple methyl branches diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine (DPhPC) with its straight-chain counterpart dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) to a transmembrane potential created by an imbalance in ionic charges across the membrane. We found that, compared to the straight-chain DPPC lipid bilayer membranes, branched DPhPC lipid membranes require a higher critical transmembrane potential to break down, followed by water channel formation, and transport of anions and cations through the pore. We demonstrated that the bulkiness of the added methyl branches leads to "barrel-stave" pores in DPhPC membranes which require a higher transmembrane potential to produce than the toroidal pores produced in the straight chain DPPC lipid bilayers. Our results provided a deeper understanding of the water channel formation and ion transport through lipid bilayer membrane and might help explain the increased resistance to charge-induced poration in organisms with membranes abundant in branched lipids.

  6. Lipid Bilayer Membrane Elasticity and Hydrodynamics : Insights from Dynamic Implicit-Solvent Coarse-Grained Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzberger, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes have been widely studied using fully atomistic molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics descriptions. To bridge this gap many mesoscale implicit-solvent models have been developed to capture at equilibrium essential features of lipid bilayer membrane formation and internal structure, while at the same time providing enough simplification in simulations to allow access to large spatial scales. To study dynamic processes in such implicit solvent models requires further advances to account for important kinetic effects mediated by the solvent. We discuss our recent progress on developing thermostats for dynamic processes based on continuum fluctuating hydrodynamics for implicit-solvent coarse-grained models of lipid bilayer membranes. We present results for vesicle bilayers making comparisons with explicit solvent simulations and continuum theory.

  7. Quantifying the Relationship between Curvature and Electric Potential in Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Dennis S; Lomholt, Michael A; Khandelia, Himanshu

    2016-06-02

    Cellular membranes mediate vital cellular processes by being subject to curvature and transmembrane electrical potentials. Here we build upon the existing theory for flexoelectricity in liquid crystals to quantify the coupling between lipid bilayer curvature and membrane potentials. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that headgroup dipole moments, the lateral pressure profile across the bilayer, and spontaneous curvature all systematically change with increasing membrane potentials. In particular, there is a linear dependence between the bending moment (the product of bending rigidity and spontaneous curvature) and the applied membrane potentials. We show that biologically relevant membrane potentials can induce biologically relevant curvatures corresponding to radii of around 500 nm. The implications of flexoelectricity in lipid bilayers are thus likely to be of considerable consequence both in biology and in model lipid bilayer systems.

  8. MOF nanoparticles coated by lipid bilayers and their uptake by cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wuttke, Stefan; Braig, Simone; Preiß, Tobias; Zimpel, Andreas; Sicklinger, Johannes; Bellomo, Claudia; Rädler, Joachim O; Vollmar, Angelika M; Bein, Thomas

    2015-11-11

    We report the synthesis of MOF@lipid nanoparticles as a versatile and powerful novel class of nanocarriers based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). We show that the MOF@lipid system can effectively store dye molecules inside the porous scaffold of the MOF while the lipid bilayer prevents their premature release. Efficient uptake of the MOF@lipid nanoparticles by cancer cells makes these nanocarriers promising for drug delivery and diagnostic purposes.

  9. Raman Imaging in Cell Membranes, Lipid-Rich Organelles, and Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Syed, Aleem; Smith, Emily A

    2017-06-12

    Raman-based optical imaging is a promising analytical tool for noninvasive, label-free chemical imaging of lipid bilayers and cellular membranes. Imaging using spontaneous Raman scattering suffers from a low intensity that hinders its use in some cellular applications. However, developments in coherent Raman imaging, surface-enhanced Raman imaging, and tip-enhanced Raman imaging have enabled video-rate imaging, excellent detection limits, and nanometer spatial resolution, respectively. After a brief introduction to these commonly used Raman imaging techniques for cell membrane studies, this review discusses selected applications of these modalities for chemical imaging of membrane proteins and lipids. Finally, recent developments in chemical tags for Raman imaging and their applications in the analysis of selected cell membrane components are summarized. Ongoing developments toward improving the temporal and spatial resolution of Raman imaging and small-molecule tags with strong Raman scattering cross sections continue to expand the utility of Raman imaging for diverse cell membrane studies.

  10. Structure and dynamics of water and lipid molecules in charged anionic DMPG lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Rønnest, A K; Peters, G H; Hansen, F Y; Taub, H; Miskowiec, A

    2016-04-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the influence of the valency of counter-ions on the structure of freestanding bilayer membranes of the anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipid at 310 K and 1 atm. At this temperature, the membrane is in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The diffusion constant of water as a function of its depth in the membrane has been determined from mean-square-displacement calculations. Also, calculated incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering functions have been compared to experimental results and used to determine an average diffusion constant for all water molecules in the system. On extrapolating the diffusion constants inferred experimentally to a temperature of 310 K, reasonable agreement with the simulations is obtained. However, the experiments do not have the sensitivity to confirm the diffusion of a small component of water bound to the lipids as found in the simulations. In addition, the orientation of the dipole moment of the water molecules has been determined as a function of their depth in the membrane. Previous indirect estimates of the electrostatic potential within phospholipid membranes imply an enormous electric field of 10(8)-10(9) V m(-1), which is likely to have great significance in controlling the conformation of translocating membrane proteins and in the transfer of ions and molecules across the membrane. We have calculated the membrane potential for DMPG bilayers and found ∼1 V (∼2 ⋅ 10(8) V m(-1)) when in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and ∼1.4 V (∼2.8 ⋅ 10(8) V m(-1)) when in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The number of water molecules for a fully hydrated DMPG membrane has been estimated to be 9.7 molecules per lipid in the gel phase and 17.5 molecules in the fluid phase, considerably smaller than inferred experimentally for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3

  11. Structure and dynamics of water and lipid molecules in charged anionic DMPG lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rønnest, A. K.; Peters, G. H.; Hansen, F. Y.; Taub, H.; Miskowiec, A.

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the influence of the valency of counter-ions on the structure of freestanding bilayer membranes of the anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipid at 310 K and 1 atm. At this temperature, the membrane is in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The diffusion constant of water as a function of its depth in the membrane has been determined from mean-square-displacement calculations. Also, calculated incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering functions have been compared to experimental results and used to determine an average diffusion constant for all water molecules in the system. On extrapolating the diffusion constants inferred experimentally to a temperature of 310 K, reasonable agreement with the simulations is obtained. However, the experiments do not have the sensitivity to confirm the diffusion of a small component of water bound to the lipids as found in the simulations. In addition, the orientation of the dipole moment of the water molecules has been determined as a function of their depth in the membrane. Previous indirect estimates of the electrostatic potential within phospholipid membranes imply an enormous electric field of 108-109 V m-1, which is likely to have great significance in controlling the conformation of translocating membrane proteins and in the transfer of ions and molecules across the membrane. We have calculated the membrane potential for DMPG bilayers and found ˜1 V (˜2 ṡ 108 V m-1) when in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and ˜1.4 V (˜2.8 ṡ 108 V m-1) when in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The number of water molecules for a fully hydrated DMPG membrane has been estimated to be 9.7 molecules per lipid in the gel phase and 17.5 molecules in the fluid phase, considerably smaller than inferred experimentally for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DMPC

  12. Asymmetry of lipid bilayers induced by monovalent salt: Atomistic molecular-dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtovenko, Andrey A.

    2005-06-01

    Interactions between salt ions and lipid components of biological membranes are essential for the structure, stability, and functions of the membranes. The specific ionic composition of aqueous buffers inside and outside of the cell is known to differ considerably. To model such a situation we perform atomistic molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations of a single-component phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer which separates two aqueous reservoirs with and without NaCl salt. To implement the difference in electrolyte composition near two membrane sides, a double bilayer setup (i.e., two bilayers in a simulation box) is employed. It turns out that monovalent salt, being in contact with one leaflet only, induces a pronounced asymmetry in the structural, electrostatic, and dynamical properties of bilayer leaflets after 50ns of MD simulations. Binding of sodium ions to the carbonyl region of the leaflet which is in contact with salt results in the formation of "Na-lipids" complexes and, correspondingly, reduces mobility of lipids of this leaflet. In turn, attractive interactions of chloride ions (mainly located in the aqueous phase close to the water-lipid interface) with choline lipid groups lead to a substantial (more vertical) reorientation of postphatidylcholine headgroups of the leaflet adjoined to salt. The difference in headgroup orientation on two sides of a bilayer, being coupled with salt-induced reorientation of water dipoles, leads to a notable asymmetry in the charge-density profiles and electrostatic potentials of bilayer constitutes of the two leaflets. Although the overall charge density of the bilayer is found to be almost insensitive to the presence of salt, a slight asymmetry in the charge distribution between the two bilayer leaflets results in a nonzero potential difference of about 85mV between the two water phases. Thus, a transmembrane potential of the order of the membrane potential in a cell can arise without ionic charge imbalance between two aqueous

  13. The influence of cholesterol on interactions and dynamics of ibuprofen in a lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Aboozar; Modarress, Hamid

    2014-10-01

    In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with atomistic details were performed to examine the influence of the cholesterol on the interactions and the partitioning of the hydrophobic drug ibuprofen in a fully hydrated 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer. Analysis of MD simulations indicated that ibuprofen molecules prefer to be located in the hydrophobic acyl chain region of DMPC/cholesterol bilayers. This distribution decreases the lateral motion of lipid molecules. The presence of ibuprofen molecules in the bilayers with 0 and 25mol% cholesterol increases the ordering of hydrocarbon tails of lipids whereas for the bilayers with 50mol% cholesterol, ibuprofen molecules perturb the flexible chains of DMPC lipids which leads to the reduction of the acyl chain order parameter. The potential of the mean force (PMF) method was used to calculate the free energy profile for the transferring of an ibuprofen molecule from the bulk water into the DMPC/cholesterol membranes. The PMF studies indicated that the presence of 50mol% cholesterol in the bilayers increases the free energy barrier and slows down the permeation of the ibuprofen drug across the DMPC bilayer. This can be due to the condensing and ordering effects of the cholesterol on the bilayer.

  14. Low levels of lipid oxidation radically increase the passive permeability of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Runas, Kristina A; Malmstadt, Noah

    2015-01-21

    Oxidation of unsaturated lipids in cellular membranes has been shown to cause severe membrane damage and potentially cell death. The presence of oxidized lipid species in the membrane is known to cause changes in membrane properties, such as decreased fluidity. This study uses giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) to measure passive transport across membranes containing defined concentrations of oxidized lipid species. GUVs consisting of a saturated phospholipid, an unsaturated phospholipid, and cholesterol were used as model membranes. By replacing defined amounts of the unsaturated lipid with a corresponding oxidized product, the oxidation process could be mimicked, yielding vesicles of varying oxidized lipid concentration. Oxidized lipid concentration was varied from 0 mol% to 18 mol% of the total lipid concentration. Passive transport of PEG12-NBD, an uncharged fluorescent molecule, was measured using a microfluidic trap to capture the GUVs and spinning disk confocal microscopy (SDCM) to track the transport of a fluorescent species in the equatorial plane of each GUV. Membrane permeability was determined by fitting the resulting concentration profiles to a finite difference model of diffusion and permeation around and through the membrane. Experiments showed three permeability regimes. Without oxidation, transport was slow, with a measured permeability on the order of 1.5 × 10(-6) cm s(-1). At 2.5-10% oxidized species permeation was fast (1.5 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)). Above 12.5% oxidized species, the bilayer was disrupted by the formation of pore defects. As passive transport is an important mechanism for drug delivery, understanding the relationship between oxidation and permeation could provide insight into the pharmaceutical characteristics of tissues with oxidative damage.

  15. L-tryptophan-induced electron transport across supported lipid bilayers: an alkyl-chain tilt-angle, and bilayer-symmetry dependence.

    PubMed

    Sarangi, Nirod Kumar; Patnaik, Archita

    2012-12-21

    Molecular orientation-dependent electron transport across supported 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers (SLBs) on semiconducting indium tin oxide (ITO) is reported with an aim towards potential nanobiotechnological applications. A bifunctional strategy is adopted to form symmetric and asymmetric bilayers of DPPC that interact with L-tryptophan, and are analyzed by surface manometry and atomic force microscopy. Polarization-dependent real-time Fourier transform infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS) analysis of these SLBs reveals electrostatic, hydrogen-bonding, and cation-π interactions between the polar head groups of the lipid and the indole side chains. Consequently, a molecular tilt arises from the effective interface dipole, facilitating electron transport across the ITO-anchored SLBs in the presence of an internal Fe(CN)(6)(4-/3-) redox probe. The incorporation of tryptophan enhances the voltammetric features of the SLBs. The estimated electron-transfer rate constants for symmetric and asymmetric bilayers (k(s) = 2.0×10(-2) and 2.8×10(-2) s(-1)) across the two-dimensional (2D) ordered DPPC/tryptophan SLBs are higher compared to pure DPPC SLBs (k(s) = 3.2×10(-3) and 3.9×10(-3) s(-1)). In addition, they are molecular tilt-dependent, as it is the case with the standard apparent rate constants k(app)(0), estimated from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and bipotentiostatic experiments with a Pt ultramicroelectrode. Lower magnitudes of k(s) and k(app)(0) imply that electrochemical reactions across the ITO-SLB electrodes are kinetically limited and consequently governed by electron tunneling across the SLBs. Standard theoretical rate constants (k(th)(0)) accrued upon electron tunneling comply with the potential-independent electron-tunneling coefficient β = 0.15 Å(-1). Insulator-semiconductor transitions moving from a liquid-expanded to a condensed 2D-phase state of the SLBs are noted, adding a new dimension

  16. Formation, stability, and mobility of one-dimensional lipid bilayers on polysilicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chieh J; Artyukhin, Alexander B; Martinez, Julio A; Sirbuly, Donald J; Wang, Yinmin; Ju, Jiann-Wen; Stroeve, Pieter; Noy, Aleksandr

    2007-11-01

    Curved lipid membranes are ubiquitous in living systems and play an important role in many biological processes. To understand how curvature and lipid composition affect membrane formation and fluidity, we have assembled and studied mixed 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) supported lipid bilayers on amorphous silicon nanowires grown around carbon nanotube cores with controlled wire diameters ranging from 20 to 200 nm. We found that lipid vesicles fused onto nanowire substrates and formed continuous bilayers for all DOPC-DOPE mixtures tested (with the DOPE content of up to 30%). Our measurements demonstrate that nanowire-supported bilayers are mobile, exhibit fast recovery after photobleaching, and have a low concentration of defects. Lipid diffusion coefficients in these high-curvature tubular membranes are comparable to the values reported for flat supported bilayers and increase slightly with decreasing nanowire diameter. A free space diffusion model adequately describes the effect of bilayer curvature on the lipid mobility for nanowire substrates with diameters greater than 50 nm, but shows significant deviations from the experimental values for smaller diameter nanowires.

  17. Properties of POPC/POPE supported lipid bilayers modified with hydrophobic quantum dots on polyelectrolyte cushions.

    PubMed

    Kolasinska-Sojka, Marta; Wlodek, Magdalena; Szuwarzynski, Michal; Kereiche, Sami; Kovacik, Lubomir; Warszynski, Piotr

    2017-07-23

    The formation and properties of supported lipid bilayers (SLB) containing hydrophobic nanoparticles (NP) was studied in relation to underlying cushion obtained from selected polyelectrolyte multilayers. Lipid vesicles were formed from zwitterionic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and negatively charged 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) in phosphate buffer (PBS). As hydrophobic nanoparticles - quantum dots (QD) with size of 3.8nm (emission wavelength of 420nm) were used. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) were constructed by the sequential, i.e., layer-by-layer (LbL) adsorption of alternately charged polyelectrolytes from their solutions. Liposomes and Liposome-QDs complexes were studied with Transmission Cryo-Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM) to verify the quality of vesicles and the position of QD within lipid bilayer. Deposition of liposomes and liposomes with quantum dots on polyelectrolyte films was studied in situ using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique. The fluorescence emission spectra were analyzed for both: suspension of liposomes with nanoparticles and for supported lipid bilayers containing QD on PEM. It was demonstrated that quantum dots are located in the hydrophobic part of lipid bilayer. Moreover, we proved that such QD-modified liposomes formed supported lipid bilayers and their final structure depended on the type of underlying cushion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Semiconductor particles in bilayer lipid membranes. Formation, characterization, and photoelectrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.K.; Baral, S.B.; Rolandi, R.; Fendler, J.H.

    1988-02-17

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) have been formed from bovine brain phosphatidylserine (PS), glyceryl monooleate (GMO), and a ploymerizable surfactant, (n-C/sub 15/H/sub 31/CO/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/))/sub 2/N/sup +/(CH/sub 3/)CH/sub 2/C/sub 6/H/sub 4/CH==CH/sub 2/Cl/sup -/(STYRS). These BLMs were then used to provide matrices for the in situ generation of microcrystalline CdS, CuS, Cu/sub 2/S, PbS, ZnS, HgS, and In/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Semiconductors were formed by injecting appropriate metal ion precursors and H/sub 2/S into the bathing solutions on opposite sides of the BLM. Their presence was established by voltage-dependent capacitance measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and optical microscopy. Subsequent to the injection of H/sub 2/S, the first observable change was the appearance of fairly uniform white dots on the black film. These dots rapidly moved around and grew in size, forming islands that then merged with themselves and with a second generation of dots, which ultimately led to a continuous film that continued to grow in thickness. Film formation and growth were monitored by simultaneous optical thickness and capacitance measurements. These data were treated in terms of an equivalent R-C circuit and allowed for the assessment of the semiconductor penetration depth into the BLM. This value for a GMO-BLM-supported In/sub 2/S/sub 3/ film was determined to be 24 A. Bandgap excitation, by nanosecond-pulsed or continuous illumination of the BLM-supported semiconductor film, led to observable photoelectric effects. Visible light (lambda > 350 nm) excitation into STYRS-BLM-supported CdS led to polymerization of the styrene moiety of STYRS. BLM-supported semiconductors remained stable for days.

  19. Effects on lipid bilayer and nitrogen distribution induced by lateral pressure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Chen, Liang; Wang, Xiaogang; Dai, Chaoqing; Chen, Junlang

    2015-05-01

    The lateral pressure exerted on cell membrane is of great importance to signal transduction. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulation to explore how lateral pressure affects the biophysical properties of lipid bilayer as well as nitrogen distribution in the membrane. Our results show that both physical properties of cell membrane and nitrogen distribution are highly sensitive to the lateral pressure. With the increasing lateral pressure, area per lipid drops and thickness of membrane increases obviously, while nitrogen molecules are more congested in the center of lipid bilayer than those under lower lateral pressure. These results suggest that the mechanism of nitrogen narcosis may be related to the lateral pressure.

  20. Peptide Pores in Lipid Bilayers: Voltage Facilitation Pleads for a Revised Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadda, G. C.; Lairez, D.; Guennouni, Z.; Koutsioubas, A.

    2013-07-01

    We address the problem of antimicrobial peptides that create pores in lipid bilayers, focusing on voltage-temperature dependence of pore opening. Two novel experiments (voltage clamp with alamethicin as an emblematic representative of these peptides and neutron reflectivity of lipid monolayer at solid-water interface under electric field) serve to revise the only current theoretical model. We introduce a general contribution of peptide adsorption and electric field as being responsible for an unbalanced tension of the two bilayer leaflets and we claim that the main entropy cost of one pore opening is due to the corresponding excluded area for lipid translation.

  1. Real-time detection of lipid bilayer assembly and detergent-initiated solubilization using optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, V.; Armani, A. M.

    2015-02-01

    The cellular membrane governs numerous fundamental biological processes. Therefore, developing a comprehensive understanding of its structure and function is critical. However, its inherent biological complexity gives rise to numerous inter-dependent physical phenomena. In an attempt to develop a model, two different experimental approaches are being pursued in parallel: performing single cell experiments (top down) and using biomimetic structures (bottom up), such as lipid bilayers. One challenge in many of these experiments is the reliance on fluorescent probes for detection which can create confounds in this already complex system. In the present work, a label-free detection method based on an optical resonant cavity is used to detect one of the fundamental physical phenomena in the system: assembly and solubilization of the lipid bilayer. The evanescent field of the cavity strongly interacts with the lipid bilayer, enabling the detection of the bilayer behavior in real-time. Two independent detection mechanisms confirm the formation and detergent-assisted solubilization of the lipid bilayers: (1) a refractive index change and (2) a material loss change. Both mechanisms can be monitored in parallel, on the same device, thus allowing for cross-confirmation of the results. To verify the proposed method, we have detected the formation of self-assembled phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers from small unilamellar vesicles on the device surface in real-time. Subsequently, we exposed the bilayers to two different detergents (non-ionic Triton X-100 and anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate) to initiate solubilization, and this process was also detected in real-time. After the bilayer solubilization, the device returned to its initial state, exhibiting minimal hysteresis. The experimental wash-off was also collected and analyzed using dynamic light scattering.

  2. Reduction in lateral lipid mobility of lipid bilayer membrane by atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Tero, Ryugo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Yusa, Kota; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Plasma medicine is an emerging research field in which various applications of electrical discharge, especially in the form of nonequilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, are examined, for example, the application of plasma to biological targets for various purposes such as selective killing of tumor cells and blood stanching. We have focused on the behavior of an artificial cell membrane system at the solid-liquid interface. To evaluate the lateral lipid mobility, we measured the diffusion coefficient of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the diffusion coefficient was decreased by plasma irradiation and that the diffusion coefficient decreasing rate proceeded with increasing plasma power. We investigated the effects of stimulation with an equilibrium chemical, H2O2, on the SLB and confirmed that the diffusion coefficient did not change at least up to a H2O2 concentration of 5 mM. These results indicate that transient active species generated by plasma play critical roles in the reduction in SLB fluidity. The effects of the two generated major oxidized lipid species, hydroxyl- or hydroperoxy-phosphatidylcholine (PC) and acyl-chain-truncated PCs terminated with aldehyde or carboxyl group, on lateral lipid mobility are discussed.

  3. Cholesterol inhibits the insertion of the Alzheimer's peptide Abeta(25-35) in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Dante, Silvia; Hauss, Thomas; Dencher, Norbert A

    2006-08-01

    The physiological relationship between brain cholesterol content and the action of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a highly controversially discussed topic. Evidences for modulations of the Abeta/membrane interaction induced by plasma membrane cholesterol have already been observed. We have recently reported that Abeta(25-35) is capable of inserting in lipid membranes and perturbing their structure. Applying neutron diffraction and selective deuteration, we now demonstrate that cholesterol alters, at the molecular level, the capability of Abeta(25-35) to penetrate into the lipid bilayers; in particular, a molar weight content of 20% of cholesterol hinders the intercalation of monomeric Abeta(25-35) completely. At very low cholesterol content (about 1% molar weight) the location of the C-terminal part of Abeta(25-35) has been unequivocally established in the hydrocarbon region of the membrane, in agreement with our previous results on pure phospholipids membrane. These results link a structural property to a physiological and functional behavior and point to a therapeutical approach to prevent the AD by modulation of membrane properties.

  4. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    SciTech Connect

    Meenakumari, V.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.

    2015-06-24

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM {sup 14}N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments.

  5. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakumari, V.; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2015-06-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM 14N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments.

  6. Lipid asymmetry in DLPC/DSPC supported lipid bilayers, a combined AFM and fluorescence microscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W; Blanchette, C D; Ratto, T V; Longo, M L

    2005-06-20

    A fundamental attribute of cell membranes is transmembrane asymmetry, specifically the formation of ordered phase domains in one leaflet that are compositionally different from the opposing leaflet of the bilayer. Using model membrane systems, many previous studies have demonstrated the formation of ordered phase domains that display complete transmembrane symmetry but there have been few reports on the more biologically relevant asymmetric membrane structures. Here we report on a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy study whereby we observe three different states of transmembrane symmetry in phase-separated supported bilayers formed by vesicle fusion. We find that if the leaflets differ in gel-phase area fraction, then the smaller domains in one leaflet are in registry with the larger domains in the other leaflet and the system is dynamic. In a presumed lipid flip-flop process similar to Ostwald Ripening, the smaller domains in one leaflet erode away while the large domains in the other leaflet grow until complete compositional asymmetry is reached and remains stable. We have quantified this evolution and determined that the lipid flip-flop event happens most frequently at the interface between symmetric and asymmetric DSPC domains. If both leaflets have nearly identical area fraction of gel-phase, gel-phase domains are in registry and are static in comparison to the first state. The stability of these three DSPC domain distributions, the degree of registry observed, and the domain immobility have direct biological significance with regards to maintenance of lipid asymmetry in living cell membranes, communication between inner leaflet and outer leaflet, membrane adhesion, and raft mobility.

  7. Erythrocyte Membrane Model with Explicit Description of the Lipid Bilayer and the Spectrin Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-01-01

    The membrane of the red blood cell (RBC) consists of spectrin tetramers connected at actin junctional complexes, forming a two-dimensional (2D) sixfold triangular network anchored to the lipid bilayer. Better understanding of the erythrocyte mechanics in hereditary blood disorders such as spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and especially, sickle cell disease requires the development of a detailed membrane model. In this study, we introduce a mesoscale implicit-solvent coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) model of the erythrocyte membrane that explicitly describes the phospholipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton, by extending a previously developed two-component RBC membrane model. We show that the proposed model represents RBC membrane with the appropriate bending stiffness and shear modulus. The timescale and self-consistency of the model are established by comparing our results with experimentally measured viscosity and thermal fluctuations of the RBC membrane. Furthermore, we measure the pressure exerted by the cytoskeleton on the lipid bilayer. We find that defects at the anchoring points of the cytoskeleton to the lipid bilayer (as in spherocytes) cause a reduction in the pressure compared with an intact membrane, whereas defects in the dimer-dimer association of a spectrin filament (as in elliptocytes) cause an even larger decrease in the pressure. We conjecture that this finding may explain why the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients of band-3 proteins are higher in elliptocytes than in spherocytes, and higher than in normal RBCs. Finally, we study the effects that possible attractive forces between the spectrin filaments and the lipid bilayer have on the pressure applied on the lipid bilayer by the filaments. We discover that the attractive forces cause an increase in the pressure as they diminish the effect of membrane protein defects. As this finding contradicts with experimental results, we conclude that the attractive forces are moderate and do

  8. Erythrocyte membrane model with explicit description of the lipid bilayer and the spectrin network.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-08-05

    The membrane of the red blood cell (RBC) consists of spectrin tetramers connected at actin junctional complexes, forming a two-dimensional (2D) sixfold triangular network anchored to the lipid bilayer. Better understanding of the erythrocyte mechanics in hereditary blood disorders such as spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and especially, sickle cell disease requires the development of a detailed membrane model. In this study, we introduce a mesoscale implicit-solvent coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) model of the erythrocyte membrane that explicitly describes the phospholipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton, by extending a previously developed two-component RBC membrane model. We show that the proposed model represents RBC membrane with the appropriate bending stiffness and shear modulus. The timescale and self-consistency of the model are established by comparing our results with experimentally measured viscosity and thermal fluctuations of the RBC membrane. Furthermore, we measure the pressure exerted by the cytoskeleton on the lipid bilayer. We find that defects at the anchoring points of the cytoskeleton to the lipid bilayer (as in spherocytes) cause a reduction in the pressure compared with an intact membrane, whereas defects in the dimer-dimer association of a spectrin filament (as in elliptocytes) cause an even larger decrease in the pressure. We conjecture that this finding may explain why the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients of band-3 proteins are higher in elliptocytes than in spherocytes, and higher than in normal RBCs. Finally, we study the effects that possible attractive forces between the spectrin filaments and the lipid bilayer have on the pressure applied on the lipid bilayer by the filaments. We discover that the attractive forces cause an increase in the pressure as they diminish the effect of membrane protein defects. As this finding contradicts with experimental results, we conclude that the attractive forces are moderate and do

  9. Intercalation of bovine serum albumin coated gold clusters between phospholipid bilayers: temperature-dependent behavior of lipid-AuQC@BSA assemblies with red emission and superlattice structure.

    PubMed

    Söptei, Balázs; Mihály, Judith; Visy, Júlia; Wacha, András; Bóta, Attila

    2014-04-10

    A method has been developed to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated gold quantum clusters (AuQC@BSA) in a multilamellar system of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). Results have shown that intercalation of AuQC@BSA particles into lipid bilayers occurs in the presence of CaCl2. Intense red photoluminescence emission was observed after encapsulation of the clusters. A well-defined structure was found with periodic distances drastically larger than that in the pure DPPC/water system. Although Ca(2+) ions can change the dipole characteristics of the lipid bilayer surface, leading to unbinding between the bilayers of multilamellar DPPC/water system, the repulsion is shielded in the presence of AuQC@BSA particles. A coherent superlattice structure evolves due to mixed Ca(2+)-DPPC and Ca(2+)-AuQC@BSA interactions. Studies at different temperatures have suggested a correlation between the luminescence properties of the clusters and phase transition of the lipid layers. The temperature-dependent behavior assumes the connection between the coating and the lipid bilayer surface. Temperature-dependent features of lipid intercalated Au clusters provide new opportunities in their application.

  10. Study of the orientational ordering of carotenoids in lipid bilayers by resonance-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    van de Ven, M; Kattenberg, M; van Ginkel, G; Levine, Y K

    1984-01-01

    The orientational ordering of beta-carotene and crocetin embedded in lamellar model membranes has been investigated by angle-resolved resonance Raman scattering at a temperature well above the phase transition of the lipid chains. It is shown that the ordering of the carotenoids is dependent on the chemical composition of the lipid bilayers. The orientational distribution functions found clearly show that beta-carotene is oriented parallel to the bilayer plane (dioleoyl lecithin) or perpendicular to it (soybean lecithin). For dimyristoyl lecithin at 40 degrees C, egg-lecithin, and digalactosyl diacylglycerol two maxima were found in the orientational distribution: one parallel and one perpendicular to the bilayer surface. Crocetin embedded in soybean lecithin bilayers yields a similar bimodal distribution function. Because of rapid photodegradation no results could be obtained for spirilloxanthin. PMID:6743750

  11. Amphiphilic Nanoparticles Control the Growth and Stability of Lipid Bilayers with Open Edges

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Sun Hae Ra; Lee, Hee-Young; Bishop, Kyle J. M.

    2015-07-23

    Molecular amphiphiles self-assemble in polar media to form ordered structures such as micelles and vesicles essential to a broad range of industrial and biological processes. Some of these architectures such as bilayer sheets, helical ribbons, and hollow tubules are potentially useful but inherently unstable owing to the presence of open edges that expose the hydrophobic bilayer core. Here, we describe a strategy to stabilize open bilayer structures using amphiphilic nanoparticle surfactants that present mixtures of hydrophilic and hydrophobic ligands on their surface. We observe that these particles bind selectively to the open edge of bilayer membranes to stabilize otherwise transient amphiphile assemblies. We show how such particles can precisely control the size of lipid tubules, how they can inhibit the formation of undesirable assemblies such as gallstone precursors, and how they can stabilize free-floating lipid microdiscs.

  12. Bilayer properties of hydroxytyrosol- and tyrosol-phosphatidylcholine lipids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are the phytochemicals abundantly found in olive oil. Transphosphatidylation of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol with dioleoylphosphocholine resulted in phospholipids with antioxidant properties. The ability of these phyto-phospholipids to form liposomes and supported bilayers w...

  13. How does a voltage sensor interact with a lipid bilayer? Simulations of a potassium channel domain.

    PubMed

    Sands, Zara A; Sansom, Mark S P

    2007-02-01

    The nature of voltage sensing by voltage-activated ion channels is a key problem in membrane protein structural biology. The way in which the voltage-sensor (VS) domain interacts with its membrane environment remains unclear. In particular, the known structures of Kv channels do not readily explain how a positively charged S4 helix is able to stably span a lipid bilayer. Extended (2 x 50 ns) molecular dynamics simulations of the high-resolution structure of the isolated VS domain from the archaebacterial potassium channel KvAP, embedded in zwitterionic and in anionic lipid bilayers, have been used to explore VS/lipid interactions at atomic resolution. The simulations reveal penetration of water into the center of the VS and bilayer. Furthermore, there is significant local deformation of the lipid bilayer by interactions between lipid phosphate groups and arginine side chains of S4. As a consequence of this, the electrostatic field is "focused" across the center of the bilayer.

  14. How Does a Voltage Sensor Interact with a Lipid Bilayer? Simulations of a Potassium Channel Domain

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Zara A.; Sansom, Mark S.P.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The nature of voltage sensing by voltage-activated ion channels is a key problem in membrane protein structural biology. The way in which the voltage-sensor (VS) domain interacts with its membrane environment remains unclear. In particular, the known structures of Kv channels do not readily explain how a positively charged S4 helix is able to stably span a lipid bilayer. Extended (2 × 50 ns) molecular dynamics simulations of the high-resolution structure of the isolated VS domain from the archaebacterial potassium channel KvAP, embedded in zwitterionic and in anionic lipid bilayers, have been used to explore VS/lipid interactions at atomic resolution. The simulations reveal penetration of water into the center of the VS and bilayer. Furthermore, there is significant local deformation of the lipid bilayer by interactions between lipid phosphate groups and arginine side chains of S4. As a consequence of this, the electrostatic field is “focused” across the center of the bilayer. PMID:17292841

  15. The Lipid Bilayer Provides a Site for Cortisone Crystallization at High Cortisone Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Richard J; Khondker, Adree; Hub, Jochen S; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2016-03-03

    Cortisone is an injected anti-inflammatory drug that can cause painful side effects known as "steroid flares" which are caused by cortisone crystallizing at the injection site. We used molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray diffraction to study the interaction of cortisone with model lipid membranes made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at drug concentrations from 0 mol% to 50 mol%. Cortisone was found to partition in the lipid bilayer and locate in the hydrophilic to hydrophobic interface of the membranes. Cortisone strongly affects the integrity of the membrane, as quantified by a decreased membrane thickness, increased area per lipid, and decreased lipid tail order parameters. At cortisone concentrations of more than 20 mol%, signals from crystallized cortisone were observed. These crystallites are embedded in the bilayers and orient with the membranes. While the cortisone molecules align parallel to the bilayers at low concentrations, they start to penetrate the hydrophobic core at higher concentrations. Trans-membrane crystallites start to nucleate when the membrane thickness has decreased such that cortisone molecules in the different leaflets can find partners from the opposite leaflet resulting in a non-zero density of cortisone molecules in the bilayer center. We suggest that the lipid bilayer provides a site for cortisone crystallization.

  16. The Lipid Bilayer Provides a Site for Cortisone Crystallization at High Cortisone Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Alsop, Richard J.; Khondker, Adree; Hub, Jochen S.; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2016-01-01

    Cortisone is an injected anti-inflammatory drug that can cause painful side effects known as “steroid flares” which are caused by cortisone crystallizing at the injection site. We used molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray diffraction to study the interaction of cortisone with model lipid membranes made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at drug concentrations from 0 mol% to 50 mol%. Cortisone was found to partition in the lipid bilayer and locate in the hydrophilic to hydrophobic interface of the membranes. Cortisone strongly affects the integrity of the membrane, as quantified by a decreased membrane thickness, increased area per lipid, and decreased lipid tail order parameters. At cortisone concentrations of more than 20 mol%, signals from crystallized cortisone were observed. These crystallites are embedded in the bilayers and orient with the membranes. While the cortisone molecules align parallel to the bilayers at low concentrations, they start to penetrate the hydrophobic core at higher concentrations. Trans-membrane crystallites start to nucleate when the membrane thickness has decreased such that cortisone molecules in the different leaflets can find partners from the opposite leaflet resulting in a non-zero density of cortisone molecules in the bilayer center. We suggest that the lipid bilayer provides a site for cortisone crystallization. PMID:26936102

  17. Molecular Dynamics of a Water-Lipid Bilayer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of a glycerol 1-monooleate bilayer in water. The total length of analyzed trajectories is 5ns. The calculated width of the bilayer agrees well with the experimentally measured value. The interior of the membrane is in a highly disordered fluid state. Atomic density profile, orientational and conformational distribution functions, and order parameters indicate that disorder increases toward the center of the bilayer. Analysis of out-of-plane thermal fluctuations of the bilayer surfaces occurring at the time scale of the present calculations reveals that the distribution of modes agrees with predictions of the capillary wave model. Fluctuations of both bilayer surfaces are uncorrelated, yielding Gaussian distribution of instantaneous widths of the membrane. Fluctuations of the width produce transient thinning defects in the bilayer which occasionally span almost half of the membrane. The leading mechanism of these fluctuations is the orientational and conformational motion of head groups rather than vertical motion of the whole molecules. Water considerably penetrates the head group region of the bilayer but not its hydrocarbon core. The total net excess dipole moment of the interfacial water points toward the aqueous phase, but the water polarization profile is non-monotonic. Both water and head groups significantly contribute to the surface potential across the interface. The calculated sign of the surface potential is in agreement with that from experimental measurements, but the value is markedly overestimated. The structural and electrical properties of the water-bilayer system are discussed in relation to membrane functions, in particular transport of ions and nonelectrolytes across membranes.

  18. Molecular Dynamics of a Water-Lipid Bilayer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Pohorille, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations of a glycerol 1-monooleate bilayer in water. The total length of analyzed trajectories is 5ns. The calculated width of the bilayer agrees well with the experimentally measured value. The interior of the membrane is in a highly disordered fluid state. Atomic density profile, orientational and conformational distribution functions, and order parameters indicate that disorder increases toward the center of the bilayer. Analysis of out-of-plane thermal fluctuations of the bilayer surfaces occurring at the time scale of the present calculations reveals that the distribution of modes agrees with predictions of the capillary wave model. Fluctuations of both bilayer surfaces are uncorrelated, yielding Gaussian distribution of instantaneous widths of the membrane. Fluctuations of the width produce transient thinning defects in the bilayer which occasionally span almost half of the membrane. The leading mechanism of these fluctuations is the orientational and conformational motion of head groups rather than vertical motion of the whole molecules. Water considerably penetrates the head group region of the bilayer but not its hydrocarbon core. The total net excess dipole moment of the interfacial water points toward the aqueous phase, but the water polarization profile is non-monotonic. Both water and head groups significantly contribute to the surface potential across the interface. The calculated sign of the surface potential is in agreement with that from experimental measurements, but the value is markedly overestimated. The structural and electrical properties of the water-bilayer system are discussed in relation to membrane functions, in particular transport of ions and nonelectrolytes across membranes.

  19. Membrane fusion promoters and inhibitors have contrasting effects on lipid bilayer structure and undulations.

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, T J; Kulkarni, K G; Simon, S A

    1999-01-01

    It has been established that the fusion of both biological membranes and phospholipid bilayers can be modulated by altering their lipid composition (Chernomordik et al., 1995 .J. Membr. Biol. 146:3). In particular, when added exogenously between apposing membranes, monomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (MMPC) inhibits membrane fusion, whereas glycerol monoleate (GMO), oleic acid (OA), and arachidonic acid (AA) promote fusion. This present study uses x-ray diffraction to investigate the effects of MMPC, GMO, OA, and AA on the bending and stability of lipid bilayers when bilayers are forced together with applied osmotic pressure. The addition of 10 and 30 mol% MMPC to egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers maintains the bilayer structure, even when the interbilayer fluid spacing is reduced to approximately 3 A, and increases the repulsive pressure between bilayers so that the fluid spacing in excess water increases by 5 and 15 A, respectively. Thus MMPC increases the undulation pressure, implying that the addition of MMPC promotes out-of-plane bending and decreases the adhesion energy between bilayers. In contrast, the addition of GMO has minor effects on the undulation pressure; 10 and 50 mol% GMO increase the fluid spacing of EPC in excess water by 0 and 2 A, respectively. However, x-ray diffraction indicates that, at small interbilayer separations, GMO, OA, or AA converts the bilayer to a structure containing hexagonally packed scattering units approximately 50 A in diameter. Thus GMO, OA, or AA destabilizes bilayer structure as apposing bilayers are brought into contact, which could contribute to their role in promoting membrane fusion. PMID:10096904

  20. Joining patch-clamp and atomic force microscopy techniques for studying black lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle-García, Erasmo; Ortega-Blake, Iván

    2007-08-01

    An experimental protocol that enables the direct characterization of freestanding lipid bilayers through a combination of atomic force microscopy and single channel recording is presented. The method consists of producing a 15μm diameter pore in a 3μm thick Mylar film that delimits two vessels. The micropore was done by a glass microneedle. >L-α-phosphatidylcholine bilayers were routinely painted on the pore, observed by atomic force microscopy, and tested with gramicidin D ion channels.

  1. Bilayer Asymmetry Influences Integrin Sequestering in Raft-Mimicking Lipid Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Noor F.; Siegel, Amanda P.; Ge, Yifan; Jordan, Rainer; Naumann, Christoph A.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing recognition that lipid heterogeneities in cellular membranes play an important role in the distribution and functionality of membrane proteins. However, the detection and characterization of such heterogeneities at the cellular level remains challenging. Here we report on the poorly understood relationship between lipid bilayer asymmetry and membrane protein sequestering in raft-mimicking model membrane mixtures using a powerful experimental platform comprised of confocal spectroscopy XY-scan and photon-counting histogram analyses. This experimental approach is utilized to probe the domain-specific sequestering and oligomerization state of αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins in bilayers, which contain coexisting liquid-disordered/liquid-ordered (ld/lo) phase regions exclusively in the top leaflet of the bilayer (bottom leaflet contains ld phase). Comparison with previously reported integrin sequestering data in bilayer-spanning lo-ld phase separations demonstrates that bilayer asymmetry has a profound influence on αvβ3 and α5β1 sequestering behavior. For example, both integrins sequester preferentially to the lo phase in asymmetric bilayers, but to the ld phase in their symmetric counterparts. Furthermore, our data show that bilayer asymmetry significantly influences the role of native ligands in integrin sequestering. PMID:23708361

  2. Investigation by focused laser beam scanning of the photoelectric activity of bacteriorhodopsin-containing lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Dancsházy, Z; Ormos, P; Drachev, L A; Skulachev, V P

    1978-01-01

    The photoelectric activity of different parts of lipid bilayer containing bacteriorhodopsin was investigated by moving a small actinic light spot across the Plateau-Gibbs border and the bimolecular part of this reconstituted model membrane. The results give direct evidence that bacteriorhodopsin incorporated into the bimolecular region of the lipid membrane is responsible for the photoelectric activity of this system. A technique for scanning the photoelectric activity of a modified bimolecular lipid membrane is described in detail. PMID:728523

  3. Lipid Coupling in Asymmetric Supported Lipid Bilayers Revealed by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yan; Zhang, Liangfang; Granick, Steve

    2006-03-01

    In biological systems, phospholipids asymmetry in two leaflets is a key feature of cell membranes for membrane biogenesis, intracellular fusion and signal transduction. Detailed information of the interactions and dynamics of the asymmetric membranes is paramount for design of applications. Here we use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure the coupling between 1, 2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) and 1, 2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) in asymmetric planar-supported bilayers (PSLBs), at temperatures where DLPC is in the fluid phase but DPPC is in the gel phase. Asymmetric PSLBs were prepared by placing dilute fluorescent-labeled 1, 2-dimeristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DMPE) in DLPC leaflet as the probe for measuring lateral diffusion within the host leaflet environment. By constructing asymmetric bilayers where DLPC is alternatively in the top and in the bottom leaflet, we compare lipid coupling between the two leaflets with frictional interaction between the leaflets and the nanometer-thick water layer that separates the bottom leaflet from the solid support.

  4. Creating air-stable supported lipid bilayers by physical confinement induced by phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Han, Chung-Ta; Chao, Ling

    2014-05-14

    Supported lipid bilayer platforms have been used for various biological applications. However, the lipid bilayers easily delaminate and lose their natural structure after being exposed to an air-water interface. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated that physical confinement can be used instead of chemical modifications to create air-stable membranes. Physical confinement was generated by the obstacle network induced by a peripheral enzyme, phospholipase A2. The enzyme and reacted lipids could be washed away from the obstacle network, which was detergent-resistant and strongly bonded to the solid support. On the basis of these properties, the obstacle framework on the solid support was reusable and lipid bilayers with the desired composition could be refilled and formed in the region confined by the obstacle framework. The results of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) indicate that the diffusivities of the lipid bilayers before drying and after rehydration were comparable, indicating the air stability of the physically confined membrane. In addition, we observed that the obstacles could trap a thin layer of water after the air-water interface passed through the lipid bilayer. Because the obstacles were demonstrated to be several times higher than a typical lipid membrane on a support, the obstacles may act as container walls, which can trap water above the lipid membrane. The water layer may have prevented the air-water interface from directly contacting the lipid membrane and, therefore, buffered the interfacial force, which could cause membrane delamination. The results suggest the possibility of using physical confinement to create air-stable membranes without changing local membrane rigidity or covering the membrane with protecting molecules.

  5. Bimodal distribution and fluorescence response of environment-sensitive probes in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Klymchenko, Andrey S; Duportail, Guy; Demchenko, Alexander P; Mély, Yves

    2004-05-01

    A remarkable heterogeneity is often observed in the spectroscopic properties of environment-sensitive fluorescence probes in phospholipid bilayers. To explain its origin, we provided a detailed investigation of the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of 4'-dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone (probe F) in bilayer vesicles with the variations of fatty acid composition, polar heads, temperature, and cholesterol content. Probe F, due to excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, exhibits two bands in emission that are differently sensitive to intermolecular interactions-thereby allowing us to distinguish universal (dipole-dipole) and specific (H-bonding) interactions within the bilayer. Spectroscopic, quenching, and anisotropy data suggest the presence of two forms of probe F at different locations in the bilayer: an H-bond free form located below sn(1)-carbonyls and an H-bonded form located at the polar membrane interface. We provide a quantitative analysis of the distribution of the probe between these two locations as well as the polarity of these locations, and show that both the distribution and the polarity contribute to the probe response. Moreover, analysis of literature data on other environment-sensitive probes (Prodan, Laurdan, Nile Red, NBD lipids, etc.) in lipid bilayers allows us to suggest that the bimodal distribution in the lipid bilayer is probably a general feature of low-polar molecules with polar groups capable of H-bonding interactions.

  6. Direct proof of spontaneous translocation of lipid-covered hydrophobic nanoparticles through a phospholipid bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yachong; Terazzi, Emmanuel; Seemann, Ralf; Fleury, Jean Baptiste; Baulin, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic nanoparticles introduced into living systems may lead to increased toxicity, can activate immune cells, or can be used as nanocarriers for drug or gene delivery. It is generally accepted that small hydrophobic nanoparticles are blocked by lipid bilayers and accumulate in the bilayer core, whereas big nanoparticles can only penetrate cells through slow energy-dependent processes, such as endocytosis, lasting minutes. In contrast to expectations, we demonstrate that lipid-covered hydrophobic nanoparticles may translocate through lipid membranes by direct penetration within milliseconds. We identified the threshold size for translocation: nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 5 nm stay trapped in the bilayer, whereas those with diameters larger than 5 nm insert into the bilayer, opening pores in the bilayer. The direct proof of this size-dependent translocation was provided by an in situ observation of a single event of a nanoparticle quitting the bilayer. This was achieved with a specially designed microfluidic device combining optical fluorescence microscopy with simultaneous electrophysiological measurements. A quantitative analysis of the kinetic pathway of a single nanoparticle translocation event demonstrated that the translocation is irreversible and that the nanoparticle can translocate only once. This newly discovered one-way translocation mechanism provides numerous opportunities for biotechnological applications, ranging from targeted biomaterial elimination and/or delivery to precise and controlled trapping of nanoparticles. PMID:27847863

  7. Structural restraints and heterogeneous orientation of the gramicidin A channel closed state in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Mo, Y; Cross, T A; Nerdal, W

    2004-05-01

    Although there have been several decades of literature illustrating the opening and closing of the monovalent cation selective gramicidin A channel through single channel conductance, the closed conformation has remained poorly characterized. In sharp contrast, the open-state dimer is one of the highest resolution structures yet characterized in a lipid environment. To shift the open/closed equilibrium dramatically toward the closed state, a lower peptide/lipid molar ratio and, most importantly, long-chain lipids have been used. For the first time, structural evidence for a monomeric state has been observed for the native gramicidin A peptide. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of single-site (15)N-labeled gramicidin in uniformly aligned bilayers in the L(alpha) phase have been observed. The results suggest a kinked structure with considerable orientational heterogeneity. The C-terminal domain is well structured, has a well-defined orientation in the bilayer, and appears to be in the bilayer interfacial region. On the other hand, the N-terminal domain, although appearing to be well structured and in the hydrophobic core of the bilayer, has a broad range of orientations relative to the bilayer normal. The structure is not just half of the open-state dimer, and neither is the structure restricted to the surface of the bilayer. Consequently, the monomeric or closed state appears to be a hybrid of these two models from the literature.

  8. Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensor Motifs: Probing Bilayer Defects with Hydrophobic Residues

    PubMed Central

    Vanni, Stefano; Vamparys, Lydie; Gautier, Romain; Drin, Guillaume; Etchebest, Catherine; Fuchs, Patrick F.J.; Antonny, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Sensing membrane curvature allows fine-tuning of complex reactions that occur at the surface of membrane-bound organelles. One of the most sensitive membrane curvature sensors, the Amphipathic Lipid Packing Sensor (ALPS) motif, does not seem to recognize the curved surface geometry of membranes per se; rather, it recognizes defects in lipid packing that arise from membrane bending. In a companion paper, we show that these defects can be mimicked by introducing conical lipids in a flat lipid bilayer, in agreement with experimental observations. Here, we use molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize ALPS binding to such lipid bilayers. The ALPS motif recognizes lipid-packing defects by a conserved mechanism: peptide partitioning is driven by the insertion of hydrophobic residues into large packing defects that are preformed in the bilayer. This insertion induces only minor modifications in the statistical distribution of the free packing defects. ALPS insertion is severely hampered when monounsaturated lipids are replaced by saturated lipids, leading to a decrease in packing defects. We propose that the hypersensitivity of ALPS motifs to lipid packing defects results from the repetitive use of hydrophobic insertions along the monotonous ALPS sequence. PMID:23442908

  9. Component and state separation in DMPC/DSPC lipid bilayers: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    PubMed Central

    Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina I; Sugár, István P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a two-state, two-component, Ising-type model is used to simulate the lateral distribution of the components and gel/fluid state acyl chains in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC/DSPC) lipid bilayers. The same model has been successful in calculating the excess heat capacity curves, the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) threshold temperatures, the most frequent center-to-center distances between DSPC clusters, and the fractal dimensions of gel clusters (Sugar, I. P., T. E. Thompson, and R. L. Biltonen, 1999. Biophys. J. 76:2099-2110). Depending on the temperature and mole fraction the population of the cluster size is either homogeneous or inhomogeneous. In the inhomogeneous population the size of the largest cluster scales with the size of the system, while the rest of the clusters remain small with increasing system size. In a homogeneous population, however, every cluster remains small with increasing system size. For both compositional and fluid/gel state clusters, threshold temperatures-the so-called percolation threshold temperatures-are determined where change in the type of the population takes place. At a given mole fraction, the number of percolation threshold temperatures can be 0, 1, 2, or 3. By plotting these percolation threshold temperatures on the temperature/mole fraction plane, the diagrams of component and state separation of DMPC/DSPC bilayers are constructed. In agreement with the small-angle neutron scattering measurements, the component separation diagram shows nonrandom lateral distribution of the components not only in the gel-fluid mixed phase region, but also in the pure gel and pure fluid regions. A combined diagram of component and state separation is constructed to characterize the lateral distribution of lipid components and gel/fluid state acyl chains in DMPC/DSPC mixtures. While theoretical phase diagrams of two component mixtures can be constructed only in the case of

  10. Ethanol effects on binary and ternary supported lipid bilayers with gel/fluid domains and lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Marquês, Joaquim T; Viana, Ana S; De Almeida, Rodrigo F M

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol-lipid bilayer interactions have been a recurrent theme in membrane biophysics, due to their contribution to the understanding of membrane structure and dynamics. The main purpose of this study was to assess the interplay between membrane lateral heterogeneity and ethanol effects. This was achieved by in situ atomic force microscopy, following the changes induced by sequential ethanol additions on supported lipid bilayers formed in the absence of alcohol. Binary phospholipid mixtures with a single gel phase, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol, gel/fluid phase coexistence DPPC/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and ternary lipid mixtures containing cholesterol, mimicking lipid rafts (DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol and DOPC/sphingomyelin/cholesterol), i.e., with liquid ordered/liquid disordered (ld/lo) phase separation, were investigated. For all compositions studied, and in two different solid supports, mica and silicon, domain formation or rearrangement accompanied by lipid bilayer thinning and expansion was observed. In the case of gel/fluid coexistence, low ethanol concentrations lead to a marked thinning of the fluid but not of the gel domains. In the case of ld/lo all the bilayer thins simultaneously by a similar extent. In both cases, only the more disordered phase expanded significantly, indicating that ethanol increases the proportion of disordered domains. Water/bilayer interfacial tension variation and freezing point depression, inducing acyl chain disordering (including opening and looping), tilting, and interdigitation, are probably the main cause for the observed changes. The results presented herein demonstrate that ethanol influences the bilayer properties according to membrane lateral organization.

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies of the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S with lipid micelles and with lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R N; Prenner, E J; Kondejewski, L H; Flach, C R; Mendelsohn, R; Hodges, R S; McElhaney, R N

    1999-11-16

    We have utilized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) with lipid micelles and with lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes as a function of temperature and of the phase state of the lipid. Since the conformation of GS does not change under the experimental conditions employed in this study, we could utilize the dependence of the frequency of the amide I band of the central beta-sheet region of this peptide on the polarity and hydrogen-bonding potential of its environment to probe GS interaction with and location in these lipid model membrane systems. We find that the GS is completely or partially excluded from the gel states of all of the lipid bilayers examined in this study but strongly partitions into lipid micelles, monolayers, or bilayers in the liquid-crystalline state. Moreover, in general, the penetration of GS into zwitterionic and uncharged lipid bilayer coincides closely with the gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition of the lipid. However, GS begins to penetrate into the gel-state bilayers of anionic phospholipids prior to the actual chain-melting phase transition, while in cationic lipid bilayers, GS does not partition strongly into the liquid-crystalline bilayer until temperatures well above the chain-melting phase transition are reached. In the liquid-crystalline state, the polarity of the environment of GS indicates that this peptide is located primarily at the polar/apolar interfacial region of the bilayer near the glycerol backbone region of the lipid molecule. However, the depth of GS penetration into this interfacial region can vary somewhat depending on the structure and charge of the lipid molecule. In general, GS associates most strongly with and penetrates most deeply into more disordered bilayers with a negative surface charge, although the detailed chemical structure of the lipid molecule and physical organization of the lipid aggregate (micelle versus monolayer

  12. Triggered Release from Lipid Bilayer Vesicles by an Artificial Transmembrane Signal Transduction System.

    PubMed

    Langton, Matthew J; Scriven, Lorel M; Williams, Nicholas H; Hunter, Christopher A

    2017-09-06

    The on-demand delivery of drug molecules from nanoscale carriers with spatiotemporal control is a key challenge in modern medicine. Here we show that lipid bilayer vesicles (liposomes) can be triggered to release an encapsulated molecular cargo in response to an external control signal by employing an artificial transmembrane signal transduction mechanism. A synthetic signal transducer embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane acts as a switchable catalyst, catalyzing the formation of surfactant molecules inside the vesicle in response to a change in external pH. The surfactant permeabilizes the lipid bilayer membrane to facilitate release of an encapsulated hydrophilic cargo. In the absence of the pH control signal, the catalyst is inactive, and the cargo remains encapsulated within the vesicle.

  13. Functional liposomes and supported lipid bilayers: towards the complexity of biological archetypes.

    PubMed

    Berti, Debora; Caminati, Gabriella; Baglioni, Piero

    2011-05-21

    This perspective paper provides some illustrative examples on the interplay between information gathered on planar supported lipid bilayers (SLB) and unilamellar lipid vesicles (ULV) to get an integrated description of phenomena occurring at the nanoscale that involve locally bilayered structures. Similarities and differences are underlined and critically compared in terms of biomimetic fidelity and instrumental accessibility to structural and dynamical parameters, focusing on some recent reports that either explicitly address this comparison or introducing some studies that separately investigate the same process in SLB and lipid vesicles. Despite the structural similarity on the nanoscale, the different topology implies radically different characterization techniques that have evolved in sectorial and separated approaches. The quest for increasing levels of compositional complexity for bilayered systems should not result in a loss of structural and dynamical control: this is the central challenge of future research in this area, where the integrated approach highlighted in this contribution would enable improved levels of understanding.

  14. Pore formation of thermostable direct hemolysin secreted from Vibrio parahaemolyticus in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Akira; Yamamoto, Chiyo; Kodama, Toshio; Yamashita, Kanami; Harada, Nagakatsu; Nakano, Masayuki; Honda, Takeshi; Nakaya, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus secretes thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), a major virulence factor. Earlier studies report that TDH is a pore-forming toxin. However, the characteristics of pores formed by TDH in the lipid bilayer, which is permeable to small ions, remain to be elucidated. Ion channel-like activities were observed in lipid bilayers containing TDH. Three types of conductance were identified. All the channels displayed relatively low ion selectivity, and similar ion permeability. The Cl- channel inhibitors, DIDS, glybenclamide, and NPPB, did not affect the channel activity of pores formed by TDH. R7, a mutant toxin of TDH, also forms pores with channel-like activity in lipid bilayers. The ion permeability of these channels is similar to that of TDH. R7 binds cultured cells and liposomes to a lower extent, compared to TDH. R7 does not display significant hemolytic activity and cell cytotoxicity, possibly owing to the difficulty of insertion into lipid membranes. Once R7 is assembled within lipid membranes, it may assume the same structure as TDH. The authors propose that the single glycine at position 62, substituted with serine in the R7 mutant toxin, plays an important role in TDH insertion into the lipid bilayer.

  15. Comparative computer simulation study of cholesterol in hydrated unary and binary lipid bilayers and in an anhydrous crystal.

    PubMed

    Plesnar, Elzbieta; Subczynski, Witold K; Pasenkiewicz-Gierula, Marta

    2013-07-25

    Models created with molecular dynamics simulations are used to compare the organization and dynamics of cholesterol (Chol) molecules in three different environments: (1) a hydrated pure Chol bilayer that models the Chol bilayer domain, which is a pure Chol domain embedded in the bulk membrane; (2) a 2-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl-d-glycerol-1-phosphorylcholine bilayer saturated with cholesterol (POPC-Chol50) that models the bulk membrane; (3) a Chol crystal. The computer model of the hydrated pure Chol bilayer is stable on the microsecond time scale. Some structural characteristics of Chol molecules in the Chol bilayer are similar to those in the POPC-Chol50 bilayer (e.g., tilt of Chol rings and chains), while others are similar to those in Chol crystals (e.g., surface area per Chol, bilayer thickness). The key result of this study is that the Chol bilayer has, unexpectedly, a dynamic structure, with Chol mobility similar to that in the POPC-Chol50 bilayer though slower. This is the major difference compared to Chol crystals, where Chol molecules are immobile. Also, water accessibility to Chol-OH groups in the Chol bilayer is not limited. On average, each Chol molecule makes 2.3 hydrogen bonds with water in the Chol bilayer, compared with 1.7 hydrogen bonds in the POPC-Col50 bilayer.

  16. Neutron Reflectometry reveals the interaction between functionalized SPIONs and the surface of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Luchini, Alessandra; Gerelli, Yuri; Fragneto, Giovanna; Nylander, Tommy; Pálsson, Gunnar K; Appavou, Marie-Sousai; Paduano, Luigi

    2017-03-01

    The safe application of nanotechnology devices in biomedicine requires fundamental understanding on how they interact with and affect the different components of biological systems. In this respect, the cellular membrane, the cell envelope, certainly represents an important target or barrier for nanosystems. Here we report on the interaction between functionalized SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs), promising contrast agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and lipid bilayers that mimic the plasma membrane. Neutron Reflectometry, supported by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) experiments, was used to characterize this interaction by varying both SPION coating and lipid bilayer composition. In particular, the interaction of two different SPIONs, functionalized with a cationic surfactant and a zwitterionic phospholipid, and lipid bilayers, containing different amount of cholesterol, were compared. The obtained results were further validated by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements and Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (Cryo-TEM) images. None of the investigated functionalized SPIONs were found to disrupt the lipid membrane. However, in all case we observed the attachment of the functionalized SPIONs onto the surface of the bilayers, which was affected by the bilayer rigidity, i.e. the cholesterol concentration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reparameterization of all-atom dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid parameters enables simulation of fluid bilayers at zero tension.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Jacob; Jensen, Morten Ø; Hansen, Flemming Y; Hemmingsen, Lars; Peters, Günther H

    2007-06-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers using the CHARMM27 force field in the tensionless isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensemble give highly ordered, gel-like bilayers with an area per lipid of approximately 48 A(2). To obtain fluid (L(alpha)) phase properties of DPPC bilayers represented by the CHARMM energy function in this ensemble, we reparameterized the atomic partial charges in the lipid headgroup and upper parts of the acyl chains. The new charges were determined from the electron structure using both the Mulliken method and the restricted electrostatic potential fitting method. We tested the derived charges in molecular dynamics simulations of a fully hydrated DPPC bilayer. Only the simulation with the new restricted electrostatic potential charges shows significant improvements compared with simulations using the original CHARMM27 force field resulting in an area per lipid of 60.4 +/- 0.1 A(2). Compared to the 48 A(2), the new value of 60.4 A(2) is in fair agreement with the experimental value of 64 A(2). In addition, the simulated order parameter profile and electron density profile are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Thus, the biologically more interesting fluid phase of DPPC bilayers can now be simulated in all-atom simulations in the NPT ensemble by employing our modified CHARMM27 force field.

  18. A Hybrid Model for Erythrocyte Membrane: A Single Unit of Protein Network Coupled with Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiang; Vera, Carlos; Asaro, Robert J.; Sche, Paul; Sung, L. Amy

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the nanomechanics of the erythrocyte membrane we developed a hybrid model that couples the actin-spectrin network to the lipid bilayer. This model features a Fourier space Brownian dynamics model of the bilayer, a Brownian dynamics model of the actin protofilament, and a modified wormlike-chain model of the spectrin (including a cable-dynamics model to predict the oscillation in tension). This model enables us to predict the nanomechanics of single or multiple units of the protein network, the lipid bilayer, and the effect of their interactions. The present work is focused on the attitude of the actin protofilament at the equilibrium states coupled with the elevations of the lipid bilayer through their primary linkage at the suspension complex in deformations. Two different actin-spectrin junctions are considered at the junctional complex. With a point-attachment junction, large pitch angles and bifurcation of yaw angles are predicted. Thermal fluctuations at bifurcation may lead to mode-switching, which may affect the network and the physiological performance of the membrane. In contrast, with a wrap-around junction, pitch angles remain small, and the occurrence of bifurcation is greatly reduced. These simulations suggest the importance of three-dimensional molecular junctions and the lipid bilayer/protein network coupling on cell membrane mechanics. PMID:17449663

  19. Importance of phospholipid bilayer integrity in the analysis of protein–lipid interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Drücker, Patrick; Gerke, Volker; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • We show long-term mechanical stabilization of solid supported bilayers. • Bilayer integrity is essential for the investigation of protein–lipid interactions. • Protein adsorption to a bilayer containing defects causes membrane destruction. - Abstract: The integrity of supported phospholipid bilayer membranes is of crucial importance for the investigation of lipid–protein interactions. Therefore we recorded the formation of supported membranes on SiO{sub 2} and mica by quartz crystal microbalance and controlled the integrity by atomic force microscopy. This study aims to analyze how membrane defects affect protein–lipid interactions. The experiments focused on a lipid mixture of POPC/DOPC/Chol/POPS/PI(4,5)P{sub 2} (37:20:20:20:3) and the binding of the peripheral membrane associated protein annexin A2. We found that formation of a continuous undisturbed bilayer is an indispensable precondition for a reliable determination and quantification of lipid–protein-interactions. If membrane defects were present, protein adsorption causes membrane disruption and lipid detachment on a support thus leading to false determination of binding constants. Our results obtained for PI(4,5)P{sub 2} and cholesterol containing supported membranes yield new knowledge to construct functional surfaces that may cover nanoporous substrates, form free standing membranes or may be used for lab-on-a-chip applications.

  20. Energetics of peptide (pHLIP) binding to and folding across a lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Reshetnyak, Yana K; Andreev, Oleg A; Segala, Michael; Markin, Vladislav S; Engelman, Donald M

    2008-10-07

    The pH low-insertion peptide (pHLIP) serves as a model system for peptide insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer. It has three general states: (I) soluble in water or (II) bound to the surface of a lipid bilayer as an unstructured monomer, and (III) inserted across the bilayer as a monomeric alpha-helix. We used fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry to study the interactions of pHLIP with a palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipid bilayer and to calculate the transition energies between states. We found that the Gibbs free energy of binding to a POPC surface at low pHLIP concentration (state I-state II transition) at 37 degrees C is approximately -7 kcal/mol near neutral pH and that the free energy of insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer at low pH (state II-state III transition) is nearly -2 kcal/mol. We discuss a number of related thermodynamic parameters from our measurements. Besides its fundamental interest as a model system for the study of membrane protein folding, pHLIP has utility as an agent to target diseased tissues and translocate molecules through the membrane into the cytoplasm of cells in environments with elevated levels of extracellular acidity, as in cancer and inflammation. The results give the amount of energy that might be used to move cargo molecules across a membrane.

  1. Energetics of peptide (pHLIP) binding to and folding across a lipid bilayer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Andreev, Oleg A.; Segala, Michael; Markin, Vladislav S.; Engelman, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    The pH low-insertion peptide (pHLIP) serves as a model system for peptide insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer. It has three general states: (I) soluble in water or (II) bound to the surface of a lipid bilayer as an unstructured monomer, and (III) inserted across the bilayer as a monomeric α-helix. We used fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry to study the interactions of pHLIP with a palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipid bilayer and to calculate the transition energies between states. We found that the Gibbs free energy of binding to a POPC surface at low pHLIP concentration (state I–state II transition) at 37°C is approximately −7 kcal/mol near neutral pH and that the free energy of insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer at low pH (state II–state III transition) is nearly −2 kcal/mol. We discuss a number of related thermodynamic parameters from our measurements. Besides its fundamental interest as a model system for the study of membrane protein folding, pHLIP has utility as an agent to target diseased tissues and translocate molecules through the membrane into the cytoplasm of cells in environments with elevated levels of extracellular acidity, as in cancer and inflammation. The results give the amount of energy that might be used to move cargo molecules across a membrane. PMID:18829441

  2. The mechanism of detergent solubilization of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Dov; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Goñi, Félix M

    2013-07-16

    Multiple data are available on the self-assembly of mixtures of bilayer-forming amphiphiles, particularly phospholipids and micelle-forming amphiphiles, commonly denoted detergents. The structure of such mixed assemblies has been thoroughly investigated, described in phase diagrams, and theoretically rationalized in terms of the balance between the large spontaneous curvature of the curvophilic detergent and the curvophobic phospholipids. In this critical review, we discuss the mechanism of this process and try to explain the actual mechanism involved in solubilization. Interestingly, membrane solubilization by some detergents is relatively slow and the common attribute of these detergents is that their trans-bilayer movement, commonly denoted flip-flop, is very slow. Only detergents that can flip into the inner monolayer cause relatively rapid solubilization of detergent-saturated bilayers. This occurs via the following sequence of events: 1), relatively rapid penetration of detergent monomers into the outer monolayer; 2), trans-membrane equilibration of detergent monomers between the two monolayers; 3), saturation of the bilayer by detergents and consequent permeabilization of the membrane; and 4), transition of the whole bilayer to thread-like mixed micelles. When the detergent cannot flip to the inner monolayer, the outer monolayer becomes unstable due to mass imbalance between the monolayers and inclusion of the curvophilic detergent molecules in a flat surface. Consequently, the outer monolayer forms mixed micellar structures within the outer monolayer. Shedding of these micelles into the aqueous solution results in partial solubilization. The consequent leakage of detergent into the liposome results in trans-membrane equilibration of detergent and subsequent micellization through the rapid bilayer-saturation mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Mechanism of Detergent Solubilization of Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Dov; Ahyayauch, Hasna; Goñi, Félix M.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple data are available on the self-assembly of mixtures of bilayer-forming amphiphiles, particularly phospholipids and micelle-forming amphiphiles, commonly denoted detergents. The structure of such mixed assemblies has been thoroughly investigated, described in phase diagrams, and theoretically rationalized in terms of the balance between the large spontaneous curvature of the curvophilic detergent and the curvophobic phospholipids. In this critical review, we discuss the mechanism of this process and try to explain the actual mechanism involved in solubilization. Interestingly, membrane solubilization by some detergents is relatively slow and the common attribute of these detergents is that their trans-bilayer movement, commonly denoted flip-flop, is very slow. Only detergents that can flip into the inner monolayer cause relatively rapid solubilization of detergent-saturated bilayers. This occurs via the following sequence of events: 1), relatively rapid penetration of detergent monomers into the outer monolayer; 2), trans-membrane equilibration of detergent monomers between the two monolayers; 3), saturation of the bilayer by detergents and consequent permeabilization of the membrane; and 4), transition of the whole bilayer to thread-like mixed micelles. When the detergent cannot flip to the inner monolayer, the outer monolayer becomes unstable due to mass imbalance between the monolayers and inclusion of the curvophilic detergent molecules in a flat surface. Consequently, the outer monolayer forms mixed micellar structures within the outer monolayer. Shedding of these micelles into the aqueous solution results in partial solubilization. The consequent leakage of detergent into the liposome results in trans-membrane equilibration of detergent and subsequent micellization through the rapid bilayer-saturation mechanism. PMID:23870250

  4. Structural properties of a highly polyunsaturated lipid bilayer from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, L; Klein, M L

    2001-01-01

    The structure of a fully hydrated mixed (saturated/polyunsaturated) chain lipid bilayer in the biologically relevant liquid crystalline phase has been examined by performing a molecular dynamics study. The model membrane, a 1-stearoyl-2-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SDPC, 18:0/22:6 PC) lipid bilayer, was investigated at constant (room) temperature and (ambient) pressure, and the results obtained in the nanosecond time scale reproduced quite well the available experimental data. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in high concentrations in neuronal and retinal tissues and are essential for the development of human brain function. The docosahexaenoic fatty acid, in particular, is fundamental for the proper function of the visual receptor rhodopsin. The lipid bilayer order has been investigated through the orientational order parameters. The water-lipid interface has been explored thoroughly in terms of its dimensions and the organization of the different components. Several types of interactions occurring in the system have been analyzed, specifically, the water-hydrocarbon chain, lipid-lipid and lipid-water interactions. The distribution of dihedral angles along the chains and the molecular conformations of the polyunsaturated chain of the lipids have also been studied. Special attention has been focused on the microscopic (molecular) origin of the effects of polyunsaturations on the different physical properties of membranes. PMID:11423407

  5. Formation of supported lipid bilayers containing phase-segregated domains and their interaction with gold nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Melby, Eric S.; Mensch, Arielle C.; Lohse, Samuel E.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Murphy, Catherine J.; Hamers, Robert J.; Pedersen, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    The cell membrane represents an important biological interface that nanoparticles may encounter after being released into the environment. Interaction of nanoparticles with cellular membranes may alter membrane structure and function, lead to their uptake into cells, and elicit adverse biological responses. Supported lipid bilayers have proven to be valuable ex vivo models for biological membranes, allowing investigation of their mechanisms of interaction with nanoparticles with a degree of control impossible in living cells. To date, the majority of research on nanoparticle interaction with supported lipid bilayers has employed membranes composed of single or binary mixtures of phospholipids. Cellular membranes contain a wide variety of lipids and exhibit lateral organization. Ordered membrane domains enriched in specific membrane components are referred to as lipid rafts and have not been explored with respect to their interaction with nanoparticles. Here we develop model lipid raft-containing membranes amenable to investigation by a variety of surface-sensitive analytical techniques and demonstrate that lipid rafts influence the extent of nanoparticle attachment to model membranes. We determined conditions that allow reliable formation of bilayers containing rafts enriched in sphingomyelin and cholesterol and confirmed their morphology by structured illumination and atomic force microscopies. We demonstrate that lipid rafts increase attachment of cationic gold nanoparticles to model membranes under near physiological ionic strength conditions (0.1 M NaCl) at pH 7.4. We anticipate that these results will serve as the foundation for and motivate further study of nanoparticle interaction with compositionally varied lipid rafts.

  6. Progression of NMR studies of membrane-active peptides from lipid bilayers to live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, M.-A.; Separovic, F.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the structure of membrane-active peptides faces many challenges associated with the development of appropriate model membrane systems as the peptide structure depends strongly on the lipid environment. This perspective provides a brief overview of the approach taken to study antimicrobial and amyloid peptides in phospholipid bilayers using oriented bilayers and magic angle spinning techniques. In particular, Boltzmann statistics REDOR and maximum entropy analysis of spinning side bands are used to analyse systems where multiple states of peptide or lipid molecules may co-exist. We propose that in future, rather than model membranes, structural studies in whole cells are feasible.

  7. Smoothed orientational order profile of lipid bilayers by 2H-nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Lafleur, M; Fine, B; Sternin, E; Cullis, P R; Bloom, M

    1989-01-01

    A new method has been developed to determine the complete orientational order profile of lipid bilayers using 2H-NMR. The profile is obtained from a single powder spectrum of a lipid which has a saturated chain fully deuteriated. The smoothed order profile is determined directly from the normalized dePaked spectrum assuming a monotonic decrease of the order along the acyl chain. The oscillatory variations of the order at the beginning of the chain are not described by this method. However the smoothed order profile reveals in a straightforward way the crucial features of the anisotropic order of the bilayer. PMID:2605294

  8. Thermal Stress of Supported Lipid Bilayer Induces Formation and Collapse of Uniform Radius Tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weirich, Kimberly; Fygenson, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    Supported lipid bilayer (SLB) provides a model system in which to quantitatively investigate fluid bilayer transitions from planar to tubular and tubular to spherical morphologies. Following a small increase in temperature, flexible filaments extrude from a fluid SLB. Individual filaments can reach hundreds of microns in length before spontaneously collapsing into discs. We demonstrate that the filaments are tubular and report the effects of lipid composition and flow-induced tension on their properties. At high ionic strength, the sub-resolution tubules are adsorbed to the SLB, enabling the measurement of their radius to within +/- 5 nm using fluorescence microscopy.

  9. Sampling errors in free energy simulations of small molecules in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Neale, Chris; Pomès, Régis

    2016-10-01

    Free energy simulations are a powerful tool for evaluating the interactions of molecular solutes with lipid bilayers as mimetics of cellular membranes. However, these simulations are frequently hindered by systematic sampling errors. This review highlights recent progress in computing free energy profiles for inserting molecular solutes into lipid bilayers. Particular emphasis is placed on a systematic analysis of the free energy profiles, identifying the sources of sampling errors that reduce computational efficiency, and highlighting methodological advances that may alleviate sampling deficiencies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Biosimulations edited by Ilpo Vattulainen and Tomasz Róg.

  10. Study of supported bilayer lipid membranes for use in chemo-electric energy conversion via active proton transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarles, Stephen A.; Sundaresan, Vishnu B.; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-09-01

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) have been studied extensively due to functional and structural similarities to cell membranes, fostering research to understand ion-channel protein functions, measure bilayer mechanical properties, and identify self-assembly mechanisms. BLMs have traditionally been formed across single pores in substrates such as PTFE (Teflon). The incorporation of ion-channel proteins into the lipid bilayer enables the selective transfer of ions and fluid through the BLM. Processes of this nature have led to the measurement of ion current flowing across the lipid membrane and have been used to develop sensors that signal the presence of a particular reactant (glucose, urea, penicillin), improve drug recognition in cells, and develop materials capable of creating chemical energy from light. Recent research at Virginia Tech has shown that the incorporation of proton transporters in a supported BLM formed across an array of pores can convert chemical energy available in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into electricity. Experimental results from this work show that the system-named Biocell-is capable of developing 2µW/cm2 of membrane area with 15μl of ATPase. Efforts to increase the power output and conversion efficiency of this process while moving toward a packaged device present a unique engineering problem. The bilayer, as host to the active proton transporters, must therefore be formed evenly across a porous substrate, remain stable and yet fluid-like for protein interaction, and exhibit a large seal resistance. This article presents the ongoing work to characterize the Biocell using impedance analysis. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to study the effect of adding ATPase proteins to POPS:POPE bilayer lipid membranes and correlate structural changes evident in the impedance data to the energy-conversion capability of various partial and whole Biocell assemblies. The specific membrane resistance of a pure BLM drops from 40-120k

  11. The nonelectrolyte permeability of planar lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of lecithin bilayer membranes to nonelectrolytes is in reasonable agreement with Overton's rule. The is, Pd alpha DKhc, where/Pd is the permeability coefficient of a solute through the bilayer, Khc is its hydrocarbon:water partition coefficient, and D is its diffusion coefficient in bulk hydrocarbon. The partition coefficients are by far the major determinants of the relative magnitudes of the permeability coefficients; the diffusion coefficients make only a minor contribution. We note that the recent emphasis on theoretically calculated intramembranous diffusion coefficients (Dm'S) has diverted attention from the experimentally measurable and physiologically relevant permeability coefficients (Pd'S) and has obscured the simplicity and usefulness of Overton's rule. PMID:7381427

  12. Deformation of a Two-domain Lipid Bilayer due to Asymmetric Insertion of Lipid-modified Ras Peptides.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenlong; Gorfe, Alemayehu A

    2013-12-21

    Ras proteins are attached to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane via a lipid-modified anchor. Membrane-bound Ras proteins laterally segregate into nanoscale signaling platforms called nanoclusters. It has been shown that the membrane domain preference of Ras nanoclusters varies with the nature of lipidation but their effect on the membrane has not been well understood. To investigate the effect of Ras insertion on membrane structure, we carried out numerous coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations on a two-domain DPPC/DLiPC/cholesterol lipid bilayer in which different number and type of H-ras peptides were attached on one side. We have shown previously that this lipid mixture forms co-existing liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered (L o /L d ) domains and that different H-ras peptides form clusters that variously accumulate at the L o /L d regions or the boundary between them. Here we show that asymmetric insertion of each of these peptides induces a vertical relative displacement of the domains and deforms the bilayer, with the domain boundary serving as the center of deformation. The extent of the deformation, however, varies with the type and number of lipid modification. This is because the number and type of the Ras lipid tails determines the degree to which the stress caused by asymmetric peptide insertion is relieved by inter-leaflet cholesterol transfer and lipid tilt. In addition, we have characterized the mechanism of bilayer deformation based on the collective effect of the Ras peptides on inter-leaflet surface area, pressure profile and line tension differences. This allowed us to elucidate how Ras lipid modification affects membrane geometry and how a two-domain bilayer adjusts its shape through boundary deformation. The result contributes to a better understanding of Ras signaling platforms and highlights some of the mechanisms by which a multi-domain membrane responds to external perturbation.

  13. Micropatterning of Phase-Segregated Supported Lipid Bilayers and Binary Lipid Phases through Polymer Stencil Lift-Off.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yujie; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M

    2016-10-04

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) provide an excellent model system for studying structural and functional characteristics of biomembranes. Patterning model membranes on solid supports has elicited much interest because lipid bilayer arrays at cellular or sub-cellular scales provide attractive platforms for reconstituting tissue-like conditions for cell culture, and for creating simplified physiological environments to study biological processes. Phase-segregated SLB patterns can be especially useful for such studies, as the selective functionalization of the lipid phases with different lipids, receptors or proteins can be achieved to mimic the key features of plasma membrane. However, it remains challenging to pattern phase-segregated lipid bilayers and to spatially control the lipid phases at the micron scale. Current methods to achieve this involve multiple surface modification and patterning steps, elaborate techniques such as microfluidic, microcontact printing, or electrochemical control, among others. To overcome the complexity in producing phase-segregated patterns, we have developed simple and rapid strategies to pattern SLBs with phase separation utilizing the polymer stencil lift-off (PSLO) technique. PSLO is a powerful technique for SLB patterning, since it allows the faithful pattern transfer of micron-sized lipid domains onto solid surfaces under aqueous conditions, which eliminates the need for controlled humidity and reduces the risk of bilayer disruption through drying. By integrating post-etching substrate cleaning and a blocking treatment, well-defined homogeneous and phase-segregated SLB patterns were achieved with lipid mobility that matches that of SLBs formed on clean SiO2 wafer substrates. A two-step incubation method was also developed for patterning binary lipid phases, which allowed precise control of their position and geometries. The created phase-segregated SLB patterns were used to study lipid phase behavior within confined areas, and

  14. Spring constants for channel-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Estimates using gramicidin channels.

    PubMed Central

    Lundbaek, J A; Andersen, O S

    1999-01-01

    Hydrophobic interactions between a bilayer and its embedded membrane proteins couple protein conformational changes to changes in the packing of the surrounding lipids. The energetic cost of a protein conformational change therefore includes a contribution from the associated bilayer deformation energy (DeltaGdef0), which provides a mechanism for how membrane protein function depends on the bilayer material properties. Theoretical studies based on an elastic liquid-crystal model of the bilayer deformation show that DeltaGdef0 should be quantifiable by a phenomenological linear spring model, in which the bilayer mechanical characteristics are lumped into a single spring constant. The spring constant scales with the protein radius, meaning that one can use suitable reporter proteins for in situ measurements of the spring constant and thereby evaluate quantitatively the DeltaGdef0 associated with protein conformational changes. Gramicidin channels can be used as such reporter proteins because the channels form by the transmembrane assembly of two nonconducting monomers. The monomerleft arrow over right arrow dimer reaction thus constitutes a well characterized conformational transition, and it should be possible to determine the phenomenological spring constant describing the channel-induced bilayer deformation by examining how DeltaGdef0 varies as a function of a mismatch between the hydrophobic channel length and the unperturbed bilayer thickness. We show this is possible by analyzing experimental studies on the relation between bilayer thickness and gramicidin channel duration. The spring constant in nominally hydrocarbon-free bilayers agrees well with estimates based on a continuum analysis of inclusion-induced bilayer deformations using independently measured material constants. PMID:9929490

  15. Tethered bilayer lipid micromembranes for single-channel recording: the role of adsorbed and partially fused lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Becucci, Lucia; D'Amico, Massimo; Cinotti, Serena; Daniele, Salvatore; Guidelli, Rolando

    2011-08-07

    A mercury-supported bilayer lipid micromembrane was prepared by anchoring a thiolipid monolayer to a mercury cap electrodeposited on a platinum microdisc about 20 μm in diameter; a lipid monolayer was then self-assembled on top of the thiolipid monolayer either by vesicle fusion or by spilling a few drops of a lipid solution in chloroform on the cap and allowing the solvent to evaporate. Single-channel recording following incorporation of the alamethicin channel-forming peptide exhibits quite different features, depending on the procedure followed to form the distal lipid monolayer. The "spilling" procedure, which avoids the formation of adsorbed or partially fused vesicles, yields very sharp single-channel currents lasting only one or two milliseconds. These are ascribed to ionic flux into the hydrophilic spacer moiety of the thiolipid. Conversely, the vesicle-fusion procedure yields much longer single-channel openings analogous to those obtained with conventional bilayer lipid membranes, albeit smaller. This difference in behavior is explained by ascribing the latter single-channel currents to ionic flux into vesicles adsorbed and/or partially fused onto the tethered lipid bilayer, via capacitive coupling. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  16. Covalent attachment of functionalized lipid bilayers to planar waveguides for measuring protein binding to biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Heyse, S.; Vogel, H.; Sänger, M.; Sigrist, H.

    1995-01-01

    A new method is presented for measuring sensitively the interactions between ligands and their membrane-bound receptors in situ using integrated optics, thus avoiding the need for additional labels. Phospholipid bilayers were attached covalently to waveguides by a novel protocol, which can in principle be used with any glass-like surface. In a first step, phospholipids carrying head-group thiols were covalently immobilized onto SiO2-TiO2 waveguide surfaces. This was accomplished by acylation of aminated waveguides with the heterobifunctional crosslinker N-succinimidyl-3-maleimidopropionate, followed by the formation of thioethers between the surface-grafted maleimides and the synthetic thiolipids. The surface-attached thiolipids served as hydrophobic templates and anchors for the deposition of a complete lipid bilayer either by fusion of lipid vesicles or by lipid self-assembly from mixed lipid/detergent micelles. The step-by-step lipid bilayer formation on the waveguide surface was monitored in situ by an integrated optics technique, allowing the simultaneous determination of optical thickness and one of the two refractive indices of the adsorbed organic layers. Surface coverages of 50-60% were calculated for thiolipid layers. Subsequent deposition of POPC resulted in an overall lipid layer thickness of 45-50 A, which corresponds to the thickness of a fluid bilayer membrane. Specific recognition reactions occurring at cell membrane surfaces were modeled by the incorporation of lipid-anchored receptor molecules into the supported bilayer membranes. (1) The outer POPC layer was doped with biotinylated phosphatidylethanolamine. Subsequent specific binding of streptavidin was optically monitored. (2) A lipopeptide was incorporated in the outer POPC monolayer. Membrane binding of monoclonal antibodies, which were directed against the peptide moiety of the lipopeptide, was optically detected. The specific antibody binding correlated well with the lipopepitde

  17. Magnesium-induced lipid bilayer microdomain reorganizations: implications for membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Zachary D; Pazos, Ileana M; McNeil-Watson, Fraser K; Lewis, E Neil; Levin, Ira W

    2009-07-23

    Interactions between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS), combined both as binary lipid bilayer assemblies and separately, under the influence of divalent Mg2+, a membrane bilayer fusogenic agent, are reported. Infrared vibrational spectroscopic analyses of the lipid acyl chain methylene symmetric stretching modes indicate that aggregates of the two phospholipid components exist as domains heterogeneously distributed throughout the binary bilayer system. In the presence of Mg2+, DPPS maintains an ordered orthorhombic subcell gel phase structure through the phase transition temperature, while the DPPC component is only minimally perturbed with respect to the gel to liquid crystalline phase change. The addition of Mg2+ induces a reorganization of the lipid domains in which the gel phase acyl chain planes rearrange from a hexagonal configuration toward a triclinic, parallel chain subcell. Examination of the acyl chain methylene deformation modes at low temperatures allows a determination of DPPS microdomain sizes, which decrease upon the addition of DPPC-d62 in the absence of Mg2+. On adding Mg2+, a uniform DPPS domain size is observed in the binary mixtures. In either the presence or absence of Mg2+, DPPC-d62 aggregates remain in a configuration for which microdomain sizes are not spectroscopically measurable. Analysis of the acyl chain methylene deformation modes for DPPC-d62 in the binary system suggests that clusters of the deuterated lipids are distributed throughout the DPPS matrix. Light scattering and fluorescence measurements indicate that Mg2+ induces both the aggregation and the fusion of the lipid assemblies as a function of the ratio of DPPS to DPPC. The structural reorganizations of the lipid microdomains within the DPPS-DPPC bilayer are interpreted in the context of current concepts regarding lipid bilayer fusion.

  18. Droplet-based lipid bilayer system integrated with microfluidic channels for solution exchange.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yutaro; Kawano, Ryuji; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kamiya, Koki; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2013-04-21

    This paper proposes a solution exchange of a droplet-based lipid bilayer system, in which the inner solution of a droplet is replaced for the purpose of efficient ion channel analyses. In our previous report, we successfully recorded the channel conductance of alpha-hemolysin in a bilayer lipid membrane using a droplet contact method that can create a spontaneous lipid bilayer at the interface of contacting droplets; this method is widely used as highly efficient method for preparing planar lipid membranes. When only pipetting droplets of the solution, this method is highly efficient for preparing lipid membranes. However, the drawback of droplet-based systems is their inability to exchange the solution within the droplets. To study the effect of inhibitors and promoters of ion channels in drug discovery, it would be beneficial to conduct a solution exchange of droplets to introduce membrane proteins and to apply or wash-out the chemicals. In this study, we propose a droplet contact method that allows for the solution exchange of droplets via microfluidic channels. We experimentally and numerically investigated the bilayer stability with respect to exchanging flow rates, and then demonstrated a binding assay of an alpha-hemolysin using one of its blockers. The solution exchange in this system was conducted in less than 20 s without rupturing the membrane. We believe that the proposed system will enhance the efficiency of ion channel analyses.

  19. Variation of thermal conductivity of DPPC lipid bilayer membranes around the phase transition temperature

    PubMed Central

    Youssefian, Sina; Lambert, Christopher R.; Van Dessel, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Given their amphiphilic nature and chemical structure, phospholipids exhibit a strong thermotropic and lyotropic phase behaviour in an aqueous environment. Around the phase transition temperature, phospholipids transform from a gel-like state to a fluid crystalline structure. In this transition, many key characteristics of the lipid bilayers such as structure and thermal properties alter. In this study, we employed atomistic simulation techniques to study the structure and underlying mechanisms of heat transfer in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers around the fluid–gel phase transformation. To investigate this phenomenon, we performed non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations for a range of different temperature gradients. The results show that the thermal properties of the DPPC bilayer are highly dependent on the temperature gradient. Higher temperature gradients cause an increase in the thermal conductivity of the DPPC lipid bilayer. We also found that the thermal conductivity of DPPC is lowest at the transition temperature whereby one lipid leaflet is in the gel phase and the other is in the liquid crystalline phase. This is essentially related to a growth in thermal resistance between the two leaflets of lipid at the transition temperature. These results provide significant new insights into developing new thermal insulation for engineering applications. PMID:28539484

  20. Fluid Phase Lipid Areas and Bilayer Thicknesses of Commonly Used Phosphatidylcholines as a Function of Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kucerka, Norbert; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Katsaras, John

    2011-01-01

    The structural parameters of fluid phase bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholines with fully saturated, mixed, and branched fatty acid chains, at several temperatures, have been determined by simultaneously analyzing small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. Bilayer parameters, such as area per lipid and overall bilayer thickness have been obtained in conjunction with intrabilayer structural parameters (e.g. hydrocarbon region thickness). The results have allowed us to assess the effect of temperature and hydrocarbon chain composition on bilayer structure. For example, we found that for all lipids there is, not surprisingly, an increase in fatty acid chain trans-gauche isomerization with increasing temperature. Moreover, this increase in trans-gauche isomerization scales with fatty acid chain length in mixed chain lipids. However, in the case of lipids with saturated fatty acid chains, trans-gauche isomerization is increasingly tempered by attractive chain-chain van der Waals interactions with increasing chain length. Finally, our results confirm a strong dependence of lipid chain dynamics as a function of double bond position along fatty acid chains.

  1. Morphological changes of supported lipid bilayers induced by lysozyme: Planar domain formation vs. multilayer stacking

    PubMed Central

    Trusova, Valeriya M.; Gorbenko, Galyna P.; Akopova, Irina; Molotkovsky, Julian G.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2012-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has been utilized to explore the effect of cationic protein lysozyme (Lz) on the morphology of solid-supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) comprised of zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and its mixture with anionic lipid cardiolipin (CL). Kinetic TIRFM imaging of different systems revealed subtle interplay between lipid lateral segregation accompanied by exchange of neutral and acidic lipids in the protein–lipid interaction zone, and the formation of lipid multilayer stacks. The switch between these states was shown to be controlled by CL content. In weakly charged SLBs containing 5 mol% CL, assembling of CL molecules into planar domains upon Lz adsorption has been observed while at higher content of anionic lipid (25 mol%) in-plane domains tend to transform into multilayer stacks, thereby ensuring the most thermodynamically-favorable membrane conformation. PMID:20620034

  2. Morphological changes of supported lipid bilayers induced by lysozyme: planar domain formation vs. multilayer stacking.

    PubMed

    Trusova, Valeriya M; Gorbenko, Galyna P; Akopova, Irina; Molotkovsky, Julian G; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2010-10-15

    Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) has been utilized to explore the effect of cationic protein lysozyme (Lz) on the morphology of solid-supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) comprised of zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) and its mixture with anionic lipid cardiolipin (CL). Kinetic TIRFM imaging of different systems revealed subtle interplay between lipid lateral segregation accompanied by exchange of neutral and acidic lipids in the protein-lipid interaction zone, and the formation of lipid multilayer stacks. The switch between these states was shown to be controlled by CL content. In weakly charged SLBs containing 5 mol% CL, assembling of CL molecules into planar domains upon Lz adsorption has been observed while at higher content of anionic lipid (25 mol%) in-plane domains tend to transform into multilayer stacks, thereby ensuring the most thermodynamically-favorable membrane conformation.

  3. Effect of membrane tension on the physical properties of DOPC lipid bilayer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A. Srinivas; Warshaviak, Dora Toledo; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer were performed to explore its mechanosensitivity. Variations in the bilayer properties, such as area per lipid, volume, thickness, hydration depth (HD), hydration thickness (HT), lateral diffusion coefficient, and changes in lipid structural order were computed in the membrane tension range 0 to 15 dyn/cm. We determined that an increase in membrane tension results in a decrease in the bilayer thickness and HD of ∼5% and ∼5.7% respectively, whereas area per lipid, volume, and HT/HD increased by 6.8%, 2.4%, and 5% respectively. The changes in lipid conformation and orientation were characterized using orientational (S2) and deuterium (SCD) order parameters. Upon increase of membrane tension both order parameters indicated an increase in lipid disorder by 10– 20%, mostly in the tail end region of the hydrophobic chains. The effect of membrane tension on lipid lateral diffusion in the DOPC bilayer was analyzed on three different time scales corresponding to inertial motion, anomalous diffusion and normal diffusion. The results showed that lateral diffusion of lipid molecules is anomalous in nature due to the non-exponential distribution of waiting times. The anomalous and normal diffusion coefficients increased by 20% and 52% when the membrane tension changed from 0 to 15 dyn/cm, respectively. In conclusion, our studies showed that membrane tension causes relatively significant changes in the area per lipid, volume, polarity, membrane thickness, and fluidity of the membrane suggesting multiple mechanisms by which mechanical perturbation of the membrane could trigger mechanosensitive response in cells. PMID:22588133

  4. Swing motion as a diffusion mechanism of lipid bilayers in a gel phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Younghoon; Kim, Jeongmin; Yethiraj, Arun; Sung, Bong June

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers are a model system for studying the properties of cell membranes. For lipid bilayers of a single lipid component, there is a phase transition from a fluid phase to a gel phase as the temperature is decreased. The dynamic behavior of lipids in the gel phase is interesting: some models show dynamic heterogeneity with a large disparity in timescales between fast and slow molecules, and a spatial segregation of the slow molecules. In this paper we study the dynamics of coarse-grained models of lipid bilayers using the dry Martini, Lennard-Jones Martini, polarizable Martini, and BMW models. All four models show similar dynamical behaviors in the gel phase although the transition temperature is model-dependent. We find that the primary mode of transport in the gel phase is a hopping of the lipid molecules. Hopping is seen in both the translational and rotational dynamics, which are correlated, i.e., the lipid molecules display a swing-like motion in the gel phase.

  5. Swing motion as a diffusion mechanism of lipid bilayers in a gel phase.

    PubMed

    Oh, Younghoon; Kim, Jeongmin; Yethiraj, Arun; Sung, Bong June

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers are a model system for studying the properties of cell membranes. For lipid bilayers of a single lipid component, there is a phase transition from a fluid phase to a gel phase as the temperature is decreased. The dynamic behavior of lipids in the gel phase is interesting: some models show dynamic heterogeneity with a large disparity in timescales between fast and slow molecules, and a spatial segregation of the slow molecules. In this paper we study the dynamics of coarse-grained models of lipid bilayers using the dry Martini, Lennard-Jones Martini, polarizable Martini, and BMW models. All four models show similar dynamical behaviors in the gel phase although the transition temperature is model-dependent. We find that the primary mode of transport in the gel phase is a hopping of the lipid molecules. Hopping is seen in both the translational and rotational dynamics, which are correlated, i.e., the lipid molecules display a swing-like motion in the gel phase.

  6. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties.

  7. Feeling the hidden mechanical forces in lipid bilayer is an original sense.

    PubMed

    Anishkin, Andriy; Loukin, Stephen H; Teng, Jinfeng; Kung, Ching

    2014-06-03

    Life's origin entails enclosing a compartment to hoard material, energy, and information. The envelope necessarily comprises amphipaths, such as prebiotic fatty acids, to partition the two aqueous domains. The self-assembled lipid bilayer comes with a set of properties including its strong anisotropic internal forces that are chemically or physically malleable. Added bilayer stretch can alter force vectors on embedded proteins to effect conformational change. The force-from-lipid principle was demonstrated 25 y ago when stretches opened purified Escherichia coli MscL channels reconstituted into artificial bilayers. This reductionistic exercise has rigorously been recapitulated recently with two vertebrate mechanosensitive K(+) channels (TREK1 and TRAAK). Membrane stretches have also been known to activate various voltage-, ligand-, or Ca(2+)-gated channels. Careful analyses showed that Kv, the canonical voltage-gated channel, is in fact exquisitely sensitive even to very small tension. In an unexpected context, the canonical transient-receptor-potential channels in the Drosophila eye, long presumed to open by ligand binding, is apparently opened by membrane force due to PIP2 hydrolysis-induced changes in bilayer strain. Being the intimate medium, lipids govern membrane proteins by physics as well as chemistry. This principle should not be a surprise because it parallels water's paramount role in the structure and function of soluble proteins. Today, overt or covert mechanical forces govern cell biological processes and produce sensations. At the genesis, a bilayer's response to osmotic force is likely among the first senses to deal with the capricious primordial sea.

  8. Structural studies of mixed lipid bilayers on solid substrates using x-ray reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Mukhopadhyay, Mrinmay; Ma, Yicong; Sinha, Sunil; Jiang, Zhang; Decaro, Curt; Berry, Justin; Lurio, Laurence; Brozell, Adrian; Parikh, Atul

    2009-03-01

    The lipid bilayers of natural membranes generally exist in a fluid state which occurs above the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature. Knowledge of the structure of such bilayers is important for understanding fundamental biological processes mediated by or occurring within membranes. We have performed systematic measurements on bilayers of 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) and its mixture with 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DOPC) and cholesterol (CH) on silicon substrates with x-ray reflectivity both below and above their phase transition temperatures. Structural variations as a function of temperature are demonstrated by fitting the reflectivity data with both a model dependent and a model independent routine. Studies of Au nanoparticle labeled DOPC and DOPC + DPPE + CH mixture are also performed and the location of Au nanoparticles in these bilayers is established by analyzing the x-ray reflectivity data.

  9. Calcium Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers: Insights into Mechanisms of Ion Permeation and Gating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Robert L.; Hess, Peter; Reeves, John P.; Smilowitz, Henry; Tsien, Richard W.

    1986-03-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were used to analyze single calcium channels in planar lipid bilayers after membranes from bovine cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles had been incorporated into the bilayer. In these cell-free conditions, channels in the bilayer showed unitary barium or calcium conductances, gating kinetics, and pharmacological responses that were similar to dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channels in intact cells. The open channel current varied in a nonlinear manner with voltage under asymmetric (that is, physiological) ionic conditions. However, with identical solutions on both sides of the bilayer, the current-voltage relation was linear. In matched experiments, calcium channels from skeletal muscle T-tubules differed significantly from cardiac calcium channels in their conductance properties and gating kinetics.

  10. Kinetics of amphiphile association with two-phase lipid bilayer vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Pokorny, A; Almeida, P F; Melo, E C; Vaz, W L

    2000-01-01

    We examined the consequences of membrane heterogeneity for the association of a simple amphiphilic molecule with phospholipid vesicles with solid-liquid and liquid-liquid phase coexistence. To address this problem we studied the association of a single-chain, fluorescent amphiphile with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles containing varying amounts of cholesterol. DMPC bilayers containing 15 mol% cholesterol show a region of solid-liquid-ordered (s-l(o)) coexistence below the T(m) of pure DMPC (23.9 degrees C) and a region of liquid-disordered-liquid-ordered coexistence (l(d)-l(o)) above the T(m). We first examined equilibrium binding and kinetics of amphiphile insertion into single-phase vesicles (s, l(d), and l(o) phase). The data obtained were then used to predict the behavior of the equivalent process in a two-phase system, taking into account the fractions of phases present. Next, the predicted kinetics were compared to experimental kinetics obtained from a two-phase system. We found that association of the amphiphile with lipid vesicles is not influenced by the existence of l(d)-l(o) phase boundaries but occurs much more slowly in the s-l(o) phase coexistence region than expected on the basis of phase composition. PMID:10620291

  11. Analysis of the anisotropy decay of trans-parinaric acid in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, A; Hudson, B

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the complex anisotropy behavior of trans-parinaric acid in single component DEPC lipid bilayers. It is shown that a model involving two species with distinct lifetime and motional behavior is required, and is adequate, to explain the observed data. In particular, the observed increase in the anisotropy at long times demonstrates the presence of a species with a long fluorescence lifetime that has a high anisotropy. The time dependence of the anisotropy for these two environments is treated using both a purely mathematical sum of exponentials and a constrained fit based on an approximate solution of the anisotropic diffusion problem. In this latter model the anisotropy is described in terms of the second and fourth rank order parameters, (P2) and (P4), and a single dynamical parameter, D1, the perpendicular diffusion coefficient for this uniaxial probe. The parameters of both models are accurately determined from the fits to the data when two environments coexist and an association is made between lifetime components and distinct rotational sites. The values of the parameters obtained demonstrate the "solid-like" and "fluidlike" nature of these two coexisting environments. PMID:2765650

  12. Interaction of a pseudosubstrate peptide of protein kinase C and its myristoylated form with lipid vesicles: only the myristoylated form translocates into the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Harishchandran, Avaronnan; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2005-07-30

    Lipopeptides derived from protein kinase C (PKC) pseudosubstrates have the ability to cross the plasma membrane in cells and modulate the activity of PKC in the cytoplasm. Myristoylation or palmitoylation appears to promote translocation across membranes, as the non-acylated peptides are membrane impermeant. We have investigated, by fluorescence spectroscopy, how myristoylation modulates the interaction of the PKC pseudosubstrate peptide KSIYRRGARRWRKL with lipid vesicles and translocation across the lipid bilayer. Our results indicate that myristoylated peptides are intimately associated with lipid vesicles and are not peripherally bound. When visualized under a microscope, myristoylation does appear to facilitate translocation across the lipid bilayer in multilamellar lipid vesicles. Translocation does not involve large-scale destabilization of the bilayer structure. Myristoylation promotes translocation into the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer even when the non-acylated peptide has only weak affinity for membranes and is also only peripherally associated with lipid vesicles.

  13. Aqueous-filled polymer microcavity arrays: versatile & stable lipid bilayer platforms offering high lateral mobility to incorporated membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Basit, Hajra; Gaul, Vinnie; Maher, Sean; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-05-07

    A key prerequisite in an ideal supported lipid bilayer based cell membrane model is that the mobility of both the lipid matrix and its components are unhindered by the underlying support. This is not trivial and with the exception of liposomes, many of even the most advanced approaches, although accomplishing lipid mobility, fail to achieve complete mobility of incorporated membrane proteins. This is addressed in a novel platform comprising lipid bilayers assembled over buffer-filled, arrays of spherical cap microcavities formed from microsphere template polydimethoxysilane. Prior to bilayer assembly the PDMS is rendered hydrophilic by plasma treatment and the lipid bilayer prepared using Langmuir Blodgett assembly followed by liposome/proteoliposome fusion. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy confirmed the pore suspended lipid bilayer exhibits diffusion coefficients comparable to free-standing vesicles in solution. The bilayer modified arrays are highly reproducible and stable over days. As the bilayers are suspended over deep aqueous reservoirs, reconstituted membrane proteins experience an aqueous interface at both membrane interfaces and attain full lateral mobility. Their utility as membrane protein platforms was exemplified in two case studies with proteins of different dimensions in their extracellular and cytoplasmic domains reconstituted into DOPC lipid bilayers; Glycophorin A, and Integrin αIIbβ3. In both cases, the proteins exhibited 100% mobility with high lateral diffusion coefficients.

  14. Reorganizational dynamics of multilamellar lipid bilayer assemblies using continuously scanning Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Scott W; Schlücker, Sebastian; Levin, Ira W

    2004-07-01

    We employ an implementation of rapid-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopic imaging to acquire time-resolved images for assessing the non-repetitive reorganizational dynamics of aqueous dispersions of multilamellar lipid vesicles (MLVs) derived from distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). The spatially and temporally resolved images allow direct and simultaneous determinations of various physical and chemical properties of the MLVs, including the main thermal gel to liquid crystalline phase transition, comparisons of vesicle diffusion rates in both phases and the variation in lipid bilayer packing properties between the inner and outer lamellae defining the vesicle. Specifically, in the lipid liquid crystalline phase, the inner bilayers of the MLVs are more intermolecularly ordered than the outer regions, while the intramolecular acyl chain order/disorder parameters, reflecting the overall characteristics of the fluid phase, remain uniform across the vesicle diameter. In contrast, the lipid vesicle gel phase displays no intermolecular or intramolecular dependence as a function of distance from the MLV center.

  15. Lipid-bilayer-assisted two-dimensional self-assembly of DNA origami nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yuki; Endo, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-08-01

    Self-assembly is a ubiquitous approach to the design and fabrication of novel supermolecular architectures. Here we report a strategy termed `lipid-bilayer-assisted self-assembly' that is used to assemble DNA origami nanostructures into two-dimensional lattices. DNA origami structures are electrostatically adsorbed onto a mica-supported zwitterionic lipid bilayer in the presence of divalent cations. We demonstrate that the bilayer-adsorbed origami units are mobile on the surface and self-assembled into large micrometre-sized lattices in their lateral dimensions. Using high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging, a variety of dynamic processes involved in the formation of the lattice, such as fusion, reorganization and defect filling, are successfully visualized. The surface modifiability of the assembled lattice is also demonstrated by in situ decoration with streptavidin molecules. Our approach provides a new strategy for preparing versatile scaffolds for nanofabrication and paves the way for organizing functional nanodevices in a micrometer space.

  16. Mechanisms of interaction of pesticides with the lipid bilayer in cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, V. N.

    1993-07-01

    The available information about the mechanisms of the interaction of pesticides having different chemical structures with the lipid bilayer in cell membranes is presented. It is shown that, depending on the degree of lipophilicity, the molecular dipole moment, and certain other characteristics of the pesticide compound, its interaction with the lipid bilayer generally takes place via one of the three main mechanisms involving the incorporation of the pesticide molecules in the hydrocarbon region within the bilayer, the adsorption of these molecules in the zone of the polar membrane phospholipids, or the incorporation of the amphiphilic pesticide compounds in both the non-polar and polar regions of the membrane. The bibliography includes 109 references.

  17. Interactions of ibuprofen with hybrid lipid bilayers probed by complementary surface-enhanced vibrational spectroscopies

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Carly S.; Kundu, Janardan; Janesko, Benjamin G.; Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Raphael, Robert M.; Halas, Naomi J.

    2016-01-01

    The incorporation of small molecules into lipid bilayers is a process of biological importance and clinical relevance that can change the material properties of cell membranes and cause deleterious side effects for certain drugs. Here we report the direct observation, using surface enhanced Raman and IR spectroscopies (SERS, SEIRA), of the insertion of ibuprofen molecules into hybrid lipid bilayers. The alkanethiol-phospholipid hybrid bilayers were formed onto gold nanoshells by self-assembly, where the underlying nanoshell substrates provided the necessary enhancements for SERS and SEIRA. The spectroscopic data reveal specific interactions between ibuprofen and phospholipid moieties and indicate that the overall hydrophobicity of ibuprofen plays an important role in its intercalation in these membrane mimics. PMID:18942873

  18. Critical density fluctuations in lipid bilayers detected by fluorescence lifetime heterogeneity.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, A; Hudson, B

    1989-01-01

    The heterogeneity of the decay of the fluorescence of transparinaric acid in single-component lipid bilayers at temperatures above their gel/liquid crystalline phase transition is shown to be due to the presence of regions of higher local density and higher acyl chain order than the predominant fluid regions. This conclusion is based on selective excitation behavior and the observation of time-resolved fluorescence anisotropies that increase at long times. The fractional amplitude of the long lifetime component of the fluorescence shows a temperature variation that conforms to conventional descriptions of critical behavior. The critical exponent extracted from this variation is 1.1, close to the value of 1.0 that describes ultrasonic data. We therefore conclude that liquid crystalline lipid bilayers exhibit critical behavior with significant density and order fluctuations. This behavior must be taken into account in the interpretation of fluorescence and other spectroscopic measurements of the properties of bilayers. PMID:2765649

  19. Modified release from lipid bilayer coated mesoporous silica nanoparticles using PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Masoud; Yu, Erick; Forman, Evan; Roberson-Mailloux, Cameron; Tung, Jonathan; Tringe, Joseph; Stroeve, Pieter

    2014-10-01

    Triblock copolymers comprised of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO, or trade name Pluronic) interact with lipid bilayers to increase their permeability. Here we demonstrate a novel application of Pluronic L61 and L64 as modification agents in tailoring the release rate of a molecular indicator species from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) bilayer-coated superparamagnetic Fe3O4/mesoporous silica core-shell nanoparticles. We show there is a direct relationship between the Pluronics' concentration and the indicator molecule release, suggesting Pluronics may be useful for the controlled release of drugs from lipid bilayer-coated carriers.

  20. Adsorption of α-Synuclein to Supported Lipid Bilayers: Positioning and Role of Electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    An amyloid form of the protein α-synuclein is the major component of the intraneuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are the neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). α-Synuclein is known to associate with anionic lipid membranes, and interactions between aggregating α-synuclein and cellular membranes are thought to be important for PD pathology. We have studied the molecular determinants for adsorption of monomeric α-synuclein to planar model lipid membranes composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine alone or in a mixture with anionic phosphatidylserine (relevant for plasma membranes) or anionic cardiolipin (relevant for mitochondrial membranes). We studied the adsorption of the protein to supported bilayers, the position of the protein within and outside the bilayer, and structural changes in the model membranes using two complementary techniques—quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and neutron reflectometry. We found that the interaction and adsorbed conformation depend on membrane charge, protein charge, and electrostatic screening. The results imply that α-synuclein adsorbs in the headgroup region of anionic lipid bilayers with extensions into the bulk but does not penetrate deeply into or across the hydrophobic acyl chain region. The adsorption to anionic bilayers leads to a small perturbation of the acyl chain packing that is independent of anionic headgroup identity. We also explored the effect of changing the area per headgroup in the lipid bilayer by comparing model systems with different degrees of acyl chain saturation. An increase in area per lipid headgroup leads to an increase in the level of α-synuclein adsorption with a reduced water content in the acyl chain layer. In conclusion, the association of α-synuclein to membranes and its adsorbed conformation are of electrostatic origin, combined with van der Waals interactions, but with a very weak correlation to the molecular structure of the

  1. Adsorption of α-synuclein to supported lipid bilayers: positioning and role of electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Hellstrand, Erik; Grey, Marie; Ainalem, Marie-Louise; Ankner, John; Forsyth, V Trevor; Fragneto, Giovanna; Haertlein, Michael; Dauvergne, Marie-Therese; Nilsson, Hanna; Brundin, Patrik; Linse, Sara; Nylander, Tommy; Sparr, Emma

    2013-10-16

    An amyloid form of the protein α-synuclein is the major component of the intraneuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are the neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). α-Synuclein is known to associate with anionic lipid membranes, and interactions between aggregating α-synuclein and cellular membranes are thought to be important for PD pathology. We have studied the molecular determinants for adsorption of monomeric α-synuclein to planar model lipid membranes composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine alone or in a mixture with anionic phosphatidylserine (relevant for plasma membranes) or anionic cardiolipin (relevant for mitochondrial membranes). We studied the adsorption of the protein to supported bilayers, the position of the protein within and outside the bilayer, and structural changes in the model membranes using two complementary techniques-quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring, and neutron reflectometry. We found that the interaction and adsorbed conformation depend on membrane charge, protein charge, and electrostatic screening. The results imply that α-synuclein adsorbs in the headgroup region of anionic lipid bilayers with extensions into the bulk but does not penetrate deeply into or across the hydrophobic acyl chain region. The adsorption to anionic bilayers leads to a small perturbation of the acyl chain packing that is independent of anionic headgroup identity. We also explored the effect of changing the area per headgroup in the lipid bilayer by comparing model systems with different degrees of acyl chain saturation. An increase in area per lipid headgroup leads to an increase in the level of α-synuclein adsorption with a reduced water content in the acyl chain layer. In conclusion, the association of α-synuclein to membranes and its adsorbed conformation are of electrostatic origin, combined with van der Waals interactions, but with a very weak correlation to the molecular structure of the anionic

  2. Regulation of Sticholysin II-Induced Pore Formation by Lipid Bilayer Composition, Phase State, and Interfacial Properties.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ortega, Juan; García-Linares, Sara; Åstrand, Mia; Al Sazzad, Md Abdullah; Gavilanes, José G; Martínez-del-Pozo, Álvaro; Slotte, J Peter

    2016-04-12

    Sticholysin II (StnII) is a pore-forming toxin that uses sphingomyelin (SM) as the recognition molecule in targeting membranes. After StnII monomers bind to SM, several toxin monomers act in concert to oligomerize into a functional pore. The regulation of StnII binding to SM, and the subsequent pore-formation process, is not fully understood. In this study, we examined how the biophysical properties of bilayers, originating from variations in the SM structure, from the presence of sterol species, or from the presence of increasingly polyunsaturated glycerophospholipids, affected StnII-induced pore formation. StnII-induced pore formation, as determined from calcein permeabilization, was fastest in the pure unsaturated SM bilayers. In 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/saturated SM bilayers (4:1 molar ratio), pore formation became slower as the chain length of the saturated SMs increased from 14 up to 24 carbons. In the POPC/palmitoyl-SM (16:0-SM) 4:1 bilayers, SM could not support pore formation by StnII if dimyristoyl-PC was included at 1:1 stoichiometry with 16:0-SM, suggesting that free clusters of SM were required for toxin binding and/or pore formation. Cholesterol and other sterols facilitated StnII-induced pore formation markedly, but the efficiency did not appear to correlate with the sterol structure. Benzyl alcohol was more efficient than sterols in enhancing the pore-formation process, suggesting that the effect on pore formation originated from alcohol-induced alteration of the hydrogen-bonding network in the SM-containing bilayers. Finally, we observed that pore formation by StnII was enhanced in the PC/16:0-SM 4:1 bilayers, in which the PC was increasingly unsaturated. We conclude that the physical state of bilayer lipids greatly affected pore formation by StnII. Phase boundaries were not required for pore formation, although SM in a gel state attenuated pore formation.

  3. The Effect of Lidocaine · HCl on the Fluidity of Native and Model Membrane Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Seop; Jung, Tae-Sang; Noh, Yang-Ho; Kim, Woo-Sung; Park, Won-Ick; Kim, Young-Soo; Chung, In-Kyo; Sohn, Uy Dong; Bae, Soo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigated the mechanism of pharmacological action of local anesthetic and provide the basic information about the development of new effective local anesthetics. Fluorescent probe techniques were used to evaluate the effect of lidocaine·HCl on the physical properties (transbilayer asymmetric lateral and rotational mobility, annular lipid fluidity and protein distribution) of synaptosomal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMV) isolated from bovine cerebral cortex, and liposomes of total lipids (SPMVTL) and phospholipids (SPMVPL) extracted from the SPMV. An experimental procedure was used based on selective quenching of 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl)propane (Py-3-Py) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) by trinitrophenyl groups, and radiationless energy transfer from the tryptophans of membrane proteins to Py-3-Py. Lidocaine·HCl increased the bulk lateral and rotational mobility of neuronal and model membrane lipid bilayes, and had a greater fluidizing effect on the inner monolayer than the outer monolayer. Lidocaine·HCl increased annular lipid fluidity in SPMV lipid bilayers. It also caused membrane proteins to cluster. The most important finding of this study is that there is far greater increase in annular lipid fluidity than that in lateral and rotational mobilities by lidocaine·HCl. Lidocaine·HCl alters the stereo or dynamics of the proteins in the lipid bilayers by combining with lipids, especially with the annular lipids. In conclusion, the present data suggest that lidocaine, in addition to its direct interaction with proteins, concurrently interacts with membrane lipids, fluidizing the membrane, and thus inducing conformational changes of proteins known to be intimately associated with membrane lipid. PMID:23269904

  4. Insertion mechanism and stability of boron nitride nanotubes in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael; Enciso, Marta; Hilder, Tamsyn A

    2015-04-16

    We provide insight into the interaction of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with cell membranes to better understand their improved biocompatibility compared to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Contrary to CNTs, no computational studies exist investigating the insertion mechanism and stability of BNNTs in membranes. Our molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that BNNTs are spontaneously attracted to lipid bilayers and are stable once inserted. They insert via a lipid-mediated, passive insertion mechanism. BNNTs demonstrate similar characteristics to more biocompatible functionalized CNTs.

  5. Ultra-high vacuum surface analysis study of rhodopsin incorporation into supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Michel, Roger; Subramaniam, Varuni; McArthur, Sally L; Bondurant, Bruce; D'Ambruoso, Gemma D; Hall, Henry K; Brown, Michael F; Ross, Eric E; Saavedra, S Scott; Castner, David G

    2008-05-06

    Planar supported lipid bilayers that are stable under ambient atmospheric and ultra-high-vacuum conditions were prepared by cross-linking polymerization of bis-sorbylphosphatidylcholine (bis-SorbPC). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to investigate bilayers that were cross-linked using either redox-initiated radical polymerization or ultraviolet photopolymerization. The redox method yields a more structurally intact bilayer; however, the UV method is more compatible with incorporation of transmembrane proteins. UV polymerization was therefore used to prepare cross-linked bilayers with incorporated bovine rhodopsin, a light-activated, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). A previous study (Subramaniam, V.; Alves, I. D.; Salgado, G. F. J.; Lau, P. W.; Wysocki, R. J.; Salamon, Z.; Tollin, G.; Hruby, V. J.; Brown, M. F.; Saavedra, S. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 5320-5321) showed that rhodopsin retains photoactivity after incorporation into UV-polymerized bis-SorbPC, but did not address how the protein is associated with the bilayer. In this study, we show that rhodopsin is retained in supported bilayers of poly(bis-SorbPC) under ultra-high-vacuum conditions, on the basis of the increase in the XPS nitrogen concentration and the presence of characteristic amino acid peaks in the ToF-SIMS data. Angle-resolved XPS data show that the protein is inserted into the bilayer, rather than adsorbed on the bilayer surface. This is the first study to demonstrate the use of ultra-high-vacuum techniques for structural studies of supported proteolipid bilayers.

  6. Dynamics of fd coat protein in lipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, G.C.; Colnago, L.A.; Valentine, K.G.; Opella, S.J.

    1987-02-10

    The dynamics of backbone and side-chains sites of the membrane-bound form of fd coat protein are described with solid-state /sup 2/H and /sup 15/N NMR experiments. The samples were isotopically labeled coat protein in phospholipid bilayers in excess water. The protein itself is immobile and does not undergo rapid rotation within the bilayer. Like the structural form of the protein, the membrane-bound form has four mobile residues at the N-terminus. The membrane-bound form differs from the structural form in having several mobile residues at the C-terminus. Many of the side chains of residues with immobile backbone sites undergo large amplitude jump motions. The dynamics are generally similar in both the structural and membrane-bound forms of the protein.

  7. AFM studies of homogeneous and mixed lipid mono- and bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyan, Lindsay; Pantea, Mircea; Hoffmann, Peter

    2007-03-01

    Phospholipid mono- and bilayers have potential research applications in various areas of biology and medicine, where they serve as substitutes for cell membranes. The use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize such materials allows for the measurement of the topographic features of the material on a subnanometric scale and of the forces arising due to the interaction between the AFM tip and the phospholipid surface; the addition of biological molecules commonly found in cells to the AFM tip, such as proteins, allows the interaction between these molecules and a cell membrane to be studied. For this study, mixed phospholipid monolayers consisting of 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine (DSPE) and 1,2-Dioleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) as well as bilayers consisting of 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DPPC) were synthesized and studied using AFM imaging and force measurements.

  8. Mechanism of lipid bilayer penetration by mixed monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lehn, Reid; Atukorale, Prabhani; Carney, Randy; Stellacci, Francesco; Irvine, Darrell; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2013-03-01

    Recently, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) protected by a binary mixture of hydrophobic and hydrophilic alkanethiol ligands were observed to spontaneously penetrate cellular membranes via a non-specific mechanism. Penetration was observed even at low temperatures and in the presence of endocytotic inhibitors, implying that AuNPs crossed the membrane by a non-endocytotic process. Furthermore, penetration was shown to depend on the amphiphilicity and nanoscale morphology of the protecting monolayer. In this work, we use a variety of simulation techniques to elucidate the mechanism of lipid bilayer penetration and compare our results to experiments with lipid vesicles. We show that these AuNPs can stably embed within lipid bilayers by ``snorkeling'' charges out of the bilayer core; the stability of such a state is a function of particle size, the composition of the protecting monolayer, and other environmental conditions. We use detailed simulations to analyze structural changes in the surrounding lipids and show that the energy barrier for embedding is considerably reduced in the presence of bilayer defects. We expect that these results will enable the design of novel drug delivery carriers and biosensors.

  9. Collective Chain Dynamics in Lipid Bilayers by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Thomas M.; Chen, Poe-Jou; Sinn, Harald; Alp, Ercan E.; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Huang, Huey W.

    2003-06-01

    We investigated the application of inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) to lipid bilayers. This technique directly measures the dynamic structure factor S(q,{omega}) which is the space-time Fourier transform of the electron density correlation function of the measured system. For a multiatomic system, the analysis of S(q,{omega}) is usually complicated. But for multiple bilayers of lipid, S(q,{omega}) is dominated by chain-chain correlations within individual bilayers. Thus IXS provides a unique probe for the collective dynamics of lipid chains in a bilayer that cannot be obtained by any other method. IXS of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine + cholesterol at two different concentrations were measured. S(q,{omega}) was analyzed by three-mode hydrodynamic equations, including a thermal diffusive mode and two propagating acoustic modes. We obtained the dispersion curves for the phonons that represent the collective in-plane excitations of lipid chains. The effect of cholesterol on chain dynamics was detected. Our analysis shows the importance of having a high instrument resolution as well as the requirement of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to obtain meaningful results from such an IXS experiment. The requirement on signal-to-noise also applies to molecular dynamics simulations.

  10. Thermal fluctuations in shape, thickness, and molecular orientation in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Max C.; Penev, Evgeni S.; Welch, Paul M.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2011-12-01

    We present a unified continuum-level model for bilayer energetics that includes the effects of bending, compression, lipid orientation (tilting relative to the monolayer surface normal), and microscopic noise (protrusions). Expressions for thermal fluctuation amplitudes of several physical quantities are derived. These predictions are shown to be in good agreement with molecular simulations.

  11. Evanescent field excitation of Cy5-conjugated lipid bilayers using optical microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Lindsay M.; Dayani, Yasaman; Li, Su; Choi, Hong-Seok; Malmstadt, Noah; Armani, Andrea M.

    2011-09-01

    Whispering gallery mode optical microresonators are devices used for performing ultra-sensitive optical detection. Although the majority of the sensor research has been focused on label-free detection strategies for diagnostics, a whispering gallery mode device is ideally suited to perform fluorescent label-based biodetection as well. However, previous research using optical microcavities to excite fluorescent molecules has focused on cavity quantum electrodynamics applications and fundamental studies of the interactions of large fluorescent nanoparticles with the resonant cavity. In the present work, a method for forming self-assembled lipid bilayers, a mimic for cell membranes, on a spherical microresonator is developed. Solid-supported lipid bilayers, which are approximately 5nm thick, have been shown to accurately model cell membranes, and researchers use lipid bilayers in combination with fluorescent microscopy when developing theoretical models for the transport of molecules across the cell membrane. The bilayernature is verified using both fluorescent resonance energy transfer and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The evanescent tail of the microresonator is used to excite a Cy5-conjugated lipid located within the bilayer while the underlying optical device behavior is characterized at 633nm and 980nm. The emission wavelength of the Cy5 dye and the optical performance (Q factor) of the microcavity agree with theoretical predictions.

  12. Bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in lipid-symmetric erythrocytes assessed by a photoactivable phospholipid analogue

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, D.; Schlegel, R.A. ); Williamson, P. )

    1991-08-06

    Two mechanisms have been proposed for maintenance of transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, one involving specific interactions between the aminophospholipids of the inner leaflet of the bilayer and the cytoskeleton, particularly spectrin, and the other involving the aminophospholipid translocase. If the former mechanism is correct, then erythrocytes which have lost their asymmetric distribution of phospholipids should display altered bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions. To test this possibility, normal erythrocytes, erythrocytes from patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia or sickle disease, and lipid-symmetric and -asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts were labeled with the radioactive photoactivable analogue of phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-(2-azido-4-nitrobenzoyl)-1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho({sup 14}C) ethanolamine (({sup 14}C)AzPE), previously shown to label cytoskeletal proteins from the bilayer. The labeling pattern of cytoskeletal proteins in pathologic erythrocytes and lipid-asymmetric erythrocyte ghosts was indistinguishable from normal erythrocytes, indicating that the probe detects no differences in bilayer/cytoskeleton interactions in these cells. In contrast, in lipid-symmetric erythrocyte ghosts, labeling of bands 4.1 and 4.2 and actin, and to a lesser extent ankyrin, by ({sup 14}C)AzPE was considerably reduced. Significantly, however, labeling of spectrin was unaltered in the lipid-symmetric cells. These results do not support a model in which spectrin is involved in the maintenance of an asymmetric distribution of phospholipids in erythrocytes.

  13. Fluorescence quenching and electron spin resonance study of percolation in a two-phase lipid bilayer containing bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Piknová, B; Marsh, D; Thompson, T E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) on the percolation properties of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/distearoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers was examined by studying the quenching of a lipid-bound fluorophore by a lipid-bound quencher, and by spin-spin interactions of a nitroxide-labeled lipid using electron spin resonance (ESR). At the low concentrations of BR used, differential scanning calorimetry showed that although the transition enthalpy was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by incorporation of BR, the solidus and fluidus phase boundaries and overall shape of the heat capacity profiles were essentially unchanged. However, fluorescence quenching and spin-label ESR data showed that the domain topology, as reflected in the percolation properties, is strongly affected by the protein. In contrast to our previous fluorescence data for the pure lipid mixtures, quenching in the coexistence region is independent of the fluid phase fraction when BR is present. In addition, the percolation threshold estimated by spin-label ESR is shifted in the presence of BR to a higher gel phase fraction at a given lipid composition. Both the fluorescence quenching and spin-label ESR data, together with the results of earlier simulations, strongly suggest that the fluid phase domains are substantially larger and/or less ramified in the presence of BR than in its absence. We have previously reported a similar effect of a transmembrane peptide, pOmpA (Escherichia coli outer membrane protein A signal peptide), on fluid domain connectivity in binary phosphatidylcholine mixtures. PMID:9168041

  14. Lipid Bilayer Phase Transition: Density Measurements and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The overall change of density for dipalmitoyl lecithin bilayers agrees with a general order-disorder theory and yields about seven gauche rotations per molecule for the biologically relevant high-temperature phase. The shape of the curve of density against temperature is similar to the result of an exact calculation on a specific model, which gives a 3/2-order phase transition. PMID:4519637

  15. An alamethicin channel in a lipid bilayer: molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed Central

    Tieleman, D P; Berendsen, H J; Sansom, M S

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of 2-ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a hexameric bundle of Alm helices in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. These simulations explore the dynamic properties of a model of a helix bundle channel in a complete phospholipid bilayer in an aqueous environment. We explore the stability and conformational dynamics of the bundle in a phospholipid bilayer. We also investigate the effect on bundle stability of the ionization state of the ring of Glu18 side chains. If all of the Glu18 side chains are ionised, the bundle is unstable; if none of the Glu18 side chains are ionized, the bundle is stable. pKA calculations suggest that either zero or one ionized Glu18 is present at neutral pH, correlating with the stable form of the helix bundle. The structural and dynamic properties of water in this model channel were examined. As in earlier in vacuo simulations (Breed et al., 1996 .Biophys. J. 70:1643-1661), the dipole moments of water molecules within the pore were aligned antiparallel to the helix dipoles. This contributes to the stability of the helix bundle. PMID:10096876

  16. Spatial arrangement of selected fluorescence labels in lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Zawada, Zygmunt H

    2013-08-05

    The method for the determination the orientation factor κ(2), spatial arrangement and depth position of fluorescence labels located in hydrophilic layers of vesicles bilayer from resonance energy transfer (RET) data is presented. The method is based on the broadened Wolber and Hudson RET model in two dimensions (Biophys J. 1979). The vesicles were labeled with N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (NBD-PE) as the donor and N-(Lissamine rhodamine B sulfonyl) 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (NRh-PE) as the acceptor. It was found that in basic environment sodium dithionite quenches fluorescence of both labels located in outer leaflet of bilayer. Therefore, RET data prior to and following dithionite treatment were compared and the donor-acceptor cis and trans distances of the closest approach as well as cis and trans Förster radii R0, and orientation factors κ(2) for cis RET equal to 0.61±0.06 and for trans RET equal to 0.17±0.01 were assigned. Knowing the κ(2) data, the spatial arrangement of NBD and NRh labels as dipoles in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer were described.

  17. Continuity of Monolayer-Bilayer Junctions for Localization of Lipid Raft Microdomains in Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-01-01

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates. PMID:27230411

  18. Constant-pH MD Simulations of DMPA/DMPC Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hugo A F; Vila-Viçosa, Diogo; Teixeira, Vitor H; Baptista, António M; Machuqueiro, Miguel

    2015-12-08

    Current constant-pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) simulations provide a proper treatment of pH effects on the structure and dynamics of soluble biomolecules like peptides and proteins. However, addressing such effects on lipid membrane assemblies has remained problematic until now, despite the important role played by lipid ionization at physiological pH in a plethora of biological processes. Modeling (de)protonation events in these systems requires a proper consideration of the physicochemical features of the membrane environment, including a sound treatment of solution ions. Here, we apply our recent CpHMD-L method to the study of pH effects on a 25% DMPA/DMPC bilayer membrane model, closely reproducing the correct lipid phases of this system, namely, gel-fluid coexistence at pH 4 and a fluid phase at pH 7. A significant transition is observed for the membrane ionization and mechanical properties at physiological pH, providing a molecular basis for the well-established role of phosphatidic acid (PA) as a key player in the regulation of many cellular events. Also, as reported experimentally, we observed pH-induced PA-PA lipid aggregation at acidic pH. By including the titration of anionic phospholipids, the current methodology makes possible to simulate lipid bilayers with increased realism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first simulation study dealing with a continuous phospholipid bilayer with pH titration of all constituent lipids.

  19. Continuity of monolayer-bilayer junctions for localization of lipid raft microdomains in model membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, Yong -Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng -Hun; ...

    2016-05-27

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed betweenmore » the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Furthermore, our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates.« less

  20. Continuity of monolayer-bilayer junctions for localization of lipid raft microdomains in model membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Yong -Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng -Hun; Lee, Sang -Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang -Hyun; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin -Doo

    2016-05-27

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Furthermore, our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates.

  1. Theoretical analysis of hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated interactions in lipid bilayers containing gramicidin.

    PubMed Central

    Harroun, T A; Heller, W T; Weiss, T M; Yang, L; Huang, H W

    1999-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions exhibited by gramicidin embedded in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) bilayers (Harroun et al., 1999. Biophys. J. 76:937-945). Incorporating gramicidin, at 1:10 peptide/lipid molar ratio, decreases the phosphate-to-phosphate (PtP) peak separation in the DMPC bilayer from 35.3 A without gramicidin to 32.7 A. In contrast, the same molar ratio of gramicidin in DLPC increases the PtP from 30.8 A to 32.1 A. Concurrently, x-ray in-plane scattering showed that the most probable nearest-neighbor separation between gramicidin channels was 26.8 A in DLPC, but reduced to 23.3 A in DMPC. In this paper we review the idea of hydrophobic matching in which the lipid bilayer deforms to match the hydrophobic surface of the embedded proteins. We use a simple elasticity theory, including thickness compression, tension, and splay terms to describe the membrane deformation. The energy of membrane deformation is compared with the energy cost of hydrophobic mismatch. We discuss the boundary conditions between a gramicidin channel and the lipid bilayer. We used a numerical method to solve the problem of membrane deformation profile in the presence of a high density of gramicidin channels and ran computer simulations of 81 gramicidin channels to find the equilibrium distributions of the channels in the plane of the bilayer. The simulations contain four parameters: bilayer thickness compressibility 1/B, bilayer bending rigidity Kc, the channel-bilayer mismatch Do, and the slope of the interface at the lipid-protein boundary s. B, Kc, and Do were experimentally measured; the only free parameter is s. The value of s is determined by the requirement that the theory produces the experimental values of bilayer thinning by gramicidin and the shift in the peak position of the in-plane scattering due to membrane-mediated channel

  2. Formation, dynamics and characterization of supported lipid bilayers on silicon oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Selver

    This work is devoted to understanding the formation of supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on curved surfaces as a function of lipid properties such as headgroup charge/charge density and alkyl chain length, and nanoparticle properties such as size and surface characteristics. In particular, the formation of SLBs on curved surfaces was studied by varying the size of the underlying substrate SiO2 nanoparticles with size range from 5--100 nm. Curvature-dependent shift in the phase transition behavior of these supported lipid bilayers was observed for the first time. We found that the phase transition temperature, Tm of the SLBs first decreased with decreasing the size of the underlying support, reached a minimum, and then increased when the size of the particles became comparable with the dimensions of the lipid bilayer thickness; the Tm was above that of the multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) of the same lipids. The increase in Tm indicated a stiffening of the supported bilayer, which was confirmed by Raman spectroscopic data. Moreover, Raman data showed better lipid packing and increased lateral order and trans conformation for the SLBs with increasing the curvature of the underlying support and decrease of the gauche kinks for the terminal methyl groups at the center of the bilayer. These results were consistent with a model in which the high free volume and increased outer headgroup spacing of lipids on highly curved surfaces induced interdigitation in the supported lipids. These results also support the symmetric lipid exchange studies of the SLBs as a function of the curvature, which was found to be slower on surfaces with higher curvature. Further, the effect of surface properties on the formation of SLBs was studied by changing the silanol density on the surface of SiO2 via thermal/chemical treatment and monitoring fusion of zwitterionic lipids onto silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. Our findings showed that the formation of SLBs was faster on the surfaces with lower

  3. Lipid bilayers containing sphingomyelins and ceramides of varying N-acyl lengths: a glimpse into sphingolipid complexity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rojo, Noemi; García-Arribas, Aritz B; Sot, Jesús; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2014-01-01

    The thermotropic properties of aqueous dispersions of sphingomyelins (SM) and ceramides (Cer) with N-acyl chains varying from C6:0 to C24:1, either pure or in binary mixtures, have been examined by differential scanning calorimetry. Even in the pure state, Cer and particularly SM exhibited complex endotherms, and their thermal properties did not vary in a predictable way with changes in structure. In some cases, e.g. C18:0 SM, atomic force microscopy revealed coexisting lamellar domains made of a single lipid. Partial chain interdigitation and metastable crystalline states were deemed responsible for the complex behavior. SM:Cer mixtures (90:10mol ratio) gave rise to bilayers containing separate SM-rich and Cer-rich domains. In vesicles made of more complex mixtures (SM:PE:Chol, 2:1:1), it is known that sphingomyelinase degradation of SM to Cer is accompanied by vesicle aggregation and release of aqueous contents. These vesicles did not reveal observable domain separation by confocal microscopy. Vesicle aggregation occurred at a faster rate for those bilayers that appeared to be more fluid according to differential scanning calorimetry. Content efflux rates measured by fluorescence spectroscopy were highest with C18:0 and C18:1 SM, and in general those rates did not vary regularly with other physical properties of SM or Cer. In general the individual SM and Cer appear to have particular thermotropic properties, often unrelated to the changes in N-acyl chain.

  4. Interactions of Cationic Peptides and Ions with Negatively Charged Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri-Araghi, Sattar

    In this thesis we study the interactions of ions and cationic peptides with a negatively charged lipid bilayer in an ionic solution where the electrostatic interactions are screened. We first examine the problem of charge renormalization and inversion of a highly charged bilayer with low dielectric constant. To be specific, we consider an asymmetrically charged lipid bilayer, in which only one layer is negatively charged. In particular, we study how dielectric discontinuities and charge correlations among lipid charges and condensed counterions influence the effective charge of the surface. When counterions are monovalent, e. g. , Na+, our mean-field approach implies that dielectric discontinuities can enhance counterion condensation. A simple scaling picture shows how the effects of dielectric discontinuities and surface-charge distributions are intertwined: Dielectric discontinuities diminish condensation if the backbone charge is uniformly smeared out while counterions are localized in space; they can, however, enhance condensation when the backbone charge is discrete. In the presence of asymmetric salts such as CaCl2, we find that the correlation effect, treated at the Gaussian level, is more pronounced when the surface has a lower dielectric constant, inverting the sign of the charge at a smaller value of Ca2+ concentration. In the last chapter we study binding of cationic peptides onto a lipid-bilayer membrane. The peptide not only interacts electrostatically with anionic lipids, rearranging their spatial distributions, but it can also insert hydrophobically into the membrane, expanding the area of its binding layer (i. e. , the outer layer). We examine how peptide charges and peptide insertion (thus area expansion) are intertwined. Our results show that, depending on the bilayer's surface charge density and peptide hydrophobicity, there is an optimal peptide charge yielding the maximum peptide penetration. Our results shed light on the physics behind the

  5. A Molecular Dynamics Study of the Response of Lipid Bilayers and Monolayers to Trehalose

    PubMed Central

    Skibinsky, Anna; Venable, Richard M.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2005-01-01

    Surface tensions evaluated from molecular dynamics simulations of fully hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers and monolayers at surface areas/lipid of 54, 64, and 80 Å2 are uniformly lowered 4–8 dyn/cm upon addition of trehalose in a 1:2 trehalose/lipid ratio. Constant surface tension simulations of bilayers yield the complementary result: an increase in surface area consistent with the surface pressure-surface area (π-A) isotherms. Hydrogen bonding by trehalose, replacement of waters in the headgroup region, and modulation of the dipole potential are all similar in bilayers and monolayers at the same surface area. These results strongly support the assumption that experimental measurements on the interactions of surface active components such as trehalose with monolayers can yield quantitative insight to their effects on bilayers. The simulations also indicate that the 20–30 dyn/cm difference in surface tension of the bilayer leaflet and monolayer arises from differences in the chain regions, not the headgroup/water interfaces. PMID:16183878

  6. Hydrophobic matching between melittin and phosphocholine lipid bilayers having different thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, William; Qian, Shuo

    2014-03-01

    The lipid bilayer of the cellular membrane is more than a simple medium that houses proteins with specific function. Instead, it is an elastic medium that plays an active role in the function of the membrane and that both drives the function of membrane proteins and alters its properties in response to their presence. The conceptual simplicity of membrane active peptides makes them attractive model systems for studying membrane-protein interactions. Melittin, a 27 amino acid cationic peptide having a helix-hinge-helix motif, is one of the most extensively studied examples. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements of melittin associated with lipid bilayer vesicles having different hydrocarbon thicknesses showed that the bilayer thickness stretches to match the thickness of the peptide in a manner consistent with a rigid, extended melittin having its helical axis oriented parallel to the bilayer normal. This behavior is surprising considering the helix-hinge-helix motif of the peptide and in contrast to studies indicating that transmembrane helices tilt with respect to the bilayer normal to accommodate differences in hydrophobic thicknesses. Possible sources of the discrepancy will be discussed and explored. This research at SNS and HFIR of ORNL was supported by the US Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (ERKP291).

  7. Lateral Diffusion of Peripheral Membrane Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers Is Controlled by the Additive Frictional Drags of 1) Bound Lipids and 2) Protein Domains Penetrating into the Bilayer Hydrocarbon Core

    PubMed Central

    Ziemba, Brian P.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins bound to lipids on bilayer surfaces play central roles in a wide array of cellular processes, including many signaling pathways. These proteins diffuse in the plane of the bilayer and often undergo complex reactions involving the binding of regulatory and substrate lipids and proteins they encounter during their 2-D diffusion. Some peripheral proteins, for example pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, dock to the bilayer in a relatively shallow position with little penetration into the bilayer. Other peripheral proteins exhibit more complex bilayer contacts, for example classical protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs) bind as many as six lipids in stepwise fashion, resulting in the penetration of three PKC domains (C1A, C1B, C2) into the bilayer headgroup and hydrocarbon regions. A molecular understanding of the molecular features that control the diffusion speeds of proteins bound to supported bilayers would enable key molecular information to be extracted from experimental diffusion constants, revealing protein-lipid and protein-bilayer interactions difficult to study by other methods. The present study investigates a range of 11 different peripheral protein constructs comprised by 1 to 3 distinct domains (PH, C1A, C1B, C2, anti-lipid antibody). By combining these constructs with various combinations of target lipids, the study measures 2-D diffusion constants on supported bilayers for 17 different protein-lipid complexes. The resulting experimental diffusion constants, together with the known membrane interaction parameters of each complex, are used to analyze the molecular features correlated with diffusional slowing and bilayer friction. The findings show that both 1) individual bound lipids and 2) individual protein domains that penetrate into the hydrocarbon core make additive contributions to the friction against the bilayer, thereby defining the 2-D diffusion constant. An empirical formula is developed that accurately estimates the

  8. X-ray reflectivity and diffuse studies of lipid bilayer stacks on solid substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Ma, Y.; Sinha, Sunil K.; Decaro, C.; Berry, J.; Lurio, Laurence B.; Jiang, Z.; Brozell, A.; Bricarello, D.; Parikh, Atul N.

    2010-03-01

    Recently, major efforts have been made to study model lipid membranes supported on a solid substrate. A typical bilayer is characterized by its static structure and dynamic thermal fluctuations which are described by three physical quantities, the bending modulus, the surface tension, and the external potential due to a nearby surface or neighboring bilayers. The solid substrate affects both the static and dynamic behaviors of the bilayer deposited on its top. We have carried out a systematic study of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) bilayer stacks up to five bilayers prepared with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and Langmuir-Schaeffer (LS) methods. A complete picture of the static bilayer structure, both in-plane and out of plane, and the dynamic fluctuations as a function of temperature and the number of stacks, i.e., the distance from the substrate, is obtained with x-ray reflectivity, Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS), and rocking scans. (Work supported by NSF, DMR0706369)

  9. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes on mixed self-assembled monolayers of a novel anchoring thiol: impact of the anchoring thiol density on bilayer formation.

    PubMed

    Basit, Hajra; Van der Heyden, Angéline; Gondran, Chantal; Nysten, Bernard; Dumy, Pascal; Labbé, Pierre

    2011-12-06

    Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) are designed on mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of a novel synthetic anchoring thiol, 2,3-di-o-palmitoylglycerol-1-tetraethylene glycol mercaptopropanoic acid ester (TEG-DP), and a new short dilution thiol molecule, tetraethylene glycol mercaptopropanoic acid ester (TEG). tBLM formation was accomplished by self-directed fusion of small unilamellar vesicles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. The influence of the dilution of the anchoring thiol molecule in the SAM on the vesicle fusion process and on the properties of the resulting tBLMs is studied. It is observed by quartz crystal microbalance that vesicle fusion is a one-step process for a pure TEG-DP SAM as well as for mixed SAMs containing a high concentration of the anchoring thiol. However, upon dilution of the anchoring thiol to moderate concentrations, this process is decelerated and possibly follows a pathway different from that observed on a pure TEG-DP SAM. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is used to qualitatively correlate the composition of the SAM to the electrical properties of the tBLM. In this paper we also delineate the necessity of a critical concentration of this anchoring TEG-DP thiol as a requisite for inducing the fusion of vesicles to form a tBLM. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Adsorption Kinetics Dictate Monolayer Self-Assembly for Both Lipid-In and Lipid-Out Approaches to Droplet Interface Bilayer Formation.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Guru A; Lee, Joonho; Farimani, Amir Barati; Heiranian, Mohammad; Collier, C Patrick; Aluru, Narayana R; Sarles, Stephen A

    2015-12-01

    The droplet interface bilayer (DIB)--a method to assemble planar lipid bilayer membranes between lipid-coated aqueous droplets--has gained popularity among researchers in many fields. Well-packed lipid monolayer on aqueous droplet-oil interfaces is a prerequisite for successfully assembling DIBs. Such monolayers can be achieved by two different techniques: "lipid-in", in which phospholipids in the form of liposomes are placed in water, and "lipid-out", in which phospholipids are placed in oil as inverse micelles. While both approaches are capable of monolayer assembly needed for bilayer formation, droplet pairs assembled with these two techniques require significantly different incubation periods and exhibit different success rates for bilayer formation. In this study, we combine experimental interfacial tension measurements with molecular dynamics simulations of phospholipids (DPhPC and DOPC) assembled from water and oil origins to understand the differences in kinetics of monolayer formation. With the results from simulations and by using a simplified model to analyze dynamic interfacial tensions, we conclude that, at high lipid concentrations common to DIBs, monolayer formation is simple adsorption controlled for lipid-in technique, whereas it is predominantly adsorption-barrier controlled for the lipid-out technique due to the interaction of interface-bound lipids with lipid structures in the subsurface. The adsorption barrier established in lipid-out technique leads to a prolonged incubation time and lower bilayer formation success rate, proving a good correlation between interfacial tension measurements and bilayer formation. We also clarify that advective flow expedites monolayer formation and improves bilayer formation success rate by disrupting lipid structures, rather than enhancing diffusion, in the subsurface and at the interface for lipid-out technique. Additionally, electrical properties of DIBs formed with varying lipid placement and type are

  11. Conjugated Double Bonds in Lipid Bilayers: A Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guijun; Subbaiah, P. V.; Chiu, See-Wing; Jakobsson, Eric; Scott, H. L.

    2011-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are found naturally in dairy products. Two isomers of CLA, that differ only in the location of cis and trans double bonds, are found to have distinct and different biological effects. The cis 9 trans 11 (C9T11) isomer is attributed to have the anti-carcinogenic effects, while the trans 10 cis 12 (T10C12) isomer is believed to be responsible for the anti-obesity effects. Since dietary CLA are incorporated into membrane phospholipids, we have used Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the comparative effects of the two isomers on lipid bilayer structure. Specifically, simulations of phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers in which the sn-2 chains contained one of the two isomers of CLA were performed. Force field parameters for the torsional potential of double bonds were obtained from ab initio calculations. From the MD trajectories we calculated and compared structural properties of the two lipid bilayers, including areas per molecule, density profiles, thickness of bilayers, tilt angle of tail chains, order parameters profiles, radial distribution function (RDF) and lateral pressure profiles. The main differences found between bilayers of the two CLA isomers, are (1) the order parameter profile for C9T11 has a dip in the middle of sn-2 chain while the profile for T10C12 has a deeper dip close to terminal of sn-2 chain, and (2) the lateral pressure profiles show differences between the two isomers. Our simulation results reveal localized physical structural differences between bilayers of the two CLA isomers that may contribute to different biological effects through differential interactions with membrane proteins or cholesterol. PMID:21320475

  12. Antimicrobial peptides temporins B and L induce formation of tubular lipid protrusions from supported phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Domanov, Yegor A; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2006-12-15

    The binding of the antimicrobial peptides temporins B and L to supported lipid bilayer (SLB) model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (4:1, mol/mol) caused the formation of fibrillar protrusions, visible by fluorescent microscopy of both a fluorescent lipid analog and a labeled peptide. Multicolor imaging at low peptide-to-lipid ratios (P/L < approximately 1:5) revealed an initial in-plane segregation of membrane-bound peptide and partial exclusion of lipid from the peptide-enriched areas. Subsequently, at higher P/L numerous flexible lipid fibrils were seen growing from the areas enriched in lipid. The fibrils have diameters <250 nm and lengths of up to approximately 1 mm. Fibril formation reduces the in-plane heterogeneity and results in a relatively even redistribution of bound peptide over the planar bilayer and the fibrils. Physical properties of the lipid fibrils suggest that they have a tubular structure. Our data demonstrate that the peptide-lipid interactions alone can provide a driving force for the spontaneous membrane shape transformations leading to tubule outgrowth and elongation. Further experiments revealed the importance of positive curvature strain in the tubulation process as well as the sufficient positive charge on the peptide (>/=+2). The observed membrane transformations could provide a simplified in vitro model for morphogenesis of intracellular tubular structures and intercellular connections.

  13. Antimicrobial Peptides Temporins B and L Induce Formation of Tubular Lipid Protrusions from Supported Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Domanov, Yegor A.; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2006-01-01

    The binding of the antimicrobial peptides temporins B and L to supported lipid bilayer (SLB) model membranes composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (4:1, mol/mol) caused the formation of fibrillar protrusions, visible by fluorescent microscopy of both a fluorescent lipid analog and a labeled peptide. Multicolor imaging at low peptide-to-lipid ratios (P/L < ∼1:5) revealed an initial in-plane segregation of membrane-bound peptide and partial exclusion of lipid from the peptide-enriched areas. Subsequently, at higher P/L numerous flexible lipid fibrils were seen growing from the areas enriched in lipid. The fibrils have diameters <250 nm and lengths of up to ∼1 mm. Fibril formation reduces the in-plane heterogeneity and results in a relatively even redistribution of bound peptide over the planar bilayer and the fibrils. Physical properties of the lipid fibrils suggest that they have a tubular structure. Our data demonstrate that the peptide-lipid interactions alone can provide a driving force for the spontaneous membrane shape transformations leading to tubule outgrowth and elongation. Further experiments revealed the importance of positive curvature strain in the tubulation process as well as the sufficient positive charge on the peptide (≥+2). The observed membrane transformations could provide a simplified in vitro model for morphogenesis of intracellular tubular structures and intercellular connections. PMID:16997872

  14. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs): interest and applications for biological membrane investigations.

    PubMed

    Rebaud, Samuel; Maniti, Ofelia; Girard-Egrot, Agnès P

    2014-12-01

    Biological membranes play a central role in the biology of the cell. They are not only the hydrophobic barrier allowing separation between two water soluble compartments but also a supra-molecular entity that has vital structural functions. Notably, they are involved in many exchange processes between the outside and inside cellular spaces. Accounting for the complexity of cell membranes, reliable models are needed to acquire current knowledge of the molecular processes occurring in membranes. To simplify the investigation of lipid/protein interactions, the use of biomimetic membranes is an approach that allows manipulation of the lipid composition of specific domains and/or the protein composition, and the evaluation of the reciprocal effects. Since the middle of the 80's, lipid bilayer membranes have been constantly developed as models of biological membranes with the ultimate goal to reincorporate membrane proteins for their functional investigation. In this review, after a brief description of the planar lipid bilayers as biomimetic membrane models, we will focus on the construction of the tethered Bilayer Lipid Membranes, the most promising model for efficient membrane protein reconstitution and investigation of molecular processes occurring in cell membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobility of water and selected atoms in DMPG lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, F. Y.; Roennest, A.; Peters, G. H.; Taub, H.; Miskowiec, A.

    2013-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the structure and mobility of water and selected atoms in dimyristoyl-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipids forming a fully hydrated free standing bilayer membrane at 310 K. The effect of the anionic headgroup in DMPG on structure and dynamics has been studied by comparison with simulation[2] and experimental[3] results for bilayer membranes of dimyristoyl-phosphorylcholine (DMPC) lipids, which have a neutral head group and the same aliphatic tails. The membrane is found to be in the fluid phase with monovalent sodium counter ions and in the gel phase with divalent calcium counter ions as evidenced by an area/lipid change and the NMR order parameter. The simulation results are compared with preliminary neutron scattering results. Supported by NSF Grant No. DGE-1069091

  16. Charge Equilibration Force Fields for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Lipids, Bilayers, and Integral Membrane Protein Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Timothy R.; Bauer, Brad A.; Patel, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    With the continuing advances in computational hardware and novel force fields constructed using quantum mechanics, the outlook for non-additive force fields is promising. Our work in the past several years has demonstrated the utility of polarizable force fields, those based on the charge equilibration formalism, for a broad range of physical and biophysical systems. We have constructed and applied polarizable force fields for lipids and lipid bilayers. In this review of our recent work, we discuss the formalism we have adopted for implementing the charge equilibration (CHEQ) method for lipid molecules. We discuss the methodology, related issues, and briefly discuss results from recent applications of such force fields. Application areas include DPPC-water monolayers, potassium ion permeation free energetics in the gramicidin A bacterial channel, and free energetics of permeation of charged amino acid analogues across the water-bilayer interface. PMID:21967961

  17. Self-assembly formation of lipid bilayer coatings on bare aluminum oxide: overcoming the force of interfacial water.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Joshua A; Tabaei, Seyed R; Zhao, Zhilei; Yorulmaz, Saziye; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-01-14

    Widely used in catalysis and biosensing applications, aluminum oxide has become popular for surface functionalization with biological macromolecules, including lipid bilayer coatings. However, it is difficult to form supported lipid bilayers on aluminum oxide, and current methods require covalent surface modification, which masks the interfacial properties of aluminum oxide, and/or complex fabrication techniques with specific conditions. Herein, we addressed this issue by identifying simple and robust strategies to form fluidic lipid bilayers on aluminum oxide. The fabrication of a single lipid bilayer coating was achieved by two methods, vesicle fusion under acidic conditions and solvent-assisted lipid bilayer (SALB) formation under near-physiological pH conditions. Importantly, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring measurements determined that the hydration layer of a supported lipid bilayer on aluminum oxide is appreciably thicker than that of a bilayer on silicon oxide. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis indicated that the diffusion coefficient of lateral lipid mobility was up to 3-fold greater on silicon oxide than on aluminum oxide. In spite of this hydrodynamic coupling, the diffusion coefficient on aluminum oxide, but not silicon oxide, was sensitive to the ionic strength condition. Extended-DLVO model calculations estimated the thermodynamics of lipid-substrate interactions on aluminum oxide and silicon oxide, and predict that the range of the repulsive hydration force is greater on aluminum oxide, which in turn leads to an increased equilibrium separation distance. Hence, while a strong hydration force likely contributes to the difficulty of bilayer fabrication on aluminum oxide, it also confers advantages by stabilizing lipid bilayers with thicker hydration layers due to confined interfacial water. Such knowledge provides the basis for improved surface functionalization strategies on aluminum oxide

  18. Fluorescent molecular probes based on excited state prototropism in lipid bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Monalisa; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2012-03-01

    Excited state prototropism (ESPT) is observed in molecules having one or more ionizable protons, whose proton transfer efficiency is different in ground and excited states. The interaction of various ESPT molecules like naphthols and intramolecular ESPT (ESIPT) molecules like hydroxyflavones etc. with different microheterogeneous media have been studied in detail and excited state prototropism as a probe concept has been gaining ground. The fluorescence of different prototropic forms of such molecules, on partitioning to an organized medium like lipid bilayer membrane, often show sensitive response to the local environment with respect to the local structure, physical properties and dynamics. Our recent work using 1-naphthol as an ESPT fluorescent molecular probe has shown that the incorporation of monomeric bile salt molecules into lipid bilayer membranes composed from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, a lung surfactant) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), in solid gel and liquid crystalline phases, induce appreciable wetting of the bilayer up to the hydrocarbon core region, even at very low (<= 1 mM) concentrations of the bile salts. The incorporation and location of fisetin, an ESIPT molecule having antioxidant properties, in lipid bilayer membrane has been sensitively monitored from its intrinsic fluorescence behaviour.

  19. Lipid-Bilayer Dynamics Probed by a Carbon Dot-Phospholipid Conjugate.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sukhendu; Malishev, Ravit; Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Jopp, Jürgen; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-05-10

    Elucidating the dynamic properties of membranes is important for understanding fundamental cellular processes and for shedding light on the interactions of proteins, drugs, and viruses with the cell surface. Dynamic studies of lipid bilayers have been constrained, however, by the relatively small number of pertinent molecular probes and the limited physicochemical properties of the probes. We show that a lipid conjugate comprised of a fluorescent carbon dot (C-dot) covalently attached to a phospholipid constitutes a versatile and effective vehicle for studying bilayer dynamics. The C-dot-modified phospholipids readily incorporated within biomimetic membranes, including solid-supported bilayers and small and giant vesicles, and inserted into actual cellular membranes. We employed the C-dot-phospholipid probe to elucidate the effects of polymyxin-B (a cytolytic peptide), valproic acid (a lipophilic drug), and amyloid-β (a peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease) upon bilayer fluidity and lipid dynamics through the application of various biophysical techniques. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular Insight into Affinities of Gallated and Nongallated Proanthocyanidins Dimers to Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Xiong, Le; Peng, Jinming; Deng, Xiangyi; Gao, Jun; Li, Chun-Mei

    2016-11-01

    Experimental studies have proved the beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins (Pas) relating to interaction with the cell membrane. But the detailed mechanisms and structure-function relationship was unclear. In present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the interactions of four PA dimers with a lipid bilayer composed of 1:1 mixed 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE). The results showed that the gallated PA dimers had much higher affinities to the bilayer with lower binding free energies compared with nongallated PA dimers. The gallated PA dimers penetrated deeper into the bilayer and formed more hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with bilayer oxygen atoms, especially the deeper oxygen atoms of the lipids simultaneously, thus inducing stronger lateral expansion of the membrane and lipid tails disorder. The present results provided molecular insights into the interactions between PA dimers and bio-membranes and agreed with our experimental results well. These molecular interactions helped to elucidate the structure-function relationship of the PA dimers and provided a foundation for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the bioactivities of PA oligomers.

  1. Molecular Insight into Affinities of Gallated and Nongallated Proanthocyanidins Dimers to Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei; Xiong, Le; Peng, Jinming; Deng, Xiangyi; Gao, Jun; Li, Chun-mei

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies have proved the beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins (Pas) relating to interaction with the cell membrane. But the detailed mechanisms and structure-function relationship was unclear. In present study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to study the interactions of four PA dimers with a lipid bilayer composed of 1:1 mixed 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE). The results showed that the gallated PA dimers had much higher affinities to the bilayer with lower binding free energies compared with nongallated PA dimers. The gallated PA dimers penetrated deeper into the bilayer and formed more hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with bilayer oxygen atoms, especially the deeper oxygen atoms of the lipids simultaneously, thus inducing stronger lateral expansion of the membrane and lipid tails disorder. The present results provided molecular insights into the interactions between PA dimers and bio-membranes and agreed with our experimental results well. These molecular interactions helped to elucidate the structure-function relationship of the PA dimers and provided a foundation for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the bioactivities of PA oligomers. PMID:27874097

  2. Thin-film silica sol-gels doped with ion-responsive fluorescent lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Shea, Lauren E.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    1999-05-01

    A metal ion sensitive, fluorescent lipid-bilayer material (5% PSIDA/DSPC) was successfully immobilized in a silica matrix using a tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) sol-gel procedure. The sol- gel immobilization method was quantitative in the entrapment of self-assembled lipid-bilayers and yielded thin films for facile configuration to optical fiber platforms. The silica matrix was compatible with the solvent sensitive lipid bilayers and provided physical stabilization as well as biological protection. Immobilization in the silica sol-gel produced an added benefit of improving the bilayer's metal ion sensitivity by up to two orders of magnitude. This enhanced performance was attributed to a preconcentrator effect from the anionic surface of the silica matrix. Thin gels (193 micron thickness) were coupled to a bifurcated fiber optic bundle to produce a metal ion sensor probe. Response times of 10 - 15 minutes to 0.1 M CuCl2 were realized with complete regeneration of the sensor using an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution.

  3. Dependence of norfloxacin diffusion across bilayers on lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Purushothaman, Sowmya; Cama, Jehangir; Keyser, Ulrich F

    2016-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a growing concern in medicine and raises the need to develop and design new drug molecules that can efficiently inhibit bacterial replication. Spurring the passive uptake of the drug molecules is an obvious solution. However our limited understanding of drug-membrane interactions due to the presence of an overwhelming variety of lipids constituting cellular membranes and the lack of facile tools to probe the bio-physical interactions between drugs and lipids imposes a major challenge towards developing new drug molecules that can enter the cell via passive diffusion. Here, we used a label-free micro-fluidic platform combined with giant unilamellar lipid vesicles to investigate the permeability of membranes containing mixtures of DOPE and DOPG in DOPC, leading to a label-free measurement of passive membrane-permeability of autofluorescent antibiotics. A fluoroquinolone drug, norfloxacin was used as a case study. Our results indicate that the diffusion of norfloxacin is strongly dependent on the lipid composition which is not expected from the traditional octanol-lipid partition co-efficient assay. The anionic lipid, DOPG, slows the diffusion process whereas the diffusion across liposomes containing DOPE increases with higher DOPE concentration. Our findings emphasise the need to investigate drug-membrane interactions with focus on the specificity of drugs to lipids for efficient drug delivery, drug encapsulation and targeted drug-delivery.

  4. Super-resolution Imaging of the Natural Killer Cell Immunological Synapse on a Glass-supported Planar Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhui; Huang, Shengjian; Liu, Dongfang

    2015-01-01

    The glass-supported planar lipid bilayer system has been utilized in a variety of disciplines. One of the most useful applications of this technique has been in the study of immunological synapse formation, due to the ability of the glass-supported planar lipid bilayers to mimic the surface of a target cell while forming a horizontal interface. The recent advances in super-resolution imaging have further allowed scientists to better view the fine details of synapse structure. In this study, one of these advanced techniques, stimulated emission depletion (STED), is utilized to study the structure of natural killer (NK) cell synapses on the supported lipid bilayer. Provided herein is an easy-to-follow protocol detailing: how to prepare raw synthetic phospholipids for use in synthesizing glass-supported bilayers; how to determine how densely protein of a given concentration occupies the bilayer's attachment sites; how to construct a supported lipid bilayer containing antibodies against NK cell activating receptor CD16; and finally, how to image human NK cells on this bilayer using STED super-resolution microscopy, with a focus on distribution of perforin positive lytic granules and filamentous actin at NK synapses. Thus, combining the glass-supported planar lipid bilayer system with STED technique, we demonstrate the feasibility and application of this combined technique, as well as intracellular structures at NK immunological synapse with super-resolution. PMID:25741636

  5. Super-resolution imaging of the natural killer cell immunological synapse on a glass-supported planar lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Peilin; Bertolet, Grant; Chen, Yuhui; Huang, Shengjian; Liu, Dongfang

    2015-02-11

    The glass-supported planar lipid bilayer system has been utilized in a variety of disciplines. One of the most useful applications of this technique has been in the study of immunological synapse formation, due to the ability of the glass-supported planar lipid bilayers to mimic the surface of a target cell while forming a horizontal interface. The recent advances in super-resolution imaging have further allowed scientists to better view the fine details of synapse structure. In this study, one of these advanced techniques, stimulated emission depletion (STED), is utilized to study the structure of natural killer (NK) cell synapses on the supported lipid bilayer. Provided herein is an easy-to-follow protocol detailing: how to prepare raw synthetic phospholipids for use in synthesizing glass-supported bilayers; how to determine how densely protein of a given concentration occupies the bilayer's attachment sites; how to construct a supported lipid bilayer containing antibodies against NK cell activating receptor CD16; and finally, how to image human NK cells on this bilayer using STED super-resolution microscopy, with a focus on distribution of perforin positive lytic granules and filamentous actin at NK synapses. Thus, combining the glass-supported planar lipid bilayer system with STED technique, we demonstrate the feasibility and application of this combined technique, as well as intracellular structures at NK immunological synapse with super-resolution.

  6. Holographic interferometry of ultrasmall-pressure-induced curvature changes of bilayer lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, G.; Schneider-Henriquez, J.E.; Fendler, J.H. )

    1990-01-25

    Two-exposure interferometric holograms have been shown to sensitively report ultrasmall-pressure (10 natm)-induced curvature changes in glyceryl monooleate (GMO) bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The number of concentric fringes observed, and hence the lateral distance between the plane of the Teflon and the BLM, increased linearly with increasing transmembrane pressure and led to a value of 1.1 {plus minus} 0.05 dyn/cm for the surface tension of the BLM. BLMs with appreciable Plateau-Gibbs borders have been shown to undergo nonuniform deformation; the bilayer portion is distorted less than the surrounding Plateau-Gibbs border upon the application of a transmembrane pressure gradient.

  7. Ripple formation in unilamellar-supported lipid bilayer revealed by FRAPP.

    PubMed

    Harb, Frédéric; Simon, Anne; Tinland, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    The mechanisms of formation and conditions of the existence of the ripple phase are fundamental thermodynamic questions with practical implications for medicine and pharmaceuticals. We reveal a new case of ripple formation occurring in unilamellar-supported bilayers in water, which results solely from the bilayer/support interaction, without using lipid mixtures or specific ions. This ripple phase is detected by FRAPP using diffusion coefficient measurements as a function of temperature: a diffusivity plateau is observed. It occurs in the same temperature range where ripple phase existence has been observed using other methods. When AFM experiments are performed in the appropriate temperature range the ripple phase is confirmed.

  8. Structure of the DMPC lipid bilayer ripple phase†

    PubMed Central

    Akabori, Kiyotaka; Nagle, John F.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution structure is presented for the ripple (Pβ′) phase of the phospholipid dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. Low angle X-ray scattering from oriented samples yielded 57 orders, more than twice as many as recorded previously. The determined electron density map has a sawtooth profile similar to the result from lower resolution data, but the features are sharper allowing better estimates for the modulated bilayer profile and the distribution of headgroups along the aqueous interface. Analysis of high resolution wide angle X-ray data shows that the hydrocarbon chains in the longer, major side of the asymmetric sawtooth are packed similarly to the LβF gel phase, with chains in both monolayers coupled and tilted by 18° in the same direction. The absence of Bragg rods that could be associated with the minor side is consistent with disordered chains, as often suggested in the literature. However, the new high resolution bilayer profile strongly suggests that the chains in the two monolayers in the minor side and the curved region are not in registry. This staggered monolayer modulated melting suggests a direction for improving theories of the ripple phase. PMID:25503248

  9. Dioxygen transmembrane distributions and partitioning thermodynamics in lipid bilayers and micelles.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdul-Wahid, M Sameer; Evanics, Ferenc; Prosser, R Scott

    2011-05-17

    Cellular respiration, mediated by the passive diffusion of oxygen across lipid membranes, is key to many basic cellular processes. In this work, we report the detailed distribution of oxygen across lipid bilayers and examine the thermodynamics of oxygen partitioning via NMR studies of lipids in a small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) morphology. Dissolved oxygen gives rise to paramagnetic chemical shift perturbations and relaxation rate enhancements, both of which report on local oxygen concentration. From SUVs containing the phospholipid sn-2-perdeuterio-1-myristelaidoyl, 2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (MLMPC), an analogue of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), we deduced the complete trans-bilayer oxygen distribution by measuring (13)C paramagnetic chemical shifts perturbations for 18 different sites on MLMPC arising from oxygen at a partial pressure of 30 bar. The overall oxygen solubility at 45 °C spans a factor of 7 between the bulk water (23.7 mM) and the bilayer center (170 mM) and is lowest in the vicinity of the phosphocholine headgroup, suggesting that oxygen diffusion across the glycerol backbone should be the rate-limiting step in diffusion-mediated passive transport of oxygen across the lipid bilayer. Lowering of the temperature from 45 to 25 °C gave rise to a slight decrease of the oxygen solubility within the hydrocarbon interior of the membrane. An analysis of the temperature dependence of the oxygen solubility profile, as measured by (1)H paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancements, reveals that oxygen partitioning into the bilayer is entropically favored (ΔS° = 54 ± 3 J K(-1) mol(-1)) and must overcome an enthalpic barrier (ΔH° = 12.0 ± 0.9 kJ mol(-1)).

  10. Self-Spreading of Lipid Bilayer on a Hydrophobic Surface Made by Self-Assembled Monolayer with Short Alkyl Chain.

    PubMed

    Omori, Yuya; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Takahagi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    Behaviors of self-spreading of lipid bilayer membrane on a glass surface modified with self-assembled monolayer (SAM) with short alkyl chain were observed with fluorescence microscopy. Hydrophobic surface made by SAM was found to hamper the self-spreading phenomenon but the lipid bilayer spread on a hydrophilic one where SAM was decomposed by oxidation. On a binary surface having a hydrophobic region and a hydrophilic one, the lipid bilayer spread on the hydrophilic region but it stopped at the boundary of the hydrophobic region.

  11. Oxygen permeability of the lipid bilayer membrane made of calf lens lipids

    PubMed Central

    Widomska, Justyna; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2007-01-01

    The oxygen permeability coefficient across the membrane made of the total lipid extract from the plasma membrane of calf lens was estimated from the profile of the oxygen transport parameter (local oxygen diffusion-concentration product) and compared with those estimated for membranes made of an equimolar 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine/cholesterol (POPC/Chol) mixture and of pure POPC. Profiles of the oxygen transport parameter were obtained by observing the collision of molecular oxygen with nitroxide radical spin labels placed at different depths in the membrane using the saturation-recovery EPR technique and were published by us earlier (J. Widomska, M. Raguz, J. Dillon, E. R. Gaillard, W. K. Subczynski, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. Epub 2007 March 20). At 35°C, the estimated oxygen permeability coefficients were 51.3, 49.7, and 157.4 cm/s for lens lipid, POPC/Chol, and POPC membranes, respectively (compared with 53.3 cm/s for a water layer with the same thickness as a membrane). Membrane permeability significantly decreases at lower temperatures. In the lens lipid membrane, resistance to the oxygen transport is located in and near the polar headgroup region of the membrane to the depth of the ninth carbon, which is approximately where the steroid-ring structure of cholesterol reaches into the membrane. In the central region of the membrane, oxygen transport is enhanced, significantly exceeding that in bulk water. It is concluded that the high level of cholesterol in lens lipids is responsible for these unique membrane properties. PMID:17662231

  12. Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-12-01

    A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.

  13. Molecular dynamics modelling of EGCG clusters on ceramide bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Jingjie; Cheng, Yuan; Li, Weifeng; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-12-31

    A novel method of atomistic modelling and characterization of both pure ceramide and mixed lipid bilayers is being developed, using only the General Amber ForceField. Lipid bilayers modelled as pure ceramides adopt hexagonal packing after equilibration, and the area per lipid and bilayer thickness are consistent with previously reported theoretical results. Mixed lipid bilayers are modelled as a combination of ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. This model is shown to be stable after equilibration. Green tea extract, also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is introduced as a spherical cluster on the surface of the mixed lipid bilayer. It is demonstrated that the cluster is able to bind to the bilayers as a cluster without diffusing into the surrounding water.

  14. Interactions of a lytic peptide with supported lipid bilayers investigated by time-resolved evanescent wave-induced fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rapson, Andrew C; Gee, Michelle L; Clayton, Andrew H A; Smith, Trevor A

    2016-09-28

    We report investigations, using time-resolved and polarised evanescent wave-induced fluorescence methods, into the location, orientation and mobility of a fluorescently labelled form of the antimicrobial peptide, melittin, when it interacts with vesicles and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). This melittin analogue, termed MK14-A430, was found to penetrate the lipid headgroup structure in pure, ordered-phase DPPC membranes but was located near the headgroup-water region when cholesterol was included. MK14-A430 formed lytic pores in SLBs, and an increase in pore formation with incubation time was observed through an increase in polarity and mobility of the probe. When associated with the Cholesterol-containing SLB, the probe displayed polarity and mobility that indicated a population distributed near the lipid headgroup-water interface with MK14-A430 arranged predominantly in a surface-aligned state. This study indicates that the lytic activity of MK14-A430 occurred through a pore-forming mechanism. The lipid headgroup environment experienced by the fluorescent label, where MK14-A430 displayed pore information, indicated that pore formation was best described by the toroidal pore model.

  15. Interactions of a lytic peptide with supported lipid bilayers investigated by time-resolved evanescent wave-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapson, Andrew C.; Gee, Michelle L.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.; Smith, Trevor A.

    2016-12-01

    We report investigations, using time-resolved and polarised evanescent wave-induced fluorescence methods, into the location, orientation and mobility of a fluorescently labelled form of the antimicrobial peptide, melittin, when it interacts with vesicles and supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). This melittin analogue, termed MK14-A430, was found to penetrate the lipid headgroup structure in pure, ordered-phase DPPC membranes but was located near the headgroup-water region when cholesterol was included. MK14-A430 formed lytic pores in SLBs, and an increase in pore formation with incubation time was observed through an increase in polarity and mobility of the probe. When associated with the Cholesterol-containing SLB, the probe displayed polarity and mobility that indicated a population distributed near the lipid headgroup-water interface with MK14-A430 arranged predominantly in a surface-aligned state. This study indicates that the lytic activity of MK14-A430 occurred through a pore-forming mechanism. The lipid headgroup environment experienced by the fluorescent label, where MK14-A430 displayed pore information, indicated that pore formation was best described by the toroidal pore model.

  16. Dynamical motions of lipids and a finite size effect in simulations of bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klauda, Jeffery B.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Pastor, Richard W.

    2006-10-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers composed of 72 and 288 lipids are used to examine system size dependence on dynamical properties associated with the particle mesh Ewald (PME) treatment of electrostatic interactions. The lateral diffusion constant Dℓ is 2.92×10-7 and 0.95×10-7cm2/s for 72 and 288 lipids, respectively. This dramatic finite size effect originates from the correlation length of lipid diffusion, which extends to next-nearest neighbors in the 288 lipid system. Consequently, diffusional events in smaller systems can propagate across the boundaries of the periodic box. The internal dynamics of lipids calculated from the PME simulations are independent of the system size. Specifically, reorientational correlation functions for the slowly relaxing phosphorus-glycerol hydrogen, phosphorus-nitrogen vectors, and more rapidly relaxing CH vectors in the aliphatic chains are equivalent for the 72 and 288 lipid simulations. A third MD simulation of a bilayer with 72 lipids using spherical force-shift electrostatic cutoffs resulted in interdigitated chains, thereby rendering this cutoff method inappropriate.

  17. Brownian dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer membrane with hydrodynamic interactions in LAMMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Szu-Pei; Young, Yuan-Nan; Peng, Zhangli; Yuan, Hongyan

    2016-11-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes have been extensively studied by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Numerical efficiencies have been reported in the cases of aggressive coarse-graining, where several lipids are coarse-grained into a particle of size 4 6 nm so that there is only one particle in the thickness direction. Yuan et al. proposed a pair-potential between these one-particle-thick coarse-grained lipid particles to capture the mechanical properties of a lipid bilayer membrane (such as gel-fluid-gas phase transitions of lipids, diffusion, and bending rigidity). In this work we implement such interaction potential in LAMMPS to simulate large-scale lipid systems such as vesicles and red blood cells (RBCs). We also consider the effect of cytoskeleton on the lipid membrane dynamics as a model for red blood cell (RBC) dynamics, and incorporate coarse-grained water molecules to account for hydrodynamic interactions. The interaction between the coarse-grained water molecules (explicit solvent molecules) is modeled as a Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. We focus on two sets of LAMMPS simulations: 1. Vesicle shape transitions with varying enclosed volume; 2. RBC shape transitions with different enclosed volume. This work is funded by NSF under Grant DMS-1222550.

  18. Free Energy of Bare and Capped Gold Nanoparticles Permeating through a Lipid Bilayer.

    PubMed

    Mhashal, Anil R; Roy, Sudip

    2016-11-04

    Herein, we study the permeation free energy of bare and octane-thiol-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) translocating through a lipid membrane. To investigate this, we have pulled the bare and capped AuNPs from bulk water to the membrane interior and estimated the free energy cost. The adsorption of the bare AuNP on the bilayer surface is energetically favorable but further loading inside it requires energy. However, the estimated free-energy barrier for loading the capped AuNP into the lipid membrane is much higher compared to bare AuNP. We also demonstrate the details of the permeation process of bare and capped AuNPs. Bare AuNP induces the curvature in the lipid membrane whereas capped AuNP creates an opening in the interacting monolayer and get inserted into the membrane. The insertion of capped AuNP induces a partial unzipping of the lipid bilayer, which results in the ordering of the local lipids interacting with the nanoparticle. However, bare AuNP disrupts the lipid membrane by pushing the lipid molecules inside the membrane. We also analyze pore formation due to the insertion of capped AuNP into the membrane, which results in water molecules penetrating the hydrophobic region.

  19. Linking lipid architecture to bilayer structure and mechanics using self-consistent field modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Pera, H.; Kleijn, J. M.; Leermakers, F. A. M.

    2014-02-14

    To understand how lipid architecture determines the lipid bilayer structure and its mechanics, we implement a molecularly detailed model that uses the self-consistent field theory. This numerical model accurately predicts parameters such as Helfrichs mean and Gaussian bending modulus k{sub c} and k{sup ¯} and the preferred monolayer curvature J{sub 0}{sup m}, and also delivers structural membrane properties like the core thickness, and head group position and orientation. We studied how these mechanical parameters vary with system variations, such as lipid tail length, membrane composition, and those parameters that control the lipid tail and head group solvent quality. For the membrane composition, negatively charged phosphatidylglycerol (PG) or zwitterionic, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and -ethanolamine (PE) lipids were used. In line with experimental findings, we find that the values of k{sub c} and the area compression modulus k{sub A} are always positive. They respond similarly to parameters that affect the core thickness, but differently to parameters that affect the head group properties. We found that the trends for k{sup ¯} and J{sub 0}{sup m} can be rationalised by the concept of Israelachivili's surfactant packing parameter, and that both k{sup ¯} and J{sub 0}{sup m} change sign with relevant parameter changes. Although typically k{sup ¯}<0, membranes can form stable cubic phases when the Gaussian bending modulus becomes positive, which occurs with membranes composed of PC lipids with long tails. Similarly, negative monolayer curvatures appear when a small head group such as PE is combined with long lipid tails, which hints towards the stability of inverse hexagonal phases at the cost of the bilayer topology. To prevent the destabilisation of bilayers, PG lipids can be mixed into these PC or PE lipid membranes. Progressive loading of bilayers with PG lipids lead to highly charged membranes, resulting in J{sub 0}{sup m}≫0, especially at low ionic

  20. Effects of Sugars on Lipid Bilayers during Dehydration − SAXS/WAXS Measurements and Quantitative Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lenne, Thomas; Garvey, Christopher J.; Koster, Karen L.; Bryant, Gary

    2009-04-02

    We present an X-ray scattering study of the effects of dehydration on the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers in the presence of sugars. The presence of sugars has no effect on the average spacing between the phospholipid chains in either the fluid or gel phase. Using this finding, we establish that for low sugar concentrations only a small amount of sugar exclusion occurs. Under these conditions, the effects of sugars on the membrane transition temperatures can be explained quantitatively by the reduction in hydration repulsion between bilayers due to the presence of the sugars. Specific bonding of sugars to lipid headgroups is not required to explain this effect.

  1. Lipid Bilayer-Bound Conformation of an Integral Membrane Beta Barrel Protein by Multidimensional MAS NMR

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Matthew T.; Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay; Wagner, Gerhard; Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon; Griffin, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms 2-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for 13C line width and less than 0.5 ppm 15N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reported

  2. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew T; Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay; Wagner, Gerhard; Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon; Griffin, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5-0.3 ppm for (13)C line widths and <0.5 ppm (15)N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reported

  3. Directly mapping the surface charge density of lipid bilayers under physiological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhs, Thomas; Klausen, Lasse Hyldgaard; Besenbacher, Flemming; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-03-01

    The surface charge density of lipid bilayers governs the cellular uptake of charged particles and guides cell-cell and cell-surface interactions. Direct probing of the potential requires sub nanometer distances as the electrostatic potential is screened by high physiological salt concentrations. This prevented direct measurement of the SCD under physiological conditions. In this study we investigate supported bilayers of lipid mixtures that form domains of distinct surface charges, submerged in 150mM NaCl. We use a scanning ion-conductance microscope (SICM) setup to measure the ionic current through a nanopipette as the pipette is scanned several nanometers above the sample. The charged headgroups of the lipids attract counter ions leading to a charge dependent enhancement of the ion concentration near the surface. This creates a measurable change of conductivity in the vicinity of the surface. As the dependency of the current on the SCD and pipette potential is non-trivial we characterized it using numerical solutions to Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations. Based on the simulation results we propose an imaging method. We confirm feasibility of the proposed method by experimentally mapping the local surface charge density of phase separated lipid bilayers.

  4. Probing Spatial Proximity of Supported Lipid Bilayers to Silica Surfaces by Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensing.

    PubMed

    Ferhan, Abdul Rahim; Jackman, Joshua A; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2017-04-04

    On account of high surface sensitivity, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors have proven widely useful for studying lipid membrane configurations at solid-liquid interfaces. Key measurement capabilities include distinguishing adsorbed vesicles from supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) as well as profiling the extent of deformation among adsorbed vesicles. Such capabilities rely on detecting geometrical changes in lipid membrane configuration on a length scale that is comparable to the decay length of the LSPR-induced electromagnetic field enhancement (∼5-20 nm). Herein, we report that LSPR sensors are also capable of probing nanoscale (∼1 nm) variations in the distance between SLBs and underlying silica-coated surfaces. By tuning the electrostatic properties of lipid membranes, we could modulate the bilayer-substrate interaction and corresponding separation distance, as verified by simultaneous LSPR and quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) measurements. Theoretical calculations of the expected variation in the LSPR measurement response agree well with experimental results and support that the LSPR measurement response is sensitive to subtle variations in the bilayer-substrate separation distance.

  5. Vesicles surfing on a lipid bilayer: self-induced haptotactic motion.

    PubMed

    Solon, Jérôme; Streicher, Pia; Richter, Ralf; Brochard-Wyart, Françoise; Bassereau, Patricia

    2006-08-15

    Haptotaxis is a mechanism proposed at the end of the 1960s to explain cell motility. It describes cell movement induced by an adhesion gradient. In this work, we present evidence for self-induced haptotaxis using negatively charged giant vesicles interacting with positively charged supported lipid bilayers, which has not been previously described. Depending on the charge of the vesicle, we observed different behaviors. At low charge, no adhesion occurs. At high charge, the vesicle adheres but does not move. In a restricted range of intermediate charge densities, we found that the vesicle moves spontaneously with velocities of the order of a few micrometers per second over distances of >100 microm. We show that a local lipid transfer between the giant vesicle and the supported lipid bilayer takes place during the adhesion, breaking the symmetry and inducing a lateral charge gradient. This charge gradient polarizes the giant vesicle and induces its motion. To explain our observations, we propose a scaling model that relates the adhesion energy to the velocity of vesicle motion and to the characteristic lipid transfer time. Our measurements indicate that the effective adhesion energy is strongly reduced by counterions, which are dynamically trapped between the vesicle and the supported bilayer.

  6. Segregation of saturated chain lipids in pulmonary surfactant films and bilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Kaushik; Pao, Jin-Si; Harbottle, Robert R; Possmayer, Fred; Petersen, Nils O; Bagatolli, Luis A

    2002-01-01

    The physical properties of organized system (bilayers and monolayers at the air water interface) composed of bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES) were studied using correlated experimental techniques. 6-Dodecanoyl-2-dimethylamino-naphthalene (LAURDAN)-labeled giant unilamelar vesicles (mean diameter approximately 30 microm) composed of BLES were observed at different temperatures using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. As the temperature was decreased, dark domains (gel-like) appeared at physiological temperature (37 degrees C) on the surface of BLES giant unilamelar vesicles. The LAURDAN two-photon fluorescent images show that the gel-like domains span the lipid bilayer. Quantitative analysis of the LAURDAN generalized polarization function suggests the presence of a gel/fluid phase coexistence between 37 degrees C to 20 degrees C with low compositional and energetic differences between the coexisting phases. Interestingly, the microscopic scenario of the phase coexistence observed below 20 degrees C shows different domain's shape compared with that observed between 37 degrees C to 20 degrees C, suggesting the coexistence of two ordered but differently organized lipid phases on the bilayer. Epifluorescence microscopy studies of BLES monomolecular films doped with small amounts of fluorescent lipids showed the appearance and growth of dark domains (liquid condensed) dispersed in a fluorescent phase (liquid expanded) with shapes and sizes similar to those observed in BLES giant unilamelar vesicles. Our study suggests that bovine surfactant lipids can organize into discrete phases in monolayers or bilayers with equivalent temperature dependencies and may occur at physiological temperatures and surface pressures equivalent to those at the lung interface. PMID:11916861

  7. Static and dynamic properties of critical fluctuations in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honerkamp-Smith, Aurelia Rose

    A current popular view in cell biology is that sub-micron, dynamic heterogeneity in lipid and protein composition arises within the plasma membranes of resting cells. Local changes in membrane composition may affect protein activity, which is sensitive to the lipid environment. We have observed dynamic heterogeneity in lipid membranes in the form of composition fluctuations near a miscibility critical point. In this thesis we quantitatively describe the dynamic and static properties of these fluctuations. We evaluate the temperature dependence of line tension between liquid domains and of fluctuation correlation lengths in lipid membranes in order to extract a critical exponent, nu. We obtain nu = 1.2 +/- 0.2, consistent with the Ising model prediction nu = 1. From probability distributions of pixel intensities in fluorescence images of membranes, we also extract an independent critical exponent of beta = 0.124 +/- 0.03, which is consistent with the Ising prediction of beta = 1/8. We have systematically measured the effective dynamic critical exponent z eff in a lipid membrane while cooling the system toward a critical point. We observe that zeff slightly increases from a value of roughly 2.6 as xi → 0, to zeff = 3.0 +/- 0.15 at xi = 13 sm. Our measurements are consistent with the prediction that zeff → 3.00 as T → Tc for a 2-D system with conserved order parameter in contact with a bulk 3-D liquid. To our knowledge, no other systematic measurement of zeff with increasing xi exists for a 2-D system with conserved order parameter. We also report the solubility limit of several biologically relevant sterols in electroformed giant unilamellar vesicle membranes containing phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids in ratios of 1:1:X DPPC:DOPC:sterol. We find solubility limits of cholesterol, lanosterol, ergosterol, stigmasterol, and beta-sitosterol using nuclear magnetic resonance.

  8. Lipid Diffusion in Supported Lipid Bilayers: A Comparison between Line-Scanning Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Single-Particle Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Markus; Hirmiz, Nehad; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M.; Fradin, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion in lipid membranes is an essential component of many cellular process and fluorescence a method of choice to study membrane dynamics. The goal of this work was to directly compare two common fluorescence methods, line-scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and single-particle tracking, to observe the diffusion of a fluorescent lipophilic dye, DiD, in a complex five-component mitochondria-like solid-supported lipid bilayer. We measured diffusion coefficients of DFCS ~ 3 μm2 · s−1 and DSPT ~ 2 μm2 · s−1, respectively. These comparable, yet statistically different values are used to highlight the main message of the paper, namely that the two considered methods give access to distinctly different dynamic ranges: D ≳ 1 μm2 · s−1 for FCS and D ≲ 5 μm2 · s−1 for SPT (with standard imaging conditions). In the context of membrane diffusion, this means that FCS allows studying lipid diffusion in fluid membranes, as well as the diffusion of loosely-bound proteins hovering above the membrane. SPT, on the other hand, is ideal to study the motions of membrane-inserted proteins, especially those presenting different conformations, but only allows studying lipid diffusion in relatively viscous membranes, such as supported lipid bilayers and cell membranes. PMID:26610279

  9. Preserved transmembrane protein mobility in polymer-supported lipid bilayers derived from cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Pace, Hudson; Simonsson Nyström, Lisa; Gunnarsson, Anders; Eck, Elizabeth; Monson, Christopher; Geschwindner, Stefan; Snijder, Arjan; Höök, Fredrik

    2015-09-15

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have contributed invaluable information about the physiochemical properties of cell membranes, but their compositional simplicity often limits the level of knowledge that can be gained about the structure and function of transmembrane proteins in their native environment. Herein, we demonstrate a generic protocol for producing polymer-supported lipid bilayers on glass surfaces that contain essentially all naturally occurring cell-membrane components of a cell line while still retaining transmembrane protein mobility and activity. This was achieved by merging vesicles made from synthetic lipids (PEGylated lipids and POPC lipids) with native cell-membrane vesicles to generate hybrid vesicles which readily rupture into a continuous polymer-supported lipid bilayer. To investigate the properties of these complex hybrid SLBs and particularly the behavior of their integral membrane-proteins, we used total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to study a transmembrane protease, β-secretase 1 (BACE1), whose ectoplasmic and cytoplasmic domains could both be specifically targeted with fluorescent reporters. By selectively probing the two different orientations of BACE1 in the resulting hybrid SLBs, the role of the PEG-cushion on transmembrane protein lateral mobility was investigated. The results reveal the necessity of having the PEGylated lipids present during vesicle adsorption to prevent immobilization of transmembrane proteins with protruding domains. The proteolytic activity of BACE1 was unadulterated by the sonication process used to merge the synthetic and native membrane vesicles; importantly it was also conserved in the SLB. The presented strategy could thus serve both fundamental studies of membrane biophysics and the production of surface-based bioanalytical sensor platforms.

  10. Driving force of binding of amyloid {beta}-protein to lipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Keisuke; Matsuzaki, Katsumi

    2008-06-06

    Amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}) has been reported to interact with a variety of lipid species, although the thermodynamic driving force remains unclear. We investigated the binding of A{beta}s labeled with the dye diethylaminocoumarin (DAC-A{beta}s) to lipid bilayers under various conditions. DAC-A{beta}-(1-40) electrostatically bound to anionic and cationic lipids at acidic and alkaline interfacial pH, respectively. However, at neutral pH, electroneutral A{beta} did not bind to these lipids, indicating little hydrophobic interaction between A{beta}-(1-40) and the acyl chains of lipids. In contrast, DAC-A{beta} associated with glycolipids even under electroneutral conditions. These results suggested that hydrogen-bonding as well as hydrophobic interactions with sugar groups of glycolipids drive the membrane binding of A{beta}-(1-40)

  11. Acceleration of Lateral Equilibration in Mixed Lipid Bilayers Using Replica Exchange with Solute Tempering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kun; García, Angel E

    2014-10-14

    The lateral heterogeneity of cellular membranes plays an important role in many biological functions such as signaling and regulating membrane proteins. This heterogeneity can result from preferential interactions between membrane components or interactions with membrane proteins. One major difficulty in molecular dynamics simulations aimed at studying the membrane heterogeneity is that lipids diffuse slowly and collectively in bilayers, and therefore, it is difficult to reach equilibrium in lateral organization in bilayer mixtures. Here, we propose the use of the replica exchange with solute tempering (REST) approach to accelerate lateral relaxation in heterogeneous bilayers. REST is based on the replica exchange method but tempers only the solute, leaving the temperature of the solvent fixed. Since the number of replicas in REST scales approximately only with the degrees of freedom in the solute, REST enables us to enhance the configuration sampling of lipid bilayers with fewer replicas, in comparison with the temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics simulation (T-REMD) where the number of replicas scales with the degrees of freedom of the entire system. We apply the REST method to a cholesterol and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayer mixture and find that the lateral distribution functions of all molecular pair types converge much faster than in the standard MD simulation. The relative diffusion rate between molecules in REST is, on average, an order of magnitude faster than in the standard MD simulation. Although REST was initially proposed to study protein folding and its efficiency in protein folding is still under debate, we find a unique application of REST to accelerate lateral equilibration in mixed lipid membranes and suggest a promising way to probe membrane lateral heterogeneity through molecular dynamics simulation.

  12. Lateral electrical conductivity of mica-supported lipid bilayer membranes measured by scanning tunneling microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Heim, M.; Cevc, G.; Guckenberger, R.; Knapp, H. F.; Wiegräbe, W.

    1995-01-01

    Lateral electric conductivity of mica-supported lipid monolayers and of the corresponding lipid bilayers has been studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The surface of freshly cleaved mica itself was found to be conductive when exposed to humid air. Lipid monolayers were transferred onto such a surface by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, which makes the mica surface hydrophobic and suppresses the electric current along the surface in the experimentally accessible humidity (5-80%) and applied voltage (0-10 V) range. This is true for dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) as well as dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) monolayers. Repeated deposition of DPPC layers by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett LB technique does not lead to the formation of a stable surface-supported bilayer because of the high hydrophilicity of the phosphatidylcholine headgroups that causes DPPC/DPPC bilayers to peel off the supporting surface during the sample preparation. In contrast to this, a DPPE or a DPPC monolayer on top of a DPPE monolayer gives rise to a rather stable mica-supported bilayer that can be studied by STM. Electric currents between 10 and 100 fA, depending on the ambient humidity, flow along the DPPE bilayer surface, in the humidity range between 35 and 60%. The DPPC surface, which is more hydrophilic, is up to 100 times more conductive under comparable conditions. Anomalous high lateral conductivity thus depends on, and probably proceeds via, the surface-adsorbed water layers. The prominence of ambient humidity and surface hydrophilicity on the measured lateral currents suggests this. The combination of our STM data and previously published water adsorption isotherms as a function of the relative humidity indicate that one layer or less of adsorbed water suffices for mediating the measurable lateral currents. The fact that similar observations are also made for other hydrophilic substrates supports the conclusion that lateral conductivity via

  13. Microfabricated Teflon Membranes for Low-Noise Recordings of Ion Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Michael; Kriebel, Jennah K.; Tosteson, Magdalena T.; Whitesides, George M.

    2003-01-01

    We present a straightforward, accessible method for the fabrication of micropores with diameters from 2 to 800 μm in films of amorphous Teflon (Teflon AF). Pores with diameters ≤40 μm made it possible to record ion fluxes through ion channels in planar bilayers with excellent signal characteristics. These pores afforded: i), stable measurements at transmembrane voltages up to 460 mV; ii), recordings at low noise levels (0.4 pA rms at 4.3 kHz bandwidth); iii), recordings at high effective bandwidth (10.7 kHz); and iv), formation of multiple planar lipid bilayers in parallel. Microfabricated pores in films of Teflon AF made it possible to examine, experimentally and theoretically, the influence of the pore diameter on the current noise in planar bilayer recordings. Reducing the pore diameter below 40 μm mainly increased the stability of the planar bilayers, but had only a small effect on the level of the current noise. The low-noise properties of bilayer recordings on micropores in Teflon AF films were exploited to record the smallest conductance state of alamethicin (24 pS) at an unprecedentedly high bandwidth of 10.7 kHz. PMID:14507731

  14. Surface potential determination in planar lipid bilayers: a simplification of the conductance-ratio method.

    PubMed

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Curi, Rui; Procopio, Joaquim

    2007-04-10

    One of the methods available for the measurement of surface potentials of planar lipid bilayers uses the conductance ratio between a charged and a neutral bilayer doped with ionophores to calculate the surface potential of the charged bilayer. We have devised a simplification of that method which does not require the use of an electrically neutral bilayer as control. The conductance of the charged bilayer is measured before and after the addition of divalent cations (Ba(2+)) to the bathing solution. Ba(2+) ions screen fixed surface charges, decreasing the surface potential. If the membrane is negatively charged the screening has the effect of decreasing the membrane conductance to cations. The resulting conductance ratio is used to calculate the surface potential change, which is fed into an iterative computer program. The program generates pairs of surface potential values and calculates the surface charge density for the two conditions. Since the surface charge density remains constant during this procedure, there is only one pair of surface potentials that satisfies the condition of constant charge density. Applying this method to experimental data from McLaughlin et al. [McLaughlin, S.G.A., Szabo, G. and Eisenman, G., Divalent ions and the surface potential of charged phospholipid membranes, J. Gen. Physiol., 58 (1971) 667-687.] we have found very similar results. We have also successfully used this method to determine the effect of palmitic acid on the surface potential of asolectin membranes.

  15. Mechanism of the Cell-Penetrating Peptide Transportan 10 Permeation of Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Yandek, Lindsay E.; Pokorny, Antje; Florén, Anders; Knoelke, Kristina; Langel, Ülo; Almeida, Paulo F. F.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanism of the interaction between the cell-penetrating peptide transportan 10 (tp10) and phospholipid membranes was investigated. Tp10 induces graded release of the contents of phospholipid vesicles. The kinetics of peptide association with vesicles and peptide-induced dye efflux from the vesicle lumen were examined experimentally by stopped-flow fluorescence. The experimental kinetics were analyzed by directly fitting to the data the numerical solution of mathematical kinetic models. A very good global fit was obtained using a model in which tp10 binds to the membrane surface and perturbs it because of the mass imbalance thus created across the bilayer. The perturbed bilayer state allows peptide monomers to insert transiently into its hydrophobic core and cross the membrane, until the peptide mass imbalance is dissipated. In that transient state tp10 “catalyzes” dye efflux from the vesicle lumen. These conclusions are consistent with recent reports that used molecular dynamics simulations to study the interactions between peptide antimicrobials and phospholipid bilayers. A thermodynamic analysis of tp10 binding and insertion in the bilayer using water-membrane transfer hydrophobicity scales is entirely consistent with the model proposed. A small bilayer perturbation is both necessary and sufficient to achieve very good agreement with the model, indicating that the role of the lipids must be included to understand the mechanism of cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides. PMID:17218466

  16. Imaging Single Cardiac Ryanodine Receptor Ca2+ Fluxes in Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Peng, S.; Publicover, N. G.; Kargacin, G. J.; Duan, D.; Airey, J. A.; Sutko, John L.

    2004-01-01

    In this and an accompanying report we describe two steps, single-channel imaging and channel immobilization, necessary for using optical imaging to analyze the function of ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels reconstituted in lipid bilayers. An optical bilayer system capable of laser scanning confocal imaging of fluo-3 fluorescence due to Ca2+ flux through single RyR2 channels and simultaneous recording of single channel currents was developed. A voltage command protocol was devised in which the amplitude, time course, shape, and hence the quantity of Ca2+ flux through a single RyR2 channel is controlled solely by the voltage imposed across the bilayer. Using this system, the voltage command protocol, and concentrations of Ca2+ (25–50 mM) that result in saturating RyR2 Ca2+ currents, proportional fluo-3 fluorescence was recorded simultaneously with Ca2+ currents having amplitudes of 0.25–14 pA. Ca2+ sparks, similar to those obtained with conventional microscope-based laser scanning confocal systems, were imaged in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes using the optical bilayer system. The utility of the optical bilayer for systematic investigation of how cellular factors extrinsic to the RyR2 channel, such as Ca2+ buffers and diffusion, alter fluo-3 fluorescent responses to RyR2 Ca2+ currents, and for addressing other current research questions is discussed. PMID:14695257

  17. [Lipid oxidation in bilayer lipid membranes linked with the reaction of oxidation of NAD.H by atmospheric oxygen].

    PubMed

    Shchipumov, Iu A; Sokolov, V S; Iaguzhinskiĭ, L S; Boguslavskiĭ, L I

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that along with NAD.H oxidation with air oxygen peroxide oxidation of lipids forming the membrane takes place in bilayer lipid membranes modified with ubiquinone. During nicotin amide oxidation proton absorption takes place. Peroxide oxidation of lipids results in the liberation of H+ ions, which in its turn brings about the formation of protone-deficient or enriched (against aqueous solution) layers adjacent to the membrane. The potential value on the membrane is shown to depend on nicotine amide and oxygen concentration, on ubiquinone presence and lipid composition of the membrane. It has been also indicated that the transmembrane potential difference is initiated with a sharp change of aqueous solution pH by 0.05--0.4 units.

  18. Neuronal synapse interaction reconstituted between live cells and supported lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Pautot, Sophie; Lee, Hanson; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Groves, Jay T

    2006-01-01

    In the nervous system, homophilic and heterophilic adhesion molecules participate in the induction and differentiation of presynaptic transmitter release sites. We focus on the heterophilic interaction between postsynaptic neuroligin-1 (Nlg) and presynaptic β-neurexin (Nrx). Nlg has previously been shown to trigger presynaptic differentiation in a Nrx-expressing axon even when presented on a non-neuronal cell or on beads coated with lipid bilayers. We have now developed a new method to measure single molecule and ensemble distribution of Nrx and Nlg at the contact site between a non-neuronal Nrx-expressing cell and a flat supported glycosylphosphoinositol–neuroligin-1 (GPI-Nlg) lipid bilayer and relate them to adhesion as measured by cell migration and gravity dissociation. We find that within minutes after cell-bilayer contact, Nrx accumulates at the contact site and the contact area is expanded. The strength of cell-bilayer adhesion depends on the morphology of Nrx accumulation, with the focal concentration strengthening adhesion. The results suggest that Nlg-Nrx interaction rapidly establishes a weak, but specific, adhesion between dynamic pre- and postsynaptic processes, which may ultimately require additional molecules for synapse stabilization. PMID:16408058

  19. Cholesterol slows down the lateral mobility of an oxidized phospholipid in a supported lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Plochberger, Birgit; Stockner, Thomas; Chiantia, Salvatore; Brameshuber, Mario; Weghuber, Julian; Hermetter, Albin; Schwille, Petra; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2010-11-16

    We investigated the mobility and phase-partitioning of the fluorescent oxidized phospholipid analogue 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-N-Alexa647-ethanolamine (PGPE-Alexa647) in supported lipid bilayers. Compared to the conventional phospholipid dihexadecanoylphosphoethanolamine (DHPE)-Bodipy we found consistently higher diffusion constants. The effect became dramatic when immobile obstacles were inserted into the bilayer, which essentially blocked the diffusion of DHPE-Bodipy but hardly influenced the movements of PGPE-Alexa647. In a supported lipid bilayer made of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), the differences in probe mobility leveled off with increasing cholesterol content. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we could ascribe this effect to increased interactions between the oxidized phospholipid and the membrane matrix, concomitant with a translation in the headgroup position of the oxidized phospholipid: at zero cholesterol content, its headgroup is shifted to the outside of the DOPC headgroup region, whereas increasing cholesterol concentrations pulls the headgroup into the bilayer plane.

  20. Cholesterol Slows down the Lateral Mobility of an Oxidized Phospholipid in a Supported Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the mobility and phase-partitioning of the fluorescent oxidized phospholipid analogue 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaroyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-N-Alexa647-ethanolamine (PGPE-Alexa647) in supported lipid bilayers. Compared to the conventional phospholipid dihexadecanoylphosphoethanolamine (DHPE)-Bodipy we found consistently higher diffusion constants. The effect became dramatic when immobile obstacles were inserted into the bilayer, which essentially blocked the diffusion of DHPE-Bodipy but hardly influenced the movements of PGPE-Alexa647. In a supported lipid bilayer made of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC), the differences in probe mobility leveled off with increasing cholesterol content. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we could ascribe this effect to increased interactions between the oxidized phospholipid and the membrane matrix, concomitant with a translation in the headgroup position of the oxidized phospholipid: at zero cholesterol content, its headgroup is shifted to the outside of the DOPC headgroup region, whereas increasing cholesterol concentrations pulls the headgroup into the bilayer plane. PMID:20942393

  1. Model cell membranes: Techniques to form complex biomimetic supported lipid bilayers via vesicle fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Gregory J.; Nayak, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle fusion has long provided an easy and reliable method to form supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) from simple, zwitterionic vesicles on siliceous substrates. However, for complex compositions, such as vesicles with high cholesterol content and multiple lipid types, the energy barrier for the vesicle-to-bilayer transition is increased or the required vesicle-vesicle and vesicle-substrate interactions are insufficient for vesicle fusion. Thus, for vesicle compositions that more accurately mimic native membranes, vesicle fusion often fails to form SLBs. In this paper, we review three approaches to overcome these barriers to form complex, biomimetic SLBs via vesicle fusion: (i) optimization of experimental conditions (e.g., temperature, buffer ionic strength, osmotic stress, cation valency, and buffer pH), (ii) α-helical (AH) peptide-induced vesicle fusion, and (iii) bilayer edge-induced vesicle fusion. AH peptide-induced vesicle fusion can form complex SLBs on multiple substrate types without the use of additional equipment. Bilayer edge-induced vesicle fusion uses microfluidics to form SLBs from vesicles with complex composition, including vesicles derived from native cell membranes. Collectively, this review introduces vesicle fusion techniques that can be generalized for many biomimetic vesicle compositions and many substrate types, and thus will aid efforts to reliably create complex SLB platforms on a range of substrates. PMID:24031164

  2. Non-additive compositional curvature energetics of lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sodt, A.J.; Venable, R.M.; Lyman, E.; Pastor, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface in turn govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and will thus underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. The letter describes observations from simulations of unexpected non-additive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature. PMID:27715135

  3. Direct demonstration of lipid phosphorylation in the lipid bilayer of the biomimetic bicontinuous cubic phase using the confined enzyme lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase.

    PubMed

    van 't Hag, Leonie; Anandan, Anandhi; Seabrook, Shane A; Gras, Sally L; Drummond, Calum J; Vrielink, Alice; Conn, Charlotte E

    2017-02-15

    Retention of amphiphilic protein activity within the lipid bilayer membrane of the nanostructured biomimetic bicontinuous cubic phase is crucial for applications utilizing these hybrid protein-lipid self-assembly materials, such as in meso membrane protein crystallization and drug delivery. Previous work, mainly on soluble and membrane-associated enzymes, has shown that enzyme activity may be modified when immobilized, including membrane bound enzymes. The effect on activity may be even greater for amphiphilic enzymes with a large hydrophilic domain, such as the Neisserial enzyme lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase (EptA). Encapsulation within the biomimetic but non-endogenous lipid bilayer membrane environment may modify the enzyme conformation, while confinement of the large hydrophilic domain with the nanoscale water channels of a continuous lipid bilayer structure may prevent full function of this enzyme. Herein we show that NmEptA remains active despite encapsulation within a nanostructured bicontinuous cubic phase. Full transfer of the phosphoethanolamine (PEA) group from a 1,2-dioleoyl-glycero-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) doped lipid to monoolein (MO), which makes up the bicontinuous cubic phase, is shown. The reaction was found to be non-specific to the alkyl chain identity. The observed rate of enzyme activity is similar to other membrane bound enzymes, with complete transfer of the PEA group occurring in vitro, under the conditions studied, over a 24 hour timescale.

  4. Interplay between group function of kinesin based transport and lipid bilayer mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Joseph; Hirst, Linda; Xu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Motor proteins, discovered in recent decades, are important building blocks to life. These molecular machines transport cargo and although indispensable to cell function, are not well understood at present. Single kinesin transport properties have been documented, but their group function remains unknown. In this project, the properties of kinesin-based transport by multiple motors are investigated in-vitro to establish a link between travel distance and lipid diffusion in the vesicle membrane. In the experiments, silica beads coated in a supported lipid membrane and giant lipid vesicles are transported along a microtubule by embedded kinesin motors. In an alternate geometry, this system can be inverted, whereby motors are bound to a surface of a lipid bilayer and microtubules are deposited. We have characterized motor function with respect to the fluidity of the membrane. To measure the diffusion properties of different membranes, planar lipid bilayers are prepared on silica slides and supported by bovine serum albumin protein. To establish a diffusion constant at room temperature for the lipid membrane we use the FRAP technique (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Using this method we can investigate if there is any interplay between group travel function and membrane fluidity.

  5. Study of procaine and tetracaine in the lipid bilayer using molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Jalili, Seifollah; Saeedi, Marzieh

    2017-04-01

    Despite available experimental results, the molecular mechanism of action of local anesthetics upon the nervous system and contribution of the cell membrane to the process are still controversial. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of two clinically used local anesthetics, procaine and tetracaine, on the structure and dynamics of a fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayer. We focused on comparing the main effects of uncharged and charged drugs on various properties of the lipid membrane: mass density distribution, diffusion coefficient, order parameter, radial distribution function, hydrogen bonding, electrostatic potential, headgroup angle, and water dipole orientation. To compare the diffusive nature of anesthetic through the lipid membrane quantitatively, we investigated the hexadecane/water partition coefficient using expanded ensemble simulation. We predicted the permeability coefficient of anesthetics in the following order: uncharged tetracaine > uncharged procaine > charged tetracaine > charged procaine. We also shown that the charged forms of drugs are more potent in hydrogen bonding, disturbing the lipid headgroups, changing the orientation of water dipoles, and increasing the headgroup electrostatic potential more than uncharged drugs, while the uncharged drugs make the lipid diffusion faster and increase the tail order parameter. The results of these simulation studies suggest that the different forms of anesthetics induce different structural modifications in the lipid bilayer, which provides new insights into their molecular mechanism.

  6. Concentration Dependence of NaCl ion distributions around DPPC lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jorge R.; García, Angel E.

    2012-01-01

    We study the coordination of excess NaCl to zwitterionic DPPC lipid bilayers using molecular dynamics simulations. We find that Na ions directly coordinate with the DPPC lipid carbonyl groups. As the number of excess ions increases, the number of coordinated ions increases, until it reaches a plateau at a ratio near 1 ion per every four lipids at 310 K, and 1 ion per every six lipids at 323 K. The area per lipid decreases as the number of excess ions is increased. For low number of ions per lipids (1:16 and 1:8), most Na ions are bound to the lipid carbonyls, while the Cl form an ionic cloud around the lipid choline groups. As a result of the Na binding, the lipid has an effective positive charge density. The residence time of Na ions bound to the lipid is longer than 40 ns, while Cl ions exchange faster than the nanoseconds timescale. We find that the bound Na ions replace ordered water around the carbonyls. The net linear charge density near the carbonyl groups stays positive, regardless of the presence of excess salt in the solution. PMID:22179761

  7. Polarization-dependent fluorescence of proteins bound to nanopore-confined lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.-Q.; Marek, A.; Smirnov, Alex I.; Grebel, H.

    2008-09-01

    Lipid bilayers are essential structural component of biological membranes of all the living species: from viruses and bacteria to plants and humans. Biophysical and biochemical properties of such membranes are important for understanding physical mechanisms responsible for drug targeting. Binding events between proteins and the membrane may be ascertained by introducing fluorescence markers (chromophores) to the proteins. Here we describe a novel biosensing platform designed to enhance signals of these fluorescence markers. Nanoporous aluminum oxide membranes with and without gold (Au) surface coating have been employed for optical detection of bound conjugated streptavidin to biotinylated lipid bilayers-a model system that mimics protein docking to the membrane surface. Unexpectedly, it was found that fluorescence signals from such structures vary when pumped with E-polarized and H-polarized incident optical beams. The origin of the observed polarization-dependent effects and the implications for enhanced fluorescence detection in a biochip format are being discussed.

  8. Fabrication and photoelectric properties of self-assembled bilayer lipid membranes on conducting glass.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Luo, G A; Feng, J; Ottova, A L; Tien, H T

    2000-12-01

    Supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs with and without the doping of fullerene C60) self-assembled on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass were fabricated and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a three-electrode system. The photoelectric properties of the ITO supported planar lipid bilayers were studied. Light intensity of irradiation, bias voltage, and concentration of donors have been found to be limiting factors of the transmembrane photocurrent. The facilitation effect of C60 doping in s-BLMs on the photoinduced electron transfer across s-BLM is discussed. This novel self-assembled ITO/s-BLM system may provide a simple and mechanically stable model for the study of the photoelectric and photodynamic properties of biomembranes.

  9. Interactions of inertial cavitation bubbles with stratum corneum lipid bilayers during low-frequency sonophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tezel, Ahmet; Mitragotri, Samir

    2003-12-01

    Interactions of acoustic cavitation bubbles with biological tissues play an important role in biomedical applications of ultrasound. Acoustic cavitation plays a particularly important role in enhancing transdermal transport of macromolecules, thereby offering a noninvasive mode of drug delivery (sonophoresis). Ultrasound-enhanced transdermal transport is mediated by inertial cavitation, where collapses of cavitation bubbles microscopically disrupt the lipid bilayers of the stratum corneum. In this study, we describe a theoretical analysis of the interactions of cavitation bubbles with the stratum corneum lipid bilayers. Three modes of bubble-stratum corneum interactions including shock wave emission, microjet penetration into the stratum corneum, and impact of microjet on the stratum corneum are considered. By relating the mechanical effects of these events on the stratum corneum structure, the relationship between the number of cavitation events and collapse pressures with experimentally measured increase in skin permeability was established. Theoretical predictions were compared to experimentally measured parameters of cavitation events.

  10. Membrane on a chip: a functional tethered lipid bilayer membrane on silicon oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Vladimir; Knorr, Nikolaus; Duran, Randolph S; Ingebrandt, Sven; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Knoll, Wolfgang; Köper, Ingo

    2005-09-01

    Tethered membranes have been proven during recent years to be a powerful and flexible biomimetic platform. We reported in a previous article on the design of a new architecture based on the self-assembly of a thiolipid on ultrasmooth gold substrates, which shows extremely good electrical sealing properties as well as functionality of a bilayer membrane. Here, we describe the synthesis of lipids for a more modular design and the adaptation of the linker part to silane chemistry. We were able to form a functional tethered bilayer lipid membrane with good electrical sealing properties covering a silicon oxide surface. We demonstrate the functional incorporation of the ion carrier valinomycin and of the ion channel gramicidin.

  11. Effect of n-alkanes on lipid bilayers depending on headgroups.

    PubMed

    Hishida, Mafumi; Endo, Asami; Nakazawa, Koyomi; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya

    2015-05-01

    Phase behavior and structural properties were examined for phospholipid bilayers having different headgroups (DMPC, DMPS and DMPE) with added n-alkanes to study effect of flexible additives. Change in the temperatures of main transition of the lipid/alkane mixtures against the length of added alkanes depends largely on the headgroup. Theoretical analysis of the change of the temperature of transition indicates that the headgroup dependence is dominantly originated in the strong dependence of total enthalpy on the headgroups. The results of X-ray diffraction show that the enthalpic stabilization due to enhanced packing of acyl chains of the lipid by alkanes in the gel phase causes the headgroup-dependent change in the phase transition behavior. The enhanced packing in the gel phase also leads to easy emergence of the subgel phase with very short relaxation time at room temperature in the DMPE-based bilayers.

  12. Measuring Membrane Protein Dimerization Equilibrium in Lipid Bilayers by Single-Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chadda, R; Robertson, J L

    2016-01-01

    Dimerization of membrane protein interfaces occurs during membrane protein folding and cell receptor signaling. Here, we summarize a method that allows for measurement of equilibrium dimerization reactions of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, by measuring the Poisson distribution of subunit capture into liposomes by single-molecule photobleaching analysis. This strategy is grounded in the fact that given a comparable labeling efficiency, monomeric or dimeric forms of a membrane protein will give rise to distinctly different photobleaching probability distributions. These methods have been used to verify the dimer stoichiometry of the Fluc F(-) ion channel and the dimerization equilibrium constant of the ClC-ec1 Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter in lipid bilayers. This approach can be applied to any membrane protein system provided it can be purified, fluorescently labeled in a quantitative manner, and verified to be correctly folded by functional assays, even if the structure is not yet known.

  13. Investigation on Large Molecule Permeation through Liposome Lipid Bilayer Induced by Microplasma Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaiwa, Hidenori; Aibara, Daijiro; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Motomura, Hideki; Kido, Yugo; Satoh, Susumu; Tachibana, Kunihide; Jinno, Masahumi

    2015-09-01

    The authors have been developing a novel gene transfection method using microplasma irradiation. In order to clarify the mechanism of large molecule permeation process through the lipid bilayer, plasma induced outflow of hydrophilic fluorescent dye molecules, which were encapsulated in the liposome, was observed. By microplasma irradiation on the liposome suspension, the dyes flowed out from the inside of the liposomes. The outflow of the dyes was enhanced by longer plasma irradiation time. Investigation of the outflow mechanism, i.e. permeation enhancement of the lipid bilayer or burst of the liposome, is under progress. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Number 25108509,15H00896) and a grant from Ehime University.

  14. Mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and regulation of mechanosensitive function: from biological to biomimetic channels.

    PubMed

    Balleza, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Material properties of lipid bilayers, including thickness, intrinsic curvature and compressibility regulate the function of mechanosensitive (MS) channels. This regulation is dependent on phospholipid composition, lateral packing and organization within the membrane. Therefore, a more complete framework to understand the functioning of MS channels requires insights into bilayer structure, thermodynamics and phospholipid structure, as well as lipid-protein interactions. Phospholipids and MS channels interact with each other mainly through electrostatic forces and hydrophobic matching, which are also crucial for antimicrobial peptides. They are excellent models for studying the formation and stabilization of membrane pores. Importantly, they perform equivalent responses as MS channels: (1) tilting in response to tension and (2) dissipation of osmotic gradients. Lessons learned from pore forming peptides could enrich our knowledge of mechanisms of action and evolution of these channels. Here, the current state of the art is presented and general principles of membrane regulation of mechanosensitive function are discussed.

  15. Conformation transition of betaA in solution and on surface of lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Liming; Reay, Andrew; Zhu, Qing; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kwan

    2007-10-01

    Beta amyloid (betaA) is a 39 to 43 residue peptide generated by a proteolytic cleavage of a large transmembrane amyloid precursor protein in neuronal membranes. The misfolding and self-aggregation of betaA, as well as its interactions with neuronal membranes, have been linked to the early onset of pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. The secondary structure conformational transition of betaA from an alpha-helix to beta-sheet in some key regions of the peptide represents an important signature of the complex misfolding behavior of betaA. Using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, the conformation changes of betaA in solution and on the surface of lipid bilayer containing nanodomains of cholesterol have been studied. Our results indicated that the appearance of beta-sheet structures depends strong on the initial structures of betaA and the arrangement of cholesterol molecules in the lipid bilayer.

  16. Construction and Structural Analysis of Tethered Lipid Bilayer Containing Photosynthetic Antenna Proteins for Functional Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sumino, Ayumi; Dewa, Takehisa; Takeuchi, Toshikazu; Sugiura, Ryuta; Sasaki, Nobuaki; Misawa, Nobuo; Tero, Ryugo; Urisu, Tsuneo; Gardiner, Alastair T.; Cogdell, Richard J.; Hashimoto, Hideki; Nango, Mamoru

    2011-07-11

    The construction and structural analysis of a tethered planar lipid bilayer containing bacterial photosynthetic membrane proteins, light-harvesting complex 2 (LH2), and light-harvesting core complex (LH1-RC) is described and establishes this system as an experimental platform for their functional analysis. The planar lipid bilayer containing LH2 and/or LH1-RC complexes was successfully formed on an avidin-immobilized coverglass via an avidin-biotin linkage. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that a smooth continuous membrane was formed there. Lateral diffusion of these membrane proteins, observed by a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAY), is discussed in terms of the membrane architecture. Energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC within the tethered membrane architecture. Energy transfer from LH2 to LH1-RC within the tethered membrane was observed by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, indicating that the tethered membrane can mimic the natural situation.

  17. Effects of hydroxy-xanthones on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers: A theoretical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Sierra, M B; Alarcón, L; Gerbino, D; Pedroni, V I; Buffo, F E; Morini, M A

    2017-08-01

    Xanthones and derivatives are natural active compounds whose interest has been increased due to its several pharmacological effects. In this work, effects of hydroxy-xanthones on the physicochemical properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes have been investigated in terms of lipid bilayer fluidity, by means of molecular dynamics simulations and temperature dependence of zeta potential studies. Experimental results predict, in good agreement with simulations, that xanthones are able to be incorporated into DPPC liposomes with certain localization, fluidizing the bilayer. Both effects, localization and fluidity were found to be dependent of the number of hydroxilic substituents of the xanthone and the lipid phase state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Membrane on a Chip: A Functional Tethered Lipid Bilayer Membrane on Silicon Oxide Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Atanasov, Vladimir; Knorr, Nikolaus; Duran, Randolph S.; Ingebrandt, Sven; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Knoll, Wolfgang; Köper, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Tethered membranes have been proven during recent years to be a powerful and flexible biomimetic platform. We reported in a previous article on the design of a new architecture based on the self-assembly of a thiolipid on ultrasmooth gold substrates, which shows extremely good electrical sealing properties as well as functionality of a bilayer membrane. Here, we describe the synthesis of lipids for a more modular design and the adaptation of the linker part to silane chemistry. We were able to form a functional tethered bilayer lipid membrane with good electrical sealing properties covering a silicon oxide surface. We demonstrate the functional incorporation of the ion carrier valinomycin and of the ion channel gramicidin. PMID:16127170

  19. Mosaic Interdigitated Structure in Nanoparticle-Templated Phospholipid Bilayer Supports Partial Lipidation of Apolipoprotein A-I.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wangqiang; Wu, Weiqiang; McMahon, Kaylin M; Rink, Jonathan S; Thaxton, C Shad

    2016-06-01

    Using gold nanoparticle-templated high-density lipoprotein-like particles as a model, the nanoparticle-templated phospholipid bilayer is studied from the bottom-up. Data support the phospholipids have a mosaic interdigitated structure. The discontinuous lipid milieu supports partial lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I, different from an ordinary phospholipid bilayer, suggesting that synergy between nanoparticle templates and bound phospholipid layers can modulate amphiphilic proteins for desired functions.

  20. Carotenoids acts as reinforcers of the Acholeplasma laidlawii lipid bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Rottem, S; Markowitz, O

    1979-01-01

    Acholeplasma laidlawii cells grown with oleic acid produced much more colored carotenoids than did cells grown with elaidic acid. The amount of carotenoids was decreased 80 to 90% by growing the cells with 0.05 M propionate, resulting in a marked increase in the mobility of both 5-doxylstearate and 12-doxylstearate incorporated into the membranes. The fatty acid composition of the propionate-grown cells differed from that of cells grown without propionate by containing odd-numbered rather than even-numbered saturated fatty acids, but the ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids were the same. To determine whether the carotenoids are the cause for the restricted mobility in the membranes, the carotenoids were selectively removed from A. laidlawii membranes by incubating the membranes with phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The carotenoid-depleted membranes showed an increase in the mobility of the hydrocarbon chains of the spin-labeled fatty acids. Furthermore, the incorporation of carotenoids into artificial membrane vesicles restricted the mobility of the hydrocarbon chain. Our results support the notion that the carotenoids in A. laidlawii act as a rigid insert reinforcing the membrane bilayer. PMID:533770

  1. Melittin-Lipid Bilayer Interactions and the Role of Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Wessman, Per; Strömstedt, Adam A.; Malmsten, Martin; Edwards, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    The membrane-destabilizing effect of the peptide melittin on phosphatidylcholine membranes is modulated by the presence of cholesterol. This investigation shows that inclusion of 40 mol % cholesterol in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine liposomes reduces melittin's affinity for the membrane. It is significant that the presence of cholesterol does not increase the amount of membrane-associated melittin needed to cause maximum leakage from, or major structural rearrangements of, the liposomes. Furthermore, comparison of microscopy and leakage data suggests that melittin-induced leakage occurs via different mechanisms in the cholesterol-free and cholesterol-supplemented systems. In the absence of cholesterol, leakage of carboxyfluorescein takes place from intact liposomes in a manner compatible with the presence of small melittin-induced pores. In the presence of cholesterol, on the other hand, adsorption of the peptide causes complete membrane disruption and the formation of long-lived open-bilayer structures. Moreover, in the case of cholesterol-supplemented systems, melittin induces pronounced liposome aggregation. Cryotransmission electron microscopy was used, together with ellipsometry, circular dichroism, turbidity, and leakage measurements, to investigate the effects of melittin on phosphatidylcholine membranes in the absence and presence of cholesterol. The melittin partitioning behavior in the membrane systems was estimated by means of steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy measurements. PMID:18658211

  2. Spherical Nanoparticle Supported Lipid Bilayers for the Structural Study of Membrane Geometry-Sensitive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward Y.; Briley, Nicole E.; Tyndall, Erin R.; Xu, Jie; Li, Conggang; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.; Flanagan, John M.; Tian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Many essential cellular processes including endocytosis and vesicle trafficking require alteration of membrane geometry. These changes are usually mediated by proteins that can sense and/or induce membrane curvature. Using spherical nanoparticle supported lipid bilayers (SSLBs), we characterize how SpoVM, a bacterial development factor, interacts with differently curved membranes by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR. Our results demonstrate that SSLBs are an effective system for structural and topological studies of membrane geometry-sensitive molecules. PMID:26488086

  3. Capsaicin interaction with TRPV1 channels in a lipid bilayer: molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Sonya M; Newstead, Simon; Swartz, Kenton J; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-03-24

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1) is a heat-sensitive ion channel also involved in pain sensation, and is the receptor for capsaicin, the active ingredient of hot chili peppers. The recent structures of TRPV1 revealed putative ligand density within the S1 to S4 voltage-sensor-like domain of the protein. However, questions remain regarding the dynamic role of the lipid bilayer in ligand binding to TRPV1. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore behavior of capsaicin in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine bilayer and with the target S1-S4 transmembrane helices of TRPV1. Equilibrium simulations reveal a preferred interfacial localization for capsaicin. We also observed a capsaicin molecule flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular leaflet, and subsequently able to access the intracellular TRPV1 binding site. Calculation of the potential of mean force (i.e., free energy profile) of capsaicin along the bilayer normal confirms that it prefers an interfacial localization. The free energy profile indicates that there is a nontrivial but surmountable barrier to the flipping of capsaicin between opposing leaflets of the bilayer. Molecular dynamics of the S1-S4 transmembrane helices of the TRPV1 in a lipid bilayer confirm that Y511, known to be crucial to capsaicin binding, has a distribution along the bilayer normal similar to that of the aromatic group of capsaicin. Simulations were conducted of the TRPV1 S1-S4 transmembrane helices in the presence of capsaicin placed in the aqueous phase, in the lipid, or docked to the protein. No stable interaction between ligand and protein was seen for simulations initiated with capsaicin in the bilayer. However, interactions were seen between TRPV1 and capsaicin starting from the cytosolic aqueous phase, and capsaicin remained stable in the majority of simulations from the docked pose. We discuss the significance of capsaicin flipping from the extracellular to the intracellular

  4. Integration and oligomerization of Bax protein in lipid bilayers characterized by single molecule fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Dongxiang

    2014-11-14

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein. The activated Bax translocates to mitochondria, where it forms pore and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane. This process requires the BH3-only activator protein (i.e. tBid) and can be inhibited by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-xL. Here by using single molecule fluorescence techniques, we studied the integration and oligomerization of Bax in lipid bilayers. Our study revealed that Bax can bind to lipid membrane spontaneously in the absence of tBid. The Bax pore formation undergoes at least two steps: pre-pore formation and membrane insertion. The activated Bax triggered by tBid or BH3 domain peptide integrates on bilayers and tends to form tetramers, which are termed as pre-pore. Subsequent insertion of the pre-pore into membrane is highly dependent on the composition of cardiolipin in lipid bilayers. Bcl-xL can translocate Bax from membrane to solution and inhibit the pore formation. The study of Bax integration and oligomerization at the single molecule level provides new evidences that may help elucidate the pore formation of Bax and its regulatory mechanism in apoptosis. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Integration and Oligomerization of Bax Protein in Lipid Bilayers Characterized by Single Molecule Fluorescence Study

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Lu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Dongxiang

    2014-01-01

    Bax is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein. The activated Bax translocates to mitochondria, where it forms pore and permeabilizes the mitochondrial outer membrane. This process requires the BH3-only activator protein (i.e. tBid) and can be inhibited by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bcl-xL. Here by using single molecule fluorescence techniques, we studied the integration and oligomerization of Bax in lipid bilayers. Our study revealed that Bax can bind to lipid membrane spontaneously in the absence of tBid. The Bax pore formation undergoes at least two steps: pre-pore formation and membrane insertion. The activated Bax triggered by tBid or BH3 domain peptide integrates on bilayers and tends to form tetramers, which are termed as pre-pore. Subsequent insertion of the pre-pore into membrane is highly dependent on the composition of cardiolipin in lipid bilayers. Bcl-xL can translocate Bax from membrane to solution and inhibit the pore formation. The study of Bax integration and oligomerization at the single molecule level provides new evidences that may help elucidate the pore formation of Bax and its regulatory mechanism in apoptosis. PMID:25288797

  6. Protocells: Modular Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Supported Lipid Bilayers for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kimberly S; Durfee, Paul N; Theron, Christophe; Ashley, Carlee E; Carnes, Eric C; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2016-04-27

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers, termed 'protocells,' represent a potentially transformative class of therapeutic and theranostic delivery vehicle. The field of targeted drug delivery poses considerable challenges that cannot be addressed with a single 'magic bullet'. Consequently, the protocell has been designed as a modular platform composed of interchangeable biocompatible components. The mesoporous silica core has variable size and shape to direct biodistribution and a controlled pore size and surface chemistry to accommodate diverse cargo. The encapsulating supported lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting and trafficking ligands as well as polyethylene glycol (PEG) to effect selective binding, endosomal escape of cargo, drug efflux prevention, and potent therapeutic delivery, while maintaining in vivo colloidal stability. This review describes the individual components of the platform, including the mesoporous silica nanoparticle core and supported lipid bilayer, their assembly (by multiple techniques) into a protocell, and the combined, often synergistic, performance of the protocell based on in vitro and in vivo studies, including the assessment of biocompatibility and toxicity. In closing, the many emerging variations of the protocell theme and the future directions for protocell research are commented on.

  7. Bilayer registry in a multicomponent asymmetric membrane: Dependence on lipid composition and chain length

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, Anirban; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan E-mail: madan@ncbs.res.in

    2014-08-14

    A question of considerable interest to cell membrane biology is whether phase segregated domains across an asymmetric bilayer are strongly correlated with each other and whether phase segregation in one leaflet can induce segregation in the other. We answer both these questions in the affirmative, using an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation to study the equilibrium statistical properties of a 3-component asymmetric lipid bilayer comprising an unsaturated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline, a saturated sphingomyelin, and cholesterol with different composition ratios. Our simulations are done by fixing the composition of the upper leaflet to be at the coexistence of the liquid ordered (l{sub o})-liquid disordered (l{sub d}) phases, while the composition of the lower leaflet is varied from the phase coexistence regime to the mixed l{sub d} phase, across a first-order phase boundary. In the regime of phase coexistence in each leaflet, we find strong transbilayer correlations of the l{sub o} domains across the two leaflets, resulting in bilayer registry. This transbilayer correlation depends sensitively upon the chain length of the participating lipids and possibly other features of lipid chemistry, such as degree of saturation. We find that the l{sub o} domains in the upper leaflet can induce phase segregation in the lower leaflet, when the latter is nominally in the mixed (l{sub d}) phase.

  8. Free Energies of Molecular Bound States in Lipid Bilayers: Lethal Concentrations of Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huey W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The lipid matrix, or the lipid bilayer, of cell membranes is a natural binding site for amphipathic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, pore-forming proteins, and many drugs. The unique property of pore-forming antimicrobial peptides is that they exhibit a threshold concentration (called the lethal concentration or the minimum inhibitory concentration) for activity, below which no effect is seen. Without this property, antimicrobial peptides would not be effective self-defense weapons, because they would have harmed all cells at any concentration. The question is what gives rise to this unique property? This study provides a free energy description for the origin of a threshold concentration. The same free energy applied differently also explains the binding of drugs that shows no threshold concentrations. The idea is compared with theories of micellar solutions that require a large oligomer size (n ⪞ 15) to achieve a threshold concentration. The elasticity of lipid bilayers makes the phenomena in membranes different. The majority of antimicrobial peptides have a large negative binding energy to the bilayer interface, but the binding causes an expansion in the membrane area, or equivalently a thinning in the membrane thickness. This elastic energy of membrane thinning elevates the energy level of interfacial binding with the peptide concentration, hence gives rise to a threshold concentration for forming pores containing as few as four peptides. PMID:19383470

  9. Biopolymer-Lipid Bilayer Interaction Modulates the Physical Properties of Liposomes: Mechanism and Structure.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chen; Zhang, Yating; Abbas, Shabbar; Feng, Biao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Xia, Wenshui; Xia, Shuqin

    2015-08-19

    This study was conducted to elucidate the conformational dependence of the modulating ability of chitosan, a positively charged biopolymer, on a new type of liposome composed of mixed lipids including egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC) and nonionic surfactant (Tween 80). Analysis of the dynamic and structure of bilayer membrane upon interaction with chitosan by fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance techniques demonstrated that, in addition to providing a physical barrier for the membrane surface, the adsorption of chitosan extended and crimped chains rigidified the lipid membrane. However, the decrease in relative microviscosity and order parameter suggested that the presence of chitosan coils disturbed the membrane organization. It was also noted that the increase of fluidity in the lipid bilayer center was not pronounced, indicating the shallow penetration of coils into the hydrophobic interior of bilayer. Microscopic observations revealed that chitosan adsorption not only affected the morphology of liposomes but also modulated the particle aggregation and fusion. Especially, a number of very heterogeneous particles were visualized, which tended to confirm the role of chitosan coils as a "polymeric surfactant". In addition to particle deformation, the membrane permeability was also tuned. These findings may provide a new perspective to understand the physiological functionality of biopolymer and design biopolymer-liposome composite structures as delivery systems for bioactive components.

  10. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Y; Urakami, N; Taniguchi, T; Imai, M

    2011-07-20

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 Å and a bilayer thickness of 40 Å. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  11. Asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in a highly curved bilayer revealed by a small angle neutron scattering technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Y.; Urakami, N.; Taniguchi, T.; Imai, M.

    2011-07-01

    We have investigated the lipid sorting in a binary small unilamellar vesicle (SUV) composed of cone-shaped (1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DHPC) and cylinder-shaped (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine: DPPC) lipids. In order to reveal the lipid sorting we adopted a contrast matching technique of small angle neutron scattering (SANS), which extracts the distribution of deuterated lipids in the bilayer quantitatively without steric modification of lipids as in fluorescence probe techniques. First the SANS profile of protonated SUVs at a film contrast condition showed that SUVs have a spherical shape with an inner radius of 190 Å and a bilayer thickness of 40 Å. The SANS profile of deuterated SUVs at a contrast matching condition showed a characteristic scattering profile, indicating an asymmetric distribution of cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer. The characteristic profile was described well by a spherical bilayer model. The fitting revealed that most DHPC molecules are localized in the outer leaflet. Thus the shape of the lipid is strongly coupled with the membrane curvature. We compared the obtained asymmetric distribution of the cone-shaped lipids in the bilayer with the theoretical prediction based on the curvature energy model.

  12. Modulation of folding and assembly of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin by intermolecular forces within the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Curran, A R; Templer, R H; Booth, P J

    1999-07-20

    Three different lipid systems have been developed to investigate the effect of physicochemical forces within the lipid bilayer on the folding of the integral membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Each system consists of lipid vesicles containing two lipid species, one with phosphatidylcholine and the other with phosphatidylethanolamine headgroups, but the same hydrocarbon chains: either L-alpha-1, 2-dioleoyl, L-alpha-1,2-dipalmitoleoyl, or L-alpha-1,2-dimyristoyl. Increasing the mole fraction of the phosphatidylethanolamine lipid increases the desire of each monolayer leaflet in the bilayer to curve toward water. This increases the torque tension of such monolayers, when they are constrained to remain flat in the vesicle bilayer. Consequently, the lateral pressure in the hydrocarbon chain region increases, and we have used excimer fluorescence from pyrene-labeled phosphatidylcholine lipids to probe these pressure changes. We show that bacteriorhodopsin regenerates to about 95% yield in vesicles of 100% phosphatidylcholine. The regeneration yield decreases as the mole fraction of the corresponding phosphatidylethanolamine component is increased. The decrease in yield correlates with the increase in lateral pressure which the lipid chains exert on the refolding protein. We suggest that the increase in lipid chain pressure either hinders insertion of the denatured state of bacterioopsin into the bilayer or slows a folding step within the bilayer, to the extent that an intermediate involved in bacteriorhodopsin regeneration is effectively trapped.

  13. Super resolution microscopy of lipid bilayer phases and single molecule kinetic studies on merocyanine 540 bound lipid vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chin-Kuei

    Recently, observing biological process and structural details in live cell became feasible after the introduction of super-resolution microscopy. Super-resolution microscopy by single molecule localization is the method that has commonly been used for such purpose. There are mainly three approaches to it: stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM), and point accumulation in nanoscale topology (PAINT). STORM and PALM rely on external laser control and use of photoactivable fluorescent protein or photoswitchable dyes and are technically challenging. The PAINT method relies on the control of thermal reaction rates to enable the switching between bright and dark states. Therefore, many conventional fluorescent probes can be applied in PAINT method and the images denote different information composed of interactions between the probe and its immediate environment by variations of probe parameters. The existence of lipid rafts has been under debates for decades due to the lack of a tool to directly visualize them in live cells. In the thesis, we combine PAINT with a phase sensitive dye, Merocyanine 540, to enable nanoscale observation of phase separation on supported lipid bilayers of mixed liquid/gel phases. The imaging results are presented in the chapter 3. Given that this is the first example of visualization of nanoscale phase separation of lipid bilayers using an optical microscope, we further looked into the kinetics of MC540 monomer dimer equilibrium in lipid bilayers using single molecule intensity time trajectory analysis and polarization dependent imaging. Our finding confirms that perpendicular monomeric MC540 (to the membrance surface) is the emitting speices in our system and it stays fluorescent for roughly 3 ms before it switches off to dark states. This part of analysis is presented in the chapter 4. All the materials, procedures to carry out experiments and data analysis, methods involved in our

  14. Neutron reflectivity studies of single lipid bilayers supported on planar substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, S.; Orts, W.J.; Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F.; Koenig, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    Neutron reflectivity was used to probe the structure of single phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers adsorbed onto a planar silicon surface in an aqueous environment. Fluctuations in the neutron scattering length density profiles perpendicular to the silicon/water interface were determined for different lipids as a function of the hydrocarbon chain length. The lipids were studied in both the gel and liquid crystalline phases by monitoring changes in the specularly-reflected neutron intensity as a function of temperature. Contrast variation of the neutron scattering length density was applied to both the lipid and the solvent. Scattering length density profiles were determined using both model-independent and model-dependent fitting methods. During the reflectivity measurements, a novel experimental set-up was implemented to decrease the incoherent background scattering due to the solvent. Thus, the reflectivity was measured to Q {approx} 0.3{Angstrom}{sup -1}, covering up to seven orders of magnitude in reflected intensity, for PC bilayers in D{sub 2}O and silicon-matched (38% D{sub 2}O/62% H{sub 2}O) water. The kinetics of lipid adsorption at the silicon/water interface were also explored by observing changes in the reflectivity at low Q values under silicon-matched water conditions.

  15. Importance of phospholipid bilayer integrity in the analysis of protein-lipid interactions.

    PubMed

    Drücker, Patrick; Gerke, Volker; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2014-10-10

    The integrity of supported phospholipid bilayer membranes is of crucial importance for the investigation of lipid-protein interactions. Therefore we recorded the formation of supported membranes on SiO2 and mica by quartz crystal microbalance and controlled the integrity by atomic force microscopy. This study aims to analyze how membrane defects affect protein-lipid interactions. The experiments focused on a lipid mixture of POPC/DOPC/Chol/POPS/PI(4,5)P2 (37:20:20:20:3) and the binding of the peripheral membrane associated protein annexin A2. We found that formation of a continuous undisturbed bilayer is an indispensable precondition for a reliable determination and quantification of lipid-protein-interactions. If membrane defects were present, protein adsorption causes membrane disruption and lipid detachment on a support thus leading to false determination of binding constants. Our results obtained for PI(4,5)P2 and cholesterol containing supported membranes yield new knowledge to construct functional surfaces that may cover nanoporous substrates, form free standing membranes or may be used for lab-on-a-chip applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous curvature of bilayer membranes from molecular simulations: asymmetric lipid densities and asymmetric adsorption.

    PubMed

    Różycki, Bartosz; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-02-07

    Biomimetic and biological membranes consist of molecular bilayers with two leaflets which are typically exposed to different aqueous environments and may differ in their molecular density or composition. Because of these asymmetries, the membranes prefer to curve in a certain manner as quantitatively described by their spontaneous curvature. Here, we study such asymmetric membranes via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We consider two mechanisms for the generation of spontaneous curvature: (i) different lipid densities within the two leaflets and (ii) leaflets exposed to different concentrations of adsorbing particles. We focus on membranes that experience no mechanical tension and describe two methods to compute the spontaneous curvature. The first method is based on the detailed structure of the bilayer's stress profile which can hardly be measured experimentally. The other method starts from the intuitive view that the bilayer represents a thin fluid film bounded by two interfaces and reduces the complexity of the stress profile to a few membrane parameters that can be measured experimentally. For the case of asymmetric adsorption, we introduce a simulation protocol based on two bilayers separated by two aqueous compartments with different adsorbate concentrations. The adsorption of small particles with a size below 1 nm is shown to generate large spontaneous curvatures up to about 1/(24 nm). Our computational approach is quite general: it can be applied to any molecular model of bilayer membranes and can be extended to other mechanisms for the generation of spontaneous curvatures as provided, e.g., by asymmetric lipid composition or depletion layers of solute molecules.

  17. Anomalous diffusion in supported lipid bilayers induced by oxide surface nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Tero, Ryugo; Sazaki, Gen; Ujihara, Toru; Urisu, Tsuneo

    2011-08-16

    Hierarchic structure and anomalous diffusion on submicrometer scale were introduced into an artificial cell membrane, and the spatiotemporal dependence of lipid diffusion was visualized on nanostructured oxide surfaces. We observed the lipid diffusion in supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) on step-and-terrace TiO(2)(100) and amorphous SiO(2)/Si surfaces by single molecule tracking (SMT) method. The SMT at the time resolution of 500 μs to 30 ms achieved observation of the lipid diffusion over the spatial and temporal ranges of 100 nm/millisecond to 1 μm/second. The temporal dependence of the diffusion coefficient in the SLB on TiO(2)(100) showed that the crossover from anomalous diffusion to random diffusion occurred around 10 ms. The surface fine architecture on substrates will be applicable to induce hierarchic structures on the order of 100 nm or less, which correspond to the microcompartment size in vivo.

  18. Bimodal spectrum for the curvature fluctuations of bilayer vesicles: pure bending plus hybrid curvature-dilation modes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, R; Arriaga, L R; Mell, M; Moleiro, L H; López-Montero, I; Monroy, F

    2009-03-27

    We study thermal undulations of giant bilayer vesicles by flickering spectroscopy. The experimental fluctuation spectra are scrutinized in view of the classical Helfrich theory. Pure bending modes are revealed to be unable to predict the large fluctuations systematically found at a high wave vector. Hybrid curvature-dilational modes are then invoked as a more efficient mode of motion in producing high curvatures. A bimodal spectrum of the thermal undulations has been theoretically developed for the shell-like topology. Reconciliation between experiments and theory is achieved when this bimodal spectrum is considered.

  19. Influence of lipid bilayer properties on nanodisc formation mediated by styrene/maleic acid copolymers.

    PubMed

    Cuevas Arenas, Rodrigo; Klingler, Johannes; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2016-08-11

    Copolymers of styrene and maleic acid (SMA) have gained great attention as alternatives to conventional detergents, as they offer decisive advantages for studying membrane proteins and lipids in vitro. These polymers self-insert into artificial and biological membranes and, at sufficiently high concentrations, solubilise them into disc-shaped nanostructures containing a lipid bilayer core surrounded by a polymer belt. We have used (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering to systematically study the solubilisation of vesicles composed of saturated or unsaturated phospholipids by an SMA copolymer with a 3 : 1 styrene/maleic acid molar ratio at different temperatures. Solubilisation was thermodynamically rationalised in terms of a three-stage model that treats various lipid/polymer aggregates as pseudophases. The solubilising capacity of SMA(3 : 1) towards a saturated lipid is higher in the gel than in the liquid-crystalline state of the membrane even though solubilisation is slower. Although the solubilisation of mixed fluid membranes is non-selective, the presence of a non-bilayer phospholipid lowers the threshold at which the membrane becomes saturated with SMA(3 : 1) but raises the polymer concentration required for complete solubilisation. Both of these trends can be explained by considering the vesicle-to-nanodisc transfer free energies of the lipid and the polymer. On the basis of the phase diagrams thus obtained, re-association of polymer-solubilised lipids with vesicles is possible under mild conditions, which has implications for the reconstitution of proteins and lipids from nanodiscs into vesicular membranes. Finally, the phase diagrams provide evidence for the absence of free SMA(3 : 1) in vesicular lipid suspensions.